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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Upanishads > Sri Mundaka Upanisad > First Mundaka

First Mundaka

 

 

First Khanda

 

 

Invocation

 

 

om bhadram karnebhih shrinuyama deva bhadram pashyemakshibhir yajatrah. sthirair angais tushtuvams tanubhir vyashema deva-hitam yadayuh. om svasti na indro vriddha-shravah svasti nah pusha vishvadevah. svasti nas tarkshyo arishtanemih svasti no brihaspatir dadhatu. om shantih shantih shantih.

 

om-Om; bhadram-auspiciousness; karnebhih-with ears; shrinuyama-may we hear; deva-demigods; bhadram-auspiciousness; pashyema-may we see; akshibhih-with eyes; yajatrah-performing yajnas; sthiraih-steady; angaih-with limbs; tushtuvan-offering prayers; tanubhih-with bodies; vyashema-may we obtain; deva-of the Lord; hitam-good; yat-what; ayuh-life; om-Om; svasti-auspiciousness; nah-of us; indrah-Indra; vriddha-shravah-glorious; svasti-auspiciousness; nah-of us; pusha-Pusha; vishvadevah-Visvadeva; svasti-auspiciousness; nah-of us; tarkshyah-Garuda; arishtanemih-Her who holds the cakra; svasti-auspiciousness; nah-of us; brihaspatih-Brihaspati; dadhatu-may give; om-Om; shantih-peace; shantih-peace; shantih-peace.

 

 

Om. O Supreme Personality of Godhead, may we hear auspiciousness with our ears. May we see auspiciousness with our eyes. May we perform yajnas with steady limbs. May we offer prayers. May we spend our lives employing these bodies in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Om. May the glorious Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme monarch, grant auspiciousness to us. May the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the glorious Deity of all the worlds grant auspiciousness to us. May the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who holds the Sudarshana-cakra and rides on Garuda, grant auspiciousness to us. May the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme master, grant auspiciousness to us. Om. Peace. Peace. Peace.

 

 

Text 1

 

om brahma devanam prathamam sambabhuva vishvasya karta bhuvanasya gopta. sa brahma-vidyam sarva-vidya-pratishtham atharvaya jyeshtha-putraya praha.

 

om-Om; brahma-Brahma; devanam-of the demigods; prathamam-first; sambabhuva-born; vishvasya-of the universe; karta-the creator; bhuvanasya-of the worlds; gopta-the protector; sa-he; brahma-vidyam-spirtiual knowledge; sarva-vidya-pratishtham-the basis of all knowledge; atharvaya-to Atharva; jyeshtha-putraya-his eldest son; praha-spoke.

 

 

Brahma, who is the first demigod, the creator of the universe, and the protector of the worlds, spoke knowledge of the Supreme, the first of all kinds of knowledge, to his eldest son, Atharva.

 

Text 2

 

atharvane yam pravadeta brahmatharva tam purovacangire brahma-vidyam. sa bharadvajaya satyavahaya praha. bharadvajo 'ngirase paravaram.

 

atharvane-to Atharva; yam-what; pravadeta-spoke; brahma-Brahma; atharva-Atharva; tam-that; pura-perviously; uvaca-spoke; angire-to Angira; brahma-vidyam-knowledge of the Supreme; sa-he; bharadvajaya-to Bharadvaja; satyavahaya-to Satyavaha; praha-spoke; bharadvajah-Bharadvaja; angirase-to Angira; paravaram-in disciplic succession.

 

 

The same knowledge of the Supreme that Brahma told Atharva in ancient times Atharva told Angira. Then Angira told it to Satayvaha Bharadvaja, and Bharadvaja told it to Angira Muni. In this way it was passed down through the disciplic succession.

 

 

Text 3

 

shaunako ha vai maha-shalo 'ngirasam vidhi-vad upasannah papraccha kasmin nu bhagavo vijnate sarvam idam vij{.sy 241}atam bhavatiti.

 

shaunakah-Saunaka; ha-indeed; vai-inded; maha-shalah-noble-hearted; angirasam-Angira; vidhi-vat-properly; upasannah-approached; papraccha-asked; kasmin-in what?; nu-indeed; bhagavah-O lord; vijnate-known; sarvam-all; idam-this; vijnatam-known; bhavati-becomes; iti-thus.

 

 

Noble-hearted Shaunaka Muni approached Angira Muni and asked: O glorious one, what is the thing that, when known, makes everything else known also?

 

Text 4

 

tasmai sa hovaca. dve vidye veditavye iti ha sma yad brahma-vido vadati para caivapara ca.

 

tasmai-to him; sa-he; ha-indeed; uvaca-said; dve-two; vidye-knowledges; veditavye-to be known; iti-thus; ha-thus; sma-indeed; yat-what; brahma-the Supreme; vidah-know; vadati-say; para-superior; ca-and; eva-indeed; apara-inferior; ca-and.

 

 

Angira Muni said to him: The who know the Supreme declare that there are two kinds of knowledge: 1. superior knowledge and 2. inferior knowledge.

 

 

Text 5

 

tatrapara rig-vedo yajur-vedah sama-vedo 'tharva-vedah shiksha kalpo vyakaranam niruktam chando jyotisham iti. atha para yaya tad aksharam adhigamyate.

 

tatra-there; apara-inferior; rig-vedah-Rg Veda; yajur-vedah-Yajur Veda; sama-vedah-Sama Veda; atharva-vedah-Atharva Veda; shiksha-pronunciation; kalpah-ritual; vyakaranam-grammar; niruktam-etyomology; chandah-meter; jyotisham-astronomy; iti-thus; atha-then; para-superior; yaya-by which; tat-that; aksharam-imperishable; adhigamyate-is attained.

 

 

Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda, phonetics, ritual, grammar, etymology, meter, and astronomy are all inferior knowledge. Superior knowledge is what brings one to the imperishable Supreme.

 

Text 6

 

yat tad adreshyam agrahyam agotram avarnam acakshuh-shrotram tad apani-padam nityam vibhum sarva-gatam su-sukshmam tad avyayam yad bhuta-yonim paripashyanti dhirah.

 

yat-what; tat-that; adreshyam-cannot be seen; agrahyam-cannot be grasped; agotram-without a family; avarnam-without a color; acakshuh-shrotram-without eyes or ears; tat-that; apani-padam-without hands or feet; nityam-eternal; vibhum-all-powerful; sarva-gatam-all-pervading; su-sukshmam-very subtle; tat-that; avyayam-imperishable; yat-that; bhuta-yonim-the origin of all; paripashyanti-see; dhirah-the wise.

 

 

The wise gaze on the Supreme, who cannot be seen or grasped or described, who has no eyes, ears, hands, or feet, who is eternal, all-powerful, all-pervading, very subtle, and imperishable, and who is the creator of all.

 

 

Text 7

 

yathornanabhih srijate grihnate ca yatha prithvyam oshadhayah sambhavanti. yatha satah purushat kesha-lomani tathaksharat sambhavantiha vishvam.

 

yatha-as; urnanabhih-a spider; srijate-creates; grihnate-and withdraws; ca-and; yatha-so; prithvyam-in the earth; oshadhayah-plants; sambhavanti-are; yatha-as; satah-from the eternal; purushat-Supreme Person; kesha-lomani-hair; tatha-so; aksharat-immortal; sambhavanti-is manifested; iha-here; vishvam-the universe.

 

 

As a spider creates and then withdraws a web, as plants sprout from the ground, and as hairs grow, so the material universe has come from the eternal Supreme Person.

 

Text 8

 

tapasa ciyate brahma

tato 'nnam abhijayate

annat prano manah satyam

lokah karmasu camritam

 

tapasa-by austerity; ciyate-is attained; brahma-the Supreme; tatah-then; annam-food; abhijayate-is born; annat-from food; pranah-life; manah-mind; satyam-existence; lokah-worlds; karmasu-in deeds; ca-and; amritam-immortality.

 

 

By austerity one attains the Supreme. From the Supreme food is manifested. From food comes life, thought, existence, and the many worlds. By acting in the worlds one may attain immortality.

 

 

Text 9

 

yah sarva-jnah sarva-vid

yasya jnanamayam tapah

tasmad etad brahma nama

rupam annam ca jayate

 

yah-who; sarva-jnah-all knowing; sarva-vit-all-knowing; yasya-of whom; jnanamayam-consisting of knowledge; tapah-austerity; tasmat-from Him; etat-this; brahma-Brahma; nama-named; rupam-form; annam-food; ca-and; jayate-is born.

 

 

The Supreme knows everything. He knows everything. From Him come austerity and transcendental knowledge. From comes food. From Him comes the impersonal feature that is called Brahman.

 

Second Khanda

 

Text 1

 

tad etat satyam mantreshu karmani kavayo

yany apashyams tani tretayam bahudha santatani

tany acaratha niyatam satya-kama

esha vah panthah sukritasya loke

 

tat-that; etat-this; satyam-truth; mantreshu-in mantras; karmani-deeds; kavayah-philosophers; yany-which; apashyan-saw; tani-them; tretayam-in Treta-yuga; bahudha-many; santatani-expanded; tany-them; acaratha-should do; niyatam-always; satya-kama-desiring the truth; esha-he; vah-of you; panthah-the path; sukritasya-of piety; loke-in the world.

 

 

The Supreme is eternal and real. The rites that the great mystics saw in mantras are recorded in the three Vedas. Desiring the Supreme, you should perform those rites. That is the path of piety in this world.

 

 

Text 2

 

yada lelayate hy arcih

samiddhe havya-vahane

tadajya-bhagavantarenahutih

pratipadayet shraddhaya hutam

 

yada-which; lelayate-is kindled; hy-indeed; arcih-flame; samiddhe-in fuel; havya-vahane-in havya; tada-then; ajya-ghee; bhagavantarena-by the oblation; ahutih-offering; pratipadayet-should do; shraddhaya-with faith; hutam-offered.

 

 

When the sacrificial fire is kindled one should faithfully offer an oblation of ghee.

 

Text 3

 

yasyagni-hotram adarsham apaurnamasam

acaturmasyam anagrayanam atithi-varjitam ca

ahutam avaishvadevam avidhina hutam

asaptamams tasya lokan hinasti

 

yasya-of whom; agni-hotram-fire yajna; adarsham--without darsa; apaurnamasam--without paurnamasam; acaturmasyam-without caturmasyam; anagrayanam-without agrayanam; atithi-varjitam-withotu guests; ca-and; ahutam-offered; avaishvadevam-without vaisvedvas; avidhina-without following rules; hutam-offered; asaptamamh-without seven; tasya-of him; lokan-the worlds; hinasti-destroys.

 

 

He who performs agnihotra-yajnas but does not follow other rites, like darsha, paurnamasa, caturmasya, and agrayana, does not show hospitality to guests, does not worship the Vishvadevas, and does not offer yajnas properly, does not attain the seven higher worlds.

 

 

Text 4

 

kali karali ca manojava ca

su-lohita ya ca su-dhumra-varna

sphulingini vishva-ruci ca devi

lelayamana iti sapta jihvah

 

kali-kali; karali-karali; ca-and; manojava-manojava; ca-and; su-lohita-su-lohita; ya-which; ca-and; su-dhumra-varna-su-dhumra-varna; sphulingini-sphulingini; vishva-ruci vishva-ruci; ca-and; devi-shining; lelayamana-burning; iti-thus; sapta-seven; jihvah-tongues.

 

 

The seven tongues of the sacrifical fire are named: 1. Kali, 2. Karali, 3. Manojava, 4. Sulohita, 5. Sudhumra-varna, 6. Sphulingini, and 7. Vishva-ruci.

 

Text 5

 

eteshu yash carate bhrajamaneshu

yatha-kalam cahutayo hy adadayan

tan nayanty etah suryasya rashmayo

yatra devanam patir eko 'dhivasah

 

eteshu-among them; yash-and; carate-moves; bhrajamaneshu-burning; yatha-as; kalam-time; ca-and; ahutayah-offerings; hy-indeed; adadayan-accepted; tan-them; nayanty-leads; etah-them; suryasya-of the sun; rashmayah-the rays; yatra-where; devanam-of the demigods; patih-the master; ekah-one; adhivasahthe residence.

 

 

A person who at the right times properly performs yajnas is carried by the sun's rays to the abode the of demigods' master.

 

 

Text 6

 

ehy ehi tam ahutayah su-varcasah

suryasya rashmibhir yajamanam vahanti

priyam vacam abhivadantyo 'rcayantya

eshah vah punyam sukrito brahma-lokah

 

ehy-come; ehi-come; tam-to him; ahutayah-the offerings; su-varcasah-splendid; suryasya-of the sun; rashmibhih-with rays; yajamanam-the performer of yajnas; vahanti-carry; priyam-dear; vacam-words; abhivadantyah-speaking; arcayantya-worshiping; eshah-they; vah-of you; punyam-piety; sukritah-pious; brahma-lokah-world of Brahma.

 

 

Saying, "Come! Come!" and speaking sweet words, the past yajnas carry the yajnas' performer by the brilliant sun's rays to the world of Brahma.

 

Text 7

 

plava hy ete adridha yajna-rupa

ashtadashoktam avaram yeshu karma

etac chreyo yo 'bhinandanti mudha

jara-mrityum te punar evapi yanti

 

plava-boats; hy-indeed; ete-they; adridha-infirm; yaj{.sy 241}a-rupa-in the forms of yajnas; ashtadasha-18; uktam-said; avaram-inferior; yeshu-in which; karma-action; etat-this; shreyah-best; yah-who; abhinandanti-praises; mudha-a fool; jara-mrityum-old age and death; te-they; punah-again; eva-indeed; api-also; yanti-attain.

 

 

The eighteen kinds of yajnas are rickety boats to cross the ocean of birth and death. Only fools praise them, fools who attain birth and old age again and again.

 

 

Text 8

 

avidyayam antare vartamanah

svayam dhirah panditam manyamanah

janghanyamanah pariyanti mudha

andhenaiva niyamanah yathandhah

 

avidyayam-in ignorance; antare-within; vartamanah-being; svayam-personally; dhirah-wise; panditam-wise; manyamanah-thinking themselves; janghanyamanah-going; pariyanti-go; mudha-fools; andhena-by a blind man; eva-indeed; niyamanah-being led; yatha-as; andhah-blind men.

 

 

Such persons are fools, although they think themselves very wise. They are like blind men following a blind leader.

 

Text 9

 

avidyayam bahudha vartmana

vayam kritartha ity abhimanyanti balah

yat karmino na pravedayanti ragat

tenaturah kshina-lokash cyavante

 

avidyayam-in ignorance; bahudha-many; vartmana-being; vayam-we; kritartha-successful; ity-thus; abhimanyanti-thinking; balah-children; yat-what; karminah-performing deeds; na-not; pravedayanti-proclaim; ragat-our of desire; tena-by that; aturah-agitated; kshina-lokash-withered away; cyavante-fall.

 

 

These childish fools think, "Now we have attained our goals". Passionate and materialistic, they do not understand the truth. When their good karma is exhausted they fall down into an inauspicious life.

 

 

Text 10

 

ishta-purtam manyamana varishtham

nanyac-chreyo vedayante pramudhah

nakasya prishthe te sukrite 'nubhu-

tvemam lokam hinataram va vishanti

 

ishta-purtam-chgairty and pious deeds; manyamana-thinking; varishtham-the best; na-not; anyat-another; shreyah-better; vedayante-know; pramudhah-fools; nakasya-of the sky; prishthe-on the surface; te-they; sukrite-piety; anubhutva-experiencing; imam-this; lokam-world; hinataram-lower; va-or; vishanti-enter.

 

 

These fools think yajnas and charity the best of all deeds. They think nothing is better than them. After enjoying the fruits of their pious deeds in the world of the demigods, they fall down to the earth, or to a world lower still.

 

Text 11

 

tapah-shraddhe ye hy apavasanty aranye

shanta vidvamso bhaikshya-caryam carantah

surya-dvarena te virajah prayanti

yatramritah sa purusho hy avyayatma

 

tapah-austerity; shraddhe-and faith; ye-who; hy-indeed; apavasanty-perform; aranye-in the forest; shanta-peaceful; vidvamsah-wise; bhaikshya-caryam-begging; carantah-performing; surya-dvarena-by the door of the sun; te-they; virajah-renounced; prayanti-go; yatra-where; amritah-immortal; sa-He; purushah-person; hy-indeed; avyaya-imperishable; atma-soul.

 

 

Faithful, austere, renounced, and wise transcendentalists stay in the forest and live by begging alms. Free of matter they pass through the sun's gate and enter the world of the eternal and unchanging Supreme Person.

 

 

Text 12

 

parikshya lokan karma-citan brahmano

nirveda-mayannasty akritah kritena

tad-vijnanartham sa gurum evabhigacchet

samit-panih shrotriyam brahma-nishtham

 

parikshya-seeing; lokan-the worlds; karma-citan-obtained by karma; brahmanah-a brahmana; nirveda-mayan-renounced; na-not; asty-is; akritah-undone; kritena-done; tad-vijnanartham-to understand that knowledge; sa-he; gurum-a spiritual master; eva-indeed; abhigacchet-should approach; samit-panih-fuel in hand; shrotriyam-learned in the scriptures; brahma-nishtham-devoted to the Supreme.

 

 

Seeing the true nature of the higher worlds attained by pious karma, a brahmana does not desire them. To learn transcendental subject matter, one must approach the spiritual master. In doing so he should carry fuel to burn in sacrifice. The symptom of such a spiritual master is that he is expert in understanding the Vedic conclusion, and therefore he constantly engages in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.*

 

Text 13

 

tasmai sa vidvan upasannaya samyak

prashanta-cittaya samanvitaya

yenaksharam purusham veda satyam

provaca tam tattvato brahma-vidyam

 

tasmai-to him; sa-he; vidvan-wise; upasannaya-approaching; samyak-properly; prashanta-cittaya-peaceful at heart; samanvitaya-with; yena-by him; aksharam-eternal; purusham-person; veda-knows; satyam-truth; provaca-said; tam-to him; tattvatah-in truth; brahma-vidyam-the science of the Supreme.

 

 

To the peaceful-hearted person who thus approaches him, the wise spiritual master teaches the science of the eternal Supreme Person.

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