|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Upanishads > Gopala-Tapani Upanisad > Chapter Two|
Texts 1 and 2
ekada hi vraja-striyah sakamah sarvarim usitva sarvesvaram gopalam krishnam hi ta ucire //
uvaca tah krishnah //
Once, after they had passed the entire night with Him, the passionate girls of Vraja spoke to the cowherd boy Krishna, who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and He also spoke to them.
May Lord Krishna, who is Mura's enemy, who is the Supersoul, who appeared as Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and who is merciful to Gajendra and King Prataparudra, always reside in my heart.
In Mathura and Dvaraka, Krishna is a king and enjoys royal pastimes, while in Gokula He enjoys pastimes as a cowherd boy. He remains in the highest spiritual planet, Goloka Vrndavana, enjoying these pastimes.
anu kasmai brahmanaya bbhaksyam datavyam bhavati //
The gopis said: To what brahmana should charity be given?
Krishna said: Durvasa
katham yasyamo tirtha-jalam yamunaya yatah sreyo bhavisyati //
The gopis said: How will we cross the Yamuna's waters and approach Him, from whom great blessings will come?
krsneti brahmacarity-uktva margam vo dasyati //
Krishna said: Say the words Krishna, the brahmacari, and the Yamuna will give you a path.
yam mam smrtvagadha gadha bhavati/
yam mam smrtvaputah puto bhavati /
yam mam smrtvavrati vrati bhavati /
yam mam smrtva sakamo niskamo bhavati /
yam mam smrtva-srotriyo srotriyo bhavati //
By remembering Me a shallow person becomes deep. By remembering Me an impure person becomes pure. By remembering Me an impious person becomes pious. By remembering Me one full of material desires becomes desireless. By remembering Me a fool becomes learned.
srutva tad vacam hi vai smrtva raudram tad-vakyena tirthva tat sauryam hi vai gatvasramam punyatamam hi natva munim sresthamam hi vai raudram ceti dattvasmai brahmanaya ksiramayam ghrtamayam mistatamam ha vai //
After hearing these words, they meditated on Durvasa, and with these words crossed the Yamuna. they went to the very sacred asrama and bowed down before Durvasa Muni, the best of sages. they gave to the brahmana delicious foods made with milk and ghee.
tustah snatv-abhuktva hitvasisam prayojyanvajnam tvadat //
Pleased, he bathed, ate, blessed them ,and gave them permission to go.
katham yasyamo tirthva sauryam //
They said: How will we cross the Yamuna?
munim durvasinam mam smrtva margam vo dasyatiti //
He said: Meditate on me as a sage that eats only durva grass, and the Yamuna will give you a path.
tesam madhye srestha gandharvity-uvaca /
tam ha vai tabhir evam vicarya //
Gandharvi (Shrimati Radharani), the best among them, reflected for a moment.
katham krsno brahmacari /
katham durvasano munih //
She said: How is Krishna a brahmacari? How is this sage a person that eats only durva grass?
tam hi mukhyam vidhaya purvam anu krtva tusnim asuh //
Accepting Her as their leader, the other girls became silent.
sabdavan akasah sabdakasabhyam bhinnas tasmin nakase tisthati /
sa hy-akasas tam na veda sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //
Durvasa Muni replied: Sound is contained within the element of ether, although sound and ether are different. Sound is contained within ether. This ether does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer.
sparsvan vayuh sparsa-vayubhyam bhinnas tasmin vayau tisthati/
vayur na veda tam sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //
Touch is contained within the element of air, although touch and air are different. Touch is contained within air. This air does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?
rupavad idam hi tejo rupagnibhyam bhinnas tasmin agnau tisthati /
tisthaty agnir na veda tam sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //
Form is contained within the element of fire, although form and fire are different. Form is contained within fire. This fire does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?
rasavatya apah rasatbhyo bhinnas tasmin apsu tisthati /
hy -apo na veda tam sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //
Taste is contained within the element of water, although taste and waste are different. Taste is contained within water. This water does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?
gandhavatiyam bhumir gandha-bhyam bhinnas tasmin bhumau tisthati /
bhumir na veda tam sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //
Aroma is contained within the element of earth, although aroma and earth are different. Aroma is contained within earth. This earth does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?
idam hi manas tesv-eva hi manute tan idam grhnati //
It is the mind that remains among the senses and accepts them.
yatra sarvam atmaivabhut tatra va kutra manute kva va gacchatiti sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //
When spirit is everything how does one think? Where does one go? I am spirit, how can I be a materialistic enjoyer?
ayam hi krsno yo vo hi presthah sarira-dvaya-karanam bhavati //
Your beloved Krishna is the original creator of the two kinds of bodies.
The two kinds of bodies are the gross (physical) and subtle (mental) bodies.
dvau suparnau bhavato brahmano'msa-bhutas tathetaro bhokta bhavati /
anyo hi saksi bhavatiti /
vrksa-dharme tau tisthatah /
ato bhoktabhoktarau /
purvo hi bhokta bhavati tathetaro'bhokta krsno bhavatiti //
On the tree of the body are two birds. One is an expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is a witness. The other is an enjoyer. They are an enjoyer and a non-enjoyer. The first enjoys, and the second is Krishna.
yatra vidyavidye na vidamo vidyavidyabhyam bhinnah vidya-mayo hi yah sa katham visayi bhavatiti //
In Him we do not find material so-called knowledge and ignorance. This ignorance and real knowledge are different. How can Krishna, who is full of real knowledge, become a materialistic enjoyer?
Texts 25 and 26
yo ha vai kamena kaman kamayate sa kami bhavati /
yo ha vai tv-akamena kaman kamayate so'kami bhavati //
He who lusts after pleasure is lusty. He who does not lust after pleasures is not lusty.
janma- jarabhyam bhinnah sthahur ayam acchedyo'yam yo'sau saurye tistati yo'sau gosu tisthati yo'sau gah palayati yo'sau gopesu tisthati yo'sau sarvesu vedesu tisthati yo'sau sarvair vedair giyate yo'sau sarvesu bhutesv-avisya bhutani vidadhati sa vo hi svami bhavati //
Krishna, who is free from birth and death, who is unchanging, who cannot be cut, who stays by the Yamuna, who stays among the surabhi cows, who protects the surabhi cows, who stays among the cowherd boys, who stays in all the Vedas, who is glorified by all the Vedas, who has entered all living entities, and who controls all living entities, is your husband.
sa hovaca gandharvi-
katham vasmasu jato'sau gopalah katham va jnato'sau tvaya mune krishnah ko vasya mantrah kim vasya sthanam katham va devakyam jatah /
ko vasya jyayan ramo bhavati kidrsI pujasya gopalasya bhavati saksat-prakrti-paro yo'yam atma gopalah katham tv-avatirno bhumyad hi vai //
Gandharvi (Radha) said: Why has the Supreme Personality of Godhead taken birth among us as a cowherd boy? O sage, how do you know this about Krishna? What is His mantra? What is His abode? Why has He taken birth in Devaki's womb? Who is His elder brother Balarama? How is He worshipped? Why has the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is far above the world of matter, descended to this Earth?
The word Devaki here may also be interpreted to mean Yasoda. This is described in the Adi Purana:
"Nanda's wife has two names: Yasoda and Devaki."
Shri Sukadeva Gosvami describes Lord Krishna's birth in the following words (Bhagavatam 10.3.8):
"Then the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vishnu, who is situated in the core of everyone's heart, appeared in the heart of Devaki in the dense darkness of night, like the full moon rising on the eastern horizon, because Devaki was of the same category as Shri Krishna."
sa hovaca tam ha vai-
eko ha vai purvam narayano devah/
yasmin loka otas ca protas ca tasya hrt-padmaj jato'bja-yonih //
He said: In the beginning only Lord Narayana existed. In Him the material worlds are woven as thread on a loom. From His lotus heart the demigod Brahma was born.
tapitva tasmai hi varam dadau //
When Brahma performed severe austerities, Lord Narayana granted him a boon.
sa kama-prasnam eva vavre //
Brahma chose a question.
tam hasmai dadau //
Lord Narayana granted his request.
Text 33 and 34
sa hovacabjayonir yo'vataranam madhye srestho'vatarah ko bhavati yena lokas tusta devas tusta bhavanti yam smrtva mukta asmat sam sarat bhavanti katham vasyavatarasya brahmata bhavati //
Brahma said: Among Your many incarnations, which is the best, the one that makes humans and demigods happy, the one that, remembering Him, they become liberated from repeated birth and death? Why is this incarnation the best?
sa hovaca tam hi narayano devah //
Lord Narayana said:
sakamya meroh srnge yatha sapta-purye bhavanti tatha niskamyah sakamya bhu-gola-cakre sapta-puryo bhavanti tasam madhye saksad brahma gopala-puriti //
As on the summit of Mount Meru are seven cities that fulfil all desires, so on the Earth are seven cities that fulfil desires and grant liberation. Among them the city of Gopala Puri is directly the spiritual world.
The word niskama here means liberation.
sakamya niskamya devanam sarvesam bhutanam bhavati //
In this city the desires of the demigods and all other creatures are all fulfilled and everyone attains liberation.
yatha hi vai sarasi padam tisthati tatha bhumyam tisthatiti cakrena raksita hi mathura tasmad gopala-puriti //
Protected by My cakra, this city if Mathura, or Gopala Puri, stands in this world as a lotus stands in a lake.
brhad brhadvanam madhor madhuvanam talas talavanam kamyam kamyavanam bahula bahulavanam kumudam kumudavanam khadirah khadiravanam bhadro bhadravanam bhandira iti bhandiravanam shrivanam lohavanam vrndaya vrndavanam etair avrta puri bhavati //
Gopala Puri contains these forests: 1. the great forest of Brhadvana, 2. Madhuvana, the former residence of the Madhu demon, 3. Talavana, full of palm trees, 4. delightful Kamyavana, 5. great Bahulavana, 6. Kumudavana, full of lotus flowers and water lilies, 7. Khadiravana, full of Khadira trees, 8. Bhadravana, the favourite spot of Lord Balarama, 9. Bhandiravana, the great forest of Banyan trees, 10. Shrivana, the abode of the goddess of fortune, 11. Lohavana, the former residence of the demon Loha, and 12. Vrndavana, ruled by the goddess Vrnda-devi
The word bhadra here means "the place where Balabhadra (Balarama) enjoys pastimes."
tatra tesv-eva gahanesv-evam deva manusya gandharva nagah kinnara gayantiti nrtyantiti //
In these forests the demigods, human beings, Gandharvas, Nagas, and Kinnaras sing and dance.
tatra dvadasaditya ekadasa-rudra astau-vasavah sapta-munayo brahma naradas ca panca-vinayaka viresvaro rudresvaro'mbikesvaro ganesvaro nila-kanthesvaro visvesvaro gopalesvaro bhadresvaro'nyani lingani catur-vimsatir bhavati //
The twelve Adityas, eleven Rudras, eight Vasus, seven sages, Brahma, Narada, five Vinayakas, Viresvara, Rudresvara, Ambikesvara, Ganesvara, Nilakanthesvara, Visvesvara, Gopalesvara, Bhadresvara, and 24 other lingas reside there.
dve-vane stah krishnavanam bhadravanam tayor antar dvadasa vanani punyani punyatamani //
These forests are divided into two groups: 1. Krishnavana, or Krishna's forests, and 2. Bhadravana, or Balarama's forests. Among these twelve forests some are sacred and others are most sacred.
Krishna's forests are: 1. Brhadvana 2. Madhuvana 3. Talavana 4. Kamyavana 5. Bahulavana 6. Kumudavana 7. Khadiravana and 8. Vrndavana. Balarama's forests are 1. Bhadravana 2. Bhandiravana 3. Shrivana, and 4. Lauhavana.
Krishna forests are the eight forests beginning with Vrndavana. Balarama's forests are 1. Bhadravana, 2. Shrivana, 3. Lauhavana, and 4. Bhradvana.
tesv-eva devas tisthanti siddhah siddhim praptah //
There the demigods stay. there the perfect beings attained perfection.
In this connection the Gautamiya Tantra explains:
atra devas ca bhutani
"In subtle forms the demigods and great sages reside in Vrndavana."
tatra hi ramasya rama- murtih pradyumnasya pradyumna-murtir aniruddhasyaniruddha-murtih krishnasya krishna-murtih //
In this place are a Deity of Rama, a Deity of Pradyumna, a Deity of Aniruddha, and a Deity of Krishna.
vanesv-evam mathurasv-evam dvadasa murtayo bhavanti //
In this way there are twelve Deities in the forests of Mathura.
ekam hi rudra yajanti /
dvitiyam hi brahma yajati /
trtiyam brahmaja yajanti /
caturthim maruto yajanti /
pancamim vinayaka yajanti /
sasthim vasavo yajanti /
saptamim rsayo yajanti /
astamim gandharva yajanti /
navamim apsaro yajanti /
dasami vai hy-antardhane tisthati /
ekadasam eti sva-padam gata /
dvadasameti bhumyam tisthati //
The Rudras worship the first Deity, Brahma worships the second, Brahma's sons worship the third, The Maruts worship the fourth, the Vinayakas worship the fifth, the Vasus worship the sixth, the sages worship the seventh, the Gandharvas worship the eighth, the Apsaras worship the ninth, the tenth Deity is now invisible, the eleventh Deity has gone to His own planet, and the twelfth Deity is now on the Earth.
tam hi yeyajanti te mrtyum taranti muktim labhante /
garbha-janma-jara-marana-tapa-trayatmakam duhkham taranti //
They who worship this Deity surpass death and attain liberation. They cross beyond the three-fold miseries of birth, old-age and death.
tad apy ete sloka bhavanti-
prapya mathuram purim ramyam
sada brahmadi sevitam
yatrasau samsthitah krishnas
tribhih saktya samahitah
rukminya sahito vibhuh //
There are these verses: Lord Krishna, accompanied by His three potencies, and by Balarama, Aniruddha, Pradyumna, and Rukmini, stays in delightful Mathura Puri, which is worshipped by Brahma and the other demigods and protected by the conch, cakra, club, and sarnga bow.
Text 48 (b)
catuh- sabdo bhaved eko hy-omkarah samudahrtah //
These four names are identical with the name Om.
The names Balarama, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, and Krishna are identical with the name Om.
tasmad devah paro rajaseti so'ham iyt avadharyatmanam gopalo'ham iti bhavayet /
sa moksam asnute sa brahmatvam adhigacchati sa brahmavid bhavati //
One should think: I am spiritual, beyond material passion. One should think: I am Lord Gopaka's. In this way one attains liberation. He realizes his spiritual nature. He becomes a knower of spirit.
As a ray of sunlight is, in one sense, identical with the sun, in the same way, the individual living entity is, in one sense, identical with Lord Gopala.
yo gopan jivan vai atmatvenasrsti-paryantam alati sa gopalo bhavati om tat sat so'ham param brahma krishnatmako nityanandaika-rupah so'ham om //
Because since the beginning of creation He lovingly protects (alati) the conditioned souls (gopa), He is known as Gopala. Om tat sat. I am a spirit. I am a part-and-parcel of Krishna. My spiritual form is eternally full of bliss. Om.
tad gopala eva param satyam avadhitam //
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is therefore known as Gopala.
so'ham ity-atmanam adaya manasaikyam kuryad atmanam gopalo'ham iti bhavayed iti //
With all one's heart one should think: I am Gopala's
sa evavyakto'nanto nityo gopalah //
Lord Gopala is unmanifest, limitless, and eternal.
mathurayam sthitir brahman
sarvada me bhavisyati
vana-malavrtastu vai //
Lord Narayana continued: O Brahma, decorated with a forest-flower garland, and holding a conch, disk, mace and lotus, I will reside eternally in Mathura.
visva-rupam param jyotih
hrda mam samsmaran brahman
mat-padam yati niscitam //
O Brahma, he who with all his heart meditates on Me, whose form is the resting place of all forms, whose form is supremely powerful and splendid, whose form is wonderful, and who has no material form, goes to MY abode. Of this there is no doubt.
The word visva-rupam here means "He in whom are all forms." Some texts give the word here as cit-svarupam, or "he whose form is spiritual." The word param-jyotih means "powerful" or "splendid." The word svarupam means "He whose form is extraordinary." The word rupa-varjitam means "He who has no material form." The word mat-padam means "My abode."
mathura-mandale yas tu
jambudvipe sthito'pi va
yo'rcayet pratimam mam ca
sa me priyataro bhuvi //
O Brahma, a resident of this earth planet who remains in the district of Mathura and worships Me as I appear in the form of the Deity, becomes very dear to Me.
tasyam adhisthitah krishna-
rupi pujyas tvaya sada //
You should always worship Me as Krishna in Mathura.
bhedatvena yajanti mam //
Four kinds of men worship Me.
these four kinds of devotees are described by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (7.16):
arto jijnasur artharthi
jnani ca bharatarsabha
"Those who are distressed, inquisitive, wise and those in need of money, engage in My devotional service."
The four kinds of worshippers describe here are the devotees of Lord Vasudeva, Lord Sankarsana, Lord Pradyumna, and Lord Aniruddha.
gopalam sanujam ramam
rukminya saha tat-param //
Following the devotional process prescribed for the age, intelligent devotees in this world worship Lord Gopala, who is accompanied by His elder brother Balarama and queen Rukmini.
gopalo'ham ajo nityah
atmanam arcayed budhah //
I am unborn, eternal Gopala. I am eternal Pradyumna. I am Rama. I am Aniruddha. He who is intelligent worships Me.
tair ayam pujaniyo vai
Free from all impure desires, the residents of Krishnavana and Bhadravana worship Me, following the regulations of bhakti I Myself have spoken.
tasyam mayi parayanah
kalina grasita ye vai
tesam tasyam avasthitah //
Even they who formerly rejected the principles of religion and were swallowed up by the age of Kali, may become devoted to Me, and also reside in Mathura.
yatha tvam sana putrais tu
yatha rudro ganaih saha
tatha bhakto mama priyah //
Anyone who becomes My sincere devotee becomes very dear to Me. As dear as You and Your sons are, as dear as Siva and hid associates, as dear as the goddess of fortune, Laksmi.
sa hovacabjayonis caturbhir devaih katham ek devah syad ekam aksaram yad visrutam anekaksaram katham bhutam //
Brahma said: How has the one Supreme Personality of Godhead become four Deities? How has the single sacred syllable om become many?
sa hoivacatam hi vai purvam hi ekam evadvitiyam brahmasit tasmad avyaktam avyaktam evaksaram tasmad aksaran mahat-tattvam mahato va ahankaras tasmad evahankarat panca-tanmatrani tebhyo bhutani tair avrtam aksaram bhavati //
The Lord said to him: Before the material world was manifest, only the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is one without a second, existed. From Him came the impersonal Brahman. From that came the syllable om. From om came the mahat-tattva. From the mahat-tattva came false-ego. From false-ego came the five tanmatras. From them came the elements. Om is covered by these things.
aksaro'ham omkaro'ham ajaro' maro'bhayo'mrto brahmabhayam hi vai sa mukto'ham asmy-aksaro'ham asmi //
I am the sacred syllable. I am om. I am ageless, deathless, nectarean, the fearless Supreme Great. I am liberated. I am unchanging.
satta-matram visva-rupam prakasam vyapakam tatha ekam evadvitiyam brahma mayaya tu catustayam //
The eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead manifested Himself as the all-pervading universal form. In the same way the Lord, who is one without a second, by His transcendental potency expanded Himself into four.
That the Lord is the master of transcendental potencies is described in the sastras:
ato mayamayam visnum
"The sages declare that eternal Lord Vishnu is the master of all transcendental potencies."
The word "maya" may be interpretted to mean `mercy'. In this way the phrase "mayaya tu catustayam" means that the Lord expands into many forms in order to show mercy to the devotees.
The sacred syllable om consists of three letters: a, u and m. Balarama, the son of Rohini, is the letter a. Splendid Pradyumna is the letter u.
yasmin visvam pratisthitam //
Intelligent Aniruddha is letter m. Lord Krishna, in whom the entire universe rests, is the ardha-matra letter (m), which completes the syllable om.
Rukmini is Lord Krishna's wife. She is the creator of the worlds and the root of material nature.
srutibhyo brahma-sangatah //
The Vedic literatures explain that the goddess of fortune appeared among the women of Vraja.
The following statement is found in the Skanda Purana, Matsya Purana, and other sastras.
rukmini dvaravatyam tu
radha vrndavane vane
"Rukmini is the Lord's consort in Dvaraka and Radha is His consort in Vrndavana." The Rk-parisista explains:
"Lord Madhava always stays by Radha's side. Radha always stays by Madhava's side."
Text 71 (b)
vadanti brahma-vadinah //
Learned transcendentalists say that the Lord's potency is the syllable om.
gopalo visva-samsthitih //
Therefore, all-pervading Lord Gopala is the syllable om.
pathyate brahma-vadibhih //
Learned transcendentalists declare that the syllable om is not different from the sacred syllable klim.
mam dhyayan moksam asnute //
He whom meditates on Me as I appear in Mathura attains liberation.
hrt-padmam tatra samsthitam
cihnitam carana-dvayam //
shrivatsa lancanam hrt-stham
kaustubham prabhaya yutam
dhyayen manasi mam nityam
venu-srnga-dharam tu vai //
In his mind one should meditate on Me standing on the blossomed eight-petaled lotus of the heart, My two feet marked with conchshell, flag and umbrella, MY chest marked with Shrivatsa and splendid with the kautabha gem, My four arms holding the conch, cakra, mace, and sarnga bow, My arms decorated with armlets. MY neck splendid with a flower garland, My head circled by a splendid crown, My ears decorated with glistening shark-shaped earrings, MY form splendid and handsome, holding a flute and buffalo-horn bugle, and granting fearlessness to the devotees.
mathyate tu jagat sarvam
brahma-jnanena yena va
tat-sara-bhutam yad yasyam
mathura sa nigadyate //
When the entire universe is churned (mathyate) by the churning-rod of spiritual knowledge, the butter produced is the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Mathura. That is why it is called Mathura.
padmam vikasitam jagat
sevitam mama manase //
In my heart I meditate on the material world with its eight dik-palas (protectors of the directions) as a blossomed lotus flower growing in the ocean of repeated birth and death.
dhvaja merur hiranmayah
adhordhvam caranam amrtam //
The sun and moon are the splendour of My body. Golden Mount Meru is My splendid flag. Brahmaloka as My umbrella. The seven lower planetary systems are My feet.
shrivatsam ca svarupam ca
vartate lanchanaih saha
kathyate brahma-vadibhih //
I am marked with Shrivatsa and svarupa. Therefore the learned sages call me Shrivatsa-lanchana (marked with Shrivatsa).
vartate kaustubhakhyam hi
manim vadantisa-maninah //
Aware of My supremacy, the sages declare that the splendour of the sun, moon, fire, and eloquent speech has come from My glittering Kaustubha jewel.
sattvam rajas tama iti
kare rajasi samsthitam //
The four arms of My universal form are goodness, passion, ignorance, and false-ego. The five material elements are the conchshell I carry in the hand that is the mode of passion.
manas cakram nigadyate
adya maya bhavec charngam
padmam visvam kare sthitam //
Childishness is said to be the cakra, the original illusory potency the sarnga bow, and the universe the lotus flower in the hand of the universal form.
adya-vidya gada vedya
sarvada me kare sthita //
The origin of ignorance is known as the club I always carry in My hand.
divyair nityam avaritaih //
Religion, economic development, and sense-gratification are the splendid bracelets that eternally decorate the wrists of My universal form.
kantham tu nirgunam proktam
mala nigadyate brahmams
tava putrais tu manasaih //
The neck, said to be the qualityless Brahman, is garlanded by the first unborn. O Brahma, your mind-born sons have elaborately described this garland.
The word "nirguna" here refers to Brahman. The "first unborn" here is the maya potency, splendid with knowledge and ignorance. The mind-born sons are the four Kumaras.
kuthastham yat svarupam ca
kiritam pravadanti mam //
The sages say that My eternal form is the crown.
kundalam yugalam smrtam //
The two things above the changing material world are My two glittering earrings.
The two things are the spiritual paths of sankhya and yoga. This is confirmed in Shrimad-Bhagavatam:
bibharti sankhyam yogam ca
"Sankhya and yoga are the two shark-shaped earrings worn by the Supreme Person."
dhyayaen mama priyo nityam
sa moksam adhigacchati
sa mukto bhavati tasmai
atmanam ca dadami vai //
He who meditates in this way is eternally dear to me. He attains liberation. He becomes liberated. I give Myself to him.
This is confirmed in the Sruti-sastra:
"bhuyas cante visva-maya-
nivrttir vimuktas ca vimucyate
"The devotees of the Lord become liberated from the grip of the illusory potency."
etat sarvam bhavisyad vai
maya proktam vidhe tava
svarupam dvi-vidham caiva
sagunam nirgunatmakam //
O Brahma, I have said all that will be about My two forms: one made of the modes of nature, and the other beyond the modes of nature.
The form made of the modes of material nature is the universal form, and the form beyond the modes of material nature is the auspicious transcendental form.
The form beyond the modes of material nature here is the Lord's two-armed and four-armed forms.
sa hovacabjayonir -
vyaktanam murtinam proktanam katham tvabharananibhavanti katham va deva yajanti rudra yajanti brahma yajati brahmaja yajanti vinayaka yajanti dvadasaditya yajanti vasavo yajanti apaaraso yajanti gandharva yajanti sva-padam gata antardhane tisthati kam manusya yajanti //
Brahma said: What are the ornaments worn by the Deities You have described? How do the Maruts, Rudras, Brahma, sons of Brahma, Vinayakas, twelve Adityas, Vasus, Apsaras, and Gandharvas worship them? Who is the Deity that has gone to His own abode? Who is the Deity now invisible? Who is the Deity the humans worship?
sa hovaca tam hi vai narayano deva adya avyakta dvadasa-murtayah sarvesu lokesu sarvesu devesu sarvesu manusyesu tisthanti //
Lord Narayana said to him: these twelve unmanifested transcendental Deities are present on all planets, among all demigods and all human beings.
The word unmanifested here means unmanifested to material eyes.
rudresu raudri brahmany-evam brahmi devesu daivi manusesu manavi vinayakesu vighna-nasani adityesu jyotir gandharvesu gandarvy-apsarahsv-evam gaur vasusv-evam kamya antardhane prakasini avirbhava-tirobhava sva-pade tisthati //
As a Rudra among the rudras, as a Brahma among the followers of Brahma, as a demigod among the demigods, as a human being among the humans, as the destroyer of obstacles (Ganesa) among the Vinayakas, as Surya Narayana among the Adityas, as a Gandharva among the Gandharvas, as an Apsara among the Apsaras, and as a Vasu among the Vasus, My form, which fulfils desires, is present even when it is invisible. Whether visible or invisible in this world, My form is always stays in My own abode.
When the Lord is invisible He is present in the form of hearing about Him.
The Lord's abode is Vrndavana, which the Lord Himself describes in the Gautamiya Tantra:
This is beautiful Vrndavana, My transcendental abode. Its size is five yojanas. Its forest is my own form.
The Yamuna River, where currents of nectar flow, also bears the name Susumna. In this place the demigods and sages always stay in subtle forms.
I, who am the master of all the demigods, never leave this forest. yuga after yuga, I am sometimes visible and sometimes invisible here.
Them My splendid, handsome form cannot be seen by material eyes.
tamasi rajasi sattviki //
My form is also present as the Deity of ignorance, the Deity of passion, and the Deity of Goodness.
manusi vijnana-ghanananda-ghana-sac-cid-anandaika-rase bhakti-yoge tisthati //
My humanlike form, which is eternal and full of transcendental knowledge, is present in devotional service.
om tat pranatmane om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai pranatmane namo namah //
Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the life-breath. Om tat sat. Bhu Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, the Supersoul, who is present in the life-breath.
Here is the answer to the question "How should the Lord be worshipped?" Here the Lord reveals mantras to be used in His worship.
shri krishnaya govindaya gopijanavallabhaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //
Obeisances to Shri Krishna, who is Govinda and Gopijanavallabha, Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
om apanatmane om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai apanatmane vai namo namah //
Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the apana air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the apana air.
om krishnaya ramaya pradyumnayaniruddhaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //
Om. Obeisances to Krishna, who is Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
om samanatmane om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai samanatmane namah //
Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the sama air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the same air.
om shri krishnaya ramaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namah //
Om. Obeisances to Shri Krishna, who is Shri Rama. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
om udanatmane om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai udanatmane namo namah //
Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the udana air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the udana air.
om krishnaya devaki-nandanaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //
Om. Obeisances to Krishna, the son of Devaki. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him
om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai vyanatmane namah //
Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the vyana air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the vyana air.
om gopalaya nija-rupaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //
Om. Obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose original form is that of a cowherd boy. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
om yo'sau pradhanatmane gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //
Om. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul, present in the primordial material energy. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
om yo'sav indriyatma gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //
Om. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul, present in the senses. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
om yo'sau bhutatma gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //
Om. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul, present in the material elements. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
om yo'sav uttamah puruso gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //
Om. Lord Gopala is the Supreme Person. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
That Krishna is the Supreme Person is confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (15.17):
uttamah purusas tvanyah
yo loka-trayam avisya
"Besides these two there is the greatest living personality, the Lord Himself, who has entered into these worlds and is maintaining them."
om yo'sau param brahma gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah//
Om. Lord Gopala is the Supreme Brahman. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
This statement is confirmed by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (14.27):
brahmano hi pratisthaham
"I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman."
om yo'sau sarva-bhutatmagopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah//
Om. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul in the heart of all beings. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
om yo'sau jagrat -svapna-susuptim atitya turyatito gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //
Om. Surpassing wakefulness, sleep, and deep sleep, Lord Gopala is beyond the transcendence of the impersonalists. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.
eko devah sarva-bhutesu gudhah
saksi cetah kevalo nirgunas ca //
The one Supreme Personality of Godhead is hidden within everything. He is all-pervading. He is in everyone's heart. He witnesses everyone's activities, He lives in everyone's heart. He is the witness. He is consciousness. His is transcendence. He is beyond the modes of nature.
rudraya namah adityaya namah vinayakaya namah suryaya namah vidyaya namah indraya namah agnaye namah yamaya namah nirrtaye namah varunaya namah vayave namah kuveraya namah isanaya namah brahmane namah sarvebhyo devebhyo namah //
Obeisances to Rudra. Obeisances to Aditya. Obeisances to Vinayaka. Obeisances to Surya. Obeisances to Vidya-devi. Obeisances to Indra. Obeisances to Agni. Obeisances to Yama. Obeisances to Nirrti. Obeisances to Varuna. Obeisances to Vayu. Obeisances to Kuvera. Obeisances to Isana. Obeisances to Brahma. Obeisances to all the demigods.
The demigods are offered respect because they are representatives of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
dattva stutim punyatmam
antardhane babhuva sah //
After giving these most pious prayers to Brahma, who was rapt in meditation on the Lord's transcendental form, and after giving him the ability to create the universe, Lord Narayana disappeared.
naradac ca srutam yatha
tatha proktam gandharvi
gaccha tvam svalayantikam //
As these instructions were heard from Brahma, Brahma's sons, and Narada, so I have spoken them. O Gandharvi (Radha), now You may go to Your own home.
Thus Ends The Gopala Tapani Upanisad