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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Upanishads > Gopala-Tapani Upanisad > Chapter Two

Chapter Two

 

Texts 1 and 2

 

ekada hi vraja-striyah sakamah sarvarim usitva sarvesvaram gopalam krishnam hi ta ucire //

uvaca tah krishnah //

 

Once, after they had passed the entire night with Him, the passionate girls of Vraja spoke to the cowherd boy Krishna, who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and He also spoke to them.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

May Lord Krishna, who is Mura's enemy, who is the Supersoul, who appeared as Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and who is merciful to Gajendra and King Prataparudra, always reside in my heart.

 

In Mathura and Dvaraka, Krishna is a king and enjoys royal pastimes, while in Gokula He enjoys pastimes as a cowherd boy. He remains in the highest spiritual planet, Goloka Vrndavana, enjoying these pastimes.

 

Text 3

 

anu kasmai brahmanaya bbhaksyam datavyam bhavati //

 

The gopis said: To what brahmana should charity be given?

 

Text 4

 

durvaseti /

 

Krishna said: Durvasa

 

 

Text 5

katham yasyamo tirtha-jalam yamunaya yatah sreyo bhavisyati //

 

The gopis said: How will we cross the Yamuna's waters and approach Him, from whom great blessings will come?

 

Text 6

 

krsneti brahmacarity-uktva margam vo dasyati //

 

Krishna said: Say the words Krishna, the brahmacari, and the Yamuna will give you a path.

 

Text 7

 

yam mam smrtvagadha gadha bhavati/

  yam mam smrtvaputah puto bhavati /

yam mam smrtvavrati vrati bhavati /

yam mam smrtva sakamo niskamo bhavati /

yam mam smrtva-srotriyo srotriyo bhavati //

 

By remembering Me a shallow person becomes deep. By remembering Me an impure person becomes pure. By remembering Me an impious person becomes pious. By remembering Me one full of material desires becomes desireless. By remembering Me a fool becomes learned.

 

 

Text 8

 

srutva tad vacam hi vai smrtva raudram tad-vakyena tirthva tat sauryam hi vai gatvasramam punyatamam hi natva munim sresthamam hi vai raudram ceti dattvasmai brahmanaya ksiramayam ghrtamayam mistatamam ha vai //

 

After hearing these words, they meditated on Durvasa, and with these words crossed the Yamuna. they went to the very sacred asrama and bowed down before Durvasa Muni, the best of sages. they gave to the brahmana delicious foods made with milk and ghee.

 

 

Text 9

 

tustah snatv-abhuktva hitvasisam prayojyanvajnam tvadat //

 

Pleased, he bathed, ate, blessed them ,and gave them permission to go.

 

Text 10

katham yasyamo tirthva sauryam //

 

They said: How will we cross the Yamuna?

 

 

Text 11

 

sa hovaca-

munim durvasinam mam smrtva margam vo dasyatiti //

 

He said: Meditate on me as a sage that eats only durva grass, and the Yamuna will give you a path.

 

Text 12

 

tesam madhye  srestha gandharvity-uvaca /

tam ha vai tabhir evam vicarya //

 

Gandharvi (Shrimati Radharani), the best among them, reflected for a moment.

 

 

Text 13

 

katham krsno brahmacari /

katham durvasano munih //

 

She said: How is Krishna a brahmacari? How is this sage a person that eats only durva grass?

 

 

Text 14

 

tam hi mukhyam vidhaya purvam anu krtva tusnim asuh //

 

Accepting Her as their leader, the other girls became silent.

 

 

Text 15

 

sabdavan akasah sabdakasabhyam bhinnas tasmin nakase tisthati /

sa hy-akasas tam na veda sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //

 

Durvasa Muni replied: Sound is contained within the element of ether, although sound and ether are different. Sound is contained within ether. This ether does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer.

 

 

Text 16

 

sparsvan vayuh sparsa-vayubhyam bhinnas tasmin vayau tisthati/

vayur na veda tam sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //

 

Touch is contained within the element of air, although touch and air are different. Touch is contained within air. This air does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

 

Text 17

rupavad idam  hi tejo rupagnibhyam bhinnas tasmin agnau tisthati /

tisthaty agnir  na veda tam sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //

 

Form is contained within the element of fire, although form and fire are different. Form is contained within fire. This fire does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

 

 

Text 18

 

rasavatya apah  rasatbhyo bhinnas tasmin apsu tisthati /

hy -apo na veda tam sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //

 

Taste is contained within the element of water, although taste and waste are different. Taste is contained within water. This water does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

 

Text 19

 

gandhavatiyam bhumir gandha-bhyam bhinnas tasmin bhumau tisthati /

bhumir na veda tam sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //

 

Aroma is contained within the element of earth, although aroma and earth are different. Aroma is contained within earth. This earth does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

 

 

Text 20

 

idam hi manas tesv-eva hi manute tan idam grhnati //

 

It is the mind that remains among the senses and accepts them.

 

Text 21

 

yatra sarvam atmaivabhut tatra va kutra manute kva va gacchatiti sa hy-atmaham katham bhokta bhavami //

 

When spirit is everything how does one think? Where does one go? I am spirit, how can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

 

Text 22

 

ayam hi krsno yo vo hi presthah sarira-dvaya-karanam bhavati //

 

Your beloved Krishna is the original creator of the two kinds of bodies.

 

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti:

 

The two kinds of bodies are the gross (physical) and subtle (mental) bodies.

 

Text 23

 

dvau suparnau bhavato brahmano'msa-bhutas tathetaro bhokta bhavati /

anyo hi saksi bhavatiti /

vrksa-dharme tau tisthatah /

ato bhoktabhoktarau /

purvo hi bhokta bhavati tathetaro'bhokta krsno bhavatiti //

 

On the tree of the body are two birds. One is an expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is a witness. The other is an enjoyer. They are an enjoyer and a non-enjoyer. The first enjoys, and the second is Krishna.

 

Text 24

 

yatra vidyavidye na vidamo vidyavidyabhyam bhinnah vidya-mayo hi yah sa katham visayi bhavatiti //

 

In Him we do not find material so-called knowledge and ignorance. This ignorance and real knowledge are different. How can Krishna, who is full of real knowledge, become a materialistic enjoyer?

 

 

Texts 25 and 26

 

yo ha vai kamena kaman kamayate sa kami bhavati /

yo ha vai tv-akamena kaman kamayate so'kami bhavati //

 

He who lusts after pleasure is lusty. He who does not lust after pleasures is not lusty.

 

 

Text 27

 

janma- jarabhyam bhinnah sthahur ayam acchedyo'yam yo'sau saurye tistati yo'sau gosu tisthati yo'sau gah palayati yo'sau gopesu tisthati yo'sau sarvesu vedesu tisthati yo'sau sarvair vedair giyate yo'sau sarvesu bhutesv-avisya bhutani vidadhati sa vo hi svami bhavati //

 

Krishna, who is free from birth and death, who is unchanging, who cannot be cut, who stays by the Yamuna, who stays among the surabhi cows, who protects the surabhi cows, who stays among the cowherd boys, who stays in all the Vedas, who is glorified by all the Vedas, who has entered all living entities, and who controls all living entities, is your husband.

 

 

Text 28

 

sa hovaca gandharvi-

katham vasmasu jato'sau gopalah katham va jnato'sau tvaya mune krishnah ko vasya mantrah kim vasya sthanam katham va devakyam jatah /

ko vasya jyayan ramo bhavati kidrsI pujasya gopalasya bhavati saksat-prakrti-paro yo'yam atma gopalah katham tv-avatirno bhumyad hi vai //

 

Gandharvi (Radha) said: Why has the Supreme Personality of Godhead taken birth among us as a cowherd boy? O sage, how do you know this about Krishna? What is His mantra? What is His abode? Why has He taken birth in Devaki's womb? Who is His elder brother Balarama? How is He worshipped? Why has the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is far above the world of matter, descended to this Earth?

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The word Devaki here may also be interpreted to mean Yasoda. This is described in the Adi Purana:

 

"Nanda's wife has two names: Yasoda and Devaki."

 

Shri Sukadeva Gosvami describes Lord Krishna's birth in the following words (Bhagavatam 10.3.8):

 

"Then the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vishnu, who is situated in the core of everyone's heart, appeared in the heart of Devaki in the dense darkness of night, like the full moon rising on the eastern horizon, because Devaki was of the same category as Shri Krishna."

 

Text 29

 

sa hovaca tam ha vai-

eko ha vai purvam narayano devah/

yasmin loka otas ca protas ca tasya hrt-padmaj jato'bja-yonih //

 

He said: In the beginning only Lord Narayana existed. In Him the material worlds are woven as thread on a loom. From His lotus heart the demigod Brahma was born.

 

 

Text 30

 

tapitva tasmai hi varam dadau //

 

When Brahma performed severe austerities, Lord Narayana granted him a boon.

 

Text 31

 

sa kama-prasnam eva vavre //

 

Brahma chose a question.

 

Text 32

 

tam hasmai dadau //

 

Lord Narayana granted his request.

 

 

Text 33 and 34

 

sa hovacabjayonir yo'vataranam madhye srestho'vatarah ko bhavati yena lokas tusta devas tusta bhavanti yam smrtva mukta asmat sam sarat bhavanti katham vasyavatarasya brahmata bhavati //

 

Brahma said: Among Your many incarnations, which is the best, the one that makes humans and demigods happy, the one that, remembering Him, they become liberated from repeated birth and death? Why is this incarnation the best?

 

 

Text 35

 

sa hovaca tam hi narayano devah //

 

Lord Narayana said:

 

 

Text 36

 

sakamya meroh srnge yatha sapta-purye bhavanti tatha niskamyah sakamya bhu-gola-cakre sapta-puryo bhavanti tasam madhye saksad brahma gopala-puriti //

 

 

As on the summit of Mount Meru are seven cities that fulfil all desires, so on the Earth are seven cities that fulfil desires and grant liberation. Among them the city of Gopala Puri is directly the spiritual world.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The word niskama here means liberation.

 

Text 37

 

sakamya niskamya devanam sarvesam bhutanam bhavati //

 

In this city the desires of the demigods and all other creatures are all fulfilled and everyone attains liberation.

 

Text 38

 

yatha hi vai sarasi padam tisthati tatha bhumyam tisthatiti cakrena raksita hi mathura tasmad gopala-puriti //

 

Protected by My cakra, this city if Mathura, or Gopala Puri, stands in this world as a lotus stands in a lake.

 

 

Text 39

 

brhad brhadvanam madhor madhuvanam talas talavanam kamyam kamyavanam bahula bahulavanam kumudam kumudavanam khadirah khadiravanam  bhadro bhadravanam bhandira iti bhandiravanam shrivanam lohavanam vrndaya vrndavanam etair avrta puri bhavati //

 

Gopala Puri contains these forests: 1. the great forest of Brhadvana, 2. Madhuvana, the former residence of the Madhu demon, 3. Talavana, full of palm trees, 4. delightful Kamyavana, 5. great Bahulavana, 6. Kumudavana, full of lotus flowers and water lilies, 7. Khadiravana, full of Khadira trees, 8. Bhadravana, the favourite spot of Lord Balarama, 9. Bhandiravana, the great forest of Banyan trees, 10. Shrivana, the abode of the goddess of fortune, 11. Lohavana, the former residence of the demon Loha, and 12. Vrndavana, ruled by the goddess Vrnda-devi

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The word bhadra here means "the place where Balabhadra (Balarama) enjoys pastimes."

 

Text 40

 

tatra tesv-eva gahanesv-evam deva manusya gandharva nagah kinnara gayantiti nrtyantiti //

 

In these forests the demigods, human beings, Gandharvas, Nagas, and Kinnaras sing and dance.

 

 

Text 41

 

tatra dvadasaditya ekadasa-rudra astau-vasavah sapta-munayo brahma naradas ca panca-vinayaka viresvaro rudresvaro'mbikesvaro ganesvaro nila-kanthesvaro visvesvaro gopalesvaro bhadresvaro'nyani lingani catur-vimsatir bhavati //

 

The twelve Adityas, eleven Rudras, eight Vasus, seven sages, Brahma, Narada, five Vinayakas, Viresvara, Rudresvara, Ambikesvara, Ganesvara, Nilakanthesvara, Visvesvara, Gopalesvara, Bhadresvara, and 24 other lingas reside there.

 

Text 42

 

dve-vane stah krishnavanam bhadravanam tayor antar dvadasa vanani punyani punyatamani //

 

These forests are divided into two groups: 1. Krishnavana, or Krishna's forests, and 2. Bhadravana, or Balarama's forests. Among these twelve forests some are sacred and others are most sacred.

 

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

Krishna's forests are: 1. Brhadvana 2. Madhuvana 3. Talavana 4. Kamyavana 5. Bahulavana 6. Kumudavana 7. Khadiravana and 8. Vrndavana. Balarama's forests are 1. Bhadravana 2. Bhandiravana 3. Shrivana, and 4. Lauhavana.

 

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

Krishna forests are the eight forests beginning with Vrndavana. Balarama's forests are 1. Bhadravana, 2. Shrivana, 3. Lauhavana, and 4. Bhradvana.

 

Text 43

 

tesv-eva devas tisthanti siddhah siddhim praptah //

 

There the demigods stay. there the perfect beings attained perfection.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

In this connection the Gautamiya Tantra explains:

 

atra devas ca bhutani

vartante suksma-rupatah

 

"In subtle forms the demigods and great sages reside in Vrndavana."

 

Text 44

 

tatra hi  ramasya rama- murtih pradyumnasya pradyumna-murtir aniruddhasyaniruddha-murtih krishnasya krishna-murtih //

 

In this place are a Deity of Rama, a Deity of Pradyumna, a Deity of Aniruddha, and a Deity of Krishna.

 

Text 45

 

vanesv-evam mathurasv-evam dvadasa murtayo bhavanti //

 

In this way there are twelve Deities in the forests of Mathura.

 

Text 46

 

ekam hi rudra yajanti /

dvitiyam hi brahma yajati /

trtiyam brahmaja yajanti /

caturthim maruto yajanti /

pancamim vinayaka yajanti /

sasthim vasavo yajanti /

saptamim rsayo yajanti /

astamim gandharva yajanti /

navamim apsaro yajanti /

dasami vai hy-antardhane tisthati /

ekadasam eti sva-padam gata /

dvadasameti bhumyam tisthati //

 

The Rudras worship the first Deity, Brahma worships the second, Brahma's sons worship the third, The Maruts worship the fourth, the Vinayakas worship the fifth, the Vasus worship the sixth, the sages worship the seventh, the Gandharvas worship the eighth, the Apsaras worship the ninth, the tenth Deity is now invisible, the eleventh Deity has gone to His own planet, and the twelfth Deity is now on the Earth.

 

 

Text 47

 

tam hi yeyajanti te mrtyum taranti muktim labhante /

garbha-janma-jara-marana-tapa-trayatmakam duhkham taranti //

 

They who worship this Deity surpass death and attain liberation. They cross beyond the three-fold miseries of birth, old-age and death.

 

 

Text 48

 

tad apy ete sloka bhavanti-

prapya mathuram purim ramyam

sada brahmadi sevitam

sankha-cakra-gada-sarnga-

raksitam musaladibbhih

 

yatrasau samsthitah krishnas

tribhih saktya samahitah

ramaniruddha-pradyumnai

rukminya sahito vibhuh //

 

There are these verses: Lord Krishna, accompanied by His three potencies, and by Balarama, Aniruddha, Pradyumna, and Rukmini, stays in delightful Mathura Puri, which is worshipped by Brahma and the other demigods and protected by the conch, cakra, club, and sarnga bow.

 

 

Text 48 (b)

 

catuh- sabdo bhaved eko hy-omkarah samudahrtah //

 

These four names are identical with the name Om.

 

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The names Balarama, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, and Krishna are identical with the name Om.

 

Text 49

 

tasmad devah paro rajaseti so'ham iyt avadharyatmanam gopalo'ham iti bhavayet /

sa moksam asnute sa brahmatvam adhigacchati sa brahmavid bhavati //

 

One should think: I am spiritual, beyond material passion. One should think: I am Lord Gopaka's. In this way one attains liberation. He realizes his spiritual nature. He becomes a knower of spirit.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

As a ray of sunlight is, in one sense, identical with the sun, in the same way, the individual living entity is, in one sense, identical with Lord Gopala.

 

 

Text 50

 

yo gopan jivan vai atmatvenasrsti-paryantam alati sa gopalo bhavati om tat sat so'ham param brahma krishnatmako nityanandaika-rupah so'ham om //

 

Because since the beginning of creation He lovingly protects (alati) the conditioned souls (gopa), He is known as Gopala. Om tat sat. I am a spirit. I am a part-and-parcel of Krishna. My spiritual form is eternally full of bliss. Om.

 

 

Text 51

 

tad gopala eva param satyam avadhitam //

 

The Supreme Personality of Godhead is therefore known as Gopala.

 

Text 52

 

so'ham ity-atmanam adaya manasaikyam kuryad atmanam gopalo'ham iti bhavayed  iti //

 

With all one's heart one should think: I am Gopala's

 

 

Text 53

 

sa evavyakto'nanto nityo gopalah //

 

Lord Gopala is unmanifest, limitless, and eternal.

 

Text 54

 

mathurayam sthitir brahman

sarvada me bhavisyati

sankha-cakra-gada-padma-

vana-malavrtastu vai //

 

Lord Narayana continued: O Brahma, decorated with a forest-flower garland, and holding a conch, disk, mace and lotus, I will reside eternally in Mathura.

 

Text 55

 

visva-rupam param jyotih

svarupam rupa-varjitam

hrda mam samsmaran brahman

mat-padam yati niscitam //

 

O Brahma, he who with all his heart meditates on Me, whose form is the resting place of all forms, whose form is supremely powerful and splendid, whose form is wonderful, and who has no material form, goes to MY abode. Of this there is no doubt.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The word visva-rupam here means "He in whom are all forms." Some texts give the word here as cit-svarupam, or "he whose form is spiritual." The word param-jyotih means "powerful" or "splendid." The word svarupam means "He whose form is extraordinary." The word rupa-varjitam means "He who has no material form." The word mat-padam means "My abode."

 

 

Text 56

 

mathura-mandale yas tu

jambudvipe sthito'pi va

yo'rcayet pratimam mam ca

sa me priyataro bhuvi //

 

O Brahma, a resident of this earth planet who remains in the district of Mathura and worships Me as I appear in the form of the Deity, becomes very dear to Me.

 

Text 57

 

tasyam adhisthitah krishna-

rupi pujyas tvaya sada //

 

You should always worship Me as Krishna in Mathura.

 

Text 58

 

caturdha casyadhikara-

bhedatvena yajanti mam //

 

Four kinds of men worship Me.

 

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

these four kinds of devotees are described by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (7.16):

 

arto jijnasur artharthi

jnani ca bharatarsabha

 

"Those who are distressed, inquisitive, wise and those in need of money, engage in My devotional service."

 

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The four kinds of worshippers describe here are the devotees of Lord Vasudeva, Lord Sankarsana, Lord Pradyumna, and Lord Aniruddha.

 

Text 59

 

yuganuvartino loka

yajantiha sumedhasah

gopalam sanujam ramam

rukminya saha tat-param //

 

Following the devotional process prescribed for the age, intelligent devotees in this world worship Lord Gopala, who is accompanied by His elder brother Balarama and queen Rukmini.

 

Text 60

 

gopalo'ham ajo nityah

pradyumno'ha sanatanah

ramo'ham aniruddho'ham

atmanam arcayed budhah //

 

I am unborn, eternal Gopala. I am eternal Pradyumna. I am Rama. I am Aniruddha. He who is intelligent worships Me.

 

Text 61

 

mayoktena sva-dharmena

niskamena vibhagasah

tair ayam pujaniyo vai

bhadra-krishna-nivasibhih //

 

Free from all impure desires, the residents of Krishnavana and Bhadravana worship Me, following the regulations of bhakti I Myself have spoken.

 

Text 62

 

tad-dharma-gati-hina ye

tasyam mayi parayanah

kalina grasita ye vai

tesam tasyam avasthitah //

 

Even they who formerly rejected the principles of religion and were swallowed up by the age of Kali, may become devoted to Me, and also reside in Mathura.

 

Text 63

 

yatha tvam sana putrais tu

yatha rudro ganaih saha

yatha shriyabhiyukti'ham

tatha bhakto mama priyah //

 

Anyone who becomes My sincere devotee becomes very dear to Me. As dear as You and Your sons are, as dear as Siva and hid associates, as dear as the goddess of fortune, Laksmi.

 

Text 64

 

sa hovacabjayonis caturbhir devaih katham ek devah syad ekam aksaram yad visrutam anekaksaram katham bhutam //

 

Brahma said: How has the one Supreme Personality of Godhead become four Deities? How has the single sacred syllable om become many?

 

Text 65

 

sa hoivacatam hi vai purvam hi ekam evadvitiyam brahmasit  tasmad avyaktam avyaktam evaksaram tasmad aksaran mahat-tattvam mahato va ahankaras tasmad evahankarat panca-tanmatrani tebhyo bhutani tair avrtam aksaram bhavati //

 

The Lord said to him: Before the material world was manifest, only the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is one without a second, existed. From Him came the impersonal Brahman. From that came the syllable om. From om came the mahat-tattva. From the mahat-tattva came false-ego. From false-ego came the five tanmatras. From them came the elements. Om is covered by these things.

 

Text 66

 

aksaro'ham omkaro'ham ajaro' maro'bhayo'mrto brahmabhayam hi vai sa mukto'ham asmy-aksaro'ham asmi //

 

I am the sacred syllable. I am om. I am ageless, deathless, nectarean, the fearless Supreme Great. I am liberated. I am unchanging.

 

Text 67

 

satta-matram visva-rupam prakasam vyapakam tatha ekam evadvitiyam brahma mayaya tu catustayam //

 

The eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead manifested Himself as the all-pervading universal form. In the same way the Lord, who is one without a second, by His transcendental potency expanded Himself into four.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

That the Lord is the master of transcendental potencies is described in the sastras:

 

ato mayamayam visnum

pravadanti sanatanam

 

"The sages declare that eternal Lord Vishnu is the master of all transcendental potencies."

 

 

Prabodhananda Sarasvati:

 

The word "maya" may be interpretted to mean `mercy'. In this way the phrase "mayaya tu catustayam" means that the Lord expands into many forms in order to show mercy to the devotees.

 

 

Text 68

 

rohini-tanayo rama

akaraksara-sambhavah

taijasatmakah pradyumna

ukaraksara-sambhavah //

 

The sacred syllable om consists of three letters: a, u and m. Balarama, the son of Rohini, is the letter a. Splendid Pradyumna is the letter u.

 

Text 69

 

prajnatmako'niruddho vai

makarasara -sambhavah

ardha-matratmakah krsno

yasmin visvam pratisthitam //

 

 

Intelligent Aniruddha is letter m. Lord Krishna, in whom the entire universe rests, is the ardha-matra letter (m), which completes the syllable om.

 

Text 70

 

krishnatmika jagat-kartri

mula-prakrti-rukmini //

 

Rukmini is Lord Krishna's wife. She is the creator of the worlds and the root of material nature.

 

Text 71(a)

 

vraja-strijana-sambhuta-

srutibhyo brahma-sangatah //

 

The Vedic literatures explain that the goddess of fortune appeared among the women of Vraja.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The following statement is found in the Skanda Purana, Matsya Purana, and other sastras.

 

rukmini dvaravatyam tu

radha vrndavane vane

 

"Rukmini is the Lord's consort in Dvaraka and Radha is His consort in Vrndavana." The Rk-parisista explains:

 

"Lord Madhava always stays by Radha's side. Radha always stays by Madhava's side."

 

Text 71 (b)

 

pranavatvena prakrtim

vadanti brahma-vadinah //

 

Learned transcendentalists say that the Lord's potency is the syllable om.

 

Text 72

 

tasmad omkara-sambhuto

gopalo visva-samsthitih //

 

Therefore, all-pervading Lord Gopala is the syllable om.

 

Text 73

 

klim omkarasyaikatvam

pathyate brahma-vadibhih //

 

Learned transcendentalists declare that the syllable om is not different from the sacred syllable klim.

 

Text 74

 

mathurayam visesena

mam dhyayan moksam asnute //

 

He whom meditates on Me as I appear in Mathura attains liberation.

 

Texts 75-78

 

asta-patram vikasitam

hrt-padmam tatra samsthitam

sankha-dhvajatapatrais tu

cihnitam carana-dvayam //

 

shrivatsa lancanam hrt-stham

kaustubham prabhaya yutam

catur-bhujam sankha-cakra-

sarnga-padma-gadanvitam //

 

sukeyuranvitam bahum

kantham malasusobhitam

dyumat-kirita-valayam

sphuran-makara-kundalam //

 

hiranyamayam saumya-tanum

svabhaktayabhaya-pradam

dhyayen manasi mam nityam

venu-srnga-dharam tu vai //

 

In his mind one should meditate on Me standing on the blossomed eight-petaled lotus of the heart, My two feet marked with conchshell, flag and umbrella, MY chest marked with Shrivatsa and splendid with the kautabha gem, My four arms holding the conch, cakra, mace, and sarnga bow, My arms decorated with armlets. MY neck splendid with a flower garland, My head circled by a splendid crown, My ears decorated with glistening shark-shaped earrings, MY form splendid and handsome, holding a flute and buffalo-horn bugle, and granting fearlessness to the devotees.

 

Text 79

 

mathyate tu jagat sarvam

brahma-jnanena yena va

tat-sara-bhutam yad yasyam

mathura sa nigadyate //

 

When the entire universe is churned (mathyate) by the churning-rod of spiritual knowledge, the butter produced is the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Mathura. That is why it is called Mathura.

 

Text 80

 

asta-dikpalibhir bhumih

padmam vikasitam jagat

samsararnava-sanjatam

sevitam mama manase //

 

In my heart I meditate on the material world with its eight dik-palas (protectors of the directions) as a blossomed lotus flower growing in the ocean of repeated birth and death.

 

Text 81

 

candra-surya-tviso divya

dhvaja merur hiranmayah

atapatram brahmalokam

adhordhvam caranam amrtam //

 

 

The sun and moon are the splendour of My body. Golden Mount Meru is My splendid flag. Brahmaloka as My umbrella. The seven lower planetary systems are My feet.

 

Text 82

 

shrivatsam ca svarupam ca

vartate lanchanaih saha

shrivatsa-lanchanam tasmat

kathyate brahma-vadibhih //

 

 

I am marked with Shrivatsa and svarupa. Therefore the learned sages call me Shrivatsa-lanchana (marked with Shrivatsa).

 

Text 83

 

yena suryagni-vak-candram

tejasa sva-svarupina

vartate kaustubhakhyam hi

manim vadantisa-maninah //

 

Aware of My supremacy, the sages declare that the splendour of the sun, moon, fire, and eloquent speech has come from My glittering Kaustubha jewel.

 

Text 84

 

sattvam rajas tama iti

ahankaras caturbhujah

panca-bhutatmakam sankham

kare rajasi samsthitam //

 

The four arms of My universal form are goodness, passion, ignorance, and false-ego. The five material elements are the conchshell I carry in the hand that is the mode of passion.

 

Text 85

 

bala-svarupam atyantam

manas cakram nigadyate

adya maya bhavec charngam

padmam visvam kare sthitam //

 

Childishness is said to be the cakra, the original illusory potency the sarnga bow, and the universe the lotus flower in the hand of the universal form.

 

Text 86

 

adya-vidya gada vedya

sarvada me kare sthita //

 

The origin of ignorance is known as the club I always carry in My hand.

 

Text 87

 

dharmartha-kama-keyurair

divyair nityam avaritaih //

 

Religion, economic development, and sense-gratification are the splendid bracelets that eternally decorate the wrists of My universal form.

 

Text 88

 

kantham tu nirgunam proktam

malyate adyayajaya

mala nigadyate brahmams

tava putrais tu manasaih //

 

The neck, said to be the qualityless Brahman, is garlanded by the first unborn. O Brahma, your mind-born sons have elaborately described this garland.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The word "nirguna" here refers to Brahman. The "first unborn" here is the maya potency, splendid with knowledge and ignorance. The mind-born sons are the four Kumaras.

 

Text 89

 

kuthastham yat svarupam ca

kiritam pravadanti mam //

 

The sages say that My eternal form is the crown.

 

Text 90

 

ksarottamam prasphurantam

kundalam yugalam smrtam //

 

The two things above the changing material world are My two glittering earrings.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The two things are the spiritual paths of sankhya and yoga. This is confirmed in Shrimad-Bhagavatam:

 

bibharti sankhyam yogam ca

devo makara-kundale

 

"Sankhya and yoga are the two shark-shaped earrings worn by the Supreme Person."

 

Text 91

 

dhyayaen mama priyo nityam

sa moksam adhigacchati

sa mukto bhavati tasmai

atmanam ca dadami vai //

 

He who meditates in this way is eternally dear to me. He attains liberation. He becomes liberated. I give Myself to him.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

This is confirmed in the Sruti-sastra:

 

"bhuyas cante visva-maya-

nivrttir  vimuktas ca vimucyate

 

"The devotees of the Lord become liberated from the grip of the illusory potency."

 

Text 92

 

etat sarvam bhavisyad vai

maya proktam vidhe tava

svarupam dvi-vidham caiva

sagunam nirgunatmakam //

 

O Brahma, I have said all that will be about My two forms: one made of the modes of nature, and the other beyond the modes of nature.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The form made of the modes of material nature is the universal form, and the form beyond the modes of material nature is the auspicious transcendental form.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The form beyond the modes of material nature here is the Lord's two-armed and four-armed forms.

 

Text 93

 

sa hovacabjayonir -

vyaktanam murtinam proktanam katham tvabharananibhavanti katham va deva yajanti rudra yajanti brahma yajati brahmaja yajanti vinayaka yajanti dvadasaditya yajanti vasavo yajanti apaaraso yajanti gandharva yajanti sva-padam gata antardhane tisthati kam manusya yajanti //

 

Brahma said: What are the ornaments worn by the Deities You have described? How do the Maruts, Rudras, Brahma, sons of Brahma, Vinayakas, twelve Adityas, Vasus, Apsaras, and Gandharvas worship them? Who is the Deity that has gone to His own abode? Who is the Deity now invisible? Who is the Deity the humans worship?

 

 

Text 94

 

sa hovaca tam hi vai narayano deva adya avyakta dvadasa-murtayah sarvesu lokesu sarvesu devesu sarvesu manusyesu tisthanti //

 

Lord Narayana said to him: these twelve unmanifested transcendental Deities are present on all planets, among all demigods and all human beings.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The word unmanifested here means unmanifested to material eyes.

 

Text 95

 

rudresu raudri  brahmany-evam brahmi devesu daivi manusesu manavi vinayakesu vighna-nasani adityesu jyotir gandharvesu gandarvy-apsarahsv-evam gaur vasusv-evam kamya antardhane prakasini avirbhava-tirobhava sva-pade tisthati //

 

As a Rudra among the rudras, as a Brahma among the followers of Brahma, as a demigod among the demigods, as a human being among the humans, as the destroyer of obstacles (Ganesa) among the Vinayakas, as Surya Narayana among the Adityas, as a Gandharva among the Gandharvas, as an Apsara among the Apsaras, and as a Vasu among the Vasus, My form, which fulfils desires, is present even when it is invisible. Whether visible or invisible in this world, My form is always stays in My own abode.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

When the Lord is invisible He is present in the form of hearing about Him.

 

The Lord's abode is Vrndavana, which the Lord Himself describes in the Gautamiya Tantra:

 

This is beautiful Vrndavana, My transcendental abode. Its size is five yojanas. Its forest is my own form.

 

The Yamuna River, where currents of nectar flow, also bears the name Susumna. In this place the demigods and sages always stay in subtle forms.

 

I, who am the master of all the demigods, never leave this forest. yuga after yuga, I am sometimes visible and sometimes invisible here.

 

Them My splendid, handsome form cannot be seen by material eyes.

 

Text 96

 

tamasi rajasi sattviki //

 

My form is also present as the Deity of ignorance, the Deity of passion, and the Deity of Goodness.

 

Text 97

 

manusi vijnana-ghanananda-ghana-sac-cid-anandaika-rase bhakti-yoge tisthati //

 

My humanlike form, which is eternal and full of transcendental knowledge, is present in devotional service.

 

Text 98

 

om tat pranatmane om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai pranatmane namo namah //

 

Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the life-breath. Om tat sat. Bhu Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, the Supersoul, who is present in the life-breath.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

Here is the answer to the question "How should the Lord be worshipped?" Here the Lord reveals mantras to be used in His worship.

 

 

Text 99

 

shri krishnaya govindaya gopijanavallabhaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //

 

Obeisances to Shri Krishna, who is Govinda and Gopijanavallabha, Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Text 100

 

om apanatmane om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai apanatmane vai namo namah //

 

Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the apana air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the apana air.

 

Text 101

 

om krishnaya ramaya pradyumnayaniruddhaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //

 

Om. Obeisances to Krishna, who is Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Text 102

 

om samanatmane om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai samanatmane namah //

 

Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the sama air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the same air.

 

 

Text 103

 

om shri krishnaya ramaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namah //

 

Om. Obeisances to Shri Krishna, who is Shri Rama. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Text 104

 

om udanatmane om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai udanatmane namo namah //

 

Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the udana air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the udana air.

 

Text 105

 

om krishnaya devaki-nandanaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //

 

Om. Obeisances to Krishna, the son of Devaki. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him

 

Text 106

 

om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai vyanatmane namah //

 

Om. Obeisances to the Supersoul, who is present in the vyana air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the vyana air.

 

Text 107

 

om gopalaya nija-rupaya om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //

 

Om. Obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose original form is that of a cowherd boy. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Text 108

 

om yo'sau pradhanatmane gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //

 

Om. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul, present in the primordial material energy. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Text 109

 

om yo'sav indriyatma gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //

 

Om. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul, present in the senses. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Text 110

 

om yo'sau bhutatma gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //

 

Om. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul, present in the material elements. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Text 111

 

om yo'sav uttamah puruso gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //

 

 

Om. Lord Gopala is the Supreme Person. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

That Krishna is the Supreme Person is confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gita (15.17):

 

uttamah purusas tvanyah

paramatmety-udahrtah

yo loka-trayam avisya

bibharty-avyaya isvarah

 

"Besides these two there is the greatest living personality, the Lord Himself, who has entered into these worlds and is maintaining them."

 

Text 112

 

om yo'sau param brahma gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah//

 

Om. Lord Gopala is the Supreme Brahman. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

This statement is confirmed by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (14.27):

 

brahmano hi pratisthaham

 

"I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman."

 

Text 113

 

om yo'sau sarva-bhutatmagopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah//

 

Om. Lord Gopala is the Supersoul in the heart of all beings. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Text 114

 

om yo'sau  jagrat -svapna-susuptim atitya turyatito gopala om tat sad bhur bhuvah svas tasmai vai namo namah //

 

Om. Surpassing wakefulness, sleep, and deep sleep, Lord Gopala is beyond the transcendence of the impersonalists. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svah. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

 

Text 115

 

eko devah sarva-bhutesu gudhah

sarva-vyapi sarva-bhutantaratma

karmadhyaksah sarva-bhutadhivasah

saksi cetah kevalo nirgunas ca //

 

The one Supreme Personality of Godhead is hidden within everything. He is all-pervading. He is in everyone's heart. He witnesses everyone's activities, He lives in everyone's heart. He is the witness. He is consciousness. His is transcendence. He is beyond the modes of nature.

 

Text 116

 

rudraya namah adityaya namah vinayakaya namah suryaya namah  vidyaya namah  indraya namah agnaye namah yamaya namah nirrtaye namah varunaya namah vayave namah kuveraya namah isanaya namah brahmane namah sarvebhyo devebhyo namah //

 

Obeisances to Rudra. Obeisances to Aditya. Obeisances to Vinayaka. Obeisances to Surya. Obeisances to Vidya-devi. Obeisances to Indra. Obeisances to Agni. Obeisances to Yama. Obeisances to Nirrti. Obeisances to Varuna. Obeisances to Vayu. Obeisances to Kuvera. Obeisances to Isana. Obeisances to Brahma. Obeisances to all the demigods.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The demigods are offered respect because they are representatives of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

Text 117

 

dattva stutim punyatmam

brahmane sva-svarupine

kartrtvam sarva-bhutanam

antardhane babhuva sah //

 

After giving these most pious prayers to Brahma, who was rapt in meditation on the Lord's transcendental form, and after giving him the ability to create the universe, Lord Narayana disappeared.

 

Text 118

 

brahmano brahma-putrebhyo

naradac ca srutam yatha

tatha proktam gandharvi

gaccha tvam svalayantikam //

 

As these instructions were heard from Brahma, Brahma's sons, and Narada, so I have spoken them. O Gandharvi (Radha), now You may go to Your own home.

 

 

Thus Ends The Gopala Tapani Upanisad