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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Upanishads > Gopala-Tapani Upanisad > Chapter One

Chapter One

 

Text 1

 

om namah

sac-cid-ananda-rupaya

krishnayaklista-karine

namo vedanta-vedyaya

gurave buddhi-saksine

 

Om namah. I offer my respectful obeisances to Shri Krishna, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, who is the rescuer from distress, who is understood by Vedanta, who is the supreme spiritual master, and who is the witness in everyone's heart.

 

Shri Gopala-tapani-vivrtti

by Shrila Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

murta-brahma-svarupartha

varsinim bhakta-harsinim

gopala-tapanim naumi

shrimad-gopala-tapanim

 

"I glorify the Gopala-tapani Upanisad. showering the nectar of the Supreme Lord's spiritual form, it delights the devotees."

 

I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Gopala-tapani Upanisad, which is part of the Atharva Veda, and which describes the transcendental form and pastimes of Lord Krishna.

 

I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Krishna, whom the Sama Upanisad and Shrimad-Bhagavatam proclaim the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

The name of Krishna refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose spiritual form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. This is confirmed in the following verse of Mahabharata:

 

krishna-sabdas ca sattartha

nas cananda-svarupakah

tayor aikyam param brahma

krishna ity-abhidhiyate

 

"The word krs is the attractive feature of the Lord's existence, and na means spiritual pleasure. When the verb krs is added to affix na, it becomes "Krishna", which indicates the Absolute Truth."

 

The name Krishna may also be interpreted to mean the perfection of transcendental knowledge and bliss.

 

Lord Krishna's mercy is described in the word "aklita-karine", which means that the Lord rescues the living entities from the five-fold miseries of material existence, and also that the Lord is so kind that He even liberated those demons fortunate enough to be personally killed by Him.

 

The word "vedanta-vedyaya" means that Lord Krishna may be understood only by following the instructions of the Vedas, which lead the follower to liberation. Other so-called spiritual paths will not help one become liberated.

 

The word "gurave" means that the Lord becomes the teacher who enlightens His devotees. The Lord does this by appearing as the Supersoul (buddhi-saksine) in everyone's heart.

 

This is confirmed in the following verses from the Vedic literatures:

 

bhaktam kam api gurum krtva mam pratam mam eva bhajasva

 

"Become My devotee, accept Me as your spiritual master, come to Me and worship Me."

 

"Appearing as the spiritual master in the heart, the Supreme Personality of Godhead reveals the path of spiritual enlightenment." (Shrimad-Bhagavatam)

 

dadami buddhi-yogam tam

yena mam upayanti te

 

"To those who are constantly devoted and worship Me with love, I give the understanding by which they may come to Me." (Bhagavad-gita 10.11)

 

 

Shri Gopala-tapani-bhasya

by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

satyanantacintya-sakty-eka-pakse

sarvadhyakse bhakta-raksati-dakse

shri govinde visva-sargadi kande

purnanande nityam astam matir nah

 

"May our heart eternally rest on Govinda, who is full of bliss, the master of unlimited inconceivable transcendental potencies, the witness of everything, the expert protector of the devotees, and the creator of the material world."

 

sanatanam rupam ihopadarsayann

ananda-sindhum paritah pravardhayan

antas-tamas-toma-harah sa rajatam

chaitanya-rupo vidhur adbhutodayah

 

"Appearing in this word with Shri Sanatana Gosvami and Shrila Rupa Gosvami, and bringing great tidal waves to the ocean of transcendental bliss, may the wonderful and splendid rising moon of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu dispel the darkness within our hearts."

 

gopala-tapanim naumi

ya krishnam svayam isvaram

kara-stharava-sankasam

sandarsayati sad-dhiyah

 

I glorify the Gopala-tapani Upanisad, which to the pious reveals Lord Krishna, the original Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul near to all moving and unmoving creatures.

 

The name "Krishna" is used to describe the Personality of Godhead because His complexion is like a dark atasi flower. This is confirmed in the following verse from the Narayaniya, where the Lord Himself says:

 

krsno varnas ca me yasmat

tasmat krsno'ham arjuna

 

"O Arjuna, because My complexion is blackish, I am known as Krishna."

 

 

Text 2

 

om munayo ha vai brahmanam ucuh -

 

kah paramo devah?/

kuto mrtyur bibheti?/

kasya jnanenakhilam vijnatam bhavati?/

kenedam visvam samsaratiti?//

 

Om. Some sages said to the demigod Brahma: "Who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead? Whom does death fear? By knowing whom does everything else become known? Who created this world.

 

 

Shrila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

 

The sages here are the Four Kumaras. they phrased their questions in such a way as to elicit the eighteen-syllable Gayatri mantra as their father's reply.

 

Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The syllable om is used here, as it is generally used in the Vedic hymns, to invoke auspiciousness.

 

The Kumara's first question is "Who is the supremely opulent and worshipable Personality of Godhead, than whom no one is greater or equal?" The subsequent questions all relate to the qualities of the Supreme Person.

 

Text 3

 

tad u hovaca brahmanah -

 

krsno vai paramam daivatam /

govindan mrtyur bibheti /

gopijanavallabha-jnanena taj jnatam bhavati /

svahayedam samsarati //

 

Brahma replied to them: "Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Death fears Govinda. By understanding Gopijanavallabha everything becomes known. By pronouncing the word "svaha" the Personality of Godhead created the world.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The statement that death fears Govinda means that Krishna rescues the living entities from the hands of death. The name Gopijanavallabha means "Krishna, who is very dear to the gopis." By knowing Him, the entire spiritual and material world becomes known. The process of understanding Him is described by Lord Gopjanavallabha Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (18.56):

 

bhaktya mam abhijanati

 

"The Supreme Personality of Godhead can be understood only by devotional service."

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

By answering the Kumaras' question in this way, Brahma initiated them in the chanting of the eighteen-syllable Gayatri mantra.

 

Text 4

 

tad u hocuh -

kah krsno govindas ca ko'sav iti /

gopijanavallabhah kah /

ka svaheti //

 

They then said: "Who is Krishna? Who is Govinda? Who is Gopijanavallabha? What is Svaha?"

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The sages asked these questions to elicit from Brahma a more elaborate description of Lord Krishna's qualities.

 

Text 5

 

tan uvaca brahmanah /

papa-karsano go-bhumi-veda-vidito gopijanavidya kala-prerakas tan-maya ceti /

sakalam param brahmavaitat //

 

To them Brahma said: "Krishna means He who delivers from sin, Govinda means He who is famous on the earth, in the Vedas, and among the surabhi cows, Gopijanavallabha means He who enchants the gopis, and Svaha means the potency of the Supreme. All these names refer to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The name papa-karsana may also be interpreted to mean:

 

1. He whose transcendental pastimes attract the minds of even the sinful conditioned souls, or

2. The merciful Supreme Person who liberated Putana, Agha, Kesi and many other demons killed by Him.

 

The name Govinda means the Supreme Lord who is famous to the Surabhi cows of Vraja. He is glorified in the verses of the Vedas, and He is famous on the earth because He removed the burden of demoniac kings.

 

Govinda also means He who protects the cows, land and Vedas. Lord Govinda is the Supreme protector, who rescues the living entities from the hands of death. Gopijanavallabha means He who enchants the gopis, who are all manifestations of His hladini potency. Then Lord enchants them with the sweetness His handsomeness and other transcendental qualities, removes their materialism, and grants them ecstatic love for Him. In this way He has become very dear (vallabha) to them.

 

 

The name svaha means the Lord's potency by which everything is manifested.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The following explanation of the name Krishna is found in the Vedic literatures:

 

krsneti mangalam nama

yasya vaci pravartate

bhasmi -bhavanti tasyasu

maha-pataka-kotayah

 

"For they who chant the auspicious holy name of Krishna, millions of grievous sinful reactions become immediately burned to ashes."

 

krishnah krishnah krishna ity anta kale

jalpan jantur jivitam yo jahati

adyah sabdah kalpate tasya muktyai

vrida-namrau tisthato

 

"One who chants "Krishna Krishna Krishna" at the time of death becomes eligible for liberation."

 

In the name Gopijanavallabha the gopis are expansions of the Lord's internal potency. This is confirmed in the following verses:

 

ananda-cin- maya-rasa-pratibhavitabhis

tabhir ya evanija-rupataya kalabhih

 

"I worship the Personality of Godhead, Govinda, who, by expansion of His internal potency of transcendental existence, knowledge and bliss, enjoys in His own and expanded forms.

 

ballavyo me madatmikah

 

"The gopis are expansions of My own internal potency."

 

The Lord is glorious in the gopi's association. This is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.33.7):

 

tatrati susubhe tabhih

 

"Lord Krishna appeared very glorious in the association of the gopis."

 

 

The sruti describes the Lord as the master of transcendental potencies (Svaha):

 

ato mayamayam visnum

pravadanti sanatanam

 

"The sages say that Lord Vishnu, is the master of all transcendental potencies."

 

Text 6

 

yo dhyayati rasati bhajati so'mrto bhavati /

so'mrto bhavati //

 

One who meditates on this Supreme Personality of Godhead, glorifies Him, and worships Him, becomes liberated. He becomes liberated.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

Liberation means freedom from the cycle of birth and death and eternal association with Lord Krishna.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

In this text the goal of life is described: By meditating on, glorifying and worshipping Lord Krishna, one becomes liberated.

 

 

Text 7

 

te hocuh  -

kim tad-rupam kim rasanam katham va ho tad-bhajanam tat sarva-vividisatam akhyahiti //

 

They said: What is His form? what is His glorification? How does one worship Him? Please describe this to us

 

 

Texts 8 and 9

 

tad u hovaca -

hairanyo gopa-vesam abhram tarunam kalpa-drumashritam /

tad iha sloka bhavanti /

 

Brahma said: He appears like a cowherd boy. His complexion is like a monsoon cloud. He stays under a desire-tree. The following verses describe Him.

 

Text 10(a)

 

sat -pundarika-nayanam

meghabham vaidyutambaram

dvibhujam jnana-mudradhyam

vanamalinam isvaram

 

Meditating with all his heart on Lord Krishna, whose eyes are handsome lotus flowers, whose complexion is a monsoon cloud, whose garments are lightning, who has two arms, who is rich in transcendental knowledge, who wears a garland of forest flowers, who is the supreme controller, who is surrounded by gopas, gopis, and surabhi cows, who rests under a sura-druma tree, who is decorated with splendid ornaments, who stands in the middle of a red lotus flower, and who is served by breezes that have touched the Yamuna's waves, a person becomes free from repeated birth and death.

 

Text 10 (b)

 

gopa-gopi-gavavitam

sura-druma-talasrayam

divyalankaranopetam

rakta-pankaja-madhyagam

 

Decorated with glittering transcendental ornaments, and surrounded by the gopis, cowherd boys and cows, lord Krishna stands on the whorl of a reddish lotus flower underneath a desire tree.

 

Text 10 (c)

 

kalindi-jalakallola

sangi-maruta-sevitam

cintayams cetasa krishnam

mukto bhavati samsrteh

 

By meditating on Lord Krishna who is served by the cooling breezes blowing over the waves of the Yamuna River, a devotee becomes free from the bondage of material existance.

 

Text 11

 

rasyam puna rasanam jala-bhumindu-sampatakamadi krishnayeti ekam padam govindayeti dvitiyam gopijaneti trtiyam svaheti pancamam iti //

 

This mantra should be repeatedly chanted: "Klim Krishnaya govindaya gopijanavallabhaya svaha".

 

Text 12

 

panca-padim japan pancangam dyav abhumi surya-candramasau sagni tad-rupataya brahma sampadyate /

brahma sampadyate iti //

 

By chanting these five names one attains the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose potencies are manifested as the heavenly planets, the earth, sun, moon, and fire.

 

Text 13

 

tad esa slokah /

klim ity etad adav adaya krishnayeti govindayeti ca gopijanavallabhaya brhad-bhanavya sakrd uccaret /

ya gatis tasyasti manksu nanya gatih syad iti //

 

A person who even once chants the mantra "Klim Krishnaya govindaya gopijanavallabha svaha" quickly attains the association of Lord Krishna. He does not attain any other result.

 

 

Text 14

 

bhaktir asya bhajanam tad ihamutropadhi-nairasyenamusmin manah-kalpanam etad eva naiskarmyam iti //

 

Devotional service to Lord Krishna is performed when the heart no longer desires any material benefit to be obtained in this life or the next. This is freedom from the bonds of karma.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

Devotional service to Krishna and liberation are actually synonymous, this is confirmed in the Padma Purana:

 

harav-aikantiki bhaktir

muktir ity-abhidhiyate

 

"Pure devotional service to Lord Hari is actual liberation."

 

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

Bhakti means engaging the senses in the service of Lord Krishna. This is confirmed in the Narada Pancaratra in the following words:

 

sarvopadhi  vinirmuktam

tat-paratvena nirmalam

hrsikena hrsikesa-

sevanam bhaktir ucyate

 

"One should be free from all material designations, and cleansed of all material contamination. He should be restored to his pure identity, in which he engages his senses in the service of the proprietor of the senses. This is called devotional service.

 

The activities of bhakti are listed in the following way: 1. hearing the Lord's glories, 2. reciting the Lord's glories, 3. remembering the Lord constantly, 4. serving the lotus feet of the Lord, 5. worshipping the Lord, 6. chanting prayers to the Lord, 7. carrying out the orders of the Lord, 8. making friends with the Lord, and 9. surrendering everything to the Lord.

 

As a result of engaging in Lord Krishna's service, one develops intense ecstatic love for Him. This is described in the Eleventh Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam:

 

bhaktya sanjataya bhaktya

bibhrat uppulakam tanum

 

"As one becomes advanced in devotional service to the Lord, he becomes ecstatic. The hairs of his body stand on end, and he manifests ecstatic symptoms."

 

Text 15

 

krishnam tam vipra bahuda yajanti /

govindam santam bahudharadhyanti gopijanavallabho bhuvanani dadhre svahashrito jagad ejayat suretah //

 

 

Many brahmanas worship Krishna. Many worship eternal Govinda. Gopijanavallabha maintains the worlds. Powerful Svaha moves the universe.

 

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

Many brahmanas, following the path of the sastras, worship Krishna. Many others, following of the path of spontaneous love as the residents of Gokula followed it, worship Lord Govinda, the hero of Gokula.

 

Text 16

 

vayur yathaiko bhuvanam pravisto janye janye panca-rupo babhuva /

krishnas tathaiko jagad-dhitartham sabdenasau panca-pado vibbhatiti //

 

Although originally one, air becomes the five life-airs in the bodies of all living entities. In the same way, for the benefit of the world Lord Krishna appears as these five words.

 

Text 17

 

te hocuh -

upasanam etasya paratmane govindasyakhila-dharino bruhiti //

 

They said: Please describe the worship of Govinda, the Supersoul, who maintains everything.

 

 

Text 18

 

tan uvaca -

yat tasya pitham hairanyasta-palasam ambujam tad antaralikana-asra-yugam "tad-antarady-arnakhila-bijam krishnaya nama iti bijadhyam sa brahmanam adhaya" ananga-gayatrim yathavad vyalikhya bhu-mandalam sula-vestitam krtvanga vasudevadi rukminyadi "sva-saktindradi" vasudevadi parthadi nidhyadi-vitam yajet //

 

 

Brahma said: The Lord's altar should be a golden lotus with eight petals. Within that lotus should be placed two triangles and the mantra klim Krishnaya namah, the Kama-gayatri (klim Krishnaya govindaya gopijanavallabhaya svaha), and the ananga-gayatri (kamadevaya sarva-jana-priyaya sarva-jana-sammohanaya jvala jvala prajvala prajvala sarva-janasya hrdayam me vasam kuru kuru svaha) should be written there. then anga should be offered with the sula-matra (astraya phat). Then one should worship the Lord's expansions, beginning with Rukmini, the devotees headed by Indra, the devotees headed by King Vasudeva, the devotees headed by Arjuna, and the devotees headed by Indranidhi.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

This description of the spiritual world is confirmed by the following verse from the Sanat-Kumara Samhita:

 

karnikayam likhed vahni-

putitam mandala-dvayam

tasya madhye likhed bijam

sadhyakhyam karma samyutam

 

"In the whorl of the lotus flower which is Lord Krishna's transcendental abode, the Kama Gayatri mantra is written."

 

This is also described in the following mantra:

 

om namo bhagavte sarva-bhutatmane vasudevaya sarvatma-samyoga-yoga-padma-pithatmane namah

 

"I offer my respectful obeisances unto Lord Vasudeva, the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead who resides in His own transcendental abode, which resembles a lotus flower."

 

 

This is described in the Padma Purana:

 

tatah pitham samabhyarcya

devam avahya narada

arghyadi-dhupa-dipadin

upacaran prakalpaye

 

"O Narada, placing the Lord on His altar, I worship Him with prayers, incense ,lamps, arghya and other gifts."

 

 

Text 19

 

sandhyasu pratipattibhir upacarais tenasyakhilam bhavaty-akhilam bhavatiti //

 

He who at sunrise, noon and sunset, makes various offerings to the Deity, obtains everything. He obtains everything.

 

 

Text 20

 

eko vasi sarvagah krishna idya

eko'pi san bahudha yo'vabhati

tam pithastham ye tu yajanti dhiras

tesam sukham sasvatam netaresam

 

In this matter there are the following verses: Lord Krishna is the worshipable, all-pervading supreme controller, and although He is one, He manifests in many forms. They who are intelligent worship Him as He stands on His altar. They, and not others, attain eternal happiness.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

That Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead is confirmed in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28):

 

krishnas tu bhagavan svayam

 

"Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead."

 

 

Text 21

 

nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam

eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman

tam pithagam ye'nuyajanti vipras

tesam siddhih sasvati netaresam

 

The brahmanas, who worship, as He stands on His altar, the one greatest among the eternals and greatest among conscious persons, the one who fulfils the desires of the many, they, and not others, attain perfection.

 

Text 22

 

etad visnoh paramam padam ye

nityodyuktah samyajante na kaman

tesam asau gopa-rupah prayatnat

prakasayad atma-padam tadaiva

 

To they who always diligently worship Lord Vishnu's transcendental form, the Lord, in His original form as a cowherd boy, shows His lotus feet.

 

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

This is confirmed in Vedanta-sutra:

 

visesam ca darsayati

 

"The Personality of Godhead reveals Himself to His pure devotees."

 

Text 23

 

yo brahmanam vidhadhati purvam

yo vai vidyas tasmai gapayati sma krishnah

tam ha devam atma-buddhi-prakasam

mumuksur vai saranam amum vrajet

 

It was Krishna who in the beginning instructed Brahma in Vedic knowledge and who disseminated Vedic knowledge in the past. They who desire liberation surrender to Him, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who grants transcendental knowledge to His devotees.

 

Text 24

 

omkarenantaritam ye japanti

govindasya panca-padam manum tam

tesam asau darsayed atma-rupam

tasman mumuksur abhyasen nityam santyai //

 

To they who chant the five-word mantra with om and govinda (om Krishnaya govindaya gopijanavallabha svaha) the Lord reveals His own form. Therefore, to attain transcendental peace, they who desire liberation should regularly chant this mantra.

 

 

Text 25

 

etasmad anye panca-padad abhuvan

govindasya manavo manavanam

darsanadyas te'pi sankrandanadyair

abhyasyante bhuti-kamair yathavat

 

From this five-word mantra have come all other govinda-mantras in human society, including the ten-syllable govinda-mantra chanted by Indra's followers and by they who desire opulences.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The persons desiring opulence in this verse are the four Kumaras' followers, who desire liberation, and Narada's followers, who desire pure devotional service.

 

Text 26

 

Yad etasya svarupartham vaca vedayeti te papracchuh //

 

They asked: Please tell us the nature of this mantra

 

Text 27 and 28

 

tad u hovaca brahmanah -

"asav anavaratam" me dhyatah stutah parardhante so'budhyata/

gopa-veso me purastad avirbabhuva /

tatah pranato mayanukulena hrda mahyam astadasaranam svarupam srstaye dattvantarhitah //

 

Brahma said: I continually glorified the Lord and meditated upon Him for millions of years, and at last I was able to understand the transcendental form of the Lord as Shri Krishna, in the dress of a cowherd boy. With devotion in my heart I bowed down before Him. He gave me the eighteen-syllable mantra to be used for the activity of creation, and then He disappeared.

 

 

Text 29

 

punah sisrksato me pradurabhuttesv aksaresu bhavisyaj-jagad-rupam prakasayan //

 

When I desired to create the universe He again appeared before me, showing me in these syllables the universe that was to be.

 

 

Text 30

 

tad iha kad apo lat prthivi ito'gnir vindor indus tat sapatakad arka iti klim-karad asrjam /

krishnayad akasam khad vayur ity uttarat surabhim vidyah pradurakarsam tad uttarat stri-pumadi cedam sakalam iti / sakalam iti //

 

From the letter k, I created water, from the letter l, earth, from the letter i, fire, from the letter m, the moon, and from the entire word klim, the sun. From the word Krishnaya, I created ether, from govindaya, air, from gopijanavallabha, knowledge and the surabhi cows, and from svaha, men, women, and everything else. Everything else.

 

 

Text 31

 

etasyaiva yajanena candra-dhvajo gata-mohatmanam vedayitva omkarantaralikam manum avarttayan sanga-rahito'bhyapa tat //

 

By worshipping Him, Siva became free from illusion, and by chanting this mantra in a solitary place, he attained the Lord.

 

Text 32

 

tad visnoh paramam padam sada pasyanti surayah diviva caksur atatam //

 

The demigods gaze at Vishnu's abode, which is like a splendid sun in the sky.

 

Text 33

 

tasmad etan nityam abhyasen nityam abhyaset //

 

Therefore one should regularly chant this mantra. One should regularly chant this mantra.

 

 

Text 34

 

tad ahur eke /

 yasya prathama-padad bhumir dvitiya-padaj jalam trtiya-padat tejas caturtha-padad vayus carama-padad vyometi vaishnavam panca-vyahrtim ayam mantram krishnavabhasakam kaivalya-srtyai satatam avarttayed iti //

 

 

Some have said that from the first word of this mantra earth was created, from the second word water, from the third fire, from the fourth air, and from the fifth ether. To attain liberation one should chant this five-word Vaishnava mantra, which reveals Lord Krishna.

 

 

Text 35

 

tad atra gathah -

yasya purva-padad bhumir

dvitiyat salilodbhavah

trtiyat teja udbhutam

caturthad gandhavahanah

pancamsad ambarotpattis

tam evaikam samabhyaset //

 

About this are the following verses: One should chant this mantra, of which from the first word the element earth came, from the second word water, from the third fire, from the fourth air, and from the fifth ether.

 

 

Text 36

 

candra-dhvajo'gamad visnoh paramam padam avyayam //

 

By chanting this mantra Siva entered Lord Vishnu's eternal spiritual abode.

 

Text 37

 

tato visuddham vimalam visokam

asesa-lobhadi-nirasta-sangam

yat tat padam panca-padam tad eva

sa vasudevo na yato'nyad asti

 

That spiritual world, completely pure, uncontaminated, free from suffering, free from greed and all other vices, and identical with this five-word mantra, is manifested from Lord Vasudeva. It is not separate from Him.

 

Text 38

 

Tam ekam govindam sac-cid-ananda-vigraham panca-padam vrndavana-sura-bhuruha-talasinam satatam samarud-gane'ham paramaya stutya tosayami //

 

With eloquent prayers I and the Maruts please Lord Govinda, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, who stays under a desire tree in Vrndavana, and who is this five-word mantra.

 

Text 39

 

om namo visva-rupaya

visva-sthity-anta-hetave

visvesvaraya visvaya

govindaya namo namah

 

Om namah. To Lord Govinda, who is the form of the universe, the creator. maintainer, and destroyer of the universe, the master of the universe, and the universe itself. I offer my respectful obeisances.

 

Text 40

 

namo vinnana-rupaya

paramananda-rupine

krishnaya gopinathaya

govindaya namo namah

 

Obeisances to Lord Govinda, whose form is full of knowledge, whose form is full of supreme bliss, who is all-attractive, and who is the master of the gopis.

 

Text 41

 

namah kamala-netraya

namah kamala-maline

namah kamala-nabhaya

kamala-pataye namah

 

Obeisances to Him, His eyes lotus flowers. Obeisances to Him, garlanded with lotuses. Obeisances to Him, His navel a lotus. Obeisances to Him, the husband of the goddesses of fortune.

 

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The goddesses of fortune here are the gopis. This is described in verses 29 and 56 of the Brahma-samhita:

 

laksmi -sahasra-sata-sambhrama-sevyamanam

 

"Lord Govinda is served with great reverence by hundreds and thousands of gopis."

 

shriyah kantah kantah parama-purusa kalpa-taravah

 

"The damsels of Vrndavana, the gopis, are super goddesses of fortune."

 

Text 42

 

barhapidabhiramaya

ramayakuntha-medhase

rama-manasa-hamsaya

govindaya namo namah

 

Obeisances to Lord Govinda, handsome with a peacock-feather crown, identical with Balarama, His intelligence sharp, and He the swan in the Manasa lake of the goddess of fortune's thoughts.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

The goddess of fortune here is Shrimati Radharani, who is described in the Purusa-bodhini Upanisad.:

 

dve parsve candravali radhika ca yasya amso laksmi durgadika saktih

 

"Candravali and Radhika always remain at Lord Krishna's side. Laksmi, Durga, and the Lord's other potencies are expansions of Shri Radhika."

 

The Gautamiya Tantra also explains:

 

devi krishnamayi prokta

radhika para-devata

sarva-laksmimayi sarva-

kantih sanmohini pura

 

"The transcendental goddess Shrimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Shri Krishna. She is the central figure for the goddess of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord."

 

 

Text 43

 

kamsa-vamsa-vinasaya

kesi-canura-ghatine

vrsabhadhvaja-vandyaya

partha-sarathaye namah

 

Obeisances to Him, the death of Kamsa and his allies, the killer of Kesi and Canura, the object of worship for Siva, and the chariot-driver of Arjuna.

 

 

Text 44

 

venu-vadana-silaya

gopalayahi-mardine

kalindi - kula-lolaya

lola-kundala-valgave //

 

Obeisances to Him, the cowherd boy fond of playing the flute, the crusher of Kaliya, the person who walks on the Yamuna's shore and whose earrings gracefully swing to and fro.

 

 

Text 45

 

ballavi-nayanambhoja

maline nrtya-saline

namah pranata-palaya

shri krishnaya namo namah //

 

Obeisances to Shri Krishna, the protector of the surrendered souls. Obeisances to Him, the expert dancer garlanded with the gopi's lotus glances.

 

Text 46

 

namah papa-pranasaya

govardhana-dharaya ca

putana-jivitantaya

trnavartasu-harine

 

Obeisances to Him, the death of sin, the lifter of Govardhana Hill, the end of Putana's life, the thief of Trnavarta's life.

 

Text 47

 

niskalaya vimohaya

suddhayasuddhi-vairine

advitiyaya mahate

shri krishnaya namo namah

 

Obeisances to Shri Krishna, decorated with a golden necklace, charming, pure, the enemy of impurity, one without a second, the greatest.

 

Visvanatha Cakravarti

 

The Word niskalaya may also mean "He who is beyond the influence of material illusion" and the word vimohaya may be interpreted to mean "He who is omniscient and cannot be put into illusion even by Brahma or Siva". The word "asuddhi-vairine" may be interpreted to mean "He who removes material impurities from the hearts of those attached to hearing and chanting His glories."

 

 

Text 48

 

prasida paramananda

prasida paramesvara

adhi-vyadhi-bhujangena

dastam mam uddhara prabho

 

Be kind, O blissful one. Be kind, O Supreme Lord. O Lord, please rescue me, bitten by the snake of physical and mental pain.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

Vyadhi, or physical pain, inevitably comes when one fulfils his material desires. when material desires remain unfulfilled, however, the conditioned soul experiences mental pain, or adhi. Either condition is inauspicious for the conditioned soul.

 

Text 49

 

shri krishna rukmini-kanta

gopijana-manohara

samsara-sagare magnam

mam uddhara jagad-guro //

 

O Krishna, O husband of Rukmini, O enchanter of the gopis, O master of the universe, please rescue me, drowning in the ocean of repeated birth and death.

 

Text 50

 

kesava klesa-harana

narayana janardana

govinda paramananda

mam samuddhara madhava

 

O Kesava, O Narayana, O Govinda, O Janardana, O source of all transcendental bliss, O Lord who rescues the devotees from distress, O Madhava, please rescue me.

 

Baladeva Vidyabhusana

 

In the Hari-vamsa, Lord Siva explains the meaning of the name Kesava:

 

iso'ham sarva-dehinam

avam tavanga-sambhutav

atah kesava-namabhag

 

"Both Brahma (ka) and I (isa), the master of all living entities, were born from You, and for this reason, O Lord, You are known as Kesava."

 

 

Text 51

 

atha haivam stutibhir aradhayami yatha yuyam tatha panca-padam japantah krishnam dhyayantah samsrtim tarayisyatheti hovaca hairanyah //

 

Brahma said: As I worship Him, so should you. Chanting this five-word mantra, and meditating on Lord Krishna, you will transcend the world of birth and death.

 

Text 52

 

amum panca-padam mantram avarttayed yah sa yaty-anayasatah kevalam tat-padam //

 

One who chants this five-word mantra easily attains His transcendental abode.

 

Text 53

 

anejad ekam manaso javiyo naitad deva apnuvan purvan arsad iti //

 

Although fixed in His abode, the Personality of Godhead is swifter than the mind and can overcome all others running. Even the powerful demigods cannot approach Him.

 

 

Text 54

 

tasmat krishna eva paro devas tam dhyayet tam raset tam bhajet tam yajed ity om tat sad iti //

 

Therefore, Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should meditate upon Him, glorify Him, serve Him and worship Him. Om tat sat.