Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Unsorted > Glossary





Abhiseka-a bathing ceremony, particularly for the coronation of a king or the installation of the Lord's Deity form.


Absolute Truth-the ultimate source of all energies.


Acamana-purification by sipping water and chanting names of the Lord, especially during a sacrifice.


Acarya-an ideal teacher, who teaches by his personal eample; a spiritual master.


Acintya-bhedabheda-tattva-Lord Chaitanya's doctrine of the "inconceivable oneness and difference" of God and His energies.


Acintya-sakti-the inconceivable energy of the Supreme Lord.


Acit-without life or consciousness.


Acyuta-the Supreme Lord, who can never fall down from His position.


Adbhuta-the [rasa] (devotional sentiment) of wonder or amazement.




Adhibhautika misery-misery caused by other living beings.


Adhidaivika misery-misery caused by nature.


Adhidaivika powers-the administrative functions delegated by the Lord to demigods, such as control over rain, wind and sun.


Adhoksaja-the Supreme Lord, who is beyond material sense perception.


Adhyatmika misery-misery caused by one's own body and mind.


Adi-purusa-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, the original person.


Aditi-the mother of the demigods.


Adityas-the demigods who are descendants of Kasyapa Muni's wife Aditi.


Advaita Prabhu-an incarnation of Vishnu who appeared as a principal associate of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Advaita-vadis-atheistic philosophers who say all distinctions are but material illusions. [See also:] Mayavadis.


Aghasura-the python-shaped demon sent by Kamsa to kill Krishna.


Agni-the demigod of fire.


Agnihotra-yajna-the ceremonial fire sacrifice performed in Vedic rituals.


Aham brahmasmi-the Vedic aphorism "I am spirit."


Aham mameti-the false conception of "I" and "mine."


Ahangraha-upasana-self-worship, not recommended for anyone other than God.


Ahankara-false ego, by which the soul misidentifies with the material body.




Aja-the unborn; the Supreme Lord.


Ajagara-vrtti-the life pattern of a python.


Ajamila-a fallen [brahmana] who was saved from hell by chanting the name of Lord Narayana at the time of death


Ajnata-sukrti-pious or devotional activity performed accidentally, without knowledge of its effect.


Akama-free from material desire.


Akama-bhakta-one who serves the Lord without material motive.


Akarma-"nonaction"; devotional activity for which one suffers no reaction.


Akincana-gocara-Lord Krishna, who is easily approached by those who are materially ehausted.


Akrura-an uncle of Lord Krishna.


Aksauhini-a military division consisting of 21,870 chariots, 21,870 elephants, 109,350 infantrymen and 65,610 horses.


Akuti-one of Svayambhuva Manu's three daughters. She was the wife of Ruci.


Amara-kosa dictionary-a dictionary of the Sanskrit language.


Ambarisa Maharaja-a great devotee king who perfectly eecuted all nine devotional practices (hearing, chanting, etc.).


Amsa-an epansion of the Supreme Lord.


Anakadundubhi-another name of Vasudeva, the father of Krishna.


Ananda-spiritual bliss.


Ananda-chinmaya-rasa-vigraha-the personal, spiritual form of bliss and knowledge.


Anandamaya-full of bliss in spiritual realization; Krishna conscious.


Ananta-the Lord's thousand-headed serpent incarnation, who serves as the bed of Vishnu and sustains the planets on His hoods.


Anartha-nivrtti-a stage in the progressive development of devotion to Lord Krishna in which one is freed from unwanted desires and karmic reactions.


Anga Maharaja-the father of King Vena.


Angira-one of the seven great sages born directly from Brahma.


Anilayama-the discipline of controlling the breathing process.


Anima-the mystic power to become as small as an atom.


Aniruddha-one of the four original epansions of Lord Krishna in the spiritual world; also, a grandson of Lord Krishna.


Annamaya-(consciousness) absorbed only in food.


Anna-prasana-the ceremony of offering a child his first food grains; one of the ten purificatory [samskaras].


Antardhana-Vijitasva, the eldest son of King Prthu.


Antariksa-outer space.


Antaryami-the epansion of the Supreme Lord situated in everyone's heart as the Supersoul.


Antyajas-one of the seven mied castes lower than [sudra].


Anubhava-the resultant outward manifestations of a devotee's loving sentiments for Krishna.


Apara-prakrti-the inferior, material energy of the Lord (matter).


Apavarga-liberation from [pavarga,] the miseries of material eistence.


Apipasa-desiring only to perform devotional service to Krishna.


Aprakrta-transcendental to material nature.




Apsaras-the dancing girls of heaven.


Arati-a ceremony for greeting the Lord with chanting and offerings of food, lamps, fans, flowers and incense.


Arcana-the procedures followed for worshiping the [arca-vigraha].


Arca-vigraha-the form of God manifested through material elements, as in a painting or statue of Krishna worshiped in a temple or home. Present in this form, the Lord personally accepts worship from His devotees.


Arci-the wife of King Prthu.


Arghya-a ceremonious offering, in a conchshell, of water and other auspicious items.


Arjuna-one of the five Pandava brothers. Krishna became his chariot driver and spoke the [Bhagavad-gita] to him.


Artha-economic development.


Aryama-the demigod in charge of Pitrloka, the planet where qualified departed ancestors reside.


Aryan-a civilized follower of Vedic culture; one whose goal is spiritual advancement.


Asanas-sitting postures in [yoga] practice.


Asat-not eternal.


Asita-an ancient authority on the [Vedas].


Asrama-one of four spiritual orders of life. [See also: Brahmacarya; Grhastha; Vanaprastha; Sannyasa].


Asramas-the four spiritual orders according to the Vedic social system: [brahmacarya] (student life), [grhastha] (householder l ife), [vanaprastha] (retirement) and [sannyasa] (renunciation).


Astaka-the eighth day after the full moon.


Astanga-yoga-the eight-stage mystic [yoga] system propounded by Patanjali. It consists of [yama] and [niyama] (moral practices), [asana] (bodily postures), [pranayama] (breath control), [pratyahara] (sensory withdrawal), [dharana] (steadying the mind), [dhyana] (meditation) and [samadhi] (deep contemplation on Vishnu within the heart).


Asta-siddhis-the eight mystic perfections acquired by [yoga] practice.


Asura-a person opposed to the service of the Lord.


Asutosa-Lord Siva, who is easily pleased.


Asvamedha-yajna-a Vedic horse sacrifice.


Asvatthama-the nefarious son of the great military teacher Dronacarya. He murdered the children of the Pandavas.


Asvini deities-demigods in charge of the nostrils and sense of smell.


Atharva Veda-one of the four [Vedas,] the original revealed scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself.


Atma-the self (the body, the mind, the intellect, the Supersoul or the individual soul).


Atma-nivedana-the devotional process of surrendering everything to the Lord.


Atmarama-one who is self-satisfied, free from eternal, material desires.


Atma-tattva-spiritual science.


Atri-one of the seven great sages born directly from Brahma; father of the Lord's incarnation Dattatreya.


Avadhuta-a very saintly and renounced person who may live outside regulative principles, having surpassed any need for them.


Avaishnava-a nondevotee.




Avatara-a descent, or incarnation, of the Supreme Lord.


Avesa-[See: Sakty-avesa]






Ayur-veda-the Vedic scriptures containing medical science.




Babaji-a person who dwells alone in one place and leads a life of meditation, penance and austerity.


Badarikasrama-a sacred place of pilgrimage in the Himalayas.


Bahudaka-the second stage of the [sannyasa] order, in which one begs from door to door.


Bahuka-the personified sins of King Vena.


Bakasura-a demon who was shaped like a huge duck and who tried to kill Krishna.


Baladeva-[See:] Balarama.


Balarama (Baladeva)-the first plenary epansion of Lord Krishna. He appeared as the son of Rohini.


Bali Maharaja-a king who became a great devotee by surrendering everything to Vamanadeva, the Lord's dwarf-[brahmana] incarnatio n.


Banasura-a thousand-armed demon slain by Lord Krishna.


Barhisat-[See:] Pracinabarhi


Barhisman-[See:] Pracinabarhi


Battle of Kuruksetra-a battle between the Kurus and the Pandavas, which took place five thousand years ago and before which Lord Krishna spoke [Bhagavad-gita] to Arjuna.


Bhagavad-gita-the discourse between the Supreme Lord, Krishna, and His devotee Arjuna epounding devotional service as both the pr incipal means and the ultimate end of spiritual perfection.


Bhagavan-the Supreme Lord, who possesses all opulences in full.


Bhagavata Purana-this scripture, [Shrimad-Bhagavatam].


Bhagavata-vidhi-the devotional process of serving pure devotees and preaching [Shrimad-Bhagavatam].


Bhajana-any of various practices of direct worship of the Lord, especially hearing and chanting (or singing) His glories.


Bhajananandi-a devotee who performs his devotional activities in seclusion, not attempting to preach.


Bhakta-a devotee of the Supreme Lord.


Bhakta-vatsala-the Supreme Lord, who favors His devotees.


Bhakti-devotional service to the Supreme Lord.


Bhakti-devi-the personification of devotional service.


Bhakti-marga-the path of developing devotion to Krishna.


Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu-Rupa Gosvami's definitive eplanation of the science of devotional service.


Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura-(1874-1937) the spiritual master of the author, Shrila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, and thus the spiritual grandfather of the present-day Krishna consciousness movement. A powerful preacher, he founded sixty-four maths (temple-asramas) throughout India.


Bhaktivedantas-advanced transcendentalists who have realized the conclusion of the [Vedas] through devotional service.


Bhaktivinoda Thakura-(1838-1915) the great-grandfather of the present-day Krishna consciousness movement. He was the spiritual ma ster of Shrila Gaurakisora dasa Babaji and father of Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati.


Bhakti-yoga-linking with the Supreme Lord through devotional service.


Bharata Maharaja-an ancient king of India from whom the Pandavas descended. A great devotee of the Lord, he developed an attachm ent causing him to take birth as a deer. In his net life, as the [brahmana] Jada Bharata, he attained spiritual perfection.


Bharata-varsa-India, named after King Bharata.


Bharati-[See:] Sarasvati.


Bhava-the preliminary stage of ecstatic love of God.


Bhisma-the noble general respected as the "grandfather" of the Kuru dynasty. He was the most powerful and oldest warrior in the Battle of Kuruksetra. He is recognized as one of the chief authorities on devotional service to the Lord.


Bhoga-sense gratification; food not offered to the Lord.


Bhrgu-the most powerful of the sages born directly from Brahma.


Bhukti-material enjoyment.


Bhur-the lower material planets.




Bhuvar-the middle material planets.


Bihar-a state in northwestern India.


Bila-svarga-the subterranean heavens.


Bilvamangala Thakura-a great devotee-author whose works include the [Krishna-karnamrta].


Brahma-the first created living being and secondary creator of the material universe.


Brahma-bhuta-the joyful state free of material contamination; liberation.


Brahmacari-one in the first order of spiritual life; a celibate student of a spiritual master.


Brahmacarya-celibate student life; the first order of Vedic spiritual life.


Brahma-jijnasa-inquiry into the Absolute Truth.


Brahmajyoti-the spiritual effulgence emanating from the transcendental body of Lord Krishna and illuminating the spiritual world.


Brahmaloka-the highest planet of the universe, that of the demigod Brahma.


Brahma-muhurta-the period of the day just before dawn. It is especially favorable for spiritual practices.


Brahman-(1) the individual soul; (2) the impersonal, all-pervasive aspect of the Supreme; (3) the Supreme Personality of Godhead ; (4) the [mahat-tattva,] or total material substance.


Brahmana-a person wise in Vedic knowledge, fied in goodness and knowledgeable of Brahman, the Absolute Truth; a member of the f irst Vedic social order.


Brahmana thread-a multistranded thread worn by [brahmanas] across the left shoulder and chest.


Brahmananda-the pleasure of realizing the spiritual effulgence of the Lord.




Brahma-raksasa-a man-eating demon who was a fallen [brahmana] in his last life.


Brahmarsi-a title meaning "sage among the [brahmanas]."


Brahma-samhita-a very ancient Sanskrit scripture recording the prayers of Brahma to the Supreme Lord, Govinda.


Brahma-saukhya-spiritual happiness, which is unobstructed and eternal.


Brahmastra-a nuclear weapon produced by chanting [mantras].


Brahma-sutra-the [Vedanta-sutra.]


Brahma-tejas-the potency of a [brahmana].


Brahmavadis-impersonalists among the transcendentalists.


Brhan-naradiya Purana-one of the eighteen [Puranas,] or Vedic historical scriptures.


Brhaspati-the spiritual master of King Indra and chief priest of the demigods.


Buddha-an incarnation of the Supreme Lord who, by bewildering the atheists stopped them from misusing the [Vedas].


Buddhi-yoga-another term for [bhakti-yoga] (devotional service to Lord Krishna), indicating that it represents the highest use of one's intelligence ([buddhi]).




Chaitanya-charitamrita-a biography of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu composed in Bengali in the late siteenth century by Shrila Krishnadas a Kaviraja.


Chaitanya Mahaprabhu-(1486-1534) the Supreme Lord appearing as His own greatest devotee to teach love of God, especially through the process of congregational chanting of His holy names.


Caittya-guru-Lord Krishna personally giving guidance as a spiritual master from within the heart of an advanced devotee.


Cakra (Sudarsana)-the disc weapon of the Supreme Lord.


Cakri-the Supreme Lord, who carries the disc weapon.


Camara-a yak-tail fan used in Deity worship.


Camasa Rsi-one of the nine Yogendras.


Canakya-the prime minister of King Candragupta. His aphorisms are still famous throughout India.


Candala-an outcaste or untouchable; a dog-eater.


Candana-a cosmetic paste prepared from sandalwood. It is used in Deity worship.


Candra-the demigod of the moon.


Candragupta-a king of the Maurya dynasty in india. His armies repelled Aleander's advance into India.


Candraloka-the moon planet.


Candrasekhara Acarya-a great householder devotee of Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Capati-a flat bread made from whole-wheat flour.


Caranaloka-the heavenly planet of the Carana demigods.


Carvaka Muni-an outspoken hedonistic philosopher of ancient times.


Catuh-sloki-the four verses of [Shrimad-Bhagavatam] (2.9.33-36) spoken by Lord Krishna to Brahma, which summarize that scripture's entire philosophy.




Catur-hotra-the four kinds of fire sacrifices prescribed in the [Vedas] for purification of fruitive activities.


Caturmasya-the four months of the rainy season in India. Devotees take special vows of austerity during this time.


Catur-varnyam-the four occupational divisions of society ([brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas,] and [sudras]).


Catur-vyuha-the Lord's plenary epansions Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.


Causal Ocean-the ocean in which all the universes are floating.


Cediraja-the king of Cedi; also known as Sisupala. Lord Krishna killed him because of his blasphemy.


Cetana-a conscious living entity.


Chandogya Upanisad-one of the 108 [upanisads,] philosophical portions of the [Vedas.]


Chandas-the different meters of Vedic hymns.


Channavatara-a concealed incarnation.


Cintamani-a mystically potent "touchstone" described in Vedic literatures.


Cit-alive and conscious.


Citraketu-a member of the royal order who became fully enlightened in spiritual knowledge.


Cit-sakti-the knowledge potency of the Supreme Lord.


Cupid (Kandarpa)-the demigod who incites lusty desires in the hearts of the conditioned living entities.




Dahl-dried beans such as urad or mung or the soup made therefrom.


Daihika-the bodily necessities of life.


Daityas-demons; a race of demons descending from Diti.


Daivas-the demigods or godly persons.


Daiva-varnasrama-the social system given by God for the upliftment of mankind. [See also: Varnasrama].


Daivi Maya-the Lord's divine deluding potency, the material energy.


Daksa-one of the sons of Brahma and a chief progenitor of the universal population.


Daksayani-Sati, the daughter of Daksa and wife of Lord Siva.


Daksina-a disciple's gift to his spiritual master, collected by begging and given as a token of gratitude.


Dama-control of the senses.


Damodara-Lord Krishna in His pastime of being bound by mother Yasoda.


Dana-charity, one of the six duties of a [brahmana].


Danavas-a race of demons.


Danda-a staff carried by those in the renounced order of life.


Dandavats-respectful obeisances, falling flat like a rod.


Daridra-narayana-"poor Narayana," an offensive term used by Mayavadis to equate poor men with the Supreme Lord.


Dasa-avataras-ten pastime-incarnations of the Supreme Lord.


Dasavatara-stotra-the introduction to Jayadeva Gosvami's [Gita-govinda].


Dasaratha-the father of Lord Ramacandra.


Dasarha-the founder of one branch of the Yadu clan.


Dasa-vidha-samskara-the ten Vedic household rituals for purification, performed one by one from the time of conception until death.


Dasya-rasa-the servitor relationship with the Lord.


Dasyu-dharma-the occupational duty of rogues and thieves.


Dattatreya-the incarnation of the Supreme Lord who appeared as the son of Atri Muni and taught the path of mystic [yoga].


Deity of the Lord-the authorized form of Krishna worshiped in temples.


Demigods-universal controllers and residents of the higher planets.


Demons-impious beings who do not follow the instructions of the Lord.


Deva-a demigod or godly person.


Deva-dasis-female singers and dancers employed as servants of the Deity.


Deva-gana-a type of demigod.


Devahuti-the daughter of Svayambhuva Manu who was the wife of Kardama Muni and the mother of Lord Kapila.


Devaki-the wife of Vasudeva and mother of Lord Krishna.


Devaki-nandana-Lord Krishna, the darling son of Devaki.


Devala-an ancient authority on the [Vedas].


Devamaya-the illusory potency of the demigods.


Devarsi-a title meaning "sage among the demigods."


Devotional service-the process of worshiping Lord Krishna by dedicating one's thoughts, words and actions to Him with love.


Dhama-abode, place of residence. The term usually refers to the Lord's abodes.


Dhanvantari-the incarnation of the Supreme Lord who is the father of medical science.


Dhara-the name of mother Yasoda in a previous birth.


Dhara-mandala-the earth planet.


Dharana-fied concentration, prior to full meditation ([dhyana]).


Dharma-religion; duty, especially everyone's eternal service nature.


Dharmanveksamana-strictly observing religious principles.


Dharma-sastras-religious scriptures that prescribe regulations of social organization and religion.


Dharmi-one who abides by Vedic law, or religious principles.


Dhenukasura-a mystic demon who took the form of a donkey and was killed by Krishna.


Dhira-one who is undisturbed in all circumstances.


Dhoti-a simple garment worn by men in Vedic culture.


Dhrtarastra-the uncle of the Pandavas whose attempt to usurp their kingdom for the sake of his own sons resulted in the Kurukset ra war.


Dhruvaloka-the polestar, a spiritual planet within the material universe. It is presided over by Dhruva Maharaja.


Dhruva Maharaja-a great devotee who as a child performed severe austerities to meet the Lord and get the kingdom denied him.  He

received an entire planet and God realization as well.




Diti-a wife of Kasyapa Muni and the mother of the demons Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu.


Draupadi-the wife of the five Pandavas. She was a great devotee of Lord Krishna.


Drona-the name of Maharaja Nanda in a previous birth.


Dronacarya-the military teacher of the Pandavas. He was obliged to fight against them in the Battle of Kuruksetra.


Duhsasana-a member of the Kuru dynasty and a brother of Duryodhana.


Durga-the personified material energy and the wife of Lord Siva.


Durvasa Muni-a powerful mystic [yogi,] famous for his fearful curses.


Duryodhana-the eldest son of Dhrtarastra and chief rival of the Pandavas.


Duskrti-a miscreant.


Dvadasi-the twelfth day after the full or new moon, thus the day after Ekadashi.


Dvaipayana-[See:] Vyasadeva


Dvapara-yuga-the third in the cycle of four ages. It lasts 864,000 years.


Dvaraka-the offshore-island kingdom of Lord Krishna, where He performed pastimes five thousand years ago in India.


Dvarakadhisa-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, the Lord of the city Dvaraka.


Dvija-a twice-born person; a [brahmana].


Dvija-bandhu-[See: Brahma-bandhu].


Dvi-parardha-the duration of Brahma's life.


Dvivida-a huge, apelike demon killed by Lord Balarama.




Ekadanda-the staff, made of a single rod, carried by a [sannyasi] of the Mayavada (impersonalist) school.


Ekadashi-a special day for increased remembrance of Krishna that comes on the eleventh day after both the full and new moon. Abstin ence from grains and beans is prescribed.




False ego-the conception that "i am this mataerial body."




Gada-a club.


Gadadhari-the Supreme Lord, carrier of the club.


Gajendra-the king of the elephants. He was saved from a crocodile by Lord Vishnu and awarded liberation.


Gandhari-the saintly, faithful wife of King Dhrtarastra and the mother of one hundred sons.


Gandharvas-demigod singers and musicians.


Ganesa-the demigod in charge of material opulence and freedom from misfortune. He is a son of Lord Siva and the scribe who wrot e down the [Mahabharata].


Ganga-the Ganges River.




Garbhadhana-samskara-the Vedic ceremony of purification to be performed by parents before conceiving a child.


Garbhodaka Ocean-the body of water that fills the bottom part of each material universe.


Garbhodakasayi Vishnu-the second Vishnu epansion, who enters each universe and from whose navel grows a lotus upon which Lord Bra hma appears. Brahma then creates the diverse material manifestations.


Garga Muni-the family priest for the Yadu dynasty.


Garuda-Lord Vishnu's eternal carrier, a great devotee in a birdlike form.


Garuda Purana-one of the eighteen [Puranas,] or Vedic historical scriptures.


Gaudiya-Madhva-sampradaya-the Vaishnava disciplic succession of bona fide spiritual masters coming through Shrila Madhvacarya and Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu; the followers in that tradition.


Gaudiya Vaishnavas-devotees of Lord Krishna coming in disciplic succession from Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Gaudiya Vaishnava-sampradaya-the line of spiritual masters descending from Lord Chaitanya.


Gaurachandra-the "golden moon," Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Gaurakisora dasa Babaji-the disciple of Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura who was the spiritual master of Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura.


Gaurakrishna-[See:] Chaitanya Mahaprabhu


Gaura-purnima-the appearance day of Lord Chaitanya.


Gaurasundara-the beautiful, golden-compleioned Lord, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Gayatri mantra-the Vedic prayer chanted silently by [brahmanas] at sunrise, noon and sunset.


Ghee-clarified butter.


Giridhari-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, the lifter of Govardhana Hill.


Girisa-[See:] Siva


Go-dasa-a servant of the senses.


Godhead-the ultimate source of all energies.


Gokula-[See:] Vrndavana


Gokulesvara-Lord Krishna, the master of Gokula.


Goloka Vrndavana (Krishnaloka)-the highest spiritual planet, Lord Krishna's personal abode.


Gopa-jati-[See: Vaisyas]


Gopala-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, who protects the cows.


Gopala Bhatta Gosvami-one of the six Vaishnava spiritual masters who directly followed Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and systematically presented His teachings.


Gopi-jana-vallabha-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, who is dear to the [gopis].


Gopis-Krishna's cowherd girl friends, who are His most surrendered and confidential devotees.


Gopisvara-[See:] Siva


Gosvami-a controller of the mind and senses; the title of one in the renounced, or [sannyasa,] order.


Govardhana-a large hill dear to Lord Krishna and His devotees. Krishna held it up for seven days to protect His devotees in Vrndavan a from a devastating storm sent by Indra.


Govinda-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, who gives pleasure to the land, the senses, and the cows.


Govinda dasa Thakura-an author of important Vaishnava songs.


Gramya-karma-mundane activities.


Grhamedhi-a materialistic householder.


Grha-vrata-one attached to the material duties of family life.


Grhastha-regulated householder life; the second order of Vedic spiritual life; one in that order.


Gujarat-a province in northwestern India.


Guna-avataras-Vishnu, Brahma and Siva, the presiding deities of the three modes of nature.


Gunas-the three modes, or qualities, of material nature: goodness, passion and ignorance.


Guru-a spiritual master.


Guru-daksina-a disciple's gift to his spiritual master, collected by begging and given as a token of gratitude.


Guru-kula-a school of Vedic learning. Boys begin at age five and live as celibate students, guided by a spiritual master.


Guru-puja-worship of the spiritual master.




Haihayas-a dynasty of demoniac kings destroyed by Lord Parasurama.


Haladhara-the Supreme Lord, who, in the form of Balarama, bears a plow in His hands.


Hamsa-the swan incarnation of the Lord.


Hanuman-the great monkey servitor of Lord Ramacandra.


Hara-[See:] Siva


Hara-[See:] Radha(rani)


Hare (hara)-[See:] Radha(rani)


Hare Krishna mantra-[See: Maha-mantra]


Hare Krishna mantra-the great chant for deliverance: Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare, Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare.


Hari-the Supreme Lord, who removes all obstacles to spiritual progress.


Hari-bhakti-vilasa-Sanatana Gosvami's book on the rules and regulations of Vaishnava life.


Hari-cakra-Krishna's Sudarsana weapon, the wheel.


Haridasa Thakura-a great devotee and associate of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who chanted three hundred thousand names of God a day.


Hari-katha-topics of Lord Hari, Krishna.


Hari-kirtana-the chanting of the names of Lord Hari (Krishna).


Hari-nama-sankirtana-congregational chanting of the holy names of the Supreme Lord.


Hari-vamsa-the appendix to the [Mahabharata.] It is a summary of Krishna's pastimes by Shrila Vyasadeva.


Haryaksa-[See:] Hiranyaksa


Hastinapura-the ancient capital of Bharata-varsa, or India. It occupies a portion of what is today called New Delhi.


Hatha-yoga-the practice of postures and breathing eercises for achieving purification and sense control.


Hayagriva, Lord-the Supreme Lord's horse-headed incarnation, who returned the stolen [Vedas] to Brahma.


Hayasirsa-the horse-headed incarnation of Lord Krishna. He spoke the [Vedas] to Lord Brahma.


Heavenly planets-the higher planets of the universe, residences of the demigods.


Hell-hellish planets within this universe meant for the punishment and rectification of the sinful.


Hindu-a newly-concocted name for members of various social and religious groups of India. The term has no spiritual significance.


Hiranyakasipu-a powerful demon who tormented his son Prahlada, a great devotee, and was slain by Lord Nrsimhadeva.


Hiranyaksa-the demoniac son of Kasyapa who was killed by Lord Varaha.


Hladini-sakti-the Supreme Lord's pleasure potency.


Hrdaya-granthi-the hard knot of material attachment in the heart.


Hrsikesa-the Supreme Lord, the supreme master of everyone's senses.


Hrta-jnana-bereft of knowledge.




Iksvaku-the son of Manu who was king of the earth in ancient times and to whom Manu spoke [Bhagavad-gita].


Ilavrta-varsa-the original name of this earth planet, before it became known as Bharata-varsa.


Indra-the chief of the administrative demigods, king of the heavenly planets and presiding deity of rain.


Indraloka-the planet of Indra.


Isa-the Supreme Lord, who is the supreme controller.


Isitva-in mystic [yoga,] the perfection of control over others.


ISKCON-the International Society for Krishna Consciousness.


Isopanisad-one of the principal [Upanisads.]


Ista-the performance of public welfare activities such as digging wells or planting trees.


Isvara-the Supreme Lord, who is the supreme controller.


Itihasa-a historical account.




Jada-dull or material.


Jada Bharata-Bharata Maharaja in his final birth as the renounced [brahmana] who gave wonderful spiritual instruction to Maharaja Rahugana.


Jagad-isa-the Supreme Lord, who is the proprietor of all the universes.


Jagai and Madhai-two great debauchees whom Lord Nityananda converted into Vaishnavas.


Jagannatha-the Supreme Lord, who is Lord of the universe; the particular Deity form of that Lord at Puri, Orissa.


Jagat-the material universe.


Jaimini-an atheistic philosopher who advocated material work as the purpose of life.


Jambavati-the daughter of Jambavan. She is one of the eight principal queens of Lord Krishna.


Janaka Maharaja-the father of Sita-devi, consort of Lord Ramacandra.


Janaloka-a heavenly planet.


Janamejaya Maharaja-the son of King Pariksit.


Janardana-the Supreme Lord, the original abode of all living beings.


Janas-[See:] Janaloka.


Janmastami-the celebration of Lord Krishna's appearance in the material world.


Japa-the soft recitation of the Lord's holy names as a private meditation.


Jara-old age.


Jata-karma-a purificatory ceremony performed at the birth of a child.


Jaya-an exclamation meaning "all victory to you!" or "all glories to you!"


Jaya and Vijaya-two doorkeepers of Vaikuntha who were cursed for offending the four Kumara Rsis but who attained liberation after three births as demons.


Jayadeva Gosvami-a great Vaishnava poet who wrote [Gita-govinda].


Jayanteyas-nine great sages, sons of King Bharata, who were also known as the nine Yogendras.


Jitendriya-one who has conquered his senses.


Jiva (jivatma)-the living entity, who is an eternal individual soul, part and parcel of the Supreme Lord.


Jiva Gosvami-one of the six Vaishnava spiritual masters who directly followed Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and systematically present ed His teachings.


Jivan-mukta-a person who is liberated even while living in his present body.


Jiva-tattva-the living entities, atomic parts of the Supreme Lord.


Jnana-transcendental knowledge.


Jnana-kanda-the portions of the [Vedas] containing knowledge of Brahman, or spirit.


Jnana-yoga-the path of spiritual realization through a speculative philosophical search for truth.


Jnani-one who cultivates knowledge by empirical speculation.


Jyotih-sastra-the Vedic science of astronomy.




Kaitava-dharma-cheating religion.


Kaivalya-the impersonal liberation of merging into the spiritual effulgence emanating from the Lord.


Kajjala-a preparation of lampblack used to darken the edges of the eyelids; kohl.


Kala-a form of the Lord that is an expansion of the Lord's original form.




Kala-cakra-the wheel of time.


Kala-sarpa-the snake of time.


Kali-[See:] Durga


Kali, age of-[See:] Kali-yuga.


Kaliya-the many-headed serpent chastised by Lord Krishna for poisoning a section of the Yamuna River.


Kali-yuga (Age of Kali)-the present age, characterized by quarrel. It is last in the cycle of four ages and began five thousand years ago.


Kalki, Lord-the incarnation of the Supreme Lord who, at the end of the last of the four ages, annihilates all the remaining athe ists.


Kalpa-Brahma's daytime, 4,320,000,000 years.




Kamadhenu-spiritual cows in the spiritual world who yield unlimited quantities of milk.


Kamandalu-a waterpot carried by [sannyasis].


Kamavasayita-the mystic ability to suppress one's desires.


Kamsa-a demoniac king of the Bhoja dynasty and maternal uncle of Krishna.


Kanistha-adhikari-a neophyte devotee.


Kapha-mucus, one of the three main elements of the body.


Kapila-the incarnation of the Supreme Lord who appeared as the son of Kardama Muni and Devahuti and taught the Krishna conscious S Ankhya philosophy.


Karana Ocean-the corner of the spiritual universe in which Lord Maha-Vishnu lies down to create all the material universes.


Karanodakasayi Vishnu-Maha-Vishnu, the expansion of the Supreme Lord from whom all material universes emanate.


Karatalas-hand cymbals used in [kirtana].


Kardama Muni-the father of Lord Kapila and one of the chief forefathers of the population of the universe.


Karma-material, fruitive activity and its reactions; also, fruitive actions performed in accordance with Vedic injunctions.


Karma-bandha-the bondage of fruitive activities.


Karmatmaka-one whose mind is colored with fruitive activity.


Karma-kanda-the part of the [Vedas] that prescribes modes of action for obtaining material benedictions.


Karma-yoga-the path of God realization through dedicating the fruits of one's work to God..


Karmendriyas-the working senses.


Karmi-one engaged in [karma,] fruitive activity; a materialist.


Karsnas-the members of Lord Krishna's family.


Karttikeya-the younger son of Lord Siva and Parvati. He is the presiding deity of warfare.


Kasyapa-a great saint who was the father of many demigods and also of the Supreme Lord's Vamanadeva incarnation.


Katha Upanisad-one of the 108 Vedic scriptures known as the [upanisads.]


Katyayani-the material energy personified. She is also known as Durga and Kali and by many other names.


Kaumara-the period of childhood before the age of five.


Kaupina-the thick belt and underwear worn by saintly persons.


Kauravas-the descendants of Kuru who fought against the Pandavas in the Battle of Kuruksetra.


Kavi-karnapura Gosvami-a noted sixteenth-century author of Sanskrit poems and plays. He is one of the leading followers of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Kesava-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, who has fine, black hair.


Kesi-a demon who attacked the inhabitants of Vrndavana in the form of a wild horse. He was killed by Lord Krishna.


Khatvanga-a saintly king who is famous for attaining unalloyed Krishna consciousness just moments before his death.


Kikata-the present state of Gaya, in north-central India.


Kinnaras-minor demigods inhabiting the heavenly planets. They can change their form at will.


Kirtana-the devotional process of chanting the names and glories of the Supreme Lord.


Koti-ten million.


Kratu-one of the seven great sages who were born directly from Lord Brahma.


Kriya-vidhana-a scripture containing injunctions for Vedic rituals.




Krpana-a miserly man who wastes his life by not striving for spiritual realization.


Krpa-siddhi-perfection attained simply by the blessings of a great devotee or transcendentalist.


Krishna-the original, two-armed form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


Krishnadasa Kaviraja-the great Vaishnava spiritual master who recorded the biography and teachings of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in h is [Chaitanya-charitamrita].


Krishna Dvaipayana Vedavyasa. [See:] Vyasadeva.


Krishna-katha-discussions by or about the Supreme Lord, Krishna.


Krishna-kirtana-the chanting of Krishna's name and pastimes.


Krishna-lila-the transcendental pastimes of Lord Krishna.


Krishnaloka-[See:] Goloka Vrndavana


Krishna-prasadam-[See: Prasadam].




Ksatriya-a warrior or administrator; the second Vedic social order.


Ksatta-[See: ]Vidura.


Ksirodakasayi Vishnu-the expansion of the Supreme Lord who enters the heart of every living being as the Supersoul.


Kulasekhara-a great devotee-king of South India and the author of [mukunda-mala-stotra,] prayers to Lord Krishna.


Kumaras-four learned ascetic sons of Lord Brahma appearing eternally as children.


Kunkuma-a red cosmetic powder.


Kunti-an aunt of Lord Krishna and the mother of the Pandavas.


Kurari (kurara)-a type of osprey.


Kurma-the Supreme Lord's incarnation as a tortoise.


Kuru-the founder of the dynasty in which the Pandavas, as well as their archrivals, the sons of Dhrtarastra, took birth.


Kurus-the descendants of Kuru, especially the sons of Dhrtarastra, who were enemies of the Pandavas.


Kusa-an auspicious grass used in Vedic rituals.


Kuruksetra-a place of pilgrimage held sacred since ancient times and the site of a great war fought five thousand years ago; loc ated near New Delhi, India.


Kuruksetra battle-a great battle resulting in the victory of the Pandavas over the Kurus. Just prior to it, Krishna spoke [Bhagavad-gita.]


Kuticaka-the first stage of the [sannyasa] order. The [kuticaka] lives in a hut nearby his village, and his family brings him food.


Kuvera-the treasurer of the demigods and father of Nalakuvara and Manigriva.




Laghima-the mystic perfection of becoming very light.


Laghu-bhagavatamrta-a book by shrila Rupa Gosvami describing Krishna, His incarnations and His devotees.


Laksmi-the goddess of fortune and eternal consort of Lord Narayana.


Laksmi-narayana-the transcendental couple of Lord Krishna in His four-armed form and the goddess of fortune, Laksmi.


Liberation-freedom from the material concept of life; being situated in one's constitutional position as an eternal servant of God.




Lila-avataras-innumerable incarnations of the Supreme Lord who descend to the material world to display spiritual pastimes.


Lila-sakti-the energy of Krishna that helps to enact His pastimes.


Linga-the subtle body: mind, intelligence and false ego.


Locana dasa Thakura-a great Krishna conscious spiritual master.




Loka-a planet.




Madana-Cupid, the demigod who incites lust in living beings.


Madana-mohana-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, who enchants even Cupid.


Madhai-[See:] Jagai and Madhai


Madhukari-a system of begging adopted by a mendicant.


Madhurya-lila-Lord Krishna's pastimes of conjugal love with His eternal associates.


Madhurya-rasa-the spiritual relationship in which the Supreme Lord and His devotee reciprocate as lovers.


Madhusudana-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, killer of the demon Madhu.


Madhvacarya-a great thirteenth-century Vaishnava spiritual master who preached the theistic philosophy of pure dualism.


Madri-the co-wife (with Kunti) of King Pandu and the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva.


Magadha-a province of ancient India.


Mahabharata-Vyasadeva's epic history of greater India, which includes the events of the Kuruksetra war and the narration of [Bhagavad-gita].


Mahabharata-tatparya-nirnaya-Madhvacarya's version of [Mahabharata.]


Maha-bhava-the highest stage of love of God.


Mahadeva-[See:] Siva


Mahajanas-great self-realized souls, authorities on the science of Krishna consciousness.


Maha-laksmi-[See:] Laksmi


Maha-mantra-the great chant for deliverance: Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Ha re Hare.


Mahamaya-the illusory, material energy of the Supreme Lord.


Maha-prasadam-the remnants of food directly offered to the Deity of Lord Krishna.


Maha-purusa-the Supreme Lord, who is the supreme enjoyer.


Maharaja-a title for a great king or sage.


Maha-ratha-a powerful warrior who can singlehandedly fight against ten thousand others.


Maharloka-a heavenly planet.


Maha-roga-severe illness.


Mahatma-a "great soul," an exalted devotee of Lord Krishna.


Mahat-tattva-the original, undifferentiated form of the total material energy, from which the material world is manifested.


Maha-Vishnu-the expansion of the Supreme Lord from whom all material universes emanate.


Mahendra-Lord Indra, the King of heaven.


Mahesvara-[See:] Siva


Mahima-the mystic ability to become unlimitedly large.


Maitreya Muni-the great sage who spoke [Shrimad-Bhagavatam] to Vidura.


Makara-dhvaja-[See:] Cupid


Manasa-ganga-a sacred river that flows in Vrndavana along part of the base of Govardhana Hill.


Mangala-arati-the daily predawn worship ceremony knowing the Deity of the Supreme Lord.


Manigriva-a son of Kuvera cursed by Narada Muni to take birth as an [arjuna] tree. He was ultimately liberated by Lord Krishna.


Maniman-the Supreme Lord, who is always ornamented with brilliant jewels.


Manjari-the small, purplish flowers of the [tulasi] plant.


Mano-maya-(consciousness) absorbed in mental activity.


Mantra-a transcendental sound or Vedic hymn that can deliver the mind from illusion.


Manu-a demigod son of Brahma who is the forefather and lawgiver of the human race. There is a succession of fourteen Manus durin g each day of Brahma.


Manu-samhita-the scriptural lawbook for mankind, given by Manu.


Manu, Svayambhuva-[See:] Svayambhuva Manu


Manu, Vaivasvata-[See:] Vaivasvata Manu


Manvantara-avataras-the special incarnations of the Supreme Lord who appear during the reign of each Manu.


Marakata-mani-an emerald.


Marici-one of the great sages who were born directly from Lord Brahma.


Marisa-the society girl of the heavenly planets sent by Indra to seduce the sage Kandu.


Markandeya Purana-the [Purana] of Markandeya Rsi.


Martya-loka-the "world of death," the earth planet.


Marudloka-the planet of the storm-god associates of King Indra.


Maruts-the storm-god associates of King Indra.


Matha-a monastery.


Mathura-Lord Krishna's abode, surrounding Vrndavana, where He took birth and to which He later returned after performing His child hood pastimes in Vrndavana.


Matsya-the fish incarnation of the Supreme Lord.


Mausala-lila-the pastime of the Yadu dynasty's departure from the earth.


Maya-the inferior, illusory energy of the Supreme Lord, which rules over this material creation; also, forgetfulness of one's re lationship with Krishna.


Maya Danava-the architect of the demons.


Maya-sukha-material happiness, which is illusory and temporary.


Mayavada-the impersonal philosophy propounding the unqualified oneness of God and the living entities and the nonreality of manifest nature.


Mayavadi-an impersonalist philosopher who conceives of the Absolute as ultimately formless and the living entity as equal to God .


Menaka-the famous society girl of the heavenly planets who seduced the sage Visvamitra.


Mimamsakas-atheistic philosophers who say that even if God exists, He is obliged to reward us the fruits of our work.


Mitra-demigod who controls death.


Mlecchas-uncivilized humans, outside the Vedic system of society, who are generally meat-eaters.




Mohini-the Supreme Lord's incarnation as the most beautiful woman.


Moksa-liberation from material bondage.


Mrdanga-a clay drum used in congregational chanting.


Mudha-a foolish, asslike person.


Muhurta-a period of forty-eight minutes.


Mukta-purusa-a liberated person.


Mukti-liberation from material bondage.


Mukti-devi-the demigoddess who is the personification of liberation.


Mukunda-the Supreme Lord, who is the giver of liberation.


Mula-mantra-a short Sanskrit incantation uttered before one offers an item of worship to the Deity of Krishna or His expansions.


Muni-a sage.


Muni-putra-son of a sage.


Murari-Krishna, the enemy of the demon Mura.


Muraripu (Muradvisa)-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, killer of the demon Mura.


Mystic yoga-[yoga] performed for the purpose of developing subtle material powers.




Nabhi-the saintly king who was the father of Lord Rsabhadeva.


Nagas-a race of serpents.


Naimisaranya-the sacred forest where [Shrimad-Bhagavatam] was spoken by Suta Gosvami to a great assembly of sages.


Naiskarma-another term for [akarma].


Naisthika-brahmacari-one who has been celibate since birth.


Naksatras-the stars along the path of the moon.


Nalakuvara-a son of Kuvera cursed by Narada Muni to take birth as an [arjuna] tree. He was ultimately liberated by Lord Krishna.


Nama-aparadha-an offense against the holy name of the Lord.


Nama-karana ceremony-the name-giving ceremony.


Namaskara-"bowing down," a respectful greeting or address.


Nanda-one of the chief personal servants of Lord Narayana in His spiritual abode, Vaikuntha.


Nanda Maharaja-the king of Vraja and foster father of Lord Krishna.


Nandana-kananas-celestial gardens.


Nanda-nandana-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, who is the darling son of Nanda Maharaja.


Narada Muni-a pure devotee of the Lord who travels throughout the universes in his eternal body, glorifying devotional service.

he is the spiritual master of Vyasadeva and of many other great devotees.


Narada-pancaratra-Narada Muni's book on the processes of Deity worship and [mantra] meditation.


Naradeva-the king, who is an earthly god.


Naradhama-the lowest of mankind.


Nara-Narayana Rsi-an incarnation of the Supreme Lord appearing as two sages to teach by example the practice of austerities.


Narasimha, Lord (Nrsimhadeva)-the incarnation of the Lord as a half man, half lion. He killed the demon Hiranyakasipu to save Hi s devotee Prahlada.


Narayana, Lord-the Supreme Lord in His majestic, four-armed form. An expansion of Krishna, He presides over the Vaikuntha planets.


Narayana-para-one who has dedicated his life to Lord Narayana, or Krishna.


Nasta-buddhi-bereft of all good sense.


Nasta-prajna-bereft of all intelligence.


Navadvipa-the place where Lord Chaitanya appeared in this world.


Nimi-a devotee king, ruler of Videha


Nirguna-without qualities. In reference to the Supreme Lord, the term signifies that He is beyond material qualities.


Nirguna-brahma-the impersonal conception of the Supreme Truth as being without any qualities.


Nirvana-freedom from material existence.


Nirvisesa-vadis-impersonalists who accept an Absolute but deny that He has any distinct qualities.


Niskama-free from material desires.


Niskincana-having nothing; a renunciant.


Nistraigunya-the transcendental position above the three modes of nature.


Nitya-baddha-the conditioned soul, bound in the material world since time immemorial.


Nitya-mukta-an eternally liberated soul.


Nityananda Prabhu-the incarnation of Lord Balarama who appeared as the principal associate of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Nivrtti-marga-the path of renunciation, which leads to liberation.


Niyama-restraint of the senses.


Nrga-a king who was cursed to become a snake because of a slight descrepancy in his service to [brahmanas.] He was delivered by Lord Krishna.


Nrsimhadeva-the half-man, half-lion incarnation of the Supreme Lord, who protected Prahlada and killed the demon Hiranyakasipu.


Nyaya-sastras-textbooks of logic.




Om (Omkara)-the sacred syllable that begins many Vedic [mantras] and that represents the Supreme Lord.


Omkara-[See: Om].




Padma-the lotus flower held by Lord Vishnu.


Padma Purana-one of the eighteen [Puranas,] or Vedic historical scriptures.


Padya-water ceremoniously offered for washing an honored guest's feet.


Panca-gavya-five products from the cow, used in bathing a worshipable person. The are milk, yogurt, ghee, cow urine and cow dung.


Panca-mahayajna-the five daily sacrifices householders perform to become free from sins committed unintentionally.


Pancaratra-Vedic literatures describing the process of Deity worship. [See also: Narada-pancaratra]


Pancaratrika-vidhi-the devotional process of Deity worship and [mantra] meditation found in the [Pancaratra] literature.


Panca-sasya-five kinds of grains.


Pancopasana-the impersonalists' worship of five deities (Vishnu, Durga, Brahma, Ganesa and Vivasvan) that is motivated by the desire to ultimately abandon all conceptions of a personal Absolute.


Pandavas-Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva, the five warrior-brothers who were intimate friends and devotees of Lo rd Krishna.


Pandita-a scholar.


Pandu-the brother of Dhrtarastra and father of the five Pandavas.




Parabrahman-the Supreme Absolute Truth as the Personality of Godhead-Vishnu, or Krishna.


Parakiya-rasa-the relationship between a married woman and her paramour, particularly the relationship between the damsels of Vrndavana and Krishna.


Paramahamsa-a topmost, swanlike devotee of the Supreme Lord; the highest stage of [sannyasa].


Paramatma-the Supersoul, a Vishnu expansion of the Supreme Lord residing in the heart of each embodied living entity and pervadin g all of material nature.


Paramesvara-the supreme controller, Lord Krishna.


Parampara-a disciplic succession.


Para prakrti-the superior energy of the Supreme Lord.


Parardha-one half of Brahma's lifetime; 155,520,000,000 years.


Parasara-the great sage who narrated the [Vishnu Purana] and was the father of Shrila Vyasadeva.


Parasurama-the incarnation of the Supreme Lord who destroyed twenty-one consecutive generations of unlawful members of the rulin g class.


Parijata flower-a wonderful flower found in the heavenly planets.


Pariksit Maharaja-the emperor of the world who heard [Shrimad-Bhagavatam] from Sukadeva Gosvami and thus attained perfection.


Parivrajakacarya-the third stage of [sannyasa,] wherein the devotee constantly travels and preaches.


Parvati-Sati, Lord Siva's consort, reborn as the daughter of the king of the Himalaya Mountains.


Pasandi-an atheist.


Patalaloka-the lowest of the universe's fourteen planetary systems; also, the lower planets in general.


Patanjali-the author of the original [yoga] system.


Pathana-studying the scriptures.


Pauganda-the period of childhood between age five and ten.


Paundraka-an enemy of Lord Krishna who attempted to imitate Him.


Phala-srutis-Sanskrit verses granting various benedictions.


Pinda-an annual offering made to departed ancestors.


Pitas-forefathers; especially those departed ancestors who have been promoted to one of the higher planets.


Pitrloka-the planet of the ancestors, a heavenly planet.


Pitta-bile, one of the three main elements of the body.


Prabhasa-tirtha-a holy place near Dvaraka.




Prabhupada, Shrila-the founder and spiritual preceptor of the Hare Krishna movement.


Prabodhananda Sarasvati-a great Vaishnava poet-philosopher and devotee of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He was the uncle of Gopala Bhatta Gosvami.


Pracetas-the ten sons of King Pracinabarhi. They achieved perfection by worshiping Lord Vishnu.


Pracinabarhi-a king who, entangled in fruitive activities, received instructions on devotional service from Narada Muni.


Pradhana-the total material energy in its unmanifest state.


Pradyumna-one of the four original expansions of Lord Krishna in the spiritual world.


Prahlada Maharaja-a devotee persecuted by his demoniac father Hiranyakasipu but protected and saved by the Lord in the form of N Rsimhadeva.


Prajapatis-the demigods in charge of populating the universe.


Prajas-citizens (including all species of life).


Prakamya-the mystic ability to fulfill any of one's desires.


Prakata-lila-the manifestation on earth of the Supreme Lord's pastimes.


Prakrta-sahajiyas-pseudodevotees of Krishna.


Prakrti- the energy of the Supreme; the female principle enjoyed by the male [purusa].


Pramada-woman, to whom a man becomes madly attached.


Pramatta-one who is crazy because he cannot control his senses.


Pramloca-the daughter of the sage Kandu by the heavenly society girl Marisa. She became the wife of the Pracetas.


Prana-the life air.


Prana-maya-(consciousness) absorbed in maintaining one's bodily existence.


Pranayama-breath control used in [yoga] practice, especially [astanga-yoga].


Prapti-the mystic ability to immediately obtain any material object.


Prasadam-the Lord's mercy; food or other items spiritualized by being first offered to the Supreme Lord.


Prasanta-undisturbed by the modes of nature.


Prasuti-a daughter of Svayambhuva Manu who was the wife of Daksa.


Pratigraha-accepting charity.


Pratyahara-withdrawal of the senses from all unnecessary activities.


Pravrtti-marga-the path of sense enjoyment in accordance with Vedic regulations.


Prayascitta-atonement for sinful acts.


Prema-pure love of God, the highest stage in the progressive development of devotional service.


Prema-bhakta-a devotee absorbed in pure love of God.




Priyavrata-the son of Svayambhuva Manu and brother of Uttanapada. He once ruled the universe.


Prsni-the name of Devaki in a previous birth.


Prtha-Kunti, the wife of King Pandu, mother of the Pandavas and aunt of Lord Krishna.


Prthu Maharaja-an empowered incarnation of Lord Krishna who demonstrated how to be an ideal ruler.


Pulaha-one of the seven great sages born directly from Lord Brahma.


Pulastya-one of the seven great sages born directly from Lord Brahma.


Pumscali-a harlot or unchaste woman.


Punya-sloka-verses that increase one's piety; one who is glorified by such verses.


Puranas-eighteen literary supplements to the [Vedas,] discussing such topics as the creation of the universe, incarnations of th e Supreme Lord and demigods, and the history of dynasties of saintly kings.


Purtam-performance of sacrifice.


Puru-the youngest son of King Yayati. He agreed to exchange his youth for his father's old age.


Pururava-a king who was captivated by the celestial woman Urvasi.


Purusa-the enjoyer, or male; the living entity or the Supreme Lord.


Purusa-avataras-the three primary Vishnu expansions of the Supreme Lord who are involved in universal creation.


Purusottama-Lord Krishna, who is the Supreme Person.


Putana-a witch who was sent by Kamsa to appear in the form of a beautiful woman to kill baby Krishna, but who was instead killed b y Him and granted liberation.






Radharani-Lord Krishna's most intimate consort, who is the personification of His internal, spiritual potency.


Raga-marga-the path of spontaneous love of Godhead.


Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami-one of the six Vaishnava spiritual masters who directly followed Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and systematically presented His teachings.


Raghunatha dasa Gosvami-one of the six Vaishnava spiritual masters who directly followed Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and systematically presented His teachings.


Rahugana Maharaja-the king who received spiritual instruction from Jada Bharata.


Rajarsi-saintly king.


Rajas-the material mode of passion.


Rajasuya-yajna-the great sacrificial ceremony performed by King Yudhisthira and attended by Lord Krishna.


Rajo-guna-the material mode of passion.


Raksasas-man-eating demons.


Raksasi-a female [Raksasa,] or demoness.


Rama-(1) a name of Lord Krishna meaning "the source of all pleasure." (2) Lord Ramacandra, an incarnation of the Supreme Lord as t he perfect king.


Rama-[See:] Ramacandra


Rama-rajya-a perfect Vedic kingdom like that of Lord Ramacandra, the incarnation of the Supreme Lord appearing as the perfect king.


Ramacandra-an incarnation of the Supreme Lord as the perfect king.


Ramananda Raya-an intimate associate of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Ramanujacarya-a great eleventh-century spiritual master of the Shri Vaishnava [sampradaya].


Ramayana-the epic history about Lord Ramacandra, originally written by Valmiki Muni.


Rasa Dance-Lord Krishna's pleasure dance with the cowherd maidens of Vrndavana. It is a pure exchange of spiritual love between th e Lord and His most advanced, confidential servitors.


Rasas-the loving moods or mellows relished in the exchange of love with the Supreme Lord.


Rasa-lila-the pure exchange of spiritual love between Krishna and His most advanced, confidential servitors, the cowherd damsels of Vrajabhumi.


Rasatala-the next-to-lowest planet in the universe's lower planetary system, Patala.


Ratha-yatra-an annual festival in which Deities of the Supreme Lord are drawn in procession upon huge, gaily decorated, canopied chariots.


Ravana-a demoniac ruler who was killed by Lord Ramacandra.


Rk-samhita-the [Rg Veda.]


Rg Veda-one of the four [Vedas,] the original scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself.


Rohini-one of Vasudeva's wives, who later lived under the care of Nanda Maharaja. She is the mother of Balarama.


Romaharsana-the father of Suta Gosvami. He was killed by Lord Balarama for his disrespect.


Rsabhadeva-an incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a devotee king who, after instructing his sons in spiritual life, renounced Hi s kingdom for a life of austerity.


Rsi-a sage.


Rudra-[See:] Siva


Rudras-the expansions of Lord Siva who rule over the material mode of ignorance.


Rukmi-a brother of Krishna's queen Rukmini.


Rukmini-Lord Krishna's principal queen in Dvaraka.


Rukmini-Dvarakadhisa-the transcendental couple manifested as Krishna, the Lord of Dvaraka, and His queen Rukmini.


Rupa Gosvami-the chief of the six Vaishnava spiritual masters who directly followed Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and systematically p resented His teachings.




Sabda-brahma-transcendental sound vibration.


Sac-cid-ananda-eternal, blissful and full of knowledge.


Sac-cid-ananda-vigraha-the Lord's transcendental form, which is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss.


Sacipati-[See:] Indra


Sacred thread-a thread worn by persons initiated into the chanting of the Gayatri [mantra.]


Sad-aisvarya-purna-the Supreme Lord, who is full in all six opulences: wealth, strength, knowledge, fame, beauty and renunciation.


Sad-bhuja-murti-the six-armed form of Lord Chaitanya.


Sadhana-the beginning phase of devotional service, consisting of regulated practice.


Sadhu-a saintly person.


Sadhu-sanga-the association of saintly persons.


Sadhyas-demigods inhabiting the heavenly planets.


Saguna-having qualities. In reference to the Supreme Lord, the term signifies that He has spiritual qualities.


Sahajiyas-[See: Prakrta-sahajiyas]


Sahajiya-an offensive, immature devotee who does not follow proper devotional regulations.


Saivites-devotees of Lord Siva.


Sakama-bhakta-a devotee with material desires.


Sakatasura-a ghost who took shelter of a bullock cart with the intention of killing Lord Krishna but who instead was killed by the Lord.


Sakhya-rasa-a relationship with the Supreme Lord in devotional friendship.


Sakti-tattva-the personal energies of the Lord.


Sakty-avesa-empowered by the Supreme Lord with one or more of His opulences.


Salagrama-sila-a Deity incarnation of the Supreme Lord in the form of a stone.


Salokya-(the liberation of) residing on the same planet as the Supreme Lord.


Sama-control of the mind.


Sama-darsi-seeing with equal vision.


Sama Veda-one of the four original [Vedas]. It consists of sacrificial hymns set to music.


Samadhi-trance; complete absorption in God consciousness.


Samba-a son of Lord Krishna by His wife Jambavati.


Sambhu-a name of Lord Siva.


Samhitas-supplementary Vedic literatures expressing the conclusions of particular self-realized authorities.


Samipya-(the liberation of) becoming a personal associate of the Supreme Lord.


Sampradaya-a disciplic succession of spiritual masters; the followers in that tradition.


Samsara-the cycle of repeated birth and death in the material world.


Samskara-one of the purificatory Vedic rituals performed one by one from the time of conception until death.


Samsrti-the cycle of repeated birth and death.




Sanatana-dharma-the eternal occupation, or religion, of all living beings; devotional service to the Supreme Lord.


Sanatana Gosvami-one of the six Vaishnava spiritual masters who directly followed Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and systematically pre sented His teachings.


Sankara-[See:] Siva


Sankaracarya-the incarnation of Lord Siva as the great philosopher who, on the order of the Supreme Lord, preached impersonali sm based on the [Vedas].


Sankarsana-one of the four original expansions of Lord Krishna in the spiritual world; also, another name of Balarama, given by Ga rga Muni.


Sankha-the conchshell held by Lord Vishnu.


Sankhya-analytical discrimination between spirit and matter; also, the path of devotional service described by Lord Kapila, the son of Devahuti.


Sankhya-analytical discrimination between spirit and matter. [See also: Sankhya-yoga.]


Sankhya-yoga-the process of linking with the Supreme by intellectually tracing out the source of creation.


Sankirtana-congregational glorification of the Supreme Lord, Krishna, especially through chanting of the His holy names.


Sannyasa-renounced life; the fourth order of Vedic spiritual life.


Sannyasi-one in the [sannyasa] (renounced) order.




Santa-rasa-a relationship with the Supreme Lord in neutrality.


Sapa-a [brahmana's] curse.


Sara grass-a whitish reed.


Sarasvati-the goddess of learning and the wife of Lord Brahma.


Sarga-material creation.


Sari-Vedic women's dress.


Sarmistha-the second wife of King Yayati. On account of his having sex with her, the King was cursed by Sukracarya to lose his



Sarsti-(the liberation of) achieving equal opulence with the Lord.


Sarupya-(the liberation of) attaining a spiritual form like that of the Supreme Lord.


Sarva-jna-one who knows everything-past, present and future.


Sarva-karana-karana-the cause of all causes, Krishna.


Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya-a famous logician who surrendered to Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Sarvatma-[See:] Paramatma


Sastra-revealed scripture, such as the Vedic literature.




Satarupa-the wife of Svayambhuva Manu and mother of Devahuti.


Sati-the wife of Lord Siva and a daughter of Daksa.


Sati rite-voluntary suicide by a chaste widow at her husband's funeral.


Sattva-guna-the material mode of goodness.


Sattvika-in the mode of goodness.


Satvata-pancaratra-on of the [Pancaratras,] consisting of a conversation between Narada Muni and Lord Sankarsana desccribing the

rules and regulations of devotional service.


Satvata scriptures-Vedic scriptures meant especially for the devotees of the Lord.




Satyaloka-Lord Brahma's abode, the highest planet in the material universe; also called Brahmaloka.


Satyavrata Manu-one of the administrative demigods who are the fathers and lawgivers of mankind.


Satya-yuga-the first and best in the cycle of the four ages of the universe. It lasts 1,728,000 years.


Satyabhama-one of the principal queens of Lord Krishna during His pastimes in the city of Dvaraka.


Satyagraha-fasting for political purposes.


Saubhari Muni-a powerful mystic who accidentally fell down to sex attraction.


Saunaka Rsi-the chief of the sages assembled at Naimisaranya when Suta Gosvami spoke [Shrimad-Bhagavatam].


Sautramani-a particular Vedic fire sacrifice offered to Lord Indra.


Sayujya-(the liberation of) merging into the spiritual effulgence of the Lord.


Sesa Naga-an expansion of Lord Balarama who takes the form of a many-hooded serpent and serves as Lord Vishnu's couch and other paraphernalia. He also holds the millions of universes on His hoods.


Seva-devotional service.


Sevaka-a servant.


Sevya-one who is served.


Siddha-a perfected person, or mystic; a demigod from Siddhaloka.


Siddhaloka-the heavenly planet whose inhabitants possess all mystic powers.


Siddhi-mystic power or perfection acquired through [yoga] practice.


Siksastaka-eight verses by Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu glorifying the chanting of the Lord's holy name.


Sisupala-a king who was an enemy of Krishna.


Sita-the eternal consort of Lord Ramacandra.


Sita-Rama-the transcendental couple manifested as Lord Ramacandra, Krishna's incarnation as the perfect king, and Rama's consort,



Siva-the special incarnation of the Lord as the demigod in charge of the mode of ignorance and the destruction of the material manifestation.


Sivananda Sena-a great householder devotee of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Sivatama-the most auspicious.


Sloka-a Sanskrit verse.


Skanda Purana-one of the eighteen [Puranas,] or Vedic historical scriptures.


Smarana-the devotional process of remembering the Supreme Lord.


Smarta-a [brahmana] interested more in the external performance of the rules and rituals of the [Vedas] than in attaining Lord K Rsna, the goal of the [Vedas].


Smrti-revealed scriptures supplementary to the [sruti,] or original Vedic scriptures, which are the [Vedas] and [Upanisads].


Smrty-acarya-a spiritual master expert in the supplementary Vedic literatures.


Sneha-affection, especially for Lord Krishna.


Soma(raja)-Candra, the demigod in charge of the moon.


Soma-rasa-a life-extending heavenly beverage available to demigods on the higher planets.


Soul-the eternal living entity who is the marginal energy, eternally part and parcel of the Supreme Lord.


Sparsas-the consonants in the Sanskrit alphabet.


Spirit soul-[See: Jiva].


Sraddha-the ceremony of offering food and other items to one's ancestors to free them from suffering.


Sravana-the devotional process of hearing about the Supreme Lord.


Sravanam kirtanam visnoh-the devotional process of hearing and chanting about Lord Vishnu, or Krishna.


Shri-[See:] Shrila.


Shridhara Svami-the author of the earliest extant Vaishnava commentaries on [Bhagavad-gita] and [Shrimad-Bhagavatam].


Shri Gurudeva-the spiritual master.


Shrila-a title indicating possession of exceptional spiritual qualities.


Shrila Prabhupada-His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.


Shrimad-Bhagavatam-the [Purana,] or history, written by Shrila Vyasadeva specifically give a deep understanding of Lord Krishna, H is devotees and devotional service.


Shrinivasacarya-a chief follower of the six Gosvamis of Vrndavana.


Shrivasa-an intimate associate of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Shrivatsa-the sign of the goddess of fortune on the chest of Lord Vishnu, or Narayana.


Sruti-knowledge via hearing; also, the original Vedic scriptures (the [Vedas] and [upanisads]), given directly by the Supreme L ord.


Sruti-mantras-the hymns of the [Vedas].


Stotra-a prayer.


Stri-a woman.


Sudama Vipra-a poor householder friend and devotee of Lord Krishna who was given immeasurable riches by the Lord.


Sudarsana cakra-the disc weapon of the Supreme Lord.


Suddha-sattva-the spiritual platform of pure goodness.


Sudra-a laborer; the fourth of the Vedic social orders.


Sudrani-the wife of a [sudra].


Sukadeva Gosvami-the great devotee sage who spoke [Shrimad-Bhagavatam] to King Pariksit just prior to the King's death.


Sukla-a person in the mode of goodness; also, a name for Lord Vishnu.


Sukla-yajur Veda-a version of the [Yajur Veda.]


Sukra-[See:] Sukracarya


Sukracarya-the spiritual master of the demons.


Sukrti-pious persons.


Sunanda-one of the chief personal servants of Lord Narayana in His spiritual abode, Vaikuntha.


Sunitha-the wife of King Anga and mother of Vena.


Suniti-the mother of Dhruva Maharaja.


Supersoul-[See:] Paramatma


Surabhi cows-spiritual cows, in the spiritual world, which yield unlimited quantities of milk.


Suras-demigods or devotees.


Suruci-the stepmother of Dhruva Maharaja.


Surya-the demigod of the sun.


Susupti-deep sleep, one of the three levels of material consciousness.


Suta Gosvami-the great devotee sage who recounted the discourses between Pariksit and Sukadeva to the sages assembled in the fo rest of Naimisaranya.


Sutapa-the name of Vasudeva in a previous birth.


Sutra-the intermediate manifestation of the [mahat-tattva,] when it is predominated by the mode of passion.


Svabhavya-a scripture.


Svaha-the wife of Agni, the fire-god.


Svami-a controller of the mind and senses; the title of one in the renounced, or [sannyasa,] order.


Svamsas-nondifferent plenary expansions of the Lord.


Svar-the upper material planets.


Svargaloka-the heavenly planets of the material world.


Svarupa-one's original, spiritual form.


Svarupa-siddhi-the perfection of attaining one's original, spiritual form.


Svarupa-vismrti-forgetting one's real constitutional position.


Svayambhu-the "self-born one," Lord Brahma.


Svayambhuva Manu-the Manu who appears first in Brahma's day and who was the grandfather of Dhruva Maharaja.


Svayamvara-the ceremony in which a princess is allowed to choose her husband.


Svetadvipa-the spiritual planet where Lord Vishnu resides within the material universe.


Svetasvatara Upanisad-one of the 108 [upanisads]. That very clearly presents the Vaishnava point of view regarding the Lord and the living entity.


Swami-[See: Sannyasa] order.


Syamasundara-the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, who is blackish and very beautiful.




Taksaka-the flying snake who killed Pariksit Maharaja.


Tamo-guna-the mode of ignorance.


Tantras-Vedic literatures consisting mostly of dialogues between Lord Siva and Durga. They contain instructions on Deity worshi p and other aspects of spiritual practice.


Tapas-[See:] Tapoloka.


Tapasvi-one who performs severe penances and austerities.


Tapasya-austerity; accepting some voluntary inconvenience for a higher purpose.


Tapoloka-a heavenly planet.


Tara-the wife of Brhaspati. She was kidnapped by the moon-god.


Tatastha-sakti-the living entities, who are the marginal potency of the Supreme Lord.


Tattva-darsi-one who has seen the truth.


Tattvas-the Absolute Truth's multifarious categories.


Thakura Haridasa-[See:] Haridasa Thakura


Tilaka-auspicious clay markings placed by devotees on the forehead and other parts of the body.


Tithis-the days of the Vedic calendar, measured according to the phases of the moon.




Trayi-one who follows the three principal [Vedas] ([Rg, Sama] and [Yajur]), which explain fruitive activities.


Treta-yuga-the second age in the cycle of the four ages of the universe. It lasts 1,296,000 years.


Tri-danda-a staff, made of three rods, carried by [sannyasis] who are devotees of Lord Krishna, signifying service with mind, body

and words.


Tridandi-sannyasi-a member of the renounced order of life who accepts the personal nature of the Absolute Truth.


Trivikrama-Lord Vamana, the incarnation of the Supreme Lord who encompased the three worlds in three steps.


Trnavarta-a whirlwind-shaped demon ho was sent by Kamsa to kill Krishna, but whom Krishna killed instead.


Tulasi-a sacred plant dear to Lord Krishna and worshiped by His devotees.






Uddhava-a learned disciple of Brhaspati and confidential friend of Lord Krishna in Dvaraka.


Ugra-karma-evil activities.


Ugrasena-the king of the Yadu dynasty.


Ujjvala-nilamani-a Sanskrit work that describes the complete science of [madhurya-rasa,] the conjugal relationship with Lord Krishna. It was compiled by Shrila Rupa Gosvami in the sixteenth century.


Uma-[See:] Durga


Upadesamrta-a short Sanskrit work by Rupa Gosvami containing important instructions about devotional service to Lord Krishna.


Upadhis-material designations.


Upananda-the brother of Nanda Maharaja and oldest and the most knowledgeable of the cowherd men of Gokula Vrndavana.


Upanisads-108 philosophical works that appear within the [Vedas].


Upasana-kanda-the portions of the [Vedas] dealing with ceremonies of worship, especially demigod worship.




Upendra-Vamanadeva, who appears as the younger brother of Indra.


Urugaya-the Supreme Lord, who is worshiped by sublime prayers.


Urukrama-the Supreme Lord, who takes large steps (especially as the dwarf-[brahmana] incarnation, Vamanadeva).


Urvasi-a woman from the heavenly planets who became enamored of King Pururava.


Utkala-the eldest son of Dhruva Maharaja.


Uttama-the brother of Dhruva Maharaja.


Uttamasloka-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, who is worshiped by select poetry.


Uttanapada-the king who was a son of Svayambhuva Manu and the father of Dhruva Maharaja.




Vaidurya-mani-a spiritual gem that can display different colors.


Vaijayanti-a garland containing flowers of five colors and reaching down to the knees. It is worn by Lord Krishna.


Vaikuntha-the spiritual world, where there is no anxiety.




Vaishnava-a devotee of Lord Vishnu, or Krishna.


Vaishnava-aparadha-an offense to a devotee of the Lord.


Vaishnava-dharma-the eternal principle of service to the Supreme Lord, Vishnu.


Vaisya-a farmer or merchant; the third Vedic social order.


Vaivasvata Manu-the current Manu, the seventh of fourteen Manus.


Vaiyasaki-Sukadeva Gosvami, son of Vyasa.


Valmiki-the author of the original [ramayana].


Vamana-the incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a dwarf [brahmana.] Bali Maharaja surrendered to him.


Vanaprastha-one who has retired from family life; the third order of Vedic spiritual life.


Vandana-the devotional process of offering prayers to the Lord.


Vanik-a merchant.


Varaha-the incarnation of the Supreme Lord as a boar.


Varnas-the four Vedic social-occupational divisions of society, distinguished by quality of work and situation in the modes of n ature ([gunas]). [See also: Brahmana; Ksatriya; Vaisya] and [Sudra].


Varna-sankara-children conceived without regard for Vedic religious principles; thus, unwanted population.


Varnasrama-dharma-the Vedic social system of four social and four spiritual orders. [See also: Varna; Asrama]


Varuna-the demigod in charge of the oceans.


Vasistha-one of the great sages born directly from Lord Brahma. He was a rival of Visvamitra.


Vasitva-the mystic ability to control others' minds.


Vasudeva-the father of Krishna, and half-brother of Nanda Maharaja.


Vasudeva-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, son of Vasudeva and proprietor of everything, material and spiritual.


Vasudeva-parayana-one whose desire is fixed on the Supreme Lord.


Vatsalya-rasa-a relationship with the Supreme Lord, Krishna, wherein the devotee loves the Lord with parental affection.


Vatsasura-a demon who came to Vrndavana in the form of a calf to kill Krishna but who was instead killed by Him.


Vayu-air; the demigod in charge of the wind.


Veda-caksuh-literally, seeing through the eyes of the [Vedas.]


Vedanta-the philosophy of the [Vedanta-sutra] of Shrila Vyasadeva. It contains a conclusive summary of Vedic philosophical knowl edge and shows Krishna as the goal.


Vedanta-sutra-the philosophical treatise written by Vyasadeva, consisting of aphorisms that embody the essential meaning of the [Upanisads].


Vedas-the four original revealed scriptures ([Rg, Sama, Atharva] and [Yajur].


Veda-vada-rata-one who gives his own explanation of the [Vedas;] a [smarta].


Vedic-pertaining to a culture in which all aspects of human life are under the guidance of the [Vedas].


Vedic literature-the original four [Vedas,] the [Upanisads, Puranas] and other supplements, and also all scriptures and commenta ries written in pursuance of the Vedic conclusion.


Vena-the demoniac son of King Anga and father of King Prthu.


Vibhinnamsas-the separated expansions of the Supreme Lord, the minute living entities.


Vibhuti-the opulence and power of the Supreme Lord.


Vidagdha-one who is expert in the art of flattering women.


Videha-a city in India ruled by King Nimi.


Videharaja Nimi-a devotee king, ruler of Videha.


Vidura-a great devotee who heard [Shrimad-Bhagavatam] from Maitreya Muni.  He was an incarnation of the demigod Yama.




Vidyadharas-a race of celestial beings who possess material knowledge.


Vidyapati-an author of Vaishnava poetry who was particularly admired by Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


Vijara-not subjected to the miseries of old age.


Vijaya-[See:] Jaya and Vijaya


Vijayadhvaja Tirtha-a Vaishnava spiritual master in the line of Madhvacarya who was a commentator on [Shrimad-Bhagavatam].


Vijitasva-the eldest son of King Prthu. He is also known as Antardhana.


Vijnana-realized or practical knowledge.


Vijnana-maya-with full knowledge, that is, conscious of the self as different from matter.


Vikarma-sinful work, performed against scriptural injunctions.


Vimudhas-foolish rascals.


Vimukta-a liberated person.


Vina-a stringed musical instrument.


Vipra-a learned [brahmana].


Vira-vrata-one who follows his vows heroicly.


Virabhadra-the demon created by Lord Siva to destroy the sacrifice of Maharaja Daksa.


Viraha-transcendental bliss in separation from the Lord.


Viraraghava Acarya-a Vaishnava spiritual master in the line of Ramanujacarya who was a commentator on [Shrimad-Bhagavatam].


Virat-purusa-the "universal form" of the Supreme Lord, conceived of as the totality of all material manifestations.


Virat-rupa-the universal form of the Supreme Lord, conceived of as the totality of all material manifestations.


Visaya-material affairs of sense gratification.


Visaya-taranga-the waves of material existence.


Vishnu-the Supreme Lord; Lord Krishna's expansions in Vaikuntha and for the creation and maintenance of the material universes.


Vishnu-dharma-one of the eighteen [Puranas,] or Vedic historical scriptures.


Vishnu-bhakti-devotional service to Lord Vishnu.


Vishnu-murtis-forms of the Supreme Lord.


Vishnu Purana-one of the eighteen [Puranas,] or Vedic historical scriptures.


Vishnu-tattva-the status or category of Godhead; primary expansions of the Supreme Lord.


Vishnu-yajna-a sacrifice performed for the satisfaction of Lord Vishnu.


Vishnudutas-the messengers of Lord Vishnu, who come at the time of death to take perfected devotees back to the spiritual world.


Vishnuloka-the abode of Lord Vishnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


Vishnupriya-devi-the second wife of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, whom He left to accept [sannyasa,] the renounced order of life.


Visoka-callous to material distress.


Visruta-the son begotten by the Pracetas through Marisa.


Visuddha-sattva-the spiritual platform of pure goodness.


Visvakarma-the architect of the demigods.


Visvamitra-a prominent sage and rival of Vasistha Muni.


Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura-a great Vaishnava spiritual master in the line of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and a commentator on [ Shrimad-Bhagavatam] and [Bhagavad-gita].


Visvavasu-a leader of the Gandharvas, singers in the heavenly planets.


Vivaha-yajna-the sacrifice of marriage.


Vivarta-vada-the erroneous concept, propounded by followers of Sankaracarya, that manifest existence is only illusory.


Vivasvan-the demigod in charge of the sun.


Vraja(bhumi)-[See:] Vrndavana


Vrndavana-Krishna's eternal abode, where He fully manifests His quality of sweetness; the village on this earth in which He enacte d His childhood pastimes five thousand years ago.


Vrndavana dasa Thakura-the great devotee of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who wrote [Chaitanya-bhagavata,] a biography of Lord Caitan ya.


Vrtrasura-a great demon killed by Indra. He was actually the devotee Citraketu, who had been cursed to take a low birth.


Vyasa-[See:] Vyasadeva.


Vyasa-puja-worship of the compiler of the [Vedas,] Vyasadeva; worship of the bona fide spiritual master as the representative of Vyasadeva.


Vyasadeva-the incarnation of Lord Krishna who gave the [Vedas, Puranas, Vedanta-sutra] and [mahabharata] to mankind.








Yadava dynasty-[See:] Yadu dynasty.


Yadus-the descendants of Yadu, in which dynasty Lord Krishna appeared.


Yadu dynasty-the dynasty in which Lord Krishna appeared.


Yajamana-the sponsor for whom a Vedic sacrifice is performed.


Yajna-a Vedic sacrifice; also, the Supreme Lord, the goal and enjoyer of all sacrifices.


Yajna-purusa-Krishna, the supreme enjoyer of all sacrifices.


Yajur Veda-one of the four [Vedas,] the original revealed scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself.


Yaksas-ghostly followers of the demigod Kuvera.


Yama-the process of controlling the senses.


Yamadutas-the messengers of Yamaraja, the lord of death.


Yamaraja-the demigod who punishes the sinful after death.


Yamunacarya-a great Vaishnava spiritual master of the Shri [sampradaya].


Yasoda-the foster mother of Krishna, who was the Queen of Vraja and wife of Maharaja Nanda.


Yasoda-nandana-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, who is the darling son of Yasoda.




Yavana-a low-class person, generally a meat-eater; a barbarian.


Yayati-the king who, because of his lust, was cursed by Sukracarya to prematurely accept old age.


Yoga-spiritual discipline undergone to link oneself with the Supreme.


Yogamaya-the internal, spiritual energy of the Supreme Lord; also, its personification as Krishna's younger sister.


Yoga-nidra-the mystic slumber of Lord Vishnu.


Yoga-siddhis-mystic powers.


Yogendras-nine devotee sons of Rsabhadeva.


Yogesvara-the Supreme Lord, Krishna, the supreme master of all mystic power.


Yogi-a transcendentalist striving for union with the Supreme.


Yogini-a female [yogi].


Yojana-a Vedic unit of length equal to about eight miles.


Yudhisthira-the eldest of the five Pandava brothers; he ruled the earth after the Kuruksetra war.


Yuga-avataras-the four incarnations of the Supreme Lord who prescribe the appropriate method of spiritual realization in each of

the four [yugas,] or ages.


Yugas-ages in the life of the universe, occurring in a repeated cycle of four.


Yuga-dharma-the religion for the age.


Yukta-vairagya-real renunciation in which one utilizes everything in the service of the Supreme Lord.