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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Six Philosophies > Liberation according to the four sampradayas > Ramanuja

Ramanuja

 

Bondage:

 

Beginningless Karma is considered to be the cause of bondage of the Jivas in Samsara. Because of this the souls are caught up in a continuous cycle of births and deaths.

 

Moksa:

 

Bhakti: According to Visistadvaita Vedanta,`bhakti' is the means or `upaya' to `moksa', as this is evident from numerous Sruti and Smrti texts. Bhakti is defined as unceasing meditation done with love on the Supreme Being (`snehapurvamİanudyanam'). It is regarded as knowledge in the form of love for God (`pritirupa jnana'). It is generated by scrupulous observance of religious duties as laid down by scripture in accordance with one's `varna' and `asrama', along with spiritual knowledge. The performance of one's duties and rituals (`karma') will have to be observed œ, as explained in Gita, purely as divine service for the pleasure of God (`bhagavat priti') and not in expectation of any rewards thereof. This in brief is the Visistadvaita view of `sadhana' for Moksa.

 

Prapatti: Visistadvaita philosophy discusses besides Bhakti, `prapatti' or absolute self surrender to God as an alternative means to `moksa'. Bhakti is a rigorous discipline, and for those, who are incapable of undertaking it, `prapatti' is advocated as an alternative easy path to `moksa', This doctorine is adopted on the strength of the teachings contained in the Vedas as well as the Itihasas, Puranas, and Pancaratra literature.

 

The Nature of Mukti: According to the Visistadvaita Vedanta, `moksa' is not merely freedom from bondage but it is also a positive state of existence for the Jiva in a supraİmundane realm (`paramaİpada') without losing its individuality. This state of highest achievement is described as `paripurnaŞbrahmanubhava', the full and perfect enjoyment of the bliss of Brahman. It is admitted that the individual soul in the state of `moksa' could assume a body out of its free will (`sankalpa') for the purpose of enjoying bliss or for movement.

 

”JIVA”: is of the nature of consciousness and possesses `dharmabhutajnana' as an inseparable attribute. It is real, eternal and unborn. It is distinct from the body, sense organs, mind and vital airs. Though the individual self, as a mode of Brahman, is essentially of the same nature, it is actually distinct; for it is of monadic size and resides in a separate body. It is the agent, the enjoyer, the embodied Self, and the body. It is embodied Self with regard to its physical body. It is the body with regard to Isvara. It is not only sentient, but it is also of the essence of ananda. Samsara is due to avidya which is of the nature of karma, accumulated by the jiva in its previous births. In this condition jnana and ananda are obscured but fully manifest in the state of liberation. In spite of its monadic size, the jiva can contact the ends of space through its attributive knowledge.

 

Classification of Jivas:

 

                                                         JIVA

                                                          *

                                                          *

                             İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ

                             *                           *                           *

                             *                           *                           *

                         NITYAS                MUKTAS                        BADDHAS

                        (eternals)                        (liberated)                       (the bound)

                                                                                      *

                                                                                      *

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ

                             *                                                                           *

                             *                                                                           *

                      BUBHUKSU                                                                       MUMUKSU

                   (the pleasure seeker)                                                          (the salvation seeker)

                             *                                                                           *

                             *                                                                           *

İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ                                   İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ

*                                     *                           *                                     *

*                                     *                           *                                     *

ARTHAKAMAPARA              DHARMAPARA   VOTARY OF                       VOTARY OF

(votary of artha &             (votary of dharma)             KAIVALYA                             MOKSA

           kama)                                  *                  [`kaivalya' is                             *

                                                *                  defined as the nature                    *

          İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ    of self realization of the                *

          *                                              *        self as distinct from prakrti]           *

          *                                              *                                                        *

   VOTARY OF                              VOTARY OF                                                *

    VARIOUS                                BHAGAVAN                                                 *

      GODS                                (4 kinds, Bg.vii.16)                                          *

                                                                                                                   *

                   İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ

                   *                                                                  *

                   *                                                                  *

               BHAKTA                                                    PRAPANNA

            (lover of God)                                                (one who has surrendered

                                                                             himself to God)

                                                                                      *

                                                                                      *

                   İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ

                   *                                                        *

                   *                                                        *

              EKANTIN                                        PARAMAİEKANTIN

   (one pointed)                                   (extremely one pointed)

 

[he is ekantin who seeks                                  [he is`paramaİekantin' who does not

from Bhagavan alon eliberation                         desire any other fruits even from

along with other (worldly) fruits]                        bhagavan Himself except devotion

                                                                   and knowledge]

                                                                             *

                                                                             *

                             İİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİİ

                             *                                                                           *

                             *                                                                           *

                         DRPTA                                                                 ARTHA

(patient aspirant who experiences                                (impatient aspirant who

the fruits of his past deeds and                                   desires release immediately desires perfection at the time of                                      after the act of self-surrender)

casting off his body)