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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Shandilya Muni > Shandilya Bhakti Sutras > CHAPTER - III


Lesson - 1


Bhajaniyena advitiyam idam Kritsnasya tatsvarupatvatII 85 II



Bhajan or Para-Bhakti is of transcendental Nature identical with God being of His essential Potency viz. Means is the End in Itself.



Shri Rupa Goswami refferring to Shri Narada Pancharatra says:1 To serve the Supreme Lord and all His senses by the complete appliction of the reciprocal chit or spiritual  organs of the pure soul is called Bhakti. This Bhakti is free from all posible extraneous desires, and is subservient to the delight of the Lord and must not be clouded  by.Jnana, Karma, Yoga etc.


Bhajan or Seva  or Bhakti at its climax is Prema-svarupa.   And Prema  is self delight of God Krhhnananda Pradayi-. Hladini-Aspect of God, therefore   of  His   Essential    Potency   identical with   God   Himself.     That   is   the   Self-some Hladini Potency   of  God   when   Projected   on the uneclipsed jiva-soul all his senses thereby being    surcharged   with   the   current    of   pure Divine poignancy of Love become engaged in gratifiying the Transcendental Senses of Hrishi-kesha, the Supreme Godhead;  unalloyed service to God is the eternal and uninterrupted function of the soul.   This service cannot be performed by means  of this  body and mind.   It is per­formed by the  pure soul who is absolutely free from all worldly hankerings.   The Nama, Rupa, Guna,  Leela  and Parikaras   of  God   and   the Form   of  Service   to   Him   are   spiritual.     No mundane consideration exists in Seva or service. Those in whose pure heart these ideas perpe­tually reign they soon realise God as well as of   their   own   self;    they   do   ere   long  attain Vastu siddhi  (i.e.  in their unstinted   soul   God reveals and the   soul   augmenting  his  natural sentiment   of  Raganuga-Bhava    gains   personal service to that Transcendental CGod).   Here, so long he remains on earth he remnains constantly engaged in the   service   intoxic^atedly drinking deep the Nectar  that flows, geetting a glimpse of those Leelas of God.   As lUpanishad says (Chandogya) :   By providance (0f Shyama,     Itake recourse to Shabala, the Essential Self-  some Potency of Shyama, and havingg cogently con­cocted   the   Raganuga-Bhava   aaugmenting   the Ragatmika-Bhava   of  Shabala,    the    Projected-Absolute-Counter-whole-Rasa: ll become dove­tailed in loving service of  Shvyama.    Shaking off the   very   nescience   as a 1 horse his hairs,shaking off the  body,  as the 1 moon frees itself from the mouth of Rahu, I, a soiul with intuitive wisdom   like   a cuckoo-kid halving grown the wings leaving aside the nest cof the  crow   fly  into my eternal nest, the Abode c0f Eternal Peace —yea I attain the Abode of Eterrnal Bliss.       85


Tat shaktih  maya jadasamanyat   II 86 II



God's external Potency is mays but she is insentient or inert.



Bhagavan says:1 "My external potency which is the perverted reflection of My Internal Potency (Yoga-maya) is known as mays (maha maya) — the   mother   of  this  mundane universe.     She at her primordial state of existence in her con­dition of mahat-tattva remains inert and when propelled by Me she in her manifested   state  consists of eight components viz. earth, water, fire, air and ether-the five gross elements, and mind, intelligence and   ego - the   three   subtle elements.     The five gross  elements have five­fold properties viz.  smell, taste, colour, touch and sound respectively.     When the jiva souls enter into her she infuses the spirit of cognizance when  evolves the principle of ego and buddhi along with the; ten operative senses and the mind. Sattva, trajas and tamas are the three quali­ties of this may a with which the world  universe has been deluided. Thus illusioned by the triple gunas of maya all the beings do not realise Me, th<e final Resort of all, extremely difficult to overcome. My this  deluding potency (maya) illusions all through her triple gunas. But it is only those who surrender themselves absolutely to Me and Me, alone, can easily cross over this  ocean of maya.When  soulls  abusing their 'free-will' get a thought of enjoying for themselves and thereby forget their seirvice   to   Shri Krishna   they   are overpowered by  maya who giving the two causal bodies viz., physical and subtle, causes immense suffering to therm :    The sufferers become slaves to desires  and   anger, and receive  kicks from them as if the;y are possessed of ghosts   and act according to the evil spirit;   now a king, next a subject, some times born in vipra or in sudra or non-human  birth even the lowest insect; now happy thein  suffering like   anything, now elevated to the swargaloka, then thrown to this world or to hell. They are in endless journey of  birth and re-birth passing through fourteen worlds. But to make an end of this endless journey and to possess the Transcendental Bliss they will have to regain through  service to Me, the plane of consciousness which they have lost through their non-serving attitude.They should have to gel that enlightenment from the true satsanga which  alone is the legitimate propitiation to get back the very consciousness that is innate in every soul, which is now in dorment state"


Vyapakatvat - vyapyanam   ii 87 II


 Translation :

Due to the immanence God in the universe or His All pervasiveness all principles are sub­servient to or superintended by God therefore nothing can exist beyond His  jurisdiction.


purport :Supreme God is one without a second.    He has   got   three    potencies :     Swarupa-Shakti    or Antaranga-Shakti, Essential Potency (Yoga-maya) through  which He creates or does His Own Leela at the Place of Transcendence viz. His Descents (Bhauma-Leela), Vaikuntha-Leela and  Goloka-Leela,     (ii)   Tatstha-Shakti   or   jiva-Shakti,   the entire jiva-world (sentient beings) comes of this jiva-potency.   Being born of Tatastha-Potency a jiva can move either in the spiritual world or in the   fourteen  worlds (or   Universe),   and   (iii) Maya-shakti is His external potency who although inert but when  propelled by God and stationed in her  the  anadi-bahumukha jiva-souls  she gives Birth to this phenomenal world  of cause and effect.   Therefore   Tatstha-shakti or jiva-potency as   well   as   external   potency    maya   are   not independent  principles.   They ever remain sub­servient to God, they   have   got   no   seperate existence without the support of God.


Before the creation  of the universe,  verily the Brahman (the Supreme Personality of God-head)   alongwith   His   Self-some   Potency   was existent   and   nothing   else    remained   separtely thereby it is to be known that His Tatstha-shakti (jiva-souls)   and  the mays, His external-potency were not separately existing but they were within  Him.   So  He,  the Selfsome Almighty thought, 'let Me create the worlds', (/) Tadaikshata r1 the Supreme Brahman through His Self-some Potency glanced upon.   Upon  what?   On inert prakriti, His  external-potency,   (2) bahu syam prajayayeti: He potentialised the inert Prakriti for evolution of manifold creation as per His design, (3) tatteja  cikhata bahu  syam prajayayeti :    Now the prakriti being propelled by the Lord, got evolved and gave birth to manifold elements.How the Immutable and Immortal Divinity is  the Source of all being without least modification of Himself: (i) as a spider emits and withdraws its web so also this world proceeds from the Immutable Divinity, (ii) as per  the seeds  the respective plants are grown, evenso this universe or the respective jivas are born where earth is only the material cause being totally dependent on Him. (Who  is Vaishamya-hairghrinye na).1 So these two analogies suggest that this Universe has come out from the Divinity, sustained by Him and finally resorts in Him. Just as  seeds remain latent underground in the winter and sprout out into herbs and plants in the rainy season, so also during the pralaya jiva-souls with their different karmas as  their seeds remain within Him and come out unconsciously and without any exertion on his parts hairs, so also, the jivas and the universe come out from Him without any  effort on His part3 Shalavatya asks.3 "What is the subtratum of this world ?' Answered by Pravahana -. ' 'It is Akasha". All these beings emanate from Akasha alone. They  finally return back to Akashaf because Akasha alone is greater than all beings and Akasha is the final Goal for every being. Here Akasha denotes Supreme Purusha (refer  Vedanta  sutras1   akashastallingat).    Such  terms as Akasha and the like are used here setting forth the creation and government of the world, designate not the  thing—sentient or non-sentient which is known from ordinary experience, but Brahman. "All these beings spring from Akasha only" Kethopanished (1.9.1.) declares that the  whole world originated from Akasha only, and from this it follows that "Akasha" is none other than the Efficient Cause of the world i.e. Brahman. Further1 'if this Akasha were  not bliss, 'Akasha' indeed, is the evolver of names and forms : It thus appears that the 'Akasha' in the text under discussion denotes the Highest Self with His haracteristics  for the Qualities which the mantra attributes to 'Akasha' viz., the single cause of the entire worldi Greater than all and the Rest for all.


The non-intelligent elemental 'ether' cannot be called the cause of all, since intelligent beings clearly cannot be its effects, not can it be called the 'rest' of intelligent beings,  nor can it be called 'greater' than all. In  the   Shvetashvatara    we   find,   once   a number of Rishis sat together and they were pondering over, 'Who is the fundamental  Creater of the universe ?   From Whom all of us have come and by Whom we are all sustained ?   at the time of dissolution where we all have to rest? Who   is   the    Propeller   and   Monitor   of    the universe?'     These   fundamental   philosophical queries  finally were solved when they had the Subjective   Realisation   of  the     Transcendental Personality of God-head  having been endowed with   intuitive   wisdom.   They learnt  that  the Supreme Brahman is the Fundamental Cause of the creation.    The Supreme Brahman possesses innumerable Potencies but they may be classified into three  categories viz   Chit-shakti or svarupa-shakti~~(l)  Essential   Potency    which   is   again classified into three as   (a) Jnana-shakti or Samvit-Iccha-shakti, (b) Sandhini or krida-shakti, (c) Hiadini; (2) Jiva-shakti   or  Tatasiha-shakii  or  Intermediator^ Potency,    (3)   Bahiranga-shakti or mayic-potency. The individual jiva-soul is to be known as subtle as a part of the hundredth part of hair-blade divided a  hundredfold and yet he is to be under­stood qualitatively same with the infinity   but absolutely not quantitatively, as God is Infinite and jiva finite, God is the controller of  oiaya but jiva is liable to be affected by may a.   In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad1. (i)  As a spider at ease spreads a net and freely moves on it without itself being  entangled, similarly God created or produced this   universe (Hiranyagarbha)   from His   external   potency   and   forthwith   by   His Providence the modes of Prakriti got  themselves shaped accordingly.    God ever presides over the Prakriti,  moves about  like a spider on its nets without in anyway involved into it.    Besides, God with His All -  pervasiveness remains in and out of the universe. Yet  He is not subjected to the modes or qualities of Prakriti.    (ii)   Not only the material universe,  but also all the  jiva-souls, like the sparks of a blazing fire, came forth from Him only. Shruti declares sarvepranah : which naturally includes the dtvah -. the gods too and also sarvani  bhutani.   Furthermore when the Shruti was expressing the creation of chetana why in between pranah and devah, the word sarvt-lokah (meaning the worlds) the jada-prakriti  (matter) is pointed out? So we must have the correct import without any contradiction. As we have learnt that the universe in which all the worlds remain, emerged from  God's eternal potency, therefore in this context sarve-lokah cannot refer to the worlds. Here all those sparks are having certain similarity with the blazing fire whereas the net  has got no similarity with the spider. So sparks are the part of the fire but they are infinitesimal atomic energy of the entire fire, fiii) Therefore immediately after telling  sarve­pranah-. all the souls sarve-lokah {here lokashabdo jnanaparah) with particular characteristics manifested owing to connection with limiting adjuncts; (iv) sarve devah-.  sarve jiva h includes all beings including the gods of the heaven so here sarve devah refers to the eternal Nitya-muktajivas. Jn general, telling about the emanation of all the  Jivas with their providence, the shruti specifically keeps the distinction of the Muktajivas though they are also from Gods's tataitha-shakti and are free from any limited  adjunctsv)  Sarvani-bhutani -. besides the animate beings even all the manimate beings whatsover. ('Now the Shruti crushes down the Kevaladvaitavadin's absolute monism  of non-distinction; Brahman is the Supreme Reality as He is the Real of reals. The jiva souls are also real eternally existing with their particular characteristics of servitorship  to God but at times this nature is dormant and at other times in-fruition. They very prakriti is external-potency-whose modes are no doubt epemeral is itself real. God Himself  says: "As all the world has emanated from My two shaktis viz. external potency and tatastha (jiva) potency,I am the Source and the final rest at the time of dissolution of the  entire cosmos. That is, He is Srasts (Creator), Poshaka (Sustainer) and NiyantB(absolute Controller)."       87


No prani • buddhibhyo - asambhavut   II 88 II


 Translation :

This philosophy of Shakli-parlnama-vada : the theory of modification of Shakti (Potency) of God cannot be intellectually comprehended.



There are certain gross materialists who think—How before creation some one could exist. So they say from non-existence or from nothing everthing has come to its  creation. Even Mayavadins say that from unmanifest Brahman come the manifest; that is the inanimate and the jivas.    All these are misconceptions.

1 That Knowledge of Brahman is that through which what is unheard becomes heard, what is not thought of, becomes conceivable and what is not understood becomes  known i e. having imbibed that wisdom of Truth which is non-approachable through the senses and Supreme makes Himself Manifest to be perceptible to the spiritual  senses out of His own prerogative. So it is the intuitive wisdom which gives on the Subjective Realisation of God. A goldsmith out of his artistic skill manufactures  gold-ornaments by modyifying the gold into various shapes, just as a potter produces clay-products out of clay and a blacksmith makes iron-products out of iron similarly  one must look into the Entity Who is the Efficient-cause thereof. There­ fore know it certain that it is not out of Prakriti the world is evolved but it is only the intuitional  wisdom that will make us established in our realisation, that Unheard, Unknown and Un-conceivable Supreme Reality is the Efficient- Cause of the entire creation and not  the Prakriti. As it is only the matter that gets modified and not the maker so also it is the Prakriti who becomes modified and transformed into varie­ gated products but not  the Supreme Maker, the God.    88


Nirm'iya-ucchavacham-shrutih cha nirmimite pitrivat    II 89    II


Translation :

Having created  thejivas from His Tatasths-shakti (which is superior to His maya of external potency) and the universe through His maya or external Potency (which is  inferior to jiva Potency) God created the Vedas.


Purport :

Jivas who are essentially the eternal servitors of God but being emanated from God's Tatastha- potency they are anadi-bahirmukha; therefore aversion to God brought certain  jivas under the clutch of maya and they became subject to afflic­ tions. Now more than an affectionate father, God ever looks for the true welfare of the fallen souls ; therefore  He forthwith created the Vedas which are only the source for the jivas to over­ come this maya, that is a life of transmigration,and attain the summum bonum of life. Back to  God and back to home, the Abode of Eternal Peace is the message of the Vedas.      89


Mishra - upadeshat - na - Ui • chet - na svalpatvat II 90 II


Translation :

When the Vedas  delineate most  ambiguous statements of exoteric and esoteric knowledge, then how do we consider it an act of supreme kindness of God? We should  not have such doubt in respect to the most merciful Acts of God because indeed such ambiguous statements are very very few.



God's statements in the Vedas are very very simple. He never wanted us to be confused by His lessons. Tt is only due to the influence of triple gunas of maya people are  not able to grasp the real import of the Vedas.1 Those who are obsessed by desires are unintelligent in under­standing the significance of the Vedic-lore as they look upon  heaven as the supreme goal and argue that there is nothing beyond heaven. No doubt in the Vedas there are portions extolling heavenly pleasures but that is meant for  those who are addicted to enjoyment with rebirth as their fruit. The Vedas are the wish-yielding trees. All type of people with  their  own perspectives while approaching the  Vedas according to their quality of sattva or rajas or tamas, gunas of maya, find support in the Vedas to serve their ends. But being nitya sattvastho in association with the  exalted Parama-Bhagavata devotees one realises Me, who is finally known by the true import of the Vedic culture (Veda-vid).

The scriptures have twofold objects, viz., the intended (primary) and the indicated (secondary). The former is aimed at with the help of the latter. That which is aimed at in a  particular scripture is the highest end of that scripture; and that which points out the highest end is the indicator of that end. As for example^ when the pole-star is intended,  the brightest star nearest to it is pointed out to locate the pole-star. Therefore, the pole-star is the in­tended object and hence the end, while the brightest star nearest to it is  the indicator which is different from the end itself. So, the Vedas ultimately aim at the Absolute Truth Who is beyond^ any mundane attributes, but such Truth being  inconceivable to the human mind, the Vedas have used the three attributes of maya in the beginning in order to indicate the Absolute Truth, the intended end. That is why  Maya with her three qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas seems at first sight to be the subject matter of the Vedas.


"Oh! Arjuna you need not be confined to the indicator (maya), but freeing yourself from the three qualities of Maya, realize the Supreme Being Who is beyond all mundane    attributes but possesses Transcendental Form and Qualities and Who is the intended Subject of the Vedas. Free yourself from 'Kshema' (anxiety and care for preserving the  obtained results J; apply your pure intelligence to the highest end and attain your unalloyed existence in the spiritual realm, which is free from the three qualities of Maya.  The Vedas sometimes make mention of Karma (action actuated by the principles of Rajas and Tamas, i.e., active and opiate principles respec­tively), sometimes ofjnana,   (abstract knowledge or dry wisdom prompted by the principle  of Saliva or   the   principle   of  relative   goodness)and only on special occasions of Suddha-Bhakti ("pure  devotion to Me, the Supreme Lord), Oh! Arjuna Absolve yourself from such quali­tative and relative sentiments as honour and and dishonour, gain and loss, victory and  defeat; associate yourself constantly with the eternal entities, i.e., My devotees known as 'Sadhus', desist from the quest of Yoga (search after unattained objects aimed at  by the elevationists and the Salvationists).


The Lord abides in the hearts of those who hear His Stories and destroys all the evil pro­pensities of their mind.1 Just as in the autumn, the impurities of the streamlets and  stagnant pools are swept clean by the strong current of the river, so Shri Krishna, safely ensconced through the ear-holes in the form of lotus— sentiments of His Own in the  hearts of His devotees, washes off all filths of lust, anger etc. from the mind. Further Gita says2 My devotee will soon become a God-loving soul and will attain eternal Bliss.

When a devotee thus realised Me as the monitor of all souls the knot in the shape of I-ness and My-ness born of avidya in his heart/ is cut asunder, all his doubts get  resolved and the entire stock of his Karna-vasana is burnt out right. Mundaka Upanished say :'L By the very realisation of that Transcendental Personality of Godhead, who  is Immanent and Transcendent all the knots of the wordly bondage (i.e. the very nescience of the jiva-soul) are cut asunder, all the doubts about the science of Truth are  dispersed and one meets an end of his endless cycle of births and deaths. Further :2 There­fore O Uddhava! He who has completely concentrated his mind on Me and is  exclusively devoted to Me neither Jnana (dry agnosticism) nor even vmagya (Pseudo-asceticism) will be conducive to his way of blessedness.


Steadfast devotion to Bhagavan Vasudeva (Shri Krishna) forthwith endows oneself with full crystal philosophical knowledge of the Supreme Divinity as well as speedily brings  to him aversion to worldly enjoyments.1 My sincere and faithful devotees, by means of their devotional practice easily attain all that can be gained through the Vedic rituals,  austerities following the path of Knowledge (Gnana) asceticism, astanga Yoga, piety, by gifts and all sorts of auspicious deeds. Nay, not only they can obtain heavenly  pleasures or salvation, but they set free access to My Transcendental abode of peace if they are pleased to pray for it.


"My devotees who become totally free from any hankering although all the eightfold siddhis of all the higher worlds readily come to them of their own accord as a sequel to  devotion, do not consider it as any gain. Nay, even they do not crave for the wealth and enjoyments of My Vaikuntha realm. But I out of compassion to them take them to  My Transcendental Realm and endow them with inheritance of the Divine Powers and Bliss that reside in Me."9   90


Phalam - asmat - Rhadarayanab drishtatvat   II 91 II


Translation :

The vision of Truth is the Prospect of huma­nity : thus spake Shri Badarayani Shri Vyasadeva.


Purport :

What is the highest pursuit of human life ? To a man of intuitive wisdom God is Be-all and End-all of his life. He knows that God alone is the Sole enjoyer and the Proprietor  of every belonging of this universe whereas himself is a servitor and this world is a trust of His for rendering Service to Him and have that much right of partaking the  remnants of Lord's offerings and thus become eligible for going back to the eternal Home of Bliss.To a Parama Bhagavata the world with its mundanity does not remain as  such but appears as it is stated by Lord Shri Chaitanya :


Bon dekhi bhram hoy aei Vrindaban  Saila dekhi mane hoy aei Govardhan

Yaha nadi dekhe taha manaye Kalindi Sthavar jangam dekhe na dekhe tar murti

Sarvatra hoy tar Tshtadeva sphurti.


'Every object whether animate or inanimate he does not view it with his mundanity but it delights his mind with the absorbed thought of presupposed objects associated with  the Transcendental Leela of the Lord. As such, the woods, bring unto him the replica of Vrindaban, the mountains as the Govardhana and the river as the Yamuna and so on  and so forth. Having augmented the spiritual sentiment of Gopis' Love and under the benediction of Shri Radha a mystic in his spiritual madness observes: "In whichever  direction he looks he finds Shyama and says, 'am T mad ? I see Shyama pervading all over the earth?' he hears only the enchanting melody of His Flute; he smells the  divine fragrance emanating from His Person. The food incessantly tastes the nectar of His Love and the body feels only the incomparable touch of the Child of Nanda."


O Beloved of heart!

0 my hope and my rest and delight

The heart can love

None other but Thee

I have offered Thee perfect faith,

I have laid my life at Thy Feet,

Do now as Thou Will,

I cling firmly to Thy Feet.


Vyutcramat - apyayah tatha drishtan   II 92 II


Translation :

Without the Vision of Truth life is undone or one is doomed to destruction.


Purport :

IntheBrihadaranyaka Upanishad :l "Indeed, whosoever, in this world, without knowing this Transcendental Supreme Personality of Godhead departs from this world is the  most unfortunate person and is undone in life.Bhagavata says:1 'The rising and setting Sun steals away in vain the life of all human beings except that of the man who  spends every single moment in talks about Lord Shri Krishna." Further :2 "Fortunate one who desires to cross this worldly ocean should know that there is no other means  than that of constantly tasting the nectarine Blissful Narrations of the Glorious Pastimes of the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna from the holy lips of the exalted Parama Bhagavata  devotees."


Shri Chaitanya Chandramritam (93) says: "When heart is set on crossing the sea of world-liness when the mind would rejoice in the nectarine chant of the Divine Krishna  Nama, when again there is a fixed yearning to disport in the ecstatic Transcendental Love, then it is meant to supplicate at the Lotus Feet of Shri Chaitanya !"

Further (Chaitanya Chandramrita-(54), "O the Saviour Shri Chaitanya, I am drowned into the hellish ocean of worldliness, I am tied of my hands and legs by the chains of evil  thoughts ; helpless, destitute as am I, and being much infatuated by the lust, anger etc, as if they are like sharks and crocodiles just ready to swallow me up at any  moment—I am undone. At this state of dilemma there is none to deliver me up except Your Boat like Feet."      92

Here ends the 1 st Lesson of the 3rd Chapter.




Tadaikyam nanatvaikatvam upadhiyogahanat adityavat   II 93 II


Translation :

Bhagavan is One without a second—although He appears many as Paramatma, Indwelling Monitor of all jiva-souls like the Sun reflected upon many transparant objects -  because God is devoid of any modification by the adjuncts of maya.



Bhagavan Shri Krishna is the Supreme God par-excellence and is the Fountain-Source of all Incarnations. He exhibits Himself qualitatively same in His various  Manifestations. The appearance of Narayana, the appearance in the form of Karanodakashayi or Garbhodakashayi or Kshirodakashayi are examples of the obsequi­ous  Functions of the Divinity. And the Divine Descents such as Rama, Niisimha, Varaha etc. or His Immanant Aspect-Paramatma,   Indwelling Monitor  of all jiva-souls   all   are    advayajnana- Tattva.    Although   He   descends   on   earth   as Avataras and remains as Indwelling Monitor of the jivas yet like sun who is not defiled by the  external  impurities, so also in such cases there is no modification of God nor the Monitor-self within all beings is ever touched by the elements of the phenomenal world as He is  beyond any adjunct of mays.1   Shri Krishna appeared as many during His Rasa-Krida as well as during His Dwaraka Leela  and although acted individually yet He was One  and the same ever maintaining His     Self-some    Supra-logical   Transcendental Characteristic without any modification.'2


Prithak ¦ itichet - naparena - asambhandhat  prakashanam    II 94 II


Translation :

Some   (the Pantheist, Mayavadi)  say Brah-man in Its Variegated Manifestiveness may appear as such but essentially variegatedness cannot be maintained. Saguna  Brahman when devoid of adjuncts becomes Nirguna Brahman therefore no variegatedness can be maintained,


Purport :

The Pantheists give the example that Nriguna Brahman being modified by may a becomes incarnated Iswara or Saguna-Brahman and again when the adjuncts are removed  He is Nirguna-Brahman (featureless like one sun reflected upon sheets of water but when waters are removed there remains only the one sun. But this is very very wrong  proposition as it contradicts the previous Sutra which is con­sonant with Vedanta as well as Upanishad as Upadhiyogakanaivat. Absolutely Brahman can­not be modified  and become Saguna-Iswara which is quite absurd. (Please see my Upani-shadsj. He has got no phenomenal qualities but He possesses non-phenomenal or transcen­dental  potency, supra-logical Power or Potency (Yoga-maya)  through which He eternally main-tains His Variegatedness as Derivative Subjective Divine Descents and in His  Immanance (Indwell­ing Monitor) Aspect along with His Self-some     Swayamrupa Swarupa without any modificationas such. He eternally performs His Transcen­ dental  Leela with His Swarupa Hladini predo­minated Moiety-whole Shri Radha who again manifests Herself in Her eternal Variegatedness as the Personification of different spiritual  Rasas for the Leelamadhmya of the two Moiety-wholes Rasaraj Mahabhava — Ontologically One and the same. 94


Na vikarinastu karana vikarat    II 95 II


Translation :

Doctrine of Brahma-parinama-vada viz. Karana fEffecient-cause) Brahma becoming modified by maya (illusion) or with the adjunct of maya appears as jivas — this  pantheistic theory cannot be maintained.


Purport :

The   Pantheists   or   Monists   say:   jiva   is Brahman in reality.   There is no jiva or Jagat actually.   Tt is like ghat a kasha viz. reflected sun upon the sheets of water of  jars but when jars are   broken one   sun   without  a   second   only remains.   So there is no permanent   existence of jivas — it is only   Brahman.   But   question is what  about the   water   and   the  jars?   are they different from Brahman?   Are they sepa­rate objects or entities ?    Then, where is Ekameva Brahmanl    From where do they  bring maya? Who is she ?   Now they come to the theory of mistaking a rope to be a snake or   shell   as silver?    But  who   does   this   mistake?     And again when  knowledge prevails, does the exis­tence of rope gone or only the mis-identification alone is gone ?   Yet both the rope and the snake are known to exist in reality, though  one may be mistaken for the other, when only one is before us.   But according to them only Brahman exists and no jiva,  How is, then, here the mistaking of one thing for  another when only one exists ? (Further see our Upanisbads)   Therefore Karana-Brahman being modified appears  mays-adjunct jivas is absurd.     Whereas as  proverb  goes a philospher's stone (Sparsamani) by its very touch converts a piece of iron into a piece of gold without itself least modified so also   Supreme Brahman Who  possesses innumerable Potencies vide   Swetaswatara   Upanishad   and also  other Upanishads) and one of them is illusive maya the external Potency who being  propelled   by God brings forth this phenomenal world and another one is tatastha-shakti or jiva-shakti that being superintended by Him appear as individual innumerable  jiva-souls who are again known as Vibhinnamsha not svramsha  (see Gita VII)   liable to be enthralled by maya when they forget their position as eternal servants of God.     So souls are innumerable;   in   fact   maya   is   in   charge of a home of correction.   Those jivas who in abusing   their   free-will,   forgot   the Service  of God and! thought  themselves as enjoyers, were grasped by maya for their penal servitude and correction.   And by dint of satsang  when  they regain   their   lost   position   they   turn    towards God  and  in  due  course  following the path of unalloyed devotion they go back to the world of eternal Bliss.


Therefore there is Shakti-parinama-vdda of Brahmana but absolutely not the Brahma-pari-nama-vada. Let us elaborate it from the Upanishadic point of view:

Now the monists may come forward with some Vedic aphorisms in their favour like (i) Sarvam khalvidam Brahma.1 It is wholly Brah­man i.e., every phenomenon or the  animate or the inanimate world, is Brahman, (ii) Ne-hanastikinchana* — there are no diversities; (iii) Prejnanam Brahmu* — full wisdom of Brah­man; (iv) Tattvamasi* — thou  art that; (v) Aham Brahmdsmi'0 — 1 am Brahman; (vi) Kmokam pashjet0 — to see whom with what ? (vii) Ekam eva advitiyom1 — there  is  only   One   without   a second  etc. and claim that these vindicate their stand.    But they forget that there are in the Vedas no   less   numerous   aphorisms  speaking against them, viz.    (1) Brahma-  Vidapnoti par am1 — one   who   realises   Brahman   attains   summum bonum   of   life.      (2) Satyam jnanam  brahmana-vipaschita* — Brahman is  eternal,  source of  all wisdom   unbounded,   he   who   finds   Branman existent in his heart as in the world beyond this, he gets his objects fulfilled with the all wisdom   Brahman;        (3)   Ayamatma    sarvesham bhutanam madhu6 — this Paramatma is like honey or nectar  to all  beings;     (4)   Tamahuragrayam pur us ham    mahantam* — the   wise  describe Him as the initial Cause and the Highest Entity etc. This quite clearly indicates that 'He' Brahman is  alone the Highest and there are other 'Jivas' whose    function     is   to   know   'Him'   through eternal service to Him.   This distinction (bheda) is established.


But no portion, no saying of the Upanishads (i.e. Vedanta or the top of the Vedas) can be untrue. So the former quotations must also be true, which point at 'non-distinction  (abheda). Thus we see that between God and souls there is eternal distinction and there is also eternal non-distinction. And both are true and that too simultaneously. But  this sychronisation of two paradoxically contrary propositions is beyond human understanding with its limited scope in the realm of maya by which our true entity is  enveloped, which has looked to her for enjoy­ment. Reason fails to poke its nose into this conception of simultaneously contradictory truths. Only the perfect devotee of God  can solve this problem with constitutional ease, for their comprehension is clear of the dark horizons of the mundane atmospher which blinds the innate true vision of a free  soul.


Even the aphorisms which   'Keveladvaita-vadins'   (champions   of the   doctrine   of non-distinction)   rely on for support will when be viewed with an eye cleansed with the  collyrium of self surrender to God indicate the truth of 'Achintya-Bhtddbheda' philosophy.    For example, the full wisdom    {prajndna)   in   the   aphorism ' Prajnanam  Brahma n is explained  as devotional attitude to God  in  Tamebadhiro vijndya  'Prajndm kurvita brahmana '2 knowing  Him fully  well   the knower of Brahman should be  devoted to Him, Tattvamasi3 is explained in Brihadaranyaka.    'He who leaves this world Knowing the Eternal God is a knower of Brahman i.e., is   (a Brahmana)'.  Isopanishad says  'he who   is   addicted to the learning   (of non-distinction)   enters   a   darker region than he who is without any learning'. Sarvam khalvidam   Brahma    (all   this   universe   is Brahman)  means that it has emanated from His external Potency and has no existence unrelated to   Him.   Even   Shri   Shankaracharya   admitted  here Guna of Brahman.   The meaning of the aphorism as given above is supported by another aphorism ;    Tato Vaimdni* b hut dm jay ant; etc' — ' from Whom this  universe has emanated, etc'


Now let us consider the aphorism 'ekamevdd-vityatn' the context is 'sadeva soumyedamagrdrit ekamevSdvitiram' 'Oh darling son, before the creation of this universe, there  existed eternal God alone as One', Yes, at Kalpanie (at the end of the creation) only God remains with all created beings and worlds resting in Him. This is fully explained by  God to Brahma in the first sloka of the Chatusloki Bhagavatam 1


Thus it is seen that, if properly construed, the strongholds of the Kevaladvaitavadins or extreme monists, viz., the few aphorisms in the Vedas that they mainly rely on for  supporting their cause, do not give them any safe shelter against the true interpretations as offered by the dualistic Vaishnava schools, specially when they are confronted  with the other Vedic aphorisms. The Katha Upanishad3 says: 'Nityo-nityanam' etc. Those really wise persons and none else can obtain eternal peace, who, in virtue of their  devotion, see within themselves God as Paramatma (rndwelling Monitor) Who is the Chief Eternal among all eternals and the chief Sentient among all sentient beings, and  Who, One among the many fulfils their desires. Is this not a fully sufficient refutation of the false doctrine of the integral oneness of a soul, which is only an individual, with  the single Brahman ? Is not this aphorism an unambiguous proof of the plurality of individual souls ?    95


Ananya Bhaktya tat buddhihe buddhilayat tyantam   II 96 II


Translation :

In unalloyed devotion where ontology of the Supreme Divinity is not lacking but at the very dawn of Raganuga Bhakti philosophy of supremacy is subdued by the over-flow or  poignancy of Love. Secondly an atmarami Brahma-jnani at the very dawn of unalloyed devotion at his heart his atividya1 is destroyed.



In one stage we find1 As Shri Ramanuja puts it : "Free from limitation of the material world, getting back the knowledge of the self that is characteristic of Se>ha in the  serviceable mood of Narayana, the Supreme. Next when is endowded with single-minded devotion to Bhagavan Vasudeva there in his untinted heart naturally rests the real  spirit of abnegation and the unambiguous wisdom of the Divinity. Whereas the Chatussanas who were Brahma-jnanis atmaramis when chanced to get the sweet and fragrant  smell of the Tulasi, because tinged with the pollens offered at the Lotus Feet of the Lord Narayana having entered into the nostrils of those erstwhile they felt ecstacy of  devotion that is. they were absolved from Ati-Vidya which is a kind of hindrance.2But when one augments the Raganuga-Bhdva under the benediction of Rdgatmika-Bhakti  there the philosophy of supremacy of the   Divinity is subdued as Shri Rupa Goswami also puts it in the follow-up method as the Vraja-Gopis' Service to Shri Krishna the way  that is congenial and agreeable to His Pleasure no other extrane­ous motive other than the desire of Bhakti rests and that is uninterrupted by karma or jnana.

Although Shri Krishna showed Vishva-rupa in the Cavity of His Mouth to Ma Yashoda yet she could not be converted into His worshipper,whereas she ever looked after Him  as none but Her Darling. Shri Krishna held the Govardhana Mount on the Tip of His little Finger and showed very many majestic feats, yet His comrades climbed on His  Shoulders and offered their ramnant fruits. The gopis reposed Him which was more than the hymns of the Vedas to Him... So in Kevala-rati the Majesty of Godhead cannot  prevail upon, in the unstinted supremely poignanted Love-laden heart.    96


Ayuh ¦ chiram - itaresham tu hanih anaspadatvat  11 97 II


Translation :

Life is ever lost for those who are steeped in nescience as they run after the will-o-the-wisp, but the devotees eternally live with Bliss.



A jiva in bondage is propelled as per actions in life. He moves about up and down within this fourteen worlds in an unending cycling of a life of transmigration. He is ever  tormented by ever unending turbulant lust, anger and thirst etc. and his life becomes will-o-the-wisp. He is undone being afflicted by triple qualities of maya1 whereas an  unalloyed devotee has passed beyond all these states of sorrows and sufferings.Verily, at that self-realised state of life he does not know, that is usually done although he is  verily knowing though he does not know, for there is no cessation of knowing of a knower, because of his immortality as a knower. There is not however any second object  independent from God and separately existing without the support of God that he may know about.  Gross materialist thinks that it is through the gross sense-organs he  does see, smell, taste, speak, hear, think, touch and know etc. an agnostic thinks that by cessation of functioning of these organs he destroys their faculties alto" gether.  Whereas Shruti asserts that these are the faculties of the unstinted soul, therefore none of these faculties is getting destroyed. At the stage of bondage these faculties in  their perverted condition are detrimental and cause illution but at the stage of self realisation they are conducive to rendering the unalloyed devotion to the Lord of  Transcendance. See the purport of Isa. Up- I for additional information.In the Gita, Shri Arjuna asked Shri Krishna, 'what are the characteristics of one who is self-realised ?  What does he say, and what is his conduct ? Shri Krishna replied, ' My dear Partha, Sthitaprajna is he who leaving off the desires of his mind, finds solace ever in his soul.  He is always merged in the bliss of the soul and is absolutely unconcerned about world. A self-controlled sage is unperturbed in sorrow,   his thrist for pleasures has  altogether disappeared and he is free from passion, fear and anger. He is neither exultant nor despondent under good or evil circumstances, but so long as the body  continues he pays no heed to worldly gain or loss maintaining a stable mind. Such a man like a tortoise draws its limbs from all directions, withdraws his senses from the  sense-objects.'Further i1 As a man, when in the embrace of his spouse feels nothing else than bliss, so an unalloyed devotion to the Transcendental Supreme God enjoys  nothing else but uninter­rupted Nectarine Bliss in his life of eternity—He knows no death, 97


Samshritih - eshatn - abhaktih syat • na - ajnanat karana - asiddheh   II 98 II


Translation ;

It is not due to lack of Philosophical know­ledge but devoid of unalloyed devotion to God that causes the cycling of life of transmigration.


Purport :

So long as unalloyed devotion to the Feet of Supreme Godhead is not imbued at heart; the life of transmigration continues but it ceases for ever on the dawn of devotion. So  long as one does not take refuge in Thee, the Saviour from all sins, the distress, the thirst for ephemeral pleasure, lust and nescience torments the heart.1 Mere talks about  the palatable feast does not appease one's hunger. The knowledge of the king does not help one to make the king pleased and thereby make oneself gain something  positive.   98


Trinyesham netrani shctbdalinga aksha bhedat rudravat   II 99 II



As Shiva has got three eyes so also three Principles Pramanam :   Testament, valid means of philosophy of Supreme Reality,


Purport :

For taking in consideration anything in respect to the philosophy of religion or spirituality three valid means are recognised viz. (i) Shabda-Praman, (if) Anuman (inference),  (hi) Pratyaksha- sense perception or reason. But Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu says that the rational attributes of men are not capable of approaching the Divinity, Yukti or  reason is quite incompetent in this respect. Transcendental sounds coming down from that plane of transcendence through the exalted mystic Love-intoxicated God-realised  souls which have come in the form of Vedas strictly speaking the Upanishads and the Vedanta-sutras together with Bhagavat Gita, the very utterance of God Him­self and  the valid Puranas particularly the Bhaga-vatam which is the quintessence of all the valid literatures are the best Testament in establishing the Truth.   The inference  and the  reason while sincerely helping to understand the Vedic truth may be accepted as auxiliary evidence.


Generally these three viz. (i) the Vedas, or Shrutipramana, (ii) Anumana inference and (iii) Pratjoksha Reason are accepted but in the matter of the spiritual ontology and  even for philosophy the Sanatanists accept Prathanatraya viz. (i)Upanishadas : Nysya Prasthana, (ii) Vedsnta-Sutra: Shruti Prasthana, and (iii) Gita-Smriti prasthana. 99


Avistirihhava - vikarah syuh Kriyaphalasamyogat  il 100 II


Translation :

The birth and death of a jiva-soul is due to the anjunct of mays and cycling of life of transmigration as per the results of one's own Karma, actions in life.



Jiva-souls constitutionally are the servitors of Godhead but they are from the Tatastha-shakti of God (vibhinnamsha) and anadi-bahirmukha' therefore due to the aversion of  God they are enthralled by mays and thereby become subject to birth and death and the results of one's karma during one's life time rewards him after the death once again  born either in the higher species if virtuous karmas were done, and enjoy a life in the upper regions like heaven etc., or due to his sinful actions will be born in the abominable  wombs and suffer hellish afflictions — thus goes on the cycling of a life of transmigration of a fallen soul. But by providence if such a fallen soul meets an exalted Parama  Bhagavata mystic devotee he finds a way to meet an end of his life of transmigration, because thereby he gets the seed of Bhakti creeper and when that is nurtured with  pouring of water in the shape of incessant listening to the Transcendental Pastimes of God from the holy lips of the exalted devotees and chanting the Divine Names. When  una­lloyed   devotion   rules   the   heart   then    and then alone one goes   beyond   to   the   life   of transmigration.

The journey ends in a dancing field of brilliant and eternal spring sweet scented Love, and abounding peace. Ah. Back to God and Back to Home! Yea I attain the Abode of  Eternal Bliss!

 Here ends the Shandilya Bhakti Sutra.


By the unreserved grace of my divine master Om Vishnupada Shri Shrimad Bhakti Vilas Tirtha Goswami Maharaj I could complete the English rendering of this glorious book  Shri Shandilya Bhakti-Sutra on this day, the 24th June 1989 at Shri Gaudiya Math, Madras.