Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Shandilya Muni > Shandilya Bhakti Sutras > CHAPTER - II




Buddhi hetu-prayrittir-avishuddher-avaghatavat    II 27 II


Translation :

The path of Jnana or Knowledge and path of Karma viz. Rituals are to be followed till one's heart becomes untinted at the dawn of Shraddha as threshing the paddy is to be  continued till grains are husked.


Purport :

Bhagavan says :\ "I have prescribed in the Vedas three yogas - that of Jnana yoga, karma yoga and Bhakti yoga-and there is no fourth proposition." Shraddha which is the  seed of Bhakti and so long,3 ''one does not imbibe unflinching Shraddha in listening to God's Nectarine Blissful Pastimes and Glories from the holy lips of exalted  Parama-Bhagavata devotees of Godhead and thereby gets distaste to ritualistic ceremony until then he has to perform karma-yoga." Next Bhagavata says:? "Those who  aban­doning the path of unalloyed devotion to God's Holy Feet, the Source of true well-being, labour for dry abstract knowledge path of Jnaiia for its own sake, toil in vain like  those who pound empty husks of paddy." isha-lJpanishad says : He who is addicted to the path of Abstruce knowledge enters a darkened region than he who is without  knowledge. Gita says :2 "Exceedingly great is the toil of those whose minds are attached to the Nirguna Brahman." Without taking recourse to Bhakti, Jnana cannot be  purified. Therefore so long one does not follow the path of unalloyed devotion, due to eclipsed knowledge one may take oneself to either path of Karma-yoga or path of  Jnana-yoga, but without Bhakti no purifi­cation of heart is possible. Bhakti is the sine-qua-non of the cognised soul, totally free from quagmire of maya.


Tad-anganam-cha   ll28 ll


Translation :

When they are subservient to  Bhakti they should be followed.



In the previous aphorism we come to know that neither Karma-yoga nor jnana-yoga can make the soul cognised with intuitive wisdom to the subjective Realisation of  Supreme Godhead. But at the sametime we know that they are prescribed as the means by God Himself. There­fore as Upanishad says "This should be the vow that one  should never go without meeting his wife on bed while she is at her flowering time, that is, when prakriti is congenial i.e. shows her unmukhini-vritti one should not outright  neglect her merely thinking her as maya. So for a Karmi, Prakriti is like a dancing girl alluring the passion of the mind, and for a Jnani, she is to be divorced, whereas for a  devotee she is carefully taken as a faithful wife, a mutual helpmate to evolve perfection in life. So it is said, being free from all the adjuncts of maya viz. I-ness and my-ness  and fully spiritualised engage all the senses in the loving service of Godhead. And that is the wisdom which makes one to devote to God Sri Krishna which must be  obtained. The wisdom which endows one with the realisation of Sri Krishna's Divinity is the quality of Samvit, a potency of His Swarupa-shakti. Further Shravana and Kirtana  of God, Transcendental Pastimes, in association with the exalted Parama-Bhagavata devotees are not only the constituents of Bhakti, but are the sine qua-non of Bhakti.


Tdm-ishvaryapardm Kdshyapah Paratvdt   II 29 II


Translation :

Kashyapa rishi opines that jiva souls are infmitisimal beings entirely dependent upon Him and realising His Omnipotence should be sub­servient to Him.



Kashyapa views that jiva soul is entirely dependent on God. Therefore when he realises his own littleness and the Omnipotency of Godhead naturally with all reverence he  will devote himself to Him and will enjoy supreme Bliss.


Atmaikaparam Badarayanah    II 30 II


Translation :

The very essential function or characteristic of the soul is the definition of Bhakti. - says Sri Veda Vyasa-



Bhakti has got nothing with mental or physical exercise. Bhakti is the very nature of the soul. Soul at its unconditional state, free from mayic bondage naturally becomes  dovetailed in the unalloyed service to Supreme Godhead.


Ubhayapardm Shandilyah Shabdopapattibhyam   II 31 II


Translation :

Shandilya says that it is, as per the Vedas, as well as from the precepts of the exalted selves, established that Bhakti is the eternal unbreakable relationship of jiva-soul with  God­head as servitor and Served.


Purport :

Shandilya says that Bhakti indeed is the constitutional faculty of the cognitive soul, which is the eternal uninterrupted Love for Godhead; but there must be no lacking in  spiritual wisdom and it must be authoritative based  upon  the Veda as well as upon the precepts of the people who have translated the very spirit of the Vedas into their own  lives. For illustration we find in the Gita :x "jivas are fragments of Myself being not Svamsha but Vibkinnamsha having stationed at the demarcating line in between chid-jagat  and mayik jagat."


Mundaka Upanishad2 says: This Trans­cendental Divinity is only the Reality. The great seers realised Him and the mystic Sounds that helped them for the realisation, is the  rita in the three Vedas which they followed." Sri Bhaga-vata says =3 The Supreme God is only the Enjoyer of Transcendental Nectarine Bliss and at His unalloyed service  only jiva can enjoy Bliss-remnant from Him. Also vide Vedanta4 Chandogya Upanishad :5 ''A man with intuitive wisdom should worship Him, for, as is one's faith such indeed  is one's reward and according to one's faith or spiritual endeavour here in this world, does such one become on departing hence. So let one culture devotional service to  Him". Further:6 "He is the Cause of all causes,  is the Wish-yielding Self-some Divinity  possessing all the Transcendental or lovely fragrance or Glories and All-Blissful: His  imnanence is pervading althrough and He is Self-some possessing no phenomenal or mundane senses; whereas everything in Him is Transcen­dental and absolutely free  from any ambiguity. He is the Lord whom I install in my untainted heart. He is my adorable Supreme Godhead -I must attain Him on departing hence." He who possesses  such steadfast faith and devotion absolutely free from any doubt, this divine character of the Supreme Divinity, will certainly accomplish himself thus declared Shandilya —  yea, Shandilya.


Vaishamyad-asiddhamiti chennabhijnanavad vaishishtyat   II 32 II


Translation :

Though jiva is qualitatively same with the Brahman or God but quantitatively different from God; it is established by the philosophy of Truth that God is Advaya-Jnana-Tattva-.  One without a second.


Purport :

Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu says: 'Achintya-bheda-abheda in between jiva and Brahman is the true philosophical Doctrine. We find (i) in Chandogya Upanishad1 sarvam  Khal-vidam Brahman.   It is wholly Brahman.

(i)    Nehananastikinchana*     There     are     no diversities.

(iii)    Prajnancm  Brahma3    Full    wisdom    is Brahman.

(iv)    Tatvamasi4 Thou art That.

(v)    Aham Brahmasmi5 I am Brahman.

vi) Ekam eva advitiyam6 There is only One without a second - these all are as abheda shruti accordingly bheda shruti such as (i) Brahmavid-abanati pa,raw? one who  realises Brahman attains the summum bonum of life, (ii) Satyam jnanam hrahmanabipasckita? Brahman is the eternal Source of all wisdom unbounded: he who finds   Brahman existent in his heart as  in the world beyond this, he gets his objects fulfilled with the wisdom of Brahman, (iii) Ayamatma sarvesham Bhutanam modhu1 This  Paraniatma is like honey or Nectarine Blissful to all beings, (iv) Tamahuragrayam purusham mahantarn* The wise describe Him as the efficient cause and the Highest Entity,  (v) Mtyonitydnam3 Those really wise persons who by virtue of their devotion behold the supreme Brahman as the Paramount eternal Reality among all eternals, (vi)  Valagra-shatabhagasya* jiva is like the finest of the fine end of a hair and is yet fit to remain immortal. Further Chandogya Upanishad5 etc. Thus distinction {bheda) is  established.

So Brahman or Supreme Godhead alone is to be served eternally by the jiva-souls. And Achintya-bheda-abheda is the established Philo­sophical Doctrine.



Na cha kl ishtahparah syadanantaram visheshat  II 33 II


Translation :

Though jiva-soul is subject to the affliction of maya  but when  he is dovetailed  in  loving  service of Godhead he becomes totally free from any sorrow or suffering and  becomes blissful.


Purport :

In the Katha Upanishad t1 'The man of wisdom who beholds the Supreme Brahman as the Paramount Eternal Reality among all other sentient beings — as the  Fountain-Source of consciousness to all conscious beings — as the only Reality without a second but as a Monitor-self dwelling in the cave of the heart of all sentient  beings and rewarding them in accordance with their respective actions of life — he enjoys true eternal Bliss and not others who are ignorant of Him'. The cognised jiva-soul  by dint of his devotion to Godhead when attains final emanci­pation he is characterised as such :2

1. Apahata papa (devoid of sins and sinful propensity), (ii) Vijara (free from oldness), (iii) Vimrityu (overcomes death), (iv) vishoka (free from any affliction for any worldly loss),  (v) Vijrghatsa (free from lust), (vi) apifdsd (without any hankering), (vii) Satyakama wishing for truth of sentience of God) and (viii)  Satyasankalpa     (with    fulfilled     objective) enjoy eternal Bliss. Without the intuitive wisdom in the jiva-soul being kindled through the bestowing Grace of the Omnipotent God, and without having unalloyed  service to him the heart does not get saturated with the flow of the Nectarine Bliss without which one cannot get perfection. By dint of unalloyed devotion one gets final  liberation and gains summum bonum of life.1 The Vijnanamaya soul accomplishes devotional services to God and never recedes from the Anandamaya-purusha *    33


Aishvaryam tatheti chenna svdbhavyat    II 34 II


Translation :

Jiva-soul comes to the state of bondage due to his infinitesimal potentiality.


Purport :

Jiva-soul, constituent of infinitesimal atomic energy of the God that too not direct from Him but from His Tatasthd-shakti viz. demarcating-line in between transcendental  world and mundane world is eternally backward (anadi-bahirmukha)  and   subject   to  maya.    When   he comes in contact with mayj his perv<erted nature prevails, giving  room f0r his sojouirn to this mundane world. Jiva is r,0 doubt spiritual in essence but being infinites!^ is liabje to be enthralled by maya as soon as he turns .away from God  and again when by dint of the associa­tion with the exalted Parama-B%gavata dev(0tees of God his essential dormant characteristic of devotion to God is awakened he cuts  asuinder the knots of the nescience; he g0es back fr01jn his sojourn of this mundanity t0 the plane? of transcendence and devotes mmself sole||y in loving service to God  eternally without any interruption1    34


Aprathhiddham paraishvaryam tadbhavachha  naivam itresham    II 35 II


 Translation :

The Supralogical transcendental Poteincies of Supreme Divinity are ever unchangeable. and undiminished and not subject to any modification because they are His  Swarupa-*haktis . sat..chid ever existent and unabated wl!ereas jivasl are subject to modification.


Purport :

The Attributes of God are eternal as they are of His Swirupa-shakti not distinguishable from His very Person. They are not absolutely of the nature of any modification as in  the case of the jivas. Jivas are subject to sorrow and suffering but absolutely not the God. Maya envelopes the jiva and causes affliction but God is mayadhuha, the  Controller of maya and therefore maya cannot have sway over God. Jiva gets released from the encasement of maya when Grace of God befalls upon him.1 Further3, it is by  His governing Who is the Transcendental Supreme Being, all beings maintain their respec­tive positions. Without His superintending, none can independently function. He  does not be­come Greater by good works nor Inferior by bad works, being the Master of all and Autocrat Lord of all beings. In the Gita God says: "My Birth and Actions are  not the modifications of maya but They are transcenden­tal because They are attributed to My S/wupa-shakti.    35


Sarvanrite kim-iti chennaivam budhya anantyat II 36 II


Translation :

When all jiva-souls essentially are Chit . eternal and constitutionally separated parts (Vibhinnamiha) of God and also characteristically possessing rights of getting  emancipation through Devotion to God then why do they all not try for emancipation ? Because at the state of bondage they have variegated perverse knowledge being  propelled by the gunas of maya.


Purport :

As we have already discussed in the previous aphorism (No. 34) that due to anadibohirmukhata jiva souls being averse to the service of Godhead are enveloped by maya and  subjected by the afflictions of her triple gunas; but those who perchance get spiritual Sukrit,1 in association with the exalted Parama-Bhagavata devotees of the Supreme  Godhead they make full self-surrender at His Lotus Feet and thereby cross over this ocean of maya and with the unalloyed service of God, attain final emancipation; but God  says those (i) who are after their physical and mental ameliorations, (ii) who are atheists at heart, though ethical in word and deed, (iii) who read well the Vedas but  disparage God's Transcen­dental Form and (iv) who are arrogant, insolent and demoniac by nature -- as such their intellect has been stolen away by delusion they cannot try  for getting emancipation or make their journey to 'Back to God and Back to Home'.   36


Prakriti-antaralat-avaikdryam chid-sattvena- anuvartamanat    II 37 II


Translation :

Though God creates the universe through His Own external potency maya, He ever remains immutable because He is Sat-Chid-Ananda Swarupa.


Purport :

God is the Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer of all the universe which He does through His external Potency maya. Now naturally the audacious mind will question when God  propels maya to cause these,   then  God should  be also getting Himself involved into the gunas of may a and become the cause and effect under the rules of modification.    But that is not so,  because He is   essentially   Sut-Chid-Ananda-Swarupa    beyond any modification.    As proverb goes that a philo­sopher's stone by its touch of an iron  converts the iron into gold, but  the  philosopher s stone remains unchanged. Also we find a magician who creates   through   his   power   of   illusion   some magics does  not certainly become  the  subject of his own illusion.    In the Prashna Upanishad,1 The Creator God mooted  a  thought  to  create. He glanced upon and simultaneously  got  mani­fested  Prakriti  or maha tattva  and Prana jiva-souls.   These two became the  secondary  causes whereas   He   Himself   ever   remains   as    the  Efficient-cause for creation."    Aitreya Up.a says : "Before   the   creation   of  the  universe verily Brahman, the Supreme God along with His  self-some   Potency   was    existent   and   there   was nothing gross or subtle,  nor  the very cause  of both viz. primordial matter.  He  exists as  it  is even after creation of the Universe and also  He  alone will be remaining after all these disappear. God says :    "There is no birth or death for Me. I ever exist; that is in past,  future and present. On My command the world  is expounded and again it is composed or withdrawn — all these done through My Potency, whereas I am the Efficient cause-yet there is no modification in Me."  Shvetashvatara Up.1 The Lord has got three Principal potencies viz (i Swampa-Shakti or Essential Potency; (ii jiva-shakti or tatastha-shakti or Intermediatory Potency and  (iii) Maya-shakti or external-potency or Bhahiranga-shakti. So it is stated that the phenominal world got manifested out of His external Potency and the Wielder of mays is  the Great God Himself whereas the whole world is pervaded with beings who are emanated from the Intermediatory-potency otherwise known as His Vibinnamsa (separated  parts ). Bhagavan says:8 T through My Own free Will propel Prakriti (My external potency) for creation and destruction of the universe, but I entirely keep Myself detached  from those actions and indifferent to them like an unconcerned witness. So may a has no sway over me." So I am neither attached to the moods of prakriti nor to its  functions. I remain ever immutable.'    37


Tad-pratishtha grihapithavat    II 38 II


Translation :

As it is said  a  man  is  seated in the room although actually he sits on a wooden chair.



Although it is known that the universe before its Creation remained with Brahman and again after the Dissolution goes back to Him one may say that Creation of the  Universe is the modification of the Brahman It is not so. But it is only the modification of His external potency (maya). As a spider emits and withdraws its web, so also this  world proceeds from the Immutable Divinity. As out of a conscious man comes out hairs unconsciously and without any exertion on his part, similarly the jivas and the  universe come out from the God without any effort on His part.1 For in­stance, even though one is seated in a seat kept inside a house, he is said equally to be seated in the  seat as well as in the house. Brahman is the Efficient-cause. He causes maya modified, whereas  Himself ever remains  immute.     It is only  shakti-parinawam-ada  but    not    Brahma-pari-nama-vaela.     38


Mithoapekshanad-ubhayam    II 39 II


Translation :

Neither jiva nor Prakriti (maya; nor they both mutually can create or procreate nor can they have their existence without the superin­tending of the God.


Purport :

Bhagavata1 says: "When God charged the Prakriti, her equilibrium state gave birth to the mahat-tattva, thence commenced the creation." In the Gita3 "Prakriti gives birth,  under My propelling, to this universe and that is how the universe revolves in its course." Further3 'It is due to God that universe, consisting of both cause and effect, even  remains in a state of flux even as iron is set in motion by the presence of a loadstone.' Secondly1 'the Lord thought "If I do not remain as a Monitor-self along with the  jivasoul within, then how can jiva-soul independently act without Me — as nothing moving or inert can exist bereft or independent of Me."

Shvetashvatara Upanishad says-. "God ever presides over the Praknti; besides He, with His All-pervasiveness remains in   and   out   of  the universe,  yet He is not  subjected to the modes of Prakriti."-   "Not only the Prakriti, but also all the jiva souls like the sparks of a blazing fire, came out from Him only and they too are  superintended by Him."   "Jivas and the universe come out from Him as  He willed but without any effort on His part.2    "On the question of Shalavatya :   What is   the    substratum   of  this world ?  Answered by Pravahana:1   "It is Akasha-. All    these   beings      emanate     from    Akasha alone. They finally return back to Akasha  be-cuase Akasha alone is the final Goal for every­ thing." Akasha denotes Supreme Purusha vide Vedanta Akashat-allingat? Taittriya Upanishad2 'For who indeed could  breathe, who could be alive, if the Blissful Lord ever not remains as Monitor within one's soul'.        39


Chetyachitorna tritiyam   II 40 I!


Translation :

When Vibhu-Chid (Supreme God-head) is realised by anu-chid (jiva-soul), there remains no third dimension.


Purport :

Vibhu-Chid (Supreme Godhead) is known as Vaikuntha-tattva viz. beyond the third dimension. When jiva-soul is in bondage he is dominated by triple gunas of maya where  he is limited within the time and space viz. of breadth, length and depth or thickness;  and also past, present or future — these are all known as third dimen­ sions. So when  a jiva-soul (anu-chid) exclusively devotes himself to Vibhu-Chid; Godhead, there all the adjuncts of maya are dissolved viz. he goes beyond mundanity and dwells at the  plane of transcendence. For him world does not remain as such. Whereas he sees sarvam khalvidam brahma.1 Verily all this universe is Brahman, i.e. a man with intuitive  wisdom realises that the world has come from Him, is sustained by Him and finally will dissolve into Him. So isavasyam idam saraam.* So one who is dove-tailed in the  unalloyed loving service of Godhead, to him there is no mundanity as such, but it appears that every particle is associated with the Glory of the Lord. So tri-quadrantal  dimensional world appears no more before him.3 The three-fold identification of the embodied jiva viz. corporeal body, subtle body and ego are the modifications of Prakriti  that are imposed upon the engrossed jiva which were not present before and will not remain after the spiritual illumination of a soul.        40


Yuktau ca sarrparayat    II 41 II


Translation :

He thought   and   Prakriti and Purusha got united for procreation.


Purport :

Regarding the creation there are certain misconceptions : viz.


i. Buddhists say aparaspat a-sambhutam: not crea­ted due to any cause and effect, therefore there is no creator.


ii. Lokayat or Charvakas say Kamahetukam-. created by lustful union of opposite sex.


iii.   Jains say kama-kritam: created by the desires.


but the Veda1 says "Before the creation of the world verily God alone with His Swarvpa-shakti existed — His Tatasthashakti Viz. jiva-shakti  and  the mays,    His  aparS  or   external-potency were remaining within His fold." When He charged the equilibrium state of Prakriti, that is the mahat-tattva, out of which Pancha-tanmatras, all the five  constituent ele­ments of the universe, got manifested. Here "from Hiranmaya Purusha;1 all the jiva-souls that lay dormant in an unmanifest state came out, but as they  originated from the Tatastha-shakti of God some of them went back to the Vaikuntha as the eternal devotees of God and others due to anadi- Bahirmukkhata became  enthra­lled by mays, (Prakriti). Thus purusha (jiva) fallen into the garb of Prakriti became the instrumental cause for procreation through the gunas of maya but God is the  Efficient - cause Who sits in the jiva-soul as Monitor. Shveta-shvatara Up.2 says: 'The prakriti or maya is His external Potency and the Wielder of maya is He Himself  whereas the whole world is per­vaded with beings who are emanated from the intermediatory potency of God-'3  '


I send forth the jivas into this world, thus multitude of jivas, guided by My Prakriti, comes into existence. Prakriti gives birth, under My direction to this universe and that is  how the universe revolves in its course."


3 'If I do not remain as a Monitor along with the jiva-soul within, then how jiva-soul independently acts without Me ? - As nothing moving or intert can exist bereft of Me.'         41


Shaktitvdnuiinrilam Vedyam    II 42 II


Translation :

Prakriti or maya is not unreal or false be­cause it is an energy or potency of Braman (God).


Purport :

Maya is the external Potency of God. No doubt her productions are ephemeral but Prakriti herself is eternal and beginningless. During the period of creation by the propelling  of God her pradhan or Mahat-tattva gets agitated and transformed into twenty four elements, again at the dissolution, she once again goes back to that equilibrium state and  remains within the fold of God. So she being the external potency of God is beginningless and ever existent, not as a separate entity but as a dependent potency of God1  So mayavadis' Theory of "world is unreal" is notsustainable. Cha, Up,3 He glan­ced upon. Upon What ? - on inert Prakriti: His external Potency. It was the act before  creation started. Therefore it proves without any contradiction that before the creation of the universe, God along with His Swarupa-Shakti was existent and nothing else  remained separa­tely; thereby it is to be nderstood that His tatastha-shakti (jiva-souls) and the maya, His eternal Potency, were not separately existing but they were within  Him.8       42


Tad pari-shuddhischa gamyalokavallingebhyah   II 43 II


Translation :

The unadulterated mood of devotion may be inferred from the natural outburst of a devotee.


Purport :

Sri Shandiiya's object of deliberation is to illustrate Bhakti, therefore he stops discussions on  collateral philosophy and now   goes   back to his essential discussion.   It is  difficult even for Shruti to draw any straight line to define the actual feeling of a devotee.   A devotee is very very preserved.    Only at times he gives hints   of  his   feelings    by   sudden expressions. Further, without obtaining a direct experience of Love how can one know what it is like? It may be ascertained only through the manifes­ ted signs  like the ecstatic rapture, horripilation, emotional talks about God.   It is only one who possesses it,  feels its charm.          43


Sammana bahumana priti virahetara-vichikitsa      

 mahimakhyati tadarthapranasthana tadiyata sarvatad  

bhavapritikulyadinicha smaranebhyo bahulat   II 44 II


Translation :

Characteristic of single minded devotee is : Anything that is conducive to his  devotional service, he duly receives with due honour.   Even a little help that a devotee receives  he values it with great esteem.   Any thing concerning the service of God, he receives with all love;  he feels extreme pang in Love-in-Separation.   Aver­sion to everything  else that is not in consonance with devotion to God, ecstatic rapture in singing the Glory of His Beloved God, to sustain his life only for His sake, feeling :   I am of Thy Own,  observing His presence every where and every thing as belonging to Him.    He leads a life that never goes in vain   for a moment and in no way contradicting the mood of  devotion. And very many such other aspects can be noticed.



Sammana : When a devotee leads a life of devotion, he feels himself humbler than a blade of grass, but he gives due honour to one and all. Secondly he is not an abstruce  abnigator; he follows a life of Yukta-Vairagya; he looks the entire world isavasyam idam sarvam: therefore anything that relates to the Service of God, that he honours duly.  He does not look to it as mundane one but he treats it as divine.


ii) Bahumana: Things or persons that are at the service of God, he does not estimate them with the worldly consideration but he looks to them with high esteem.


iii) Priti : Anything or any person that is at the service of his Beloved God, he loves them with all his love. It is said : Priti tad-vasatisthalei Love for dwelling at the place which  is hallowed by God's Pastimes,   Priti lad-gunakhyane:   feeling  excessive love in listening to or discoursing on the Glorious Pastimes of God. He loves to associate himself  always with exalted Parama Bhagavata devotees.


iv) Viraha : Feeling extreme pang in Love-in-separation from God, which brings to him the feeling void of God void of life-as it were, a fish out of water. Equally so is  Vaishnava-Viraha as we find in the conversation of Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Sri Raya Ramananda : "What is the heaviest of all sorrows ? There is no greater  sorrow than the separation from a devotee of God Sri Krishna."


v) Itara-vichikitsa : He does not want even elevation or salvation, nay, he does not concern with anything else save and except loving service to God.


vi) Mahima-khyati: He feels thrills of joy when he listens to or gives discourses on the pristine Glory of God. He sings aloud in ecstasy the Divine Name.


vii) Tad-artha-pranathana : He feels "if I have got no chance to render service to God, then what is the use of sustaining my life. Being deprived from the service of Sri Krishna  I do not want to live even for a moment."


vii)    Tadiyata ¦.

I  am His and to none   else, For Whose installation is this temple of my heart meant ?

 My Lord, is it not built for installation of Thee !


Oh,   will   it be   like a state without a sovereign ?

Or like a bride ever remaining unwedded !

0        my Hope and my Rest and my Delight !

1        pine at heart and languish for Thee, Upto the last breath of my life I shall  await When wilt Thou come to claim Thy right in this humble chit!


ix)     Sarvatad-bhava :   A mystic devotee   intoxi-catedly drinks the Nectar of Love, as it were licks through his tongue, pours through his twinkling eyes and embracing into  his bosom, folding within his arms and breathes through the nostrils by having the Beloved's Fragrance. Every where he finds the splendour of God. The whole world is  pervaded with His Splendour.1


x) Apratihulyadini ¦. He feels better to embrace death than to live a life, even for a moment, in aversion to God. Sri Haridas Thakur said :'Even if my body is cut into pieces,  yet I cannot give up chanting Divine Krishna Nama'. "Let Him hug me or crush me if He so wills." Thus a devotee lives on earth.   44


Dveshadayah tu naivam   li 45 II


Translation :

Whereas hatred, jealousy,  malice etc.   are not the signs of devotion.



The  very  nature  of Bhakti is Paresanuraga. Sri Rupa Goswami in his Bhakti Rasamrita Sindhu says that Bhakti is not only agreeable (anukula) to God (Krishna), but is  also com­pletely free from hostility or the feeling of antagonism (Pratikulata) on the part of the devo­tee. Any active endeavour in relation to God that gives delight to Him and  which is free from any malicious hostility is Bhakti. Therefore as Sri Vyasa says (Mahabharat A 149.133): "Neither anger nor envy, nor greed, nor impure thought can dwell at the heart of those who are devoted to Supreme Godhead."     45


Tadvakyasheshat pradurbhaveshvapi sa   II 46 II


Translation :

To the conclusion of the previous statement (Shloka No 44) it is also to be understood that Bhakti to the other Incarnations of God (Vishnu) is also recognised or defined as  genuine.


Purport :

The highest type of Bhakti when it reaches its climax viz.   Prema, it is   Raganuga  Bhakti which is applicable   to   Swayamrupa-Bhagavan Vrajendra-nandan Sri Krishna:    Krishnastu Bhaga-vanSwayarm,   the  Supreme  Godhead par-excel­lence Who is Rasoh-vai-sah :   Whereas  Vaidhi-Bhakti (conventional)  is equally applicable to all other  Incarnations of the Supreme God, Sri Krishna   Who   is   the   Fountain-source   of all incarnations.     Here   why   does the Rishi say tad-vakya-iheshat    Because   after    going   to   the  climax, he feels that it may be an omission on his part not to record about the conventional Bhakti to the Incarnations of God Vishnu which is no doubt quite  distinet from the worshippers of other gods, (gods other than Vishnu-Incarnates) which ends in fiasco.1   The incarnations of God  Vishnu such as Sri Rama, Narasimha,  Vamana etc., are the Svamsha of God, the Emanations of Himself identical with Him,  whereas other gods including Brahma  are from Vibbhnnamsha of God Vishnu.     Because all the  incarnations of God Vishnu   are eternal and having  Their   eternal  Abode at Vaikuntha; therefore those who are devoted  to Them steadfastly they too  eternally render devational service to them respectively-Brahmasamhita1 says "As from one original candle-light other candles are burnt in the same way from the  Fountaiu-source Godhead Rama, Narasimha etc. are manifested, So They all are same in Their essence and quality.'' So devotion to them is Vidhi-purvakam whereas  devotion to other Gods are a-vidlu-purvakam (vide Gita)


Janmakarma vidashcha djanma shabdai   II 47 II


Translation :

Through the revealed Shruti Shastra it is known that one goes beyond the life of trans­migration when he realises the mystery of the Birth and Actions or Pastimes of God.



In the Gita2 Bhagavan Himself says: " Vetti Tattvalah: realising Me in reality," of My Births and Actions which are Divine in nature; thereby it is to be known that even  through philosophi­cal knowledge devoid   of   unalloyed   devotion He is not known in reality.   The aspirant when becomes satatayukta-.1   As God says: I enlighten the  hearts of those who follow strictly the path of  devotion,   with   the   ever-burning   lamp   of Divine   Wisdom   and   completely   destroy    the gloom of ignorance; then only  a devotee realises that God's Descents and the Pastimes thereof are supra-mundane and operated by Yogamaya, God's  essential Potency and therefore   It  has got no  relation with mahamaya.


One whose heart is polluted with fear, lust, anger and malice how can he know the Supra-mundane   Divinity   in   the   Descents of God? Again   those   who   follow   the    philosophy    of monism or pantheism how does transcendeutalism of the Divine Descents get manifested  before them ?   The monists consider Me as Impersonal Brahman  being ignorant of My Parama Bhauam* Super-mundane,  imperishable Infinite and  Un­surpassed  exaltation, so their vision is blunted depriving them from realising My  Transcendental Swarupa.


God says neither gods, nor the great sages know the secret of My Birth and the Leela that I enact during My Descent in human Form. I manifest My eternal beautiful Form  on the mundane plane through My Yoga-mays but the sages and the gods including Brahma fail to conceive My Transcendental inconceivable Form by their empiric  knowledge; without single-minded devotion to Me I am unknowable and without bestowing by Me the vision to know Me nobody knows about the virtue of My Manifestation.

So those who have made themselves free from   worldly attachments, fear, anger, malice and taken shelter at His Lotus Feet,   entirely relying upon God's sayings,   in   the    Sanatana Shastras and discourses from the exalted Parama-Bhagavata devotees of Godhead,  such persons realising the Transcendental Nature   of  God's Form,   Attributes,   Deeds etc.   go   beyond   the sway of nmya viz.   life of unending cycling of transmigration and attain the summum bonum  of life.


Tat cha divyam svashakti matra—udbhavat    II 45 II



His Descents viz. Births and Actions are Transcendental, because They are operated by His Own Essential Potency viz. Yogamaya.


Purport :

All beings within the earth are the products of five gross elements of maha-maya, external potency of God and so all beings are mortals. God's Transcendental Form is  neither a subtle nor a gross one but His Divine Personality is oue and the same with His body, Mind and Soul. His Births and Actions are beyond the mundane rules and  regulations as He retains His entire Divinity, Glory and Power of Omni­science, Omnipotence and Omnipresence un­hampered and unimpaired in the least. He is SatmChit -  Ananda - Vigraha beyond the scope of understanding of those who are steeped in the quagmire of maya. Therefore the Births and Actions of God are such that They reveal  their transcendentalism to those who are un-tinted  at heart and dove-tailed at His   loving service but at the same time appear as deluding phenomena to those who are  averse to His Service. He remains unaffected by the gunas of the illusive maya even when He is born within this mundane sphere. He was a specific personality of His Own,  but He is subjected to no limitations. In Him all the opposite qualities meet and are reconciled losing all their apparent grossness.


So we should understand that the Mani­festations of Vishnu are neither the composition of the materials which are perishable nor the product of mundane qualities but is  Transcen­dental wherein the body and the Indweller are identical without any distinction what-so-ever. 48


Mukhyam Tasya hi Karunyam    II 49 II


Translation :

The principle cause for His Advent on earth is indeed, His compassion.


Purport :

Bhagavan Himself says:: "My Descent is primarly to strengthen the spiritual vitality of human life, and thereby to sustain the purity and to stimulate the progress of human  civili­zation and to counteract effectively the aggressive assertion of man's low animalism and selfish­ness over his higher humanity and spiritual purity and freedom." Even  His killing asuras is not an act of atrocity because asuras who are killed at the Hands of God get their mukti (nigraho-api-anugraha eva)

Bhagavatam says:2 He descends for best­owing the boon of final beatitude on humanbeings." Further3 "Out of His infinitee cause­less Mercy upon His devotees God  Manifests His divine Sports by cultivating which man attains summum bonum of life.*'    49


Pranitvat-na vibhutishu   II 50 II


Translation :

Love and attachment or rendering service even to the Vibhutis, persons possessing intros­pective grandeur, glory, might, sublimity, beauty or loveliness — all those are  qualities of living beings; therefore they cannot be called Devotion in its true sense and absolutely cannot help for attaining final beatitude in one's own life.



In the shloka number 46 we are told that Bhakti to the other Incarnations of God (Vishnu) is to be accepted as genuine Therefore natu­rally it may be also considered that,  why not love and attachment for the Vibhutis of God Vishnu also be sine-qua-non of Bhakti? But this sutra refutes prima facie of such Bhakti on the ground that the Vibhutis  are out of vibhinnamsa of God whereas the Incarnations of God (Vishnu) are out of His Svansha, Therefore worship of vibhutis including gods other than Lord Vishnu is  avidhipurvakam-.1 God says : "Those who are devoted to other gods even though Shradhanvitahviz. with un-wavering faith, but such worship is not recognised as the right  method of worship.


They being deluded by maya are deprived of gaining immortality. Whereas My devotees come unto Me, thereby no longer are they  subject to birth and death.'' 50


Dyuta rajasevayoh pratishedhaccha   II 51 II


Translation :

To wait upon the king's favour and gambl­ing must be prohibited.



For a devotee of God gambling is the worst enemy. And a devotee must not wait upon favour of the king.   When we   depend   upon the favour of the king or of the rich we  cannot maintain our steadfastness in our devotional life. As it is said, "If we eat the salt of a man who is steeped in nescience our mind becomes contaminated and therefore  at that tinted heart how can we have memory of Sri Krishna? Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu says  "Better to embrace death than to look for a favour from the king". Gambling  snaps all the good dispositions of the heart and makes one cruel and hard-hearted.  51


Vasudeve apiiti chennakarama.tratvat   II 52 II


Translation :

Is it to be the cause in relation to Vasudeva too ? No, because Vasudeva is the Self some Manifestive Form of the Supreme God Himself.



In the Gita while Sri Krishna was narrating about His Vibhutis, He has spoken that :2   " I am Vasudeva among the Vrishnis; therefore as per the statement of Sutra No 50,  devotion to Vasu­deva also is not to be recognised. But that is not so, because Sri Krishna although includes Vasudeva in the line of His Own Vibhutis but actually He  Himself is Vasudeva Who is the Supreme God Himself. As we find in the Bhagavatam1 that Sri Krishna is also included in the list of Leela Avataras as well as in the  Yuga-avataras; whereas He is really the Supreme Godhead, the Fountain-source of all Descents Krishnastu Bhagavan Sway am-.* He is the Entire-whole and every other  Descent is His Part or Part of Parts. Krishna is included as Avataras in this sense that Vishnu in Krishna performed the duties of Avataras in discharging the asuras by  killing and establishing Yuga-dharma. So also Sri Krishna makes people understand by reckoning Vasudeva name in the list of the Vibhu­tis that as per the Akashavani, the  eighth son of Devaki (Who is Vasudeva) may be looked merely a Vibhuti of Him because God need not descend to be a man among men merely to do that very work which  man himself as men can do. Endowed with a fragment of His Divine Splendour {Vibhuti) a god or a human being can discharge that duty. So Vasudeva is not to be taken as  a Vibhuti of God but He is God Himself Incarnate with His unhampered Divine Potency, therefore Devotion to Him is not only to be recognised but that is the must and  uttama-bhakti.


Pratiabhijnanatcha    II 53 II


Translation :

That is the established Truth instituted in the most authentic literatures.


Purport :

The Bhagavatam says-.1 The Vedas ultimately treat of Bhagavan Vasudeva, the sacrifices them­selves aim at the attainment of Vasudeva, the various yogas eventually lead  to Vasudeva and all sorts of rituals too have their end in Vasudeva. Therefore final attainment is Bhagavan Vasudeva. Sri Rudra says to Prachetas i1 He is indeed supremely  dear to me, who has directly taken recourse to Bhagavan Vasudeva, Who is beyond the triple guna of Prakriti and also Who is superior to all the jivas including the celestial  beings. Further, Bhagavatam says :2 "Steadfast devotion to Bhagavan Vasudeva forthwith endows oneself with full crystal philosophical knowledge of the Supreme Divinity  as well as speedily brings to him aversion to worldly enjoyments."3 "Man of highly spiritual insight ultimately reali­ses that Bhagavan Vasudeva is the Be-all and End-all of  the human pursuit." Further in Shruti, Smriti, everywhere Vasudeva is glorified. See also Sri Gopala Tapani Upanishad — Text No. 20.   53


Vrishnishu shreshtyena tat   II 54 II



Why Sri Krishna has put Himself as Vasudeva in the line of Vibhutis for gloryfying the Vrishni-race.



As in the Vishnupurana1 Sri Parashara says: "Men listening to the history of the race of the Yadus will get rid of impurity of their hearts for, in the said race was born the  Supreme God-head Vasudeva.54


Evam prasiddheshu cha    II 55 II



In the same way Bhakti is to be recognised when applied to the other Incarnations of God Vishnu.


Purport :

Bhakti to Sri Rama, Varaha, Nrisimha, Vamana etc. Who all are the Incarnations of God Vishnu is to be recognised as genuine and the means for emancipation. Those  Who are Swamsha of God Vishnu They are identical with Him whereas those Who are merely Guna-avesha or Shaktyavesha they are within the category of His Vibhutis,  their service to them are not to be considered as genuine Bhakti. 55




Bhaktya bhajana upasamh&rat gaunya paraya etat hetutvat   II 56 II


Translation :

Final or paramount attainment of Bhakti is Bhajan (ecstatic rapture in singing the Glories of Godhead) and all other phases of Bhakti are component parts of it.



Gita says:1 "The devotees engage themselves in constant chanting of My Divine Names with all determination and firmness, with all humility and sincerity."

Bhajan inundates the devotee into the ocean of Bliss; where Shravan and Kirtanam are done, a devotee's senses are surcharged with the current of Prema and the whole  thing is a transcendental process.   Through  the   spiritual body he does everything without in any way being associated with phenomenal qualities. Krishna Nama  Samkirtana is the best among all the transcendental devotional practices.When Sri Krishna-Nama enchants a devotee in ecstacy and dances on his tongue, at times the  devotee drinks deep the Nectarine succulence thereof which cannot be compared with anything else. Sri Krishna Nama Samkirtana is the safest, easiest, strongest and  most direct means to attain the Prema when Sri Krishna Himself is infatuated to that Love. In Namasamkritana the Sambhoga (Love-in-union) and Vipralambha  (Love-in-Separation) with all their sentiments remain, therefore nothing else can be compared with It.     56


Ragartha prakirti sahacharyat cha etaresham    II 57 II


  Translation :

For arousing Raga or Anuraga infatuation or poignancy of Love in singing Divine Krishna Nama other phases of Bhakti are to be followed.


Purport :

Therefore Shravana etc. the nine phases of Bhakti such as visiting pilgrim centres, observing God's days like Ekadasi, Janmashtami etc. with fasting are to be performed  with a view to arous­ ing intensity of Love for Hari samkirtana. In the 'HariJShakti Vilas V ''One who acquired the merit of performing worship perfectly of Sri-murti of Sri  Vasudeva, the Supreme Godhead in his one hundred Brahminical births, such a person is endowed with the taste of chanting the Divine Krishna Nama all the time.        57


Antarale tu sheshah syurupasyadau cha Kandatvat   II 58 II


Translation :

In the Uttara-Kanda (Vedanta) including the Upanishadas (Upanishadas are the sources of Vedanta philosophy) the main purpose is to establish the Object (Brahman) Who  is to be worshipped and that is spoken either in incognito or most esoterically everywhere in the beginning as well as at the end.


Purport :

In the Prasthanatraya viz. Upanishadas, Vedanta-sutras as well as in the Srimad Bhagavat Gita and also in the final Testament, Srimad Bhagavatam, no doubt three paths  viz. Karma, Jnana and Bhakti are prescribed for attaining human pursuits. But wherever Karma-yoga and Jnana-yoga are illustrated there too secretly it is worked out that  they must ultimately lead to Devotion otherwise they end with coup de grace. As it is stated in Bhagavatam:1 "So long as there is no firm faith in hearing, chanting etc. of  My Glorious Pastimes and Qualities and thereby no distaste to the fruitive actions, one engages himself on his socio-religious duties (Karma-yoga) enjoined in the  scriptures." Further3 'Those who, abandoning the path of unalloyed devotion to the Lotus Feet of God­head the Source of true-well-being, labour for dry abstract knowledge  for its own sake, toil in vain like those who pound empty husks of paddy.3


Tabhyah pantry am-upacramdt    II 59 II


Translation :

Why Karma-yoga and Jnana-yoga are pres­cribed ? Because at the initial stage before the dawn of Bhakti they may result in purifying the mind but not absolutely defacto to  endance Bhakti.


Purport :

Bhagavan says:1 "Different purposes are served by different small reservoirs of water, but a large lake serves all purposes, similarly different paths (yogas) are for attaining  different goals but a man of wisdom alone knows that by steadfast devotion to Me, rewards with paramount pursuit in life."


And also He says : Togasthah hum karmani: Do your duty, relinquishing attachment and indifferent to  success or failure.   Karma done for the sake of Yajna alone, that too,  without any desire for fruits, releases one from bondage;otherwise Karma, with whatsoever merit done, binds one to the strong chain of worldliness.-Karma loadhyate Jantuh:  Shruti says: Tojno vaiVishunu. Tejno Ahem Bhagavattamah1 Tojno Harih Sway am* Regarding Jnana vide Itmaramascha3 etc.        59


Tasu pradhana yogat phaladhikyameke   II 60 II


Translation :

Some opine that when Karma yoga and Jnana yoga are superintended by Bhakti-yoga they indeed produce better results.


Purport :

Karma-yoga devoid of Bhakti to Godhead is like the loose-flesh hanging from the neck of a she-goat, good for nothing but when that Karma yat Haritoshana: is conducive to  Hari Bhajan it, ultimately leads to one's emancipation. The sameway jnana too:1 Even Jnana however pure, when divorced from devotional aptitude towards the Supreme  Lord Krishna, does not lead to perfection; how can there shine again Karma performed with selfish desire or even desirelessly if not consecrated to the Lotus Feet of the  Godhead ? Whereas:2 The Sweet-fragrantscent emanating from the sacred Tulasi tinged with the Pollens of the Lotus Feet of the God, having entered into the nostrils of  those Brahma-jnanis (Kumaras), send a thrill of joy in their hearts and horripilations in their body.They could visualise the Transcendental Beauty of God having been  converted into devotees.Such illustrations are noticed in the characters of many a sage like Sri Sukadeva etc.         60


Ndmneti Jaiminih sambhavat   II 61 II



Sri Jaimini rishi opines that listening to or chanting the Divine Name is the best method for culturing unalloyed devotion.


Purport :

No doubt as per one's spiritual sentiment one may take recourse to any one of the nine­fold Bhakti and to such respective devotees the prescribed phase becomes the best  and sweet, but listening to Transcendental Krishna Nama from the Holy lips of the exalted Parama Bhagavata mystic Devotees or singing in ecstacy is considered by the  crest jewel devotees, the best and unparalleled, which inundates a devotee into the ocean of bliss. Among all the phases of Bhakti Sri Krishna Nama Sankirtana is the best  because It produces Prema in no time. When Sri Krishna-Nama enchants a devotee in ecstacy and dances on his tongue, at that time the devotee drinks deep the Nectar  which cannot be compared with anything else; nay who will be able to fathom its depths ? It enchants all the senses at a time. Even at the pang of Separation, Premie  devotee gets solace in Nama  Sankirtana.    The Leelas of God are an ocean of nectarine Bliss and Namasankirtana is the natural flow of current of different Leelas of that  ocean.


•Every letter of Divine Krishna Nama when chanted it swells the ocean of Nectarine Bliss'— Thus Spake Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Further He says: The chanting of Divine  Krishna Nama wipes and polishes the dust lader mirror of the soul; extinguishes the raging forest conflagration of worldly life; endows the lily of righteous living with  bene­volent moon-light; yields life-giving support to the bride of true knowledge; swells the ocean of Bliss; adds the full relish of Nectar to every syllable of the Holy Name;  loves and chastens the entire self with supreme spirit-(Shikshashtakam).Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu further says: When a jiva realises his real nature as the eternal  servitor of Sri Krishna, then and then alone the Divine Name dwells upon his tongue.By listening to Divine Names and uttering Them, by bowing down to Him even a  shvapacha becomes eligible to perform a soma-yajna. He is an object of veneration to all, on the tip of whose tongue the Divine Name has appeard at least once, even if he  be a shvapacha (dog-eater) O Lord, What a marvellous fact, even a shvapacha becomes highly venerable on the tip of whose tongue Your Name exists. Even the Namabhds  (dawn Name) unfailing results in emancipation from worldly bondage_ Ajamil got mukti by uttering a single Namabhas then how much more would be the result, if a person  takes the Suddha »pure) Mama, Love has surely its own reward. Though Kali is a repository of all evils, it possesses a great quality that a person gets rid of worldliness, and  secures supreme Bliss through Krishna Nama Sankirtana alone. Through Nama Sankirtana alone, all become rid of their griefs and faults and become devotees of Sri Hari.  What was obtained by meditation in Krita Age, by offering sacrifices in Treta Age, and by worshipping Vishnu in Dvapara Age, is all obtained by Krishna Nama Sankirtana in  Kaliyuga.The Name of Hari, the Name of Hari, O, the Name of Hari alone and nothing else in Kaliyuga, nothing else can lead one to the summum bonum of life. Even the  worst sinner will wash off his all sins by chanting Divine Krishna Nama in this Kaliyuga, I am the Lord of all the universe and am a meditator of Sri Krishna Nama. I tell you  the Truth and noth­ing but the Truth that Sri Radha-Krishna Nama is the sole resort.


Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare

Hare Rama Hare  Rama Rama  Rama  Hare  Hare


This is the Mahamantra with invocation of Radha-Krishna composed of sixteen words with thirty two letters and is the only means as well as the end.

In this Yuga of Kali, Sri Radha-Krishna manifests as the Mahamantra. The whole world is liberated by chanting this Name.    Krishna's Name once uttered without any  offence washes off all sins and enkindles nine forms of de­votional faith. Uttering the Name in whatever place whether eating or sleeping, irrespective of time, place and  person, all is fulfilled. The performance of the chanting of the Name of Sri Krishna with a loud voice, is the highest form of doing good to others. If once the nectar-like Name  becomes manifest on the tongue. It inundates all the other senses too with Its luscious sweetness. If even with any motive one chants "Radha-Krishna," a hundred desires  of the person are fulfilled. Blessed are those among the sons of men, to whom the Name is dear; Krishna Himself is enjoying the sweet­ness of His Name. Constant  chanting of Krishna Nama roots out all the evil influence of lust, anger, greed, infautation, pride and prejudice. Constant chanting of Krishna Nama is by far superior to  making crores of pilgrimages. Constant chanting of Krishna Nama is most effective in destroying all hostile causes and is the root of spiritual well-being. Know it for certain  that His Name is spiritual wealth. Name is the highest salvation.    Name is the highest end, and the   noblest  final   beatitude. Know   it   for   certain   that   Name   is  eternally existing, Name alone is the supreme devotion; Name is  the highest   intellect.     Know   it  for certain that His Name is the  best   Priti  and Name   alone   is     the    brightest   remembrance. Name is the seed, and the fruit to jivas.    Know it for certain that His Name is the Supreme Lord  and Name alone is the supremest object of  jiva's worship.   Name is the best preceptor.


Name is the Chintamani, the Bestower of all objects of desire, Name is the embodiment of Divine Intelligence.Name is the Spiritual Fact, Name is absolu­tely free from any  material nature and fully identical with His Form. Sri Krishna's Name is the means as well as the end. The Name is the greatest benefactor both before and after  God-realisation. 'Hare Krishna' Name leads one towards the attainment of the Highest goal, love of God; the Name is the manifestation of Sri Krishna-Prema.   Krishna is  Name, Krishna's Form, and His Holy Image are the same and Transcendental by nature, there is not the least difference between Them. The Beauty of Krishna's Name can  be experienced by a fortu­nate person who possesses a pair of eyes saturated with Prema-Bhakti. My Name will be spread unto all the regions, every nook and corner of the  whole universe. I stay neither in Vaikuntha nor in the hearts of Yogis, but wherever My devotees chant My Name, there I am; the Name is the essence of Divine Love leading  to the highest, ultimate end is the Blissful Realm.


Offences against the Divine Name if not nipped in the bud will delay the realisation of the fruit of Sri Nama-Sankirtana. Be guarded against disregarding the spiritual preceptor  without whose grace there is no Grace of God. Be guarded against disparaging sadhus who are the living embodiments of God's Mercy and His most favourite, dearer to Him  than His Own-self. Be warned against regarding Sri Vishnu as   absolutely   different   from   His auspicious Names, Forms, Qualities or to treat Him on a par with other  deities.   Be guarded against speaking too highly or contemptuously of the sacred, and infallible Shastras.   Be guar­ded   against   the   impression   that   the whole Glory  of the Divine Name is merely an exagge­ration far from the real   facts.     Be   guarded against taking all the  efficacy   of the  incom­parable Names of the Lord as mere  tricks of the imagination.   Be guarded against committing sins   repeatedly   and  intentionally by doubting the strength of the  Holy Name.   Be  guarded against regarding  the   Holy   Names   belonging to   the   same   category   as   all   other   religious practices.     Be guarded   against   imparting   the secret of the Holy Name to persons  who have no faith in the chanting of It and also to those who are irreligious  from  their very birth.   Be guarded against extreme addiction to worldliness even after  listening to   the excellences  of  the Divine Name.   Aspirants indulging in offences against the Divine Krishna  Name cannot taste the incomparable Bliss flowing from the  Eternal-fountain of the Name.


Thakur Sri Bhakti Vinode thus illustrates:

The fortunate ones who earnestly long to ascend the terrace of Prema, do sincerely and incessantly chant the  Name of Krishna in the company of Sadhus.    They do not  have any appetite   for   any   other   feature   of   devotion. When in a short time by the grace of Name, the heart becomes closely attentive, the fruits of religious  forbearance, control over   sensual appetites,   religious observances,   with  holding the breath by way of religious austerity, abstract religious contemplation,  steady    abstraction   of the mind indifference to   external   impressions are very easily gained without paying the least heed to all these.   Name alone is a complete suspension   of  the   fleeting mental operations. The more the heart is pellucid, the more diverse pastimes of the Spiritual Kingdom plays in it. The flow  of the milk of this felicity is so very  fast  running  that   no   other   means   can   give even the smallest drop of it. Name is Spiritual - wisdom, vows, meditation abnegation, mental quietness, virtue,  contrivance none of these can ever equal Name. Know it for certain that Name is the highest salvation, Name is the highest end, Name is the noblest final beatitude, Name  is eternally existing, Name alone is the supermost devotion, Name is the highest intellect. Name is the best Priti and Name alone is the brightest remembrance. Name is  the seed and Name is the fruit to jivas — Name is their Lord and Name alone is the supremest Object of their worship. Name is their best preceptor.


The Vedas have described the spirituality of the Name of Krishna to be the highest truth. "O Lord ! reasonably judged we have Thy Name to be higher than the highest and  so do we chant Thy Name, Namabhajan is not bound by any rule — Name is beyond all virtuous acts — He is Spiritual — He is virility and lustre in a person. All the Vedas  have been manifested from this Name. Name is Bliss. Name is Ananda. We can excellently be devoted to Him. Name is worship and Name is to be worshipped; Thy Feet  are to be held  in  veneration.    Re-peatedly we fall prostrate at those Thy lotus-feet and anoint the body with the pollen thereof. In order to lead the soul to its highest stage  devotees   mutually  discuss on Name and sing His  Glories.    They believe Thy Name to   be Chaitanya in  person,  and always sing and hear Kirtan   which   is   identical    with   Thy  Name — they are purified by it.    Name alone is sat or everexisting.   The essence of the Vedas is Name, the Absolute Truth, Whose Form is Saf-Chidd-nanda     (Sat-ever-existing.    Chit — all - knowing,  and Ananda—all bliss).   "O Vishnu!   it is only by the Grace of Thy Name that we are capable of offering hymns to Thee.   So we  should adore and pray to Thy Name alone."   In His Own "Eight glorious Precepts"   Sriman Mahaprabhu has  spoken of the glories of Nama;   He has also given  a glimpse  of the gradual steps of Nama-Bhajan    in    those    eight   precepts.    He consider thyself humbler than the grass"  shloka hints   at   how   to  adore Name after avoiding  the ten  offences.    His "Man  or money I want not"    shloka    speaks   of   the   selflessness   of Nama-Bhajan in a devotional spirit — devotion unactuated by any lustful  motive;    "O   Thou Son of Nanda"   shloka tells us how to make a plaintive report to the Lord;   the   last   two sholakas describe the processes of Vraja-Bhajan where one  loves  Krishna to serve Him either in   Sambhoga   (union)   or   in   Vipralambha   Rasa (deeper union in separation) or in both after being completely   and   spontaneously    attached to Srimati (Radha). The Shastras have eulogized so highly and so often the glories   of   Name that their name is legion — to describe  them is to write a big  volume.


Name has been accepted on all hands to be an Incarnation of Krishna on this earth. A word though He looks to be, still by His unimaginable powers. He is Spiritual and is a  special Incarnation of Krishna. As Krishna and His Name are identical, Krishna has des­cended to the earth as Name, "Blessed are they no doubt who utter :-


Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna  Hare  Hare

Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare


These Hare-Krishna utterings, coming out from the lips of Sri Chaitanya, inundated the whole world with the flood of Prema; Glory be to this Name by His will! Hence,  Sreeman Mahaprabhu, as mentioned in the Chaitanya-Charitamrita and the Chaitanya-Bhagavata, himself sang and taught jivas into count these sixteen names of thirty-two  letters in beads of Tulasi.


At the utterance of Hari all sins are washed off from the heart of the wicked. As the flame will burn the finger when even though unconsciously, you thrust it into the fire,  simi­larly even the very casually pronounced Hari-nama will burn every bit of sin in you. That Hari-nama after bringing the Absolute Truth, whose Form is Chiddnanda, to light,  destroys avidya or illusion and its works. All this is the work of Hari-nama. As He takes off the three-fold pangs of miseries, distresses and afflictions, He is called Hari (to  steal away) or Hari is so called because He drives out all the three-fold distresses of every animate and inanimate being, or because the mind of the fourteen worlds is  charmed by hearing and singing the Spiritual Attributes of Hari or as He, by His Beauties exceeding the loveliness and beauty of a thousand Cupids who hide their face in  shame, fascinates all men and Incarnations, He is called Hari: and in the vocative case of Hari, it is Hare; or again, — She Who fascinates the Mind of Hari by Her  Prem-Swarup, attachments, and love is Z/ara or in other words Srimati-Radhika, and in the vocative case of Hara it is Hare.


The meaning of 'Krishna' according to the views of kgama is derived from and means that this Krishna Who is Knanda in form and attracts every object, is Parabrahman.  Krishna when in the case of address is also Krishna. The Agama says: O, ye Goddess! all guilts and sinful motives vanish from the heart at the very sound of Ra and the  door in the form of Ma is attached to it in order to shut out these evils from re-entering the heart.   This together give us Rama." The Puranas have further said that Krishna  Who is Cleverer than the cleverest, more Witty than the greatest witty, Who is the Presiding Deity of all spiritual Pastimes and Who is eternally engaged in spiritual  dalliance with Sri Radha, is termed as Rama.Devotees, who thirst for Prema and are on the way to it sing and realise this Hare Krishna-Nama by counting. While chanting  and remembering the Name, incessantly they remem­ber His spiritual characteristics by way of explaining to the mind the meanings of Name, By this means their heart is  very soon freed from every spot of scrapes and becomes pure and stainless; and with the morning twilight of Name, as the heart is purified by constant remembrance, Name  dawns in the horizon of the pellucid heart with full shining rays.


Those who have accepted Name either self-realised devotees or are still trotting onward to self-realisation. Of these, the latter class of devotees are divided according to their  early and advanced stages.    Devotees, besides these, who are  eternally  free,  no  more confound the soul with the  body,  never  identify themselves with body and mind.    Devotees in their early stage   begin   to   chant   the   Name by a fixed number,  and  as   they   gradually   increase  the countings,   they   come   to a stage when their  tongue stops  not for a moment from singing Name.   Though choler-tongued by avidya, devo­tees in their first stage have no taste for Name, still a patient and  continuous  utterance of the Name proves to be the only remedy; now they feel uneasy if stopped from singing the Name, and a constant and regardful chanting produces a supreme  liking for him.   Zeal and earnestness to avoid  sacrileges to Name are very needful in the worldly minded men and in  the com­pany of devotees.    Incessant chanting of  Name will,   when   the   first   flow   has   passed   away, naturally  increase  a  love for   the   Name   and kindness to jivas.   In this  Karma, Jnana and Yoga have nothing  to do.    If their workings be even then strong, they may help the devotees of  Name   in   maintaining their livelihood.    If Krishna-Nama be sung with a firm inclination, it will  ere long cleanse the heart and burn avidya and when avidya vanishes, the brighter illumination of a true unbiassed abnegation and a sense of the relationship between  Krishna and jivas will appear in the heart.


With a happy heart one should re-collect the meaning and form of Name and should pray to Krishna with a heartrending lamentation and this will draw the Grace of Krishna  which will lead him onward in the path of Bhajan. Those who are bent on bhajan may be divided into two distinct classes. Some bear only the burden, others appreciate the  real worth of things. Those who long for enjoy­ment or for self-destroying salvation and are attached to wordly affairs are only yoked to the heavy load of virtue, wealth,  enjoyment and salvation — they are unaware of the fact that Prema is the best sap. So, such load-bearers fail to progress in Bhajan in spite of their utmost strivings,   whereas   the   essence   seekers aiming at Prema-lata very soon reach the longed-for ultimate.     They are   called   Prema-rurukshu (those   who earnestly strive for  ascending up to the region of Prema); they alone can in a very short   time   ascend   upto   the   sphere   of Prema or easily become Paramahansas.    Thus when he, who  so long simply did bear burdens only, learns to love the Truth in the company ofSadhus and   also   soon   turns   to   long  for Prema.


Good   acts   done in previous births,  that look forward to devotion, invigorate reverence and a strong desire for the service of Godhead, which reverence and desire turn into  an appetite for   devotion   in   the   company   of   devotees. Bhajan    along   with    true   devotees   awakens Sadhan-Bhakti that looks forward in expectation of Prema.      If one   adopts   the   processes   of Sadhana as directed by true and pure devotees, he will ere long almost turn mad for ascending the stage of Prema where it can be  tasted;   but again this Prema  will remain  far in the back­ground if he associates with half-true devotees and cannot exclusively devote himself to   the service of Krishna.

The mere letters of name may be had at any place and from anybody, but the profound and unknown truth that is lurking behind those letters can only be exposed by the  grace of a true preceptor who is purely devoted to Krishna; the grace of the spiritual guide alone can pass over from the early twilight of Name to the pure light of it and can  save them from the ten sacrileges hindering the true service of Name.


Repeated remembrance of the meaning of Name will, by degrees, drive out every scrap from the nature of man and then Name appears in person before the spiritual eyes of  the devotee. When the swarupa (form) of Name fully appears, it is identical with the spiritual Form of Krishna. The more clearly and purely is Name visible, the more Bhajan  proceeds in the presence of His swarup, the more do the three  elements  of which  primordial  matter   is said to be composed, namely sakoa (the strand of goodness),  Raja (the strand of activity) and tama (the gloom of pride, haughtiness etc. of the lowest inherent principle), disappear and there appear the spiritual Attributes of Krishna in  the heart of the devotee. Then again, when there is a happy union of the Name, Form and Attributes of Krishna, and devotees in their Bhajan see them the Leela pastimes of  Krishna is awakened by the Grace of Krishna in their pure hearts as soon as they are absorbed in deep and easy natural meditation Incessantly then does Name dance on  their tongue, the Form of Krishna is then visible to their soul's eye, all the Attributes of Krishna are then observed in their heart and the bud of Leela blooms in their soul  while they are buried in meditation. In this stage, five con­ditions of the practising devotee are to be noticed.


1. Shravana-dasha; 2. Varana-dasha; 3. Smaran-dasha;    4. Apana-dasha;    5. Prapana-dasha.


The happy mood which the devotee feels at the time of listening to the object of pursuit and the means to hear from the lips of a true-spiritual Preceptor may be called  Shravana-dasha. In this stage, every bit of knowledge about how to take Name without committing any sacrilege to Him and of the processes and fitness taking Name is  gained; This facilitates the continuity of Name.When fit to receive, the strung together beads of Name-Prema can be had from Sri Gurudeva, i.e. the disciple with every  delight and from the deepest recesses of his heart cordi­ally welcomes the boon of surrendering himself to the feet of Sri Guru for pure and unalloyed Bhajan and receives  invigorating strength and faculty from him; this is Varana-dasha (i.e. the choice of Sri Guru for Bhajan by the acceptance of Name and strength from him).

Remembrance, contemplation, concentration constant meditation and trance (final beatitude) are the five processes of Smaran.     From remem-brance of the Name, the  devotee thinks of the Form which gives him a steady conception of the Attributes; this steady conception of the attributes gives him a firm conviction of pursuing the Leela of  Krishna and having entrance in the Leela he is completely absorbed in Krishna-Rasa: This is Apana-dasha. By these Smarana and Apana the devotee can know and adore  the eternal and daily Leela of Krishna at eight different periods of the day and night and when he is deeply absorbed in it, he realises his own self and that of Sri Krishna.  These self-realised devotees are Paramahamsas.


Then at the time of his departure from this world, the devotee, by the Grace of Sri Krishna, becomes an associated counter-part of ideal object of his worship in Vraja and  thus attains the summum-bonum of Nama-bhajan.


Panegyric to Sri Krishna Natna Sankirtana


To chant the Name of Sri Krishna with loving devotion to Him is the only paramount Religion for all people at all times.

O Bharata, the Name of Hari always stays in the mouth of a person who has worshipped Vasudeva (Krishna) in hundreds of previous births.


O Hari Nama, the tips of Thy Lotus Feet have been eternally worshipped by the glowing radiance diffused from the gemmed chaplets of the Upanishads, the crestjewels of  the Vedas. Thou art eternally adored and chanted by the liberated souls. O Hari Nama, clearing myself of all offences, T entirely take shelter in Thee.


O Holy Nama, All Glory to thee Who art eternally chanted by the saints. To confer eternal bliss upon the people, Thou hast appe­ared before them as the Transcendental  word. Thou destroyest all sorts of terrible sufferings of him who happens to chant even Thy dim reflection known as Ndmabhasa.


Having such characteristics of Mahabhaga-vata, the devotee of Sri Krishna chants the sweet Divine Krishna Nama with loving devotion to Him, — his heart over flooded with  devotion, he sometimes laughs aloud, weeps, laments for separation from his Beloved, sings and dances like a mad man, regardless of what people will say.For those who  have developed an aversion for this world and seek to attain the fearless state, as well as for realised souls that have attained union with God, O king, the chanting of Sri Had  Nama has been concluded to be the best means as well as the end.


Glory, Glory, to the blissful Nama and Form of Sri Krishna which sets back all socio-religious duties, meditation, and even worship of the Holy Deity and which when uttered  without offence gives deliverance to all beings-May this Supreme Nectar-like Holy Nama be the sole Eternal Ornament of my life.1

O wonder, none knows with how much necter-like Bliss the two lettered word ' Krishna' is composed, for no sooner is the word uttered than springs up the heart's desire for  millions of tongues to chant; no sooner does the word enter into the ears than It engenders myriads of ears to hear, and no sooner is It awakened in the memory than It  deters all sensuous acti­vities of the mind and body.1


Overwhelmed in joy of  shouting  Hare-Krishna-Nama Heart over-flooded with ecstatic devotion Made me laugh, weep and lament with  rolling on earth O wonder!   none  knows what a fathom­less Nectarine Bliss, To whom the  Holy Name   is   the   sole eternal ornament of life. — Lord Sri Chaitanya


"All Glory to the Divine Krishna Nama which is eternally chanted by the holiest saints; to confer transcendental Bliss upon the people the Nama has appeared in Its  Transcendental Word. Whosoever even unwillingly chants It once, It destroys the terrible-worldly-sufferings. O Holy Krishna Nama ! Thou art the very Life of Narada's Lute  and the very ocean of the Divine Sweetness of Love. I pray mayest Thou ever dance on my tongue with all the ardour of Divine Love."


Sing, singaloud,  O my mind, The Blissful Names of Nitai and Gaur; Be delighted, be delighted, O my mind, There is never such mercy goes unto an offender As having  recourse to that Name Divine, Offence goes, comes premananda unto ye; That Name wipes out all offences Forthwith gives the relish and taste  of Krishnanama Cuts  asunder the very knot of Samsara-(How I enjoy the sweetness of Krishna­nama) Summum bonum of life is attained there­with Vision   of   Radha-Krishna   in    sportive  Vrindabana Comes to me through the Mercy of Gaura.  Oh, say, say all, "Gaur-Nitai".


Atranga-prayoganam-Yathakala sambhavogrihadivat II 62 I!


Translation :

Here other phases of Bhakti are to be followed in accordance with proper time and appropriateness likewise as for example building a house with all completeness.


Purport :

Bhakti has got different stages such as Sadhana-Bhakti, Bhava-Bhakti and the Paramount Stage is Prema-Bhakti. So when a devotee pro­ceeds with Nama-bhajan stage by  stage, accor­dingly he follows the appropriate sixtyfour different kinds of Bhakti. Sri Rupa Goswami in the ' Bhakti Rasamrita  Sindu'  says:1   First Shraddha i.e. faith, next  Sadhu-sanga or association with exalted  parama-Bhagavata devotees,  after that Bhajana-Kriya or spiritual practices of nine-phases of Bhakti, that leads to anartha-nivrithi  i.e. cessation of all offences or obstacles,  and   it produces Mshtha or firmness which is followed by Ruchi or taste, and at its higher stage Ashakti or   attachment,   after    this   is   Bhava,   and  the climax appears  in Puma."   Further1    those in whose hearts there has been burning forth the sprout   of  Bhava,   shall have in its wake the  appearance of the following sins in them with-out any doubt: forbearance,  insuring that not a moment is allowed to go in vain, i.e. there is no cessation Bhava in them,   indifference to worldly enjoyments, unassumingness i.e. having the Lord's Grace, eager and anxiously longing for the Beloved Lord, ever relishing the chanting of the Name of  the Lord,  attachment for the praise and eulogy of the Glories of the Lord, and love to live in His   Dwelling   Places   or Realm   and   others.     Regarding   the   stage   of  Prema we have already illustrated in the previous sutras.     62


Ishwara  tushtereko  a pi ball    II 63 II


Translation :

Even any one of the nine phases of Bhakti when performed it pleases the God.



It is the fact that as per the spiritual sentiment of the particular devotee one takes recourse to the respective aspect of nine-fold Bhakti-sadhana and in consonance with his  taste the prescribed aspect becomes the best and sweetest. As in 'Had Bhakti Vilas'.1 (1) Sri Parikshit Maharaj by listening (Shravanam) to the Srimad Bhagavatam, (2) Sri  Shukadeva by giving discourse {Kirtanam), (3) Sri Prahlada in remembrance of God Vishnu {Smaranam)   (4) Sri Lakshmidevi in the Service of the Lotus Feet of Sri  Narayana {Padasevanam), (5) Prithu Maharaj in worshipping Lord Vishnu (Archanam), (6) Akrura in offering Hymns or adoration of God iVandanarri), (7) Hanuman in  rendering Service to Lord  Sri Rama Chandra {Dasyam), (8)   Arjuna   by   his   friendship   (Sakhyam) and (9)      Bali Maharaj in complete self surrender to the Lord  (Atma-nivedanam) — all of them made the Lord pleased thereby and attained Him.     63


Abandho arpanasya mukham    II 64 II


¦Translation :

The gate-way for entering into the world of emancipation is the full dedication or self-surrender.


Purport :

God says:1 "Dharma is no dharma what­soever  its merit may be,  if that does not lead to proper type of self-surrender to Me." He describes the simple and austere purity of  the relationship as that of a chaste wife (mamekam) with complete surrender in a humble and direct attitude of trust. One must stand naked and guileless before the  Supreme. One's own virtue, pride, knowledge, subtle demands and uncons­cious assumptions and prejudices which are his normal attainments should be totally given up  and then God Krishna takes possession of the self where with the genuine completeness of the surrender in winning the over-flowing Grace of God all claims are shorn off  and He is served with love and love alone.


Forsake all socio-religious systems of caste and stations in earthly life, Renunciation of Karma or action Abandonment of the fruits of Karma Rigid  austerities  in  order to  control the inner and outer senses, Meditation, concentration of attention; Obedience to the grandeur and lordliness of Iswara And all such things that have been told   before  In order to gain knowledge of Brahman and Paramatman, Shun them, all. Take absolute refuge in Me, who am the Highest Divinity, The supreme Lord of all gods. Then shall  I deliver thee From all the bondage of this world, As well as from offences and all sins and penalties That may arise from thy abandonment of all those duties That    are     enjoined    on    thee   by   the scriptures. Mourn not for comitting these thy relative duties.  64


Dhyana niyamastu drishthasaukarjat    II 65 II


 Translation :

However,   it   is   seen   that some (glorious rishis) opine meditation or contemplation (Dhyana) and austerities are more suitable for enhancing fervent devotion.


Purport :

When contemplation becomes constant, there, all the senses viz. tongue, eye, ear get absorbed in Dhyana. And austerities keep the heart free from dirts and make it  untinted when  God takes hold of it. 65


Tad  Yajih  pujayam  it are sham  naivam    II 66 II


Translation :

Indeed, yajan denotes worship of the Supreme Godhead and not for any other sake.



In the Gita, Bhagavan says;1 " Those who worship other gods even with unwavering faith are being deluded by maya which ends in fiasco whereas   those   who   worship    Me   and  thence attain immortality.     66


Padodakam hi pddyam avyapteh   II 67 II



Padodakam means the holy water with which a Deity of God Vishnu is given a bath and it is not meant for any other water what-soever may be its purity.



To honour the Padodakam after the wor­ ship of the Deity is a must principle for a devotee. Therefore the glorious rishi warns us that we should not anthropomorphise our  ideas considering any sanctified or pure.water itself to be taken as Padodakam. Vishnu Padodakam sarva papa vinashanam: When It is honoured It des­troys all the sins of  the heart and generates devotion to Godhead.       67



 Svayam arpitam grahyam avisheshat    II 68 II


Translation :

The offerings that are made to the Deities must be honoured without any sacrilegious superstition.


Purport :

Sri Uddava, the crest jewel devotee of Sri Krishna says : " One without any other Sadhana but by mere honouring Mahaprasadam (the remnant offerings) can easily  overcome the sway of may a." In the Gita1 God says : Those who accept the remnants of God are liberated from all sins; but, those sinful ones, who cook for the sake of  nourishing their body alone, eat only sin. Sri Narada Pancharatra says:2 He is the worst among the Dvrjas (Brahmins) who eats and drinks without offering to Sri Hari. The  panditas consider that food which is not offered to Sri Hari as the night-soil and the un-offered drink as urine, (vide Isa Up.)    Offer your food and everything - that of flower,  scents etc. to the Srimurti of Sri Had and take   as   Maha-prasadam.    The   eye,   the   ear,   the  nose,   the touch and the tongue all have a spiritual cul­ture; do  it with a  holy heart.     This   is   the only  inexplicable   means   of  spiritual   culture. For honouring Mahaprasadam there is absolutely no bar of socio-religious culture.    The  Brahmin and Chandala sit together without any sacrile­gious   superstition   to   honour   Mahaprasadam. Sri   Sarvabhauma   Bhattacharya   was    a   most orthodox    Vedic   Brahmin.     He   never   sipped even a drop   of  water   without   ablution   and performing morning religious   rites   but   it   so happened that one   fine   early    morning   while yet he was on his bed suddenly Sriman Maha-prabhu knocked at his door and when he got up and opened the door he fell at the   Feet of the Lord and  Sriman Mahaprabhu offered him Mahaprasadam   (the Remnant of previous day's   offering   of   rice   to   Sri   Jagnnath);   at once Sri Sarvabhauma ate It without any  hesi­tation even before washing   his   face.   Sriman Mahaprabhu asked, " How it is that without your morning rites performed, you ate this Prasadam? Is it proper for a  Brahmin like you ? The Pandit said, "Lord, You have con­verted a crow into a Garuda bird; therefore no more illusion remains. I by Thy Grace realise that there rests no time  or rite for taking Mahaprasadam. Soon one receives Mahaprasadam at once it should be honoured without any consideration." Lord says, "Sar­vabhauma ! You have won  over Me today." Sriman Mahaprabhu made all His devotees without any caste-superstition to sit together while they honoured Mahaprasadam.


Nimitta  guna  avjapekshandt aparadheshu Vyavastha    ii 69 II


Translation :

The gravity of offences are considered as it is done intentionally of involuntarily of accidentally.


Purport :

There  are   three   types   or  offences,   viz.

(i)   NSma-aparadha,    against the Divine Name,

(ii)  Seva-aparadha,  against the  Worship of the Deity   and   

(iii)  Dhama-iparadka,    against   the holy Tirthas.


The   Padma   Purana   records     thirty   two offences. And some where sixty three in number. The offences against the Divine Name are ten.


1. The slandering of exalted devotees of God, 2. To differentiate the Name, Form, Pasti­mes from the very Person of God or to think Shiva and such other gods as equal to or  inde­pendent of God Vishnu, 3. To displease of look upon one's spiritual preceptor with material estimation, 4. To slander ^the Vedas and such Holy Scriptures, 5. To  exaggerate the greatness of the Name, 6. To think the Names of Hari as imaginary, 7. To commit sins on the pretext of Name, 8. To consider the Transcendental Name as  equal to worldly auspicious deeds such as  religious rites, vows   and   sacrifices,   9. To initiate a man with Harinama who has no regard to it and 10. Even after hearing the  Glory of the man who cannot shake off his conviction that this body is the soul.For other offences please see Vishnu Purana.


Patraderdanatnanyatha hi vaishishtyam    II 70 !l


Translation :

Anything, even if it is mere leaf, when with steadfast devotion offered to God, it has got its significance.



It is said in Isopanished that every belonging should be offered to God and thereafter as remnant it should be accepted; that act is conducive to Hari Bhajan. Elsewhere,  "What­ever is desired most in the world, whatever else is dear to one at home-all that must be offered to God".   In the Gita1 Even a leaf,  a flower, a fruit or a drop of water  when offered to Me with absolutely pure and loving devotion I readily enjoy them. I thirst for love, so when My prayatatma devotees offer something to Me with a heart  overflowing with loving devotion and filled with gratitude that I readily accept." Our beloved Lord voraciously ate up the parched rice from Sudama saying, "O friend, this loving  present brought by you offers Me supreme delight. This parched rice will satisfy Me and the entire world."    70


Sukritajatvatparahetubhavaccha criyasu shrejashyah II 71 II


Translation :

From the fact that due to the accumulated spiritual merit when one with single minded devotion offers all the best materials that he posseses, nay, even simple offerings of  leaves, or flowers, arise the para-bhakti the supreme loving devotion to God which is far far superior over all other virtuous deeds including Vedie rituals.


Purport :

Sukriti denotes the spiritual virtue which is never lost and which is the cause of true spiritual welfare of mankind viz. Shreya. Sukriti is the treasure of the soul which is  gained by dint of association with the exalted parama-Bhagavata devotees of Godhead. No virtue can be compared with it. Virtues may lead to attaining Dharma, Aitha Kama  or even Moksha but Sukriti leads to unalloyed devotion to Godhead.


Sri Jiva Goswami says : "In whichever case (of the four) there is God's Grace or the grace of the Lord's devotees, in such and such a case only particular type of seeking  from the Lord is weakned and worn away so as to give way to the appearance of unalloyed Bhakti, as in the individual case of Gajendra, Saunaka, Dhruva and Chatuhsana  and others." Vishwa-natha says : "When the Grace of the Lord is bestowed on anybody he will naturally give up all trifling desire and take shelter at the Feet of the   Lord.     So    when   the   Elephant-king Gajendra was in dire distress   being   attacked by the Crocodile,   his   immediate prayers   to the   Lord   and submission   to His  compassion were for the purpose   of   being  rescued   and saved from   his   imminent   death,    But   when the Lord saved him   out   of his Grace from that terrible jaws    of   Gajendra's   worst   and most powerful enemy, Gajendra was so charmed by the soul captivating Beauty of the Lord's Person that he forgot all about his immediate  danger and distress from which he wanted to be rescued and prayed for Pure Bhakti at the Lotus Feet of the Lord. So  also when Saunaka and sixty-thousand   other    Rishis   approached Sri Suta Goswami with  six queries for solution regarding the way to attain   heaven    (svarga) their purpose was not the service of the Lord Sri Krishna  i.e. Bhakti but when they listened to Sri Suta and discourses  on the Name, Form, Qualities,  Associates, Realm and Events of the Lord  Sri Krishna,  all their  queries were  gone for ever and they became confirmed in the way of Pure Bhakti in the company of the genuine devotee of superior - order - Sri Suta Goswami. Prince Dhruva likewise  underwent hard penance and invoked the Lord in order to gain the throne of his father of which he was deprived by the machinations of his step-mother, but when he was    blessed   by   Narada   and   having   the Darshana of Lord Narayana, all his desires for earthly kingdom and material wealth vanished and he turned to be a pure devotee. In  like manner, the Chatussanas were able by the Grace of Lord Narayana to give up their desire for moksha and became eligible for the way of Pure Bhakti."


Gaunam traividhyam itarena stutir-arthavilt sahacharyam    II    72    II


Translation :

The earlier three clases of Bhakti viz. Anha-jijnashu and artharthi although are of lower grade of Bhakti yet they  are  spoken along with jnani, to establish their superiority    from    all   other rituals.



Lord Sri Krishna says :   "Among them the jnani   like   Sri Shukadeva   who   possessed of exclusive loving devotion to Me, stands superior to the other three Hence I am  very dear to him and he too is dear to Me.   He having steadfast loving devotion to Myself at once is attracted to the Leela-Madhurya,  Guna-Madhurya  and Rupa-Madhurya  of Mine and finally he in his  soul-realisation worships none but My Shyamasun-dara   Transcendental   Form  according  to  his particular spiritual sentiment   (rasa).    Whereas Brahma-jnanis who feel themselves liberated from maya   and   become   Brahma-bhuta   But    being devoid  of devotion to Me they too   have   to return into this  cycle of creation.   And in course of such a birth some one among them may per chance associate oneself with some single-minded devotee of Mine and by dint of that  association he  will imbibe  "Srukriti'' which  after  many a birth in culturing will make him realise that God Vasudeva (1) Lord of Transcendence is the Sup­reme, the All-in all  and forthwith he is enshrined with Loving single-minded devotion to Me and to none else. But to get such a good disposition for a Brahma-jnani is very very rare and one who  gets such a chance he is most fortunate indeed, and really he is a true Mahatma."


Bahiraniastham—ubhayam—aveshti—savavat II 73 i\


Translation :

Artha, artharthi and jijnasu—they at time are led to the attainment of external or ephemeral gains or (rarely) internal or transcendental pursuit in life like avesti and sava.



All the people, so long they are within the jurisdiction of triguna of maya are after ephemeral pleasures. Therefore it is absurd that at the days of thy trouble the doors of the  heaven will be open unto thee. Calamities are merely the fruits of one's own Karrna, jijnasu : It  does not mean that whosoever hunts for solution of his queries will make  search for God. If that could be so then all the intellectuals could get the spiritual enlightenment—likewise arthathi: All the people who are after the material wealth will not  become so fortunate like Dhruva. Therefore it is only when due to spiritual Sukriti an arta like Gajendra (the most rare case) when saved by God, being captivated by the  Beauty of God's Person, prayed for pure Bhakti at the Feet of the Lord. So also when Saunaka and others associated themselves with Sri Suta Goswami they became  confirmed in pure Bhakti. For Artharthi Dhruva's case was also an exceptional case. So Bhagavat says :* One whose wisdom is not eclipsed by the nescience of mays viz.  who possesses Sukriti, however whether he has got no desire or is actuated by all desires  worships the Supreme Godhead with devotion and in due course develops  unswerving devotion, the highest good in life. Therefore due to the latent sukriti only when they are led to the Supreme Godhead they ultimately attain the highest good in  life, otherwise the mundanity.


Smriti - kirtyoh  Kathadeshchartau prayaschitta bhavat   II 74 II


Translation :

For the expiation of the offences one must earnestly and arduously take recourse to listening, remembering and chanting the Divine Names, Glories and Pastimes of Sri  Hari.



The   offences   that   are    referred    in    the Sutra 69, if anybody commits, for expiation of them the process is earnestly to listen from the holy lips of exalted Parama  Bhagavata all about God's Leela and chant His Divine Names and the rememberance of His Divine enactment. And there is no other method that is emphasised in the next  shloka.   Vishnupurana1 says: ''What­ever be the expiatory acts,  whether penances, deeds of charity or the life remember Sri Krishna is the best method. Further3  "Chanting of Divine Krishna Narna with steadfast devotion is the best expiation of all sins".

Going on pilgrimage and bathing in all sacred streams cannot produce so much spiritual merit as to listening to the Pastimes of Supreme Godhead.


Bhuyasam—ananushthitiriti— ched aprayanam— upasomharan mahatsu   api    II 75 II


Translation :

Even for the expiation of the gravest offences, there is absolutely no need for a devotee to observe severe penance like Chandrayana Vrata etc.   because   when   he   has    taken recourse  to constant chanting of Divine Name till the death does not befall upon him.



A devotee who has made full self-surrender to God and has taken recourse to the listening to or chanting of the Divine Name and Glories of Supreme Godhead and which he  does constantly unto the last breath of his life cannot possibly commit any offence, yet if it so happens that inadvertently he might have commited some gravest offence then  should he perform any severe penance as such like Chandrayana Vrata etc. which are so prescribed as the rites to be observed by the offender for the expiation of his sins ?  Absolutely not. Vishnu Purana says :x "The highest atainment is constant remembrance of Vishnu." Further :3 'The emissaries and the weapons such as rod and the fetters  of Yama, Yama himself, and all the torments of hell have no power over him whose mind has the Lord Vishnu for its constant support.' Sri Narasimha Purana says : "The  moon may be outwardly covered with cloud, but thereby it is not subdued, so also it is with a devotee who has unwavering devotion to God-The devotee may exhibit  outwardly some evil practices but he shines brightly after bringing every sin destroyed by dirt of his inner Bhakti at heart.


Sri Krishna says : "Since My devotees' mission of life is single - minded service of Mine, he is to be recorded as a sadhu, though there might be some foreign element in his  conduct just for the time being which will soon be dispelled by My Grace." Bilvamangala even after becoming a recluse and devotee suddenly one day cast a passionate  glance upon a young beautiful lady. But how could there be any fall for a devotee of God Krishna ? Soon his eyes opened for all time with wisdom, and thenceforth he  became extremely impatient to meet the Protector of the forlorn viz., Sri Krishna. How could  Sri Krishna who is all-love,  remain non-chalant under such circumstances?  Krishna played a hide and seek game with Bilvamangala, His devotee, and when Krishna said : "I am off now" Bilvamangala said : "Are You really leaving me ? But  remember, O Krishna, I no not wonder that You are leaving me; but I shall acknowledge Your manliness only when You manage to slip out of my heart."

Srila Bhakti Siddhanta Saraswati Goswami Thakur, our founder-Acharya commenting on this sloka says, "An Ananya Bhakta never can have any Durachara viz. evil  conduct. The expression in this sloka does not refer to an Ananya-Bhakta, who is not only a sadhu by nature but a God-loving soul as well. But to a single mindedly devoted  aspirant there might be some foreign elements in his conduct as the dew drops may remain for a few minutes even after the sun-rise and as the electric fan may go a few  more rounds even after the switch is off." So too Bhagavan says that, "Speedly this hanker of wordly affinity of the devoted aspirant is fully eradicated   from   the   heart    and    thereby   My devotee will soon become a God-loving soul and wdl attain eternal Bliss.   It is certain that one with unswerving devotion to Me is never doomed to  destruction.   Some foreign dirt may tempo­rarily meet him in the incipient stage, but it will ere long be dissipated by the force of his imma­culate devotional  temperament,      So Pratijanihi "O son of Kunti, proclaim   the   proclaim   the promise as thou art a Bhakta, that My devotee is not  doomed to  destruction   even   after death, because thy  promise is more strictly observed than Mine." 1


Bhagavata says :2 If a beloved devotee who has forsaken all other attachments and sought shelter at the Feet of the Lord incurs any sin for any reason (although as a rule  he is incapable of sin), the Supreme Lord Sri Hari enshrined in his heart, washes off all that sin." further:3 'He who constantly worship Me through the path of devotion is  enabled to enthrone Me  in his heart with  the   result  that   I   eradicate all his   evil propensities from his heart."          75


Laghuapi bhaktadhikare  mahat - kshepakam - aparasarvahanat   II 76 II


Translation :

For a devotee even a little act of devotion destroys gravest sin, because Bhakti has got such an extra-ordinary power.



Vishnu Purana1 says "The most heinous sins of men that lead to the torment of Hell, disappear immediately if they remember the Lord even for a moment. As it were the  notorious Ratnakar became the famous Valmiki; inciden­tally by meeting Narada rishi, the vile cruel hunter became a devotee of a great order in the same way. Bilvamangala  who was moral rake but soon fire of devotion blazed forth in his heart; he regained his poise and thenceforth he became extremely impatient to meet the protector of the  forlorn."        76


Tat - sthanatvat - ananya - dharmah Khale viilhat   II 77 II


Translation :

Because steadfast devotion makes the Lord stationed at heart therefore for the expiation of sins it does not require any other assistance as Bhakti serves the self-some  purpose, like the post of the threshing floor.


Purport :

Vishnu Parana says i1 "There is only one atonement, that is, the remembrance of Sri Hari for a single-minded devotee." Bhagavata says (last sloka) "The chanting of Divine  Krishna Nama not only instantly destroys all sins including the nescience, the very root of sprouting sins but consequently eradicates forthwith all the afflictions of the heart  by drenching the heart with the downpour of Nectarine Bliss.


Anindyayonyadhikriyale pdrpamparjat samanyavat II 78 ll


Translation :

Every man, even down to the lowest born, has equal right to follow the path of devotion as it is taught by successive authorities, like other objects which are common to all.



No philosophy of "Thus far shalt thou go, and no farther," can shut off from the path of devotion to God any one because of the land he was born in or the conditions of life  that he has been accustomed to. Narada Bhakti-Sutra (72) also says: "Birth, scholarship, exter. nal appearance, wealth and occupation etc. make no difference in  devotees." Sri Bliaga-vatam says:1   "I, Who am the most-liked Sweet- heart of the absolute-realised souls, am attainable only through exclusive devotion. Single-minded  and unswerving devotion to Me absolves even the shvapachas (untouchables, who cook and eat the flesh of dogs) from the stigma attached to their births."

Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu says: "He who has unflinching devotion to God is a Brahmin, all else are Sudras. No matter whether an exalted devotee is born a Brahmin or a  Sudra, educated or uneducated in the secular learnings possessing robust health with charming beauty or sickly health with ugly physic, bora in a most reputed family or  unknown family, wealthy or destitute, based on these a devotee must not be judged. A devotee is a devotee no other distinction should be made as per the worldly  presupposition; he should be judged by the depth of his Bhakti alone. Sri Krishna says in the Gita:1 "Persons that take absolute shelter in Me alone, though they be born of  sinful wombs   (as such Mlecchas orYavanas),women, Vaishyas and Sudras attain the Suprerrxe God by their single-minded devotion to Me.    


Ato hyavipakvabhavanam apt  talloke   II 79 II


Translation :

Therefore, even though one who has not reached the highest state of his devotional perfection he will go to the Abode of God, the Home of eternal Bliss.



Even though one whose devotion might have not fully ripened before his death, he is not at all lost. He will be given chance in his succeeding birth to regain it and soon at  the discretion of Ati-vidya he will be taken by God as His eternal devotee to His world of Trans­cendent. Therefore there will be no more a life of transmigration.

In the Gita Bhagavan says: *    "Incomplete performance of Swadharma is better than para-dhorma though nicely performed. Swadharma... atma-dharma or devotion to God."  Arjima asks Sri Krishna1 If one who is endowed with devotion to God falls from the path before achieving perfection what fate does he meet with? Sri Krishna replies3 "Dear  Arjima ! There is no fall for a Kalyanakrit (who walks on the path of devotion for eternal good; either here or here­after." If at all we find, he falls from his path or meets the  death before attaining the perfection, know it for certain that he will be reborn in the family of enlightened devotee when he regains the potencies of his previous Sadhana and  he strives, with greater responsibility and attains perfection in God-realisation in this very life. This is fully illustrated in the "Jadabharata/ and in the Gajendra-moksha  episodes of the Bhagavatam.


Krama - eka - gati upapatteh astu    II 80 II


Translation :

There is a gradual process and also immediate process of attaining perfection in Bhakti yoga.



Those whose hearts are untinted and beyond the virtue and vice, minds are perfectly tranquil and perfectly self-controlled, such single-minded devotees attain Lord  Vasudeva.1


Next Bhagavan says :2 "Even though one performs his secular and casual duties but takes absolute shelter in Me, he attains by My Grace the   eternal   and  nchangeable    Realm  By consecrating all the duties to Me with one's full heart and by submitting his intelligence to Me, one should apply his mind and attention  to Me and be My devotee  then he will gradually surmount all the impediments by My Grace." Further we have already illustrated in the previous sutra.     80


Utcranti - smriti - 'vakya'' - sheshaccha    II 81 II



The concluding statement of the Smriti (Gita) is that they too gradually attain Me, the highest Goal.



In the Gita --1 At the initial stage My devotee may have some foreign elements in his conduct but speedily this hankering after wordly affinity is fully eradicated from his heart  by dint of his immaculate devotional temperament soon he attains Me, the Abode of eternal Peace.


Mahapatakinam tu - at to   II 82 il


Translation :

Even worst sinners when stand destitute fervently craving the Mercy from God they too are bestowed with devotion and gradually attain the abode of Peace.



Sri Krishna says -.l Persons that take absolute shelter in Me, though they be born of sinful wombs (such as Mleccha or the Yavanas), women, including the harlots,  Vaishyas and Shudras (including even the outcastes, the untouchables), attain the Supreme goal by their fervent devotion i.e, for devotion there is no bar of caste, creed,  colour, sect, sex or community. Bhagavatam says : "The Kratas, the Hunas, the Andhras, the Kantas, the Yavanas, the Khasas and other sinful races are purged of their  sins even by taking refuge in the devotee   of Sri Vishnu.  82


Sa - ekanta  bhava   Gitarlha ¦ prati - abhijnanat II 83 II



One who has understood the essence knows that the true purport of the Gita is exclusive or unalloyed devotion to Godhead.


Purport :

The essential teaching of Srimad Bhagavat Gita is exclusive devotion to Sri Krishna, the Supreme Par-excellence. The Mahabharata1 "Those Brahmanas, who duly intent on  obser­ving all the rules, read the Vedas along with the Upanishads and those who are strict ascetics —Superior to their all the performance, is the way of those who have  single-minded devotion to Godhead and that is declared not by any rishi or Devata but by the Supreme God Him­self in the form of Gita at the battlefield of Kurukshetra."

God says He whose be-all and end-all of  life   is To serve Me with exclusive loving devotion With all energy of body, mind and soul Him I regarded as the greatest yogi above  all.83


Param Kritva eva sarvesham tatha hi aha    II 84 II


Translation :

Exclusive unalloyed devotion to Godhead is the sine-qua-non of all the lessons: thus spake Srimad Bhagavat Gita.


Purport :

The devotion to God alone can bring a life of immortality.   Bhagavan says:2   Who-so-ever imparts this supreme secret to the faithful ones, he undoubtedly gaining  singlemindedness in his devotion to Me will attain Me. Now what actually the Rishi Shandilya really means in these two Sutras (83, 84) where he says Sa-ekanta-bhava and  Parana Kritva: let us dwelve deep into the esoteric aspects of these utterances.Lord Krishna gave out sarva-shastrasaram in the Gita: Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarty,  comment­ing on G. XVIII. 64 says Gita is the essence of all Shastras; there can remain no further secret than the supreme secret spoken here, at no other place can it be  had — it is full in itself."


Gita in the sloka 63 'yathecchasi tatha kuru I after saying it to Arjuna Sri Krishna observed a wind in the heart of Arjuna and promptly the Lord so saying Hsto-asi Me and  Priyo-asi Mt told him the secret of all secrets in such a way as if without His dear associate devotee no body else should know it. After giving such sermon Lord observed  His beloved friend devotee   Arjuna   even   then   remaining   silent; Lord, the Omniscient could read the heart of His great devotee whose compassionate heart was now  thinking that if the Lord lelt the fallen jivas for making his own choice {yathecchasi) from the vast ocean of the Shastra although they were His own sayings, jiva positively  would run either after all types of dharmas for quenching the thirst of worldliness or their labour would be in vain without any real gain-So the Lord in continuation with His  advice in the sloka 63 as per the desire of Arjuna for the people at large finally declares, "Arjuna, My dear ma suchah, do not lament for them. As when your compassionate  heart deserves their deliverance I assure you tvam that I shall absolve all sins of each and every one if forth­with they make their complete surrender to Me and Me alone  leaving aside all types of dharma that I spoke of before, Nay, My dear Arjuna, as your heart laments for all jivas I assure you Arjuna, that even if a vilest person with all his  sins comes to Me saying "Prapannam pahi Gevinda: save this supplicant creature> O Govinda" — I absolve him from all sins."


Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana referred to that Arjuna's sole love was to Nilotpala Devaki-nandan Krishna whereas Sri Visvanatha explai­ned Manmana bhava to  Vrajendranandan Krishna. Vaidhi Bhakta may misconstrue a raganuga-Bhakta whose loving devotion is so great that he for the service of the Lord may trespass the binding  of the Shastra which apparently appears to Vaidhi-Bhakta as sinful act. There­fore Sri Krishna tells to Arjuna who took the role of a Vaidhi-Bhahia that the maddening love of  the raganuga-Bhakta may seemingly appear to a Vaidhi-Bhakta as sinful acts; but you, my dear Arjuna, know that the sins of any type what-so ever done due to their  violation of Shastric injunctions will be completely absol­ved by Me. You see the Sakhas of Vrindabana climbed on My shoulder and brought down palm fruits for Me but  before I got them they tasted them.


Even Sri Jayadeva, the author of the im­mortal book   "Sri  Gita-Govindam" while was absorbed in his thoughts in transcendental plane and was giving the expression of his  thoughts in the way of giving shape to the "Gita-Govinda", at one place suddenly his pen stopped, that was at an incident of the Divine Pastimes when Sri Krishna, the  Predominating Moiety begs pardon of Sri Radha, the Predomi­nated Moiety. To the Sentiment of Sri Jayadeva this could not be reconciled, therefore his pen could not  proceed further. He left the matter there itself and went for his bath to the nearby village tank.Here what happened, Sri Krishna Himself in the disguise of Sri Jayadeva came  to the house, as if after quickening his bath and entered the house. Thereafter as usual He was served with Mahaprasadam. The Lord in disguise finished His meals and  went for rest into the room and Sri Padmavati, the wife of Sri Jayadeva sat for partaking the remnants on the same plate on which the disguised Lord ate up. While she was  taking Prasadam the real Jayadeva came back from his bath. Padma-vati was struck with wonder and hastened to the room where the Lord in the disguise of Jayadeva  played a trick but she could find none. Soon she spoke about the fact to Sri Jayadeva he ran to the room and after opening the book to his astonishment he saw that in in  bold letters the Lord on His Own Hands wrote therein "Dehipadapallava Mudaram."So here too Lord gave a teaching to Jaya­deva that one should not consider it as a sin in  conformity with the enactment of the predo­minated aspect even to make Me beg pardon of. "He only is fit to contemplate the Divine-Light Who is the slave to nothing, not  even to his virtue."


Further illustration can be had of that at Dwaraka once Sri Krishna pretended to have serious illness of hysteria type and Himself requested Sri Narada,  the celestial Rishi  that without having the feetdust of a devotee on My Head there was no remedy. Sri Narada at once went to Brahma and Shiva who were considered by him the greatest of  devotees to beg of it, but they were afraid of doing so, as they considered it, from their part, the gravest of all offences. Narada reported it to Sri Krishna, Now Lord asked  Narada that why he was not giving his feet-dust so that He would be cured. Narada's case was also the same as the Brahma and Shiva and he wanted to run away from the  Lord-Anyhow the Lord finally asked Narada to go to Vraja and approach the Gopis. He went to Vraja and his advent there, soon made all the Gopis to run to him to enquire  of Sri Krishna as He was only the rain-giving cloud to the Chatak-like thirst of theirs. While Narada spoke to them about the illness of Sri Krishna and only the way of its  remedy ; they all immediately collected dust from their respective feet and offered to Narada for Sri Krishna. Narada was astonished and told them that it would be the  greatest sin on their part although Sri Krishna would be cured thereby, no doubt. But the Gopis promptly replied that they knew that they might have to go to eternal hell but  let Sri Krishna, our Beloved be cured for ever."


This type of grave sin that is considered is completely absolved by the Lord.    So the Lord says to the Vaidhi - Bhakta that he should not judge the activities  of the  Raganuga-Bhakta and get pains looking to the seemingly sinful acts of them but those acts of theirs are   not   at all sinful;   on the otherhand   they   are   most pleasing to  Him which cannot be summed up by a   Vaidhi-Bhakta.   A   Vaidhi-Bhakta   considers that one can apply only his or her upper portion of the body to the service of the Lord,  but fact is this,   a Raganuga-Bhakta   serves   the   Beloved with every thing of his or her person.   Parti­cularly  at   this   state   of   Raganuga-Bhakta   a devotee actually  becomes feminine to character. But here one is warned that there is no material anthropomorphism.


So the esoteric meaning is that one who augmenting the rdgdnuga-bhdva under the benedic-tion of Rdgdtmikd-bhdva of Vraja - Gopis serves the transcendental Both the  Moiety, Sri Radha and Sri Krishna Who are the two Halves of the One Supreme Entity, is the cul-de-sac are sine-quo-non of Para Bhakti—the final lesson of the Gita.

As Chaitanya Mahaprabhu says : "If God Krishna favours one with the bounteous Grace then and then alone one can understand the 'Self of God'. So too in the Gita we find  Tvat-prasdddt by Your choicest Grace the veil of illusion which deludes jiva to the state of forgetfulness to the service of God Krishna, is removed thereby regaining the true  essential character of the 'self as a servitor of God Krishna also gets God-realisation 'Old birds' fly back into their own sequestered and comfortable homes. "The journey  ends in a dancing field of brilliant and eternal spring sweet scented love, elevating tolerance, golden satisfaction, perfect equilibrium and abiding peace." So the pure devotion  based upon absolute surrender   to   Sri Krishna,   the Supreme Lord is the only function of the jiva soul and this can be had by His Grace alone.

'Oh Lord! that intense love which the ignorant bears to worldly objects, may I have the same for Thee, may I have the same intensity of Love for Thee, but only for Love's  sake."


O Beloved of hearts:

O my hope and my rest and my delight:

The heart can love

None other but Thee!        

Here ends the 2nd lesson of the 2nd Chapter.