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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Shandilya Muni > Shandilya Bhakti Sutras > CHAPTER - I

Shri  Shandilya  Bhakti  Sutras





Athato   Bhaktijijnasa  (1)


Translation :

Thereafter henceforth to make fnquiry into Devotion.



Whereas Shri Narada begins his Bhikti-Sutra Athato Bhaktim Vyakhyayamah: the doctrine of devotion we shall expound. In the first aphorism of the Brahma sutra (Vedanta)  the commentator says : Atha adhita Vedasya-apato-adhigatatad-arthasya: one strictly following Ashrama Dharma, studied the Vedas and by following the life of austerities  has become pure in heart, thereafter realising at heart the transitoriness of the ephemeral pleasure he providentially meets an exalted divine personage and Atho : there  yields an inquisitiveness to enquire after the Nature of Brahman.


But Bhakti as such does not depend upon any precondition as Bhakti is ahaituki. * causeless. So here Shandilya atho-. does not say that there is necessary preconditional  subsequence of acqui­ring some disposition for culturing Bhakti. Therefore we should know that after commenting upon other treatises he now and finally takes delight to  illustrate the philosophy, science and ontology of Bhakti. Further Atho : one who by dint of his association with exalted devotee of Shri Hari Bhaktisthu Bhagavat Bhakta  sangena parijayaie when gets his soul cognised whereby soul's faculties can become manifest in the faculties of the body and mental quantum thereafter ata: inquiry into  Bhakti. Shvetash-vatara Upanishad** says: "He who at the beginning of creation created Brahma and Who delivered the Vedas to him, He bestows intuitive  wisdom   (Bhakti)  ---      ----  Bhagavan    Himself   says:*** "Now  1   bestow  upon you   (Brahma)---  -----   the ontology of devotion   ... because  it  is only by My Grace alone the  supra-mundane characterised Bhakti is known." Bhakti is cognised as the faculty, of the jiva-soul by the Lord's swarupa-shakti out of Her innate faculty, whereby  the   limited   faculty  of the   jiva atma   functions fully and wholly in reciprocity to Godhead. It does not strive after logical certainty but adores mystery which is revealed to the  seeker when he enters the inner sanctuary where the ustle of the mind is stilled. Therefore Bhakti as such is supra-logical, does not depend upon any result of meritorious or  virtuous works or Vedic rituals nor it is to be inquired like preconditional acquisition of some disposition as in the case of inquiry after Brahman in Vedanta. What righteous  conduct did the hunter possess ? Was Dhruva advanced in age ? What erudition did Gajendra possess? Did Vidura claim any high descent ? What was the prowess  exhibited by Ugrasena, the Yadava King? Did Kubja have an attractive appearance? What wealth did Sudama claim ? The Lord is pleased only by devotion, for He is fond of  devotion alone.


Shri Shandilya Rishi who thoroughly dealt with all the branches of the Vedas nay, was a repository of all Secular knowledge and spiritual wisdom after expounding and  discussing all the other branches of the Vedas where it is said that he turned to the doctrine of Bhakti because he could not find anything in the four Vedas suitable  for the  attainment of his desired end which he found in the Pancharatras, Treatise of Bhakti.


Sa pardnuraktirishvare II 2 II


Translation :

Bhakti is the unshakeable attachment to the Supreme God.


Purport :

Bhakti has got only one definition that is unalloyed attachment or love for the Supreme Godhead and therefore it is concerned only in relation to cognised soul with the  Over-soul. It is not born of worldly things, for there is no grammatical rule that enjoins the application of the locative case ending to the cause nor mere philosophical  knowledge can affirm it. It is causeless and unswerving love and attachment to Godhead where there is no iota of the aspiration of elevation or salvation as we find in the  Vishnupurana:* "May not that ceaseless flow of 'Love desert my heart, even though I may have to pass through thousands of births." Shri Bhagavan says:** "I the Beloved Self  of the holy one can be captivated only through Bhakti.    Devotion to  Me absolves even the shvapacha from the stigma attaching to his birth". Further Bhagavan Shri Krishna  says:* "My single minded devotees knowing Me as their only the Supreme Object of attachment, have their unstinted heart and soul exclusively enlivened by culturing My  Glorious Nama, Rupa, Guna, Leela etc. nay, the Madgata pranah: live and breath solely and entirely for Me alone - void of Me void of life to them. To them even a moment's  separation from Me is unbearable, as Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu says:


One   wink  appears  like   Ages, Tears  stream  down  from   my  eyes— Like  showers  in   rainy   season, •  

   And  the   entire  world itself  Like   a   dieary   void  appears, To   Me  bereft  of the  sight  of Govinda.


such a devotee of Mine eats and drinks, walks and moves, sleeps and keeps awake, and carries on all other activities for My sake alone, and has no personal interest in  those activities as I alone is the enshrined Darling of their heart Bodhayantah Parasparam — My mystic crest jewel devotees when they meet together their very  entertainment is to delve deep in to the most Esoteric -- Love of My Transcendental Pastimes.   I enlighten the hearts of those who follow strictly the path of devotion, with  the ever-burning lamp of Divine Wisdom  and completely destroy the gloom   of   ignorance.       They   enjoy   spiritual communion  with  Me in discoursing on My ever —  blissful   Glories,   Attributes   and   Pastimes". Further*    "A clever man when he tears the veil known by the  name of Ego realises Brahman, mind becomes  transparent,    therefore does not grieve,  does not hanker after anything mundane, gets equitable vision towards  all beings, and in that   state   of  his  self he  gains unadulterated  devotion to Me".   The Love of God is an infinite and absolute feeling which does not admit of any rational  limitation,  the delight in god  is   that peace and bliss which  passes all understanding. It is supreme  longing for God for its own sake. It is  a profound  experience which  negates all desires  and fills the hearts with Love for God alone.    One who has once experienced God-Love will see Him alone  and speak of him alone,   for he never thinks anything but Him alone.


Bhakti is the spontaneous inclination of the unstinted heart to God which is unconditioned and immediate, which is not prompted by saliva or raja or  tama gunas of prakriti  and which is evoked by hearing the excellent qualities of God alone. Devotion is a mode of God's essential Power of Bliss, which He grants to finite self in order to know Him  directly. Bhakti after passing through various stages such as Nishta, Ruchi, Asakti and bhava at its climax goes to ecstatic Prema to the supreme delight of  Akhila-rasamrita sindhu-. Raso vai Sah Shri Krishna, the Lord of Love-transcendent par-excellence. Oh Beloved! that intense love which the ignorant bear to worldly objects,  may I have the same for Thee; may I have the same intensity of love for Thee, but only for Love's sake.


  II Tad-samsthasya-amritatva-upadeshat II 3 II


Translation :

Unalloyed   devotion   to    Godhead    makes oneself immortal, beatific and eternally blissful.


Purport :

In the Chandogya Upanishad* we learn that all other rites or Vedic lessons may lead one to the respective result but it is the unalloyed devotion to the Supreme Godhead  alone helps oneself to attain immortality. Katha Upanishad :*» Through unalloyed devotion to Godhead one transcends the mundanity and attains the final beatitude. This is  indeed the instruction of the Upanishad and if ends here.* Blessed is he who loves god with all his heart, body and mind, seeks no reward accounts himself only to be His  debtor Unalloyed devotion to Godhead brings an end of the cycling of a life of trans­migration and ultimately it makes the devotee drink the Nectar with unsatiated  evergrowing thirst in rendering unalloyed service with poignant Love. The highest force in life is Love of god. Love is the profoundest philosophy of life


"The  waking   ones,   alas I   are   not   awake;

And  the  sleepers  sleep —Until   Thy  Light  on   them  doth shine!"


Jnanamitichenna - dvishato - apt jnanasya  tadasamsthiteh II 4 II



Some may opine that for culturing devotion to God philosophical knowledge : jnana is indispensible or there is necessary preconditional subsequence of philosophical  knowledge of God. (Shandilya says) We say absolutely not, because we know an antagonist may also have knowledge  of God but there rests not an iota of devotion in his  mind towards God. And he never gets the state of highest blessedness.


Purport :

One may think that the philosophical know­ledge   of   Brahman   makes   oneself   immortal beautific and blissful.   Hiranyakasipu, had he not full philosophical knowledge  of God, soul and the world or maya ?   At the death of his brother when he consoled his mother and the sister-in-law what a wonderful philosophical talk he gave. Yet he ever  maintained inimical tendency against God   as   well   as   His   devotee    Shri Prahlada. Vedanta   Sutra*   says:    "Because it has been taught that emancipation accrues  to him who is devoted to Him."** Bhagavata says:   "Those who abandoning the path of unalloyed devotion to the Lotus Feet of Godhead, the  Source of true-well-being,   labour for dry abstract know­ledge for its own sake, toil in vain like those who pound empty husks of paddy."   Brahma says : ','Q Lord,  intelligence cannot be pure without  devotion to Thee."


No doubt,  by possessing intuitive wisdom one gets the subjective,  realisation of Godhead but it does not mean that philosophical know­ledge is the pre condition of Bhakti  whereas steadfast devotion is aroused in the heart there one does not lack in his philosophical wisdom. He is already firmly established in Reality with­out any ambiguity.

Bhagavata says : 'Those who leaving aside all attempts after knowledge, listen to Thy Transcendental Glorious Pastimes chanted by the self-realised devotees and live a life  of pure devotion in body, mind, and words can easily hold sway over Thee although Thou art inacces­sible to all in the three worlds'. Further as cold dismay and darkness  disappear in the case of a man who betakes himself to fire, so do the fear of future birth and its root ignorance, get dis­solved in the case of a man who renders loving service  to a devotee. Just as a strong bark is the supreme resort to those who are being drowned in water, noble devotees who have realised Me, the Supreme and have attained  perfect peace and tranquility of mind are the highest resort of those who having sunk to the lowest depths are coming once more to the surface of the ocean of mundane  existence. By the mercy of Shri Narada Rishi an immoral fowler became the great reposi­tory of all virtues.   By the mercy of Lord Shri Ramachandra, Sabari, a wild  hunter-woman got a divine life. What knowledge had they ? Jatayu bird, Gajendra, the elephant, boy Dhruva, and many such others realised God through mere devotion. So  it is clear that the blessings from a devotee of God is the panacea for worldly disease and it brings forth into one the realisation of God and the highest blessedness in life.

Some others opine that Bhakti and Jnana are inter-woven. No doubt where there is steadfast devotion there is full wisdom of God, where Tattm-Jnana is lacking in or with  eclipsed know­ledge of God how can pure Bhakti be rendered ? On realisation of God one develops exclusiveness in his devotion to God. But when steadfast devotion  appears in one's heart knowledge of relationship between Shri Krishna and His devotee which is concomitant with Bhakti and dispassion for other objects not conducive to  Krishna Bhakti go pari-passu, Shri Garga Rishi told Shri Narada Maharaj that Shri Krishna was God-par-excellence and in fact from His very child-hood many Supreme-natural  Acts of Shri Krishna he noticed yet to his overflowing parental affection he knew Him none other than his own Darling; Mother Yasoda tied Him up with ropes. The friends  climbed  on   His   shoulders   and   Vraja Gopis chided Him in their sulks. God says: Their reproaches fascinate Me more than the hymns of the Vedas.

Mere knowledge of the king does not help one to Make the king pleased and thereby make oneself gain something positive.   So also mere talks about the palatable feast  does not appease one's hunger.     Mere philosophical knowledge of God without devotion is like pounding the husk where there  is no  corn.   Merely if we talk of substantial  potencies of respective  kinds of food without  enjoying  (hem  does  it help one to get any nourishment or to appease his hunger?   So also jnana devoid of Bhakti is  comparable  to the purposeless loose flesh hanging from the neck of a goat.


Further we learn* — The Yajnic Brahmins said, "These ladies are most fortunate indeed, neither they got purificatory rites of investiture with sacred thread of a twice-born,  nor they have resided in the preceptor's house for learning the Vedas, nor any austerity performed by them. Yet they could attain Shri Krishna. The Lord of the Universe having  been endowed with unswer­ving devotion. Fie unto us who are devoid of  devotion to Shri Krishna. Vain is our high lineage, vain our learning, austerities, versatility of the  scriptures and our being adept in rituals, for we are void of devotion to the exalted Lord. Although we already heard that Shri Had Who is the very Substance and the  Substratum of every constituent of the sacrifice, viz. the time, place, materials for offerings, mantra, the procedure, the priests, the fire, deities, sacrificer, the sacrifice itself  and the fruits of the sacrifice - has incar­nated Himself in the clan of the Yadus and yet, fools that we are, we could not recognise Him." In the Gita Lord says** "My devotee  alone is on the real path ( yuktatama ) to attain to his highest blessedness whereas path of jnana is beset with dangers and results in a sorrowful wreck.


Tayopakshayclchha II 5 I!


Translation :

Because at the very dawn of Bhakti, Jnana or abstruse knowledge of Brahman, nay, the Jnana-yoga itself (path of induction) has totally lost its charm and significance.


Purport :

Emancipation that is gained through the path of jnana may be an excellent thing, but compared to the Love of god it is a mustard seed beside mount Meru and the selfish  cultivation of one's ow immortal soul is contemptuously dismissed as fit only for those who do not know how to love in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad : * "I have realised this  transcendental Personality of Godhead, Who shines most brilliantly like the sun beyond all darkness only by realising Him one goes {atimntyum) beyond the cycle of the life  of transmigration. Absolutely there is no other means for God-realisation and thereby become blessed save and except the path of unalloyed devotion." Bhagavat says : *«  "Neither Brah-manahood, Godship, becoming a Rishi, noble calling, versatility, nor charity, austerity, worship, purity of mind, sacred vows are conducive to please Mukunda  (One Whose very sight fades the charm of emancipation), Shri Krishna, Who is propitiated through unalloyed devotion alone." In the Gita Lord says :*** "My devotee alone is  on the real path (Yukiatama) to attain this highest Blessedness.


At the very dawn of Bhakti, jnana retreats; apt illustration we find in Chatussanas that * -'The sweet and fragrant smell of the Tulasi leaves tinged with the pollens offered at  the Lotus Feet of the Lord having entered into the nostrils of Chatussanas, erstwhile Braiima-jnanis or Atmaramas were absolved from Ati Vidya ** and their dormant intrinsic  nature of devotion got manifested at the very sight of the transcen­dental beauty of God and then felt a thrill of ecstacy in their hearts and at once fell in prostra­tion at the  Lord's Feet.


Further Bhagavata says:1 "Even sages who are atma-ramis who remain at the state of compla­cence and equilibrium and who are free from any adjunct of maya, they too  are infatuated with unalloyed loving devotion to Shri Hari and such an unstinted soul gains Parabhakti or unadulte­rated and unalloyed devotion to Shri Krishna, the Supreme  Par-excellence Which is an end in itself. Therefore jnana-yoga has got no significance before the Bhakti-yoga. Shri Chaitanya Maha-prabhu says : Just as the foolish crow  sucks the  bitter nimba-fruit while the cukoo feeds on the mango blossoms, so the unfortunate followers of jnana-yoga chew dry wisdom, while the fortunate devotee quaffs  the nectar of Shri Krishna Prema. The Lord is pleased only by devotion and not anything else, whatsoever it may be, for He is fond of devotion alone. Thus unswervingly  attached to Me alone, thou shalt attain Me in My Blissful Realm as a devout servitor."


Dvesha-pratipakshabhaviit rasa-shabdacch  rdgah    II 6 II


Translation :

Hatredness is antogonistic to Bhakti because Bhakti is Raga Nectarine Blissful with succulent taste in relation to eternal unalloyed Loving Raga service to the Supreme  Godhead Who is Sat-Chit-Ananda :  Raso vai sah.



In the Gita Bhagavan Shri Krishna says: * "Stepped m nescience people who are filled with egoism, haughtiness, lust anger and malice hate Me, I hurl them perpetually into  the demoniacal wombs in the world of samsar. Born in ignomi­nious forms, these ignoramuses are quite incom­petent to attain Me, and are destined to still lower births. But  sometimes it is also said that God is attained quicker through hatredness and at times referred to the very utterance of Shri Narada. It is my firm conviction that the deep  absorbation that one attains through vairanuban-dhena that cannot be possible by following the path of devotion." But how grossly this state­ment is misconstrued that may  be learnt from my Engligh rendering the particular sloka of Shrimad Bhagavatam. Here Devarshi Narada's statement is anukulyamqyi and absolutely not Pratikulyamayi. It is  referred to only of those who possess Prema-Vilasarupa-Vahabhava where Priti or anuraga is at its climax that of Vraja Gopis whose reproches fascinate God more than the  hymns of the Vedas.


Devotion is Rasa and the Taittiriya Upani-shad says :* "Supreme Godhead is Raso-vai-sah, rasatn hyevayam labdhananda bhavati. He is the very Transcendental  Embodiment of All-ecstatic Bliss. By rendering unalloyed devotion to Him one is endowed with Transcendental Nectarine Bliss." Devotion is of the forms of Raga or anuraga  towards its Supreme Object, because it is an inalienable natural quality of the cognised soul different from the selfish feeling that this object is the means of attaining one's  own interest, therefore whatever does not confirm to this description cannot be called devotion


Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu says :* The summum bonum of life is unalloyed Love for Shri Krishna Who is the Sole-seat of everlasting Immortality of eternal Religion of Divine  Love and of Transcendental Bliss, in comparison with that, fourfold Purushartha viz. dharma, artha, kqtna and n oksha are most negligible and insignifi­cant, whereas the fifth  or highest pursuit of human being is the fathomless ocean of Necta­rine Bliss derived in loving service of Shri Krishna. Brahmananda of the jnani may not be even a drop  before the shoreless ocean of Krishna-Prema.'


Further it is not knowledge but devotion in the form of Anuraga or final attachment to the Lord that leads to the attainment   of  highest  blessedness. Shandilya's idea is that  when soul is not fully saturated with Raga or love alone, what is the use of realisation. A jiva soul gains Raga or what is etymological ly known as atmarati* which is imbibed  only in association with the exalted devotees of the Lord of Love-Transcendence. Raso vai sah ; Sat-Chit- Ananda Vigraha. Therefore Shri Shandilya's hidden exposi­tion is  that one must see that the association with the mystic devotee of Shri Krishna should be the principle rule and all other rules should be consonant to that.

Lord Shri Chaitanya says: "Pure Atma's true characteristic is passionate (final) Love for Shri Krishna." Shri Narottama Thakur sings :


Hari,   Hari   when   the  dawn  of that  day comes

I shall  serve  Shri  Radha-Krishna  with    passionate  love


Sing  aloud in  ecstatic  rupture   Their   Divine   Names

Extolling   Their   Erotic  Love-dalliance  of Supreme   Glory

In  Love-in-separation  I shall  cry  calling    Radha-Govinda

Drenching   my   heart  with profuse  tears.


Na Kriyd Krityanapekshanat jnanavat   il 7 II


Translation :

Jnana is to be acquired by one's own endeavour whereas Bhakti is causeless and gets manifested on its own accord ahaituki.



In the very beginning we have already discussed this. It may be said that by providence when one comes in contact with an exalted Parama Bhagavata devotee of the  Supreme God­head one is endowed with devotion which is the natural characteristic of jiva-soul which so long remained dormant due to one's aversion to God. Worst  possible cruel hunter became in no time a Parama-Bhagavata devotee of Shri Hari by dint of causeless mercy of Devarshi Narada, therefore such an exalted devotee is known  as philo­sopher's stone that by its very touch converts an iron into gold.


The intrinsic attribute of Hladini-Potency of God is like the function of the lamp which reveals itself as well as other objects, so also the Hladini-Potency of God causes  spontaneous Bliss both to Himself and to His devotee. Thus the causeless case of Bhakti is the grace of the exalted devotee which is again an aspect of the infinite  Hladini-Potency of God. As when a deer after quenching her thirst gets up from the pond and sees a hunter aiming at her in front and on the left a tiger ready to pounce upon  her, on her right burning forest fire and at the back already remains the deep pond, now she knows not the way out! Such is the world. There is no way out but Hari above, is  the cul-de-sac. If providentially a thunder bolt bashed with storm and torrential rains, the tiger and the hunter run away, the forest fire is extinguished and the deer finds her  way out and she gets solace in remem­bering the mercy of God.


Ata-eva Phalanantyam    II 8 li


Translation :

Therefore the reward of Devotion is Trans­cendental and infinite.


Purport :

In the Gita it is said that the merit that one gains by dint of performing virtuous Vedic karma that no doubt makes oneself after death to enjoy heavenly enjoyments but after  the exhaustion of the merit he is once again hurled down to this earth.   Chandogya  Upanishad  says :•   "Just as here on earth the world which is got by virtue of previous  deeds perishes, even so there in the other world, which is obtained by merit derived from the performance of sacrifices etc. perishes.** Those treading the path of jnana  devoid of an iota of devotion to Thee  (God)   may feel them­selves liberated from maya and become  Brahma-bhuta but being devoid of devotion to Godhead have to return to  the life of transmigration once again, because their minds remain impure for not taking recourse to the path of devotion at Thy Lotus Feet."    In the Gita+   "Exceedingly  great is the toil of those who follow the path  of jnana". Whereas Bhagavata says:+f "Those who are Thine own  and exclusively devoted to   Thee,    never (under   any    circumstances)    go   astray    from Thy   Bliss-showering   Lotus    Feet.      Daunted by nothing they overcome all obstacles by Thy  causeless Grace " Further* "The  gods with all their virtues remain in the hearts of a devotee who has taken absolute shelter at the Lotus Feet of the Supreme Godhead."** "A devotee whose cup is full with  Divine Nectarine Bliss does not covet for anything else so he says : O Lord, I nether crave for Brahmaloka, Indra-Loka, the sovereignty of the upper worlds, nor kingship of  the neither worlds, the fulfilment of success in astanga-yoga nor even the solvation except Thy Loving service." Further:*** ''Those who have secured the pollen of Thy Lotus  Feet neither covet the realm of Brahma, nor the rulership of the entire globe, nor the dominion over the subterranean regions, nor the occult power of yoga, nor even  emancipation of the jnanis."


An exalted devotee eternally is inundated in the ocean of Transcendental Bliss and in comparison with that bliss Brahmananda is a drop whereas Premananda is an ocean.  Shri Chaitanya Chandraniritam* says : "One who is pregnanted with the unalloyed devotion, to him Kaivalya (Sayujya-mukti, attained by a jnani) appears as worst as Hell and  Paradise is as vain as castles in the air; and the gross  senses which  are so vehement to others like most ferocious cobra but become subjugated as if having rooted out of  its fangs and the very world which is the cause of triple affliction appears to be the abode of peace losing its illusiveness and although the exalted position of Brahma and  Indra offered to him but becomes insignificant as that of an insect to him."


Bhakti is the very essential nature of soul and it is never lost. It is transcendental and ever blissful. It is infused in the faculty of the finite self by the Lord's svarupa - shakti,  whereby finite self-cognised jiva-atma in rendering unalloyed service to Godhead enjoys the eternal Bliss.Bhagavata says :* 'Even among tens of millions of those who have  been rid of the trigunas of maya and even become self-realised and thereby become perfectly serene, but it is most difficult to find a person who is solely devoted to Lord  Narayana.' Further Bhagavata says** The Vedas ultimately treat of Bhagavata Vasudeva; the sacrifices themselves aim at the attainment of Vasudeva; the various yagas  eventually   lead to   Vasudeva and all  sorts of  rituals have their end in .Vasudeva; and all wisdom has its culmination in Vasudeva; all austere penance has Vasudeva for  its goal; all virtues aim at the realisation of Vasudeva and all destinies terminate in Vasudeva.'


Tadvatah prapattishabdacha na jnanam  itara-prapatlivat    II 9 II


Translation :

A jnani, when becomes fortunate indeed takes recourse to Bhakti. Even jnana cannot be acquired independently without self-surrender to God.


Purport :

Bhagavan Himself says : * 'Brahma-jnanis who feel themselves liberated from maya and become Brahma-Bhutah but being devoid of devotion to the God's Lotus Feet they  too return into this cycle of creation. And in course of such a birth some one among them may per­chance associate himself with some single minded devotee of God and  by dint of that association he will imbibe Sukriti which after many a birth endows him to get liberty to surrender himself to Godhead realising that Vasudeva is the All-in-all.  And  such a  self-surrendered  soul   is   really a Mahatma.


Further Gita says ;* "A clever man when he tears the veil known by the name of Ego realises Brahman, the mind becomes transparent, there­fore does not grieve, does not  hanker after anything mundane, gets equitable vision towards all beings, and in that state of his self he gains unadulterated devotion to God." Further :+ "He who is free from  quagmire of maya, thus knows Me as the Supreme Purusha and takes recourse to My worship with single-minded devotion." Shri Sankaracharya who was responsible for  propa­gating Jnana-vada at the present age, but finally had to pour his heart with devotional hymns: Bhaja Govindam. Shri Madhusudaii Saraswati, who was known as the  second Shankaracharya finally became fascinated to take the Path of devotion. He saidj ''with mind rapt in meditation if mystic sees the unqualified actionkss light, let him  see; as for myself, my only yearning is that there may appear before my gladdened eyes that Bluish Some One Who keeps Himself roaming on the banks of Yamuna."    The heart knows God,  the  spirit loves God, and the inmost ground of the jiva contemplate on God.




 Sa mukhyetarapekshitatvat    II 10 II


Translation :

Bhakti is the fundamental and principal means and others (karma-jnana etc.) are subor­dinate and depending upon her.


Purport :

Jnana and Yoga themselves independently cannot yield in the fulfilment without being subservient to Bhakti. Chandogya Upanishad says :* 'That Bhuma-purusha is the  Summit of Vedanta and the final goal of all religious and philosophical concepts — From Him only one derives Bliss by rendering unalloyed devotion to Him; Further :**  Eeing saturated with devotion he feels extremely delighted in rendering unalloyed service to that Lord of Love, he in his state of Va<tusiddhi joins with the Transcendental  sports of that Lord of love {aim cnda),  nay,  he who is so fortunate indeed imbibing Raganuga - Bhakti in his self-some divine nature serves that Lord and feel intoxicated by  attending to that Blissful Sport at the sole pleasure of that Beloved Lord of Autumnal Moon. This is the final pursuit of human life. Whereas those follow otherwise than this  are hateronomous. In no world they will have freedom. The journey ends in a dancing field of brilliant and eternal spring sweet scented love, elevating tolerance, golden  satisfaction, perfect equilibrium and abiding peace. Whereas to satisfy physical Htchas, man, the roof and crown of things, labours, sweats and toils, reaping a harvest of  tears, sighs and regrets.

'Should one think of jnana and vairagya even after following the path of Bhakti, one would be cut off from Bhakti itself—Bhakti Rasamrita Sindhu.


Prakaranaccha    II 11 II


 Translation :  Bhakti is the substratum.



Bhakti is the means as well as the end in herself.    In a  living being,  no doubt, all the senses have their individual faculties, as it is stated in the Upanishad that once it so  happened that each one of them (senses) one after another desired to take leave for sometime and accor­dingly they were allowed but when they all returned and joined to  work with co-operation, in each the life breath soon took leave of them and they all became totally inactive and motion­less. So too without Bhakti every spiritual attainment  is void. Therefore Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu says : Krishna-Bhakti is the Dhatu, the very substratum of Human pursuit.

What purpose will serve if merely one analytically discusses about the substantial potencies of various kinds of food, without enjoying it. Does it help one to get any  nourish­ment or appease one's hunger ? So too, mere philosophical knowledge without drinking deep the Nectar that flows through the poignant loving service to the  Supreme Godhead what pursuit one may gain ? So Bhakti is the sin-qua-non of the Philosophy of God-realisation.


Darshana-Phalam-iti chenna   tena   Vyavadhanat   II 12 II


Translation :

Some  opine to   see   God   is   the  supreme attainment or highest pursuit.   No, because there is intervention.


Purport :

Referring to Chandogya Upanishad :* Sa svarat Bhavati ; Here it is clearly stated that mere vision of Truth is not the sine-qua-non of becoming ivargt but after visualisation of  God when one gets at ma-rati delights the God of Autumnal Moon, God of Love-Transcendence with poignant Love in relation to either of atma-crida or atma-mithuna or  atmananda — such a devotee alone is supremely great.


Every Philosopher should know that God's Divine Nature is always immutable. It never can be hardened by one's ingratitude or softened by one's prayer. But as the sun  though shedding its light equally everywhere, casts its reflection only on transparant objects and not on opaque things accordingly God is accessible only to His devotees  because they constantly dwell with Him in lieu of their loving service to Him. It is their Love that makes the God to enshrine in them. Bhagavata says :• "The devotees are  My own Heart as it were, and I am the heart of them. They do not want anything but only service to Me and I know not anything other than My devotees," Vedanta :**  Bhakta-Vatsalya of Bhagavan is a special characteristic in the very Swarupa Shakii of God for His devotees.''


Bhagavan says : If at the very sight of Me everyone could realise Me then Hiranyakashipu would not have fought with My Shri Narasimha. rupa whereas Bhakta Prahlada  recognised Me as the worshippable Lord. Though many wonders even of My Infancy were not unknown to the Kauravas yet when I Myself went as an Ambassador to them  for some lawful settlement with Pandavas how they refused to accept Me and they tried to round Me up! Why did not Kamsa take refuge at My Feet ? What else, even those  Yajnika Brahmins of Mathura well-versed in Vedic lore could not serve Me. And how lastly they lamented = Fie upon our three-fold birth and learning ! Fie upon our sacred  vow, fie upon our versatile knowledge; fie upon our pedigree and fie upon our proficiency in rituals when we have actually turned our face away from Lord Shri Krishna, fools  that we are ! Even Brahma from whose four mouths four Vedas came out, so great philosopher as he was he too failed to realise Shri Krishna as the Supreme Godhead. So  God says: "It is only by single-minded devotion that I can be truely perceived."


Drishtatvaccha    II  13 II


Translation :

Yes, it is also by the very sight of god one comes svatat (viz. attains highest pursuit of life).


Purport :

In the previous aphorism we learnt that mere Vision of Truth cannot bring the fulfilment but it is seen in the world that at the sight of a beautiful youth, a virgin suddenly  entreats passion of love for him. But one should understand here too that when love is already pregnanted into one's heart such person only at the very sight of the object of  love gets the desire of fulfilment. One who has not reached to the stage of adoles-cense how at the sight of an object of love can entreat passion of love at the heart?  Therefore by dint of association with the exalted devotee when one already is pregnanted with atmaratl he or she entreats Love at the unstinted heart at the very sight of his  or her only Object of Love-Transcendence.


We learn that Shri Krishna while entering the city of Mathura on the way He met Kubja, when the Lord asked her to offer Him unguents that were meant for Kamsa, she,  though was hunch­backed yet was exquisitely beautiful with her prime of youthfulness* actually being captivated by the bewitching • Beauty, Adolescent Charm, loving  Disposition, smiling Countenance, and witty Talks and penetrating Glances of Shri Krishna, offered to Him best kinds of perfumes. And in return when Shri Krishna by touching  her transformed her into a perfect damsel in her virginity with straight well developed physique having full blossomed two hips and broad breast as it were, a matchless  beauty-queen, she with her exquisite beauty and magnanimity of youth became poignant with an exuberance of (divine) Erotism caught hold of the fringe of Lord's upper  garment to give Love to Him: so saying Stnjana-dharma dharma virobhavati-iti. Next we find Shri Krishna in due course after killing Kamsa went to her home and she whose  atma\ deha ydyd sd took bath (in Krishna lavanyamritd) and then embellished herself with applying most scented perfumes, sandal-wood-paste, fine raiment, costly jewels,  circled her tress with a chaplet and also quaffed some heavy drink but with the most natural bashfulness of a Love-lorn virginity approached Shri Krishna, the Delight of the  Vraja Gopis for amorous daliance with the Lord to get her passion gratified.


Here we must very carefully understand that she with her Prasddhitd-dtmd : rati yogyatdm-dpdditd-dtmd-deho-yasa-sd* viz. she was already pregnanted with dtmd-raii  therefore at the very sight of Shri Krishna, only the Paramount Object of Love, she cared, not even Kamsa, for whom she was carrying the unguents, she actually being  captivated by the bewitching Beauty, Adolescent Charms etc. of Him anointed Him with that best perfumes and that most perfect virgin got passionate urge to enjoy  amorous dalliance with none but that only the Object of Transcendental Love, the Gallant Lover of the Vraja Gopis. No doubt Shri Krishna enjoyed happily amorous  Love-dalliance with her but in her giving Love to Shri Krishna she had a desire of her own gratifica-tion therefore it is  known  as  sddhdrani-rati of RagdtrnJka-Bhakti   whereas    the   Love  of Vraja-Gopis is Satnartha-rati where  there is complete self-effacement   of  any  desire   for   their    own pleasures — their   Love   was   for   the   absolute  satisfaction of Shri Krishna; again the Love of the queens of Dwaraka is known as  Samanjasd-rati where there is mutual feeling of enjoyment.    But all these three are of the  plane of transcendence unapproachable by any Baddha-mukta jiva even. As a man who is suffering from a disease of bile cannot get the taste of sweetness of sugar-candy  so also one who is void of devotion Bhagavatah swarupam na-dswaditam. does not get the Bliss.     So here in this aphorism Raganuga-bhavi peeps into the heart of Shri  Shandilya rishi.    Therefore only at such  cases when  unstinted heart is already saturated with atma-rati at the very sight of the Lord of Autumnal Moon the heart gets  inundated with thi floods of Love.


Ata-eva   tad-abhavad-Vallaveencam    II 14 II


Translation :

Whereas even before having seen Shri Krishna the Vraja Gopis were pregnant with poignant infatuation of unsurmounting Love for the sole gratification of His Amour.



Neither the knowledge of Divinity nor the Visualisation of God to be taken as the cause of entreating unalloyed devotion into one's bosom. They are not to be taken even as  rudimentary cause for arousing Devotion. As without attaining the age of adolscent even an analytical knowledge of love or the very appearance of a naked person does not  entrust any passion into the bosom of the opposite sex. So it is only Rati or Bhava is the cause.


i) As we have already illustrated elsewhere that Yajnika-Patnis of Mathura how ran to Shri Krishna.

ii) Shri Rukminidevi sent this message to Krishna, "Hearing about Thy Divine Attributes and Splendours my untainted heart has clung to Thee without fear or shame --..Having  Thy Name entered into my ear-holes I got Thyself enshrined in my untainted heart. Therefore claim the right of Thy Own over this immaculate virgin making me Thy spouse."  Here with arroused Purva-raga of her Satnanjasarati Shri Rukminidevi wants to unite herself with her eternal Husband Shri Krishna for His spiritual Sense-gratification and  absolutely not for the gratification of her lust as (harato angatapa) vide she was not only totally free from lust as such, but she got natural Transcendental  Svakiya-$omanj<isarati in her blossoming youth having her body and mind identical with her soul.


iii) Fully accomplished of their purpose are the bhil women who, when smitten with pangs of love dismissed that agony having besmeared their faces and breasts with the  saffron paste which originally painted on the bosom of His darling Gopi and rendered still more charming by the contact with the Pollen of the Lotus Feet of Shri Krishna and  ultimately got mixed with the blades of grass of Vrindavan due to His rambling there.

iv) The Lord of Autumnal Moon, when hailed His dexterity in playing upon His mysterious Flute let no cupid-heart of the Gopis untouched in alluring dance. Enraptured as  they were so overwhelmed with poignancy of erotic rapturous Love in their untainted transparant hearts that they in their Punwaga or Samat lha-rati on the very recalling of  their would-be Gallant  Lover Shri Krishna celebrated Him with extolling His dexterity,*

v) The Vraja Kumarikas (different from the actual Gopis) though they were very very young not even beyond the age of five years (see my translation of Shrimad Bhagavatam)  yet they and Rasamga Madhura-rati to gratify Shri Krishna and accordingly they propitiated Katyayanidevi to make the Son of Nandagopa as their Spouse.

vi) It is when Shri Krishna resonated Kama-Bija Klim in His Flute it penetrated into those Gopis who had Samartha - Parakiya Ragatmika Bhava and those Gopis alone run to  Him for the gratification of the Transcendental Amour of only the Gallant Lover.


Bhaktya janatiti chennabhijnaptya sahayyat    II 15 II


Translation :

It is only Bhakti that alone makes to realise God in His totality and absolutely it does not require any help from earlier knowledge of God. (Some wrongly   translate   that  first  knowledge which leads to devotion.    But it contradicts the previous statements (vide No 4 and 5).


Purport :

1) Now what we find that the Sakhas of Shri Krishna from their very childhood although have been observing the Super-human Acts of Shri Krishna yet they climbed on His  Shoulders and plucked fruits and after tasting them gave Him.

ii) Shri Krishna's showing Vishvarupa to His mother could create no change in her mind to convert her into a worshipper of Him. On the otherhand she felt deeper Love for Shri  Krishna to suck her breast and He was enthralled by her affectionate Love. Shri Yogamaya exercised her all the powers to make Yashoda realise that her Darling was not an  ordinary personage to be taken to task. But this Child of Kevalnmrati-\^ovQ of Mother Yashoda was a mere sulk of her which actually makes Shri Krishna more glorified  lowards the exposition of His Madhurya. Shri Gargacharya told about the Divinity of Shri Krishna. So nothing was left to the knowledge of Shri Nanda-Yashoda  about the    Divinity   of their Darling. Whereas even after this dekhile-o-nahi-mane fcevalar riti.* the knowledge of Divinity could not hoid any ground in the hearts of Ksv&la-Rati  Ragalmika devotees of His. So even after this the parential Love and affection towards Shri Krishna could not be interrupted by any feeling of awe and reverence.


 Prag - uktam - cha   II 16 II


Translation :

It was already illustrated beforehand.



It is devotion that leads to knowledge and not knowledge to devotion.** "It is only the pure devotion to Me, through which one conies to know Me in reality " Through Suddah-

Bha.kti alone one is enlightened with the full knowledge of Transcendental Manifestation of God, His Attributes and Sports and forthwith the pure soul enters into the Blissful  Abode of God. This is one of His confidential Teachings to the jiva.So the realisation of a Bhakta, however, has all the vitality and vividness of direct Personal experience of  God. There is nothing nebulous or hazy inconclusive or indefinite aspect about it. (See Aphorism No. 9)


Elena  vikalpopi pratyuktah   II 17 II


Translation :

Now with these expositions the contradiction regarding Jnana and Bhakti is solved.



So now without, any contradiction it is clear that Bhakti is independent and causeless. Whereas Jnana or Knowledge itself has got no value without being subservient to  Bhakti. Therefore Knowledge devoid of Bhakti cannot serve the purpose of attaining final beatitude in life. Bhakti is the Means as well as the End in itself. The highest pursuit  of human life is attained through Bhakti alone.


Deva-Bhaktiritarasmin Sahacharyat   II 18 II


Translation :

When Bhakti is referred to other than the Supreme Godhead, it is of course, a degraded form or perversely coined.



The derivating meaning of Bhakti is always in relation to Supreme Godhead only. It is the means as well as the end in itself and it is totally free from the aspiration of  elevation as well as solvation. Knowledge is always ancillary to it. In the Gita* Bhagavan Shri Krishna says : "Those who are devoted to gods other than the Supreme  Godhead even though Shtaddhanvitah, with un­wavering faith, no doubt I being the very source of existence of all gods am thereby ultimately worshipped, but lacking as it  does the right spirit (Wherein I alone should be worshipped), such devotion is not recognised as the proper one. Being deluded by Maya merely get their desires fulfilled in  obtaining the objects of their enjoyments heaven as its fruits instead of attaining the highest pursuit of life viz. eternal Bliss in My Service." Further God says,: "Those who  are devoted to other gods go to them but My devotees come unto Me, thereby no longer   they are subject to birth and death where as all others are subject to this law of  Transmigration.


Yogastubhayartham-apekshanat-prayajavat   II 19 II


Translation :

As for the Jnana so also for Yoga Bhakti is the substratum to bring the final success. Just as Prayaja ceremony is subsidiary to Vajapeya-yajna etc. as well as of  Dikshaniya etc. so too Yoga and Jnana are subservient to Bhakti.


Purport :

As knowledge devoid of Bhakti does not yield the final emancipation so also yoga without becoming subservient to Bhakti cannot even subdue the mind. The prompt answer  we find from the life of Saubari as well as from master yogi Durvasha. So Bhagavatam says:* "For attaining Me, neither yoga, nor Sankhya, nor righteousness, nor study of  Vedas, or austerity or renunciation captivates Me as does intense devotion to Me.*' Further** "I am not known through Yajna,   Tapasya,   and Yoga   whereas  I ever shine  in the untainted heart of My devotees." Further :* 'As the same milk with its various qualities or attributes is differently observed through different senses say through the eye  only its colour, through the touch its coolness or heat or its liquidity but through the tongue when it is drunk, all the qualities are positively utilised; so also through karma,  jnana, yoga one may have partial view of the Lord, but it is only through unalloyed devotion the full realisation of God is had.


Gaunya tu Samiidhi-siddhi   II 20 II


Translation :

Even attainment of Samadhi or meditation or contemplation upon God is the secondary aspect of Bhakti.


Purport :

Samadhi or meditation makes the mind contemplated upon God but Bhakthi enchants all the senses at a time. In Samadhi what realisa­tion one gets that cannot he made  to understand to others and it is only particular person's own gain, whereas devotee's every act makes others also spiritually benefitted. Meditation can be done at a  particular time and at a particular place but Bhakti has got different phases particularly Nama-Samkirtana which is the highest, can be done at all times and at all places and  at all conditions of life, [n meditation perception of God is only within, whereas unalloyed highest Bhakti makes a devotee feel the presence of God. Unalloyed devotion  enchants all the senses and in Samadhi there is atma ramatS whereas specially Raganuga-Bhakti transcends aimaiamala becoming Krishna-prema-Svarupa i.e. it goes  only for the gratification of the Amour of the Transcendental Gallent-Lover Shri Krishna, the Swayamrupa-Bhagavan when the devotee is fully inundated in the ocean of Bliss in  comprising of which atmananda is a drop. Ktmananda may be an excellent thing, but compared to the unalloyed Love of God it is as a mustard seed beside mount Mem.  Even master Yogi Shri Shiva although was absorbed in perfect meditation but when the melody of Shri Narada's lute pierced through his transparent heart he became  enchanted with the enchanting rapture. Shri Durvasa was in deep meditation but when God made His presence before him he lost his meditation and poured his heart in  hymns in His Glory.  So was the case for Prahlada too.


Heya-ragatvat-itichet-na-uttama-aspadatvat  sangavat   II 21 II


Translation :

As is the general testament that one must give up the attachment but attachments with the sat (exalted devotee of Supreme Godhead) merits the highest spiritual reward;  so also anuraga. to Uttama-purusha must not be given up.


Purport :

In the philosophy of yoga enunciated by Shri Patanjala Rishi in his Yogasutra where Samadhi-state is the final pursuit which can be had through secondary Bhakti but  unalloyed exalted characteristic of Bhakti is far far superior to that that is illustrated in the previous aphorism. Now as per Patanjala Yoga-Sutra* Ra oa-dvesha-abhirrivesha  klesha : ' Attachment, aver­sion, and infatuation are the afflictions."


The Jnanis'  and Yogis' vague idea is that Bhakti is the means only.   Further they make such a blaspheme that Bhakti is performed for Saguna   Iswara    whereas   highest     Reality    is Nirguna Brahman therefore for them so long there is ragadvesha-abhimvesha no nirgunata-state viz. Btahmabhuta for the jnani  and Nirvikalpa. samadhi-state    for the Yogis   can   be attained. They   understand   only   the sat aspect of God whereas to the realisation of an exalted devotee Bhagavan is sat-chit-ananda vigraha. So it  is absurd that which are considered to be abandoned in relation to mundanity are also be applicable for transcendental culture in relation   to   Supreme Godhead.    Dussanga •.    companionship with the people who are averse to God and steeped in nescience is the gate-way of the hell but compa­nionship with the exalted devotees is  not only the gate-way of liberation but that is the only true-spiritual welfare of humanity.    When we are in close companionship with the exalted devotees, the rays of the  divine Love   that radiate from every pore of their divine persons bring spiritual enlightenment.   So when one goes deeper and deeper to his culture of devotion one will have  accordingly deeper attachment, pang of Love-in-separation   and    infatuation    to   the   Supreme Godhead. A devotee says :   O Lord, that intense  love for which the  ignorant bears to worldly objects, may I have the same for Thee; May I have the same intensity of Love for Thee, but only for Love's sake.   Further he says :


1 wait and weep for Thee 

Here in the garden of my heart

As  a  thirsting man yearneth for water,

Even  so doth  my soul  long for a vision of Thee

Thy Love, Beloved,  like an arrow, hath pierced my heart

When wilt Thou   come and relieve  this agony of pain

Bhakti is the Means as well as the End in  itself..


Tadeva karmi-jhani-yogibhya adhikyashabdat   II 22 II


Translation :

Therefore without any contradiction Bhakti indeed is the highest of all and a Bhakta is superior to Karmi, Jnani or a Yogi.


Purport :

Unalloyed devotion to the Supreme Godhead is the highest. Shri Krishna says -.x "That type of yogi is superior to a karmi, to a jnani, to a tapaswi and therefore My dear  Arjuna, do become that type of yogi. But among all the yogis one who has fully surrendered to Me and serves Me with intense devotion with spiritualised body, mind and  soul is undoubtedly the greatest of all."


Bhagavatam says :¦ "Among the innume­rable muktas and siddhas rarely is found a devotee whole-heartedly devoted to the Supreme Godhead and Whose  atma   is    completely  satiated with   Love He  whose   be - all  and end - all  of life   is To   serve   Me  with  exclusive  loving  devotion With  all  tnergy  oj   body,  mind  and soul Him   I regard  as   the  greatest yogi above  all.


Prashna-nirupanabhyam-adhikya-siddheh    II 23 II


 Translation :

The Supremacy of Devotion without any contradiction is established in reply to the question.


Purport :

In the 12th Chapter of the Gita, Arjuna asks Shri Krishna, the Godhead, "those that constantly worship Thee devotedly as Thy devotees and those that meditate upon the  formless and attributeless Brahman — of these two classes whose excellency predominates ?"

In answer Shri Krishna says: "My devotee alone is on the real-path {Tuktatama) to attain to the highest blessedness in rendering eternal service to Me, the Supreme, with his  mind intent on Me, ever harmonised and attended with supreme faith. So I deem it that My single — minded devotee alone stands foremost among the yogis, others that  seek to realise Me as the Abstract Brahman, the Nameless, unmanifest, unthinkable, unchangeable and Abstruce one keeping the senses under control, with equality of  vision everywhere no doubt attains oneness with My Brahman Aspect, but they shall have to experience a lot of difficulties and troubles and besides, that path is beset with  dangers.'' Bhagavan says, contemplation on an undefined, Absolute Brahman for an embodied soul results in a sorrowful wreck.1 Further Bhagavat says :a

"Intelligence cannot be pure without devotion to Thee."


Naiva Shraddhatu sadharanyat   I! 24 li


Translation :

The idiomatical use of Shraddha or Faith in the Philosophy of Bhakti is not to be taken in an ordinary sense.


Purport :

Shraddha on the path of Bhakti is the constituent of soul but absolutely not of mental or physical exuberance. Shraddha is the first -step or foundation of the edifice ofPrema.  Shri Rupa-Goswami, an exponent of Prema - Bhakti in his most glorious science on Philosophy of Bhakti '•iBhakti-Rasamrita-Sindhu"1 has stated Man : first, Shraddha,  Faith is endowed in the cognised sou! by listening to the Transcendental Exploits of Supreme Godhead in the company of exalted Parama Bhagavata devotees. This Faith  refers to Faith in the infallibility of the funda­mental teachings of scriptures regarding   God, individual soul, the universe, mays and their inter-relationship and final  conclusion. Therefore there is great difference in between belief and faith. It is like when a girl steps to her youth naturally she hunts for her mate, so when soul imbibes  Shraddha he searches for his object of Love but for Love's sake only, without its adulte­rated form of one's own sense-gratification.

Unfortunately some commentators so erro­neously make them understand that devotion should never be doubted to be of the form of faith because faith is subsidiary only to  ceremonial works. We do not understand in what way their brain works.


Tasyam tattve chanavasthanat    I! 25 !l


Translation :

If Shraddha, Faith, is not taken as funda­mental, then a regressus ad infinitum would result and it would be sacrilegious.


Purport :

Bhakti is causeless and also the means as well as the end in itself. Therefore Shraddha is not different from Bhakti whereas Shraddha is the rudimentary stage of Bhakti  and Prema is the climax. Bhagavan Shri Krishna says -,1 "He who has surrendered himself to Me and serves Me with unswerving Faith is considered by Me as the best  Yogi." The value and the intensity of a man's Faith lies in being devoted to God as the only object of his Love. Such a faithful and real lover of God is the most perfect among  the accomplished yogis. To know God, to have Faith in Him, and to be whole-heartedly devoted to Him, are indeed the things which build up the perfection and these are  certain to make him feel that, in all that he thinks and feels and does, he has to serve merely as the instrument of God and carry out His Will. Shraddha is the bud and  Prema is the fully blossomed flower with its fragrance. So to separate Shraddha from Bhakti is sacrilegious.


Brahmakandam tu hhaktau tasyanujnanaydt  Samanyat    II 26 II



For Brahma-Kanda what is known as Vedanta moreover Bhakti is the sine-qua-non, otherwise it cannot have its locus-standi.



Generally Vedas are classified as Purva-mimamsa or Purva-kanda or Karma-kanda dealing with rituals or ceremonial rites and other one Uttara mimamsa or Uttara-kanda  viz. Vedanta or Jnana-kanda dealing with knowledge all about Brahman (God), jiva-soul and maya and what relationship have they got in between them. There is a vague  idea that the Uttara-Kanda or Vedanta particularly after the commentary of Shri Shankaracharya being it popular among the intellectuals that Vedanta deals with jnana of  Pantheism or Monism and approach is Inductive Process or which is known as Neti Neti: not this, not this. But if negative way neti neti could be the approach then how  athato Brahma jijnasa ? Definitely enquiry is after something positive. Therefore enquiry should be affirmative. Now who will have the knowledge of Brahman ?  Shraddhavdn-labhate jnanam1 One who possesses firm faith in God. Again to whom will Brahman reveal Himself? One who possesses steadfast devotion to God. Bhaktya  aham ekaya ¦grahyah :a "I am attainable only through exclusive devotion." Therefore Bhakti is the sine-qua-non of Vedanta philosophy,  otherwise Vedanta has got no locus  standi in the ontology of God-realisation.