Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Shachinandana Swami > The Nectarean Ocean of the Holy Name > Appendix > 6. Glossary

6. Glossary


Abhidheya: the practice or process of devotional service by which one achieves the ultimate goal of life. One of the three main important subjects of spiritual self realization (-» sambandha, prayojana).


Abhiseka: a bathing ceremony to worship an elevated guest (like the guru) or the Deity on the altar.


Acarya: "one who leads the way"; a spiritual master who teaches by his own example.


Acintya-bhedabheda-tattva: the "inconceivable nature" of God to be one with and at the same time different from everything. This doctrine has been established by Lord Caitanya as main pillar of the Gaudlya-Vaisnava philosophy.


Acit-vaibhava: the non-spiritual manifestation, consisting of the material universes. The field of the acit-vaibhava is under the influence of the illusory energy of the Lord. One of the three main vaibhavas or potencies of krishna (—» cit-vaibhava, jwa-vaibhava).

Ajnata-sukrti: unknowingly performed pious activities. They help the living entity to advance on the spiritual path, by offering him a human body or by bringing him in contact with spiritual life. A famous example is King Satyavrata who gave protection to a fish without knowing that this fish was an incarnation of the Lord, the matsya-avatara (-» SB. 8.24.15 for further explanation).

Ananda: (1) spiritual bliss; (2) - sac-cid-ananda.

Anartha: "without value"; undesired habits, like material attachments, which are impediments for spiritual progress.

Anartha-nivrtti: becoming freed from anarthas by constant practice of sadhana-bhakti. The fourth stage in the development of prema, as de¬scribed in Bh.r.s. 1.4.15-16 (see page 188).

Aniruddha -Vasudeva

Aparddha: offenses (against the holy name, against the form of the Lord, against the devotees of the Lord, and against other living entities). One of the four types of anarthas (-» hrdaya-daurbalya, asat-trsna, tat-tva-vibhrama).

Arati: a ceremony for worshipping the Deity, the spiritual master, or other spiritually elevated persons.

Arcanam: worshipping the Deity of the Lord on the altar. The fifth of the nine processes of devotional service (-» SB. 7.5.23-24). 

Artha - purusartha

Asakti: intense attachment to krishna and the devotional service unto Him. The seventh stage in the development of prema, as described in Bh.r.s. 1.4.15-16 (see page 188).

Asana: an elevated seat for a guest of honor or for the speaker in an as¬sembly of devotees.

Asat-sanga: undesired association with other people, esp. with nonde-votees.

Asat-trsnd: the desire to attain material objects which are unreal and temporary (asat—not existing; trsna—thirst). One of the four types of anarthas (-»aparadha, hrdaya-daurbalya, tattva-vibhrama).

Asrama: (1) the four spiritual orders according to the Vedic system of varndsrama (-» brahmacdri, grhastha, vanaprastha, sannydsi). (2) the place where brahmacaris live.

Asta-kalika-lTla: the regular pastimes of krishna and Radharani in vrindavana, which are divided into eight (asta) daily sections.

Atma: the self. Atma may refer to the body, the mind, the intellect or the Supreme Self. Usually, however, it indicates the individual soul (-> Bg. 6.5, p.).

Atma-nivedanam: surrendering everything to the Lord. The last of the ninefold process of devotional service (-» SB. 7.5.23-24).

Audastnya: indifference while chanting, lack of attraction to the holy name; one of the three kinds of distraction which are the root for in-attentiveness (-»jadya, viksepa).

Avatdra: "one who descends"; a fully or partially empowered incarna¬tion of God who descends from the spiritual realm for a particular reason. The different avatdras are listed in Bg. 4.8,

Avidya: ignorance.

Balarama: the first expansion of krishna, from whom all other expansions and incarnations generate. He is the elder brother of krishna in vrindavana.

Bead-bag: the small pouch in which the japa-mdld, the chant beads, are kept.

Bhagavad-gitd: the "song of the Lord"; the famous synopsis of the philosophy of krishna consciousness which was spoken by Lord krishna on the battlefield of Kuruksetra.

Bhagavan: "He who possesses all opulence"; the Supreme Lord who is the reservoir of six kinds of opulence in fullness (beauty, strength, fame, wealth, knowledge and renunciation; -» Bg. 10.1, p.).

Bhagavata-dharma r» sandtana-dharma

Bhagavata-vidhi: "the way of the Bhdgavatam"; practicing the ninefold process of devotional service (sravanam, kirtanam, smaranam, etc), which includes reading Srimad-Bhagavatam and preaching the message of bhakti (-» SB. 4.13.3; —> pancaratrikT-vidhi).


Bhdgavata-purdna —> Srimad-Bhagavatam


Bhajana: (1) transcendental loving service for the Lord; (2) the chanting of devotional songs in a small group; (3) chanting in seclusion. (—» Bg. 6.47, p. for a thorough explanation of the word bhaj.)


Bhajana-kriyd: performing devotional service under the direction of the guru, after having received spiritual initiation (diksd). The third stage in the development of prema, as described in Bh.r.s. 1.4.15-16 (see page 188).


Bhakta, Bhaktin: a devotee; usually non-initiated devotees are addressed with this name.


Bhakti - bhakti-yoga


Bhakti-devi: the personified form of bhakti. She is non-different from Radharani.


Bhakti-latd: the "creeper" of devotional service. In Cc. Madhya 19.151-164, Lord Caitanya describes that bhakti has to be cultivated and protected like a creeper in the garden. Then it will steadily grow until it attains the lotus feet of Lord krishna in Goloka vrindavana. Then the devotee will reap the fruit of pure love of Godhead, prema-bhakti.

Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu: the "ocean of the pure nectar of devotional service"; the most important book of Srlla Rupa Gosvaml. It deals in detail with the nature and symptoms of pure devotional service.


Bhakti-rasdyana: A collection of sixty-one verses, mainly from the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam, to increase devotional sentiments while chanting. Rasdyana is an Ayurvedic life-giving medicine {rasa—fluid, liquor; ayanfl-^-treatment). The bhakti-rasdyana is compiled by Srlla Sanatana Gosvaml in his Brhad-Bhdgavatdmrta (see page 252 for the slokas and how to meditate on them.)


Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura: The spiritual master of Srlla Prab-hupada and the greatest and most influential Vaisnava during the beginning of this century. He gave Srlla Prabhupada the order to preach krishna consciousness in the west. 

Bhaktivinoda Thakura: the most influential Vaisnava acarya in the last century. Father of Bhaktisiddhanta SarasvatI Thakura, the spiritual master of Srila Prabhupada. He wrote many books about bhakti and composed numerous bhajanas (songs for the glorification of krishna).


Bhakti-yoga: loving devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri krishna. This is the process by which one attains the perfection of live, namely to become re-established in one's original constitutional position of an eternal servant of krishna.


Bharata: the designation for a descendent of King Bharata. He was the ancestor of a dynasty of saintly kings who ruled over India. Therefore India is also named Bharata-varsa.


Bhava: spiritual ecstasy; the eighth and preliminary stage in the development of prema, as described in Bh.r.s. 1.4.15-16 (see page 188). An elaborate description is given in the "Nectar of Devotion", Chapter 17-18.


Bhrama: the propensity to commit errors, which happens when the senses are inattentive. One of the four innate defects of the embodied conditioned soul which disable him to acquire spiritual knowledge on his own power (—» pramada, vipralipsa, karanapdtava).


Bija: seed.


Brahma: the first-created living being in the universe. He is a pure devotee of the Lord and is entrusted with the creation of the universe. Since he received spiritual knowledge from krishna directly through the heart, he is the original spiritual master of our disciplic succession. He is the -guna-avatara responsible for the mode of passion (—> brahma-mddhva-gaudTya-sampradaya).


Brahmacan, brahmacdrim: a disciple or student who lives under Vedic regulation (celibacy, no possession etc). The first of the four spiritual divisions (asrama) in the varndsrama system.


Brahmacdri-dsrama: the quarters where the brahmacdrfs or brahmacdrims live in the temple or the asrama of the guru.


Brahma-madhva-gaudTya-sampradaya: The sampradaya of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, in which the members of ISKCON are imbedded through Srila Prabhupada. (Brahma refers to Brahma, mddhva to Madhvacarya and gaudlya to Caitanya Mahaprabhu who appeared in Gauda-desa.)


Brahma-muhurta: the time shortly before sunrise. (One muhurta = 48 minutes; brahma-muhurta is the second muhurta before sunrise, thus starting 96 minutes before and lasting until 48 minutes before sunrise). It is considered to be the best time of the day for spiritual practice.


Brahman, brahmajyoti: the impersonal effulgence emanating from the transcendental body of the Lord. It is the all-pervading, imperishable source of all energy; therefore impersonalists consider this brahman effulgence to be the final truth. In reality it is always subordinate to and dependent of krishna (-> Bg. 7.24 and 14.27).


Brahmana: a member of the clerical-intellectual class of men. His task is to serve the society as spiritual teacher and guide. One of the four social divisions (varnas) in the varnasrama-dharma system.


Caitanya: Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the incarnation of the Supreme Lord in kali-yuga. He is krishna Himself. He played the part of His own devotee and propagated the religious process of sankirtana, the con¬gregational chanting of the holy name.


Caitanya-caritamrta: the authorized biography of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, written in Bengali language by krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.


Chadai". a blanket, traditionally worn as wrap.


Chdya-abhasa: real ndmdbhdsa, performed out of ignorance or weakness in the heart (-»pratibimba-abhdsa).


Cit — sac-cid-dnanda


Cit-vaibhava: krishna's spiritual potency. It includes His abode, the Vai-kuntha planets, His innumerable holy names, and His transcendental forms. To feel bliss is a symptom of being inspired by the cit-potency. One of the three main vaibhavas or potencies of krishna (-> acit-vaibhava, jwa-vaibhava).



Daivi-varnasrama: a social system based on varndsrama, but under divine inspiration, aiming at spiritual elevation of all the citizens.


Dandavat: offering obeisance by falling to the ground like a stick (danda—stick; vat—like).


Dasa, dasi: servant; devotees of krishna take this name as "family name", since they are servants and children of krishna.


Dasyam: becoming the servant of the Lord. The seventh of the nine processes of devotional service (-» SB. 7.5.23-24).


Deity: an authorized form of the Lord which is worshipped on the altar (-> Bg. 12.5, p. for an elaborate explanation). 

Devi-dhama: "the realm of maya-devi"; the material world (—» acit-vaibhava).


Dhama: a holy place where the Personality of Godhead is present.


Dharma: (1) religious principles; (2)  sanatana-dharma; (3) ~» purusartha.


Dlksd: spiritual initiation.


Diksa-guru: a spiritual master who gives diksa. One can have many —» siksa-gurus, but only one diksa-guru. Disciplic succession -»sampradaya

Durga Devi: the wife of Lord Siva; the personification of maya, the material energy.


Dvapara-yuga —»yuga


Dvaraka: the town which krishna built in the ocean after He had left Mathura. Here He performed His pastimes as King and husband of 16,108 Queens and displayed gorgeous opulence.



Ekadasi: the eleventh day of both moon phases (ekadasa—eleven). This day is especially suitable for withdrawing from the routine of daily activities and intensifying one's spiritual practice. Vaisnavas fast on this day from grain and pulse food, or they even fast completely from food and water (nirjala-ekadasi).


Ekddasi-vrata: the vow to fast on Ekadasi, generally connected with the vow to chant a high number of holy names.


Ganga (Ganges): the most sacred river in India. (SB. 8.21.4, p. describes how the Gariga has emanated from the lotus feet of Lord Visnu, thus receiving its great spiritual strength.)


Gauda-desa: a name for the land of Bengal. Originally it means the part of India between the southern parts of the Himalaya and the northern parts of the Vindhya mountains


Gaudiya-vaisnavas: Vaisnavas in the line of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who appeared in Gauda-desa.


Gaunya-nama: the secondary names of God. They characterize His rela¬tionship with the material world (— mukhya-nama).


Gauranga: another name of Lord Caitanya who has a golden complexion,gaura—golden; anga—body).


Gayatri: a mantra given by second or brahmana initiation. It is chanted in the mind three times during the day.


Goloka, Gokula: "the land, res. the shelter of the cows"; names for vrindavana, where krishna is tending the cows.


Goop: a cowherd man or cowherd boy. Generally the cowherd boys in vrindavana are meant, who share the mellow of brotherly friendship (sakhya-rasa) with krishna.


Gopts: the cowherd girls of vrindavana, headed by Radharanl. They are situated on the topmost stage of pure devotional service.


Gopala Bhatta Gosvami  Six Gosvamis


Gopi: a cowherd girl. Here the young daughters of the inhabitants of vrindavana are meant, who share the mellow of conjugal love (madhurya-rasa) with krishna and who are recognized by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu as the topmost devotees of the Lord.


Gosvami: "master of the senses"; a highly elevated devotee who is fully able to control the six urges of body and mind "Nectar of Instruction",


Gosvamis: name for the acaryas in our disciplic succession following Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; especially the —> Six Gosvamls of vrindavana.


Govardhana: a hill in vrindavana which was the place of numerous pastimes of krishna and Balarama. It is therefore one of the most sacred places in vrindavana. The gopis praise Govardhana as the best of all devotees, because it is always touched by the lotus feet of krishna and Balarama and supplies Them with all necessities (-> SB. 10.21.18).


Grhastha: a householder who lives according to Vedic regulations. The second of the four spiritual divisions (asrama) in the varnasrama system.


Guna-avatara: the incarnations responsible for the three gunas; Brahma (rajas), Visnu (sattva) and Siva (tamas).


Gunas (modes of material nature): the threefold division of material nature. In the same way as the three primary colors (red, blue, yellow) can combine to any other color, all material manifestations are but a combination of the three modes of nature. They are called sat¬tva (goodness), rajas (passion) and tamas (ignorance). A transcen-dentalist strives to raise above the three gunas to attain the platform of —> suddha-sattva. (The three gunas and the process to overcome them is described in Bg. Chapter 14.)


Guru: the spiritual master.


Hara: the internal, spiritual energy of the Lord, personified as Radharanl. She is the supreme pleasure potency of krishna and is addressed as "Hare" in the Hare krishna maha-mantra. 


Hari: "He who takes away all sins and attachments from His devotees"; a name of krishna.


Hare krishna —» maha-mantra


Haribol: "Chant (or praise) the name of Hari, the Lord"; a salutation or emphatic exclamation.


Harinama: the holy names of Sri Hari (krishna), or the chanting of these holy names. Harinama-sankirtana - sankirtana


Helana: indifference; one of the four kinds of namabhasa which are performed unconsciously, but still, due to the mercy of the holy name, show a certain effect (—» parihasya, sanketya, stobha).


Hlddim-sakti: the pleasure-giving potency of krishna which manifests spiritual relations, the blissfulness of spiritual emotions, and the divine exchange of rasas. One of the three principal energies of the internal potency (—> sandhinf-sakti, samvit-sakti).


Hrdaya-daurbalya: defects of the heart (attachment to objects which have no relationship to krishna, propensity to cheat and to find faults, envy, and desire for recognition). One of the four types of anarthas (-»aparadha, asat-trsna, tattva-vibhrama).


ISKCON (International Society for krishna Consciousness): the spiritual organization which was founded in 1966 by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, in order to spread the science of krishna consciousness all around the world. Through the chain of dis-ciplic succession this movement stays in direct line to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's sankirtana mission.


Isvara: "the Supreme Controller"; one of the secondary (gaunya) names of krishna.


Jadya: laziness while chanting; one of the three kinds of distraction which are the root for inattentiveness (—»auddstnya, viksepa).


Jagai and Madhai: two brothers who were born in a respectable brahmana family and later fell down to sinful, criminal life. They were the most fearsome dacoits in Navadvipa. Later they were res¬cued by the mercy of Nityananda Prabhu and became pure devotees of Lord Caitanya (^ Cc, Adi 17.17).


Japa: meditating on the holy name of the Lord, whereby the names are pronounced very softly, so that only the chanter can hear them (-* kfrtana).


Japa-mala: string of wooden pearls (beads) which is used for counting the number of mantras while chanting fapa. Vaisnavas use a chain with 108 beads for chanting the Hare krishna maha-mantra; thus chanting one round means chanting 108 times the maha-mantra.


Jiva Gosvami - Six Gosvamis


Jiva, jivatma: the eternal, individual soul.


Jiva-himsa: committing violence against other living being (jwas). Srila Prabhupada explains that jwa-himsa actually means to stop preaching krishna consciousness. One of the six kinds of weeds in the garden of the bhakti-lata (~» kutmati, labha, nisiddhacara, pratistha, piija).


Jiva-vaibhava: the living entities who are spiritual by quality. One of the three main vaibhavas or potencies of krishna (—> acit-vaibhava, cit-vaibhava).


Jnana: (1) spiritual knowledge (-» sambandha-jnana); (2) the path of speculative knowledge aiming at impersonal liberation (as described in Bhagavad-gita, Chapter 5).


Jnana-kanda: the process of elevation through speculative knowledge, as prescribed in the Vedas (-> karma-kanda, upasand-kanda).


Kali-yuga: "the age of quarrel"; the last one in the cycle of four ages (-» yuga). Kali-yuga started about 5,000 years ago; it is characterized by the loss of all good qualities of man and makes spiritual practice very difficult. (The symptoms of kali-yuga are described in SB. 1.1.10.)


Kalpa-vrksa: a desire-fulfilling tree. They are found in Goloka-vrindavana.


Kama -purusartha


Kanistha-adhikari: a third-class, materially motivated devotee. He is a weak reflection of a devotee who possesses only meager faith, and although he worships the Deity of the Lord, he is not engaged in any service for the Vaisnavas. (-» uttama-adhikan, madhyama-adhikdri.)


Kanthi-mala: necklace of the Vaisnavas, made of Tulasl pearls (kantha— neck).


Karandpatava: imperfect senses and imperfect mind. One of the four innate defects of the embodied conditioned soul which disable him to acquire spiritual knowledge on his own power. (—bhrama, pramada, vipralipsa.) 


Karma: (1) the universal law of action and reaction; (2) reactions for past activities which determine our present life; (3) fruitive activity with the aim to acquire good karma (—> karma-kanda).


Karma-kanda: the process of elevation through regulated fruitive activi¬ties, as prescribed in the Vedas (—>jnana-kanda, upasana-kanda).


Karmi: a person who follows the path of -» karma-kanda; also used in general for a materialist.


Kirtana: the loud singing of the holy name, especially in the association of other devotees (—> sanklrtana).


Kirtanam: singing or glorifying the transcendental name, form, qualities and pastimes of the Lord. The second of the nine processes of devotional service (-» SB. 7.5.23-24).


krishna: the original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His principal name.


krishna-bhakti -bhakti-yoga


krishna-prema - prema


Ksatriya: a member of the governmental, administrative or military class. One of the four social divisions (varnas) in the varnasrama-dharma system.


Kutinati: Diplomacy and duplicity, which is shown for example by the propensity to find faults, or to pretend to be an important devotee. One of the six kinds of weeds in the garden of the bhakti-lata (—> jiva-himsa, labha, nisiddhacara, pratistha, puja).


Labha: desiring material gains. One of the six kinds of weeds in the garden of the bhakti-lata (-» jiva-himsa, kutinati, nisiddhacara, pratistha, puja).


Lila-smarana: meditation by remembering krishna's pastimes (Mas). Generally performed as a means to invoke —» nama-rasa.


Madana-mohana: "He who even deludes cupid"; one of the names of krishna. The Deity of Madana-mohana is the predominating Deity for attaining -* sambandha-jnana.


Madhai - Jagai and Madhai


Madhyama-adhikari: A second-class devotee. He knows krishna's position as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and that of the living enti¬ties as His eternal servants. He feels compassion for the ignorant and evades the company of atheists (-» uttama-adhikari, kanistha-adhikarx).


Maha-mantra: the "great mantra"; the holy names of God in their most intimate and potent form of chanting Hare krishna Hare krishna krishna krishna Hare Hare / Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare.


Mala-samskdra: purificatory ceremony for the japa-mala, either after having produced one, or if the mala has become contaminated. This procedure is performed by bathing the mala in -» paiica-gavya and offering it to the Deities.


Manasa: Quiet chanting in the mind. One of the three kinds of chanting according to Hari-bhakti-vilasa (—> upamsa, vacik).


Manasi-seva: offering service to the Lord in one's mind. This is a very much advanced stage of krishna consciousness.


Mantra: "that which liberates the mind" (manas—mind; trayate—liberates); sound vibration prescribed in the Vedas which cleanses the mind from material impurities (-» maha-mantra).


Mathura (1) name for the region of vrindavana; (2) a town in vrindavana where krishna killed His demoniac uncle Kamsa and lived as protec¬tor of the Yadus.


Maya: "that which is not"; the illusory material energy of the Lord which keeps the conditioned souls in forgetfulness about their real spiritual identity. She is personified as maya-devi or Durga, the wife of Lord Siva.


Mayapur: the town in —> Navadvipa where Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared.


Mayavadis: followers of an impersonal philosophical school who think that everything is one. According to their philosophy, the Lord assumes a material form under the influence of maya when He descends to the material world, either in person or in form of His Deity. In a degraded form this doctrine is influencing many contemporary philosophical or esoteric schools. Caitanya Mahaprabhu has called them aparadhis, offenders of the Lord, and has warned every Vaisnava to keep association with them or to study their books (« Cc. Madhya 6.169, Bg. 2.12, p.).


Mlecchas: outcaste meat eaters. Indians call all Western people by this  name, because they don't follow any rules of Vedic culture.


Modes of nature -gunas


Moksa, mukti: liberation from material existence. Usually this term is used for sayujya-mukti, entering into the impersonal effulgence of the Lord, but according to SB. 2.10.6, it actually means to regain one's constitutional position (svarupa) as eternal servant of krishna (— purusartha).


Mukhya-nama: the principal names of God, like krishna and Govinda. They refer to krishna in His eternal Mas, the pastimes with His devotees in the spiritual world (—»gaunya-nama).


Mukti -moksa


Nama-apardha: chanting with offenses. The lowest of the three stages of chanting (—»suddha-nama, namabhasa).


Namabhasa: the "clearing stage" of chanting where the offenses gradually diminish. The second of the three stages of chanting (—> suddha-nama, namaparadha).


Namacarya: "the acarya of the holy name" Caitanya Mahaprabhu awarded Haridasa Thakura with this title for preaching the glories of the holy name by his own example (—» Cc. Antya 11.25).


Nama-rasa: taste for chanting the holy name which arises through the realization that krishna is nondifferent from His name (—» lila-smarana).


Nama-tattva: the innermost meaning and nature of the holy name.


Narada Muni: son of Brahma and a pure devotee. He is constantly travelling in his spiritual body throughout the universes in order to preach the glories of Lord krishna. His story is described in the sixth Chapter of the First Canto of SrTmad-Bhagavatam.


Navadvipa: the appearance place of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. This holy place is nondifferent from the transcendental realm of vrindavana.


Nisiddhacara : Actions which are prohibited in the sastras (scriptures). One of the six kinds of weeds in the garden of the bhakti-lata (—> jwa-himsa, kutinati, labha, pratistha, puja).

Nistha: steadiness in self-realization through firm faith. The fifth stage in the development of prema, as described in Bh.r.s. 1.4.15-16 (see page 188).


Om: the sacred syllable that represents the absolute truth (—» Bg. 7.8, 9.17).


Pada-sevanam: serving the lotus feet of the Lord. The fourth of the nine processes of devotional service (-» SB. 7.5.23-24).


Padayatra: pilgrimage on foot. It is often performed by a sankirtana party with bullock carts to spread the holy name.


Panca-gavya: five products of the cow—milk, yogurt, ghee, cow dung and cow urine—which, according to Vedic injunction, have a tremendous purificatory effect.


Pancaratriki-vidhi: approaching the Lord through worship of the Deity in the temple (-» SB. 4.13.3; —> bhagavata-vidhi).

Panca-tattva: the fivefold manifestation of the Supreme Lord as Caitanya Mahaprabhu and His most intermediate associates. Their names are listed in the panca-tattva-maha-mantra (see page xix).


Paramatma: Visnu in His localized form of the Supersoul.


Parampara - disciplic succession


Parihasya: chanting jokingly; one of the four kinds of namabhasa which are performed unconsciously, but still, due to the mercy of the holy name, show a certain effect (—> helana, sanketya, stobha).


Patita: someone who is fallen.


Patita-pavana: "the savior of the fallen"; a name of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. It is also applied to Srila Prabhupada.


Prabhu: Lord, master.


Pradyumna - Vasudeva.


Prajalpa: all kinds of talk with no relation to krishna consciousness; espe¬cially detrimental if dealing with the faults of other devotees (—> Upadesamrta, Text 2).


Prakrti: (1) the material nature (apara-prakrti); (2) the living entities (para-prakrti; -»Bg. 7.4-5).


Pramada: the propensity to deceive ourselves, which means being subject to illusion. One of the four innate defects of the embodied conditioned soul which disable him to acquire spiritual knowledge on his own power. (—> bhrama, vipralipsa, karanapatava.)


Prasadam: sanctified food, offered in devotion to Lord krishna (-» Bg. 3.13, 9.26).


Pratibimba-dbhasa: distorted namabhasa ("reflected in a material mentality"). It is performed out of deeply rooted attachments, such as material success or liberation (—> chaya-abhasa).


Pratistha: desiring to become an important person or to obtain an im¬portant position in the material world. One of the six kinds of weeds in the garden of the bhakti-lata (—> jwa-himsa, kutfnati, labha, nisiddhacdra, puja).


Prayojana: the ultimate goal of life, prema or pure love of Godhead. One of the three main important subjects of spiritual self realization (—> sambandha, abhidheya). 


Prema, prema-bhakti: pure love of God; The ultimate stage and goal in the development of pure bhakti, as described in Bh.r.s. 1.4.15-16 (see page 188).


Puja: striving for popularity and admiration. One of the six kinds of weeds in the garden of the bhakti-lata (—> jwa-himsa, kutinatT, labha, nisiddhacara, pratistha).


Puranas: The eighteen historical supplements to the Vedas. The most important one is the Bhdgavata Purana or Snmad-Bhagavatam.


Purusa-avataras: the different Visnu-forms who are engaged with the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material world: Maha-Visnu, GarbhodakasavT-Visnu, and Kslrodakasayl-Visnu.


Purusartha: the four main goals of the varnasrama system, namely religi¬osity (dhartna), economic development (artha), sense gratification (kama) and liberation (moksa).


Radha, Radharani: the eternal consort of krishna. She is the embodiment of krishna's internal energy (hladim-sakti) and the topmost of all devotees of krishna. krishna is always worshipped together with Radharani.


Raganuga-bhakti: regulated devotional service which is ruled by the purified desire and emotions (raga) of the devotee. The advanced stage of sadhana-bhakti, where one follows the mood of a certain in¬habitant of Goloka-vrindavana. It can only be performed if one is free from anarthas, and only under the guidance of the guru (—> "The Nectar of Devotion", Chapter 15-16; - sadhana-bhakti, vaidhi-bhakti).


Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami, Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami - Six Gosvamis


Rajasuya-yajna: a sacrifice performed by the emperor to substantiate his claim on the ruling power over the world. The sacrifice mentioned in this book was performed by Yudhisthira Maharaja


Rajo-guna (mode of passion): one of the three modes of material nature (-» gunas). Rajo-guna is characterized by attachment, fruitive activ¬ity, intense endeavor and uncontrollable desire (—> Bg. 14.7, 9,12).


Rasa: "mellow"; the particular loving mood or attitude relished in the exchange of love with krishna (-» "Nectar of Devotion" Chapter 20).

Rasa-lila: the purest and most confidential pastimes between krishna and the gopls in vrindavana.


Rasamurti: "the source or embodiment of all rasas"; one of qualities of krishna which constitutes one of the essential points in the teachings of the Vedas.


Ruci: taste for the practice of devotional service, especially for hearing and chanting. The sixth stage in the development of prema, as described in Bh.r.s. 1.4.15-16


Rukminl: The principal queen of krishna in Dvaraka, where He performed His pastimes as king of the Yadus.


Rupa Gosvami — Six Gosvamls


Sac-cid-ananda: the quality of krishna and the jwa souls to be eternal (sat), full of knowledge (cit), and full of bliss (ananda) by nature. When krishna appears in the material world, He keeps His sac-cid-ananda body, whereas the jwa assumes a body which is temporary (asat), full of ignorance {acid), and full of suffering (nirananda).


Sadhaka: someone who performs sadhana-bhakti.


Sadhana-bhakti: regulated devotional service with the aim to awaken one's dormant love for krishna. Divided in -» vaidhi-bhakti and raganuga-bhakti (-> "The Nectar of Devotion", Chapter 2).


Sadhu: "one who has attained the goal"; a devotee fully surrendered to krishna. The qualities of a sadhu are described in SB. 3.25.21.


Sadhu-ninda: blaspheming a sadhu; the first and most severe offense against the chanting of the holy name.


Sadhu-sanga: association with sadhus, saintly devotees of the Lord. The second stage in the development of prema, as described in Bh.r.s. 1.4.15-16 (see page 188).


Sakhyam: becoming the friend of the Lord. The eighth of the nine processes of devotional service (-> SB. 7.5.23-24).


Sambandha, sambandha-jnana: knowledge about the nature of the soul, of material nature, of God, and of their interactive relations. One of the three main important subjects of spiritual self realization (-» ab-hidheya, prayojana).


Sampradaya: an uninterrupted chain of spiritual masters who received their knowledge from their own guru and passed it to their disciples without changing it. The precondition for authentic spiritual knowl¬edge (-» Bg. 4.1-3).


Samvit-sakti: the potency which manifests knowledge and the relation¬ships among the devotees and to the Supreme Personality of God head. One of the three principal energies of the internal potency (-> hladini-sakti, sandhim-sakti).


Sanatana Gosvami - Six Gosvamis


Sanatana-dharma or bhagavata-dharma: the eternal {sanatana) constitu¬tional quality or religion (dharma) of the living entity. This is, to ren¬der transcendental loving devotional service unto Bhagavan Sri krishna.


Sandhini-sakti: the potency that develops the variety of spiritual exis¬tence. One of the three principal energies of the internal potency (—> hladini-sakti, samvit-sakti).


Sankarsana -Vasudeva


Sanketya: unintentional chanting; one of the four kinds of ndmabhasa which are performed unconsciously, but still, due to the mercy of the holy name, show a certain effect (—> helana, parihasya, stobha).


Sankirtana: the congregational chanting of the holy names (sain—to¬gether; kirtana—chanting).


Sannyasi: a person in the renounced order of life who has given up all material possessions and attachments in order to dedicate his life to spiritual advancement and preaching. The last of the four spiritual divisions (asrama) in the varndsrama system.


Santi: inner peace; a by-product of practicing devotional service.


Sastra: the Vedic literature and literature in their pursuance which establish the Absolute Truth.


Sattva-guna (mode of goodness): one of the three modes of material nature (- gunas). Sattva-guna is characterized by becoming illumi¬nated with knowledge and being free from sinful reactions (— Bg. 14.6,9,11).


Satya-yuga -yuga


Senapati-bhakta: "supreme commanding devotee" (send—army; pati— commander); especially empowered devotee who spreads the sankirtana movement all over the world. According to our under¬standing, this clearly refers to Srila Prabhupada.


Seva-aparadha: offenses in the matter of serving the Deity of the Lord. They are comprehensively described in the "Nectar of devotion", Chapter 8.


Siksa: spiritual instruction.


Siksa-guru: a spiritual master who gives siksa. One can have many siksa-gnrus, but only one —» diksd-guru.


Siva: the - guna-avatdra responsible for the mode of ignorance. His tat-tva is described in 6s. 5.45 as simultaneously one and different from krishna, like yogurt and milk.



Six Gosvamis: the direct successors of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. They lived in vrindavana as pure renounced mendicants and composed numerous books about the science of bhakti. Their names and refer¬ences to their lives and works are: Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami (Cc. Adi 10.84), Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami (Cc. Adi 10.91-102), Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami (Cc. Adi 10.155-158), Gopala Bhatta Gosvami (Cc. Adi 10.105), and Jlva Gosvami. (Cc. Adi 10.85).


Sloka: a Sanskrit verse, usually consisting of four padas (half-lines) and composed in strict metric rules.


Smaranam: Remembering the transcendental name, form, qualities and pastimes of the Lord. The third of the nine processes of devotional service (-> SB. 7.5.23-24).


Smarta-brahmanas: caste brdhmanas who claim that birthright instead of qualifications is the criterion for becoming a brahmana. There opinion is in clear opposition to Vedic injunction (—> Bg. 18.42, SB. 7.9.10, 7.11.35). They follow the Vedic regulations for the sake of -» purusartha and not for spiritual elevation.


Sraddhd: firm faith that by serving krishna, all one's concerns are auto¬matically fulfilled (-> Cc. Madhya 22.62, Bg. 2.41, p.). The first stage in the development of prema, as described in Bh.r.s. 1.4.15-16 (see page 188).


Sravanam: hearing about the transcendental name, form, qualities and pastimes of the Lord. The first and most important of the nine processes of devotional service (-» SB. 7.5.23-24).


Sri, Srila: respectful way to address the Lord or a male devotee.


Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu -Caitanya


Srimad-Bhagavatam: the most important of the 18 purdnas; also called Bhagavata-purana. This is the commentary of Srila Vyasadeva to his own -Veddnta-sutra. It comprises 18,000 Verses and establishes the pure transcendental position of krishna as the original Personality of Godhead.


Srimati: respectful way to address a female devotee.


Stobha: derision; one of the four kinds of ndmabhasa which are performed unconsciously, but still, due to the mercy of the holy name, show a certain effect (-» helana, parihasya, sanketya). 


Suddha-bhakti: pure bhakti, free from selfish desire and the tendency of - karma and jnana.


Suddha-nama: pure chanting without any offenses. The topmost of the three stages of chanting on which the transcendental nature of the holy name is fully revealed (-> namabhasa, nama-aparadha).


Suddha-sattva: the platform of pure goodness, unaffected by the three modes of nature


Sudra: a member of the working class. One of the four social divisions (varnas) in varnasrama-dharma system.


Svaml, Swami: (1) respectful title by which a sannyasi is addressed; (2)  Gosvami.


Svarupa: the eternal original form of the jiva, namely to be an eternal servant of the Lord. Mukti or liberation means to become reestablished in one's svarupa (-» SB. 2.10.6).


Svarupa-laksana: the principal quality of a devotee, namely complete surrender to krishna. The svariipa-laksana is to be found in every devotee, regardless of his social position (-»tatastha-laksana).


Tamo-guna (mode of ignorance): one of the three modes of material na¬ture (—> gunas). Tamo-guna is characterized by darkness, inertia, madness and illusion (-» Bg. 14.8,9,13).


Tapasya: austerity; the voluntary acceptance of discomfort and pain for the sake of a spiritual elevation.


Tatastha-laksana: all the secondary qualities which distinguish a devo¬tee (tata—at the edge; stha—standing). They are 26 in number (— Cc. Madhya 22.78-80) and vary according to varna and asrama (-» svariipa-laksana).


Tattva: "that what is"; the true and real quality; the innate, eternal nature of a thing.


Tattva-vibhrama: illusion, or ignorance, about spiritual knowledge (about one's own identity, about the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, about the processes of sadhana-bhakti and prema-bhakti, and about the factors which are unfavorable for the develop¬ment of krishna consciousness). One of the four types of anarthas (-» aparadha, asat-trsna, hrdaya-daurbalya).


Tilaka: auspicious marks made of sacred clay, applied on twelve points of the body. This sign originally appears on temples of Visnu, and thus while applying tilaka, the devotee meditates that his body is meant to be a temple of Lord Visnu.


Treta-yuga -yuga


Tulasi Devi, Vrndadevi: one of the eternal associates and maidservants of krishna in vrindavana. She arranges everything necessary for the display of krishna's and Radha's pastimes. On Earth she appears in form of the sacred Tulasi plant and is especially dear to krishna.


Upamsa : Silent chanting which is so loud that only the chanter himself can hear it, like while chanting on the japa-mala. One of the three kinds of chanting according to Hari-bhakti-vilasa (-» vacik, manasa).


Upanisads: 108 philosophical treatises that appear in the Vedas. They deal mainly with the impersonal aspect of the Absolute truth; still they leave no doubt that the Supreme Absolute Truth is a person.


Upasana-kanda: the process of elevation through worship of the Lord, as prescribed in the Vedas (-» karma-kanda, jnana-kanda).

Uttama-adhikari: a first-class devotee. He is a pure devotee who sees krishna everywhere and knows that everything rests in Him (—> mad-hyama-adhikari, kanistha-adhikari).


Vacik: Loud chanting which everybody can hear, for example in a power¬ful kirtana. One of the three kinds of chanting according to Hari-bhakti-vilasa (—> upamsa, manasa).


Vaibhava: potency; esp. krishnas innumerable, unlimited potencies (-> acit-vaibhava, cit-vaibhava, jiva-vaibhava).


Vaidhi-bhakti: devotional service according to the rules and regulations of the scriptures, performed by neophyte devotees who have not yet developed spontaneous attachment to devotional service due to an¬arthas (-* "The Nectar of Devotion", Chapter 2; -» sadhana-bhakti, raganuga-bhakti).


Vaikuntha: "the place without fear" (vai—without; kuntha = fear); the eternal, self-illuminated planets in the spiritual world (-» Bg. 15.6).


Vaisnava: a devotee of Visnu, or krishna.


Vaisnava-praya: "next to a Vaisnava"; another name for —> kanistha-adhikari.


Vaisya: a farmer or merchant. One of the four social divisions (varnas) in the varnasrama-dharma system.


Vanaprastha: a person who retires from family life, generally at the age of 50 to 55, and moves to the forest (vana), where he purifies his material attachments by practicing penance and austerity. The third of the four spiritual divisions (asrama) in the varnasrama system. 


Vandanam: Offering prayers to the Lord. The sixth of the nine processes of devotional service (-* SB. 7.5.23-24).


Varna: the four social orders according to the Vedic social system (brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, sildra). In opposition to the contemporary degraded caste system in India, the affiliation to a certain varna is determined by qualification and not by birth (-» Bg. 18.42-44).


Varnasrama-dharma: the scientific division of the civilized human society into four -* varnas and four —> asramas, aiming at the gradual spiritual elevation of the whole society (-> Bg. 4.13).


Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Aniruddha and Pradyumna: the four primary expansions of Sri Balarama, who is the first expansion of krishna.


Veda: "knowledge"; the original revealed scriptures, and the culture which is based on them.


Veddnta-sutra: a philosophical treatise written by Srila Vyasadeva which renders the essence of the Vedic philosophy in short aphorisms (-» Srlmad-Bhagavatam).


Vibhu: the quality of krishna to be the possessor of -» vaibhavas; i.e. He is omniscient, omnipresent and almighty.


Viksepa: distraction while chanting; one of the three kinds of distraction which are the root for inattentiveness (—> auddsinya, jadya).


Vina: a string instrument, famous because of Narada Muni plays sweet songs for the glorification of krishna on this instrument.


Vipralambha-seva: serving krishna in separation. This form of worship is shown by the gopTs in vrindavana and is considered to be the highest form of bhakti. Although seemingly sad and painful, this mood is saturated with joyful, ecstatic excitement (-» "The Nectar of Instruction",


Vipralipsd: the propensity to cheat oneself and others. One of the four innate defects of the embodied conditioned soul which disable him to acquire spiritual knowledge on his own power. (-» bhrama, pramada, kdranapdtava.)


Visnu: the — guna-avatara responsible for the mode of goodness. He is an expansion of krishna and resides eternally in multifarious forms in Vaikuntha.


Vraja —»Vrindavana


Vrndadevi —> TulasI Devi


vrindavana, Vraja: (1) the eternal realm of Sri krishna and topmost planet in the spiritual world (-> Vaikuntha), also called Goloka vrindavana or krishnaloka; (2) The town and land of vrindavana in the Indian state Uttar Pradesh. This is the place where krishna appeared 5,000 years ago. It is nondifferent from vrindavana in the spiritual world.


Yamaraja: the demigod of death. He awards the different punishments to the sinful souls after they have left their body. He is a great devotee of krishna.


Yamuna: a river which flows through the land of vrindavana. It is said to be even more sacred than the river Gariga, because krishna performed His boyhood pastimes in its waters which are therefore saturated with the dust of His lotus feet.


Yavanas: descend en ts of an ancient ksatriya dynasty who have aban¬doned their Vedic background and adopted mleccha culture. According to Mahabharata Adi-parva 85.34, the Turks are Yavanas by descent.


Yoga: spiritual discipline to link oneself with the Supreme, culminating in -» bhakti-yoga. The different stages of yoga are described in detail in the Bhagavad-gita.


Yogapitha: a place in vrindavana where krishna's most confidential pas¬times take place. There are four different yogapithas in vrindavana.


Yogi: a practitioner of yogas


Yuga: age; Vedic cosmology describes a periodical change of four yugas (satya-yuga, treta-yuga, dvapara-yuga and kali-yuga). Together they last 4,320,000 years, of which the satya-yuga takes 4 parts, treta-yuga 3 parts, dvapara-yuga 2 parts, and kali-yuga 1 part, i.e. 432,000 years. 1,000 of such yuga cycles form one day of Brahma. In satya-yuga, all good qualities of man are fully developed, and they decrease from yuga to yuga by one fourth, until in the end a godless, fully degraded civilization remains (-» Bg. 8.17-19; — kali-yuga).


Yuga-dharma: the dharma, or religious process, prescribed for the respective yuga. In the age of Kali, no other process than sankirtana is effective.