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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Sanatana Goswami > Damodarashtakam and Kartika mahatmya > Damodarastakam


(From Padma Purana)


with the Dig-darshini-tika by Shri Sanatana Gosvami


Devanagari text, transliteration, word for word synonyms, translation, commentary and commentary’s transliteration





The eight verses called Damodarashtaka, which are widely read, recited and sung every autumn during the month of Kartika, are already familiar to most Vaishnavas. To many, however, these shlokas may appear somewhat mysterious, and reciting them may become just an empty ritual, mostly due to the language barrier.

There are already some English versions of Damodarashtaka available, all having their virtues and their reason to exist. Nonetheless I deemed those versions defective in some respects, thus I felt an original work deserved to be presented.

Damodarashtaka is an extract from Padma Purana, one of the six sattvika Puranas,i although I could not trace it in the present editions at my disposal, namely Gita Press’s and Nag Publishers’. The reasons for this discrepancy may be several, but to analyze them evades the purpose of the present booklet. Let’s take notice, however, that there are at least three different variants of Padma Puranaii, and I could not consult all of them.

Anyhow, the eight verses were certainly present in the version consulted by the author of Hari-bhakti-vilasa. They are ascribed to Satyavrata Muni, and are composed in Bhujanga-prayata metre, which has twelve syllables in each quatrainiii.

The injunction for their daily recitation during the month of Kartika, which is originally found in Padma Purana, is corroborated in Hari-bhakti-vilasa, the work attributed to Shri Gopala Bhatöa Gosvami and to Shri Sanatana Gosvami.iv

Hari-bhakti-vilasa is called Vaishnava-smriti, the devotional law-book. It contains instructions on routine activities, descriptions of rituals and festivities, scriptural evidences for theological and philosophical Vaishnava tenets, and much more. The book is filled with authoritative quotations from hundreds of scriptures.

Some of its chapters describe the various lunar months, including a calendar of the various festivities and ceremonies. In the section dealing with the month of Kartika the Damodarashöaka prayers are introduced as follows:


tatah priyatama vishno radhika gopikasu ca

kartike pujaniya ca shri-damodara-sannidhau


Shri Radhika is Lord Hari’s favorite among the Gopis. Therefore during Kartika She should be worshipped, next to Shri-Damodara.


dvijam damodaram krtva tat-patnim radhikam tatha

kartike pujaniyau tau vaso’lankara-bhojanaih.

radhika-pratimam viprah pujayet kartike tu yah

tasya tushyati tat-prityai shriman damodaro harih.


During Kartika, one should worship a brahmana as Shri Damodara and his wife as Shri Radha, offering them garments, ornaments and eatables.


O brahmanas! Shri Damodara, Lord Hari, is very pleased with the devotee who seeks Shri Radhika’s satisfaction by worshipping her murti during the month of Kartika.”


damodarashöakam nama stotram damodararcanam

nityam damodarakarshi paöhet satyavratoditam.


One should recite regularly the hymn sung by Satyavrata Rishiv called Damodarashöaka, because this worship attracts Shrii Damodara.


Sanatana Gosvami himself compiled the Dig-darshini-öika on Hari-bhakti-vilasa. Dig-darshini means “which gives the orientation” and öika means commentary. In Sanskrit literature it is quite common to find an author commenting on his own work, so the reader ought not be surprised by this.

The commentary is enriched by frequent citations from Shrimad-Bhagavatam. Sanatana Gosvami is renowned as a true rasika and a great expert in the subtle meanings of Shrila Vyasadeva’s masterpiece. His elucidations emphasize the proper attitude in praying to the Lord, display the true teaching behind the Lord’s lila, and disclose some hidden truths about Vraja-bhaktivi.

I have not annexed any personal comments to the translation, except where absolutely necessary for the sake of clarity. At places I appended footnotes, from which interested readers may benefit.

I chose to add to the translation of the commentary its transliteration. I’m a Sanskrit lover and I felt it my duty to encourage the reader to learn more about this extraordinary language. I also did it for the benefit of scholarly readers who will like to verify the translation with the original.

The quotations within the commentary are exclusively from Shrimad-Bhagavatam; all references in parentheses indicate the number of Canto, chapter and text, respectively.

At first I thought of retaining the Sanskrit for technical words such as bhakti, prema, bhava, etc., widely employed in the text and in the commentary. Later on, however, I changed my mind, hoping to enhance readability by using English equivalents, although I am fully aware of the limitations of such renderings. The last drafts were a compromise of this two approaches.

The reader should be aware, for example, that “devotion” does not convey the full meaning of bhakti, which is a much more dynamic conceptvii. Similarly, “loving devotion” is not fully satisfactory as an equivalent for prema, especially because of the impact the word “love” has on the modern mind. Again, neither “feeling” nor “sentiment” do cover the full import of bhava in the context of bhakti. The word “pathos” may be more accurate, due to the specific usage in the field of aesthetics, but it is not as intelligible for the occasional reader, and its connotations are somewhat misguiding when superimposed on Indian aesthetics.

A more exhaustive analysis of these and other words would be necessary to give the original work full justice, but it eludes the purpose of this booklet. After all, this had always been a dilemma – any work of translation is bound to incompletenessviii — and I am aware of being distant from a final solution. The core of the problem lies in the difference in culture, habits and language. These incompatibilities are even more marked between ancient and modern civilizations, owing to the lapse of time. Moreover, philosophical works are particularly liable to incongruities.ix

Sanatana Gosvami’s work is flawless, being written with accomplished scholarship and full realization. I am fully responsible for whatever imperfections have crept in the translation due to my incapacity or lack of spiritual understanding. I hope for the clemency of the reader and I beg the author for forgiveness.


Text One


namamishvaram sac-cid-ananda-rupam

lasat-kundalam gokule bhrajamanam

yashoda-bhiyolukhalad dhavamanam

paramrishöam atyantato-drutya gopya


namami— I bow down; ishvaram — to the Supreme Lord; sac-cid-ananda-rupam — Who is the embodiment of eternity, sentience and bliss; lasat-kundalam — with swinging earrings; gokule — in Gokula; bhrajamanam — Who shines; yashoda-bhiya— in fear of Yashoda; ulukhalad — from the mortar; dhavamanam — running away; para-amrishöam — was caught from behind; atyantatah-drutya — running faster; gopya — by the gopi.


“I bow down to the Supreme Lord, Who ever shines in Gokula. He is compact sentience, eternity, and bliss, in constitution. His earrings were dancing on His cheeks as He ran from the mortar in fear of mother Yashoda, who eventually caught Him in the chase that followed.”



I bow down to the Supreme Lord, Shri Damodara, and to Shri Radha. In this commentary I shall disclose the purport of Shri Damodarashöaka.

Before describing the essence of Shri Krishna’s divinity in the distinctive character, form, activities, and qualities of is Gokula manifestation, Satyavrata Rishi devotionally bows down to the Lord in prelude to his prayers – namamishvaram sac-cid-ananda-rupam. He humbly begins by paying his respects to invoke auspiciousness, as per the rulesx.

To whom does he offer respects? To Ishvara, the Supreme Lord. The intended import of the word ishvara is, electively, “the owner of every energy,” “the undisputed Lord of the universe,” or simply “my Lord.” These three meanings respectively imply glorification, prayer to the Supreme, and exclusive bhakti.

What is the nature of the Supreme Lord?


shri-radha-sahitam natva shri-damodaram ishvaram, damodarasöaka-vyakhya-dig esha darshyate ‘dhuna. tatragre kim api prarthayitum adau tasya tattva-rupa-lila-gunadi-vishesham gokula-prakaöita-nija-bhagavatta-sara-sarvvasva-bhutam varnayan bhaktyadau namas-karoti namamiti. tac ca mangalartham sarvva-karmasu prag eva dasya-visheshena vidhanad adau nirdishtam. kam? ishvaram sarvva-shaktimantam jagad-eka-natham nija-prabhum va. tatradyah pakshah stutyadi-shakty-arthah, dvitiyah parama-vandyatarthah, antyash ca bhakti-vishesheneti dik. katham-bhutam?


Concentrated bliss, sentience, and eternity are the ingredients of His constitution. This characteristic proves the Lord supreme position.xi

Next, Satyavrata establishes the Lord’s supreme position by portraying His extraordinary charm – lasat-kundalam.

His earrings, engaged with Him in eternal childhood pastimes, endlessly play on His cheeks when He flees from his mother, Yashoda. This image captures His splendid visage.

Moreover, the Lord’s relation to every ornament is evoked by the exclusive fortune of these two earrings, who are chosen to kiss His cheeks. Thus another meaning is, “His earrings shine because of His beauty,” which refers to His body’s peculiarity of beautifying even jewels. The Gopis declare in the Tenth Canto (10.29.40): “Birds, cows, trees, and deer are all thrilled when looking at this form, which blesses the three worlds.”


sac-cid-ananda-rupam sac-cid-ananda-ghana-vigraham ity arthah, iti tattva-visheshenotkarsha-vishesha uktah.

saundarya-visheshenotkarsa-vishesham aha, lasanti shrii-yashodabhiya dhavamanat satata-balya-krida-vishesha-paratvad nirantaram lolataya gandayoh kridanti kundale yasya tam; iti shri-mukhe shobha-vishesha uktah. yad va, shri-ganda-cumbana-saubhagyatah kundaloyoh sarva-vibhushaneshu mukhyatvat tabhyam tani sarvany evopalakshyante. tatash ca lasanti shobhamane kundale yasmat tam bhushana-bhushanangam ity arthah. ataevoktam shri-gopibhir dashama-skandhe, “trailokya-saubhagam idan ca nirikshya rupam, yad go-dvija-druma-mrigah pulakany avibhran” iti,


And Uddhava states in the Third Canto (3.2.12): “The Lord is spellbound by the splendor of His own body, which is the ornament of all ornaments.”

Then he proves the Lord’s supreme position through the exceptional qualities of His associates – gokule bhrajamanam.

“He shines in Gokula, the land of the gopis, the gopas, the cows, and the calves.”

By using the verb “shines” Satyavrata Muni indicates that Shri-Krishna further enhances the already wonderful land of Gokula with His presence. Or, he just hints to the natural beauty of the place, where the Lord appears splendid. It is said in the Tenth Canto (10.32.14): …surrounded by Gopis worshipping Him, He displayed all the beauty stored in the three worlds.

He further promotes the Lord’s supreme position by sketching one of His exquisite pastimes in the second line of the stanza – Yashoda-bhiyolukhalad-


“vismapanam svasya ca saubhagardheh, param padam bhushana-bhushanangam” iti. parivara-visheshenotkarsha-vishesham aha, gokule gopa-gopi-go-vatsadi-nivase bhrajamanam, yogya-sthana- visheshe purvato’ py utkarsha-vishesha-prakaöanena gokulasya svabhavika-shobha-visheshena va shobhamanam. tac ca shri-dashama-skandhadau, “cakasa gopi-parishad-gato’rcitas, trailokya-laksmy-ekapadam vapur dadhat” ity adinoktam. Lila-visheshenotkarsha-vishesham aha, yasham deti sardhena.


dhavamanam paramrishöam atyantato-drutya gopya. Shri Krishna, standing on top of a grinding mortar,

was snatching yogurt from a hanging jar.xii Seeing His mother coming, He climbed down the mortar and ran in fear of punishment for the mischief of breaking the earthware.

The Ninth Chapter of Tenth Canto is devoted to the detailed narration of this incident (10.9.8,9):

She cautiously approached Her son, Who was standing on the upside-down mortar. Furtively glancing around, He was feeding yogurt to a monkey from an hanging pot.

Seeing His mother coming towards Him with a stick, He immediately climbed down the mortar and fled as if in fear, but she pursued Him, that same Lord Who cannot be captured even in the unflinching meditation of great yogis.

In the words atyantato drutya, the suffix ‘yap’ is


yashodaya matuh sakashad bhiya dadhi-bhanda-bhedanady-aparadha-krta-bhitya udukhalat shik-sthita-navanita-cauryartham udvartya tale samarudhad udukhalatah dhavamanatvayapasarantam. Ata ca visheshapeksakair dashama-skandha-navamadhyayoktam, “udukhalanghrer upari vyavasthitam / markaya kamam dadatam shici sthitam / haiyangavam caurya-vishankitekshanam / nirikshya pashcat sutam agamac chanaih;” tam atta-yashöim prasamikshya satvaras / tato’ varuhyapasasara bhitavat / gopyanvadhavan na yam api yoginam / kshamam praveshöum tapaseritam manah” ity ady anusandheyam. tatash ca atyantato-drutya vegena


used with the root dru because the word atyantatas is compounded with itxiii.

Yashoda could ran faster, thus she soon caught Him from behind. The words “running fast” educe the special charm of her broad hips and breasts, as well as her intense affection.

The word gopya reminds that this rare fortune belongs to the cowherd-people only and owes to the expression of their love.

The words “she caught Him from behind” also hint to His special affection for her. It is said in Bhagavatam (10.9.10): Although hampered by her broad hips, the graceful mother ran after Him; and flowers dropping from her loosened hair followed her path. Finally, she caught Him from behind.


dhavitva samasaikapadyena yab-adeshah, gopya shri-yashodaya para. amrishöam prishöato dhritam, atra ca atyantato-drutyety anena shri-yashodaya api stana-nitamba-gauravadi-saundaryya-visheshah sneha-visheshash ca sucitah. gopyeti premokti-pari-paöya gopa-jatinam eva tadrisham mahasaubhagyam iti dhvanitam. paramrishöam ity anena tasyam bhagavatah sneha-vishesho dhvanita iti dik. atra ca,  “anvancamana janani brhac-calac-chroni-bharakranta-gatih sumadhyama / javena visramsita-kesha-bandhana-cyuta-prasunanugatih paramrishat” ity artho’ nusandheyah



Text 2


rudantam muhur netra-yugmam mrijantam

karambhoja-yugmena satanka-netram

muhuh shvasa-kampa-tri-rekhanka-kanöha-

sthita-graiva-damodaram bhakti-baddham


rudantam — weeping; muhuh — again and again; netra-yugmam— the two eyes; mrijantam— rubbing; kara-ambhoja-yugmena — with the two lotus hands; satanka-netram — having frightened eyes; muhuh — again and again; shvasa — due to rapid breathing; kampa — trembling; tri-rekha-anka-kanöha — on the neck, marked with three lines like a conch; sthita — placed; graiva — necklace; damodaram — to Damodara; bhakti-baddham — Who is bound by bhakti.


“Having been caught, He was sobbing and rubbing His frightened eyes with His lotus hands. His gasps were shaking the ornaments on His neck, which is marked with three lines like a conch.xiv I bow down to Shri-Damodara, Who can be tied only by bhakti.”



Now Satyavrata Muni refers to the sequel of the pastime, with the words – rudantam… etc.

This is the description given in Bhagavatam(10.9.11):

Yashoda reprehended Krishna, holding His arm. Weeping and glancing at her in fear, He was rubbing His eyes and thus spreading the black kajjalxv on His face.


Seeing the stick in His mother hand He was trying to avoid the impending punishment by weeping and by rubbing His eyes with innocent spontaneity.

Alternatively, with His hands He was wiping the tears suddenly provoked by fear, or He was trying to check the flow of tears.

The words satanka-netram suggest that if His eyes were frightened, His mind was ever more so, or, just that a cowed expression was in His eyes.


tad-anantara-lila-vishesham vadan, “kritagasam tam prarudantam akshini / kashantam anjan- mashini sva-panina / udvikshamanam bhaya-vihvalekshanam haste/ grihitva bhishayanty avagurat” ity artham aha, rudantam iti. matri-haste shashöim drishöva taya tadanam ashankhya bhitatvadi pradarshanena tat-pariharanaya krandantam, ata eva karambhoja-yugmenanetra-yugmam mrijantam yugapan marjayantam, etac ca balya-lila-vishesha-svabhavatah. yad va, bhayaveshena sadyo’ nugacchato’ shruno nishkasanartham, yad va, ashru-dharapasaranartham iti dik. yatah satanke sashanke netre api, kim punar mano yasya tam. yad va, sa-bhaya-nirikshana-netra-yugmam ity arthah.


In either case the Lord was showing fear, trying to escape a likely spanking.

Moreover, His sobbing shook the ornaments such as the string of pearls on His smooth neck which, is marked with three lines like a conch.

Damodara means “having a rope on the abdomen,” as described in Bhagavatam (10.9.14),

“Then she bound Him with a rope to the mortar, as if He were an ordinary child.”

The rope mutually tied his belly and the mortar. This incident again emphasizes Shri-Krishna’s supreme position, but from the perspective of His peculiar dependence on His devotee: being the recipient of His mother’s love, or due to His affection for His mother, He was compelled to let her tie Him up. It wasn’t because of the ropes’s stength: in fact, no matter how many ropes she would join, they were always short by two inches.


tatash ca tadana-pariharanartham idam api lilantaram uhyam. kin ca, muhuh shvasena rodanavesha-kritena kampam kampamanam, tri-rekhanke kambuvad-rekha-traya-cihne kanöhe sthitam graivam graiveyakam sarva-grivabhushanam muktaharadi yasya. dama udare yasya, anena ca “gopikolukhale damna babandha prakrita yatha” ity uktam. damnodare ulukhale cobhayato bandhanam uktam, tad evabhivyanjayan bhakta-vashyata-visheshenotkarsha-vishesham aha, bhaktyaiva matuh sva-vishayakaya tasya va matri-vishayakaya baddham svikrita-bandhanam, na tu pasha-varga-balat, sarvatah samuccitair apy anantaih pashair nyuna-dvy-angulapuranat.


As the Bhagavatam says (10.9.15-17), “While tying her mischievous son she found that the rope was short by two inches, and she looked for another one.

Realizing that this also was too short, she brought more ropes, but still the ropes were two inches too short to make a knot. In this way she collected all the ropes available at home.…”

Alternatively, the Lord wants to teach that only devotion can conquer Him. This meaning, however, culminates in the previous one (He was bound by His mother’s devotion and not by ropes).

The narration continues as follows (10.9.18-21):

“His mother was wet with perspiration and her flower fillet slackened. Seeing her so exerted, He mercifully agreed to be bound. O king Parikshit! Being the Supreme Controller, Shri-Krishna is absolutely independent, but here His dependence on His devotee was disclosed.


tac coktam – “tad dama badhyamanasya /svarbhakasya kritagasah / dvy-angulonam abhut tena / sandadhe’ nyac ca gopika; yad asit tad api nyunam / tenanyad api sandadhe / tad api dvy-angulam nyunam yad yad adatta bandhanam; evam sva-geha-damani / yashoda sandadhaty api” ity adi. yad va, damodaratve hetuh – bhaktyaiva baddham vashi-kritam, tathapi sa evarthah paryavasyati. kin ca–“sva-matuh svinna-gatraya / visrata-kavara-srajah / drishöva parishramam krishnah / kripayasit sva-bandhane; evem sandarshita hy anga / harina bhakta-vashyataxvi / sva-vashenapi krishnena/ yasyedam seshvaram vashe;


Brahma, Shankara, and even Lakshmi, who resides on

the chest of the Lord, cannot win the mercy that Yashoda got from Krishna, the grantor of liberation.

Even ascetics, scholars, and yogis cannot reach Shri-Krishna, the Son of Yashoda, as easily as the devotees.”

Furthermore (10.10.25), (The Lord thought ) “Shri-Narada is My dear devotee. I shall grant to these two sons of Kuvera whatever he promised themxvii.”

Hence Narada’s devotion for the Lord is the true cause behind the pastime of uprooting the Yamalarjuna trees.


nemam virinco‘na bhavo / na shrir apy anga-samsraya, prasadam lebhire gopi yat tat prapa vimukti-dat; nayam sukhapo bhagavan / dehinam gopika-sutah / jnaninan catma-bhutanam / yatha bhaktimatam iha” iti esham arthah, tatha, “devarshir me priyatamo / yad imau dhanadatma-jau / tat tatha sadhayishyami / yad-gitam tan mahatmana” ity ader artho’ pi shri-narada-bhakty-apekshaya yamalarjunadi-tat-tal-lila-rupo’ nena sucitah.



Text 3


itidrik-sva-lilabhir ananda-kunde

sva-ghosham nimajjantam akhyapayantam

tadiyeshita-jneshu bhaktair jitatvam

punah prematas tam shatavritti vande.


iti — thus; idrik-sva-lilabhih — by such activities; ananda-kunde — in a lake of bliss; sva-ghosham — His village; nimajjantam — submerging; akhyapayantam— disclosing; tadiya-ishita-jneshu — to those aware of His glories; bhaktaih jitatvam — Who is conquered by the devotees; punah — again; prematah — out of affection; tam — to Him; shata-avritti — hundred of times; vande — I chant His glories.


By such pastimes He flooded Gokula in a lake of bliss, and He revealed to those in awe for His majesty that devotees can conquer Him. Out of love, I chant His glories hundreds of times.



Now Satyavrata Muni glorifies the Lord’s supreme position through His unique attributesxviii — itidrik-sva-lilabhir…

The conjunction iti means “in this way”. It relates the present verse to the Lord’s dependence on His devotee, mentioned in the previous verse. Therefore the import is that by showing such dependence from His devotee He flooded Gokula in a lake of bliss.

Alternatively, iti relates this verse to the pastime of being bound with a rope; then the meaning would be, “by such charming infancy pastimes he flooded Gokula in a lake of bliss.” This is described in Bhagavatam as follows (10.11.7,8), “Sometimes the Lord, incited by the gopis, would sing loudly and dance at their will like a wooden puppet. Sometimes He would try to carry a wooden seat, wooden sandals, or another weight, (as a test of strength) and (when unable to accomplish the task) He would toss His arms in defeat, at the delight of His kinfolk.”


guna-visheshenotkarsha-vishesham aha – ititi. evam bhakta-vashyataya, yad va ity anaya damodara-lilaya idrishibhish ca damodara-lila-sadrishibhih parama-manoharabhih shaishavibhih svasya svabhir va asadharanibhih lilabhih kridabhih. ‘gopibhih stobhito’ nrityad / bhagavan balavat kvacit / udgayati kvacin mugdhas tad-vasho daru-yantravat; bibharti kvacid ajnaptah / piöhakonmana-padukam, bahu-kshepan ca kurute svanam pritim samudvahat’ ity ady

With such activities He was submerging the residents of Gokula in a deep lake of blissful emotions, as indicated by the words “at the delight of His kinfolk.”

Alternatively, ghosha may also mean “fame” or “proclaiming the glory”. He would Himself plunge in a lake of ecstasy, experiencing the highest bliss upon hearing the glories of His people, the gopis, the gopas etc.

By enacting such pastimes, Shri-Krishna also revealed His dependence on His devotees, to scholars who are absorbed in studying His majestic aspectsxix: “Behold! I’m captivated by the devotees, not by those who pursue the path of knowledge.”xx As shown in Bhagavatam (10.11.9), “The Lord displayed to the savants of this world His submission to His devotee.”


uktabhih sva-ghosham nija-gokula-vasi-prani-jatam sarvam eva ananda-kunde ananda-rasa-maya-gabhira-jalashaya-visheshe nitaram majjantam majjayantam etad evoktam ‘svanam pritim samudvahed’ iti. yad va, ghoshah kirtir mahatmyotkirtanam va, svasya svanam va gopa-gopy-adinam ghosho yatha syat tatha svayam eva ananda-kunde nimajjantam parama-sukha-vishesham anubhavantam ity arthah. kin ca, tabhir eva tadiyeshita-jneshu bhagavad-aishvarya-jnana-pareshu bhaktair jitatvam atmano bhakta-vashyatam akhyapayantam; bhakti-paranam eva vashyo’ ham, na tu jnana-paranam iti prathayantam. anena ca, “darshayams tad-vidam loke / atmano bhakta-vashyatam” ity asya artho darshitah.


He opened this secret to scholars absorbed in studying His godly features; alternatively, He disclosed it to scholars who know well the influence of the Lord’s associates (on Him), and not to others, because the esoteric bhakti and its glories are not to be revealed to sophists who pursue mere erudition and who are ignorant of the devotees’ greatness. Thus in the cited verse (10.11.9) the words tad-vidam refer to those who are aware of the Lord’s bond of affection with His servants.

Satyavrata, then, feels like lauding the Lord unendingly, out of love; this glorification should be interpreted as a spontaneous appreciation, imbued of exclusive devotion: it is not just awe for the Lord’s majestic features.


tasyarthah, tam bhagavantam vidantiti tatha tesham taj-jnana-paranam ity arthah. tan prati darshayann iti. yad va, tadiyanam bhagavatanam prabhavabhijneshu eva, na ca anyeshu akhyapayantam, vaishnava-mahatmya-visheshanabhijneshu kevala-jnana-pareshu bhakter visheshatas tan-mahatmyasya ca parama-gopyatvena prakashanayogyatvat. evan ca ‘tad-vidam’ iti bhrtya-vashyata-vidam ity artho drashöavyah. atah prematah bhakti-visheshena shatavritti yathasyat tatha shata-shata-varan tam ishvaram punar vande. ato bhaktanam avashya-krityam bhakti-prakara-vishesha-rupam vandanam eva mama prarthyah, na tv aishvarya-jnanaditi bhavah.


Text 4


varam deva moksham na mokshavadhim va

na canyam vrine’ ham vareshad apiha

idam te vapur natha gopala-balam

sada me manasy avirastam kim anyaih


varam – boon; deva — O divine Lord; moksham — liberation; na — not; moksha-avadhim — the highest level of liberation; va — or; na ca — nor; anyam — other; vrine — chose; aham — I; vara-ishad — from You, the grantor of any possible boon; api — even; iha — here; idam — this; te — your; vapuh — form; natha — O Lord; gopala-balam — as a cowherd child; sada — always; me — my; manasi — in the mind; avirastam — may enter; kim — of what avail; anyaih — other (boons).


“O divine Lord! Although You are competent to grant any boon, now I don’t cherish liberation, nor life in Vaikunöha, nor any other privilege. O Lord! Be always present in my mind as Bala-gopala in Vrindavana. What will then be the value of any other blessing?”



After glorifying the Lord’s supreme position, Satyavrata Rishi formulates his prayer in two verses, beginning with – varam deva moksham na mokshavadhim va na canya vrine ’ham vareshad apiha.

The import of the direct address deva is “O Supremely Brilliant,” or “O hero of sweet pastimes.”

“Although You could grant any boon, I’m not entertaining the fourth goal of human life, liberation,xxi even in its topmost expressionxxii —a place in the spiritual world, where the ultimate happiness is experienced—and I’m not hankering for other (anya) achievements such as the nine-fold practice of bhakti.”

Alternatively, the word anya indicates “that which is desirable by others,” or whatever else could be coveted here (iha) in Vrindavana.

The word iha is related to the second half of the stanza too.

The intention is to show the comparative value of


evam utkarsha-vishesha-varnanena stutva prarthayate – varam iti dvabhyam. deva, he parama-dyotamana! he madhura-krida-vishesha-pareti va. vareshad sakala-vara-pradana-samarthad api tvattah moksham caturtha- purushartham mokshasyavadhim va parama-kashöha-rupam ghana-sukha-visheshatmakam shri-vaikunöha-lokam, anyan ca shravanadi-bhakti-prakaram aham varam prarthyam, yad va, anyair varaniyam api, yad va, varataya iha vrindavane na vrine. ihety asya parenapi sambandhah,


the three mentioned goals: eternal life in the spiritual planets is superior to liberation, as expounded in Brihad-bhagavatamritam, second part;xxiii the nine-fold bhakti, shravanam, kirtanam, and so on, is in turn a higher achievement than the spiritual realm. Statements such as (3.15.49), “let us take birth even in infernal formsxxiv (provided we remember Your lotus feet),” prove that the absorption in shravanam, kirtanam, etc., is more desirable than life in Vaikunöha, because the spiritual world is everywhere when such absorption is present.

Shri-Krishna may ask, ‘ Then which boon do you chose?’

He replies—idan te vapur natha gopala-balam sada me manasy avirastam.

“O Lord! Please, enter my mind forever with the Bala-gopala form of these Vrindavana pastimes. Although You are already present in my heart as the Supersoul, let Your form be manifested in my meditation in its full-fledged beauty.”


atra ca mokshadi-trayasya yathottara-shreshöhyam uhyam. tatra mokshad vaikunöha-lokasya shreshöhyam, shri-bhagavatamritottara-khande vyaktam evasti. vaikunöha-lokat shravanadi-prakarasya ca shreshöhyam, “kamam bhavah sva-vrijanair nirayeshu nah syat” ity adi-vacanatah shravanadi-siddhya narakadishv api yatra tatra sarvatraiva vaikunöha-vasa-siddher iti dik. tarhi kim vrinushe? tadaha – he natha! iha vrindavane idam varnitam gopala-bala-rupam te vapuh sada me manasy avirastam. antaryamitvadina sthitam api sakshad iva sarvanga-saundaryadi-prakashanena prakaöam bhuyat.


The Lord may insist, “Liberation, residence in

Vaikunöha, and nine-fold bhakti are also extremely useful, why don’t you accept those, too?’

Hence he declares – kim anyaih.

“What is the value of other boons? I do not need other privileges such as liberation. Your presence is the perfection and it implies every possible pleasure.xxv On the other hand, in this Bala-gopala form You are so wonderful that to obtain something as insignificant as liberation without seeing You would just cause deep regret.”

Or, the Lord may say, “You are right, salvation should be rejected. Why then, don’t you choose to see Me in one of My perfect four-handed figures? You could contemplate Me, converse with Me, and so forth.”

He replies, “What would then be the value of other blessings? I am entirely devoted to this splendid form, and I cannot relate to anything else.”


nanu mokshadayo’ pi paramopadeyas, tan api vrinu, tatraha – kim anyair iti. anyair mokshadibhir mama prayojanam nastityarthah, tasya sarvananda-kadambatmakatvat tat-siddhyaiva sarva-siddheh. tatha tad-alabhe nijepsitasiddhyavisheshetash ca tuccha-labhena shoka-visheshotpadanad anyair api kim iti bhavah. yad va, nanu mokshadayo na vriyantam nama, paramapekshyani madiya-shri-catur-bhujadi-murti-darshana-sambhashanadini vriyatam, tatraha – kim anyair iti. citte tad etac chrimad-vapuh sada sphurtav eva mamatyanta-pritir nanyatreti bhavah.


The glories of contemplating the Lord within the

heart are described extensively by Sage Pippalayana in the second part of the chapter called Tapo-loka of Brhad-bhagavatamritam.

The desire expressed in this verse is so sublime that it turns this prayer into a glorification. This applies to the next verses too.


antardarshana-mahatmyan ca shri- bhagavatamritottara-khande tapo-loke shri-pippalayanena vivrityoktam asti. evam tasya prarthanapi stutav eva paryavasyati, tasyaiva sarvotrishöatvena prarthanat, evam agre’ pi.


Text 5


idam te mukhambhojam atyanta-nilair

vritam kuntalaih snigdha-raktaish ca gopya

muhush cumbitam bimba-raktadharam me

manasy avirastam alam laksha-labhaih


idam—this; te—your; mukha-ambhojam—lotus face; atyanta-nilaih—deep blue; vritam—encircled; kuntalaih— by hair locks; snigdha-raktaih—red-hued and glossy; ca—and; gopya—by the gopi (Yashoda); muhuh—again and again; cumbitam—kissed; bimba-rakta-adharam—having lips red like a bimba fruit; me—my; manasi—in the mind; avirastam—may it enter; alam—no use of; laksha-labhaih—hundred thousands boons.


Your lotus face is framed in dark, crimson-hued curls, and decorated by lips as red as a bimba fruit. May this visage, kissed again and again by mother Yashoda, always be manifested in my mind. Then to what avail will millions of boons be?”



Thinking “I am particularly eager to see Your enchanting face,” Satyavrata Muni keeps praying—idam te…etc.

Although the beauty of his meditative vision is such that it cannot be phrased, he tries to indicate what he experienced with a metaphor, “Your countenance is a blooming lotus which extinguishes every affliction with the nectar of supreme bliss. May it be present in my mind, again and again. This fully blown lotus is encircled by your dark-blue, glossy, and red-hued curls, which are like bumble-bees humming around a corolla.”

The word gopi refers to Yashoda or to Radha. The adverb muhuh is related to the past participle cumbitam and the verb avirastam.xxvi The meaning is, “May His lotus face, kissed again and again by Yashoda, enter my mind again and again.”


tatra ca tava shri-mukham parama-manoharam visheshena didrikshe, ity aha – idam iti. kadacid dhyane’ nubhuyamanam anirvacaniya-saundaryadikam, tad eva nirdishati – mukham evambhojam praphulla-kamalakaratvam nikhila-santapa-haritva-paramananda-rasavattvadina, tan me manasi muhur avirastam. katham bhutam? atyanta-nilaih parama-shyamalaih snigdhaish ca raktaish ca kuntalaih keshair alakair va vritam kamalam bhramarair ivopari veshöitam. gopya shri-yashodaya shri-radhaya va cumbitam, muhur ity asyatrapi sambandhah.


Alternatively, if we stick to the sequence of the

words, muhuh is in syntactical relation with cumbitam only; and the meaning is the following: “She is blessed with rare fortune, hence she can kiss Him again and again; may this lotus face enter my mind at least once.”

Or again, the word sada could be dragged from the previous verse, reinforcing the sense in this way: “May this lotus face, kissed again and again (muhuh) by Yashoda, always (sada) enter in my mind.”

The compound bimba-raktadharam, “Having lips as red as a bimba fruit,” is used as an adjective for mukham (face).

“Therefore hundred-thousands of other boons are just insignificant.” Here the word laksha, hundreds of thousands, denotes “every possible” and not a fixed number.


yad va, paöha-kramad atraiva sambandhah, tatash ca taya maha-dhanyaya muhush cumbitam api mama manasi sakrid apy avirastam ity arthah. yad va, sadeti purva-gatasyatrapy artha-balad anvaya eva syat. bimbavad-raktau adharau yasmin tat. tatash ca laksha-labhaih anyair laksha-sankhyair labdhair api prayojanam nastity arthah. nikhilartham evaitat.



Text 6


namo deva damodarananta vishno

prasida prabho duhkha-jalabdhi-magnam

kripa-drishöi-vrishöyati-dinam batanu-

grihanesha mam ajnam edhy akshi-drishyah


namah—I bow down to You; deva—O divine one; damodara—O Damodara; ananta—O unlimited one; vishno—O omnipresent one; prasida —be gracious; prabho—O omnipotent one; duhkha-jala-abdhi-magnam—I am drowning in an ocean of sorrow; kripa-drishöi-vrishöya—with a shower of Your merciful glances; ati-dinam—extremely miserable; anugrihana—bless me; isha—O supremely independent; mam—me; ajnam—ignorant; edhi—appear; akshi-drisyah—before my eyes.


I bow down to You, O my Lord. You are affectionate, merciful, omnipotent, independent, and omnipresent. Please, show me Your grace. I am drowning in an ocean of distress, and I am helplessly ignorant. Please, revive me with Your merciful glance. Appear before me in Your divine form.



In a sudden wave of love aroused by the glorification, he now hopes to see the Lord directly.xxvii Aware that the chanting of Shri-Krishna’s names is the supreme resort in this circumstances, he prays with humility –  namo deva damodarananta vishno, prabho prasida!

“Obeisances to You.” “To You” is not used explicitly because of awe and fear, or because of the agitation provoked by love. After bowing down, he entreats: “O My Lord! Concede me Your grace.”

Expressing his need, he says—duhkha-jalabdhi-magnam atidinam ajnam mam,

“I am drowning in the perpetual ocean of births and deaths,” or, “I’m afflicted by the pangs of separation from Your vision,” and, “I feel utterly miserable.

Alternatively, “I am absolutely helpless, uncapable of finding remedy.” Or again, “I am about to die,” or, “I am as good as dead.”


evam stuti-prabhavat sadyah samuditena prema-visheshena sakshad didrikshamanas tatra caikam nama-sankirtanam eva parama-sadhanam manyamanas tathaiva sa-kataryam prarthayate – nama iti. tubhyam ity adhyaharyam eva, tac ca bhaya-gauravadina prema-vaikalyena va sakshan na prayuktam. He prabho! He mad-ishvara! Prasida. Prasadam aha – duhkham samsarikam tad-darshana-jam va, tasya jalam parampara, tad evabdhih anantyadina, tasmin magnam mam, ataeva ati-dinam paramartam, yad va, tatra sat-sahaya-sadhanadi-hinatvat paramakincana, yad va mumurshum jivan-mritam va,


Furthermore, “I am utterly ignorant thence unable to find any solution.”

Next, he defines the grace he expects—kripa-drishöi-vrishöya anugrihana.

“Please, look at me with mercy, again and again,” or “shower upon me the nectar of Your merciful glance. Revive me.”

Finally he clearly asserts his desire—edhy akshi-drishyah. “Please, appear before me.”

He expresses his plea only gradually, because this last request is so lofty that it would be improper to mention it abruptly .

Shri-Krishna’s direct vision is superior to His meditative vision, as elucidated with full logic by the Lord’s associates in the second part of Shri-Brhad-bhagavatamritam.


tatra cajnam tat-pratikarady anabhijnam, kripaya drishöi-nirikshanam, tasya vrishöya paramparaya, kripa-drishöi-rupamrita-vrishtya va, anugrihana, samuddhritya jivayety arthah. tad evabhivyanjayati – akshi-drishyo mal-locana-gocara edhi bhava. evam prarthana-kramena prarthanam kritam, prarthyasya parama-daurlabhyena, sahasa prag eva nirdeshanarhatvat. antar-darshanat sakshad-darshana-mahatmyan ca shri-bhagavat-parshadaih sa-nyayam uktam, shri-bhagavatamritottara-khandatah visheshato jneyam.


Then he further justifies his aspiration by using a series of direct addresses.

“O Deva!”

“You have a divine form, hence I desire to see You.”

“O Damodara!”

“Because of Your special affection for the devotees You will certainly appear.”

“O Ananta!”

“You bestow unlimited merciful glances.”

“O Prabho!”

“You are endowed with limitless, inconceivable, amazing, and great, powers.xxviii Thus, even if not perceivable with mundane senses, You can appear to me.”

“O Isha!”

“You are supremely independent.”

Since His mercy can be directed even to the unfit (according to His will), this independence should be understood to be absolutely causeless.xxix.

“O Vishno!”

“You are all-pervasive,” or “You are expert in entering groves and caves in Vrindavana,” consequently “You can as well appear before me without great effort.”


tatra deva he divya-rupeti didrikshayam hetuh, damodareti bhakta-vatsalya-visheshenakshi-darshana-yogyatayam. ato nanto yasmad ity ananteti kripa-drishöy-anugrahena. prabho! he acintyanantadbhuta-maha-shakti-yukteti indriyagrahyasyapy akshi-drishyata-sambhavanayam. isha! he parama-svatantreti ayogyam prati tadrishanugraha-karane kasyacid apy anapekshatayam jneyam. kin ca, vishno, he sarva-vyapaka! yad va, he shri-vrindavana-nikunja-kuharadi-pravesha-shila, iti cakshi-drishyatartham duragamana-shramadikam nastiti.


Alternatively, “You are undivided, (ananta), and

all-pervasive, (Vishnu). However, O Damodara, the affectionate exchange with Your devotees is above such limitsxxx.”

The rest of the verse is to be understood as explained above.


athava he ananta, aparicchinna! Vishno sarva-vyapin! Tathapi he damodarety evam parama-vatsalya-visheshena tavakritam kim api nastiti dhvanitam. Anyat samanam ity esha dik.


Text 7


kuveratmajau baddha-murtyaiva yadvat

tvaya mocitau bhakti-bhajau kritau ca

tatha prema-bhaktim svakam me prayaccha

na mokshe graho me’ sti damodareha


kuvera-atmajau—the two sons of Kuvera; baddha-murtya—when Your body was bound (to the mortar); yadvat—just like; tvaya—by You; mocitau—liberated; bhakti-bhajau—recipients for bhakti; kritau—made; tatha—likewise; prema-bhaktim—the highest level of devotion; svakam—Your; me—to me; prayaccha—grant; na—not; mokshe—in liberation; grahah—aspiration; me—my; asti—there is; damodara—O Damodara; iha— in prema-bhakti only.


O Damodara! While tied to the mortar, You redeemed the two sons of Kuvera and granted them bhakti. Similarly, bestow also on me Your prema-bhakti. But I shall not accept liberation.



After praying for a direct vision with intense devotion and ardent expectation, Satyavrata Rishi is now stirred by devotional emotions, and he realizes that the Lord is achieved only by few, and only by loving devotion. Thus he recites this verse—kuveratmajau…”

Alternatively, these are his thoughts, “My heart will not find solace in a single vision and the anguish of separation will follow. Only by loving devotion I may have Him forever. But I am a great offender; how can this possibly happen to me?”

Still, certain that the Lord’s affection is so glorious that it fulfils even the impossible, he asks for loving devotion discarding liberation—kuveratmajau….

While bound with ropes to the mortar, Shri Krishna dragged it, entering between the two Yamala trees

(the mortar was stuck, and He uprooted the trees by pulling).


ittham prema-visheshena paramotkanöhya saha sakshad-darshanam prarthya tata eva sadyo-jata-prema-bhakti-visheshena tasya parama-daurlabhyam manyamanas tatra ca paramopaya-bhutam prema-bhaktim abhijnaya, yad va, sakrid-darshane mano’ tripti viraha-duhkhottaratam cashankhya sada tad-vashi-karanaya prema-bhaktim evaikam upayam abhijnaya; atra ca paramaparadhino mama katham sa sambhaved ity ashankhya shri-bhagavad-vatsalya-mahimna casambhavyam api sarvam eva sambhaved iti nishcitya moksha-tyagena prema-bhaktim eva prarthayate – kuvereti. baddhaya gopya pashair udukhale shrinkhalitaya murtya shri-vigrahenaiveti tayor madhye svayam praveshat


This feat of the Lord, Who is distinguished by such exquisite pastimes, evokes His direct manifestation and His bodily contact.

The sons of Kuvera were thus delivered from the curse of Shri Narada and from the cycle of births and deaths. Not only that: they obtained supreme devotion as well. Therefore he says—bhakti-bhajau kritau ca.

“Bhakti, the ultimate perfection, had always been their shelter.” This indicates that, indeed, prema-bhakti was granted to them.xxxi

As the Lord Himself said(10.10.42), “The sublime feeling that you desired has risen in you and your material sufferings are gone forever.”

The meaning is—“You longed for the topmost sentiment, prema, and this sentiment was duly aroused in your heart. Thereafter your births and deaths, and with them any material suffering, are gone for good.”


parama-sundara-liladi-vishishöasya bhagavatah sakshad-darshana-sparshanadikam sucitam mocitau shri-narada-shapat samsarac ca. na kevalam tavad eva, parama-bhaktish ca tabhyam dattety aha – bhaktim bhajatah parama-sadhyatvenashrayatah, na kathancid api tyajata iti tatha tau. evan ca prema-bhaktir eva dattety abhipretam. atha ca shri-bhagavad-vacanam – “sanjato mayi bhavo vam ipsitah paramo” bhavah’ iti. asyarthah, vam yuvayor ipsito’ pekshitah paramo bhavah prema mayi samyag jata eva, na bhavah punar janma samsara-duhkham va yasmat sa iti.


Having cited their example, Satyavrata prays—tatha prema-bhaktim svakam me prayaccha, “O Damodara, in the same way, give me the exclusive shelter of Your lotus feet,” or “invest me with the devotion by which You become the exclusive focus in one’s life.”

The Lord may suggest, “Why do you neglect liberation? You can accept it along with devotion, as the two sons of Kuvera did; otherwise you will still have the problem of births and deaths.”

Preventing such a proposal, he states, na mokshe graho me’sti.

“I’m longing for devotion, not for liberation.”

If births and deaths cease upon achieving devotion, let it be, and if they don’t, it is still fine with me. This is certainly not my preoccupation.

The esoteric meaning is: the owner of a cintamanixxxii gem knows that everything he may ever need is included in the gem. Why shall he covet anything else separately?


he damodara! tatha tadvat svakam tvac-caranaravindaikashrayam etad-rupaika-vishayam va me mahyam prakarshena yaccha dehi. nanu kim atragrahena? kuveratmajavan moksho’pi grihyatam anyatha janma-maranadi-samsarapatteh. tatraha – neti. iha asyam prema-bhaktav eva mama graha agraho’ sti, na ca mokshe graho’ sti. ayam arthah, prema-bhaktya samsara-dhvamso bhavati cet tarhi bhavatu nama, na syac cet tarhi mastu nama, tatra mamapeksho nastiti. atra gudho’ yam bhavah, cintamanau kara-sthe sarvam eva svayam setsyati, kin tad eka-matra-tuccha-


Another meaning is —upon hearing , “O Damodara, give me Your supreme devotion,” the Lord may grow suspicious—“I am tied to this mortar…. Does he want to keep Me bound forever?”

Therefore, with the words na mokshe graho me’sti’. Satyavrata protests, “Isn’t it my urgency to free You from those ropes?” And the tone of his voice makes it clear that he will certainly unfasten Him. “But please, bestow on me the unique loving devotion for this very form of Yours.”

Or, the sense can be, “Please, give me devotion here in Vrindavana.” In order to witness the Lord’s pastimes, he craves to reside eternally in Vrindavana where devotion permeated with bliss, appears unparalleled and where this exclusive manifestation of Shri Krishna can be directly experienced. The rest of the meaning is as before.


dravya-grahaneneti. yad va, ‘he damodara, svakam prema-bhaktim prayaccha’ ity evam pasha-baddhodara-bhagavad-vishayaka-prema-bhakti-prarthanaya nityam udare pasha-bandhanagraham ashankhyaha, mokshe pasha-bandhanat tava mocane mamagraho nasti kim? kakva asty evety arthah. kintu iha asminn eva rupe svakam asadharanam prema-bhaktim prayaccheti. yad va, iha vrindavane prema-bhaktim prayacchety anvayah. tatash ca tatraiva tasyah sukha-visheshavirbhavakatvat pradurbhava-visheshac ca, tatha tasya sakshad-darshana-visheshakaratvac ca, tatha tatraiva tad-vihari-shri-bhagavad-didriksha-visheshac ca, tatra sada nivaso’ pi prarthita ity uhyam. anyac ca purvavad eva.


Text 8


namas te’ stu damne sphurad-dipti-dhamne

tvadiyodarayatha vishvasya dhamne

namo radhikayai tvadiya-priyayai

namo’ nanta-lilaya devaya tubhyam


namah—obeisances; te—Your; astu—let there be; damne—to the rope; sphurad-dipti-dhamne—the abode of blazing light; tvadiya-udaraya—to Your belly; atha—also; vishvasya—of the universe; dhamne—the substratum; namah—obeisances; radhikayai—to Shri Radhika; tvadiya-priyayai—who is Your beloved; namah—obeisances; ananta-lilaya—performer of eternal pastimes; devaya—divine; tubhyam—to You.


My respects to this great rope, reservoir of dazzling effulgence, and to Your belly, which contains the entire cosmos.

Obeisances to Your beloved Shrimati Radhika.

O Lord! I bow down to You, the transcendental hero of these divine and eternal pastimes.”



Concluding this glorification, Satyavrata Rishi pays homages to the Lord’s extraordinary bodily features, retinue, intimates, etc., one by one. Hoping to fulfil his ambition, or out of devotion, he says—namas te’stu damne sphurad-dipti-dhamne.

“I bow down to this magnificent rope, source of dazzling light, which binds Your belly.”

This image evokes the quintessence of Brahman, which is inherent in the Lord and in the rope which surrounds Him.

Then he continues—atha tvadiyodaraya vishvasya dhamne.

“Thereafter I bow down to Your belly; by being tied in these exceptional circumstances it displays the beauty and the tenderness of these infancy pastimes.”


evam stutim samapayan sva-prarthita-siddhaye bhakti-visheshena va tadiyasadharana-parikaravayava-parivaradin api pratyekam prithak pranamati – namas te’ stv iti. te tava damne udara-bandhana-maha-pashaya namo’ stu. katham bhutaya? sphurantya diptes tejaso dhamne ashrayaya, evam tasyapi brahma-ghana-rupatabhipreta. athanantaram tvadiyaya udaraya namo’ stu, pasha-bandhena tenaiva saundaryader vatsalyader balya-liladesh ca visheshatah prakashanat.


How is this belly? “It is the substratum of the whole universe.”

It includes the manifestation of all moving and non-moving objects: the lotus containing all the fourteen planetary systems springs up from this very abdomen. This evokes the Universal Form which was shown twice to Mother Yashoda. In fact, by fastening Krishna’s belly, Yashoda subdued not only Krishna, but also the entire universe contained in it. The Lord displayed His exclusive affection for His devotee by allowing her to tie Him, although it is otherwise impossible to bind the unlimited Lord. The inconceivable feat of fitting the contraction of the whole universe within the ties educes His mind-boggling potency.

The reason of offering respects first to the rope and then to the belly is the position of the rope over the tied abdomen, or the intention to express the superior status of the belly.


katham bhutaya? vishvasya caracara-prapanca-jatasya dhamne adharaya, tata eva caturdasha-bhuvanatmaka-kamalotpatteh tatraiva ca mataram prati vara-dvayam vishva-rupa-pradarshanad iti dik. evam udara-bandhanena vishvasyapi bandhanapatteh shri-yashodaya vishvam api vashi-kritam iti dhvanitam. tatha ishasya bandhanasambhave’ pi bandhana-svikarena bhakta-vatsalya-visheshas tatha bandhanena prapancasankocavasthityadi-samaveshya tarkagocaratvad aishvarya-visheshash ca dhvanita iti dik. dama-namaskaranantaram udara-namaskarash codaropari damno vartamanatvat yathottaram utkarsha-vivakshaya va.


Now he offers obedience to Shri Bhagavati, Shri-Radha, knowing that by the mercy of the most dear associate of the Lord every desire, albeit unrealistic,

may be fulfilled—namo radhikayai tvadiya-priyayai.

By mentioning her name he refers to all the other cowherd girls as well, although she is named alone because of her prominence.xxxiii

Her appellation, Radhika, reflects her character: she ceaselessly worships (aradhana) the Lord. Consequently she is very dear to Him.

Alternatively, Radhika may be taken as her proper name, as opposed to the above said etymological sense.xxxiv In this case Her name is not the result of a particular worship and her status doesn’t have external causes. She is eternally the Lord’s beloved.

With the words tvadiya-priyayai he expresses her greatness—“I bow down to her because she cares for all Your associates,xxxv due to the intensity of her devotion for You—what to speak of how much she cares for You!”

Such is the level of her loving devotion.


idanim tadiya- priyatama-jana-kripayaiva vanchatitam api sarvam eva susidhyed ity ashayena bhagavatim shri-radham pranamati – nama iti. taya ca sarva eva gopika upalakshyante, kim va tasu mukhyata-matra saivaikokta. shri-radhiketi – sarvadaiva shri-bhagavad-aradhana-visheshad-anvartha-samjna, ata eva tvadiya-priyeti. yad va, radhiketi rudhi-samjna. tatash caradhananapekshaya sa nitya-priyaiveti. tatra ca tvadiya api sarve janah priyas tvat-pritya yasyah, kimuta vaktavyam tvam iti. evam tasyas tasmin prema-visheshah sucitah.


Alternatively, “Your dear ones ought to be

universally worshipped. She is Your beloved, therefore I bow down to her.”

Then, wishing to close with a supreme glorification of Radha and Krishna’s pastimes, such as the Rasa-lila, but to keep it confidential at the same time, he concludes with this small gesturexxxvi, as for the maxim “a meal should terminate with sweets”—namo’nanta-lilaya devaya tubhyam.

If devaya is in apposition with ananta-lilaya, the sense is, “I bow down to the Divine One, Whose pastimes are also divine.” Otherwise the meaning is, “You are absorbed in eternal pastimes with Shri-Radhika, therefore I bow down to You.”

“Having thus indicated the whole Gokula pastime, I bow down to it.”

This is the orientation of the purport.


tasyai namah yad va, tvat-priyayai iti. tatash ca, yasya tvam priyo’ si, so’ pi jagad-vandyah syat. esha ca tavaiva priya, atas tasyai namo’ stu. tatash ca taya saha rasa-kridadikam parama-stutitvenante varnayitum icchan tac ca parama-gopyatvenanabhivyanjayan ‘madhurena samapayet’ iti nyayena kincid eva sanketenoddishan pranamati, devaya lokottarayeti, lilanam api lokottarabhipreta. yad va, shri-radhikaya saha nirantara-krida-paraya, ataeva anantara-lilaya tubhyam nama iti. evam gokula-vishayika sarvapi liloddishöa, tasyai ca nama iti bhava ity esha dik.