|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Sanatana Goswami > Damodarashtakam > Introduction By HH Bhakti-Prajnana Kesava Maharaja|
By HH Bhakti-Prajnana Kesava Maharaja
“One or Two Topics about Shri Shri Damodarastaka”
Shri Krishna-candra, Who is achintyananta-saktiman bhagavan - the Supreme Personality of Godhead and potent source of inconceivably limitless energies - allowed Mata Yasoda to bind Him with ropes to a wooden grinding mortar. By this pastime, He fully tasted the essence of her visuddha-vatsalya-prema-rasa, the totally pure spiritual mellows of her parental love. He also thereby revealed to the world the highest characteristics of His quality of bhaktadhinata, or willingness to subject Himself to the dominance of the devotee. This supremely enchanting dama-bandhana-lila was manifested on the day of Karttika-sukla pratipada - the day after the dark moon day in the month of Karttika. This is also the primary reason for the perfectly glorious month of Karttika becoming famous by the name of Damodara. Acharyapada Shri Gopala Bhatta Gosvami, the author of the Vaishnava smrti-sastra names Shri Hari-bhakti-vilasa, has outlined the devotional activities to be carried out during the month of Karttika. He indicates that the rule to be followed every day is the worship of Shri Shri Radha-Damodara and the recitation of the stotra named Shri Damodarastaka, thus (H.b.v. 16.95-96):
“O learned Vipras! If one worships the deity of Shri Radhika during the month of Karttika for the purpose of Her pleasure, then Damodara Hari becomes very satisfied. One who worships Lord Damodara by daily reciting the prayer known as Damodarastaka, which was spoken by the sage Satyavrata, verily attracts Damodara Himself.”
This stotra names Shri Damodarastaka is found in the Padma-purana, being spoken by Shri Satyavrata Muni during a conversation with Shri Narada, Saunaka and other sages. Shrila Sanatana Gosvamipada states in his commentary on this prayer that it is nitya-siddha (an eternally perfect prayer) that it was manifested through Shri Satyavrata Muni, and that it is actually capable of attracting Shri Damodara-Krishna. He has fully elaborated on this prayer's ability to attract Lord Damodara in his exhaustive purports, which are abounding with his own personal realisations.
For a long time, I have been contemplating a desire to publish this exposition of Damodarastaka. Especially, since upon the observance of the Damodara-vrata every year during the month of Karttika, all of us get together and sing the kirtana of Damodarastaka with united voices, at such time, this prayer is manifest in all the devotees' hearts, thereby stimulating the arising of strong desires for explanation of the verses. Many bhakta-sadhakas have specifically requested me to translate this information for them. Finally, after so many days we have published the eight Sanskrit mula-slokas of Damodarastaka along with a Sanskrit anvaya (word for word synonyms), and Shrila Sanatana Gosvamipada's Sanskrit tika named Dig-Darsini. For the benefit of readers who do not know Sanskrit, we have also included Bengali translations of the mula-slokas and Shrila Sanatana Gosvami's commentary.
In the present age many so-called intellectuals, who are provoked and irritated by Kali-yuga's degradation, cast an extremely contemptuous glance upon the usage of the Sanskrit language. In spite of this, I have still published this book on Damodarastaka out of a desire for the benefit of people living in all lands. It is good if the literary scholars of the Bengali language would keep in mind that, above all else, our development of Bengali is wholly dependent on its derivation from the Sanskrit language. It is inevitable that the advancement of Bengali proceeds side-by-side with the advancement of Sanskrit literatures. Those who attempt to develop Bengali by jumping over Sanskrit literatures end up thoroughly steeped in gross error. We have taken note of the language produced by scholars of this type - it is disorderly and haphazard in all ways. Bengali is always subordinate to and dependent on Sanskrit; namely, it is not that Bengali is an independent language and Sanskrit is completely different. The fact is that Bengali is paratantra (totally dependent) and Sanskrit is svatantra (totally independent). Keeping this precept in mind, we have placed this book before the assembly of learned sages.
This astaka written by Shrila Vyasadeva is an ideal specimen amongst the world of literature due to its philosophical conclusions, its expertise of composition, and its astonishing excellence in revealing the essence of the Lord's lila. By composing his tika named Dig-Darsini with such clear and elaborate details, Jagad-guru Shrila Sanatana Gosvamipada has fully explained the comparative differences of various mellows within the kingdom of sadhana. By that he has proven in all respects the superiority of the vatsalya-rasa and madhura-rasa.
Sahajiyas Unfit to Taste Rasa-lila
Regarding the impropriety of discussing Shri Shri Radha-Krishna's rasa-lila indiscriminately here and there, in this way or that, as practiced by the prakrta-sahajiyas - Gosvamipada has discreetly stated the following at the end of his eight purport:
“And finally, at the conclusion of the prayer, the author desires to describe the supreme superexcellence of the rasa-lila and other transcendental pastimes that Lord Shri Krishna performs with Shri Radhika, but since these are the topmost of confidential topics, they are not mentioned directly. The logic of madhurena-samapayet - 'all undertakings should be completed sweetly' - applies here. Therefore such confidential pastimes are referred to by a mere hint only, as they are offered obeisances in the words namo nanta-lilaya (my obeisances unto Your limitless pastimes).”
Because the sahajiyas are unfit to taste the rasa-lila, it is not possible to count them amongst the exalted worthy devotees. All we know is - bhakti is transcendental to the three worlds. It cannot be brought into the realm of analysis or discussion that is confirmed to the three worlds. They think that matter can somehow become cit (spiritually conscious), and that by the power of one's sadhana it is possible to see Bhagavan with one's physical eyes -this is the opinion of the prakrta-sahajiyas. They say that just as bell-metal turns into gold when mercury is added to it, similarly the material body (prakrta) becomes transcendental (aprakrta) by the power of performing bhajana. They say that at such a time, one obtains the darsana of Bhagavan with one's eyes. Shrila Sanatana Gosvami has thoroughly refuted these claims of the prakrta-sahajiyas in his book named Brhad Bhagavatamrta, as well as in his commentary of Shri Damodarastaka named Dig-Darsini
Manasa-darsana O Pratyaksa-darsana
Vision of the Lord in the Mind
Vision of the Lord with the Eyes
In regard to these topics, it is necessary to seriously study Sanatana Gosvami's commentaries to the fourth and sixth verses of Damodarastaka. Upon reviewing his discernment of these two verses, the prakrta-sahajiyas think that Gosvamipada is primarily describing darsana with the eyes which is dependent on manasa-dhyana-darsana (seeing Him within the mind's meditation). But the specific aim of the discussion is this - (in Brhad Bhagavatamrta) Gosvamipada eventually does establish the superiority of Gopa-Kumara's darsana with the eyes, which is dependent on the darsana that arises from meditation on brahma. In this, Gosvamipada does not verify Gopa-Kumara's darsana with the material eyes. It is described that only after Gopa-Kumara became situated in the transcendental planets of the spiritual world (Vaikuntha), did he have the Lord's darsana with his eyes. The material senses cannot have any position in the transcendental realm of Vaikuntha. Therefore the direct perception of proximity to the Lord felt by the gopas and gopis is in all ways aprakrta (transcendental) and atindriya (beyond the range of the senses). Beholding Him is not an affair that is directly perceivable by the mundane senses of the prakrta-sahajiyas.
The Observance of Karttika-vrata
Previously I have mentioned that Shri Shri Damodarastaka is to be sung and studied during the observance of Urjja-vrata, also called Karttika-vrata or Damodara-vrata. Those who desire to please Lord Damodara during the month of Damodara must certainly read this Damodarastaka book every day in its entirety. This is the specific recommendation of Shri Hari-bhakti-vilasa. The different ways of observing the Damodara-vrata are indicated in the sastras. The Urjja-vrata comes in the middle of Catur-masya-vrata. This period begins from either the ekadashi, the dvadasi or the purnima (full moon), and ends on the corresponding ekadashi, dvadasi or purnima. But these dates should not be observed if they touch (overlap after sunrise) in any way. Sanatana Gosvami says - if the dates (tithi) of a Vaishnava-vrata do not touch each other, then they are observed. Therefore on the days of the commencement and conclusion of Caturmasya-vrata and Urjja-vrata, one should observe the tithis only if they do not overlap each other. The definitive opinion of Hari-bhakti-vilasa is that the tithis should not touch after sunrise to begin the Caturmasya-vrata and the Urjja-vrata.
I would like to quote from a small article written by our Shrila Thakura Bhaktivinoda on the topic of Karttika-vrata. In this article, he has clearly ascertained the days on which the conclusion of the vrata is observed. The rule is - devotees who begin their vrata on the ekadashi day also conclude it on the last ekadashi. Similarly, those who begin on the dvadasi or the purnima also end on their corresponding days. Bhaktivinoda's article states:
The observance of the Karttika-vrata is one of the most important things for the Vaishnavas.
In accordance with these words, the vrata therefore begins on the waxing ekadashi that comes the day after Vijaya-dasami in the month of Asvina. And the vrata will be concluded on Utthana-ekadashi. That vrata which is observed during the month between these two dates is called niyama-seva. The rules of niyama-seva are: every day during this month, one must rise upon the last hour of the night, purify oneself and perform the mangala-arati of Shri Krishna. Then, after bathing in the morning, one should worship Lord Damodara. At night, one should light brilliant lamps filled with either ghee or sesame-seed oil, and place them in these places - in the Lord's temple, around the base of tulasi plants, and in the sky. During the month of Karttika, one should eat only vegetarian foodstuffs and Bhagavan's prasad remnants. One should renounce excessive eating and sleeping, plus avoid using oil, wine, and bell-metal utensils. After honouring prasad, one should hear or recite scriptures headed by Shrimad Bhagavatam in the company of Vaishnavas. There should be incessant harinama-kirtana and smarana. Thus passing the entire month in observance of such regulations, on the final Utthana-ekadashi day one should fast from everything including water and stay awake all night absorbed in Krishna-katha. On the next day, after first purifying oneself and engaging in hari-kirtana, one should serve the Lord's prasad to one's dearmost intimate Vaishnava associates, and when they are finished one may then honour prasad. That day, at the end of the night, the vrata will be completed.
The chief aim of observing this Urjja-vrata is to please Shri Radha-Damodara. Shrimati Radharani is called Urjjesvari (the Queen of the Urjja-vrata). Only because of this, in order to establish the pleasure of Shri Shri Radha-Damodara, the sage Satyavrata Muni uttered (in the eight verse of Damodarastaka) the words namo radhikayai tvadiya priyayai - “My obeisances unto Radhika, You most beloved.” By this statement, he indicated that the sole activity to be done during the observance of Damodara-vrata is the worship of Shri Shri Radha-Damodara.
Among the 64 branches of bhakti followed by our Gaudiya Vaishnavas, we see that the observance of Urjja is listed. It is to be understood that one follows the Catur-masya-vrata completely only if one honours Urjja during it. Some devotees are of the opinion - “Because Catur-masya-vrata is not listed among the 64 branches of devotion, we will only follow the (one-month long) vow of Urjja; we will not undergo the difficulty of observing the entire four-month-long vow.” In this way, those persons who attempt performing bhajana, but who are unaware of the deep meaning of the sastras, thereby remain in the indulgences of in discipline. Shriman Mahaprabhu Himself observed the Catur-masya-vrata while situated in many different places, and has thereby taught the practice by His own example. We cannot consider such persons, who are unable to follow the instructions that were enacted and preached by Mahaprabhu, to be part of the lineage of pure Vaishnavas.
At this point, we would like to mention that the principle of atma-nivedana is listed as one of the nine types of devotion (which are counted among the six types of surrender, saranagati). Is it understood, then, that by performing atma-nivedana (offering one's soul), the other five types of surrender are therefore unnecessary? The ultimate surrender among the six processes of saranagati is atma-nivedana - by this being listed as such, it is understood that engaging in the other forms of surrender are also recommended for the sadhaka. Thus it is accepted that a single sadhana takes the form of several different aspects.
Due to the eternal nature of Shri Shri Damodarastaka, it is necessary to study it every day not only during the month of Karttika (or Damodara), but also during the entire four-month period of Catur-masya. And what's more, it is actually fit to be studied every day of every month, year after year. Upon the pure chanting of Damodarastaka, Lord Damodara Himself becomes very pleased - for this objective, I have especially compiled this volume with great care and attention.
During the period when Gosvamipada was composing his tika, he quoted some conclusions already written in his own Brhad Bhagavatamrta. We have added these verses in the form of footnotes. They are printed with their mula-slokas along with explicit Bengali translations to facilitate the understanding of the readers.
In conclusion, it is my earnest prayer before the suddha-vaishnavas: that they study this book during Catur-masya or Urjja-vrata and attain priti (the pleasure of the Lord) - then only will I consider my labour fulfilled. This book makes it possible for them to easily gather so many truths; for that reason, I have made such a humble request.
Shri Bhakti Prajnana Kesava