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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Rupa Goswami > Vidagdha Madhava > ACT 2


Nandimukhi:  Purnamasi has ordered me in the folloing way: “Nandimukhi, I have heard that my child Radha is feeling very ill.  Please go to hear and learn about her situation.”  For this reason I am now about to go to Mukhara’s house.  (She begins to go and then sees Mukhara)  How is it that Mukhara is now coming here?  Why is she crying?

Mukhara:  Alas! Alas! I am ruined!  I am very unfortunate!

Nandi:  O pious Mukhara, why are you crying?

Mukhara:  Because of Radha’s suffering my child.

Nandi:  What is wrong with her?

Mukhara:  She speaks as if she has gone mad.  She speaks incoherently saying, “It is not proper for my garland to be blackened by these cruel bumble-bees!  I am only a young girl.  Why then do you joke with me?  Immediately leave this courtyard.”  Lotus-eyed Radharani speaks in this way while awake, and again while she sleeps.  In this way she passes day and night with great pain.

Nandi:  (aside) This sort of talking is not a symptom of madness.  Rather is is the sign of Radha’s good fortune to participate in Krishna’s pastimes.

Mukhara:  I shall approach Purnamasi and describe thesituation to her.  Please go to the grove of Vetasi trees and observe Radha’s activities yourself.  (They exit) (Served by her 2 friends Lalita and Vishaka, Radha enters).

Radhika:  (Agitated, she says to herself): O broken heart, simply by seeing this person’s picture you have attained this, difficult to understand, state of intense love for him.

Lalita and Vishaka:  O Radha, you appear to be greatly agitated.  Why do you not tell us the cause of your agitation?

(Radha sighs and turns her head away)

Vishaka:  (Confronting Radha) O friend, why are these anxieties tearing apart your peace of mind and why are your reddish garments becoming so covered with perspiration?  O Radha, you are as beautiful and fair as a yellow champak flower.  Why has this trembling forcibly broken the steadiness of your body?  Please tell us the truth about this.  It is not auspicious to conceal this from your servants.

Radhika:  O merciless girl, why do you speak in this way?  Look (at this picture) and remember.

Vishaka:  Even with great effort, I cannot remember!  How can I have offended you.

Radhika:  O madwoman, it is you who has thrown me into this deep lake of burning fire.

Vishaka:  How have I done that?

Radhika:  (with malice and impatience) O crooked liar, you are the friend of the serpent in this picture!  Stand! Do not move! (Radha loses self-control and continues) The person in this picture stepped out of the picture.  He was as splendid as emeralds, decorated with a peacock feather, and very youthful.  (Radha’s voice becomes choked-up.  Lalita and Vishaka look at each other with raised eyebrows).  When he smiled and moved his eyebrows, my mind became deranged.  Alas the moon of my mind burned like fire and the fire of my appetite for food, became as cool as the moon.

Lalita:  Did this happen in a dream?

Radhika:  The person in this picture shone with a sort of dark moonlight.  This moonlight excited intense emotion within my heart and I have become unable to perceive the distinction between day and night, wakefulness and dream. 

Vishaka: (intentinally) O Radha, this is only a momentary bewilderment of your mind.

Radhika:  (indignant) Untrusting gopi, stop this!  Why do you try to cover up for your offense?  Elaborately decorated with markings drawn in kumkum, this fickle and lust boy stood at the base of a kadamba tree.  When I teasingly said, “No! No! NO!”, that mischievious boy smiled and forcibly touched me with his hand, which seemed like a petal (or leaf) which had grown from his creeper like arm.  His complexion bore the lustre of a slightly opened lotus petal.  I so eagerly desired that he touch me with his lotus hand that I became full of anxiety, and I could no longer understand where I was, who I was or what I was doing.  (Agitated, she says to herself) O wicked heart, O monkey, are you not ashamed to love 3 persons simultaneously?  You love Kanha and you also love this boy who played the flute, and now you love this dark complexioned youth (who appeared in this picture) O heart, when I destroy my body, I will also destroy you who are wretched and hopeless.

Lalita:  Alas, cupid’s friend, springtime, has now appeared, and spoiled this entire area.  Where can we find refuge from him?

Radhika:  O friend, when the aromatic breeze from the malaya hills plays, and the playful cuckoos sing very melodiously, and when the buzzing bumblebees pierce my heart with their agitated flurry, I feel as if I were about to give up my life.  All these are simply causing me great pain.

Lalita and Vishaka: (crying tears) How have you become so overwhelmed by these terrible sufferings?  We cannot guess what is your desire, now can we understand the difficult-to-attain condition of your heart.

Radhika:  (sighs) My dear friend, these palpitations of Radha’s heart are extremely difficult to cure.  Even if one applied some medical treatment, it would only end in defamation.  I will now instruct you how I may be cured.  If this creeper were wrapped about my neck as a noose, and I were hanged then you would certainly cure my disease of love.

Lalita and Vishaka:  (agitated) Do not speak in this terrible way!  Do not take away the life of your friends!  You will soon attain the goal of your desire.

Radhika:  O friends, you counsel in this way because you do not understand the wickedness of wounded Radha’s heart.

Lalita and Vishaka:  Our dear friend Radha has told us everything.

Radhika:  No. NO!  Her great shame has prevented her from revealing everything.

Lalita and Vishaka:  Simply by seeing you, we can understand your intense love.  What does your external embarrassment matter?

Radhika:  Since I have heard of a person called Krishna.  I have practically lost my good sense.  Then, there is another person who plays his flute in such  way that after I hear the vibration, intense madness arises in my heart.  And again there is still another person to whom my mind becomes attached when I see his beautiful lightening effulgence in his picture.  Therefore I think that I am greatly condemned, for I have become simultaneously attached to 3 persons.  It would be better for me to die because of this.

Lalita and Vishaka:  (joyfully) How is it possible for you and the other beautiful girls of Gokula, who are all like you, to reject the son of Nanda, the prince of Gokula, and fall in love with some other person?  Please hear this, the 3 persons you love are all the same person.  They are that very clever Kanha.

Radhika:  (breathes a sigh of relief and says to herself) O heart, be comforted.  How you ardently desire to attain the person (Shri Krishna) who resides within the hearts of all living beings.

Lalita and Vishaka:  O beautiful Radha, even though a champak creeper may annoint the entire atmosphere with waves of sweet fragrance, that creeper was born in vain, if the bumblebee who is Lord Madhusudana does not drink honey (in its flowers or) joyfully perform pastimes there.

Nandi:  How has Radha come here?  (Approaches Radha) All glories to you, my dear friend.  All glories to you.

Radhika:  (concealing her emotions) O friend, I hope you are well.

Nandi:  O beautiful and foolish friend, you are not very intelligent.  Although you are only a young girl, this great agitation within your heart has certainly been caused by the cupid of Vrndavana.

Lalita:  O unnecessarily suspicious gopi, you can see that Radha is trembling and the hairs of her body are standing upright because she feels the chill of the cool southern breeze.  Why do you make this terrible accusation?

Nandi:  (smiles) O unperceptive gopi, do not criticise the southern wind in this way!  If the breeze is the cause of Radha’s trembling, tell me then why we gopis do not also tremble with the hairs of our bodies standing upright.  Radha, who is very beautiful, is trembling because of the sidelong glance of the emperor of all handsome young men.  His sidelong glance, which is more enchanting than millions of cupids, is constantly performing pastimes within her heart.  Therefore please speak the truth.  Was th bliss of Gokula, Shri Krishna, seen by her in this way?

Vishaka:  Yes, it is true.

Nandi:  O Radha, you have only recently grown past childhood and you are the object of your relative’s affection.  Playfully moving within the house, you delight your husband.  It is therefore amazing that you have become intoxicated by the enchanting qualities of the lover of the wives of the cowherd men.  I shall now go so that I may quickly bring noble Purnamasi.  (She exits).

Radhika:  (she reflects for a moment) How isit that we chaste young gopis are about to quickly and immodestly transgress the auspicious rules of pious conduct?  (She continues her speech full of longing)  Krishna is expert at the art of glancing from the corners of his eyes, and he is the king of the handsome cowherd men and charming gopis of Gokula.  How is it possible for him to neglect us?

Purnamasi:  O Mukhara, why do you think Radha is suffering from a severe illness?

Mukhara:  O noble gopi, please listen.  Upon seeing peacock feathers in front of her, this girl suddenly begins trembling.  When she sees sometimes a necklace of gunja she sheds tears and cries loudly.  I do not know what kind of new ecstatic influence has entered the heart of this poor girl.  It has imbued her with the dancing attitude of a player creating wonderful, unprecedented dances on a stage.

Purnamasi:  (aside) This is the extreme passion of new love, which is very great and intense.  (Openly)  O Mukhara, I understand the nature of this disease.  Kamsa and others, who are rulers of dynasties of demons, are searching for Radha.  For this reason she has become obsessed in this way.

Mukhara:  O noble gopi, what is the remedy?

Purnamasi:  The remedy is a glimpse of the demon’s enemy, (Krishna).

Mukhara:  O noble gopi, this will certainly not please the crooked Jatila.

Purnamasi:  O Mukhara, I shall tell her, “O Jatila, do not be afraid.  I will by my mystic power, bring a representation who is just like Krishna.”

(Mukhara offers her obeisances and leaves).

Purnamasi: (approaches Radha) O child, now my desires are fulfilled and I am greatly happy.

(Concealing her emotions Radha offers obeisances).

Purnamasi: (aside) Lotus-eyed Radha has become embarrassed and she is endeavouring somehow or other to conceal the great emotional upheaval raging within her.  This upheaval is caused by the untamed fresh sweetness of the pleasure of the intoxication of Krishna, who is like the young king of the elephants and who performs pastimes on the bank of the Yamuna river.  That sweetness now victoriously sports in the grove of Radha’s heart.  (She whispers to Nandimukhi) O Nandi, Radha’s heart is agitated with great intense waves of love, and it is not possible to describe her activities. You should know that this is a manifestation of the wonderful, great and difficult to understand power, of the great hero of conjugal love.  Just see how wonderful it is!  Great sages meditate upon Him after being relieved from all material transactions, and with great difficulty they situate Him within their hearts.  In contrast, this young girl is trying to withdraw her mind from Krishna so that she can apply it to material activities of sense-gratification.  What a regrettable thing it is that this girl is trying to drive away from her heart, the same Krishna who is sought after by great sages through severe austerities and perseverance.

Nandi:  O noble gopi, I am bewildered.  I cannot understand this kind of love.

Purnamasi:  O child, you have spoken the truth.  These symptoms of intense love are very difficult to attain.  Listen.  My dear beautiful friend, if one develops love for the son of Maharaja Nanda, all the bitter and sweet influences of this love will manifest in one’s heart.  Such love acts in 2 ways.  The poisoness effects of that love defeats the severe and fresh poison of the serpent.  Yet there is simultaneously transcendental bliss which pours down and defeats the poisoness effects of the snake, as well as the happiness derived from pouring nectar on one’s head.  It is perceived as doubly effective simultaneously poisonous and nectarean.  Let us go to Radha and observe her ecstatic love.  (The approach her) O child, we would like to ask some questions of you.  O Radha, your self-control, affectionate dealings and pious deeds are famous in the town of Gokula, and you also have taken birth in a properous and pious family.  Yet you have decided to become cruel to your friends.  Why are you not ashamed to do this?

(Radha becomes discouraged and alarmed.  Embarrassed she approachs Lalita).

Lalita:  O noble gopi, Radha should explain her position to us.  I became very perplexed when you spoke the following description of your offense.  You said, “O noble and saintly gopi, I take an oath upon your feet, that I have not committed any offense.  Even though I struck him with the blue lotus flowers and leaves which decorated my ears, this dark complexioned rascal would not give up the pleasure of embracing my body.”

Purnamasi:  (She glances at Radha with apparent malice) O beautiful bewildered girl, why do you not stop these arrogant attacks from Krishna.

Radhika:  (with anger) My dear mother, what can I say to you?  Krishna is so cruel that he often attacks me on the street, and if I want to cry out loudly, this boy with a peacock feather on his head immediately covers my face so that I cannot cry.  And if I want to go away from the scene because I am afriad of him, he will immediately spread his arms to bolck my path.  If I pitiously fall down at his feet, then this enemy of the Madhu demon, in an angry mood, bites my lips!  Mother, just try to understand my situation and don’t be unnecessarily angry with me.  Please tell me how I can save myself from these terrible attacks of Krishna’s.

Purnamasi:  (aside) Radha’s tree of love (for Krishna) is no longer shaking at the root.  (It has become very firm)  O Radha, why are you so eager to engage in pastimes with this person you have seen in a picture.  Why do you hope to become happy in this way?  Why do you want to see this contrary person, Krishna?  The burning fire of these bitter pastimes is desroying you, just as snow destroys a lotus flower.

Radha:  (She recognises Krishna approaching and says to herself) O auspicious person, because of having faith in the words of your friends, we have seen your divinely youthful form, marked with signs of your pastimes.  How can we understand you with our simply minds?  Please cool down our eyes; we who are now feeling the intense heat of a volcanic fire (due to this vision).

Purnamasi: (glancing at Radha with affection) O child, please enter for a moment in this solitary place full of flowers.  Write a letter to him (Krishna) and your 2 friends will carry it to him.  (Accompanied by Lalita and Vishaka, Radha exits).

Purnamasi: (beginning to walk) O Nandimukhi, the loud sounds of the herd of transcendental surabhi cows is now filling the sky.  Krishna must not be far from here.  I think I shall now go to take my bath. (The exit) (Krishna enters)

Krishna:  (with anxiety) Radha is as splendid as lightening and a source of wonder to the eyes.  Ever since the time when I first accidentally saw her, my mind has become trapped in an unending circle of anxious thoughts.  It has become indifferent to all othe rsources of happiness, as if it had become a yogi.  I asked my friend to bring the pleasant, garland of flowers.  Why does he delay?  (Carrying a garland in his hands, Madhumangala enters).

Madhumangala:  Why has my friend become so troubled in mind?  Oh well, when the occasion arrives I shall understand the reason.  Krishna trembles when he sees a golden coloured champak flower.  I think that golden-complexioned Radha, decorated with splendid fresh kumkum, has become the tilak decoration drawn on the writing paper of Krishna’s mind.  (Madhumangala approaches Krishna and offers him the garland).  Please take this.

Krishna:  (as if he had not heard)  She has the lustre of an unblossomed ketaki flower growing on a golden mountain.  She is as splendid as a lightening bolt.  Will that lightening bolt ever decorate my chest, as smooth as a multitude of clouds?

Madhumangala: (aside) Now I understand.  (Openly, with a loud voice) O dear friend, why do you not see that I am crying in your presence?

Krishna: (concealing his emotions) O friend, I did not see you, because I was entranced by the beauty of this champak creeper.

Madhumangala:  You speak the truth.  You were actually looking at this winding champak creeper.

Krishna:  O friend, it is not possible to trace out where this creeper goes, by its own will.

Madhumangala:  O friend, please stop this cunning evasiveness for a moment.  Speak plainly.  Why has your heart become so despondent and empty?

Krishna:  (smiles) O friend, it is because I did not have my garland.

Madhumangala:  You should say ‘kala’ (girl) and not ‘mala’ (garland).

Krishna:  This is a false suspicion.

Madhumangala:  You do not understand that the peacock feather has fallen from your head, and before your eyes the garland has fallen from your neck.  O young elephant who performs pastimes in the groves of Vrndavana, these events are caused by the great prowess of the bumble bees which are the eyes of Radha.

Krishna:  (aside)  How is it that this rascal understands everything?  I cannot fool him.  (Openly) O friend, what you say is true.  Just as the full moon in the month of Jyaistha violently agitates the water of the Ganges River, in the same way, Radha has completely changed the situation of my mind.

Madhumangala:   This girl is now standing before your eyes.

Krishna:  Indeed it is true.  She has come here because of Subala.  (He becomes eager and anxious)  With the moving creepers of her eyebrows, and with her sidelong glances moving in all directions, Radha appears to be instructing the deer in the art of gracefulness.  Her lips are as beautiful as bimba fruits and when cupid sees her, he becomes terribly angry and prepares to shoot me with an arrow from his incomparable bow of flowers.

Madhumangala:  Perhapds you have seen each other before?

Krishna:  No! No! O friend, alas!  Whenever the cooling and splendid moon of her face begins to rise on the path of my eyes, my mother, uttering a million criticisms, persistently leads me home for supper.

Madhumangala:  O friend, there are many beautiful gopis.  Why do you love only Radha with such fervour?

Krishna:  O friend, an extraordinary sweetness resides within Radha.  My dear friend, I speak truthfully, since seeing the beautiful, splendid face of Radha and her charming eyes, when I remember the moon or the lotus flower, my lips curl in distaste

Madhumangala:  When I first saw you I surmised that you had fallen in love.  What is this extreme beauty that you speak of?

Krishna:  You speak truthfully friend.  If you study Radha with your own mind you will begin to perceive something of her unlimited glory.

Lalita:  (off-stage) O dear friend, now you may see Krishna, the prince of the cowherd men.

Krishna:  O friend, a young girl is speaking nearby.  Let us be silent.  (Lalita and Vishaka enter).

Lalita:  Just see by good fortune, we have met Krishna.  Let us go to him.  (They approach him) O bliss of Gokula, all glories to you!

Krishna:  O friend Lalita, I think that you have come to the middle of Vrndavana forest to collect beautiful flower petals.  (Aside) O heart be encouraged, I think this flower petal has grown from the seed of your desire.

Madhumangala:  O Lalita, what is the use of this leaf, simply full of letters.  You should rather give us a leaf with sugar candy on it!

Krishna:  O friend, please read the letter.  This letter may be a drinking vessel full of nectar for our ears.

Madhumangala:  O friend, indeed we have seen the generosity of your cowherds but today we were fed with the 4 kinds of foodstuffs by the wives of the yajnik brahmanas and so I offer my respectful obeisances to our brahmana community.

(Thus he reads the letter).

Radha’s letter:  O dearly beautiful, the artistic loveliness of your picture is now impressed within my mind.  Since yor are  now living within my mind, wherever I wish to run, because I am agitated by impressions of you, I find that you, O my friend, are blocking my path.

Krishna:  O friend, this verse is very difficult to understand.  Please read it again.  (He reads it again.  Krishna becomes blissful and says to himself) Pious girls are generally very afraid to transgress the rules of morality.  Because this girl neglects those rules, I can understand that her love is very great.  (Krishna becomes excited and openly says) O Look, look! Accompanied by all my affectionate friends, I wander on the edge of the forest tending the cows.  In this way I have become averse to hearing any news about women.  These unchaste girls should not be allowed to freely pollute the men of this community.  I shall quickly go and complain to the elderly cowherd men.  (With feigned indignation Krishna struts about quickly).

Madhumangala  (concealing a smile) O crest jewel of the brahmacaris, pause for a moment and defeat these foul-mouthed gopis with an expert reply.  Cause them to flee with your words.  I myself shall go to Yasoda, the queen of Gokula, to describe all the activities of these impudent gopis.  (Madhumangala touches Krishna’s hand for a moment).  (Amazed and bewildered, Lalita and Vishaka exchange glances)

Krishna:  O friend Vishaka, from the looks in both of your eyes, it seems as if you will block my path wherever I go, therefore I will attend to it; although I think it must be some other young boy who has agitated the heart of your Radha.

Vishaka:  O lotus-eyed Krishna, who else performs such enchanting pastimes in Vrajamandala as you, and who else is able to violently agitate the lofty mountains which are the hearts of the pious gopis?  Who else could have lifted Govardhana Hill with a tiny fragment of his unfathomable strength?  For these reasons we think that only you are described in this letter.

Madhumangala:  O talkative, girl, stop!  Please stop!  I myself saw how the cowherd men, with their upraised sticks, held up Govardhana Hill.  Why do you praise our dear friend Krishna in this way?  He did not hold up the hill.

Krishna:  O Lalita, enough of this topic of conversation.   Speak no more.

Lalita:  O beautiful Krishna, you delight all the inhabitants of Gokula.  Why is only this one gopi experiencing distress on your account?

Madhumangala:  O bewildered girl, Krishna is just an intimate relative to us, and he is very learned in all the scriptures.  How is it possible for him to transgress the rules of morality in this way?  Therefore all your crying in this forest is useless.

Vishaka:  (aside) This garland of gunja was worn by Radha.  I shall now give it to Krishna.  By observing his response I will be able to understand his actual feelings towards Radha.  (Openly) This red and black garland of gunja is very excellently beautiful.  May it hang upon your neck?  Alternate translation (Radha is very beautiful and she is invested with all transcendental qualities.  Her heart is always full of feelings of intense love for you, and her mouth is always engaged in chanting your name.  May she become the garland of gunja which decorates your neck?)  (She places the garland upon his neck).

Krishna:  (smiling, with feigned anger) Although these gunja berries are very red, hard and nicely rounded, they are very crooked and appear to be unripe.  I have no wish to accept a garland made of these inferior berries.  Alternate translation (This garland is am ambiguous message of love from some young girl.  Although great love is intended, it appears very harsh to me, and although it is very cleverly presented, it is very crooked.  I have no desire to accept this garland).  (In a bewildered state Krishna removes the garland and returns it.)

Vishaka:  (aside) Krishna’s bewildered condition is a sign of our good fortune.  (She covers the garland with a cloth)

Lalita:  By our good fortune, we have seen the amazing and unflinching vow of brahmacarya of Krishna, the lover of millions of gopis.  We should now approach Radha and stop her from doing anything further, for she has fallen in love with a most unsuitable boy.

Vishaka:  O friend, your counsel is very appropriate.

Lalita:  O Vishaka, please go to our dear friend radha.  Give her this garland and console her.  I myself shall go to Purnamasi and inform her of the situation. (They exit).

Madhumangala:  O friend, even though you yourself desire her, why do you cause to agitate the mind of this girl?  Indeed, it appears that this will be a staircase extending up the mountain of regret.

Krishna:   O friend, you speak truthfully.  I recklessly laughed at this girl.

Madhmangala:  Look, the 2 gopis have gone out of our sight.

Krishna:  Upon hearing of my cruely, moon-faced Radha may establish some kind of tolerance in her aggrieve heart.  But then she might turn against me.  Or, indeed, being fearful of the lusty desires invoked by the bow of formidable Cupid, she might even give up her life.  Alas!  I have foolishly uprooted the soft creeper of her desire just when it was ready to bear fruit.

Madhumangala:  What should we do to counteract this situation?

Krishna:  O friend, I do not see any alternative but to write a reply to Radha’s love letter.

Madhumangala:  What sort of ink should we use to write this letter?

Krishna:  A letter written in the red fluid of roses would certainly enchant a young girl’s mind.

Madhumangala:  Praskanda tirtha, nearby is decorated with a great forest of roses.  Let us go there.  (The exit).

Radha:  (unhappy) Desiring the happiness of his association and embraces, my dear friend, I have disregarded even my superiors and relaxed my shyness and gravity before them.  Furthermore, although you are my best friend, more dear to me than life, I have given you so much trouble.  Indeed, I even put aside the vow of dedication to my husband, a vow kept by most elevated women.  Oh alas!  Although he is now neglecting me, I am so sinful that I am still living.  Therefore I must condemn my so called patience.

Vishaka:  (respectfully) O friend, please do not lament, do not lament.  (She places the garland to Radha’s nose).

Radhika:  (regaining consciousness)  This garland is certainly very wonderful.  At one moment it causes me to faint, and now that very same garland is reviving my consciousness.

This garland is the topmost ointment for the limbs.  O friend, Shri Krishna is the very jewel of all attraction.  The name of this flute-player is the mantra which subjugates and brings under control, those who constantly hear it.  This rejected garland of his is the great medicinal herb for the heart which cures our fainting condition.  Who would not praise the great and inconceivable power of these 3 things.

Radhika:  (aside) Because Krishna, who possesses such wonderful transcendental qualities has neglected this body of mine, this body may as well be dead.  How is it that I shamelessly continue to maintain this body?  I shall now remedy the situation.

Radha:  (aside) I shall enter the waters of the Kaliya lake and drown myself.  (Openly) O Vishaka, please inform my superiors that I desire to worship the sun-god, and have gone to the holy placed named Dvadasaditya tirtha, for that purpose.

Vishaka:  O dear friend, you must remember that the noble gopi Jatila has instructed me to remain with my dear friend at the present time.  Therefore let us both go.

Radhika:  (perplexed) Although Munkunda neglects me, the hostile and unfulfillable hope to attain him, burns nevertheless.  O friend, I shall take shelter of the deep waters of the Yamuna river, the sister of the Lord of death, to extinguish that fire.

Vishaka:  Just look at the auspicious signs appearing in our path.  For this reason please do not speak in this way.

Radhika:  (looking ahead) Why has the sun set so unexpectedly?

Vishaka: This is not the sunset but the splendid, blossoming roses of Praskanda-tirtha, which are very dear to the sun-god.  Let us gather these roses to make rose-scented water.

(Krishna and Madhumangala enter)

Krishna:  O friend, these roses are thieves who have stolen away this beauty from Radha’s lips.

Madhumangala:  Presee the huice from these roses and write a reply to Radha’s love letter.

Krishna:  (Trembling at amazement) This is not Ilavrta-varsa, near mount Sumeru, the golden mountain of the demigods.  Why then do I see this golden effulgence in all directions?  Ah yes, by hearing the tinkling sound of jewelled ankle-bells, I can understand that the demigoddess who rules over beauty has now entered the forest of Vrndavana to perform pastimes.

Madhumangala:  Ah, the deer has now placed her foot in the trap she was seeking.

Krishna:  (blissful) O friend, you have nicely understood.  Let us hide behind this tree and hear what they say.  (They hide behind a tree).

Radhika (Crying tears, she rests her hand on Vishaka’s shoulder) Now this person may only be remembered when we talk of him.

Vishaka:  (also crying tears) O friend, everyone says that you are grave, patient and full of all good qualities.  How is it that you have become so agitated.

Radhika:  O friend, because of this rascal, I have lost all of my good qualities.  His chest is like a dam that is very competent to check the current of the river of my patience.  His face is like the moon which has become dedicated to cause the forest of lotus flowers, which are my pious activities to wither away.  His two arms are the pillars used in the sacrificial ceremony to exorcise my perpetual shyness.  Alas, o friend, the snake which is the movements of his eyes, is swallowing everything.

Krishna: (to himself) O beloved, Madhava has also become stunned by your charming beauty, and he has also lost all his good qualities.

Radhika:  (folds her hands and look at the sky) O Krishna, O killer of Putana, I was engaged in my own childish activities at home, and because of my childish innocence I did not know right from wrong.  Therefore is it good for you to have forced us into being so much attracted to you and then to have neglected us?  Now you are indifferent to us.  Do you think that this is right?

Krishna:  (to himself) O beloved, if one desires to continue living, will he ignore the creeper bearing medicinal herbs to maintain his life?

Radhika: (sighs) O friend, please wear my favourite necklace.  (She removes the necklace from her neck).

Vishaka: (checks her by force) Stop.  Why do you burn me in this way?  Please wait for Lalita.  I will weep profusely.

Radhika:  My dear friend, if Krishna is unkind to me, there will be no need for you to cry, for it will not be due to any fault of yours.  I shall then have to die, but afterwards please do one thing for me.  To observe my funeral ceremony, place my body with its arms embracing a tamal tree, like creepers so that I may remain forever in Vrndavana undisturbed.  This is my last request.

Krishna: (crying tears) O friend, see how great her love is.

Radhika: (aside) I am agitated with intense longing.  (Openly) When my worship of the sun-god is completed, there is one more thing that I want to request.  After I have died, please gather as many flowers as the number of times I have bathed at this holy place.  (She takes 2 or 3 steps in the direction of the tirtha and again speaks to herself).  Alas, I shall never again be able to see the enchanting face of Krishna, which is as splendid as the moon, and bewilders the residents of the 3 worlds with its beauty.  (Full of longing, she returns and says openly) Be merciful to me, be merciful.  Please show me his picture again.

Vishaka:  O friend, there is no paper here to draw a picture on.

Radhika:  (anxious) Then I will meditate upon him, and in this way he shall appear before me.  (She becomes absorbed in meditation).

Krishna:  O friend, I have never before drunk such an intoxicating nectar for the ears.  Therefore we must present ourselves before her.  (They emerge from behind the tree).

Vishaka:  (with great respect) O friend, by good fortune, your pleasant meditation has become successful.  Immediately open your eyes!

(Radha opens her eyes slightly and becomes amazed).

Vishaka:  He for whom you were prepared to destroy yourself, being struck by the arrows of cupid has now appeared before you.  The raging fire of pure love caused your delicate body to burn.  O friend, this playful person, crowned with a peacock feather decoration in his hair, and who is the lord of your life, is now in your presence.

Radhika:  O how sweet this dream is.

Vishaka: O untrusting gopi, you have never before experienced a dream like thi, where you have not even fallen asleep.

Krishna:  With the movements of her eyes, this beautiful gopi causes cupid, wielding arrows of flowers to flee.  She moves with the slow and graceful gait of the king of elephants, and the beauty of the red bimba fruit which are her lips, has conquered the charming splendour of the nearby lotus flowers.

Radhika: (her eyes dance on the form of Krishna, and she says to herself) Excellent, excellent.  O heart, by good fortune you may see this form of Krishna for a moment.

Krishna: (smiles) O rascal Vishaka, I have diligently searched for you, and now, by good fortune I have found you.  Someone, with a similar form as yours, has bewildered me and stolen away my delightful garland of unripe gunja berries.

Madhumangala:  Just see how our garland is resting on Radha’s neck.  Take it from her.

Krishna:  O friend, although you are very knowledgeable, this advice of yours is not ver proper.  I do not remember ever having seen such a beautiful young girl, even in a dream.

Radhika: (aside) Although Krishna is jesting, I am afraid that he is speaking about me with honesty.

Vishaka: (laughing) O Krishna, O great ocean into which the rives of young gopis flow.  Stay, stay!  At present I can still see the marks your gopi friends on your limbs.

Krishna:  (Joyful to himself) When Radha smiles, waves of joy overtake her cheeks and her arched eyebrows dance like the bow of cupid.  Her glance is so enchanting that it is like a dancing bumblebee, moving unsteadily due to intoxication.  That bee has bitten the whorl of my heart.

Jatila:  (offstage) O grand-daughter Vishaka!

Krishna:  why has Jatila, whitened with old-age, so unexpectedly arrived?

Jatila: (Glancing ahead, she says to herself) Why is Krishna here?  (Openly) O Vishaka, why have you forgotten the sandalwood paste mixed with perfume?

Krishna:  (aside) At this moment when the chakora bird is about to drink theeffulgence of the crescent moon, this mass of clouds has appeard to cover that moon.  (Openly) Maternal aunt of my mother, I offer respects to you.

Jatila:  O enchanting boy, do not look at the young gopis with such crooked eyes.

Madhumangala:  (laughs) O gopi as hard as the thunderbolt of Indra which is fashioned from the bones of Dadhici, the glance of my dear friend Krishna is always exalted and noble.  It is your eyes that are squinting.  Therefore you should grant a benediction to yourself, so that your eyes may no longer squint in this way.

Jatila: O lover of the young gopis, why have you come here?

Krishna: O noble gopi, who would not be attracted by the beauty of these roses, which are so amazingly and extraordinary red?

(Alternate translation) O noble gopi, who would not be attracted by Radha, who is as beautiful as roses, and whose love is very amazing and extraordinary.

Jatila:  (aside) Because of my contact with Mukhara, I knew that he was presently here at this place.  (Openly) O charming boy you must immediately leave this place.

Krishna:  O talkative old gopi, why are you so agitated?  I shall leave when I wish.

Jatila: (looks at Krishna with crooked eyes) O why shouldn’t I be in anxiety?  The entire earth has been washed of its sweetness.  Upon me rests the burden of over-seeing the welfare of my newly-married daughter-in-law.  You fearlessly wander all over the pasturing grounds causing your eyes to dance.

Krishna:  O suspicious old gopi, don’t talk nonsensically.  What have you heard about the activities of your daughter-in-law?  Whatever you may have heard, I can justify my respectable character.

Jatila: O Vishaka, why are you here?

Vishaka: O pious gopi, I saw a way-ward deer, and became astonished.  (She glances at a deer) O merciless deer, you abandoned your beautiful mate, who always affectionately acompanied you, and instead you uselessly wander from forest to forest artistically leaping and playing.

Jatila: O foolish, whimsical girl, give up this infatuation with a deer.

Madhumangala:  O dear friend, look! Although this young parrot is thirsty, it will not accept the sweet pomegranate fruit.

Krishna: (smiling) O pomegranate tree, this parrot has become fascinated by the redness of your flowers, which make you appear also beautiful.  He is standing aloof and wondering whether your fruits are ripe.

(According to Visvanatha Chakravarti, Krishna wonders whether the fruits of ecstatic love of God have become ripened on the tree of Radha).

(Moving her eyes, Vishaka glances at Radha).

Radha:  (aside) For a long time I have not drunk the nectarean words of Krishna, and I have not placed my sidelong glance upon his face.  O friend, I have finally attained the delightful opportunity to associate with Hari, and wicked fate is already obstructing me, using this old woman.

Jatila: (aside) Because of the noble-mindedness of my daughter-in-law, the sight of this Kanha could not have caused any calamity.  (Openly) O Vishaka, look! The afternoon is ending.  Let us hurry to the temple of the sun-god.  (They exit).

Krishna: O friend, this Radha is like the moonlight which follows the full moon (Purnamasi).  Therefore let us go to Purnamasi.  (They exit)