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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Rupa Goswami > Ujjvala Nilamani > CHAPTER TWO



Krsna's faithfulness to Radharani in the dhlrodatta aspect of His personality is described in the following statement of Vai¬snava literature: One time, the lotus-eyed gopls, waiting at the ren¬dezvous, tried to lure Krsna by expertly  reciting from the corners of their eyes various artistic nandi verses from the introduction to the romantic drama of their friendship with Him. Krsna simply ignored their sidelong glances. He did not slacken from His intense  earnestness to meet Radharani and enjoy transcendental pastimes with Her in the land of Vraja.Krsna's faithfulness in the dhlra-Lalita aspect of His per¬sonality is described in the following statement of Vaisnava litera¬ture: Krsna  is no longer enjoying pastimes with His parents out of deep affection. Instead, He is now decorating the forests on the Yamuna's shore, enjoying pastimes with Radharani.Krsna's faithfulness in the dhlra-prasanta aspect of His  per¬sonality is described in the following statement of Vaisnava liter¬ature, where Visakha says to Radharani: O doe-eyed Radharani, Krsna is so full of love for You that to see You, He has now come here disguised as a Brahmana  priest of the sun-god. How is it pos¬sible that He has suddenly attained all the qualities of a Brahmana'! Look! His intelligence has become very expert at discriminating the fine points of philosophy and literature! His glance emits  tol¬erance and patience! His words are very meek and humble! His whole body radiates the splendid gravity of a great philosopher!Krsna's faithfulness in the dhlroddhata aspect of His personality is described in the following  statement of Vaisnava literature, where Krsna says to


Lalita : O saintly, fair-complex-ioned Lalita , free from all duplicity and the spiritual master of those filled with saintly qualities, please tell Me, now that My mind glows with love for your friend, Radharani, and does not desire any other  girl, even for a moment, and even during dreams when I dream at night, why have all My good qualities left Me, and why does this concealed jealously rise within Me?


Daksina: A lover who pretends to love his mistress with re¬spect and awe, even though within his mind, he thinks of another girl, is known as daksina (an insincere lover).Nandlmukhl says to Candravall: O Candravall, you speak the  truth. It is easy to see that no duplicity has ever been seen in Krsna. He is not cheating you. Pure-hearted Krsna loves you at every moment, even when He is asleep and dreaming. My dear humble friend, please do not believe the  lies you have heard from these envious, back-biting, scandalloving, gossipmonger gopls.A daksina lover may treat many mistresses with equal indifference. This aspect of a daksina lover is described in the following statement from


Dasa-rupaka: O Krsna, O king of Dvaraka, Your wife, the princess of Kuntalesvara, has just bathed and is waiting to receive You, and some of Your other wives, the sisters of Maharaja Anga are also waiting for You. Queen RukminI,  who has spent all night playing dice only to meet defeat at the hands of Kamala, is deeply in love with You. I have now called all Your beautiful wives from the inner apartments and they are also eager to receive You. Although  wherever You go, two or three beautiful wives are yearn¬ing for Your embrace, You placidly ignore all of them.This daksina quality of Krsna is also described in the follow¬ing statement of Vaisnava literature, where Kundalata says  to Nan¬dlmukhl: Padma is splashing waves of amorous glances at Krsna. Kamala s suggestively moving her limbs before Krsna. Tara is begin¬ning to uncover her shoulders. Sukesi is scratching her ear. Saibya has placed her  hand in her undergarment. In this way, all these go¬pls are simultaneously calling for their lover, Krsna. Look! Krsna's mind has become distracted and He is ignoring all of them!


Satha: A lover who speaks sweet words glorifying her when she is present and then repeatedly blasphemes her behind her back is called satha (a cheater) by the wise."Nandlmukhl said to Syama: Last night Krsna called out in His  sleep: O Pali! When Syama heard this, her face turned white. She sighed. The three yamas (three hours) of that springtime night passed for her as slowly as many thousands of yamas"Padma to Krsna: O Krsna, in a secluded forest  grove I found Your splendid golden garment suspiciously marked with the black mascara of some gopl. O Krsna, give up trying to prove Your inno¬cence. Your guilt is already proven.Dhrsta: When the hero is not cautious to hide  from his mis¬tress the signs of his enjoying with other young girls, and when he is expert at lying his way out of the accusations leveled against him, he is called dhrsta (a bold lover).


"Krsna to Syama-gopi: O Syama, these are not the scratch marks of some passionate rival, they are merely lines of red kuriku-ma drawn on My body. Do not think these are smudges of red lace from the cosmetics of some other  gopi. These are merely smudges of red chalk from Govardhana Hill. Do not think these are smudges of black mascara from some other lover. They are merely My own tilaka markings, drawn in musk. O My young girl, why do you  see everything in the opposite way?"The various features of the amorous hero, Krsna, may be considered in the following way: First, there are the four features of dhlrodatta, dhlra-Lalita, dhlra-prasanta, and dhlroddhata. Each of  these may be again divided in three ways, as purna (perfect) purnaTara (more perfect), and purnatama (most perfect.) In this way, there are twelve features. These twelve features may again be divided into two categoriespati  (husband), and upapati (paramour). In this way, there are twenty-four features. These twentyfour features may again be divided into anukula, daksina, satha, and dhrsta. In this way, there are ninetysix features of the amorous hero,  Krsna. Other features, such as where the amorous hero is a gross rascal, are not present in the personality of Krsna. This fact is also confirmed by the opinion of Bharata Muni.


The sahayas (male helpers) may divided into five groups: (1) cetaka (2) vita (3) vidusaka (4) pitha-marda, and (5) priya-narma-sakha.Cleverness at speaking joking words, eternal love and friendship for Krsna, expertness at judging  what is proper at differ¬ent places and times, ability to pacify the gopls when they become angry, and great learning in the art of chanting secret mantras, are some of the personal qualities of the sahayas.


Ceta: The cetas are expert at arranging Krsna's rendezvous with the gopis. The cetas can be trusted with secret missions. They are bold, arrogant, and witty. Bhangura and Bhrrigara are the lead¬ers of Krsna's ceta friends in  Gokula."My queen, 1 have just seen a very wonderful, unprecedented event. Even though the season is now autumn, I have seen nearby a mad-hava creeper blossoming with many flowers." By this tricky pun, the ceta showed  Radharanl the pathway to the place where Krsna was staying nearby.


Vita: The vitas are expert valets who dress Krsna. They are mischievous, clever conversationalists, and learned scholars in the scriptures describing the art of love. Kadara and Bharatibandhu are the leaders of the vitas.


Kadara said to Syama-gopI: Krsna is now playing His flute and with its soft, sweet sound, He is breaking the peaceful composure of all young girls in the universe. He will not be inclined to stop this pastime to sport with you. My dear  friend, Syama, I am the friend of your friend, Krsna. Again and again, I beg you with sweet words: do not try to interrupt Krsna's flute playing. This is His wish. No doe-eyed gopi in Vraja will dare to transgress His order."


Vidusaka: The vidusaka has a voracious appetite and is fond of quarreling. His bodily features, garments, and words are all very unusual. He is an expert comedian.Vasanta is the leader of the vidusakas. Madhumangala is the  famous vidusaka described in the play Vidagdha-Madhava.Something of the role of the vidusaka may be seen in the following statement where Madhumangala instructs Krsna in a certain tactic to cure Radharani of Her arrogant  pride. "Madhumangala


said: My dear Krsna, You should say to proud Radharanl: the king of Gokula has now arrived on His celestial chariot. He is very eager to see Me. Before 1 go off with him, You should bid Me farewell by happily showering the flowers  of Your smiling lips upon Me. I beg You, please fulfill My desire at once. My dear proud girl, only those reddened with jealousy will not give the charity of their lips on the occasion of this important religious ritual.Also, Vasanta gives  similar advice to cure the arrogant Rad¬haranl. "Vasanta says: O Krsna, just say to Radharanl: O Radharanl, Your worshipable deity, the sun-god, respectfully bowed down before Me and eagerly gave Me this splendid lotus flower.  Your refusal to accept this flower has angered him and made him leave the earth. O proud girl, why have You no respect for My words?"


Pitha-marda: The qualities of the pitha-marda are that he is the nayaka's constant, affectionate companion. Srldama may be given as the example of a pitha-marda.Seeing the cowherd boy wrestler, Govardhana, challenge Krsna,  the pitha-mardas advise him in the following words: With the sole exception of Candravall, all the people of Vraja have come here to the sandy banks of the Yamuna to see Krsna's pastimes that astonish the entire universe. O  foolish wrestler, Govardhana, we are the closest friends of Krsna. The words we speak are solely for your benefit. Take our advice and do not touch this Krsna, the lifter of Govardhana Hill.One day, Srldama saw Candravall traversing  the forest on what seemed to be a nefarious mission. He narrated this to Can-dravall's sister, Bharundi, who answered him in the following words: My dear Srldama, your concern and respect is very encouraging to me. It comes to  me just as the mercy of goddess Durga is bestowed on even the most fallen of women. My sister, Candravall, was walk¬ing in the forest, carrying kuhkuma and a flower garland in her hand, only so that she might offer these articles  to the deity of the goddess Durga. My only fear in this regard is that wicked persons might see her, misunderstand her mission, and gossip about her imagined misdeeds.


Priya-narma-sakha: The priya-narma-sakhas know the most confidential secrets of Krsna's pastimes with the gopls. Their love for Krsna is almost as intense as the gopls' love. Of all the gopas, they are Krsna's closest friends. In  Gokula, Subala and Arjuna are the leaders of the priya-narma-sakhas.Subala is described in the following statement, where Rupa-manjari says to her gopl friend: Then, when this gopl quarreled with Krsna and left Him, Subala met  her, satisfied her with his words, and convinced her to return and enjoy amorous pastimes with Krsna in the forest cottage. After Their pastimes were concluded and Krsna rested His perspiring body on His beloved's breast, Subala  fanned Him. What service is this Subala not qualified to perform?"Ujjvala says to Subala: The gopls lick the beauty of Krsna with their restless sidelong glances. They wrap their arms around Him and press their breasts to His chest  and without any restraint, they happily drink the nectar of His lips. O friend, do you know the gopls' history? Do you know what austerities they performed in order to attain this supreme good fortune?"


Four kinds of gopa friends help to make arrangements for Krsna's amorous pastimes with the gopls. They are the: (1) ceta (2) kinkara (3) pitha-marda, and (4) vlra friends of the Lord. Many gopl messengers also help to arrange for  the Lord's amorous pastimes. For the most part, they will be described in the chapter on the gopls but to a certain extent, as it is appropriate, they may be described now for the understanding of the readers, who are learned in  transcendental mellows.Krsna may also personally arrange for His pastimes with the gopls, where Visakha says   harani: Madhava's sidelong glance is a wonderfully expert magician. Even though You are very pure are heart, this  magician has woven a spell over You, stunned You, and filled You with wonder.Krsna's flute may also carry His messages to the gopls: May the sweet sound of Krsna's flute, His authorized messenger, be glo¬rified because it  expertly releases Radharanl from Her shyness and attracts Her from Her home to the forest.


Apta-dyuti {gopl messengers): Vlra and Vrnda are the leaders of Krsna's gopi messengers. Vira speaks with arrogance and pride and Vrnda speaks very sweetly."Vlra to Radharanl: Don't turn from me! Proud girl, hear my words!  Charming, beautiful young girl, go to meet Krsna, the lifter of Govardhana Hill. Do not run from Him with anger!"One day, Vrnda approached one of the gopls, offered respectful obeisances to her and asked her the following  question: My dear beautiful gopl, your eyes are as restless and graceful as two khanjana birds. I beg youplease answer my question. What are these dangerous snakes of your eyebrows? Krsna was bitten by them.Stunned by their  poison, He now wanders aimlessly in the forest. Even now, He has not been able to enter the village of Vraja.

The gopl messengers, headed by Vlra, are extraordinary as¬sociates of Krsna. Other gopl associates (silpa-karini, daivajna, and lingini) of the divine couple will be described further on.