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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Rupa Goswami > Ujjvala Nilamani > CHAPTER ONE



The Ujjvala-nilamani deals exclusively with the subject of the conjugal relationship with Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Just as there are innumerable very sentimental songs and poems describing the love between  men and women in this world, one might suppose that this literature is of a similar nature. How¬ever, the reading of this book will definitely astonish us as to what an exact and detailed study of transcendental love of God has been  carried out by the author.It is said that the love of God exhibited by the pure devotees can be compared to gold whereas the so-called love between con¬ditioned souls in the forms of men and women can be compared to iron.The  truth of this statement will surely be amply confirmed by a reading of this great literature. However, as Srlla Prabhupa¬da indicates to the professor, we should first very carefully study the Bhagavad-glta before attempting to read  such a book as this. Bhagavad-glta leads us to the point of surrender to Sri Krsna. After surrender, one should begin his study of the Srlmad-Bhagavatam, starting with the First Canto.


As in this book, the intimate pastimes of the Lord Krsna are portrayed in the Tenth Canto of that great work. By study of the first nine cantos, one comes to a proper understanding of the Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.  Only then is one ac¬tually able to properly appreciate the Lord's transcendental pas¬times, as described in the Tenth Canto.In this world, as you all must know very well, everyone is engaged in a very hard struggle for existence and  for the most part, our attempts at finding fulfillment in loving relationships meets with great frustration. Here is the remedy for our faulty condition of life—let us be informed that there is another world, beyond this world of birth and  death. In that transcendental abode of the Lord, life goes on as it should be. The all-attractive Lord is the center of everyone's attention and He mercifully merges all into a limitless ocean of transcendental loving relationships that  give full satisfac¬tion to the soul.In the Gaura-ganoddesa-dlpikd (180) Sri Rupa GosvamI is described to be the gopl named Sri Rupa-manjarl. We can thus un¬derstand that his writings are not mere products of his imagination. He  is not simply blindly repeating what he had heard from previous authorities. He has first-hand knowledge of all that he describes in this book. Although he was formerly a highly-placed minister in the Mohammedan government of  Bengal, Srlla Rupa GosvamI gave up his wealth and aristocracy and resided in Vrndavana as a perfect renunciate.Although we may read this exalted literature, the true fruit of our endeavor will be tasted if our desire to become  more firmly fixed in the devotional service of Lord Krsna becomes manifest.Purnaprajna das


Invoking Auspiciousness: All glories to the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead. His holy name attracts those expert at rel¬ishing transcendental mellows. His transcendental qualities eter¬nally increase the bliss of His  devotees. His transcendental form brings a great festival of happiness to His devotees.Because of its confidential nature, the madhurya-rasa was only briefly mentioned in the description of the primary rasas pre¬sented in the  previous book (Bhakd-rasamrta-sindhu). That mad¬hurya-rasa, the king of all mellows of devotional service, is there¬fore being described in this book in great detail.Madhurya-rasa is made even more relishable when  accom¬panied by the ecstatic sentiments—vibhava, anubhdva, sdttvika bhdva, and sancdri-bhdva, which will all be described in this book. The learned devotees call this mellow madhurya-rasa because it is the sweetest  (mddhurya) of all mellows of devotional service.Vibhava (the causes of ecstasy): dlambana (the basic causes): Lord Krsna and His dear devotees are the basic causes of ecstasy.Sri Krsna's nature as an dlambana is described in  the fol¬lowing statement of Vaisnava literature, where PaurnamasI says to RadharanI: The beauty and splendor of Sri Krsna's lotus feet has eclipsed many billions of Cupids. The artistic dancing of His side¬long glances has  charmed the gopls' hearts. His form is like a glit¬tering new rain cloud. He is an ocean of great transcendental pas¬times. He is the supreme good fortune of all beautiful young girls in the three worlds. I pray that this Sri Krsna  become the cause of the great happiness in Your heart.The qualities of Sri Krsna may be enumerated as follows— He is: (1) very handsome and charming (2) sweet (3) endowed with all transcendental qualities (4) strong (5) a fresh  youth (6) elo¬quent (7) a pleasing talker (8) intelligent (9) brilliant (10) grave (11) expert (12) clever (13) happy (14) grateful (15) skillful (16) controlled by love (17) an ocean of profoundness (18) the best (19) fa¬mous (20) charming  to all women (21) eternally new and fresh (22) His dear flute music, personal beauty, and transcendental pastimes are»all superexcellent and cannot be compared to anything else.


These are some of Sri Krsna's many transcendental qualities manifested in the mellow of conjugal love. These and many others have already been elaborately described in the previous book.The four aspects of Lord Krsna's  personality (dhlroddtta, dhlra-Lalitd, dhira-prasdnta, and dhlroddhata) have been described in the previous book. Two other aspects of His personality: pad (hus¬band), and upapati (paramour) are also very famous.The feature, pad  (husband), is defined as he who takes the hand of a girl in marriage.Lord Krsna as pad is described in the following statement of Vaisnava literature: Powerful Krsna defeated Rukml in battle and then took RukminI with Him to  Dvaraka. As the citizens of Dvaraka celebrated a great festival, lotus-eyed Krsna took Rukminl's hand in marriage.

After Krsna married RukminI, the princess of Vidarbha, He performed the pastime of marrying Satyabhama. He was initiated into the marriage sacrifice and, very slowly, and with elaborate re¬ligious rituals, He gave great wealth as  daksind to the priest, Nara-da.This pad feature is also described in the following state¬ment, where the Vraja gopls pray to Goddess Durga: O KatyayanI, OMah a-maya, O great yoginl, O controller of the universe, O god¬dess, I offer  my respectful obeisances unto you. I request You — please give me the cowherd Nanda's son, Krsna, as my husband.


When the young girls of Gokula desired in this way, some of them actually attained Krsna as their husband. The scripture, Mddhava-mdhatmya, confirms that before Krsna married RukminI, these gopls celebrated a great festival of  marrying Krsna.Now, Lord Krsna's feature of upapati (paramour) will be dis¬cussed. The wise define upapati as a man who transgresses religious principles by becoming the lover of someone else's wife."When Krsna arrived in  Radharanl's courtyard for Their rendezvous, His tinkling ornaments sounded like the cooing of cuckoos and other birds. Krsna suddenly heard the door open and He also heard the continual jingling sounds of conch shell brace¬lets.  When He heard the arrogant Jaratl call out, 'Who is there? Who is there?' He became pained at heart. Krsna spent that entire night hiding in a tree in the corner of Radharanl's courtyard.


This love of a paramour is the most attractive feature of conjugal love. This is confirmed by the following statement ol Bharata Muni: "That amorous love which is forbidden by religious principles, which requires that the lovers keep  their relationship a secret, and which provides many obstacles for the lovers' meeting, provides the most intense conjugal happiness for them."

This love of a paramour is very abominable for a material lover but it is not so for Lord Krsna, who descended into this world to taste the sweet nectar of this transcendental pastime. Krsna's attachment to the conjugal mellow is  described in the following statement of Bilvamarigala Thakura: Let me take shelter of Krsna, the shelter of all the worlds. His transcendental body resembles the form of a human being. He is decorated with a peacock feather. The  mellow of transcendental conjugal love is His most cherished treasure.


The pad and upapati may be further divided into four types: (l)The faithful lover (2) The expert lover (3) The cheating lover (4) The bold and arrogant lover. Cheating and boldness are espe¬cially appropriate for the upapati and they  are also appropriate dur¬ing dancing. None of these features are inappropriate for Krsna. They all find their place in the great variety of His transcendental pastimes.When a lover is so intensely attached to his beloved that he never  desires any other woman, just as Lord Ramacandra was at¬tached to Slta-devI, then that lover is called faithful. Krsna's faithfulness to Radharani is very famous. He never looked at or thought of any other woman.Krsna's faithfulness  to Radharani is confirmed by the fol¬lowing statement of Vaisnava literature, where Vrnda-devi says to Radharani: None of the splendidly beautiful vraja-gopls, who are expert at the art of kissing, have become the amorous lovers of  Krsna, the king of the gopas. O Radharani with a slender waist, You are the crest jewel of all pious girls. Except for You, I have never seen Krsna even glance at any other girl.