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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Rupa Goswami > Ujjvala Nilamani > CHAPTER-5



In this way, gopls are divided into many groups, with three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or more members.At the beginning of the rasa dance, those gopls who were already married were not stopped by their husbands when they left  home to meet Krsna. Only those gopis who still had some small trace of material desire were stopped by their husbands and superiors.The lotus-eyed gopis of Gokula descended to this material world to enjoy amorous pastimes  with Krsna, the crest jewel of those expert at relishing transcendental mellows, and the enemy of King Kamsa. Except for those gopls, learned scholars and philosophers do not consider amorous affairs between a married woman  and a paramour to be good, or auspicious.Unaware that Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Vraja gopis thought He was the human son of Vraja's King Nanda. This firm conviction of the gopis was the symptom of  their great love for Him, a symptom rarely manifested even for the most saintly devotees.Once, Sri Krsna playfully manifested Himself as Narayana, with four victorious hands and a very beautiful form. When the gopis saw this  exalted form, however, their ecstatic feelings abated. A learned scholar, therefore, cannot understand the gopis' ecstatic feelings, which are firmly centered upon the original form of Krsna as the son of Nanda Maharaja. The  wonderful feelings of the gopis in ecstatic parama-rasa with Krsna constitute the greatest mystery of spiritual life.Sometimes, Krsna playfully manifests a four-armed form as a joke but then, impelled by love for RadharanI, the queen  of Vrndavana, He again resumes His two-armed form. Prior to the rasa dance, Krsna hid Himself in a grove just to have fun. When the gopis



came, their eyes resembling those of deer, by His sharp intelligence, He exhibited His beautiful four-armed form to hide Himself. But, when RadharanI came there, Krsna could not maintain His four arms in Her presence. This is the  wonderful glory of Her love.Prostitutes do not participate in the Krsna's amorous pastimes, although they may be able to perceive a pale reflection of those pastimes. The sole exception is Kubja, who developed ecstatic love for  Krsna and was thus able to participate in amorous pastimes with Him in the mellow of parakiyarasa. Common prostitutes are simply interested in taking the money of others. They do not dislike rogues who have no good qualities,  and they do not like saintly persons, who have all good qualities. The realm in which these prostitutes move is the perverted reflection of conjugal love. They cannot understand the original feature of conjugal love.Heroines may be  divided into two categories: (1) svaklya (married to the hero) and (2) parodha (married to someone else, the paramour becoming the hero). These two kinds of heroines may again be divided into three categories: (1) mugdha (a  charming innocent girl) (2) madhya (a girl midway between mugdha and pragalbha) (3) pragalbha (a mature, clever, arrogant woman who is expert at controlling her lover). Some authors claim that the last three categories apply  only to svaklya heroines and not to parodha heroines. The saintly poet, Jayadeva Gosvami, disagrees with them, and in his book, Gita-govinda, he gives examples of the parodha heroines in the last three categories.

All different kinds of heroines are present in the two divisions, svaklya and parodha. Many examples may be citied to demonstrate this.Mugdha: The qualities of the mugdha heroine are: (1) nava-vayah (she is a young girl) (2)  nava-kama (she is inexperienced in loving affairs) (3) ratau vama (in loving affairs, she acts in a contrary manner) (4) sakhl-vasa (she is controlled by her friends) (5) Sa-vrida-rata (in loving affairs she becomes very shy and makes a  great endeavor to conceal her actions. This increases her charm) (6) Rosa-krta-baspa mauna (when her lover insults her, her eyes become filled with tears) (7) priyapriyoktau asakta (she is fond of talking both sweetly and bitterly)  (8) mane vimukhi (when her jealously is aroused, she spurns her lover), nava-vayah (youthfulness).


Krsna, seeing Visakha from a distance, speaks the following words: The winter season of Visakha's childhood has now ended and the springtime of her adolescence has entered. The glistening lotus flowers of her eyes have now  blossomed and the nectar moon of her face shines very brightly.Nava-vayah. (she is a young girl) A gopl addresses the personified childhood of RadharanI: O evening darkness of childhood, O my friend, please leave at once the  planet of Radharani's transcendental form because the victorious sun of adolescence is now rising above the eastern mountains of Radharani's breasts. Look! This sun makes the stars of Radharani's eyes flicker with unsteadiness.  This sun makes the lotus flower of Radharani's face blossom with a smile. This sun is now brightly illuminating the blue sky of Krsna.Nava-kama (she is inexperienced in loving affairs): Nandlmukhl to Dhanya: My child, I think you  are now celebrating the amorous festival of Krsna, the killer of Karhsa. I think your intently listening with bowed head, and your jubilantly stringing these flower garlands, are simply a ruse to conceal that festival. My friend, please tell  me—what is this new happiness that has just now entered your heart?


Ratau vama (In loving affairs, she acts in a contrary manner): Dhanya, stopped by Krsna in the dana-keli pastime, speaks the following words: I am only a little girl. You should not joke with me in this way. O Krsna, who wears a  crown of peacock feathers, please do not block my path. Look! Many intelligent and clever gopls, their eyebrows knitted with anger, are patrolling this shore of the Yamuna.Krsna to Subala: Now I am absorbed in remembering  RadharanI. I remember one time, I chanced to meet Her on the Yamuna's shore. As soon as She saw Me, She began to flee. When I caught Her and grasped Her hand in mine, and smiled, Her eyes moved like restless khanjana  birds and She stuttered: "Le-le-let go-go of My hand."


Sakhl-vasa (she is controlled by her friends): One time, Radha and Krsna met in Vrndavana forest. Krsna forcibly pulled RadharanI to Him and embraced Her. When Lalita saw this, she forcibly pulled RadharanI away from Krsna.  RadharanI docilely obeyed Lalita 's command. Lalita then spoke the following words to Krsna: My dear prince of Vraja, You are so hard and harsh. 1 will not give this delicate girl to You. What respectable person would voluntarily  place a newly blossomed lotus flower in the trunk of a great regal elephant?One time, Dhanya proudly fashioned a flower garland for Krsna. As she was trying it on to see whether it was the right size, another gopl came on the  scene. This gopl frowned at Dhanya, thinking she had made a garland for herself and not for Krsna. Dhanya then became afraid and spoke the following words: Friend, I am not going to wear this garland of jasmine flowers. Why do  you continue to knit your eyebrows in this fearsome way? Here—I shall now place this garland in this basket, where I keep Krsna's ornaments. If you are still angry with me, that's alright but what would I do if that lightning bolt Vrnda  were to see me?


Sa-vrida-rata (she is very shy in loving affairs): One time, early in the morning, Krsna said to Subala: Syama stood at the door of the forest grove cottage. Although eager to enjoy pastimes with Me, she was so overwhelmed with  shyness that she could barely take two or three steps inside. Her creeper-like limbs trembled, as if tossed by many waves, and she staggered as she walked. 1 repeatedly assured her with the sweet fragrance of many affectionate,  friendly words, and it was only after a long time that I finally convinced her to sit on the edge of the bed. This enchanting, doe-eyed Syama has charmed My heart.Rosa-krta-baspa mauna (When her lover insults her, she becomes  silent and tears flow from her eyes): One time, after Dhanya was gravely insulted by Krsna, her gopi friend approached Him and spoke the following words: My dear uncivilized fool, expert at the topmost perfection of offending  others, how will my pure-heated friend, who You gravely wounded, be able to make You a reply? O snake who lives in this forest of kadamba trees, do not try to cheat me. It was You who made the tears stream down my friend's  face.Mane vimukhi (when her jealousy is aroused, she spurns her lover): Two kinds of gopls spurn Krsna when they become jealous of Him: (1) Mrdvi (the gopl who retains a sweet demeanor) (2) Aksama (the gopi who becomes  angry and intolerant).Mrdvi: The gopi, Dhanya, in the midst of a protracted jealous quarrel with Krsna, spoke the following words to her gopi friends: When I try to flee from Krsna, my feet insist on taking me to meet Him. When I try to  angrily knit my eyebrows at Krsna, my eyes rebel. They earnestly yearn to gaze at Him and they distract me from my resolve. When I try to rebuke Him with harsh words, my wretched tongue deliberately speaks sweetly to Him. O my  friends, what shall I do? My mind, limbs, and senses have all rebelled against me.



Aksama: A gopi said: The sight of Krsna arouses the most intense jealous anger within the hearts of the lotus-eyed gopis. When the two syllables, mana (jealous anger) enter the courtyard of my ear, my heart begins to tremble.

Madhya (the middle gopi): The madhya heroine is situated in the age where she leaves adolescence and maturity is just beginning to manifest. She is timid in amorous pastimes, just like the mugdha heroine. Sometimes, her words  show some signs of arrogance. She is eager to enjoy amorous pastimes up to the limit of fainting from conjugal bliss. In jealous anger, she is sometimes gentle and sometimes harsh.Samana-lajja-madana (timid in amorous  pastimes, just like the mugdha heroine): When thirsty Krsna gazed at RadharanI with blossoming lotus eyes, She bowed Her head, covered Her smile, and pretended to look elsewhere while actually placing Her eyes upon Him. In  this way, RadharanI delighted Krsna.Prodyat-tarunya-salini (situated in the age where youthful maturity is just beginning to manifest): Krsna to RadharanI: My dear RadharanI, the movement of Your eyebrows have gobbled up the  splendor of Cupid's bow. Your thighs laugh at the beauty of plantain trees and Your breasts are like two playful cakora birds. You are the crest jewel of all beautiful young girls.Kincit-pragalbhokti (sometimes her words show some  signs of arrogance): RadharanI to a bee: O Krsna's black bumblebee, O bee intoxicated by the fragrance of the lotus flower of My face, why do you obstruct Me as I try to serve My husband? O softly buzzing bee, if you are so thirsty  you should go to that other grove over there, where there are many splendid white flowers on the punnaga trees.


Mohanta-surata-ksama (eager to enjoy amorous pastimes up to the point of fainting from conjugal bliss): One time, Subala asked Krsna: You seem absorbed in thought. What are You thinking? Krsna answered with the following  words: I am remembering a certain gopl. As We both enjoyed amorous pastimes in bed at night, she became covered with perspiration. Her eyes closed shut, her hair became disheveled, the creepers of her arms became weak,  and her mind became so filled with happiness that she was unable to remember anything other than our pastimes.Mane komala (gentle in jealous anger): Even though cheated by Krsna, RadharanI says to Lalita : O Krsna, You are  My life and soul. For how long must I remain apart from You? O Lalita , O My beautiful and fortunate friend, I cannot remain angry with Krsna for a long time. Come here. Let us both go to the grove by the Yamuna's shore. On the  pretext of picking some flowers, there 1 may again meet Krsna.Mane karkasa (harsh in jealous anger): Visakha to RadharanI: My dear RadharanI, why do You uselessly wither Your limbs with these blasts of jealous pride? Why do  you become angry when You hear the good advice of Your dear friends? Your lover, Krsna, is now pining away in despair in a forest cottage. Go to Him. For a moment, let Your merciful sidelong glance present itself before Him.

Jealous anger may be divided into three categories: (1) dhlra (gentle) (2) adhlra (harsh) and (3) ubhaya (a mixture of gentleness and harshness).Dhlra quality in the madhya heroine: When the madhya heroine manifests the dhlra  (gentle in jealous anger) quality, she speaks crooked, offensive, biting satires aimed at her lover.


Once, RadharanI waited all night to meet Her lover, Krsna, at the rendezvous. She finally saw Him in the morning. Noticing the marks of His unfaithfulness clearly visible on His body, She addressed Him in the following sarcastic  words: My Lord, I think these smudges of black mascara and red lac, and these moonlight¬like scratch marks very nicely match the blue and red color scheme already present on Your body. Therefore, I say these decorations are  very nice. However, My dear Lord of the surabhi cows, I think it is still not right for You to come here alone without Your assembly of gopl mistresses.Adhlra quality in the madhya heroine: When the madhya heroine manifests the  adhlra (harsh in jealous anger) quality, she angrily rejects her lover with many harsh words.RadharanI, discovering Krsna's unfaithfulness, angrily addresses Him: My dear Krsna, this necklace You wear has certainly been the  companion of the raised breasts of a great host of girls and it is now engaged in glorifying Your nighttime pastimes with them. O rake whose mind has been stolen by the gopls, O garrulous bell-ringer of a host of lies, leave here at  once. It is not proper for You to stay here.Ubhaya quality in the madhya heroine: When the madhya heroine manifests the ubhaya (when both gentle and harsh responses are present in her jealous anger) quality, she sheds tears as  she speaks crooked words to her lover.Jealous RadharanI addresses Krsna with the following sarcasms: My dear prince of the cowherds, do not cry. Go! Go! The queen of Your heart may still give up her anger. Try again. Decorate  her feet with Your crown, flower-garland, and red lac. She may still forgive You. Go at once to the queen who can fulfill Your desires!


Continually serve her and attain her mercy! In this way, You will become happy. Place the red lac from her feet on Your head. Make Your mouth glisten with the remnants of betel nuts chewed by her. Decorate Your neck with the  spotless flower garland that has become the friend of her flower-bud breasts.Of these three kinds of heroines, the madhya heroine possesses all the most exalted virtues in the nectar of transcendental mellows. This is because the  madhya heroine incorporates the virtues of both mugdha and pragalbha.Pragalbha (a mature, clever, arrogant woman who is expert at controlling her lover): The pragalbha heroine is (1) purna-tarunya (situated in the stage of fully  manifested youthfulness) (2) madandha (blinded by passion) (3) uru-ratotsuka (filled with yearnings to enjoy amorous pastimes) (4) bhuri-bhavodgamabhijna (the simultaneous presence of many symptoms of ecstasy) (5)  rasenakranta-vallabha (able to overwhelm her lover with the nectar of transcendental mellows) (6) ati-praudhokti (her words are those of a mature, proud woman) (7) ati-praudha-cesta (her actions are those of a mature, proud  woman) (8) mane catyanta-karkasa (in jealous anger, she is extremely harsh and bitter).Puma-tarunya: Krsna addresses Candravall: My dear Candravall, your breasts eclipse the charm of the frontal lobes on the elephant, Airavata.  Your broad hips steal away the beauty of the Yamuna's shore. Your eyes challenge the graceful motions of the restless saphari fish. O Candravall, the sweet nectar of your youthfulness shines with great splendor.Madandha:  Candravall to Bhadra: O golden-complexioned Bhadra, after all our gopl friends had left that charming grove, Acyuta brought me to the bed and gazed at me for a long time with the passionate desire to enjoy with me. At that  moment, my consciousness became washed away by the rising wave of my ecstatic happiness. What happened after that I do not know.


Uru-ratotsuka: Mangala to a gopi friend: O gopl friend, my heart yearns to enjoy increasingly bold amorous pastimes with Krsna, where I press my entire body, down to my toes, against His body, and where in the course of our  embraces, my peacock-feather ornament falls away, my gunja necklace breaks, the bracelets slip from my wrists, and my voice coos with conjugal bliss.Bhuri-bhavodgamabhijna: A gopl to Syama: You are now moving the shackles  of your crooked sidelong glances and you are also moving the creepers of your eyebrows. Your face is decorated with the flower-bud of a very meaningful smile and your bodily hair is standing up in ecstasy. You stay in this forest  grove for a long time, playing the lute. My beautiful-limbed friend, I think that you desire to capture and bind the black deer of Krsna.Rasakranta-vallabha: Mangala to Krsna: O Krsna, look at these beautiful flowers in the forest.  Please pick them, make splendid ornaments from them, and then decorate my body with those ornaments. In this way, the trumpet of my good fortune will loudly play among the young gopls.Ati-praudhokti: Once, Krsna hid in  Syama's house. When she detected Him, she was simultaneously jubilant and afraid. She addressed Him in the following arrogant words: O Krsna, O cheater hiding behind this heap of cow dung, why do You uselessly beg me in  this way? Go away! Formerly, You were more expert at tricking the gopls, as when You frightened them in an old boat. Where is that expertise now? (One time, Krsna took the gopls for a ride in an old boat. When the boat began to  rock dangerously in a storm,Krsna extorted various amorous favors from the frightened gopis in return for their rescue).


Ati-praudha-cesta: One time, after enjoying amorous pastimes with Krsna, Candravall became ashamed. Padma noticed this. Krsna then spoke to Padma the following fanciful explanation of Candravali's feelings of guilt: My friend,  when your friend, Candravall, and I were engaged in our festive amorous battle, the necklace on her breasts danced. During that dancing, the restless hero who was the chief pearl on that necklace repeatedly jumped up and many  times kicked my peaceful, saintly kaustubha jewel. Your friend, Candravall, is now embarrassed for that offense.Mane'tycmta-karkasa: Bakilamala addresses Syama, who has just spurned Krsna, out of jealous anger: Your garland  of Mdlatl flowers has just now wilted and is fallen on the ground. O beautiful Syama, Krsna waits at the door, depressed. If you throw away this night in sleep, you will make all your friends weep. In this state of jealous anger, what has  happened to your ever-fresh sweetness? I cannot see it.The jealous anger of the pragalbha heroine may be divided into three types: (1) dhlra (gentle) (2) adhlra (harsh) and (3) dhlradhira (both gentle and harsh).Dhlra-pragalbha:  The dhlra-pragalbha feature may again be divided into two parts: (1) udaste surate dhlra (the heroine who becomes uninterested in enjoying amorous pastimes with her lover) and (2) savahittha sadara (the heroine who pretends to  treat her lover with respect, while she actually burns with jealousy).


Udaste surate: Krsna: Give Me some of these betel nuts. Bhadra: Have You worshipped Goddess Durga today? Krsna: No, I have not. Bhadra: Then, You cannot taste these betel nuts. Krsna: Let Me give you something, then. Please  take this flower garland that I have made with My own hand. Bhadra: I cannot take it. My husband will surely see Your workmanship in the garland and know that You have made it. The king if Vraja is now calling me. Excuse me, I  must go at once. Not hearing Krsna call her, Bhadra quickly left. In this way, with civilized politeness, Bhadra demonstrated her jealous anger toward Krsna.Pali to Krsna: My dear Krsna, I cannot place Your nice, beautiful garland  around my neck because I have accepted a very severe vow of austerity to never wear flower garlands. I also cannot speak to You because the very harsh Brahmanas have ordered me to observe a vow of silence. O Krsna, what girl  on this earth could voluntarily leave You, if her mother-in-law were not repeatedly calling her. In this way, with civilized politeness, Pali revealed her deep, jealous anger toward Krsna.Krsna to Candravall: My dear Candravall, do not  push My hand away from your breasts. Do not turn away your face when I try to repeatedly kiss your lips. Do not pull away your body when I embrace it. How is it that you have become so angry with Me?


Adhlra-pragalbha: In the adhlra feature of jealous anger, the pragalbha heroine angrily attacks her lover with abusive language.Gauri describes to Krsna the revenge-oriented practical joke perpetrated on Him by the jealous-angry  gopls: O Krsna, O enemy of Karhsa, we are quite bewildered. We do not know how to do this thing properly. Who shall offer our respectful obeisances to our dear friend, Syama, who is expert in all these things. O Krsna, we have tied  this garland of malli flowers around Your neck but yet, Your eyes are now filled with fear and anger and you appear discomfited by the many bumblebees in the garland and by the lotus flowers that repeatedly strike Your ears.


Dhlradhlra-pragalbha: When the heroine manifests both dhira and adhlra qualities in jealous anger, she is said to be dhlradhira.Mangala to Krsna: O Krsna, I will not talk with You because I am strictly following a religious vow of  silence. In my heart, there is not the slightest scent of anger towards You. O Krsna, O killer of Agha, please flee this place at once. The gopls have a cunning plan to capture You. They yearn to bind You with a rope of flowers and  make You their prisoner.A gopl to her friend: When Krsna prayed and appealed to her, Mangala insulted Him. The creepers of her eyebrows became so violently knitted they pulled the lotus flower from her ear. Although she  yearned to strike Him with that flower, she simply said: "Go! Get out of here!" and turned from Him with contempt.Of all the youthful gopls, some are naturally arrogant. These arrogant gopls are known as pragalbhas. Both madhya  and pragalbha heroines are divided into two categories—greater and lesser— according to the intensity of the love they bear for the hero.


Vrnda to Nandlmukhl: Seeing that Tara was about to fall asleep, Krsna affectionately and playfully placed flower pollen in the corners of her eyes to keep her awake. In the same way, Tara affectionately fanned Krsna with a cooling  palm-leaf fan in order to make Him fall asleep.

Vrnda to Paurnamasi: Seeing His two mistresses, Gauri and Syama, gambling at dice, Krsna glanced at Gauri with rolling eyes and moving eyebrows and offered Himself as a slave for three days as the prize for the winner. True to  His word, Krsna gave Himself to Syama, the mischievous victor.

The gopls may be divided into different groups. Some gopls are jyestha (situated in the topmost stage of love for Krsna), and some are apeksiki (full of hope for attaining Krsna). The number of girls in these two groups is so great that  they cannot be counted


The mugdhas may be divided into kanyas (unmarried girls), sviya (those married to Krsna). and anyodha (those married to others).The mugdha and madhya heroines are divided into six categories and the madhya and praudha  heroines are divided into twelve categories. The mugdhas are divided into three groups— kanyas (unmarried young girls), sviyas (Krsna's wives), and parodhas (the wives of others). In this way, Krsna's lovers may be divided into  fifteen groups.All these heroines may again be divided into the following eight categories: (1) abhisarika (a girl who meets her lover at the rendezvous) (2) vasasajja (a girl who carefully dresses herself in nice garments and  ornaments to receive her lover) (3) uthanthita (a girl longing for her absent lover) (4) khandita (a girl who finds that her lover is unfaithful) (5) vipralabdha (a girl cheated by her lover. She waits for him at the rendezvous but he never  arrives) (6) kalahantarita (a girl separated from her lover because of a quarrel) (7) prosita-preyasi (a girl whose lover is living far away) and (8) svadhina-bhartrka (a domineering girl who controls her lover).Abhisarika: A girl who  meets her lover or arranges that he meet her at the place of rendezvous is known as abhisarika. The abhisarika may be considered in two features—when the girl travels on a moonlit night (jyotsni), and when she travels on a dark,  moonless night (tamasi). The abhisarika wears garments suitable for a journey. To silence her tinkling ornaments, she timidly unties them. Accompanied by a single affectionate gopl friend, the abhisarika goes to meet her lover.

Abhisarayitri: RadharanI to Visakha: Krsna does not know how My heart suffers with love for Him. O My friend, please go to Him, expertly appeal to Him on My behalf, and affectionately bring Him here to meet Me before this  wretched moon kisses the horizon and robs Me of My life-breath.


Ivotsni: Visakha to Radharani: O beautiful Radharani, the great circle of the moon is now filling the forest of Vrndavana with bright moonlight. Krsna, the son of Vraja's king, Nanda, has now marked the path You have taken and He is  about to follow it. You are nicely dressed in a white silk sari and You are anointed with camphor and sandalwood. Will You not now place Your two beautiful lotus feet on this path that leads to Krsna?Tamasi: Lalita to Radharanl:  Their limbs completely covered by blue saris, these saintly gopis are now traveling through this kadamba forest on this dark, moonless night to meet Krsna, the enemy of Bakasura. O my friend Radharani, the sharp blades of the  lightning effulgence of Your transcendental body are now piercing the thick darkness that is Your ally. In this way, Your brilliant bodily luster has now become Your enemy.Vasasajia: A girl who decorated her body and home to  attract her lover is called vasasajja. The vasasajja yearns to enjoy amorous pastimes with Krsna. She gazes at the path, waiting for Krsna's arrival. She enjoys telling her friends about her pastimes with Krsna. She continually looks  for the arrival of Krsna's messenger. These are some of the activities of the vasasajja.Rupa-manjarl to a gopl friend: When Radharani sees the conjugal pastime grove with its beautiful couch of flowers and when She sees Her  transcendental form nicely decorated, She begins to smile. Repeatedly meditating on Her association with Krsna, Her heart becomes intoxicated by amorous desires.Utkanthita: A girl who longs for her absent lover, who has neither  offended her nor quarreled with her, is called a virahotkanthita heroine by those learned in the features of ecstatic love. This heroine suffers within her heart, trembles, weeps, becomes listless, and proposes various theories to  explain why her lover has not come to meet her. These are some of the activities of the utkanthita heroine.


Candravall to her gopl friend: O moon-faced friend, is Krsna now bound by the ropes of Radharanl's sidelong glances, or has He now begun a war with the powerful enemies of the demigods? Alas, it is already the eighth day of  Krsna-paksa, the moon is now rising in the east, and the prince of Vraja does not remember me.The three conditions mentioned after vasasajja share some common features. In them, the heroine is completely dependent on her  lover and she longs for him in his absence.Khandita: When a lover does not arrive at the appointed rendezvous to meet his beloved but instead, spends the time enjoying with a different girl later, at sunrise, he may chance to meet  the girl he cheated, displaying the clear signs of his amorous adventures. The cheated girl is known as khandita. She may become angry, sigh, or become silent. These are some of her responses.Bakulamala to her friend: Krsna's  head and arms were smudged with red lac and His chest was marked with kuhkuma from embracing the breasts of some girl. In some places, His body carried the impressions of earring or finger rings. His garland of flowers had  wilted and His eyes were like two flower-buds, rolling about. When Syama saw Him appear in this way at sunrise, she became angry within her heart and on her lips, she observed the vow of silence followed by great sages.

Vipralabdha: A girl whose dear lover fails, because of the hand of destiny, to keep his appointment with her, and who is thus very unhappy at heart, is called vipralabdha by the wise. The vipralabdha heroine manifests despair,  anxiety, anguish, weeping, fainting, and singing. These are some of the ways she responds to her situation.Radharanl to Visakha: The moon has now left the sky and returned to the heavenly planets. O friend, this Krsna, the lover

of the goddess of fortune, has cheated us. What shall we do now? Please instruct us. After speaking these words, doe-eyed Radharanl fainted.


Kalahantarita: A girl who quarrels with her lover and, even when he falls at her feet and begs her to forgive him in front of all her friends, angrily rejects him, only to suffer afterwards, is called kalahantarita. She feels great remorse  and suffering, becomes listless, sighs, and talks nonsense. These are some of her symptoms.Radharanl: I have thrown far away all the garlands presented to Me by this Krsna, the enemy of Kesi. 1 have not allowed His sweet words  of supplication to enter My ears. When He offers obeisances to Me, I refuse to see His peacock-feather crown resting on the ground before Me, All His endeavors are as effective as a meal buried deep underground.Prosita-bhartrka:  A girl whose lover has gone to a distant country is known as prosita-bhartrka. She praises her absent lover, is weak, dispirited, emaciated, unable to sleep, miserable, unsteady, stunned, and filled with anxieties. These are some of  her qualities.Radharanl to Lalita : Krsna is now happily enjoying transcendental pastimes in Mathura without Me. He is happy but for Me, this springtime brings pain at every step and from every direction. Alas, My enemy, the  impossible hope that perhaps He may return, has become a great obstacle that does not allow Me to fulfill My desire to kill myself. Where can I find shelter from this enemy.Svadhina-bhartrka: A girl who controls her lover is called  svadhina-bhartrka. Her activities include picking flowers and enjoying pastimes with her lover in the forest of Vrndavana and the water of the Yamuna.


Vrnda to PaurnamasI: Krsna happily paints incomparably beautiful designs and pictures on Radharanl's full breasts. On both Her ears, He places blue lotus flowers so fragrant that they attract bees, and on Her braid He playfully  places another delicate lotus flower. In this way, Krsna obediently pleases Radharanl for a long time.Radharanl said: Krsna, please draw some nice pictures on My breasts and cheeks. Decorate My hips with a sash, twine a garland  of flowers in My braids, and decorate My hands and feet with bracelets and anklets of lotus petals. When Krsna heard all these orders, He obediently carried them out with great pleasure.Radharanl cannot tolerate even a moment's  separation from Her lover, Krsna. Because She becomes completely controlled by His great love, She is known as Madhavi, the lover of Madhava.The svadhina-bhartrka, vasasajja, and abhisarika heroines are cheerful at heart and  decorated with nice ornaments. The other five heroines are despondent, and are not decorated with any ornaments. Their heart filled with anxieties, these five heroines rest their hand against their left cheek. Among the heroines in  all eight categories, there are three divisions: (1) kanistha (beginners) (2) madhyama (intermediate) and (3) uttama (the most exalted).In this way, there are gradations of love (culminating in the uttama heroine) felt by the heroines  for their beloved Krsna, the prince of Vraja. Under all circumstances, Krsna exactly reciprocates the love they bear for Him.Uttama: Radharanl is described as the topmost uttama heroine in the following statement, where Krsna says  to Subala: Radharanl will renounce everything if that will make Me happy for a moment. Even if I torment Her with suffering, She never becomes angry with Me in Her heart. If She hears the rumor, even if it is untrue, that I am slightly  unhappy, Her heart cracks. With these transcendental good qualities, RadharanI shines as the best of all the beautiful-eyed gopls.


Madhyma: A gopl to Ranga-devi: Have you worshipped Krsna with great respect only to become wounded at heart by Him? Is that the reason you have so suddenly left? O Ranga-devi, your limbs are trembling, as if tossed by  waves. O my friend, this is not the symptom of a beautiful girl's love for her lover.Kanistha: Vrnda to a gopl: A moment ago, you were jubilantly praising this fierce rainstorm, saying that because of it, no one would travel and therefore,  you could very easily go to your rendezvous with Krsna, the slayer of demons. My dear eager girl, please tell me—now that a little baby cloud is yawning with a few thunderbolts, you have suddenly become reluctant to travel to the  forest grove?In this way, we have divided the heroines into groups of five and ten. The various subdivisions and interactions of these groups give us 120 different kinds of heroines. When the eight features, beginning with utkanthita,  and the three features, beginning with uttama, are added, there are 360 different kinds of heroines. This is the description of learned devotees.Just as Krsna manifests the consciousness of all the different kinds of heroes, RadharanI  manifests the different kinds of consciousness of most of the different kinds of heroines.


Now, the leaders of the gopls will be described. Some act as Srlmati Radharanl's friends, some are neutral, and some are rivals.The girls with beautiful eyebrows of Gokula may be divided into three groups: (1) adhika (the most  fortunate and qualified) (2) sama (those whose good fortune and qualifications place them in an intermediate position) and (3) laghu (those not as fortunate and qualified as the others).Each of these groups may again be subdivided  into three sub¬groups: (1) prakhara (a harsh girl) (2) madhya (a girl whose qualities place her midway between the prakhara and mrdvl) and (3) mrdvl (a girl whose disposition is sweet and gentle). The prakhara speaks arrogantly  and in argument, she is almost always victorious. The mrdvl is completely free from arrogance and the madhya is partly arrogant and partly sweet.Each of the groups of adhika, sama, and laghu heroines may again be subdivided  into: (1) atyantiki (eternally the most elevated) and (2) apeksiki (those aspiring for that position).Atyantiki-adhika: A girl who is superior to others and to whom no one is equal or superior is known as atyantika-adhika. The madhya  heroine, Srlmati Radharani, is the topmost atyantika-adhika because there is no girl like Her in the land of Vraja.


Syamala: Bhadra may speak fickle, charming words; Pali may blossom with happiness; Vimala may abandon all shyness; Syama may become proud; and even Candravall may strut about with her head raised high—only so long  as the mantra Radha does not enter their ears.Out of many leaders of the gopls, one may aspire for the most elevated love of Krsna. Such a heroine, better than the others, is given the name apeksiki-adhika.Adhika-prakhara: A gopl  to her friend: Here comes the serpent king, Krsna, slithering down Govardhana Hill. My dear beautiful friend, since you do not know the mantra to tame Him, you and your frightened friends should immediately flee from this place.  However, since I am an expert snake charmer who travels around this forest of Vrndavana, I shall now weave a magical spell and bring this Krsna snake under my control.Adhika-madhya: One of the yuthesvarls (leaders of the  gopls) to a gopl: My friends saw you on the sunset of the full moon day! Why do you angrily and cleverly try to deceive me? Rascal, I shall now imprison you and your friends in my house. The king of this forest grove, who waits for  you on the path, will see that He has been tricked by you, just as someone may become tricked into thinking that a rope is a snake.Adhika-mrdvl: One of the yuthesvarls says to her gopl friend: Please do not bow your head and go  far away with all your friends. Look at me. Dear friend, I love you. The flower garland you won by defeating Krsna, the demon-crusher, in the gambling match, and which you now wear in your hair, I carefully fashioned with all the  artistic skill I could gather.Just as the two kinds of adhika (most exalted) yuthesvarls were divided into three groups, the two kinds of sama yuthesvarls and laghu yuthesvarls are also divided into three groups in the same way.

Sama-prakhara: One time, Krsna chastised a certain gopl for picking flowers in Vrndavana forest. When that gopl became very frightened by His words, one of the yuthesvarls spoke to her: Do you not have a friend by your side?  Why do you tremble at heart? Is it because of this Krsna? My dear friend, I am accompanied by many intelligent gopls and my strength is very formidable. I shall now stand before you and raise my arms to defend you from this  Krsna.


Sama-madhya: Conversation between two yuthesvarl gopls: First yuthesvarl: Don't touch me! Your forehead is marked with mineral pigment smudges from Krsna's body. Second yuthesvarl: Why do you touch me? the mistress of a  snake should keep her distance. First yuthesvarl: To hell with you! You are the mistress of a snake. Your body carries the marks of your enjoyment with your snake lover. Second yuthesvarl: Your friends are all snakes that have  sloughed their skins and slithered from the holes of Krsna's flute.Mrdvl: One time, Krsna sent Lilavati to chastise and humble Tara, who He considered overly proud. Tara's response to Lilavati's harsh criticisms was very gentle and  mild. She said: How can your friend, Tara, deny your words? O Lilavati, I swear—you are my life and soul. O auspicious, fair-complexioned friend—one thing I beg you—please instruct your cowherd friend Krsna that, although it is  proper for Him to deal with me in this way, He should not abuse others who are honest, simple folk in this fashion.A prakhara yuthesvarl, noticing a sama-mrdvl yuthesvarl entering the forest at sunset, became suspicious and bitterly  accused her of going to meet Krsna. The mrdvl yuthesvarl defended herself by saying that she was merely going to the shore of the Yamuna to worship the goddess Durga, according to her mother-in-law's instruction. The following  exchange ensued: Mrdvl yuthesvarl: My mother-in-law has sent me here with my friend. Why are you whispering these terrible accusations? Prakhara yuthesvarl: I am mistaken. I thought you had disobeyed your mother-in-law's  order. Now that it is sunset, I shall go with you and your friend to the shore of the Yamuna, and worship the goddess Durga.


The laghu yuthesvarls may first be divided into two groups: (1) apeksiki (those aspiring for perfection) and (2) atyantiki (those who have attained perfection). Among leaders of the gopls, those who are in a lesser position are known  as apeksiki-laghu.Laghu-prakhara: A laghu-prakhara yuthesvarl arrogantly criticizes her friend: O fickle thief who lurks in this forest of Vrndavana, are you very happy to peacefully sit by the shore of the Yamuna now that you have  tightly bound me with this exaggerated glorification of Krsna? You have not only tied me up but now, you have stolen the great wealth of my peaceful composure and forcibly snatched from me the great opulence of my shy modesty.  My friend, you have robbed me and made me very unhappy.Laghu-madhya: A gopl says to Candravall: Radharani, the daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu, knows a magic potion to bring Krsna under Her control. At this moment, She  is entering the pathway of the eyes of Her ever new and fresh lover, Vraja's prince, Krsna. It is very easy to see how kind and polite She is to Him, and how cruel and hard She is to you. O queen Candravall, who can describe the  misfortune of us tormented persons?Laghu-mrdvl: A yuthesvarl friend of Radharani says to her friend: Look at the golden moon of Candravall, who fills the shore of the Yamuna with a beautiful splendor. My friends, if we chance to  see the wonderful cakora bird of Krsna, let us flee at once. (The cakora bird is nourished by drinking the light of the moon.)Because Krsna is absorbed in gazing at the moonlike Candravall He is compared to this bird. In this verse  Radharani's friends say they cannot bear to see Krsna gazing at Candravall. They will flee at once to avoid seeing this terrible sight.


Among the yuthesvarls, the atyantiki-laghu yuthesvarl is in the lowest position. The mrdvl feature is especially suitable for her character.One of the laghu-mrdvl yuthesvarls addresses her friend: Krsna has been invited to two places  this evening. All my friends have mercifully invited Him to meet me in a secluded forest grove and at the same time, my parents have invited Him to dinner. This has created a very embarrassing situation for me. O goddesses of  Vrndavana, please stay here a while. Beautify my home with your presence and please mercifully cover my embarrassment when Krsna arrives.In this way, the yuthesvarls are divided into three groups: (1) adhika (the most exalted)  (2) sama (those of intermediate status) and (3) laghu (those of the lowest status). Each of these three groups is again divided into three. In this way, the number of groups becomes nine. The groups are again divided into two parts:  (1) atyantika, or situated in perfection and (2) apeksiki, or aspiring for perfection.


Some gopis assist Lord Krsna by carrying messages. Situated in the various stages of ecstatic love, beginning with purva-raga (preliminary attraction), these messenger gopis yearn to associate with Lord Krsna. They may be  divided into two groups: (1) svayam-dutl and (2) apta-dutl. They will be described in this chapter.Svayam-dutu (A messenger who acts on her own volition): A gopl who is filled with varieties of ecstatic love, whose intense enthusiasm  overwhelms her natural shyness, and who thus, on her own volition, carries messages for Lord Krsna and His lovers, is described in the smrti-sastra as svayam-duti.The svayam-diltls are again divided into three groups: (1) vacika  (2) angika and (3) caksusa.Vacika (verbal messages): Verbal messages are divided into two types: (1) sabda-vyangya (where a hidden meaning, or secret message, is concealed in the sounds of the words) and (2) artha-vyangya  (where a secret message is concealed in the meaning of the words). These may again be divided in two ways: (1) Krsna-visaya; and (2) purahstha-visaya.Krsna-visaya may be divided into two ways: (1) saksat (direct) and (2)  vyapadesa (by a trick).Saksat: The saksat message may assume various forms, such as: (1) garva (the proud message) (2) aksepa (scolding) and (3) yacna (an appeal).Garva-sabdottha-vyangaya (the proud message where the  words themselves conceal hidden meanings): RadharanI to Krsna: My dear Madhava, by association with Lalita , I have become very proud and now, I am confident that I am the crest-jewel of all chaste, saintly girls. For Your own  good, therefore, I tell you: Do not become a snake-like rake who tries to make advances to Me on this pathway. (My dear Madhava, 1 am always present in the thoughts of the chaste, saintly gopis and therefore, playful ecstatic love  has filled Me with great pride. I have become very proud because the charming hero, Krsna, is so attached to Me. For Your own good, therefore, I tell You: Do not act like a snake, do not act like a debauchee, and do not try to  embrace me.


Garva-arthottha-vyangya: (a proud message where the hidden message is contained not in the words, but in the meaning): Syama to Krsna: My dear Krsna, whose limbs are dark, like a tamala tree, why do You throw these  charming sidelong glances at us? I am Syama, famous as the guru of all pious, chaste girls in all three worlds. If I try to even lightly bind these doe-like gopis with Your sidelong glance, they will become furious, surround You, and  violently attack You from all directions.Aksepa-sabdottha-vyangya (a rebuke with words that conceal a hidden meaning): A gopl says to Krsna: O rascal of Vraja, do not block my path. Turn Your eyes to the horizon and look at the big  clouds that have already covered the splendor of the crescent moon. O crooked cheater, my fine, beautiful, effulgent red bodice is already wet with rain drops. It is becoming ruined.(O rascal of Vraja, do not block my path, turn Your  eyes to my uncovered thighs and breasts decorated with scratch-marks. My splendidly beautiful, youthful body nicely decorated with a glistening bodice has now become stunned and pale with intense ecstatic love for You.)

Aksepa-arthottha-vyangya (a rebuke where a secret message is concealed in the meaning): A gopl says to Krsna: Thief! In my presence, You are stealing many fragrant, fresh, blossoming jasmine flowers from this kadamba forest.  If You try to steal my splendid necklace, who will protect me? The village of Vraja is far away and we are alone in this uninhabited forest.Yacna (an appeal): This kind of message is divided into two kinds: (1) svartha (with a direct  meaning) and (2) parartha (with a hidden meaning).


Svartha-yaena: Radharani to Krsna: O Krsna, I yearn to get some nice flowers. I am now standing behind a beautiful flowering creeper. Please decorate Me with some of it's sumana flowers.(O Krsna, by searching for flowers in Your  company, I have become filled with amorous desires. I am a charming girl embraced by the blossoming creeper of transcendental beauty. Please satisfy My desires and make Me happy. After Radharani had spoken these words,  Krsna took the flowers He had collected and placed them in Her bodice.Radharani to Krsna: This snake-filled Vrndavana forest is not very safe. Because I neglected to offer flowers to the goddess, Katyayanl, I am afraid I will be  punished by one of these snakes. O Krsna, O Lord who played on the raised hoods of the snake king, Kaliya, I am surrendered to You—I have full faith and trust in You. Please be kind to Me and give me a mantra to counteract the  poison of snake bites. (In this allegory, the snakes and poison refer to the amorous desires in Radharanl's heart. In this way, these words contain a concealed invitation to Krsna. In response to this request, Krsna whispered a mantra  into Radharanl's ear. At that time, He took the opportunity to kiss Her cheek and after that, He touched Her bodice as the daksina.)Radharani: My dear Krsna, You are the glorified as the best of all famous men and You traverse this  dense, creeper-filled forest simply to protect the people staying here. O Krsna, O best of the Yadus, please be kind to us. Please be merciful and show us the path through the forest. We women take shelter of You because we do not  know the path that will bring us again to Vraja Village.


Parartha-yacna: A gopl addresses Krsna: When my friend once drank the fresh nectar of Your flute music with the cupped hands of her ears, her mind became very light and she at once fainted. Since then, she has become very  pale and constantly afflicted with a grave and mysterious disease. She thinks that You are the expert Dhanvantari who can cure her.A gopl says: O Krsna, O killer of the Madhu demon, I come to You with a message from a dear  friend who faithfully loves You. Please try to understand her love for You. She is a cakora bird and she considers Your face to be like the moon. If tonight she does not get the opportunity to drink the moonlight of Your face, she will  die. Her death will cause me great pain.Vyapadesa (a trick): when words are employed to deceive the hearer, the device is called vyapadesa.A gopl to Krsna: O elephant, blinded with intoxication, why do You leave this celestial  Ganga River, glistening with nectarean beauty, and filled with blue lotus flowers, and sweetly cooing, intoxicated swans? Why have You taken shelter of this dark, muddied Karmanasa River?(O hero who carries a lotus flower. This  is the best of all girls on earth. She glistens with the great nectar of beauty, she speaks like a sweetly cooing, intoxicated swan, her breasts are decorated with musk, and she is very eager to enjoy amorous pastimes with You. O  hero, blinded by folly, why do You ignore her and wallow in the mud of inaction?)A gopl to Krsna: My dear melodious cuckoo bird, why do You wander about Vrndavana forest, ignoring this sweet mango blossom so young that even  the bumblebees remain unaware of its charming fragrance.


When one pretends to talk to another person, even though the words are actually intended for Lord Krsna, who is standing by the speaker and hearing every word, such statements are called purahstha-visaya.A gopl, in the presence  of Krsna, addresses a Malatl creeper in the following words: O Malatl creeper, the bumblebees call you, wishing to collect the honey of your flowers. For myself, I earnestly wish to take a beautiful flower from this fragrant punnaga  tree.(O Malatl creeper, the bumblebees call you, wishing to collect the honey of your flowers. For myself, I passionately long to attain this Supreme Personality of Godhead, the best of males, who is decorated with many beautiful,  fragrant flowers.)A gopl, in Krsna's presence, addresses Govardhana Hill: O Govardhana Hill, you are decorated with many creepers bearing beautiful flowers unpicked by anyone and you are the home of many peaceful, confident  birds. I wish to wander on your slope. Please tell me how I may easily do that.A gopl, accidentally meeting Krsna in the forest: This Krsna, the prince of Vraja, is famous for breaking the chastity of pious girls and I am a delicate girl,  unable to resist Him, even with words. Exhausted from walking and lost in this impenetrable jungle of creepers, I have now stumbled on that Krsna.Angika: These messages consist of: (1) angulisphotanam (cracking the fingers) (2)  vyaja-sambhramady-anga-samvrti (pretending to hastily cover the body) (3) pada bhu-lekhanam (writing on the ground with the toes) (4) karna-kanduti (scratching the ears) (5) tilaka-kriya (applying tilaka) (6) vesa-kriya (garments)  (7) bhruvor dhuti (moving the eyebrows) (8) sekhyam aslesa-tadane (embracing, and also chastising a gopl friend) (9) damso 'dharasya (biting the lips) (10) haradi-gumpha (stringing necklaces and garlands) (11)  mandana-sinjutam (making the ornaments tinkle) (12) dor-muladi-prakatanam (uncovering the shoulders or other parts of the body) (13) Krsna-namabhilekhanam (writing Lord Krsna's name) and (14) Tdrau lataya yoga (twining a  creeper around a tree). These are some of the angika messages the gopls send to Lord Krsna.


Cracking the fingers: Krsna to Subala: Beautiful-eyed Visakha, the best of all chaste and saintly girls, then began to crack her fingernails. Even though I was greatly fatigued, this activity enchanted Me and broke My mind into pieces.

Pretending to be very concerned to cover the limbs of the body: Krsna to Subala: As she stood before Me, this doe-eyed young gopl repeatedly covered her face and breasts with her sari. I think her heart is sorely wounded by the  arrows of Cupid.Scratching the ground with the toe: Krsna to Subala: As soon as I arrived, this beautiful gopl of Vraja began to scratch beautiful designs on the ground with her big toe. These designs contained the edicts of Cupid  and as I read them, I found My mind tightly bound with ropes and forcibly thrown into the valley between the two mountains of this gopfs breasts.This lotus-eyed gopl of Vraja scratched her ear with the tips of her red fingernails. As  she scratched, the bangles on her wrist tinkled and her gold earrings playfully moved to and fro. I am now meditating on her ear scratching.Kundavali to Krsna: O Krsna, decorated with a crown of peacock feathers, as soon as  Gandharvika (Radharanl) saw You, She at once began to happily decorate Her face, which is as beautiful as the autumn moon, with splendid tilaka dots of red sindura. As her hand, as splendid as a yellow bandhuka flower, applied  the tilaka dots, Her earring swung to and fro. Her red tilaka dots looked just like the love for You that has newly sprouted in Her heart and is now beginning to push its new shoots onto the surface of Her transcendental body.

As she stood before Krsna, lotus-eyed Pali beamed with happiness as she playfully and suggestively placed an earring of nectar-filled lavanga flowers on her ear.Vrnda to Visakha: My dear Visakha, why do you move the Cupid's  longbows of your eyebrows in this frightening manner? What has made you so unhappy? After all, with the chains of the beauty of your moon-like face, you have just chained up the maddened, ichor-scented elephant of Krsna.

Rupa-manjarl to Rati-manjarl : Look! With a passionate sidelong glance, Citra greets Krsna, who has just entered the pathway of her eyes. Her moving golden bracelets tinkling, for a long time she suggestively embraces a gopl  friend, pressing her to her own round firm breasts.


Sakhl-tadanam: Subala to Krsna: Visakha has fixed her mind on conquering You. She now directs the lightning bolts of her restless sidelong glances at Your lotus feet and she repeatedly strikes a gopl friend with a cluster of flower.

Adhara-damsa: Syama to Lalita : Now that Vraja's prince, Krsna, has entered the pathway of her eyes, your moon-faced gopl friend has become maddened with passion. Look! She is now biting her lips as if she has become angry  with a friend.Haradi-gumpha: Krsna to Subala: Who is this blossoming lotus-eyed girl? By gazing at Me from the corners of her eyes, she has stolen the jewel of My heart and placed it in the center of the necklace of pearls she  strings. Mandana-sanjitam: Krsna to Subala: Seeing Me from far away, Syama moves so that her clashing golden bracelets make a tumultuous tinkling sound. I think these bracelets are actually reciting the royal edicts of the  monarch, Cupid.


Dor-mula-prakatanam: Krsna to Syama: My dear beautiful and auspicious Syama, in this forest of Vrndavana, there are many splendid creepers bearing many sweet fruits at their tendrils' ends but of all these creepers, the  braceleted creepers of your arms are especially wonderful because at their roots (your breasts), they bear two glistening fruits that delight the black cuckoo bird of Krsna.Krsna-namabhilekhanam: Krsna to Vrnda: O Vrnda, by writing  My name in red kunkuma paste on the pages of her cheeks, your gopl friend has sent Me a very clear message of her intentions.Tdrau lataya yogah: Krsna addresses the cowherd boy, Arjuna: O Arjuna, when I saw the beautiful  form of this lotus-eyed gopl of Vraja, I became overwhelmed with passion. At that moment, by suggestively wrapping a golden yuthi creeper around a dark tamala tree, she made me mad with happiness.Caksusa: Erotic signals sent  from the eyes are divided into the following varieties: (1) netra-smita (smiling eyes) (2) ardha-mudra (half-closed eyes) (3) netranta-bhrama (roving sidelong glances) (4) kunane (eyes turned away) (5) saciksa (tilting the neck and  glancing) (6) vama-drk-preksa (crooked glances) (7) kataksa (sidelong glances).Netra-smitam: One evening, when RadharanI saw Krsna returning from the pasturing ground with the boys and cows, her eyes burst into a smile of  great happiness. Seeing this, Syama,wishing to tease her friend, addressed Her: O fickle Radharani, I know very well that when You saw Krsna, Your eyes became filled with amorous desire, which You craftily concealed by  covering it with this smile upon Your eyes.Netrardha-mudra: As Radharani gazed at Krsna with half-closed eyes, Her friend, Kundavali, jokingly addressed Her: Poets say that Krsna's face is the sky and His eyes are the sun and  moon. My friend, is this not the reason the lotus flowers of Your eyes are half-closed as You gaze upon them. (The lotus flower blossoms in sunlight and contracts in moonlight).Netranta-bhrama: Vrnda to Syama: Mukunda has now  lost interest in the playful duel between the bulls. His mind is no longer fixed on happily playing with His gopa friends. O Syama, by glancing at you, He has become stunned like a tamala tree. How have you become able to make  your sidelong glances dance in this wonderful way?Netranta-kunanam: Nandlmukhl to PaurnamasI: As Syama was walking on the Yamuna's shore, Prince Krsna entered the pathway of her eyes. Astonished and embarrassed, she  turned away from Him but then furtively glanced at Him from the corner of her eyes.Saciksa: Krsna to Subala: At the Yamuna's shore, doe-eyed Radharani tilted Her neck and glanced at Me with dancing eyes. In this way, She  severely wounded My heart with the sharp point of Cupid's arrow.


Vama-drk-preksa: One time, Lalita noticed on Radharani's body the clear symptoms of Her enjoying amorous pastimes with Krsna. Lalita then addressed Her: My dear Radharani, you appear to be helplessly tossed about by the  moon-agitated tidal waves of happiness moving in the dark nectar ocean of Krsna. In a very excited condition, You have repeatedly drunk the nectar of that ocean with the cupped hands of Your crooked eyes. In this way, You have  become a great pitcher filled with that transcendental nectar.Kataksa: The pupils of the eyes may move with wonderful, expert quickness, going from place to place. Glances from the corners of such eyes are called kataksa.

Either a gopl messenger, or Krsna Himself, addresses Radharani: O golden-complexioned Gandharvika, the enchanting bumblebees of the pupils of Your eyes dart to and fro, repeatedly resting on the lotus flower in Krsna's ear.  The pastimes of this bumblebee have agitated the mind of Krsna and made Him completely forget everything, even His own self. Now, where is His talking about Your lotus-like gopl rivals? Now, where is His talking about Padma's  friend, Candravall? He has forgotten them all.In this way, we have given a brief glimpse of the numberless kinds of messages sent by the gopls and also, when appropriate, by Lord Krsna, the enemy of the Agha demon. Those  learned in the mellows of transcendental love explain that these messages are outward manifestations of the internal ecstatic love of the gopls.Dutl (the gopl messengers): The gopl messengers are very trustworthy and can be  depended on implicitly, even if their own lives are placed in danger. They are affectionate and eloquent.These gopls are divided into three categories: (1) amitartha (2) nisrstartha (3) aptra-hari (letter carriers).


Amitartha: A gopl who, from one or two symptoms, can understand the love of Krsna and a certain gopl, and who then proceeds to voluntarily arrange for their meeting, is called amitartha.A gopl to Krsna: O killer of the Baka demon,  I could see the message of love written on Your moon-like face and I could also see Radharani futilely carry the armor of Her modesty that had been broken to pieces by the arrows of Your sidelong glances. I could understand by  seeing. I did not need a verbal explanation.Nisrstartha: A gopl messenger who, shunning many complicated strategies, with a single logical argument is able to unite Lord Krsna and His gopl beloved, is called nisrstartha.A gopl  addresses Krsna: O crusher of Aghasura, the transcendental virtues of Radharani are like a host of splendid priceless jewels that have no equal in all the three worlds. Fie on me! I am a fool for trying to describe these jewels to You,  whose heart is as hard as a diamond.Patra-hari: A gopl messenger who carries letters between the youthful divine couple is called patra-hari.A gopl to Krsna: O Mukunda, please hear this message Your lotus-eyed gopl of Vraja  friend gave me in a secluded place. She says to You: O rascal, why did You disturb me as I was enjoying the jubilant festival of deep sleep? Was this right or proper?The gopl messengers in Vraja may also be considered in the  following way: (1) slipa-kari (2) daivajfia (3) lingini (4) paricarika (5) dhatreyi (6) vana-devi and (7) sakhl.Silpakari (an artist): A gopl to Krsna: The gopls then said to me: "You are a second Visvakarma, appearing in a female form.  Please quickly draw a picture of the most handsome man you know in this world." Requested in this way, I drew a picture of You. When Citra saw You in the picture, she became struck with wonder and the eyes of all the other gopls  also became filled with wonder.


Daivajna (an astrologer): A gopl sent by Radharani read Krsna's horoscope: At the time of Your birth, the auspicious star, Rohini, was resting in Vrsabha. The calculation of Your horoscope makes me very happy. O Krsna, whose  form is like a dark rain cloud, I predict that You will become illuminated by a lightning flash and a full moon with wonderfully beautiful eyebrows. (Radharanl's).Lingini (an ascetic): A gopl messenger who dresses like an ascetic, as  PaurnamasI does, is called lingini.PaurnamasI to Radharani: Honest daughter, do not become upset. I am an old ascetic expert at reciting mystic charms. I shall become Your messenger and the Prince of Vraja will be brought  under Your dominion.Paricarika (maidservants): Lavanga-manjarl and Bhanumati are the leaders of the paricarika gopl messengers.Lavanga-manjarl to Radharani: Attracted by the jewels of Your transcendental qualities, Krsna  has left the other gopls and appeared before Your eyes. O my queen, please tell me—what else may this maidservant do for You?Dhatreyi (the daughter of Radharanl's nurse). A gopl to Krsna: My mother nursed Radharani in Her  childhood and we are just like two sisters. My dear Krsna, I have come here to tell You something very wonderful. Although Radharanl's complexion is generally as splendid as gold, now that She is pining with love for You, She has  become thin and pale, just like the white crescent moon.Vana-devi (a forest demigoddess). A gopl, sent by Vrnda to break Radharanl's strong pride: I was born as a demigoddess in this forest. Out of love for You, I have appeared to  You at different times as Your sister, mother-in-law, gopl friend, and sister-in-law. Now, please lift your neck. Be kind, move Your eyebrows, and send various amorous signals to Krsna. In this way, Krsna, the elephant of the cowherd  boys, will transform Your breasts into the bulging frontal lobes of His elephant beloved.


Sakhl (the friend who becomes a messenger): Without any duplicity, the sakhls have more love for each other than for their own selves. They are fully worthy of each others' complete trust and they are equal in age, appearance, and  other attributes.Visakha describes the pitiful condition of lovesick RadharanI to Krsna: I don't lament for my dear friend, RadharanI, who is now on the verge of death, mortally wounded by the waves of the sharpened arrows of Your  glances. I only lament that when She finally dies and goes to the incomparable supreme destination, the eyes of this entire material world will become useless for the lack of being able to see Her.Messages are divided into two  kinds: (1) vacya (where the meaning is presented in a straightforward way) (2) vyangya (where the message contains a hidden meaning).Vacya: Tungavidya to RadharanI: Curse me, hit me, rebuke me, throw me outside, or attack  me many times—still, my mind does not waver from it's resolve. I shall now go to bring Krsna here. My friend, I speak the truth—a gopl who will not work to see You reunited with Krsna lives in vain. It is better for her to simply give up  her breath and die at once.Vyangya: A sakhl to RadharanI: My friend, I can guess that You desire to be anointed with fragrant Krsnaguru sandalwood paste. I shall now go to the market to purchase it.


(My friend, I can guess that You desire to be anointed with the fragrant aguru scent known as Krsna. I shall now go to that amorous hero and bring Him to You.)A gopl to RadharanI: My child, why are You so thirsty? Listen and I shall  tell You of a place You may visit to relieve Your thirst. My dear cakori bird, at this moment, the splendid, pure, reddish moon waits for You on the eastern horizon.Krsne vacyam: V 'TVh5 to Krsna: RadharanI is the most beautiful girl in  all the th   Is. After Brahma had created Her,He became struck with wonder at Her unprecedented beauty. My dear Krsna, this RadharanI has sent me with a message for You.Vyangyam: Two kinds of vyangya messages are sent by  Lord Krsna: (1) priya-purah (directly spoken to the gopl beloved) and (2) priya-pascat (given to the gopl beloved in an indirect way). These messages may again be divided into two kinds: (1) saksat and (2) vyapadesa.Visakha, in the  presence of RadharanI, spoke to Krsna: O Madhava, this peahen is very difficult to please. She will not come near me. Please be kind and quickly take her with Your hand.Visakha, in the presence of Her gopl friend, speaks to Krsna:  O Krsna, many young girls in Vraja are eager to enjoy pastimes with You. Unlike them, my envious friend here is not at all agitated with the desire to enjoy with You. In fact, when she sees You, the spiritual master of all rogues and  cheaters, she becomes very angry. Look, she is now quickly placing many ardha-candra arrows of angry sidelong glances on the long bows of her eyebrows.Visakha, in the presence of Krsna and His gopl beloved: O kadamba tree,  O favorite of Balarama, this splendid and fragrant Madhavl creeper has now left its hard dhava tree. Does she not approach You now, yearning to take shelter of You?


(O Krsna, O dear friend of Balarama, this splendid, fragrant gopl, who has conquered Your heart, has now left her harsh husband. Does she not approach You now, yearning to take shelter of You?)A gopl says to Krsna: O Mukunda,  You are eternally fond of the surabhi cows and You are splendidly decorated with the glistening Kaustubha jewel. Camapakalata is glorified by all the beautiful and charming gopls and she is both fragrant and splendid. O Krsna, as  splendid as a dark rain cloud, You do not appear very handsome or glorious without the company of the new-lightning-flash-like Campakalata.Lalita to a bumblebee: My dear bumblebee, north of this lofty mountain is a great lake.  On the shore of that lake is a large forest and in the midst of that forest is a charming cottage of creepers. At the door of that cottage is a blossoming Malatl creeper (Radharanl) that fills every direction with a delightful fragrance. My  dear bumblebee, that Malatl creeper is now gazing at the path waiting for you to arrive.The heroine may ask her friend to deliver the message to Krsna in a particular way. These different ways are now described in the following  explanation.The heroine may ask that the message may be delivered in one of two ways: (1) kriya-sadhya (an activity) (2) vacika (a verbal request).Kriya-sadhya: Nandlmukhl to PaurnamasI: Slender Radharani stares at a new rain  cloud in the sky and stretches to embrace it. Is it that, without speaking a word, She is giving her gopl friend a message to deliver to Krsna?Briefly hearing the sound of Krsna's flute, slender, charming Radharanl became very  agitated at heart. Although She did not ask Her gopl friend to bring Krsna, She perspired and the hair of Her body stood erect in ecstasy.


Vacika: as previously explained, the verbal request to send the message may be divided into two types: (1) kvacya (the straightforward request) and (2) vyangya (the request expressed in words containing a hidden meaning).

Radharani to Vis'akha: My friend, you are My own life-breath moving outside My body. Within you, great expertise and eloquence reside. You are not unqualified, as I am. For this reason, I request you to speak with Krsna and make  Him become pleased with Me.Vyangya: The vyangya request is of two kinds: (1) sabda-vyangya (where the hidden meaning is contained in the words) and (2) artha-vyangya (where the meaning itself has a hidden intention).

Radharanl to Vrnda: My dear doe-eyed friend, I do not wish to learn any art or become skilled at any particular thing. I only wish to learn from the gopls having beautiful eyebrows the art of tying braids, (the treasure of who is  Kes'ava).O gopl friend, my heart has no desire for the best ruby. It only wishes to wear a beautiful diamond (Krsna) in the middle of this necklace.Artha-vyangya: This kind of request may be presented in various ways, for example:  (1) As a rebuke to the husband or another person (2) As praise of Lord Krsna or others (3) As a description of a certain place or thing.Radharanl to Vis'akha: I have offended the creator, Brahma, and for this reason, My heart is not at  all attracted to My husband.This forest by the Yamuna's shore is now violently attacking My eyes and causing Me great distress. O friend, why do you not instruct this forest to not attack Me in this way?


RadharanI to Visakha: My friend, you are My own life-breath, situated apart from My body. Although chaste girls will never glorify another man, I must ask you: How much sweetness is in this Krsna, the Prince of Vraja? Even from a  far distance, His bodily splendor crushes My eyes with flood of nectar.A gopl to her friend: My dear friend, Candala, now that the rains of childhood have fallen from me, Vraja's Prince Krsna has become the hero of my heart. My  friend, you are very expert at delivering messages. Please do not neglect me at this crucial time.RadharanI to Her gopl friend: I have wandered for a long time to collect flowers in this tree-and creeper-filled Vrndavana forest, and  now I am very tired. I shall now go alone into this grove and rest for a moment. In the meantime, please go and bring Me a flower (Krsna) from the Yamuna's shore.RadharanI to Visakha: The spring season and the moon have  combined to make this forest on the Yamuna's shore very beautiful. My body is also very nicely decorated by its friend, youthfulness. My friend, at this moment, what more need be said?


The sakhis assist Srimati Radharani in Her transcendental amorous pastimes with Lord Krsna. They are like transcendental jewelry cases in which Srimati Radharani places Her faith and trust. The following is an elaborate  description of the sakhis.The sakhis are attached to certain groups of gopl friends. The may be divided into different types, such as: (1) adhika and (2) prakhara.In the matter of prema (transcendental love), saubhagya (good fortune),  sad-gunya (transcendental qualities), and in other matters also, the sakhis are divided into three groups: (1) adhika (superior) (2) sama (intermediate) and (3) laghu (inferior).The prakhara (harsh) sakhl speaks heavy words that are  difficult to contradict. The mrdvl (gentle) sakhl does not speak harshly at all. The sama sakhl stands midway between the prakhara and mrdvl sakhl.The sakhis may be divided into various types, beginning with atyantikadhika (the  most exalted). In each group of sakhis, the leader is atyantikadhika.Some of the atyantikadhika sakhis are prakhara (harsh), some madhya (partly harsh and partly gentle), and some mrdvl (gentle).Atyantika-adhika: This kind of  sakhis are independent and not subject to the control of others. They are divided into three groups. Their activities are described in the following way.Syama says: Nila, cover me with this black cape. Magha, give me this garland of  damanaka flowers. My friend, Campa, anoint my body with this dark aguru paste. Bharamaraksi, watch for my elders. Now that evening has arrived, this great blinding darkness will aid my swift journey to the forest rendezvous with  Krsna.Syama and Mangala are the most prominent among the atyantika-adhika-prakhara sakhis.Radharani rebukes Her friends for delaying Her rendezvous with Krsna: Would you torture Me with these delays if your hearts

were wounded by Cupid's arrows? Look! The debauchee, Krsna, who loves you very dearly, and who is now protecting the surabhi cows, has just now entered on the pathway of your eyes.


Radharani and Palika are the most prominent of the atyantika-adhika-madhya sakhis.During a period when she had broken up with Krsna because of a quarrel, Candravall said to Padma: Listen, friend. I shall speak to you the truth.  Do my ears become tired from drinking the nectar of Krsna's flute music? If my pride is then crushed, what is the loss? From the other gopls, I have heard that you are criticizing Krsna for being too harsh to me. I think that if you  glance on Krsna with half of an eye, all your criticisms of Him would at once stop.Candravall and Bhadra are the most prominent of the mrdu (gentle) atyantika-adhika sakhis.Apeksika-adhika-trikam: (Three types of sakhis, aspiring  to become sakhl leaders): The sakhis in the group who are subordinate to the group of leaders, and aspire to become like her, are called apeksika-adhika.One time, Lalita sent the sakhl, Sumadhya, for a meeting of Krsna and  Radharani, who was staying in a nearby grove. Krsna, wishing to humble the overly-proud Radharani, detained the sakhl messenger, Sumadhya, with His clever, charming conversation. When the tardy Sumadhya returned, Lalita  upbraided.her in the following words: Sumadhya! Do not spend all this time drinking the sweet nectar of talking with this Krsna, the intoxicated king of cheaters and rogues. O girl greedy to enjoy pleasant pastimes, have you  forgotten that Radharani is languishing in this grove, which is filled with the sounds of humming bees?Lalita addresses Citra: Fool! Be quiet! You have become hypnotized by the mantras of Krsna, the king of rogues and cheaters.  Even though you can directly see Radharani keeping Her vigil in this garden on the summit of Govardhana Hill, you waste this precious time by talking to me with all these fancy words.


Lalita is the most important of the prakhara (harsh) apeksika-adhika sakhls in the group of Radharanl's closest friends.Visakha to Caturika: My dear friend, Caturika, please give this garland to Damodara. Although Krsna is now  glancing at me, you have neglected to tell Him that 1 picked the flowers for this garland. This oversight is now torturing me.Visakha to Campakalata: My friend, why do I avoid hearing your auspicious profound words and instead  allow myself to become tormented by the arrogant secrets spoken by Murari? I am now giving Krsna the splendid garland that once decorated the head of Kurangaksi. Krsna, wishing to humble Radharanl's false pride, arranged in  this way to honor Candravall's friend, Kurangaksi, by wearing a garland once worn by her. Visakha laments that Krsna has impressed her into this unpalatable service.Visakha is the leader of the apeksika-adhika madhya sakhis in  the circle of Radharanl's closest friends.Krsna, wishing to curb Radharanl's excessive pride, began devoting His attention to Citra. RadharanI, filled with jealous anger, rebuked Citra, who defended herself in the following words: My  dear angry friend, I have not cast the slightest glance on this Krsna, who wears a peacock-feather crown. Be kind to me. Don't criticize me for no good reason. If this Krsna, His shark-shaped earrings dancing to and fro as He playfully  struts about, tries to flirt with me, then how can I defend myself? How can I escape His clutches?In the circle of Radharanl's closest friends, Citra and Madhurika are the leaders of the mrdvi apeksika-adhika sakhis.

Sama: The sama sakhis have firm faith and love for each other. They are divided into prakhara, madhya, and mrdvi in the following way.


My friend, don't go away. Hari is very happy to see us. Let us pretend that we have become lost. He will then decorate our shoulders with the great bolts of His arms and happily walk with us on the shore of the Yamuna.Syama:  Gauri! At this moment, where does Hari enjoy pastimes? Gauri: My friend, the lion is in the cave of Govardhana Hill. Syama: Did a lion scratch your water pot-like breasts, that they are marked so? Gauri: I think you have become  attracted by the roar of this lion. Syama: Tricky dancing girl! It is you who finds pleasure in this lion's roaring (music of Krsna's flute).O Indulekha, please give me this pearl necklace that was given to you by Krsna. If you are so proud  that you will not give it to me, then I advise you to give up your smiling because I shall leave your company at once.Laghu-trikam: Those gopis who have firm trust in their friends, and who endeavor to please them, are properly  known as laghu sakhis. These sakhis are also divided into three types. The most important quality of the laghu sakhis is their willingness to help other gopis. The laghu sakhis may be divided into two groups: (1) apeksiki (inferior)  and (2) atyantiki (superior).Lalita is said to be the leader of the apeksika-laghu sakhis.In the presence of Krsna, Lalita exposes Radharanl's love by addressing Her in the following words: Many times You warned me, saying: Do not  allow your heart to fall in love with Nanda's son, Krsna, because those who love Him shed a stream of tears that never stops. My dear fickle girl, all of a sudden You are knitting Your eyebrows. You seem to give no importance to my  words. I ask You: Will You not now cry forever?The laghu-prakhara sakhis may be divided into two types: (1) vama (the left wing) and (2) daksina (the right wing).


Varna: A gopl who is always eager to be jealously angered, who is very enthusiastic for that position, who immediately becomes angry when defeated, who is never under the control of a hero, and who always opposes Him is called  varna, or a left wing gopl.One gopl to another: This Krsna is an expert cheater who has many mistresses. You should be very harsh with Him. Gentleness will bring you only suffering.Nandlmukhl to Paurnamasi: When Krsna  ferociously offended Bhadra with many clever insults, gentle Bhadra at first remained pleased with Him. However, when she noticed her crooked-hearted friend respond by angrily moving her eyebrows, Bhadra showed an angry  expression on her face and vehemently knitted her eyebrows also.Lalita to Krsna: Do not approach me. Please keep Your expertise at speaking clever words far away. My friend, RadharanI, has spent the entire night keeping a  wakeful vigil in that grove. She must be very tired by now. My Lord, please go to Her and establish Your kingdom of transcendental pastimes with her.Lalita to Krsna: Among all of these 100,084 doe-eyed gopls praised by Your  friend, Madhumangala, My friend, RadharanI, is the most worthy and famous in this world. O rascal, cheater, Krsna, why are You not content to accept Her? Why do You desire all the other gopls as well?Lalita is the leader of the  prakhara (harsh) vdma sakhls. This description is given:Daksind: A gopl who cannot tolerate womanly anger, who speaks suitable words to the hero, and who is satisfied by His sweet words, is called a daksind, or a right wing  gopl.In Gita-govinda, Tungavidya says to RadharanI: Because, even though Your lover Krsna remains affectionate to You, You are harsh to Him, because, when He bows down to offer respects, You remain solid and indifferent,  because, even though He loves You, You hate Him and because, even though He is friendly and eager to see You, You are averse to Him, therefore, everything has become reversed for You. The sandalwood paste anointing You  has become like poison, the cooling moon above has become like the blazing sun, Your camphor ointment has become like burning flames, and the happiness of Your playful pastimes has become like a series of painful tortures.


Krsna left the arena of the rasa dance and took RadharanI with Him into the forest. After some time, He abandoned Her, suddenly disappearing from Her sight. Another gopl then happened to meet Him. She addressed Him in the  following words: O Prince of Vraja, who can say whether You are at fault or not at fault for abandoning this girl? Who can say whether Your actions are auspicious or inauspicious? Still, O tilaka marking of Nanda Maharaja's dynasty,  my cruel heart remembers how this girl entered the dangerous forest for Your sake, without caring for Her own self.Tungavidya addresses RadharanI, who has quarreled with Krsna and refuses to speak to Him: O RadharanI, having  a slender waist, please do not make meaningless the words I have spoken to our friends. When Krsna heard of Your glories, He took shelter of me and begged me to intercede on His behalf. RadharanI, look into my face. Please be  kind to Him. Accept Him. Overwhelm Him with the auspicious waves of Your crooked amorous glances.Tungavidya is the leader of the harsh right wing sakhls.Campakalata to Krsna: Be careful. If my proud friend sees me talking to  You in this pathway, she will attack us with disappointed, angry sidelong glances. O Prince of Vraja, listen and I will give You good advice: Take shelter of Lalita because without her, all Your plans will be spoiled.


Laghu-mrdvl- Radharani quarreled with Krsna and refused to make peace with Him. Citra then appealed to Her in the following words: My friend, I repeatedly place my head at your feet and beg You to b£ kind and forgive Your  lover, Krsna. If You remain displeased and ^ngry with Him, then, when You once hear the music of His flut<e on the Yamuna's shore, Your peaceful composure will tremble witlh agitation, Your eyes will become restless, and I will  become able: to smile at Your defeat.Atyantikoi-laghu: Kusumika is the leader of the atyantika-laghu (least important) sakhls. Because of their very lowly status, these sakhls are ;always very gentle.KusumikP to Lalita : O beautiful  Lalita , I bow down to offer respects to you and request that you please give me a letter to convince our de;ar friend, RadharanI, to abandon the proud jealous anger that make:S Her war on Her lover, Krsna. Although She longs to  meet Krsna, She puts on an air of angry pride and remains at home, fearing to1 come out lest she meet you and become convinced by your arguments to make peace with Krsna. Look! Krsna is gazing at your face froim a distance!  See! Struck with wonder, the parrots have become sil-ent, the peacocks no longer wish to dance, and our friends, wonder: Who am I? Have they forgotten their identities?In conclusion, the leaders of the sakhls are divided into  various types, beginning with prakhara (harsh). The sakhls situated in an intermedi ate status are divided into nine kinds and the sakhls in the lowest status are divided into two kinds: sama and laghu.In each group of sakhls, these  twelve divisions are present. Now, the sakhls'' who carry messages between Radha and Krsna will be described.The gopis who carry messages to arrange for the rendezvous of the youthful divine couple may be divided into the  following groups: (1) aty>antikadhika (who are all nitya-nayika, or eternal heroines) (2) apeksikadhika (who are mostly nayikas) (3) apeksika-sama (who are half nayikas and half sakhls) (4) apeksika-laghu (who are mostly sakhls)  (5) atyantika-laghu (who are all sakhls). In the first group, all the messengers are nayikas and in the fifth group, all the messengers are sakhls.Nitya-nayika: The leaders of the various groups of sakhls are described as nitya-nayika.

Because of the exalted status of the nitya-nayikas, they do not directly act as messengers. They are very affectionate to the sakhls within their own groups.Although the nitya-nayikas do not directly carry messages themselves,  sometimes, out of great love for the divine couple, they engage the sakhls in their own groups to carry messages, not expressed openly, but couched in various hints.


Pretending not to have traveled a great distance to deliver a message, the sakhls speak messages in the form of hints. These hinted messages are of two kinds: (1) samaksa (those directly spoken to Lord Krsna) (2) paroksa (those  not directly spoken to Lord Krsna).Samaksa: this message is of two kinds: (1) sanketika (a message consisting of gestures) and (2) vacika (a message consisting of words).Sanketika: These consist of sidelong glances and other  gestures containing hidden messages.After enjoying conjugal pastimes with Krsna, a certain sakhi bore His scratch marks on her breasts. Another gopl chided her for this and the sakhl defended herself in the following words: My  friend, I can see how you are secretly glancing at Krsna. If Krsna had not taken my hand and led me out of this jungle of thorny creepers, I do not know what would have happened to me.


Vacika: These messages may be given to Krsna directly in His presence, or they may be given in an indirect way when He is not present.Once, Krsna caught a gopl picking flowers in Vrndavana forest. He severely rebuked her for  stealing His flowers and threatened to punish her in Cupid's prison. At that moment, her friend, Syama, addressed Krsna in the following words: My dear Krsna, You are right. This girl is the culprit. She constantly picks Your flower  blossoms, day and night. She is my friend and she will do whatever I say. I give her to You. Take her hand. Take her home with You and do whatever You like with her.RadharanI to Citra: The creepers rubbing against My neck have  broken My necklace. It was Krsna's favorite necklace. Come, help Me pick up the scattered pearls. O My friend with a beautiful face, good fortune has now appeared before us. I can tell that Krsna has accidentally dropped the flute  from His hand on the peak of Govardhana Hill. I shall go now, and with an expert stratagem, take the flute and hide it on the hill.RadharanI to Krsna: According to My request, friend Citra has gone to the flower garden on the  Yamuna's shore to pick a jasmine flower. O Krsna, O killer of Aghasura, as You walk with Me from the cottage, I implore You: Please do not tease My innocent friend Citra in this way.One moonless night, RangadevI was unable to  find her way through the forest to meet Krsna at the appointed place. At that time, Kalavati spoke to her the following words: Your dear friend, the crescent moon, who is like a second self to you, has been stopped by the order of the  Lord and does not rise in the sky. I shall now bring auspiciousness to you. Your good fortune is now awakening. These bumblebees, attracted by the sweet fragrance of Krsna's transcendental body, are hurrying to Him. They shall  quickly show us the path to the forest grove where Krsna is waiting for us.


Vyapadesa: These are divided into the: (1) lekha (letters) (2) upayana (3) nija-prayojana and (4) ascarya-darsana.Lekha: One day, Rasala-manjari brought a letter fromRadharanI to Krsna. Krsna proceeded to make advances at  her.She protested, saying that she was simply a letter carrier. Krsna replied to her in the following words: My dear proud girl, give up this letter carrying. Why do you look at Me with those crooked eyes? Alright, if you have a letter  from your dear friend then read it aloud. In this grove, ther<= is a cottage and in that cottage is a soft,very fragrant couch mavers. On the pretext of attracting many loudly buzzing bees, u^u itower couch bed is calling you to lie down  upon it.One day, Rati-mafijarl gave Krsna a flower garland, saying it was a gift from RadharanI, who personally made it for Him. Taking the garland, Krsna began to make advances at her, clutching the edge of her sari. Resisting,  she addressed Krsna in the following words: Merciless boy, be kind to me. Let go of the edge of my sari. Look! The sun is setting. I have to go to evening arati now. It is not Your fault that You cannot understand my dear friend's  message and You slight Her valuable gift. You are too unintelligent to understand.Lalita to Sasikala: RadharanI, the daughter of. Maharaja Vrsabhanu, personally said to you: Last night, I absent-mindedly left my favorite pearl  necklace in the cottage by the grove of kadamba trees. My friend, please go and fetch it for Me. O Sasikala, why have you come home without fulfilling Radharanl's order?RadharanI to Syama and her friends: I have just seen a swan  as black as a bumblebee. I have seen a snake whose face is studded with many suns. It wears many moons around its neck and it spouts all kinds of jewels from the top of its head. Friends, My words have made you so eager to see  this wonder that you are trembling, as if burning with anger.


(I have just seen the swan of Krsna, as black as a bumblebee. I have seen a flute whose face is studded with many kaustubha gems. Its neck is decorated with many peacock feathers and it spouts, from the top of its head, the jewels  of sweet musical sounds. Friends, My words have made you so eager to see this wonder that you are trembling as if burning with anger.), The nayika-prayas are divided into three types. Because they are not as exalted as the  nayikas, they sometimes engage in carrying messages.Lalita to Sambhali: My dear Sambhali, now you have fallen into my hand. Please do not be so disturbed. I do not take very seriously your desperate begging to not meet Krsna.  You have now come to the edge of the forest grove. Why are you now stunned and motionless? Dark-complexioned Krsna, the husband of many lioness-like gopls, will now tear away the pearl-decorated bodice covering the  elephant's forehead of your breasts.Once, Visakha, speaking false promises, tricked an unwilling gopl friend into meeting Krsna in the forest: Gopl: You always cause me great trouble and suffering. Visakha: With my crooked words,  I am gradually teaching you what is right. Gopl: You have cheated me. Visakha: O proud girl, even though you may try to attack Krsna, striking Him with the movements of the dancing girl of your eyebrows, He will defeat you and  bring you under His control. O elephant-like girl, I shall then see the great independent elephant of Krsna enjoy transcendental pastimes with you.Citra to her friend: Every day, you arrange for me to meet Krsna at the cottages in the  flower-filled groves on the Yamuna's shore. I am very ungrateful. What can I do for you in return?The sama sakhls are nayikas who carry messages. They are of three types: (1) prakhara (harsh) (2) madhya and (3) mrdvl.


A gopl to her friend: In the past, we have always acted as each other's messenger and today, it is my turn to become your messenger. Your trembling left eye is now begging me to find Krsna. O my friend, O gopl of Vraja, decorate  your body and set your eyebrows dancing because I shall now go to find Krsna.Describing the activities of Sasikala and Kamala (two friends of Rarigadevl), Rupa-manjarl said to Rati-manjarl : "Kamala said: O Sasikala, I shall go  now and leave you in Krsna's hands. Sasikala replied: Why do you speak these lies. I am your servant and messenger. It is I who should go, and you who should stay. Look! Krsna has become charmed by the sweetness of the  extraordinary love these two gopls bear for each other. Simultaneously, He embraces them both to His chest and passionately enjoys amorous pastimes with them both.Krsna addresses the two gopl messengers, Madhavi and  MalatI: Madhavi, where are you going with My MalatI? And you, MalatI, where are you going with My Madhavi? My dear extraordinarily beautiful and qualified girls, the dark-complexioned young bumblebee of Krsna shall now take  you both to a secluded place, drink the honey of your kisses, and enjoy transcendental amorous pastimes with you.The intimate, sweet, rare friendship existing among the sama-madhya sakhls is very difficult to understand. Only  those learned in the intricacies of transcendental love can understand it.Krsna said to the gopl messenger, Mandaraksi: I am very glad to tell you what your friend, RadharanI, said to Me: "Mukunda, follow Mandaraksi and quickly  bring her to Me in the cottage of creepers in this forest grove." Appearing like a moon standing between two stars, Krsna then enjoyed transcendental pastimes with RadharanI and Mandaraksi.


Sakhl-praya: The sakhl-prayas are less important than the sakhls. They are engaged in carrying messages and they are divided into three types.Turigavidya to Radharani: Exhausted by continually carrying You in His heart, and  burning with amorous passion, Krsna yearns to drink from the nectar-filled bimba fruits of Your lips. My friend, You can decorate His lap for a moment. What is the fault? After all, a few pennies from the transcendental opulence of  Your moving eyebrows have purchased Him and now He is like the obedient servant of Your lotus feet.Visakha to Radharani: My dear passionate friend, are Your eyebrows arched like this because of fondness for these flowers, or  because You know that in this grove by the Yamuna's shore, Vraja's Prince Krsna is now hiding?Saibya to Candravall: Fan Krsna with the edge of your sari as He sleeps in this forest cottage and I shall bring bunches of lotus flowers  newly blossomed in the moonlight.The sakhls may be divided into two groups: (1) those who have some desire to become nayikas and (2) those who do not desire to become nayikas, but simply desire the transcendental  happiness of friendship with the sakhls.The first group is herein described as Radharani addresses Lalita 's friend, Sasikala: Now, please bring Me a bunch of peacock feathers (marked with the bodily symptoms of conjugal love)  from this grove of kadamba trees. Sasikala! Why does My request for a hundred peacock feathers make you suddenly smile with embarrassment? Why do you now bow your head and cover it with your sari in this forest cottage?

A gopl to her friend: Do not repeatedly leave me on the pretext of going to pick flowers in Vrndavana forest. I fear that you will suffer in some way when you are alone in the forest. O beautiful-faced friend, I tell you the truth: I simply  wish the happiness of your friendship. I have no desire to enjoy amorous pastimes with Krsna.


The sakhls who are always satisfied by the friendship of the other sakhls and do not aspire to become nayikas (direct lovers of Krsna), are called nitya-sakhls. The nitya-sakhls may be divided into two types: (1) atyantiki laghu and (2)  apeksiki laghu.One day, Radharani tried to arrange a conjugal meeting between Krsna and her friend, Mani-manjari. Mani-manjari declined the invitation, saying: "My friend Radharani, I have no desire to taste the happiness You  enjoy by touching the transcendental limbs of Krsna. I simply yearn to expertly engage in Your service." This Mani-manjari has no desire at any time for a conjugal meeting with Krsna.A gopl to Krsna: My dear Govinda, I request that  You please engage me in expertly arranging for Your splendid transcendental conjugal pastimes on the dancing stage of Radharani. This service is the topmost treasure in the exalted kingdom of all the gopls' hearts. My heart has  no desire to personally taste the nectar of the touch of Your transcendental body.Nitya-sakhl: A gopl to Krsna: My friend has not entered this forest grove. Knitting her eyebrows, she became angry with me and hid at the entrance to  the grove. O Krsna, O moon of Vrndavana forest, I request You please pacify her anger.The sakhls who aspire to become prakhara (harsh) nayikas act harshly and the sakhls who aspire to become mrdvl (gentle) nayikas act gently. I  shall not describe them further because I fear that such a description would greatly increase the size of this book. According to various situations of time and place, the prakhara and mrdvl sakhls sometimes act in a way contrary to  their actual nature.Lalita says to angry, jealous Radharani, who has just quarreled with Krsna: Tonight, there is a great, fearful darkness. There is a rainstorm showering great streams of water and there is a fierce whirlwind. Krsna  now stands at Your door. Give up Your anger. Be kind. Touch Your lover's neck and embrace Him. This person named Lalita bows down at Your feet and begs You to accept Him.


Citra to Radharani: My friend with a crooked heart, who glances at Krsna from the corner of Her eyes and pretends to glorify Him, why do You not give up this pretended politeness and show Your anger towards Him? Even gentle  Citra thinks it proper to become angry with Him, just as the cold forest descends on the lotus flowers.A gopl messenger may meet Krsna in a secluded place. Although Krsna may appeal for her mercy, He may sometimes be refused  and spurned.A gopl messenger to Krsna: Krsna, now that I have met You in this secluded place, I can give You the message of my dear friend, Radharani: Krsna, why do You raise the fearful Cupid's bows of Your eyebrows in this  way? O Krsna, O moon of Vrndavana, if You neglect my friend and instead try to make advances upon me, I shall give up my life on the spot.Some of the activities of the sakhls are: (1) glorification of mutual love and transcendental  qualities (2) creating attachment to the Divine Couple (3) arranging for the meeting of the Divine Couple (4) presenting their friends before Krsna (5) speaking joking words (6) speaking words of consolation (7) dressing and  decorating the Divine Couple (8) expertly revealing the actual feelings within the hearts of the Divine Couple (9) covering the faults of the heroine (10) cheating the husbands and other superiors (11) giving instructions (12) arranging  for the rendezvous of the Divine Couple at the appropriate time (13) fanning the Divine Couple at the appropriate time (13) fanning the Divine Couple and rendering other services (14) rebuking the hero and heroine (15) sending  messages and (16) endeavoring to protect the heroine's life.


Visakha to Krsna: O killer of the Mura demon, why are You so cruel to this fawn-eyed gopl7. Even though You have thrown her into the ocean of unhappiness, she refuses to give up her intense love for You.Campakalata to  Radharani: O Radharani, are there not many lotus-eyed gopis in Vraja who expert at enjoying amorous pastimes with Krsna? Tell me then, what great austerities have You performed to make Krsna neglect them and love You so  deeply?Lalita to Krsna: When she sees my gopl friend's beauty, Laksmi criticizes her own beautiful form. When she considers my gopl friend's cleverness and virtues, Parvati becomes ashamed. In this universe, what girl is like my  gopl friend? She is very exalted and rare. What boy is qualified to meet her?LalitS to Radharani: My dear friend, this newly youthful Krsna, the moon in the family of Nanda Maharaja, is so beautiful that He defies the beauty of  clusters of valuable jewels. All glories to the vibration of His flute because it is cunningly breaking the patience of chaste ladies by loosening their belts and tight dresses. Lalita and Visakha to Radharani: O slender, beautiful  Radharani, Your life is not at all barren and useless because even though all the directions are now anointed by the waves of the sweet fragrance of campaka flowers, the bumblebee of Krsna neglects those flowers and prefers to  enjoy transcendental pastimes with You and drink the honey of Your lips to His heart's content.Visakha to Krsna: O black bumblebee of Krsna, if You decline to enjoy the festive and fragrant mallika flower of Radharani then what is  the use of Your splendid youthfulness? What is the use of Your expertise in enjoying pastimes in the Vrndavana forest?Rupa-manjarl to Radharani: Filling the entire sky and covering the splendor the nectar moon, the dark cloud of  Krsna has now met the monsoon rain of Lalita .SudevI to Radharani: Out of respect for You, the sun is now setting in the west and, according to Krsna's desire, it has now


become very dark. Just as the cuckoos lament, I repeatedly appeal to You: O charming girl, to delay is fruitless. Now is the time for Your delightful rendezvous with Krsna.Visakha to Krsna: A host of virtues have worshipped Brahma  for the right to live in this girl's heart and fullness of youth has performed austerities to become eligible to serve her body. She is now intoxicated by the transcendental bliss of tbe sweetness of freshly aroused love for You. O Krsna, O  killer of the Mura demon, I now place this girl in Your hand.Lalita to RadharanI My friend, Your transcendental body is the abode of splendid pastimes and beauty, of which this world does not posses even a pale reflection. Your  restless eyes burning with curiosity, do not enter this network of creepers. In this forest wanders a lovely demigoddess decorated with black mascara, who lures beautiful young girls into her forest domain.Lalita to RadharanI: O  RadharanI, O daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu, please do not become unhappy to see the sun setting in the west. Delighting Your eyes and dispelling the great darkness of the dust kicked up by these surabhi cows, a moon is now  rising to replace it.While decorating RadharanI, Lalita spoke the following joking words: As I draw pictures and designs in musk upon Your forehead, I cannot but think that eventually drops of perspiration will wash them away and  use them to decorate the face of Krsna.Lalita to RadharanI: My dear young friend, do not close Your eyes and shrink from me. Tell me the truth: What girl in Gokula is chaste and faithful to her husband? I think You alone walk upon  the path of chastity.Lalita to RadharanI: My friend, Your charming youthfulness has now become the kingdom of Cupid, who carries a bow of flowers, and Your transcendental beauty sprinkles nectar on the eyes of all the three  worlds. In spite of all these virtues, You are married to an old man who cannot properly act as Your husband. O my friend,


burning with shyness, among all the girls of Vraja, You are the only one who has been cheated in this way.One time, RadharanI returned home, forgetting that She was wearing Krsna's yellow cloth around Her shoulders. When  Radharanl's mother-in-law, Jatila, saw this yellow cloth instead of the customary cloth of another color, she sensed foul play and angrily stared at her daughter-in-law. At that time, Visakha tried to protect her friend, RadharanI, by  speaking the following words to Jatila: At the festival, the young girls, their hearts fluttering with happiness, playfully doused RadharanI with a strong mixture of turmeric and water, which dyed Her silken shoulder cloth yellow. That is  the reason this cloth is now yellow. O noble Jatila, why do you stare at my friend, RadharanI, from the corner of Your crooked eyes?One morning, Krsna, disguised as a Brahmana boy, and accompanied by a gopl, arrived at  Radharanl's house. The gopl then addressed Radharanl's pseudo-husband, Abhimanyu, in the following words: This dark-complexioned Brahmana boy is Gargacarya's student and He is very expert at performing the karma-kanda  rituals. I have brought Him to this home so that He may direct Radharanl's worship of the sun-god. O cowherd, Abhimanyu, go now, find a red-eyed, red-complexioned cow (for such cows are very dear to the sun-god), milk that cow,  and then return with the milk to offer to the sun-god. Meanwhile, I shall make a garland of red lotus flowers.An experienced gopl addresses a newcomer: First, fan Krsna with a fan made of lotus petals and vine flower petals, then  gently massage His lotus feet, then peel some betel nuts, mix them with camphor, and place them in His mouth. Acting in this way, a young girl can become the intimate friend of Krsna.Lalita instructs RadharanI: My friend, be very  respectful to Your lover's cowherd friends, carefully keep the secrets He entrusts to You, and do not press Your own desires on Him when they conflict with His wishes. Acting in this way, You will quickly bring the supremely  independent Krsna under Your control.


Rati-manjarl to Rupa-manjarl: The lake of RadharanI, its lotus-flower eyes filled with darting bumblebee glances, has become unhappy now that the day has ended. The twilight of Lalita has now caused that lake to meet the rising  moon of Krsna.Exhausted and perspiring, RadharanI rested on the chest of Krsna in the forest grove. Waving a fan of vine flowers, Lalita fanned Her.One evening, Krsna failed to meet RadharanI at the rendezvous and left her  unhappily waiting for Him in vain. Afterwards, Lalita rebuked Him for this in the following words: My friend, RadharanI, is as beautiful as the moon and She passionately loves You like the blazing autumn sun. O Krsna, O killer of  Putana, why are You so harsh to Her? Why do You torture Her in this way?One time, as RadharanI was stringing a flower garland, Candravall's friend, Padma, arrived. RadharanI greeted her and politely spoke with her for some  time. After Padma had left, RadharanI showed Her flower garland handwork of Lalita . Incensed at Radharanl's polite treatment of Padma, Lalita rebuked Her in the following words: My friend, although You tremble with eagerness to  enjoy amorous pastimes with Mukunda, You are nevertheless friendly and polite to Your rival and deadly enemy. Your attempt to master the art of decoration is a hopeless failure. Why are You so foolish that You cannot grasp an  opportunity when it presents itself?Lalita asks a swan to deliver the following message to Krsna: O Krsna, O tilaka decoration of Vraja, You have certainly forgotten Your friends in Vraja. I ask You, in these circumstances, why has  Yamaraja, the lord of death and the husband of Dhumorna, not yet killed my friend, RadharanI? Why is She left to suffer unbearable pain for so many days amidst the fragrant flowers of Vrndavana forest?


After returning to Mathura from Vrndavana, Uddhava spoke the following words to Krsna: When RadharanI begins to faint from grief, the gopl, Madhavi restores her consciousness by deliberately lying to Her, earnestly vowing that  You are arriving at that very moment, by showing Her a jeweled picture of You, or by telling Her that the sound of the bamboos rattling in the wind is actually the sound of Your flute. O king of the Yadavas, in this way, Madhavi keeps  Her alive.Within the groups of sakhls there is another group of categories: (1) asama-sneha and (2) sama-sneha The asama-sneha and sama-sneha sakhls may again be divided into two groups: (1) Those who direct their love to  Krsna and (2) Those who direct their love to the gopl leader of their group.The asama-sneha sakhls who feel greater love for Krsna feel great pride in their hearts, thinking, "I am the property of Krsna." They love Krsna, take shelter of  and worship their gopl leader, and remain unattached to others.These sakhls direct all their love towards Krsna. They are very eager to carry messages to Him and serve Him directly in various ways. They are known as  Krsna-snehadhika (those who have great love for Krsna).Dhanistha to RadharanI: When anything other than Krsna enters my heart or my words, it does not bring me happiness. When You, O my friend, treat me with great respect,  that does not bring me happiness. However, just as one may become devastated by staying for a moment under the blazing sun, I become overwhelmed with happiness by seeing the charming spotted moonlight of Krsna's face.

O beautiful friend, I bow my head before you and before all the demigods also. I appeal to you: please enable me to continually please RadharanI and Subala's friend, Krsna, with my chosen devotional service.In this way, the sakhis  who have great love for Krsna have been described.


Priya-sakhyam snehadhika: The sakhl-snehadhika sahkhis love a specific gopl friend, slightly more than they love Krsna. The love of these sakhis is eternal. They always think—I am the property of my friend.A sakhl-snehadhika  gopl tries to dissuade Vrnda from arranging for a Radharanfs rendezvous with Krsna: O Vrnda, don't carry this message. O friend, tell Vraja's Prince Krsna to not come to this rendezvous. This monsoon night is filled with many  dangerous poisonous snakes. Why should you not be afraid to go to the forest on Govardhana Hill on this night?Mani-manjari says to the young, inexperienced Catura: Catura, let me teach you what I have learned from my own  experience. If you make friends with RadharanI then within that friendship is automatically included ecstatic love for Hari.The sakhl-snehadhika gopls may be further divided into: (1) friends as dear as life and (2) eternal friends. In  this way, learned devotees have described them.Those who love Radha and Krsna equally: Those who have great love for both Krsna and His dear friend, RadharanI, are known as sama-sneha sakhis.If She is not with Krsna,  RadharanI brings great pain to my heart. O my friend, if He is not accompanied by RadharanI, Krsna also brings me great pain. I pray that I shall never take a birth where, even for a moment, I shall not have the opportunity to drink  with my eyes the nectar of the two festive moons of the faces of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna.The sama-sakhls love Radha and Krsna equally. They think: We are the property of RadharanI. They may be divided into: (1) very dear friends of  RadharanI and (2) dear friends of RadharanI.


The girls of Vraja, who have beautiful eyebrows, may be divided into four groups: (1) sva-paksa (members of the personal party) (2) suhrt-paksa (friends) (3) tata-stha (neutrals) and (4) vipaksa (rivals and enemies).

Sva-paksa (the personal party), and pratipaksa (rivals and enemies) may be considered the two original divisions of the gopls in the nectar of transcendental mellows. The suhrt-paksa (friends) and the tata-stha-paksa (neutrals) may  be considered to have been manifested from those two original divisions.Suhrt-paksa: The suhrt-paksa gopls work to fulfill their friend's desires and check any attempt to thwart (nullify) them.Kundavali enters the assembly of Syama  and her friends and addresses them in the following words: My dear Syama, my dear friends, Radharanl's friendship for you has astonished the hearts of the entire world. Addressing you by name, She happily give, you this  camphor and other fragrant ointments so that when the opportunity arises, you may present them to Krsna, who wears a crown of peacock feathers.One day, Candravall's friend, Padma, informed Radharanl's mother-in-law, Jatila,  that Radha and Krsna were enjoying pastimes together in Bhandiravana forest. Jatila arrived at that place and saw Radha and Krsna together. At that time, the following conversation occurred between her and Radharanl's friend,  Syama: Jatila: Agitated by a foolish girl, I have come here. What am I to believe? Syama, I have firm faith in you. Tell me: What is happening here? Syama: What I tell you is the truth. I am not deceiving you. What you see is Subala,  dressed up like a girl, clowning with Krsna, the funny comedian of Vraja village.The tata-stha-paksa (neutral party), which is situated between the suhrt-paksa (friends) and vipaksa (enemies), will now be described.


Padma says to Syama: My dear Syama, with a beautiful face, you feel neither happiness nor distress in Candravall's good or ill fortune. You take no account of her virtues or faults and your mind is not agitated by either love nor  hatred for her. You appear just like a silent sage, neutral in relation to her.The vipaksa gopls hate their rivals, lie about them, thwart their desires, and bring misfortune to them.Vrnda to Krsna: O Mukunda, Jatila overheard Subala  say: "O RadharanI, crooked-hearted Padma saw Hari as He followed with His eyes Your path into the forest and by a trick, she has now brought Candravall to this place." Now, as the sun is rising in the morning, Jatila, seeing on Her  body a blue garment (suitable for remaining unobserved while going to a rendezvous at night), is severely rebuking the stunned RadharanI.Jatila: My dear daughter, Padma, from where have you come? Padma: Mother Jatila, I  have come from Govardhana Hill. Jatila: Where are the gopls! Have you seen them? Padma: They are in front of the sun-god's temple. Jatila: Such a long time has passed. Why has RadharanI not come here yet? Padma: Krsna  stopped Her as She was coming here. Please go now, find Her, and angrily attack Her.The pratipaksa (enemy) sakhls manifest the following qualities in their words and actions: (1) cadma (trickery) (2) irsya (jealousy) (3) capala  (fickleness) (4) asuya (envy) (5) matsara (hostility) (6) amarsa (anger) and (7) garvita (pride).Bhanumati to Mani-manjari: One day, Padma said to Lalita : "Thinking dark-complexioned Krsna to be a rain cloud on the peak of  Govardhana Hill and thinking the sound of His flute to be thunder, these unintelligent cows are now fleeing with great haste. O Lalita , you are very intelligent. Why are you fleeing in the same way:


Speaking some expert lies, Lalita deceived Padma and then quickly ran to Radharanl's house, to tell Her where she may meet Krsna.After proudly displaying the garland given by Krsna, Padma received the following haughty  rebuke from Lalita : My friend Padma, why do you show off this garland of forest flowers so? Push aside your curling locks of hair and look at this person stretched out like a blue stick resting on my porch. The person is Krsna bowing  down before Lalita .Padma addresses one of Radharanl's friends, who was wearing a jeweled necklace given to her by Krsna: Krsna bowed down before me and begged me to take this necklace but I refused because the jewel in  the center is seriously flawed. Such a flawed gem will bring ill luck. What will it benefit you? This necklace is just a serpent about to bite. O my friend, even though you would like to keep this necklace, you should throw it away at  once, for your own good.Accidentally discovering Krsna enjoying pastimes with Candravall, Radharanl's friend, Padma, addressed a firefly in the following sarcastic words: My dear firefly, do not needlessly trouble yourself to try to  illuminate this forest grove. Candravall, who is splendid and effulgent as you are, now stands beside the dark cloud of Krsna, as if she were a brilliant lightning flash.Rarigadevi to Padma: My dear Padma, your friend, Saibya, has  danced very enthusiastically in Bhandiravan forest. Who would not become astonished by her wonderful dancing? In fact, if slender Saibya were beautiful and learned in dancing, I think she would have charmed the entire world.

Padma to Candravall: O charming girl, although Hari decorated Radharanl's breasts with a great necklace of very precious jewels and although He gave you only a few small flowers for your braided hair, because your mind is  situated beyond all dualities and because, like a great sage, you do not make distinctions between good and bad, you do not become angry with Krsna and refuse to enjoy amorous pastimes with Him in this forest.Candravall to a  friend: My friend, even though I have made a great garland of gunja berries and large, newly-blossomed flowers, and even though you have personally presented this garland to Krsna, the killer of the Mura demon, when I see the  earring that Krsna has placed on Radharanl's ear, my mind knows that you and I are very unimportant in relation to Her.Garvita (pride): Pride is said to have six features: (1) criticizing others by glorifying oneself (2) in a crooked  manner, glorifying one's own love for Krsna (3) praising one's own pastimes with Krsna (4) mocking the enemy (5) pride in one's own skill, and (6) proclaiming one's own superiority.


Ahankara is when one criticizes others by glorifying the virtues of oneself and one's friends.One time, Lalita entered the assembly of Candravali's friends. When Padma said that Candravall appeared like a splendid crescent moon  rising in the sky of Krsna, Lalita became angry and replied: The sky of Krsna is as dark as sapphire and can hardly be illumined by the crescent moon of Candravall, which gives only a faint glimmer of light. That sky must remain  dark until the rising of the brilliant sun of Radharani removes the darkness before our eyes.Abhimana is when a gopl crookedly glorifies her own love for Krsna.Lalita to Candravall: My dear Candravall, your intelligence is very sober,  calm, and steady because when you heard that Hari had jumped into the Kaliya lake, you remained cool, calm, and unmoved. My friend, Radharani, is not so steady-minded because


when She heard that Krsna had climbed the kadamba tree and was about to jump into the lake, She trembled, wailed aloud, and pounded Her breasts in lamentation.Lalita's friend, Ratnaprabha, to Padma: You are fortunate. Your  limbs are now filled with happiness because Krsna, with His own hand, has artistically painted so many nice pictures and designs on your forehead. I am not so fortunate. Alas, I am cheated! Whenever Krsna sees the moon-like face  of Lalita , He becomes stunned and looses all His artistic power and cannot draw nice pictures on her forehead. When Krsna draws on Padma's forehead, He is not agitated by amorous desire and therefore He can draw nicely with  a steady hand. However, when He sees Lalita , He becomes filled with amorous passion, (and with a trembling hand, cannot draw very nicely.) This is a description of Krsna's love for Lalita ).Pride is said to be darpa when a gopl  praises her pastimes with Krsna.Once, as Nandlmukhi was telling stories from the Puranas, Lalita noticed that the gopis were beginning to fall asleep. At that time, she turned to Padma and said: O Padma, I think you must be the  crest jewel of all pious girls because only you are able to sleep peacefully in this house during these moonlit autumn nights. I wonder what impious acts I have performed in my previous births so that the tree of karma is fructifying to  cause this dark-complexioned elephant (Krsna) from Vrndavana forest to completely madden my heart, so that I cannot sleep a wink.Once, Padma was waiting in Vrndavana forest to meet Krsna and take Him to a rendezvous with  Candravall. Just as Krsna was about to arrive, He met Lalita , who began to talk with Him and gradually lead Him away to meet Radharanl. Seeing Krsna slip away from her grip, Padma began to lament. At that time, Visakha  addressed her with the following satirical words of pretended consolation: My friend, please do not sigh in this way. Be content.give up striving for the unattainable. When I see you so disconsolate, my heart becomes tortured with  compassion. O honest, pious friend, look, the black deer of Krsna has now unwittingly fallen into the hunter's trap of Lalita 's crooked words.


Once, as Lalita was picking flowers in Vrndavana forest, she encountered Padma, who addressed her in the following words: On Lalita , I think you are the most fortunate girl in the entire universe because you constantly worship the  sun-god with these fragrant, wonderful flowers. I am not so fortunate. When I make garlands of flowers, Candravall and my other friends take them all and do not leave even a single petal for me to offer to goddess Katyayanl.

Once, Lalita overheard Padma say: "O Nandlmukhi, now is the time for Radharanl and Candravall to compete. Now we shall see who is better." Lalita immediately emerged from behind the forest creeper and angrily addressed  Padma: The flag of Radharanl's glory and victory dominates the entire universe. Who in Vraja-mandala can compete with Her? O Padma, it is only because Her heart melts with compassion for you wretches that you are able to  serve Krsna for even a moment.Sometime the gopls speak puns that contain veiled criticisms.Once, when Campakalata addressed Candravall's friend, Bhavya, she insulted the gopl, Saudamini, in this way: My dear Bhavya, your  friend, Saudamini, is decorated with such nice ornaments presented to her by Govinda. She loves Krsna so much that she becomes very unhappy when she is separated from Him. She is very expert. Her body displays the beauty of  eternal youthfulness. She is the most saintly and virtuous. Her good fortune is eternal and will never end.


(My dear Bhavya, your friend, SaudaminI, wears ornaments that are very displeasing to Govinda. Her absence brings Krsna great joy. She is very expert at quarrelling and her complexion is the color of iron. She is the least saintly  and virtuous. Her misfortune is eternal and will never end.)RarigadevI speaks to Saibya with words containing hidden insults that are directed towards Khelavati: O Saibya, the dancing of your friend, Khelavati, is just like nectar. She  is so expert that even though she takes many wonderful steps, her necklace and ornaments do not move to and fro but remain still. Her beautiful complexion eclipses the splendor of golden waves of the yellow pigment, haritala.  She brings a great festival of happiness to the eyes of all."Because of their natural gravity, politeness, and other virtues, the leaders of the groups of sakhls are not directly jealous of the rival gopis.Vrnda to PaurnamasI: When she  sees the excessive pride of a rival gopl, Mangala becomes timid. She at once plunges into the swiftly moving mountain stream of shyness, the surface of which shines with the bubbles and foam of her rare and beautiful smile.

The gopls of lower station are more harsh. They jealously criticize the leaders of the rival gopls behind their backs.Padma, speaking to Campakalata, pretends to glorify RadharanI: My dear charming girl, you are lucky because  Maharaja Vrsabhanu's daughter, RadharanI, has now come to the nearby shore of the Yamuna and released you from the great shackles of my words. Sarasvati, the goddess of eloquence, who plays in my words, has become  plunged into the ocean of embarrassment by your escape in this way. (Padma implies that the goddess Sarasvati is ashamed to see the illiterate cowgirl, RadharanI).


Those in this world who do not understand the nature of transcendental mellows say that negative emotions, such as hatred and envy, are always improper in relation to the dear devotees of Krsna.In Vraja, the mellow of  transcendental conjugal love is the submissive and dear friend of Krsna, who is more charming that a host of Cupids. When Krsna is present, the mellow of conjugal love incites the negative emotions of hatred and jealousy between  the two camps of rival gopls, in order to please Krsna. When Krsna is absent, these negative emotions are aroused in order to increase the gopls' love for Him.Once, after Krsna had gone to Mathura and RadharanI was afflicted,  feeling great pain because of His absence, She happened to see, reflected in a salagrama-sila, Krsna, with Herself standing by His side. Thinking the girl next to Krsna to be Candravall, RadharanI addressed her: O beautiful  Candravall, this suffering RadharanI can see how fortunate you are to be repeatedly embraced by Hari. I request you, please take from Krsna's neck one of His now wilted flower earrings and give it to me with your own hands. In this  way, you will help keep Me alive for a little longer.Now, the difference between the leaders of the groups of sakhls, the personal friends of the heroine, and the other groups of sakhls will be described.The intimate friends of the  heroine are exactly like her in all respects. The other friends of the heroine are a little different from her in some ways.The neutrals are only slightly like the heroine, whereas the rivals and enemies possess natures radically different  from that of the heroine.Because of their different, contradictory natures, the rival groups of gopls are not pleased with each other. They become bitter enemies, unable to tolerate each other.


Radharani to Vrnda: This crescent moon of Candravali is passive, neutral, splendid, cool, and dumb. Her moonlight makes the lotus flower of intelligence and cleverness close its petals. She yearns to meet Krsna. In this pleasant  earth, who is able to tolerate the sight of this Candravali.Candravali: Radha! Give up Your name, the name of the sixteenth star. O abode of contrariness, the peaceful, saintly sages are now displeased with You for Your lack of  humbleness. Even though Krsna, the crown of all who possess good qualities, and the worshipable prince of Vraja, offers obeisances to You by falling down at Your toes, You will not even lift an eyebrow to acknowledge His  presence.To the extent that the gopls have similar natures, they are friends, and to the extent their natures are different, they are enemies. No rival or friend has love of Krsna, or any virtue or opulence even slightly equal to what  Radharani possesses.The leaders of the groups of sakhls all possess a similar very exalted nature. It is very difficult for anyone to attain a status like theirs. If, because of a happy accident, friendship is established among certain  gopls, in the same way, according to their own nature, enmity and rivalry may also be established among them.


That which stimulates ecstatic love between Lord Krsna and His beloved gopls are: (1) transcendental qualities (2) names (3) pastimes (4) ornaments (5) things in relation to the object of love, and (6) things that have no relation to  the object of love.The transcendental qualities are divided into three broad groups: (1) the qualities of the mind and intelligence (2) qualities of speech, and (3) qualities of the body.Transcendental qualities of the mind and  intelligence: (1) gratefulness (2) tolerance and patience, and (3) compassion.A gopl has said: Krsna is so grateful that He allows Himself to become controlled by one who performs even the slightest service. He is so forgiving and  tolerant that He smiles patiently even if the greatest unforgivable offense is committed against Him. He is so compassionate that His heart becomes tormented if He sees others suffering even slightly. When I see this Hari, my heart  thirsts to be with Him.Qualities of speech: The first feature of these speeches is that they delight the ear.Hiding behind a creeper, RadharanI eagerly eavesdropped on a conversation between Krsna and His friend, Subala.  Afterwards, Visakha asked RadharanI why She was so eager to hear Krsna's words. She said: My friend, the nectar of Madhava's words is filled with an unprecedented sweetness that enchants the ears. I am not satisfied to have  once sipped that nectar but I yearn to drink it, again and again.Qualities of body: (1) youthfulness (2) beautiful form (3) sweetness, and (4) delicateness.Youth is divided into the following four parts: (1) vayah-sandhi (2) navya (3)  vyakta (4) puma.Previously, in the Bhakti-rasdmrta-sindhu, these qualities have been described in relation to Kesava. In the following portions of the present book, these same qualities will be described as they apply to Krsna's  beloved gopis.The junction of childhood and youth: A gopl messenger to RadharanI: Dark black without the slightest trace of brown, the hair on Krsna's chest have become letters written in King Cupid's royal edict. The two restless  saphara fish of Krsna's eyes now aspire to churn the water of fresh youthfulness.


Nandlmukhl to Krsna: O Krsna, O king of Vraja, the greedy hunter, Cupid, clutching his five arrows, has climbed the mountain summit of Your sidelong glance, greedy to capture the does of the gopls' eyes. Seeing this hunter in  Vrndavana forest, the frightened does of the gopls' eyes have now become filled with tears.Seeing RadharanI from a distance, Krsna said to Subala: The young king of youthfulness is now entering his kingdom in Radharanl's  transcendental body. Understanding the king's greatness, Radharanl's beautiful hips greet him with the tinkling sounds of a sash of bells. Fearing its destruction at his hand, Radharanl's waist girds itself with three folds of skin. The  two ripe fruits of Radharanl's breasts offer themselves as a suitable gift to the young king.Visakha jokes to RadharanI: The bumblebee of Your sidelong glances now desires to land on the blue lotus flower of Your eyes, the young  swan of Your heart now searching for the tender lotus sprout of Your shyness, and a flood of the honey of joking words now rises on the lotus flowers of Your mouth. O beautiful RadharanI, I think You are now preparing a great  festival of happiness for the pleasure of Madhava.The age when a girl's breasts begin to sprout, when her eyes become a little restless, she smiles mildly, and the sentiment of amorous love begins to manifest within her, is called  the beginnings of youth.Vrinda to RadharanI: Your breasts are now a little raised, Your words a little crooked, Your eyes a little restless, Your hips a little firm, and Your waist a little slender. The romavali line of hair between Your  navel and breasts is now becoming a little manifest.


O beautiful-faced girl, Your fresh youthfulness is now perfectly suitable to engage in the service of Hari.After entrusting her with a message for Krsna, an older, experienced gopi says to her younger sister-in-law: My child, as you  wander about searching for Lord Krsna, you restlessly cast a host of glances on the path trod by the surabhi cows and you are agitated by Krsna's bodily aroma carried in the breeze. The fire of love for Krsna is just now becoming  ignited in your heart and at this stage, it is still filled with smoke.In the stage of vyaktam, a girl's breasts become clearly manifest, three charming folds of skin appear on her waist, and" all the limbs of her body are filled with luster.

Nandlmukhl to Indravail: Indravali, your youthful beauty has made you appear like a lake filled with nectar. Your breasts are like two cakravaka birds in that lake, your eyes are like two saphara fish, and the three folds of skin at your  waist are like the waves on the water's surface.Syama to RadharanI: O girl with very beautiful teeth, You now wear a pearl necklace of scratch marks and Your lotus flower garland now lies scattered throughout these forest groves. O  doe-eyed RadharanI, how were You able to bind with a glance the handsome lion of Hari, who is like an ocean of chivalrous power, and lead Him into the cage of Your breasts?Puma: In this stage, a girl's hips become broad, her  waist slender, her breasts large, and her thighs like the trunks of plantain trees. All her limbs are very lustrous and beautiful.Vrnda to Lilavati: Your two eyes check the waves of beauty emanating from the playful saphara fish, the  beauty of your abdomen eclipses the charming sweetness of the moon, and your completely sprouted breasts bewilder the beholder into thinking them actually large water pots. O Lilavati, your youthful beauty is quite  unprecedented.


Once, as Candravall was lamenting the good fortune of RadharanI, Padma comforted her in this way: What rival young gopi is not afraid of the beauty of your face? What gopi does not become stunned by seeing the showers from  the rain cloud of your love for Krsna? What girl in Vraja has not become your student in the various arts? O Candravall, expert at relishing transcendental mellows, you are the reigning queen of the kingdom of this forest grove of  Vrndavana.Of all the beautiful young girls of Vraja, some are especially beautiful. When a girl's beauty is so great that her unornamented limbs appear as if decorated with various ornaments, such beauty is called rupam.

Vrnda to Lalita : O Lalita , seeing how beautiful RadharanI is, even though simply dressed without any ornaments. Padma becomes embarrassed and considers all her elaborate efforts to decorate herself with ornaments to be a  useless waste of time.Krsna to RadharanI: Your curling locks of hair make these tilaka decorations drawn in musk useless and redundant. Your eyes are so beautiful that they make the two lotus flowers on Your ears wilt by  comparison. The waves of the beauty of Your splendid smile has crushed Your necklace into dust. O RadharanI, what is the use of You wearing all these decorations? You are already splendidly decorated by the beauty of Your  limbs. These other decorations are simply a useless waste of time.When a girl's limbs appear like the central gem in a pearl necklace, her beauty is called lavanyam.Krsna to RadharanI: O doe-eyed RadharanI, the beautiful luster of  Your limbs mocks the splendor of jeweled mirrors. Even though Lord Brahma searched the entire universe, he could not find anything as beautiful as You.


Once, as Radharani was enjoying pastimes with Krsna, Visakha addressed Her: My friend, listen, I shall now whisper something in Your ear. Please do not force the moon of Your face to become so pale. Rest it against Krsna. Allow  it to be reflected in the sapphire mirror of His chest. No other doe-eyed gopl is reflected there.When each limb and organ is perfectly proportioned in relation to the whole body, this is called saundaryam beauty.Krsna says to  Radharani: Your face is as beautiful as the full moon, Your chest is splendidly decorated with beautiful large breasts, Your arms are nicely connected to Your shoulders, Your waist is the size of my hand, Your hips are broad, and  Your gently tapering thighs are very lovely. O Radharani, no other thing is as beautiful as Your charming transcendental form.When an object assumes the beauty of another object nearby, that borrowed beauty is called abhurupata  by the wise.Pointing to a distant place where Krsna was playing the flute, Visakha said to Radharani: As it touches His splendid teeth, Krsna's flute looks like a crystal wand. Where it touches His red lotus palm, it looks like a ruby  stick and where it touches His blue lotus cheek, it looks like sapphire. Look! In this way, Krsna's flute looks like these three different jewels.Krsna to Radharani: O Radharani, when it rests against Your large water pot-like breasts, this  white lotus bud appears like a golden campaka flower. When You hold it in Your beautiful palm, decorated with red sindura, it appears like a red kokanada lotus, and when it is placed in your curling locks of hair, it at once appears  like a blue indivara lotus flower. In this way, this white lotus bud, the friend of the bumblebees, assumes the appearance of these three different flowers.Bodily beauty so great that it cannot be described is called madhuryam.


Visakha to Radharani: The chest of Krsna, the enemy of Bakasura, eclipses the splendor of dark rain clouds, His graceful gestures steal away the eyes, and His ever-fresh sweetness makes pious girls falter in their vow of chastity.

When one cannot bear the touch of even the softest object, that is called mardavam. Mardavam is of three kinds: (1) greatest (2) intermediate, and (3) least.Rupa-manjarl to Rati-manjarl : Radharani slept last night on a bed of very  fresh jasmine flowers. Although not a single flower was even slightly wilted, Her delicate transcendental body became bruised by lying on that bed.Lalita to Dhanistha: Dhanistha, your large full breasts have become bruised by the  touch of your fine silk garments. Friend, your irritated body appears now to be anointed with red sandalwood paste. This is very astonishing.The delightful, fragrant lotus flower of Padma's face is decorated with the bumblebees of  her black, curling locks of hair. That lotus flower face is so delicate that if, for even a moment, it is exposed to the faintest sunlight, it at once becomes red with sunburn.Vrnda to Krsna: Then, I said to Radharani: O    golden-complexioned friend, look at this happy Krsnasara stage, surrounded by these does on the Yamuna's shore. When beautiful Radharani heard Your name in this way, She at once became flooded with amorous passion.

Pastimes may be divided into two kinds: (1) anubhdva and (2) lila. Anubhdva pastimes will be described in the future. Now, the lila pastimes will be described.The lila pastimes include: (1) charming pastimes (2) tandava (dancing)  (3) playing the flute (4) milking the surabhi cows (5) lifting Govardhana Hill (6) calling the surabhi cows, and (7) walking.


The rasa dance and playing games with a ball are prominen among the caru-vikrida pastimes.Syama to RadharanI: O playful RadharanI, when th< demigoddesses from the heavenly planets see lotus-eyed Krsn; enjoying charming  pastimes in the circle of the rasa dance, the become overwhelmed by waves of amorous passion. Hiding behinc a network of creepers, RadharanI and the gopis watched as Krsn; played ball games with His friends. Radharani then  addressed th< gopis: Appearing like a moving braid of hair, Mukunda tosses th< red ball in the air and then swiftly pursues it. As His large eye gracefully dance about, following the movements of the ball, Krsn; brings us a great  festival of transcendental happiness.Hiding behind a jungle of creepers, Radharani comments to the gopis as She observed Krsna dancing with His cowhen friends: As Hari dances in the rhythm, carcari, with His friends or the  Yamuna's shore, His earrings and peacock feather swaying to and-fro, He brings Me great delight.Lalita to Radharani: O most beautiful friend, please accep the personality of bliss. The borders of His eyes roam from side u side and  His eyebrows move slowly, like bumblebees on His lotus like face. Standing with His right foot placed below the knee of Hi left leg, the middle of His body curved in three places and His neel gracefully tilted to the side, He takes His  flute to His pursed lip and moves His fingers upon it, here and there.Visakha, showing where Krsna was milking the cows, said t< RadharanI: Resting on half His feet, grasping the udder between Hi thumb and finger, spraying  Himself with two or three stray drops and making a charming stream of milk pour into the pail balance( between His arched knees, Damodara milks the surabhi cow.


RadharanI to Visakha: Placing His right hand on His hip and raising His right, smiling Hari lifts Mount Mandara's brother, Govardhana Hill, as if it had become a ball. As He lifts the hill, the restless bumblebee of His sidelong glance  makes the lotus flower of my heart tremble.RadharanI to Lalita : To the surabhi cows who have strayed far away, Krsna calls: O Pisangi! O Manikastani! O Pranatasrngi! O Pingeksana! O Mrdangamukhi! O Dhumala! O Sabali! O  Hamsi! O Vamsi-priya! By this, Krsna has stolen away My heart.RadharanI to Lalita : As Krsna walks, the great bolts of His arms slowly and happily swing back and forth with great charm and His peacock feather crown also moves  slightly. His playful motions stun the pride of the leaders of the elephants in the heavenly planets. O My friend, the sweetness of Madhava's graceful movements makes Me mad with happiness.Of mandanam, there are four kinds: (1)  garments (2) ornaments (3) garlands and necklaces, and (4) ointments and cosmetics.RadharanI to Lalita: O Lalita, with beautiful eyebrows, do you not see on lotus-eyed Krsna's hips a beautiful garment, as splendid as the  sunlight? This garment now covers the peaceful composure in My heart.Krsna to RadharanI: All glories to Your wonderful, ruby-red silk sari. O RadharanI, this sari has doubled the passionate love I bear for You in My heart.

RadharanI to Lalita : Why has the kadamba flower in Hari's hair become Cupid's weapon and attacked Me? Why has Lord Krsna's peacock feather crown become Cupid himself and wounded My heart?Describing His meeting with  Lalita on the pathway, Krsna says to Subala: With her splendid pearl necklace, the pair of earrings swinging at her cheeks, and her glistening golden armlets, this Lalita enchants and delights Me.


Krsna to Subala: In Her hair that seems to be a cluster of moving bubblebees, RadharanI wears a nice garland. On her cheeks are the beautiful signs of her having chewed betel nuts and on Her limbs is the fragrance of various  perfumes. These decorations of beautiful-eyed RadharanI bring great delight to My eyes.A gopl to Krsna: O Damodara, why do the sandalwood paste and other fragrant substances anointing Your body arouse such amorous  passion in the goplsl Why does Your garland fill them with ecstatic love for You?Things directly touching the beloved: (1) the sound of the flute (2) the sound of the buffalo horn bugle (3) singing (4) sweet fragrances (5) the tinkling  sounds of ornaments (6) footprints (7) the sound of the lute and other musical instruments (8) expert artistic craftsmanship.Vrnda to RadharanI and Her friends: The sweet sound of Krsna's flute makes the trees and creepers blossom  with happiness. That flute sound is thunder that drowns out the kuhu kuhu chanting of the cuckoos at sunset. That flute sound is a playful breeze that fans the flames of ardent love in the moon-faced gopls. That flute sound is a  thunderbolt that breaks to pieces the mountain of RadharanI's peaceful composure.As Madhava wanders in this pavilion of mddhavl creepers filled with buzzing bees, He expertly plays on His flute music, which is very pleasing to  the ear. That flute is like a fishhook to catch the fish of the gopls' hearts.Of all these, the nectar flute music from the moon of Krsna's mouth is said to be the best.RadharanI addresses Krsna's buffalo horn bugle: Because Krsna's flute  has taken birth in a family of pious bamboos, she is very straight and when she drinks the nectar of the moon of Krsna's mouth, she plays the fifth note with great virtuosity. O buffalo horn bugle, you have many crooked curves and  you are as black as coal. Even though you also drink the nectar of Krsna's lips, the sound you make brings us great pain.


Once, when RadharanI had quarreled with Krsna, She angrily said to Lalita : By raining the nectar of this singing, the black cloud of Krsna is now extinguishing the blazing fire of My jealous anger. O My friend, do not become angry  with Me. Be kind to Me. Blow the breeze of vour charm on this Krsna cloud and send Him far away from here.Once, as Radharai^ .. going to a rendezvous in the forest, She said to Lalita : Whose bodily fragrance is now causing the  hair on the creeper of My body to stand up like fresh flower buds? I think Madhava must have been here. This sweet fragrance clearly announces His presence.Krsna: A very sweet fragrance has suddenly made My heart mad with  happiness. RadharanI, whose teeth are as beautiful as pomegranate seeds, must be nearby, collecting flowers at the base of Govardhana Hill.Vrnda to Krsna: RadharanI walked along the Yamuna's shore, as gracefully as a swan.  Hearing the cooing of swans nearby and thinking this to be the sound of your tinkling ankle bells, She began to tremble. She forgot the water pot on Her head. It at once slipped and fell to the ground.Krsna: Moving through the air in  waves of sweetness, the tinkling sounds of Radharanl's ankle bells silence the cooing of the sarasa birds, maddened with amorous passion. That tinkling sound fills My heart with a host of ecstasies.RadharanI: Filled with flower buds  bearing the marks of Krsna's fingernails and decorated with Krsna's footprints, displaying the marks of the flag, thunderbolt, elephant rod, and lotus, this forest of Vrndavana makes My heart tremble with transcendental happiness.



Krsna praises Syama's lute playing: Milking the Vedas of their beauty, in order to create the introductory stanza of Cupid's romantic drama, Syama's glorious lute music brings Me great joy.Radharani: With great artistry, Hari has  strung this beautiful flower garland on a silken string. This garland must be Cupid's quiver filled with sharpened arrows to make My heart tremble in tis way.Things near the beloved: (1) remnants of flowers and other things offered to  the beloved (2) peacock feathers (3) necklaces of gunja (4) mineral pigments from the hills and mountains (5) the herd of surabhi cows (6) the stick (7) flute (8) buffalo horn bugle (9) glances of the beloved (10) dust raised by the  cows (11) Vrndavana forest (12) the residents of Vrndavana forest (13) Govardhana Hill (14) the Yamuna River (15) the rasa dance arena and other places of Krsna's pastimes.Radharani to Visakha: The sandalwood paste from  Krsna's body is a precious jewel that attracts the gopls. The name of Krsna, the master of the flute, is a mantra that bewitches the gopls. The remnants of Krsna's flower garland is a powerful potion that enchants the gopls' hearts.  Who will not agree that these three things possess inconceivably great power?One time, in the Nava-Vrndavana section of Dvaraka, Candravall said to Radharani: O girl with a slender waist, now that You are staring with wide-open  eyes at Krsna's splendid golden dhoti, why has your body become covered with upright hair, like blossoming kadamba flowers, and why have Your eyes become filled with tears that seem like broken strands of crystal gems?

Noticing Radharani's symptoms of ecstatic love for Krsna, Mukhara says to PaurnamasI: When She sees a peacock feather, She begins to tremble and when She sees a gunja berry, She cries with tears in Her eyes. I do not know  what new thing has entered this girl's heart to make Her dance in this strange and wonderful way?


Seeing the mineral pigments of Govardhana Hill, Radharani said: So lovely that they eclipse the charm of the fireflies' light, these mineral pigments are known to beautify the transcendental body of Krsna, the prince of the cowherds.  These pigments make Me passionately thirst to see Him.After Krsna had gone to Mathura, Padma wrote to Him the following letter: When Candravall sees the surabhi cows in the barn at sunset, their faces marked with yearning to  see You and their mooing lamenting Your absence, her heart becomes filled with anxiety and she becomes stunned. O King of the Yadavas, in these circumstances, how will she be able to remain alive?After Krsna had gone to  Mathura, a gopi lamented His absence in the following words to her friend: As He delighted us with pastimes ton Govardhana Hill, Krsna leaned on this stick, pushing it against the ground and resting His hand and chin upon it. Now  that He is gone, the sight of this stick violently thrashes my heart.After Krsna had gone to Mathura, Lalita sent Him the following message: Because Your flute contains the nectar of Your lips, I placed it against Radharanl's heart to  counteract the unbearable poison of separation from You that burns there. Instead of counteracting the poison, that flute increased it by hundreds of times. O King of the Yadavas, what overwhelming passion does not now strike  Radharanl's heart?     i After visiting the residents of Vrndavana, Uddhava returned to Mathura and gave Krsna the following report: Now, whenever it appears before their lotus eyes, Your curling, dust-spotted buffalo horn bugle  violently devours the gopls of Vraja.


Rupa-manjarl to her friend: One day, as Radharani was drawing dolphins in musk on Visakha's breasts, She happened to glimpse Subala nearby. The sight of Subala reminded her of Krsna. She became agitated with love, the hair  of Her body stood up in ecstasy, and She proceeded to draw on Visakha's breasts a picture of Krsna wearing a garland of forest flowers.Krsna to Madhumarigala: As I was busy killing the demons and protecting My friends and  relatives, the fire of separation from RadharanI remained somewhat subdued and peaceful but now that I see Lalita 's intense love for Her, that fire has suddenly become a great conflagration.Padma to Candravali: My friend, since  morning, you have been stringing these sumanah flowers. Why do you not have a vaijayanti garland by now? O charming girl, it is already evening because the thick dust cloud raised by the surabhi cows has now entered the sky, to  the great delight of the peacocks of the gopls' eyes.RadharanI: My friend, I employ newer and newer ropes of hope to keep My life within this body. How many good opportunities have I missed because I am so timid? These  blossoming trees in Vrndavana forest remind Me of many pastimes with Krsna. In this way, they are violently wounding My heart.The living entities who have taken shelter of Vrndavana forest are enumerated in the following list: (1)  birds (2) bumblebees (3) deer (4) groves of trees (5) creepers (6) tulasi-devi (7) karnikara flowers (8) kadamba and other flowers.PaurnamasI to Krsna: Seeing Your glistening peacock feather crown, the peacocks think You are a  blue rain cloud and they begin to dance with jubilant abandon. Observing this wild dancing, what human resident of Vraja would not become agitated with love for You?Afflicted by Krsna's absence, RadharanI spoke the following  words: Although these bumblebees are sweetly buzzing the fifth note, just as if they were gently playing a lute, still, their humming sounds to Me just like the cracking of thunderbolts. Alas, who will not become the enemy of one  checkmated by destiny?


RadharanI, unhappy because of her separation from Krsna, addresses the does: O does, I can see that you appear to be stunned and the grass is falling half-eaten from your mouths. Is this because charming Krsna has stolen your  heart? Is it because you have met the wandering guest of Krsna's sidelong glance, or because you have heard the sweet music of His flute?Uddhava reads to RadharanI the message of Krsna: O red-lipped RadharanI, now  withering away with grief, Nanda's son, Krsna, trembling with love for You, humbly bows before You and begs from You the following request: Please do not ever look at the groves of Madhavi creepers that directly witnessed Our  happy loving pastimes on Govardhana Hill.Searching for Krsna in the forest, RadharanI appealed to the pants and creepers in the following words: O Tulasi, you are very beautiful, O jasmine creeper, you are filled with charming  blossoms, O land growing lotus flower, you appear very splendid, surrounded by these bumblebees. O my friends, please quickly tell Me—where is Nanda's son, Krsna, the king of cheaters?Abandoned by Krsna in the  Nava-Vrndavana section of Dvaraka, RadharanI laments: Krsna, who wears a peacock feather crown, left the arena of the rasa dance with Me. He decorated My hair with karnikara flowers and then disappeared. O My friend, now the  sight of these karnikara flowers blooming on the Yamuna's shore makes Me burn with pain.Some time after Krsna had left for Mathura, a gopi lamented: O my friend, at the gateway of Vraja village, Krsna, whose eyes are like  hundred-petal lotus flowers, planted this kadamba tree when it was a baby sapling with only two leaves. Now, the sight of that same kadamba tree in full bloom violently attacks the gopls and causes them great pain.RadharanI,  suffering from Krsna's absence, appeals to Govardhana Hill: O Govardhana, you shine very splendidly in this land of Gokula, with your many lofty peaks thrusting into the sky and even touching the planets of the demigods. O  Govardhana, please look around in all directions and tell Me where Krsna, the jewel of the cowherd boys, is now enjoying His pastimes.


One of Radharanl's friends: Now that the gopls say that Krsna is at the gate, about to go to Mathura, the Yamuna's water is again burning with the poison of Kaliya-naga.After visiting Vrndavana, Uddhava reported to Krsna: O king of  the Yadavas, when the beautiful doe-eyed gopls reverentially glance out from Vraja village, the place known as VamSivata at once carries the rasa dance arena from a great distance and places it in the troubled courtyard of their  hearts. That rasa dance arena then proceeds to rob the gopls of their senses and cruelly toys with their lives.Neutral parties: Prominent among these are: (1) the moonlight (2) clouds (3) lightning (4) springtime (5) autumn (6) the  nectarean full-moon (7) the fragrant breeze, and (8) the birds.Lalita and her friends entered a grove of creepers so thick that even the moonlight could not penetrate it. Somehow, a single moonbeam fell from a cakora bird's beak  into this grove. When Lalita saw that moonbeam, she at once fainted.RadharanI once mistook Govardhana Hill, a cloud and a lightning flash, for Krsna wearing a peacock feather and yellow garments. Lalita then said to Her: Where  are the yellow garments You mentioned? Where is the peacock feather? Where is Krsna, the enemy of Karhsa? O eager friend blinded by passion, please do not fall into illusion in this way. Look! What You see is actually a lightning  flash, cloud, and rainbow above tall Govardhana Hill.Vrnda to Nandimukhl: During the monsoon season, a certain gopl embraced Madhava, when a lightning flash illuminated the beauty of His black form. She became  embarrassed and tightly embraced Krsna, as a lightning flash clings to a rain-cloud.


Afflicted by Krsna's absence and annoyed by the presence of the pleasant spring season, a certain gopl said to her friend: These bees buzzing around the jasmine flowers in Vrndavana forest are very annoying and inconsiderate.  My friend, why does this wretched, unintelligent spring season want to come to this world now?A gopl, afflicted by Krsna's absence, said to her friend: Filled with the charming talking of the kalahamsa swans and bringing an intense  sweetness to this Vrndavana forest, this autumn season is like a messenger sent by Hari to rob my peace of mind.Once, RadharanI became angry with Krsna and refused to see Him. Later, the sight of the full moon reminded Her of  Krsna and made Her have a change of heart. At that time, Visakha said to Her: This nectarean full moon has no power to remove the darkness from Vrndavana forest. O full-moon faced RadharanI, how is it then able to remove the  dankness of jealous anger from within the cave of Your heart?Anguished by Krsna's absence, RadharanI addressed the fragrant breeze: O southern breeze, filled with the fragrance of the sandalwood forest, O bringer of amorous  happiness, please give up your contrariness and be kind to Me. O breath of the universe, please place Madhava before Me and make Me breathless.Krsna to RadharanI: My charming beloved, now that the clouds have come, the  swans of the gopls with beautiful eyebrows have angrily left. At this moment, only the playful cataka birds remain in this kadamba forest.Rupa-manjarl to her friend: Blossoming with youthful beauty, RadharanI became frightened  when She saw Krsna because Her elderly relatives were nearby. Only after Lalita encouraged Her with friendship and support did RadharanI become bold enough to glance at Krsna from the corners of Her restless eyes.


Those learned in the science of bhakti have divided anubhdva into three main groups: (1) alankara (ornaments) (2) udbhasvara (3) vacika.Twenty astonishing alankaras (ornaments) are manifested in the youthful lover because of  the great intensity of love. They are manifested on the bodily limbs and seven are manifested spontaneously, without any effort.Bhava: When amorous love is manifested for the first time in the beginning of youth in the heart, it is  called rati or bhava. In this stage of bhava, the transformation of spiritual ecstatic emotions are completely absent.When, even though the causes of material emotional transformation are present, the heart remains unchanged, this  state is called pure goodness or bhava. In this state of bhava, the original emotional spiritual emotional transformation of love for Krsna is manifested in seed form.A gopl said: When, in the flower-filled Khandava forest, in your  father's pasture land, you formerly saw Mukunda, your heart did not tremble, and you did not cry in ecstasy. O my friend, now that you see the same Krsna happily dancing in Vrndavana, why do your eyes move restlessly to and fro,  and why have your ears transformed from white kumuda lotus flowers to blue indivara lotuses.Ham: That stage where there is a slight manifestation of ecstatic love, where the neck becomes tilted and the eyebrows, eyes, and other  bodily features blossom with happiness, is called hava.Padma to RadharanI: O golden-complexioned RadharanI, now that springtime, the friend of the cuckoos, has made the sumanah flowers blossom on the Yamuna's shore, the  creepers of your eyebrows has begun to gently dance, and the bumblebee of Your eyes, resting now on the flower-bud above Your tilted, stiffened neck, is now moving to and fro between the two creepers of Your ears.


(O golden-complexioned RadharanI, now that Madhava, the friend of the beautiful gopis, brings them transcendental pleasure on the shore of the Yamuna, the creeper of Your eyebrows has begun to gently dance and the  bumblebee of Your eyes, resting on the flower-bud above Your tilted, stiffened neck, is moving to and fro between the two creepers of Your ears.)Held: after hava is the stage held, the harbinger of amorous pastimes.Visakha to  RadharanI: As you listen to the sound of Krsna's flute, Your breasts throb and heave with many sighs, Your eyes have become crooked, Your cheeks blossom with happiness, Your belt has slipped, and Your garments are drowned  in perspiration. O my friend, do not become careless. Your elderly relatives are now approaching on Your left.Sobhd: In the state called sobhd, the body is decorated with various symptoms of conjugal enjoyment.Krsna to Subala:  Grasping a kadamba branch with the budding reddish twigs of her fingers, Visakha left the cottage of creepers at daybreak. Her eyes were rolling and her partly disheveled hair moved to and fro on her shoulders. This Visakha is  now residing inside My heart and she will never leave it.Kdnti: When beauty increases amorous desire, this stage is called kdnti.Krsna to Subala: Charming RadharanI is filled with amorous playfulness and Her limbs are marked  with rising youthful beauty. This RadharanI enters My heart and drives Me mad with love for Her.


Dlpti: If beauty is greatly increased by youthfulness, amorous enjoyment, place, time, various qualities, or other things, that condition of increased beauty is called dlpti.Rupa-manjarl to a friend: Standing in the grove by the Yamuna's  shore, which is wonderfully decorated by the moonlight, Her beautiful eyes gracefully closed, Her perspiration carried away by the gentle Malayan breeze and the splendid necklace broken on Her beautiful breasts, youthful  Radharani aroused amorous desires within the heart of Hari.Madhurya: When all activities are naturally charming and graceful, this is called madhurya.Rati-manjarl: Slightly tilting her head, fatigued and indolent from the rasa  dance, and pressing her bent foot against the ground, this moon-faced gopl jubilantly places her right hand on Krsna's shoulder and her left hand on His hip.Pragalbhata: Complete lack of shyness in the course of amorous pastimes  is called pragalbhata by the wise.Vrnda: Expertly enjoying amorous pastimes, Radharam bites Krsna with Her teeth and scratches Him with Her nails, as if She has become His enemy. These activities bring Krsna incomparable  pleasure.Audarya: When one is always humble in all situations, this quality is called audarya by the wise.Krsna to Madhumarigala: Sincerity has entered the corners of Candravall's eyes, many humble prayers reside in her words,  and she is very respectful to Me. Her kind politeness has expertly checked the anger in My heart.After Krsna had gone to Mathura, anguished Radharani spoke the following words: Even though Hari is naturally grateful, even though  His heart is pure, He does not remember this land of Gokula. I think that His forgetfulness is the bad fruit of the tree of the sins I performed in some previous birth.Dhairya: When the mind is very steady, this is called dhairya.

Radharani to Nava-Vrnda: O My friend, even though He may become indifferent, harsh, or neglectful for thousands of years, never, even after countless births, shall My heart become bewildered and give up the loving service of My  dear most beloved, Syamasundara.


Llld: Llla is the imitation of the charming appearance, activities, or other things of the beloved.Maddened by Krsna's absence, the gopls began to imitate His pastimes: Another gopl said: "Wicked Kaliya, stand still! I am Krsna." She  raised her arms and imitated the priceless treasure of Krsna's pastimes.Rati-manjarl , describing Radharanl's madness in the anguish of separation from Krsna: Radharani anointed Her body with black musk to imitate Krsna's dark  complexion. She dressed in yellow silk garments, wore a garland of flowers, placed a charming peacock feather in Her braided hair, and played a bamboo flute, tilting it to touch Her shoulder. May this Radharani, who thus imitated  the appearance of Krsna, protect us.Vilasa: The graceful gestures of the face, eyes, and other features while walking, sitting, standing, and enjoying various pastimes with the beloved, is called vilasa.Vira to Radharani: O Radharani,  having beautiful teeth, when Krsna stands before You, why do You hide Your smile, pretending to move the pearl decorating the tip of Your nose? From behind that smile, the slightly visible splendor of Your charming teeth is now  eclipsing the sweetness of the nectar moonlight.


Vrnda to RadharanI: When You see Krsna, the youthful prince of the cowherds, sitting in the pastime cottage near the kadamba tree, You become full of happiness and the beautiful waves of the milk ocean of Your glances make the  dark Yamuna River as white as the Ganges.Vicchitti: Vicchitti is beautifying the body with various ornaments.Vrnda to Nandlmukhl: By placing on Her ears red mango-petal earrings that move in the breeze and delight Mukunda's  heart, RadharanI has made the lotus flower of Her face blossom with happiness.Vaisampayana Rasi: Decorated with a garland of amalaki petals around His neck and a peacock feather moving in the breeze, Krsna is splendidly  handsome.Some authorities define vicchitti in the following way: Angry at her lover's offenses, a beautiful heroine may have her friends remove all her ornaments.Jealous and angry RadharanI addresses Visakha: Remove this tight  ring. Throw these two armlets far away. Untie this hard jewel necklace. O My charming friend, these jeweled ornaments are poisoned by the powerful glance of the black snake known as Krsna. I will not allow them to remain and  increase My thirst to see Him again.ViBrahmd: Hastily preparing to meet her lover, the bewildered heroine may place the necklace, flower garland, and other ornaments in the wrong places.Lalita to RadharanI: You have placed the  sapphire necklace in Your braided hair, the lotus flower crown on Your water pot-like breasts, mascara on Your arms and legs, and musk perfume around Your eyes. In great haste to meet Krsna, the enemy of Karhsa, You have  forgotten everything.


Some of the gopis wanted to decorate their faces with cosmetic ointments and to dress themselves very nicely before going to Krsna but unfortunately, they could not finish their cosmetic decorations nor put on their dresses in the  right way because of their anxiety to meet Krsna immediately. Their faces were decorated hurriedly and were haphazardly finished—some even put the lower part of their dresses on the upper part of their bodies and the upper part  on the lower part.Some other authorities define vibhrama in the following way: When, out of contrariness, the heroine becomes displeased with her lover, Krsna, even though He is very submissive and eager to serve her, such a  state is known as viBrahmd.RadharanI to Krsna: O Govinda, why ask to braid My hair? It is not worth the trouble. I like it unbraided. Do not wipe the perspiration from My face. It pleases Me. Do not garland My head with these  jasmine flowers. They are so heavy that they give Me a headache.Pride, ambition, weeping, smiling, envy, fear, and anger are the seven ecstatic loving symptoms manifest by a jubilant shrinking away and these symptoms are  called kila-kincita-bhdva.Krsna to Subala: First, I made great happiness appear on the pathway of the gopis' eyes and then, I forcibly placed My hands on Radharanl's budding breasts. She responded by knitting Her eyebrows. The  hair of Her body stood up in ecstasy and Her splendidly beautiful face simultaneously smiled and cried. In My heart, I remember RadharanI in this way.May the sight of Radharanl's kila-kincita ecstasy, which is like a bouquet, bring  good fortune to all. When Krsna blocked Radharanl's way to the dana-ghati, there was laughter within Her heart, Her eyes grew bright, and fresh tears flowed from Her eyes, reddening them. Due to Her sweet relationship with Krsna,  Her eyes were enthusiastic and when Her crying subsided, She appeared even more beautiful.


When the heroine remembers or hears about her lover, Krsna, love for Him is aroused in her heart, and she hankers for His association:Vrnda to Krsna: O Krsna, who is dressed in yellow garments, when Pali asked that she not be  told anything that would make her unhappy, the gopis eloquently described Your glories. As Pali listened, the lotus flower of her face blossomed with happiness, her lips became red like bimba fruits, and the hair of her body stood  up, making her appear like a beautiful, blossoming kadamba tree.When the border of a beloved's sari and the cloth veiling her face are caught, she externally appears offended and angry but within her heart, she is very happy.

RadharanI to Krsna: O Krsna, please do not be so free with Your hands. Even though My braids are becoming loosened and My garments are slipping, Your sole reply is laughter. O merciless one, what are You madly doing at this  unsuitable time? I fall at Your feet and request You: Please leave Me in peace, even if for only a moment.Krsna to RadharanI: Please don't knit Your eyebrows. Don't hit Me with Your hands. Don't block Your face, its cheeks bristling  with signs of ecstasy. O beautiful, sweet RadharanI, let the bumblebee of Krsna enjoy Himself by drinking the honey of Your bandhujiva flower lips.Even though pleased by Krsna's gift, the heroine may pretend to proudly and angrily  dislike it.Pointing to Syama, Rupa-manjarl said to Bakulamala: Look! Peacock-feather-crowned Krsna, entreating her with thousands of sweet words, presents a flower garland to Syama as her rivals stand nearby. Contrary Syama  at first accepts the garland but, even though her heart is pleased with it, she smells it for a moment and now throws it away with contempt.Syama to RadharanI: Krsna, the killer of Aghasura, now stands before You, gazing at Your  face and waiting for a response.


O mad girl, You glance at Him with a deeply contemptuous smile and then ignore Him, putting all Your attention into stringing a garland of forest flowers.A gopi to Gauri: O friend, now that you angrily disdain Hari's many sweet  words, do not waste your time trying to teach something new to your nicely trained female parrot. (The parrot was trained to call out Krsna's names, such as: O Krsna! O Hari! O Govinda! The gopi says here that no matter how hard  Gauri tries to prevent the parrot from addressing Krsna in this way, she will remain always unsuccessful.)Playful, enchanting movements of the eyebrows and graceful, delicate movements of the limbs, are called Lalitam.

Krsna: Angrily knitting Her eyebrows at the creepers whose flowers are Cupid's arrows, beautiful RadharanI happily moves Her two lotus feet first in one, and then in another direction. With Her delicate hand, She brushes aside the  bumblebees attracted by Her sweet fragrance. In this way, She enjoys pastimes just as if She were the lovely goddess of fortune descended into Vrndavana forest.When shyness, anger, and jealousy are not openly expressed in  words but displayed only by action—this is known as vikrtam by the wise.Once, Krsna greeted RadharanI and began to speak to her. Out of shyness, She did not respond. Later, Krsna asked the reason for this from His friend,  Subala, who replied: O Mukunda, listen, and the answer to Your question will come from my mouth. Beautiful RadharanI greeted You, but not with words. She greeted You with the brilliant luster of Her cheeks and with the hair of Her  body standing up in ecstasy.


Visakha to Lalita : I jokingly said to RadharanI: You are a pious, chaste girl, born in a respectable family. It is not proper for You to look at another man. If You see a man other than Your husband, You should turn Your face away from  Him. RadharanI took these words seriously and when Hari glanced at Her, even though She yearned to gaze at Him, She turned Her merciful glance from Him and placed it upon me instead.Krsna to Uddhava: Even though I  expressed My intense attachment for her, angry, proud Satya ignored Me as she decorated herself, not breaking the silence, although she actually yearned to speak. She hid from Me, partly covering her face with the lid of the  sapphire jewelry case. This action reminded Me of the beautiful moon hiding during an eclipse.Krsna to Subala: When I met RadharanI on the Yamuna's shore, I demanded of Her: "Thief, return the flute You stole from Me!"  RadharanI did not reply, but simply stared at Me with angry eyes and knitted eyebrows.In this way, I have described the twenty alankaras (ornaments of ecstatic love felt by the gopis for Krsna, and manifested on their limbs and  hearts). Most scholars mention these twenty, although some others mention other kinds of alankaras. Because Bharata Muni has mentioned only these twenty, I shall herein describe only two of the other alankaras, both of which  increase the sweetness of the Lord's pastimes.When, although fully understanding the situation, the lover, pretending to be ignorant, asks a question of the beloved, this is called maugdhyam.Satyabhama to Krsna: O Krsna, who will  want the pearl from my bracelet? What kind of creeper will it sprout? Where will it grow, and what kind of fruit will it bear?Great and unfounded fear in the presence of the beloved is called cakitam.Crying: Save me! Save me! This  frightening creature is heading towards my campaka flower earring! The doe-eyed gopl, frightened of a bumblebee, earnestly embraced her protector, Hari.Ecstatic symptoms that increase bodily luster are called udbhasvaras by  the wise. These include: (1) loosening of the undergarments (2) loosening of the bodice (3) loosening of the braids (4) crushing the limbs (5) yawning (6) expansion of the nostrils, and (7) sighing.


Seeing Her enjoy pastimes with Krsna at Gauri-tirtha, Vrnda addressed RadharanI: O RadharanI, now that You have met Krsna, Your eyes are full of tears of joy that have washed away Your black mascara. You have become so  excited that perspiration has washed away the red kurikuma adoring Your breasts. As You gaze at Krsna's chest, You yearn to embrace it. Your undergarment has also become loosened. I think it wishes to become untied  altogether.Krsna jokingly says to RadharanI: O RadharanI, the love in Your heart is greater than My love. I shall now prove this fact. Your love is so great that it can no longer be content to remain locked up in Your heart. It is now  emerging from Your heart and in My presence, it is pushing aside the red bodice that stands in its way.Vrnda to RadharanI: O golden-complexioned RadharanI, Krsna grants liberation to the demons He kills and therefore, it is not at  all surprising that Your bound up hair has also attained liberation simply by meeting Him.Nandlmukhl to Vrnda: In this courtyard of Vraja, as this beautiful doe-eyed gopl playfully glances at Krsna, the best of the cowherd boys, is it  that she has become crushed by violent waves of amorous desire that her body appears to be devastated in this way?Krsna to Candravall: Noticing that his flower arrows had become dull, Cupid must have studied the art of the  invincible yawning weapon from you. O My chaste friend, Candravall, I think he must have violently attacked you with that weapon and that is the reason you are now yawning at the outskirts of Vraja.


Krsna to Subala: When lotus-eyed RadharanI breathes, Her ruby-like nostrils flare wide open and the pearl on the end of Her nose rocks to and fro, as if riding on a swing moving in the breeze. This sight has carried RadharanI into  My heart.The wise describe the twelve ecstatic symptoms manifested in speech. Very affectionate words are called dlapa.The gopls address Krsna: My dear Krsna, where is the woman within the three worlds who cannot be  captivated by the rhythms of the sweet songs coming from Your wonderful flute? Who cannot fall down from the path of chastity in this way? Your beauty is the most sublime within the three worlds. Upon seeing Your beauty, even  cows, birds, animals, and trees in the forest are stunned in jubilation.Krsna to RadharanI: O RadharanI, whether You are harsh or gentle to Me, You will always remain My life and soul. Just as the cakora bird takes shelter only of the  moonlight, I take shelter of You. I love You only. You have no rival.Intoxicated by drinking madhu nectar, RadharanI stutters: O Hari, the sound of Your flute-ute-ute churns-urns-urns the gopls' hearts. Afflicted Lalita -ita-ita now takes  shelter of You and worships-ips-ips You.Seeing a tamala tree growing beside bandhuka flowers, lotus flowers, and a colony of bees, RadharanI, bewildered by intense ecstatic love, thought the combination of these things was Her  lover, Krsna. At that time, Lalita- spoke to Her: This Krsna You see is not Krsna, but a tamala tree. This flute music is not flute music but the buzzing sounds of a bee colony. This gunja necklace is not a gunja necklace but a cluster of  bandhuka flowers. These two eyes are not eyes, but a pair of lotus flowers.One day, during a period when RadharanI was angry with Krsna and refused to see Him, the following conversation occurred: RadharanI: What girl would  not yearn for this spring season


(Madhava), filled with so many splendid, blossoming forest flowers? Visakha: O RadharanI, You actually desire Krsna. RadharanI: Never! Never! My dear enemy, I used the word Madhava to mean springtime.Padma addresses a  traveler: O traveler, please speak the following riddle to Krsna, the king of Mathura: Where do the phases of the moon hide on the new moon night? The answer to this riddle is: The phases of the moon hide in the sunlight.

Padma: When she becomes frightened by the sounds of the cuckoos, where does Candravall find shelter? The answer is: Candravall finds shelter in the arms of Krsna.During a time when RadharanI was angry with Him, Krsna tried  to appease Her by bowing down to Her lotus feet. When He arose, Lalita asked Him: "Why did You bow down before RadharanI?" Neither Krsna nor RadharanI said anything and the silence was finally broken by Vrnda, who said: "O  Prince of Gokula, do not waste Your time with these useless remedies. Lalita has spoken RadharanI's thoughts. Lalita is like a vina accompanying Radharanl's singing.Nandimkhi to PaurnamasI: When Syamala heard her elderly  relatives say: "Some cuckoo must have bitten these two splendid large pomegranates and some bumblebee must have bitten these two red flowers as he drank their honey," she quickly tugged her sari with her hand and covered  the teeth marks on her breasts.Angry RadharanI refused to see Krsna. Turigavidya then spoke to Her: My dear charming, bewildered RadharanI, you are filled with the beauty of youth and You are as splendid and restless as a  lightning flash. In this grove of Vrndavana, filled with the buzzing sounds of hosts of bees, You have now met Govinda, who is very difficult to meet, and whose handsome form astonishes the three worlds. Enjoy transcendental  pastimes with Krsna, the master of the goddess of fortune.


Visakha to Krsna: O Krsna, this is my fortunate friend, Radha, this is my friend, Lalita , and I am Visakha, We three have come here to collect many flowers.Seeing Krsna kiss her rival, Lalita , the gopl, MalatI, spoke the following  words ostensibly addressed to a bumblebee but actually meant for Krsna's ear: Look at this splendid blossoming mdlatl creeper in Kamyavana forest! Why do you ignore it and prefer to kiss this mediocre tumbi flower? You must be  a very unintelligent debauchee bumblebee. What further can we say.These are the vacika-anubhdvas. Because they increase the sweetness of Krsna's amorous pastimes, they have been described in this book.


There are eight sattvika ecstasies:Becoming stunned: Krsna to Madhumangala: Radha and five of Her friends are now standing before us. Radha has now dropped Her golden locket. She perspires, trembles, and squints Her eyes.  Why has She now become so stunned that She appears like a motionless wooden doll?Madhumangala: Frightened by thunder, the firm-breasted gopl of Vraja, Radharani, embraces Hari and remains stunned and motionless in  His arms.Madhumangala to Krsna: O Mukunda, look at Radharani, who now stands motionless before You. As She gazes with unblinking eyes at Your transcendental sweetness, which has no equal in all the three worlds, Her heart  has become struck with wonder.A gopl to her friend: Noticing lotus-eyed Krsna's delay and considering that He would not come to the rendezvous, Citra became stunned as she waited for Him in the cottage.Hearing in the middle of  the night that Madhava had abandoned her and had gone to Gotra-devi, Syamala became stunned. For a moment, she became pale and lusterless and she stared into space without blinking, as if she were a demigoddess. (The  demigods and demigoddesses do not blink their eyes).Perspiration: Parasara to Maitreya: When Lord Hari touched the gopl's cheeks, His arms became like two clouds of perspiration raining upon the sprouting crops of His bodily  hair, standing up in ecstasy.Lalita to Krsna: O Madhava, Radharani is actually a staff fashioned from candrakanta gems. On the pretext of profusely perspiring, She melts whenever the moon of Your face rises before Her. (The  candrakanta stone melts when exposed to moonlight).


Once, as Visakha was enjoying pastimes with Krsna in the forest, she became frightened by a rumor that her husband had left home to search for her. Krsna tried to reassure her in the following words: My dear Visakha, please do  not tremble with fear, your husband is far away and the jungle of trees and creepers around this place is impenetrable. Aside from this, your perspiration has completely washed away all evidence of the dolphins I so carefully drew  on your cheeks.Nandlmukhl to PaurnamasI: When Pali heard Krsna accidentally address her as Syamala, she pretended to meekly ignore it. Nevertheless, the shower of perspiration that moistened her sari testified to her anger.

Hair standing up: When asked about the rasa dance, PaurnamasI told Gargi: When the demigoddesses in the sky saw Krsna, in a single moment, kiss an entire army of doe-eyed gopis, they became struck with wonder. Their eyes  opened wide and the hair on their bodies stood up.One gopl carried Krsna through her eyes into her heart. She then closed her eyes and embraced the Lord in her heart, as if she was a yogi rapt in meditation. In this way, she  became flooded with transcendental bliss and the hair of her body stood erect.Isvara Purl to his disciples: All the young hair on Krsna's transcendental body stood up, as if craning their necks to see the beauty of the beloved  Rukmini. These hairs appeared like many new buds on the blossoming twig of Krsna's body.A gopl to her friend: Agitated by the sweet aroma, a swarm of bumblebees raced to Pali's mouth. She trembled and the hair of her body  stood up. Even though His exquisite sweetness had made her very shy, she intently embraced Krsna.


Speaking broken words: A gopl to Krsna: O cheater, Krsna, doe-eyed RadharanI is agitated with intense love for You. The hair of Her body stands up, She breathes long signs, Her heart is stunned, and She mutters broken,  emotion-charged appeals to You. She always thinks of You. She is drowning in the nectar ocean of love for You.RadharanI to Lalita: When I heard the sound of Hari's flute, I became astonished. The hair of My body stood up and My  throat became choked up. Even though you repeatedly signaled Me with your hand, I remained completely unaware of your presence beside Me in the network of creepers.Krsna to Visakha: How many wonderfully beautiful girls  love Me in this village of Vraja? The happiness 1 experience from the great flood filled with the waves of their splendid amorous joking words is hardly equal, to Me, to the happiness I experience by hearing two or three drops of  broken syllables of angry, jealous insults fallen from the waves of Radharanl's trembling lips.When a friend said to her: "We shall I see Krsna again," Rukminl-devi harshly rebuked her in order to conceal the happiness that showed  itself in many broken words.Krsna to Visakha: My friend, when I joked with Her at our first meeting, RadharanI became so frightened that She repeatedly stuttered. In this way, She made a stream of fresh nectar flow by the shores of  My ears.Trembling: One day, as Radha and Krsna's pastimes were suddenly interrupted by Jatila, Visakha reassured the frightened RadharanI in the following words: Kesava has already disguised Himself as a young girl and aside  from that, Your husband, Abhimanyu, is a childish fool who is easily tricked. Why are You trembling like a plantain tree in a hurricane?


Lalita to RadharanI: Why do You tremble so when you meet the cowherd prince, Krsna? Do not fear. I, the clever Lalita , am by Your side.Krsna to Padma: My dear Padma, the flame of an oil lamp in a windless place does not  waver. If you are actually not angry with Me then why does your body shake so violently?Turning pale: A gopl to Krsna: Your absence has turned RadharanI pale. She now looks like white ivory spotted with kuhkuma and Her face is  like the moon. O Krsna, O enemy of Putana, to what else may I compare the pale, doe-eyed RadharanI?One night, when RadharanI saw Herself reflected on Krsna's chest, She thought the reflection was another girl, Her rival. At that  time, Krsna said to angry, pale RadharanI: Please tell Me why, as We enjoy these amorous pastimes in the middle of the night in Vrndavana forest, Your reddish face has suddenly become as pale as the full moon in the autumn  season?Vrnda to PaurnamasI: One time, as RadharanI was enjoying pastimes with Madhava on the shore of the Yamuna, She saw something nearby that She thought might be Her husband, Abhimanyu. She suddenly became  pale with terror.Shedding tears: When RadharanI saw Her beloved Krsna, Her eyes, from their trembling pupils to the corners, leading to the pathways going to the ears, became filled with tears of joy that flowed like a great stream  of perspiration down Her cheeks.Flushed cheeks, bodily hair standing up, and tears are also considered to be manifestations of transcendental bliss.A gopl to her friend: After waiting all night at the rendezvous place, Indumukhi  finally saw Krsna at daybreak. With crooked eyes, she stared at His chest, which bore the tilaka pictures and decorations drawn by some other girl. Not saying a word, she released a flood of angry tears.


Krsna appealed to Radharani, angry at Him for enjoying pastimes with a rival gopl: Radharani, I have not offended You. Why do You speak these harsh, angry words? Why have You shed these tears, which are resting like a jeweled  necklace on Your breasts?Moved by jealous anger, the gopis shake their heads, sigh, display trembling lips and cheeks, cast sidelong glances, knit their eyebrows, and cry with jealous anger.To Radharani, who lamented Her  separation from Krsna, Visakha said: O Radharani, with beautiful thighs, do not stain Your moon-like face with these tears from Your eyes. Hari, who is like an ocean of mercy, will be merciful to You again.Devastation: Lalita to  Visakha: Now that Radharani has directly met Madhava, Her eyes have become fixed upon Him with an unblinking gaze. Her legs are stunned. No sound comes from Her throat and no breath from Her nostrils. Her heart is washed  by the nectar of transcendental bliss. I think that, just like a great sage, She has attained the meditative trance of samddhi.Paurnamasi describes the agony of the gopls after Krsna departed for Mathura: I pray that the serpent of  Krsna may angrily bite the chest of King Kamsa, I pray that Hari may again bring the life-giving water of His association to the dried-up pond of Vraja village. Alas! The saphari fish of the gopis are now rolling about on the dry ground  in agony. The waves of their life-breath are stopping. They are on the verge of death.Smoky symptoms of ecstasy: A demigoddess traveling in a flower airplane over Mathura, addresses her friend: My dear friend, why do your eyes  become filled with tears and your cheeks flushed with happiness when you gaze on the Supreme Lord in a courtyard of Mathura?


The symptoms of ecstasy are manifested in three stages. The first, smoky, is when ecstatic symptoms are partially manifested. The second, burning, is a more complete manifestation of ecstasy and the last, blazing brightly, is the  complete manifestation of ecstatic symptoms.Burning: A gopi addresses Dhanya: My dear Dhanya, your thighs are stunned, your bodily hair stands up with happiness, and your eyes are filled with tears. O lotus-faced friend, the blue  treasure of Krsna must have secretly fallen into the palms of your lotus hands.Blazing: Visakha tells Radharani: O fair-faced Radharani, the tears from Your eyes are turning Your black mascara into mud, Your sighs are making Your  bodice dance exuberantly and a network of erect hair is covering Your body. I think the sweetness of Madhava must have approached Your ears.Uddhava describes to Krsna the condition of Lalita in separation from Him: Lalita is  bathed with the tears from her eyes, ornamented with the pearl necklace of her perspiration, anointed with the sandalwood paste of her new pale complexion, dressed in the garment of her bodily hair standing up, and conversing  with her friends with the charming eloquence of many stuttering words. In this way, the stunned Lalita has decorated herself to meet You again.Once, when Radharani was in the forest, She became overwhelmed with ecstasy after  accidentally hearing the sound of Krsna's flute. A gopl friend observed this and immediately ran to Krsna, to give the following report: When Radharani heard the sound of Your flute, She became covered by a monsoon of  perspiration. Her tears became like a great river to slake the



The thirty-three vyabhicdrl-bhavas, beginning with nirveda (disgust), will now, except for augrya (fierceness) and alasya (laziness), be described.The vyabhicdrl-bhavas, although consisting of seemingly undesirable things, such as  marana (imminent death), are glorious because they increase the gopls' love for Krsna.RadharanI: Desiring the happiness of His association and embraces, My dear friend, I disregarded even My superiors and relaxed My shyness  and gravity before them. Furthermore, although you are My best friend, more dear to Me than My own life, I have given you so many troubles. Indeed, I even put aside the vow of dedication to My husband, a vow kept by the most  elevated women. Oh, alas! Although He is now neglecting Me, I am so sinful that I am still living. Therefore, I must condemn My so-called patience.Lamenting in Krsna's separation, RadharanI tells Lalita : My friend, I have not the  slightest fragrance of love for Mukunda. When you see me crying, you should know that I cry not for Him but for My own selfish welfare. Even though I can no longer see Krsna, who plays the flute pressed to His lips, I still remain  willing to maintain My insect-life, even though it bites Me from moment to moment.When Candravall, jealous of Radharani's good fortune, lamented her own, inferior position, Padma consoled her in the following words: My dear  friend, your face appears faded and wilted with unhappiness. Please do not rebuke yourself in this way. You are very important and famous. After all, who on this earth has not heard of Candravall and Tara?At the very moment of  Radha and Krsna's meeting, Radharani's old mother-in-law, Jatila, suddenly arrived on the scene. Krsna quickly disappeared and RadharanI whispered the following words to Visakha: I did not get the chance to drink the nectar of  Hari's words and I did not get the chance to gaze at His face from the corner of My eyes. After a long time, I finally obtained this delightful opportunity to meet Krsna and now, unkind fate, disguised as this old Jatila, has checkmated  all My desires.


The gopls: O friends, those eyes that see the beautiful faces of sons of Maharaja Nanda are certainly fortunate. As these two sons enter the forest, surrounded by Their friends, driving the cows before Them, They hold Their flutes to  Their mouths and glance lovingly upon the residents of Vrndavana. For those who have eyes, we think there is no greater object of vision.RadharanI, separated form Krsna by a quarrel, tells Lalita : My mind only considers Krsna's  virtues and completely discounts His faults. It foolishly refuses to become angry with Him and remains always pleased with Him. Even though Krsna ignores Me and passionately enjoys amorous pastimes with other young girls in  My absence, still, My crooked mind continues to desire Him. What shall I do?After Krsna left for Mathura, RadharanI told one of Her friends: O beautiful-faced friend, I was not able to fully drink the nectar of Krsna's joking words with  My ears, I was not able to fearlessly gaze without restriction on His lotus face, and I was not able to very firmly embrace His chest to My heart's content. Moment after moment, My mind remembers all this as it trembles in pain.

Immersed in a lover's quarrel with Krsna, RadharanI said: I will not let Krsna's sweet words enter My ears. I will not look at Krsna when He bows down before Me. I will curse the gopl friend who comes as His emissary. My heart  burns with the fire of anger for this Krsna.O flute, expert at drinking the nectar of the breath from Mukunda's smiling lotus mouth, I offer my respectful obeisances unto you. I beg you, when you touch the charming bimba fruit of  Krsna's lips, please whisper in His ear how I am burning with the desire to attain Him.


Gopls to Krsna: Dear Krsna, you are known as Hari. You destroy all the miseries of all living entities, specifically of those who have left their homes and family attachment and have completely taken to You. We have left our homes  with the hope that we shall completely devote and dedicate our lives to Your service. We are simply begging to be engaged as Your servants. We do not wish to ask You to accept us as Your wives. Simply accept us as Your  maidservants. Since You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead and like to enjoy the paraklya-rasa, and are famous as a transcendental woman hunter, we have come to satisfy Your transcendental desires. We are also after our  own satisfaction because simply by looking at Your smiling face, we have become very lusty. We have come before You decorated with nice ornaments and dresses but until You embrace us, all our dresses and beautiful feathers  remain incomplete. You are the Supreme Person and if You complete our dressing attempt, as the purusa-bhusana, or the male ornament, then all our desires and bodily decorations are complete.Radharani to Krsna: Even though  I repeatedly brush him away with My hand, this restless bumblebee still tries to land on My face. O Krsna, O crusher of the Agha demon, I offer My respectful obeisances to You. Please be kind and merciful to Me and stop this wicked  bee.After quarreling with Krsna and then being rebuked for that by Visakha, Radharani said: My friend, you are right. Bitten by the wicked serpent of pride, I have offended Krsna. I simply hope that Krsna, who wears a crown of  peacock feathers, will excuse My offense.


Weakness: Vrnda tells PaurnamasI: After a long water splashing battle with Krsna and the smiling gopls, lotus-eyed Radharani became very tired and emaciated. In this condition, She was not able to prevent Her jeweled bracelet  from sliding off Her wrists into the Yamuna's water.Lalita gives to a swan the following message to carry to Krsna in Mathura: Tortured by amorous desires, lotus-eyed Radharani is on the verge of death. All friendly remedies have  abandoned her and now, only the friend of Her hope to someday regain You stays to forcibly keep Her alive.The gopls said: Radharani violently throws Herself into the amorous battle, trying to defeat Her lover, Krsna. However, after  only a brief struggle, Her hips are trembling, the creeper of Her arms is slackened, and Her chest is heaving with sighs. How is it possible for a girl to manifest great chivalrous power and defeat Her lover in Cupid's battle?

Fatigue: The gopls said: Her heart agitated with love for Krsna, Radharani has become exhausted from walking on the path to the far away rendezvous. After taking two or three steps, She considers Her toy lotus flower to be an  unbearable burden and She sets it down by the road. After three or four steps, She sets down the garland of jasmine flowers decorating Her braids and after five steps, She removes the pearl necklace from Her neck. After this, She  rebukes Her hips for being so heavy. But, She cannot abandon them and so She is forced to carry them.Vrnda tells PaurnamasI: The exquisitely beautiful gopls became exhausted by performing the hallisa dance with Krsna. They  moved with slow gracefulness, resting their lotus hands on Krsna's shoulders. Their curling locks of hair languidly moved on their foreheads and they became covered with perspiration.


After enjoying conjugal pastimes with Visakha, Krsna said: My dear Visakha with a beautiful face, now, your arms move languidly and your cheeks are covered with perspiration. Your charming form has filled My heart with the  nectar of transcendental pleasure.Intoxication: Kundavali tells Nandlmukhl: Without shyly covering Her mouth with Her sari, the young gopl, Radharanl, openly drank madhvika liquor as She sat by Hari. Intoxicated, She stuttered  many charming words, like a female parrot reciting different phrases by rote.Pride: Inside a forest cottage, Visakha tells Radharanl: Leaving His cowherd friends and ignoring many gopls who long for His association, Hari stands at  the doorway, gazing at Your face. O Radharanl, intoxicated with pride and smiling with blushing cheeks, You ignore Him as You casually continue to fashion shark-shaped earrings out of yutha flowers. You will not even glance at  Him from the corner of Your eye.Padma defends Candravall's beauty in the assembly of Lalita and her friends: On this earth, who is able to properly describe the beautiful moonlight of Candravall's face? Even Krsna, who wears a  peacock feather crown, comes to this forest cottage to see Candravali's beauty.After hearing Padma's words, Lalita proceeded to glorify Radharanl: My friend, Radharanl's splendid beauty eclipses the shining of hundreds of  Candravalls.One of Lalita 's friends: The singing of the pigeon gopls pleases Krsna only so long as the cuckoo bird, Lalita , does not sing sweetly.Satyabhama tells Saci: I know that your husband is Indra, the king of the demigods.  Still, even though I am only a human girl, I shall now take this parijata tree from you.


Radharanl, in the assembly of Her friends, addressed Krsna's stick, which had been left lying on the ground: The flute does not bow down to offer respects like this and he has become expert at tasting the sweet nectar flowing from  the moon of Mukunda's mouth. O stick, you are wasting your time by bowing down. You will never become eligible in this way to taste even the slightest scent of the flute's rare good fortune.Laksmana describes her garlanding of  Krsna during her svayamvara: My curling hair encircled my face, which was shining with a bright luster due to the reflection of my various rings. My eyes blinking, I first of all observed all the princes present and when I reached my  Lord, I very slowly placed the golden necklace on His neck.Anxiety: A gopl said: Stealing the flute from sleeping Krsna's hand, Radharanl carried it into the dense darkness of the jungle of the grove of creepers. When She noticed  that the luster of Her face, which eclipses the splendor of the autumn moon, illuminated the entire area, She became frightened and bitterly criticized the creator, Brahma, for giving Her such an effulgence.Vrnda: Her head bent down  and her loosened hair fallen over her shoulder, Pali anxiously stops in the dense darkness and moved her trembling eyes in all directions. She covers her face and fearfully walks from the forest grove to the village of Vraja.

Because beautiful girls are naturally fearful, a slight cause of anxiety fills them with fear.Krsna: Learning of My confidential pastimes with her, this fool, Abhimanyu, must have forced Radha to stay at home, or else he may have taken  Her to Mathura, the capital of the Yadu dynasty.Rupa-manjarl to Kundavali: When Radha saw the lightning in the sky, She trembled with fear. With restless eyes, She flung Herself against Hari's chest, just as a lightning flash enters a  dark rain cloud.


Krsna to Radha: Attracted by Your red lotus flower earrings, the best of the bumblebees hovers around You, followed by Your restless sidelong glances, like a swarm of bumblebees. Jingling Your bracelets, You wave Your  creeper-like arms to chase him away. O Radha, Your fear of this bee brings Me great delight.Krsna: My dear thundercloud, you repeatedly confirm the truth of the rumor that you are My dear friend. Your friendship is demonstrated by  this loud thunder that makes Radha tremble with fear and, abandoning all Her pride, place Herself upon My chest.Agitation: Radha: My dear friend, who is this fearless young man? He is as bright as a lightning cloud and He  wanders in His pastimes like a maddened elephant. From where has He come to Vrndavana? Alas, by His restless movements and attractive glances, He is plundering from the vault of My heart the treasure of My patience.

Recognizing that ]dmbavatl is actually Lalita , Satyabhama is RadharanI, and the Syamantaka jewel is the crest jewel of Sarikhacuda, Krsna speaks to Madhumangala: Now 1 can understand that this girl, Jambavatl, under the tree,  is actually Lalita , that this beautiful Satyabhama is RadharanI and this Syamantaka jewel is the crest-jewel of Sarikhacuda. These facts have made Me become agitated with extreme wonder.Kundavali to her friend: O Dhanya, the  mascara has fallen from your eyes. O Padma, you absent-mindedly placed your armlets on your ankles. O Sarangi, you only decorated one foot with tinkling ankle bells. O Pali, your belt is falling, O Lavangi, you unthinkingly  decorated your cheeks with the tilaka intended for your forehead. O Kamala, you decorated your eyes with the red lac that was meant for your feet. Because you are not properly decorated, I request you all—please do not run with  great agitation to the far away place where you hear the sweet music of Krsna's flute.


Vrnda says to RadharanI, as Krsna is about to leave by chariot for Mathura: One moment, You cry bitterly, the next moment, You roll about on the ground before the chariot, the next moment, You gaze with tear-filled eyes upon  Hari's face, the next moment, You place a blade of grass between Your teeth and bow down before Balarama and beg Him not to leave Vrndavana. O Radha, is there any person who Krsna will not throw into the ocean of His  mercy?Kundavali to Nandlmukhl: When the king of Vraja's gatekeeper made the terrible announcement that Krsna and Balarama would leave for Mathura at dawn, his word became like a thunderbolt striking the pathway of the  gopls' ears and filling them with continual agitation.Madness: Vrnda: When this gopl saw Hari, she became mad with transcendental bliss. She was so bewildered that she addressed a bumblebee: My dear beautiful-eyed friend,  please be kind and check this young boy, who is as splendid as a dark rain cloud, who has come here to embrace me.Uddhava, having returned from Vrndavana, spoke to Krsna: Her disheveled hair tossed to and fro, Radha  sometimes rolls about on the ground. Sometimes She cracks Her finger joints, sometimes She knits Her eyebrows or gnashes Her teeth, sometimes She curses Kamsa without restraint, and sometimes She becomes very agitated  by seeing a dark tamala tree and swiftly runs to embrace it. O king of the Yadus, in this way, Radha is burning in a great fire of separation from You.Lalita sent the following letter to Krsna in Mathura: O Krsna, her heart flooded by  waves of separation from You, my gopl friend flails her limbs, shouts a continual stream of high-pitched nonsense, rolls her eyes, and constantly foams at the mouth. Observing all this, her elders think that she has become an  epileptic.


A gopl informs Krsna of Radharanl's sickness: Although Her flower-decorated sick bed has become fragrant with the aromatic powders anointing Her limbs, the lotus petals and palm stalks on that bed have all wilted from the  intense heat of Her feverish body. She is decorated with lotus stems and blades of grass and sandalwood powder is placed on Her breasts to reduce the fever. She is given a powerful medicine that makes Her foam at the mouth.

Bewilderment: Radharani tells Lalita and Visakha: When Krsna, who is as splendid as a slightly blossomed blue lotus petal, touches Me with His lotus hand, I feel intense pleasure that makes Me so excited, My friend, that I no longer  know where I am, who I am, or what I am doing.A gopl says: My dear friends, Krsna is so nicely dressed that He appears to be the impetus of various kinds of ceremonies held by the womenfolk. Even the wives of the denizens of  heaven become attracted after hearing the transcendental sound of His flute. Although they are traveling in the air in their airplanes, enjoying the company of their husbands, upon hearing the sound of Krsna's flute, they immediately  become perturbed. Their hair is loosened and their tight dresses are slackened.After hearing Uddhava's report on the condition of the gopls of Vraja, Krsna said: Sleeping on a bed of blossoming twigs and protected by a circle of  gopl friends with tears in their eyes, beautiful Radharani is now very thin and emaciated. Her throat quivers, as if Her life-breath were moving there.The gopls said: My dear friend, when Krsna returns home with His cows, the  footprint of the soles of His feet relieves the pain the earth feels when the cows traverse it. He walks in a stride that is so attractive and He carries His flute. Just by looking at Him, we become lusty to enjoy His company. At that time,  our movements cease. We become just like trees and stand perfectly still. We even forget what we look like.


Death: In this connection, death may be attempted but it is never described as actually occurring.Radharani to Lalita: O friend with a beautiful face, now that Krsna, the enemy of Mura, has left with Akrura and is no longer present  before us, I bow down before you and beg a favor from you. Near My home is a jasmine creeper whose flowers I repeatedly picked to make earrings for Krsna. I ask you to please take care of that creeper.Laziness: In this connection,  laziness is not directly manifest but is displayed only obliquely.One time, Radharani became frightened to learn that her mother-in-law, Jatila, was about to interrupt Her pastimes with Krsna in the forest. At that time, Rupa-manjarl  gave Her the following advice: My friend, fill this churning pot to overflowing with yogurt and then churn it with exaggerated, contorted motions. Let go of a great yawn and then pretend to faint in the presence of Your mother-in-law.  All these pastimes will be like a crown You fashion to place on Hari's head.Becoming stunned: Kundavali to Nandlmukhl: Hearing the jingling sound of Krsna's ankle bells outside her door and eager to run outside to see Him, this  beautiful gopl became so stunned with happiness that she remained seated with closed eyes, as if she were tied to that spot.Hearing from her friend the unpleasant news of Krsna's departure, Candravall, alas, became  overwhelmed. The half-strung flower garland slipped from her hand and she at once fainted, as if dead.Visakha: Because we please Krsna by speaking charming joking  words,   we  gopls  are  considered  to  be   very  fortunate.


Still, I say, "To hell with our good fortune. It is insignificant in comparison to the good fortune of RadharanI, who becomes stunned and rolls about on the ground in ecstasy when She sees Krsna, face-to-face.Vrnda to Purnamasi: As  She was enjoying pastimes with Hari at the edge of the forest, Radha suddenly saw Abhimanyu. Stunned with anger, She appeared like a statue of the goddess Durga.Vrnda to Krsna: O Krsna, O killer of the Mura demon, Your  absence has so stunned beautiful RadharanI that as She talks at night with Her friends, She cannot member whether She took any betel nuts, whether betel leaves are in her hand, or whether betel nuts are in Her mouth.

Shyness: Krsna to Subala: I said to Radha: "O moon-faced girl, come sit on this bed. Why not? Your obedient servant begs You. Be kind." In this way, I repeatedly appealed to Radha with many sweet words as She stood in the  doorway, looking like the beautiful goddess of fortune descended into Vrndavana forest.One time, the young gopl, MalatI, disguised herself as Radharani's grandmother and teased RadharanI with the following word: My daughter, I  see that You are a very expert thief because You have certainly stolen this priceless necklace from Hari. When Your elders learn of this, they shall punish You very severely. As RadharanI heard these words, She turned Her face  from Krsna's jeweled necklace.Hearing Herself being praised, RadharanI began to shyly retreat. At that time, Vrnda told Her: O Radha, please do not shrink form hearing these truthful words. The moonlight of Your glory illuminates  the universe. You are the eternal, transcendental kurikuma powder anointing the chest of Hari.


RadharanI, angry at the unfaithful Krsna, told Him: I see on Your chest the red lac from some other gopls' feet, shining as if it were Your love for her outwardly displayed. O cheater Krsna, I suffer when I see this. The sight of You  makes Me ashamed of My great love for You.Concealing one's actual feelings: Mandanika: Krsna reads the words of Sasimukhi's letter, as if He were becoming intoxicated by drinking the nectar of a blossoming lotus flower.  Carefully concealing the amorous passion in His heart, He smiles mildly. Who can describe His expression?Syamala, who is angry with Krsna, speaks the following words to Krsna's messenger, Tarala: Messenger Tarala, don't tell  me any more about this rascal, Krsna, who plays a flute on the Yamuna's shore. I won't approach even the boundary of hearing about Him. My bodily hair is now standing up. It is because of this world famous, harsh winter wind.

Speaking to Madhumarigala, Krsna describes the symptoms of Candravall's feigned anger: Candravall has not eclipsed the moonlight of her smile and the sweetness of her words has not turned bitter. What anger is characterized  by restless, anxious, warm sighs that make a girl's bodice heave up and down?PaurnamasI: Decorating Herself with the sweet fragrance of musk, lotus-eyed, restless RadharanI shyly tries to silence the loud trumpeting of the regal  mad elephant of Krsna in the forest garden of Her heart. In spite of all Her attempts, that elephant, sporting on the Yamuna's shore, loudly proclaims His victory.Radharani's messenger tells Krsna: Within Her heart, RadharanI burns  with love for You. Although Her outward appearance is calm and peaceful, She is like a sami tree that burns within and blossoms without.


A gopl says: Performing household chores in her husband's presence and beginning to tremble as she heard the sound of Krsna's flute, Candravall rebuked the sound of the thunderbolt for making her tremble in fear.

Vrnda: Seeing the flower garland she had strung with her own hand stolen from her and placed in a rival gopl's braided hair, Candramukhi at first became angry but then, flooded by waves of respect for Krsna, became calm and  silent.Lalita to a swan: When the Pulinda girls see a tamala tree near Govardhana Hill, they are reminded of Govinda and their bodies burn with passionate love for him. They wipe the perspiration from their bodies while standing  before the cooling breezes carrying drops of water from the Yamuna river. My dear swan, as you fly through Vrndavana, you will certainly see this Govardhana Hill and Yamuna River.Suffering from Krsna's separation, Radharani  tells Uddhava: Even for a moment, My heart cannot forget the sweet fragrance of the shower of nectar that was Krsna's words. My heart cannot forget Krsna's splendid peacock feather crown, His lustrous complexion, which is as  enchanting as a dark tamala tree, His charming pastimes, His face that rebukes the shining of the autumn moon, and His eyes that are as beautiful as lotus flowers. Constantly remembering all this, My heart staggers about in the  agitation of love.Guessing: Madly searching in the forest for Her absent lover, Krsna, Radharani says: These restless bumblebees fly to and fro without drinking the nectar of these flowers. This parrot has become stunned and will not  eat the pomegranate near him. This doe has become pale and declines to eat the green grass beneath her. These are certain symptoms of the fact that Krsna, who walks like the best of graceful elephants, must have traveled down  this path.


Radharani: There, in the far distance, is Krsna, decorated with a peacock feather crown and embraced by the golden-complexioned gopls. No. I think it is not Krsna. It is only a rain cloud, lightning, and rainbow, resting on ovardhana  Hill.Meditation: To Radharani, who is rapt in meditation on the absent Krsna, Visakha says: You refuse to eat. You have stopped all activities of the senses. Your eyes are fixed on the tip of Your nose and Your mind is fixed on a  single thought. You are now silent and You see the entire world as void. Friend, please tell me, have You become a mystic yoginl or are You now rapt in meditation on Krsna?Noticing Krsna rapt in thought, Paurnamasi said: Murari's  eyes move restlessly and His repeated sighs have wilted His flower garland. I wonder: What fortunate beautiful girl in Gokula is the object of His deep meditation?Nandlmukhl to Paurnamasi: Now that the moonlight of Radharanl's  youthful sweetness illuminates Her transcendental body and breaks apart whatever remains of Her childhood, the lotus flower of Her rival, Padma's, face begins to wilt and the bumblebee of Padma's heart languishes in despair.

My dear Candravall, please do not become unhappy to see Radharanl's good fortune. After all, those learned in astronomy know that the star of Radharani has great power over the dark moon of Krsna.Let Krsna tightly embrace this  maidservant, who has fallen at His lotus feet. Let Him trample Me or break My heart by never being visible to Me. He is a debauchee, after all, and can do whatever He likes, but He is still no one other than the worshipable Lord of  My heart.


Princess Rukmiru writes in a letter, proposing marriage to Krsna: Brahma, Siva, and all the worshipable leaders of the demigods worship Your lotus feet and so, what to speak of ordinary kings, who possess only a slight quantity of  pious karma. O Krsna, O lord of the universe, O ocean of sweetness, O jewel among men, what unmarried young girl like me would not yearn to serve You?Satisfaction: The gopls, who were mostly followers of the Vedas in their  previous births, became very happy to see Krsna again. When the gopls had Krsna in their company, not only all their grief, but their lamenting in the absence of Krsna was relieved. They felt they had no desire to be fulfilled. Fully  satisfied in the company of Krsna, they spread their cloths on the ground. These garments were made of fine linen and smeared with the red kunkuma that decorated their breasts. With great care, they spread a sitting place for  Krsna. Krsna was their life and soul and they created a very comfortable seat for Him.Visakha to Padma: RadharanI is eternally situated in the full bloom of youth. Her beauty astonishes all the doe-eyed gopls. She possesses a host  of extraordinary transcendental virtues. The Supreme Lord loves Her alone and desires no other girl. What other girl is like Her in this world?Happiness: Seeing their beloved Krsna, the gopls' eyes blossomed wide with happiness.  The slender gopls rose to greet Krsna, as if He were their life and soul.As She gazes upon the form of Krsna, RadharanI speaks with Lalita : Is this a nectar moon to make the lotus flowers of the gopls blossom with happiness? Is this  a regal festival of youthfulness appearing in Gokula? Is this a garden of flowers to delight the cuckoo bird of My heart? O Lalita of slender waist, this person I see now is sprinkling My eyes with waves of nectar.


Nava Vrnda describes Radharanl's meeting with Krs)a: As RadharanI gazed at lotus-eyed Krsna, Her eyes became ridded with tears and She soon found herself unable to see Him at aj The creepers of her arms became stunned  and lost all power to ei%ace Him and Her voice became choked up and unable to reply ;0 His words. These symptoms of doe-eyed Radharanl's ecstatic happiness became obstacles in Her meeting with Krsna.Eagerness: To the  friend who is decorating her with ornaments and cosmetics, one of the women of Mathura saidstop! Let my red foot remain undecorated with red lac! What is t\e use of all this decoration? My charming friend, I shall now go Ojtside  because the sweet words of Mathura's women makes me thinl; that perhaps Krsna, the Cupid of Vrndavana forest, is now walkirg past my doorstep.A gopi to Krsna: RadharanI eagerly waits for Yoi, She constantly meditates on You  as She decorates Her limbj and carefully prepares the bed. Whenever a leaf flutters, She ihinks You have come. She yearns to enjoy hundreds of pastimes wit^ you. She refuses to spend the night without You.Harsh punishment:  Radharanl's grandmother, Mu^ara, tells Krsna: Restless libertine Krsna, it is not proper for You tostand so close to my young granddaughter, RadharanI. You 6bvj0usly have no fear of violating religious principles. Although e\en at  noontime this old lady cannot see very well, she can be very \arsh. O son of Nanda, if You do not leave my doorstep at once, I a^ not to be blamed for complaining before the king at Mathura. H^' far do You think Mathura is on this  path?Anger: Smarting from His joking insults, Rukminl-devj tells Krsna: My dear Lord, You have advised me to select one <rf the princes, such as Sisupala, Jarasandha, or Dantavakra but what is


their position in this world? They are always engaged in hard labor to maintain their household life, just like bulls working hard day and night with the oil-pressing machine. They are compared to asses, beasts of burden. They are  always dishonored, like dogs, and they are miserly, like cats. They have sold themselves like slaves to their wives. Any unfortunate woman who has never heard of Your glories may accept such a man as her husband but a woman  who has learned about You—that You are praised not only in this world but in the halls of the great demigods, like Lord Brahma and Lord Siva—will not accept anyone beside Yourself as her husband.Lalita to Radharani: My child,  reclaim Your heart from this Krsna, who is fond of gazing at the breasts of young gopls from the corner of His eyes and whose heart is as hard as a glistening black stone. Do we chaste, respectable, pious girls, who are attracted to  enjoy amorous pastimes with Him, not know that the libertine, Krsna, will contaminate us with many sins and then, without doubt, simply leave us for good?Envy: In the middle of the rasa dance, Krsna left with the most fortunate  gopi, Radharani. Finding Krsna's footprints, Candravall addressed the other gopls: O friends, just see?! At this particular spot, we do not see the footprints of that gopl. It appears that because there were some pinpricks from the dried  grass, Krsna took Her on His shoulder. O, She is so dear to Him.My dear gopis, what auspicious activities must the flute have performed to enjoy the nectar of Krsna's lips independently and leave only a taste for the gopls, for whom  that nectar is actually meant. The forefathers of the flute, the bamboo tree, shed tears of pleasure. His mother, the river, on whose bank the bamboo was born, feels jubilation and therefore, her blooming lotus flowers are standing  like hair on her body.


O charming friend, do not become very proud that you are always drinking the nectar of Krsna's lips. After all, you only take the remnants of what Krsna's flute drinks. What are you in comparison to that fortunate flute?To Padma, who  was very proud of her expert garland making, a gopl said: O charming one, my friend Visakha is more expert than you at making beautiful garlands of forest flowers. When Visakha makes a garland, she becomes overwhelmed with  love for Krsna and if the flood of her tears does not spray upon her hands, at least they block up her eyes.Fickleness: Resisting Krsna's advances, Lalita says: O elephant, Krsna, please play if you like for a long time with the other,  beautiful, blossoming lotus flowers growing in this lake of Gokula but do not touch with Your hand this delicate, unblossomed lotus.Surrounded by many gopls with beautiful eyebrows in the midst of the jubilant rasa dance festival,  and blinded with love, Radharani tightly embraced Krsna's chest. Saying, on the pretext of singing His glories: "Your lips are as sweet as nectar," She passionately kissed Him. I pray that Lord Hari, whose smile enchants the heart,  may protect you.Radharani to Lalita: This crooked heart forest flower garland refuses to ever leave Hari's neck, the abode of all our happiness. I curse that unqualified garland to meet its destruction on Krsna's chest.Sleep: Vrnda to  Nandlmukhl: Exhausted from enjoying many amorous pastimes, His bandhuka flower-petal abdomen moving as He breathed, holding His stick and His pearl necklace, holding the beautiful gopl's undergarment, and resting on Her  beautiful, auspicious water pot-like breasts, Hari, the hair of His body standing up in ecstasy, peacefully slept on a flower-decorated bed on Govardhana Hill.


Lalita asks a swan to deliver the following message to Krsna: Her hair decorated with freshly fragrant madhavl flowers and Her eyes like flower buds closed in the happiness of sleep as She rest in Your lap in the forest cottage  terrace that is aromatic with the lotus flowers growing in the nearby Yamuna River—when will I serve Radharani by fanning Her with a bunch of budding twigs?Rupa-manjarl to Rati-manjarl : Her nipples illuminated by • the  Kaustubha gem, her left arm placed around Krsna, and saying in Her sleep, "Don't follow My path. Let Me go to the Yamuna alone," exhausted, lotus-faced Radharani fell deeply asleep in the cave.Vrnda to Nandlmukhl: When  doe-eyed Radharani saw the hair on the cheeks of Vraja's prince, Krsna, standing up as He enjoyed the pastimes of sleep, She thought He must be awake. Even though, as She sat on the edge of the bed, She yearned to taste the  happiness of stealing the flute that had already slipped from His garments, She did not take it.Vrnda to PaurnamasI: Even though it interrupted the pleasure of His sleep, peacock-feather crowned Krsna glorified the lion's loud roar  because it quickly awakened frightened Radharani and impelled Her, with restless eyes, to tightly embrace Him, pressing the regal mountains of Her breasts against His body.Rupa-manjarl says: Even though the hair of Her body  was standing up in ecstasy as She enjoyed transcendental pastimes with Hari on the summit of Govardhana Hill, Radharani took time to playfully wipe the perspiration from Lalita 's brow, decorated with curling, disheveled hair.

The beginnings of love: Gazing at Radharanl's beautiful face, Krsna says to Sasimukhi: This girl is very sweet and charming. My dear Sasimukhi, please do not say that there is any ferocity in the girl I now see in this forest garden. I  have now become absorbed in meditation on this girl, who looks at Me with crooked eyes and a bent smile as She listens to My words by your side.


Meeting: Vrnda to PaurnamasI: Seeing Krsna, for whom She yearned to see for a long time, and at the same time seeing Her husband, Abhimanyu, stuttering and red with anger, lotus-faced Radharani became stunned. Motionless  and staring without blinking, She appeared just like a statue.PaurnamasI: The hearts of all the gopls burned with pain because of the thought that Krsna was carrying the heavy burden of Govardhana Hill and at the same time, they  became filled with a great festival of happiness by seeing their beloved Krsna, day and night. In this way, two contradictory emotions were simultaneously present in the gopis' hearts.Vrnda describes to Kandalata the meeting of  Padma with Radha, Krsna, and Their gopl friends: As Madhava displayed His deep love for Radharani, Lalita attacked Padma with insults. Lotus-faced Padma replied by anxiously scratching the ground with her big toe. She began  to perspire with anger.Separated from Krsna by a lover's quarrel, Radharani says: Fortunate are the doe-eyed girls who enjoy transcendental pastimes with youthful Krsna. When Lalita sees how fickle I am—that no longer I am  angry with Krsna—she will rebuke Me. Oh, My heart yearns to embrace moon-faced Govinda. Fie! I curse the crooked destiny that has created this poison named jealous anger.Nandlmukhl says: The violent axe strokes of the gopls  logical arguments were not able to cut down the tall, strong tree of jealous anger and pride that grows on the shore of Kamala's heart. The swiftly flowing mountain streams of the gopl messengers' pleading words were not able to  carry that tree in their currents. The faint breeze of Krsna's flute was, however, able to completely uproot that tree in a single moment.their position in this world? They are always engaged in hard labor to maintain their household  life, just like bulls working hard day and night with the oil-pressing machine. They are compared to asses, beasts of burden. They are always dishonored, like dogs, and they are miserly, like cats. They have sold themselves like  slaves to their wives. Any unfortunate woman who has never heard of Your glories may accept such a man as her husband but a woman who has learned about You—that You are praised not only in this world but in the halls of the  great demigods, like Lord Brahma and Lord Siva—will not accept anyone beside Yourself as her husband.Lalita to RadharanI: My child, reclaim Your heart from this Krsna, who is fond of gazing at the breasts of young gopls from  the corner of His eyes and whose heart is as hard as a glistening black stone. Do we chaste, respectable, pious girls, who are attracted to enjoy amorous pastimes with Him, not know that the libertine, Krsna, will contaminate us with  many sins and then, without doubt, simply leave us for good?Envy: In the middle of the rasa dance, Krsna left with the most fortunate gopl, RadharanI. Finding Krsna's footprints, Candravall addressed the other gopls: O friends, just  see?! At this particular spot, we do not see the footprints of that gopl. It appears that because there were some pinpricks from the dried grass, Krsna took Her on His shoulder. O, She is so dear to Him.My dear gopls, what auspicious  activities must the flute have performed to enjoy the nectar of Krsna's lips independently and leave only a taste for the gopls, for whom that nectar is actually meant. The forefathers of the flute, the bamboo tree, shed tears of  pleasure. His mother, the river, on whose bank the bamboo was born, feels jubilation and therefore, her blooming lotus flowers are standing like hair on her body.


O charming friend, do not become very proud that you are always drinking the nectar of Krsna's lips. After all, you only take the remnants of what Krsna's flute drinks. What are you in comparison to that fortunate flute?To Padma, who  was very proud of her expert garland making, a gopl said: O charming one, my friend Visakha is more expert than you at making beautiful garlands of forest flowers. When Visakha makes a garland, she becomes overwhelmed with  love for Krsna and if the flood of her tears does not spray upon her hands, at least they block up her eyes.Fickleness: Resisting Krsna's advances, Lalita says: O elephant, Krsna, please play if you like for a long time with the other,  beautiful, blossoming lotus flowers growing in this lake of Gokula but do not touch with Your hand this delicate, unblossomed lotus.Surrounded by many gopls with beautiful eyebrows in the midst of the jubilant rasa dance festival,  and blinded with love, RadharanI tightly embraced Krsna's chest. Saying, on the pretext of singing His glories: "Your lips are as sweet as nectar," She passionately kissed Him. I pray that Lord Hari, whose smile enchants the heart,  may protect you.RadharanI to Lalita: This crooked heart forest flower garland refuses to ever leave Hari's neck, the abode of all our happiness. I curse that unqualified garland to meet its destruction on Krsna's chest.Sleep: Vrnda to  Nandlmukhl: Exhausted from enjoying many amorous pastimes, His bandhuka flower-petal abdomen moving as He breathed, holding His stick and His pearl necklace, holding the beautiful gopl's undergarment, and resting on Her  beautiful, auspicious water pot-like breasts, Hari, the hair of His body standing up in ecstasy, peacefully slept on a flower-decorated bed on Govardhana Hill.


Princess RukminI writes in a letter, proposing marriage to Krsna: Brahma, Siva, and all the worshipable leaders of the demigods worship Your lotus feet and so, what to speak of ordinary kings, who possess only a slight quantity of  pious karma. O Krsna, O lord of the universe, O ocean of sweetness, O jewel among men, what unmarried young girl like me would not yearn to serve You?Satisfaction: The gopls, who were mostly followers of the Vedas in their  previous births, became very happy to see Krsna again. When the gopls had Krsna in their company, not only all their grief, but their lamenting in the absence of Krsna was relieved. They felt they had no desire to be fulfilled. Fully  satisfied in the company of Krsna, they spread their cloths on the ground. These garments were made of fine linen and smeared with the red kurikuma that decorated their breasts. With great care, they spread a sitting place for  Krsna. Krsna was their life and soul and they created a very comfortable seat for Him.Visakha to Padma: RadharanI is eternally situated in the full bloom of youth. Her beauty astonishes all the doe-eyed gopls. She possesses a host  of extraordinary transcendental virtues. The Supreme Lord loves Her alone and desires no other girl. What other girl is like Her in this world?Happiness: Seeing their beloved Krsna, the gopls' eyes blossomed wide with happiness.  The slender gopls rose to greet Krsna, as if He were their life and soul.As She gazes upon the form of Krsna, RadharanI speaks with Lalita : Is this a nectar moon to make the lotus flowers of the gopls blossom with happiness? Is this  a regal festival of youthfulness appearing in Gokula? Is this a garden of flowers to delight the cuckoo bird of My heart? O Lalita of slender waist, this person I see now is sprinkling My eyes with waves of nectar.


Nava Vrnda describes RadharanI's meeting with Krsna: As RadharanI gazed at lotus-eyed Krsna, Her eyes became flooded with tears and She soon found herself unable to see Him at all. The creepers of her arms became stunned  and lost all power to embrace Him and Her voice became choked up and unable to reply to His words. These symptoms of doe-eyed RadharanI's ecstatic happiness became obstacles in Her meeting with Krsna.Eagerness: To the  friend who is decorating her with ornaments and cosmetics, one of the women of Mathura said: Stop! Let my red foot remain undecorated with red lac! What is the use of all this decoration? My charming friend, I shall now go outside  because the sweet words of Mathura's women makes me think that perhaps Krsna, the Cupid of Vrndavana forest, is now walking past my doorstep.A gopl to Krsna: RadharanI eagerly waits for You. She constantly meditates on You  as She decorates Her limbs and carefully prepares the bed. Whenever a leaf flutters, She thinks You have come. She yearns to enjoy hundreds of pastimes with you. She refuses to spend the night without You.Harsh punishment:  Radharanl's grandmother, Mukhara, tells Krsna: Restless libertine Krsna, it is not proper for You to stand so close to my young granddaughter, RadharanI. You obviously have no fear of violating religious principles. Although even at  noontime this old lady cannot see very well, she can be very harsh. O son of Nanda, if You do not leave my doorstep at once, I am not to be blamed for complaining before the king at Mathura. How far do You think Mathura is on this  path?Anger: Smarting from His joking insults, Rukminl-devi tells Krsna: My dear Lord, You have advised me to select one of the princes, such as Sisupala, Jarasandha, or Dantavakra but what is their position in this world? They are  always engaged in hard labor to maintain their household life, just like bulls working hard day and night with the oil-pressing machine. They are compared to asses, beasts of burden. They are always dishonored, like dogs, and they  are miserly, like cats. They have sold themselves like slaves to their wives. Any unfortunate woman who has never heard of Your glories may accept such a man as her husband but a woman who has learned about You—that You  are praised not only in this world but in the halls of the great demigods, like Lord Brahma and Lord Siva—will not accept anyone beside Yourself as her husband.


Lalita to RadharanI: My child, reclaim Your heart from this Krsna, who is fond of gazing at the breasts of young gopls from the corner of His eyes and whose heart is as hard as a glistening black stone. Do we chaste, respectable,  pious girls, who are attracted to enjoy amorous pastimes with Him, not know that the libertine, Krsna, will contaminate us with many sins and then, without doubt, simply leave us for good?Envy: In the middle of the rasa dance, Krsna  left with the most fortunate gopl, RadharanI. Finding Krsna's footprints, Candravali addressed the other gopls: O friends, just see?! At this particular spot, we do not see the footprints of that gopl. It appears that because there were  some pinpricks from the dried grass, Krsna took Her on His shoulder. O, She is so dear to Him.My dear gopls, what auspicious activities must the flute have performed to enjoy the nectar of Krsna's lips independently and leave only  a taste for the gopls, for whom that nectar is actually meant. The forefathers of the flute, the bamboo tree, shed tears of pleasure. His mother, the river, on whose bank the bamboo was born, feels jubilation and therefore, her  blooming lotus flowers are standing like hair on her body.


O charming friend, do not become very proud that you are always drinking the nectar of Krsna's lips. After all, you only take the remnants of what Krsna's flute drinks. What are you in comparison to that fortunate flute?To Padma, who  was very proud of her expert garland making, a gopl said: O charming one, my friend Visakha is more expert than you at making beautiful garlands of forest flowers. When Visakha makes a garland, she becomes overwhelmed with  love for Krsna and if the flood of her tears does not spray upon her hands, at least they block up her eyes.Fickleness: Resisting Krsna's advances, Lalita says: O elephant, Krsna, please play if you like for a long time with the other,  beautiful, blossoming lotus flowers growing in this lake of Gokula but do not touch with Your hand this delicate, unblossomed lotus.Surrounded by many gopls with beautiful eyebrows in the midst of the jubilant rasa dance festival,  and blinded with love, RadharanI tightly embraced Krsna's chest. Saying, on the pretext of singing His glories: "Your lips are as sweet as nectar," She passionately kissed Him. I pray that Lord Hari, whose smile enchants the heart,  may protect you.RadharanI to Lalita: This crooked heart forest flower garland refuses to ever leave Hari's neck, the abode of all our happiness. I curse that unqualified garland to meet its destruction on Krsna's chest.Sleep: Vrnda to  Nandlmukhl: Exhausted from enjoying many amorous pastimes, His bandhuka flower-petal abdomen moving as He breathed, holding His stick and His pearl necklace, holding the beautiful gopVs undergarment, and resting on Her  beautiful, auspicious water pot-like breasts, Hari, the hair of His body standing up in ecstasy, peacefully slept on a flower-decorated bed on Govardhana Hill.


Lalita asks a swan to deliver the following message to Krsna: Her hair decorated with freshly fragrant mddhavl flowers and Her eyes like flower buds closed in the happiness of sleep as She rest in Your lap in the forest cottage  terrace that is aromatic with the lotus flowers growing in the nearby Yamuna River—when will I serve RadharanI by fanning Her with a bunch of budding twigs?Rupa-manjarl to Rati-manjarl : Her nipples illuminated by the  Kaustubha gem, her left arm placed around Krsna, and saying in Her sleep, "Don't follow My path. Let Me go to the Yamuna alone," exhausted, lotus-faced RadharanI fell deeply asleep in the cave.Vrnda to Nandlmukhl: When  doe-eyed RadharanI saw the hair on the cheeks of Vraja's prince, Krsna, standing up as He enjoyed the pastimes of sleep, She thought He must be awake. Even though, as She sat on the edge of the bed, She yearned to taste the  happiness of stealing the flute that had already slipped from His garments, She did not take it.Vrnda to PaurnamasI: Even though it interrupted the pleasure of His sleep, peacock-feather crowned Krsna glorified the lion's loud roar  because it quickly awakened frightened RadharanI and impelled Her, with restless eyes, to tightly embrace Him, pressing the regal mountains of Her breasts against His body.Rupa-manjarl says: Even though the hair of Her body  was standing up in ecstasy as She enjoyed transcendental pastimes with Hari on the summit of Govardhana Hill, RadharanI took time to playfully wipe the perspiration from Lalita 's brow, decorated with curling, disheveled hair.

The beginnings of love: Gazing at Radharanl's beautiful face, Krsna says to Sasimukhi: This girl is very sweet and charming. My dear Sasimukhi, please do not say that there is any ferocity in the girl I now see in this forest garden. I  have now become absorbed in meditation on this girl, who looks at Me with crooked eyes and a bent smile as She listens to My words by your side.


Meeting: Vrnda to PaurnamasI: Seeing Krsna, for whom She yearned to see for a long time, and at the same time seeing Her husband, Abhimanyu, stuttering and red with anger, lotus-faced RadharanI became stunned. Motionless  and staring without blinking, She appeared just like a statue.PaurnamasI: The hearts of all the gopls burned with pain because of the thought that Krsna was carrying the heavy burden of Govardhana Hill and at the same time, they  became filled with a great festival of happiness by seeing their beloved Krsna, day and night. In this way, two contradictory emotions were simultaneously present in the gopls' hearts.Vrnda describes to Kandalata the meeting of  Padma with Radha, Krsna, and Their gopl friends: As Madhava displayed His deep love for RadharanI, Lalita attacked Padma with insults. Lotus-faced Padma replied by anxiously scratching the ground with her big toe. She began  to perspire with anger.Separated from Krsna by a lover's quarrel, RadharanI says: Fortunate are the doe-eyed girls who enjoy transcendental pastimes with youthful Krsna. When Lalita sees how fickle I am—that no longer I am  angry with Krsna—she will rebuke Me. Oh, My heart yearns to embrace moon-faced Govinda. Fie! I curse the crooked destiny that has created this poison named jealous anger.Nandlmukhl says: The violent axe strokes of the gopls  'logical arguments were not able to cut down the tall, strong tree of jealous anger and pride that grows on the shore of Kamala's heart. The swiftly flowing mountain streams of the gopl messengers' pleading words were not able to  carry that tree in their currents. The faint breeze of Krsna's flute was, however, able to completely uproot that tree in a single moment.


This context of the mellow of conjugal love, sthayi-bhdva (steady ecstasy), is defined as madhurya-rati (charming amorous pastimes).Sthayi-bhdva is described in the following statement of Govinda-vilasa: Aroused by the darting  tongue of the black snake of their ecstatic love for Him, the gopls have mortally wounded Lord Krsna with the wonder of their sidelong glances. With restless glances from the corners of His reddish, rolling eyes, Lord Krsna has also  shattered the hearts of the chaste gopls. I pray that Lord Mukunda may grant auspiciousness to You.After seeing RadharanI at Dana-ghata near Govardhana Hill, Krsna told Madhumarigala: Who is this girl near Govardhana Hill that  wounds Me with the sharp arrows of her sidelong glances shot from the trembling bows of Her eyebrows above these jewel earrings?In ascending order, from lowest to most exalted, the stages of ecstatic sthayi-bhdva for Krsna are:

Abhiyoga: An outward display of love, either by oneself or someone else.RadharanI tells Visakha: When I saw Hari in the forest by the Yamuna's shore, His restless sidelong glance bit the delicate creeper blossom of My lips,  arousing intense love for Him within My heart.Krsna tells Subala: My dear Subala, who is this girl on the Yamuna's shore? Her restless glances creating lotus flowers everywhere, She has enchanted the bumblebee of My heart.

Radharanl's gopl messenger tells Krsna: O Prince of Vraja, when chaste and saintly Radha drinks the madhvika nectar of Your words, She becomes intoxicated with love for You. In this condition, She remains unaware of how Her  loosened undergarments are beginning to slip from Her.


Visaya (sense objects): (1) sound (2) touch (3) form (4) taste, and (5) fragrance are the five objects of the senses. These sense objects inspire sthayi-bhdva in the heart of the lover.After hearing the sound of Krsna's flute, RadharanI  told Lalita : My friend, what is this sound moving among the kadamba trees that has now entered the pathway of My heart? I cannot understand it. It has forced Me into a condition that is very abominable for a respectable married  woman.RadharanI to Her friend: Since I have heard the name of a person called Krsna, I have practically lost My good sense. Then, there is another person who plays His flute in such a way that after I hear the vibration, intense  madness arises in My heart. And again, there is still another person to whom My mind becomes attached when I see His beautiful lightning effulgence in His picture. Therefore, I think that I am greatly condemned because I have  become simultaneously attached to three persons. It would be better for Me to die because of this.A gopl to her friend: Darkness now holds me in its grip and swallows up my body as I walk to Vraja village in the evening. When this  unknown person touches me, I become frightened. I become very alert and the hair of my body stands up because of anxiety. Look! My anxiety does not stop for even a moment.Lalita tells a swan to deliver the following message to  Krsna in Mathura: My dear Murahara, killer of the Mura demon, simply by once seeing Your attractive, playful form from a distance, my friend, Radha, has forgotten what is auspicious and what is not. She has become like a moth,  entering the fire of love for You, and repeatedly, hopelessly burning in its flames.A gopl tells her friend: My dear charming friend, because your bodily hair is now standing up, your limbs are trembling, and waves of intense love  splash within your heart, it is clear that,unobserved by anyone, you must have taken some small portion of chewed betel nuts ejected from Krsna's mouth and placed them in your own.


After receiving a garland once worn by Krsna, a gopl tells her friend: My friend, where are the beautiful and happy trees, whose flowers made this incomparable vaijayanti garland? Even though it is an old garland, it is still so fresh  that swarms of bumblebees are attracted to it. The sweet fragrance of this flower garland is now paralyzing my heart with overwhelming feelings of love for Him.Extraordinary, eloquent words may also quickly create the sentiment of  sthdyi-bhdva.Sambandha (relationship): Noble family, beautiful form, and other good qualities may also arouse sthdyi-bhdva.Rebuked by her friend for falling in love with Krsna, a gopl spoke the following words in her own defense:  Krsna is so strong, He lifted the great Govardhana Mountain as if it were a toy ball. He is so handsome that He appears like an ornament decorating the earth planet. He took a very high birth in the palace of the king of the gopas. He  has millions of transcendental good qualities and His extraordinary pastimes astonish the entire world. My dear foul-mouthed friend, what girl is able to keep her peaceful composure when she sees this Krsna?Abhimdna: The  thought, "There may be many objects of beauty in this world but among them, only one specific person is the object of my desire," is called abhimdna by the wise.Nandimukhi jokingly explained that RadharanI need not choose  Krsna because there are many other qualified men for Her to choose. However, RadharanI insists that She desires Krsna only. Nandimukhi: On this earth many men are filled with waves of charming sweetness. There are many  men who are crest jewels of expertness and who are sought by many virtuous girls. RadharanI: My friend, any of these men who does not wear a peacock feather on his head, does not place a flute to his lips, and does not decorate  his body with mineral pigments—I do not consider as important as a blade of grass.


Footprints, the land of Vraja, and the dear devotees are some of the causes of sthdyi-bhdva.Pdda: RadharanI to Visakha: My friend, whose footprints are these, marked with the signs of the chariot wheel, lotus flower, and  thunderbolt? These footprints on the shore of the Yamuna agitate My heart and make the hair on the creeper of My body blossom with happiness.A gopl said: Filled with unprecedented sweetness, this land of Vraja maddens my  heart with transcendental bliss. His handsome form, like an ornament decorating the three worlds, a certain king of amorous heroes enjoys transcendental pastimes in Vraja. Those persons who are filled with intense ecstatic love  for Krsna are called priya-jana (the dear devotees).

Forbidden to see RadharanI, who her elders thought to be insane because She had become paralyzed with ecstatic love of Krsna, a certain gopl tells her friend: Even though my elders have forbidden me to see RadharanI, the  abode of all auspiciousness for my eyes, O slender friend, my heart still thirsts to see Her as She enjoys transcendental pastimes in the role of a beautiful motionless statue.Upama (similarity): When two things share some similar  features, this similarity is called upama.


Observing Krsna through a window, a gopl said: O beautiful friend with a slender waist, is this a charming fresh rain cloud descended to the earth, or is this a teenage boy imitating the dancing of His cowherd king father in the  assembly, that has entered the pathway of my eyes?Vrnda: My dear beautiful friend, this fresh rain cloud looks just like your lover, Krsna. This rainbow looks like His peacock feather crown and this lightning flash looks like His yellow  garments. I can see that as you hear these words, your thoughts become fixed on Krsna and your eyes become filled with tears.Svabhdva: Internal ecstatic emotion that ignores external events is called svabhdva. This ecstasy is of  two kinds: nisarga and svarupa.Nisarga: When, by briefly hearing about Krsna's transcendental attributes and handsome form, one's eternal love for Him is aroused, this is called nisarga.Princess RukminI said: My elder brother may  rebuke me, my friends may leave me, my father may become embarrassed, and my mother may cry many tears but now that I have heard about the transcendental qualities and handsomeness of Krsna, the leader of the Yadu  dynasty, 1 shall give my heart to Him. My friend, I refuse to ever give it to this Sisupala, the king of the Cedis.A gopl said: Dark-complexioned Krsna may be ugly, or He may be the crest-jewel of all handsome men. He may be devoid  of all good qualities, or He may be the best of the all virtuous men. He may hate me, or He may be an ocean of mercy to me. Let Him be whatever He may be—He shall always remain my heart and soul.


Svarupam: Causeless independently perfect ecstatic love is called svarupam. It is divided into three types.Krsna-nistham (Faith in Krsna): Krsna-nistham is easily attainable by those persons free from all demonic qualities.

Seeing Krsna disguised as a woman in one of His pastimes, a demigoddess, who happened to fly nearby in her flower airplane, said to her friend: This is not a gopl who makes the hearts of all of us demigoddesses tremble with  ecstatic love, but it is Krsna playfully disguised as a woman. Who else but Krsna, or the sun, could remove the darkness of everyone's eyes in this way.Lalana-nistham: In lalana-nistham svarupam, the devotee loves Krsna, even  without seeing or hearing Him.A gopl says: In Vraja, there is a person who wears yellow garments and has a complexion the color of a dark rain cloud. Very expert at hiding, He remains always unseen and unheard in all the three  worlds. My mind is now breaking apart with the desire to attain Him.Ubhaya-nistham: Ubhaya-nistham svarupam ecstatic love is directed to both Krsna and the beautiful gopls.Seeing Krsna disguised as a Brdhmana priest at the  surya-puja ceremony, Radhararii said to Lalita : My friend, this person must be Hari disguised as a Brdhmana because otherwise, how would it be possible for this person to make My heart melt with ecstatic love? Just as only  moonlight and nothing else makes the candrakanta jewel melt, only Krsna makes My heart melt with ecstatic love.The different kinds of spontaneous ecstatic love described here, which begins with abhiyoga, and are displayed to  enhance the Lord's transcendental pastimes, are primarily manifested among the beautiful girls of Gokula.


Three kinds of sthdyi-bhdva are manifested among Kubja and her associates, the queens at Dvaraka, and the goddesses of Gokula respectively.These three kinds of sth.dyi-bh.ava are like a jewel, a cintamani jewel, and a  Kaustubha jewel, respectively. The first is not easy to attain, the second is very difficult to attain, and the third may be attained only by the Vraja gopls and no one else.Sadharani: Sadharani love for Krsna is generally not very intense.  It is inspired by directly seeing Krsna and it arouses the desire to enjoy pastimes with Him.Kubja to Krsna: My dear friend, kindly remain with me, at least for a few days. Enjoy with me—You and Your lotus-eyed friend. I cannot leave  You immediately. Please grant my request.In Radharanl's love, a lack of intensity creates a limited desire to enjoy amorous pastimes. This places distinct limits on sadharani love.Samanjasa: When the lover considers herself  Krsna's wife, when her thirst to enjoy amorous pastimes is aroused by understanding His transcendental qualities and other glories through the medium of hearing and the other senses, and when that thirst is very strong and only  slightly weakened by other things, that love is called samanjasa.Queen Rukmini to Krsna: O Mukurida, You delight the heart of all people. No one is Your equal in noble birth, good character, handsomeness, knowledge, youthful  vigor, wealth, and strength. O lion among men, what intelligent, virtuous girl would not choose You as her husband?Because of limited desire to enjoy amorous pastimes, samanjasa love cannot completely subdue Krsna and bring  Him under its control.


The sixteen thousand queens used to exhibit their feminine characteristics by smiling and moving their eyebrows, thus throwing sharpened arrows of conjugal love just to awaken Krsna's lusty desire for them. Still, they could not  arouse the mind of Krsna or his sex appetite.Samartha: When the desire to enjoy amorous pastimes is so great that the lover and beloved become one—the love is called samartha.Aroused either by lalana-nistham or  Krsna-sambandhi, samartha is the most intense kind of love directed towards Krsna. The slightest scent of samartha love makes one forget everything except Krsna.Observing the activities of a certain young gopl, Vrnda informs  Krsna: A certain gopi, who considered herself Your most dear lover, was surrounded by elderly relatives who prevented her from going to be with You.- Imaging that she heard the sound of Your ankle bells far away, she became like  a madwoman, loudly calling, "O Krsna.The pastime waves of this samartha love fill everyone with wonder. In samartha love, the desire to enjoy amorous pastimes is constant. It never diminishes or becomes interrupted.In samartha  love, the lover strives only to make Krsna happy. In the other previously described kinds of love, however, there may sometimes be the endeavor for one's personal happiness.This samartha love is the most exalted kind of love for  Krsna. Liberated souls and exalted devotees attain samartha love.Uddhava: Among all the loving entities who have accepted the human form of life, the gopis are the most wonderfully successful in their mission Their thought is  thoroughly absorbed in the lotus


feet of Krsna. Great sages and saintly persons are also trying to be absorbed in meditation upon the lotus feet of Krsna, who is Mukunda Himself, the giver of liberation, but the gopls, having lovingly accepted the Lord, are  automatically accustomed to this habit. They do not depend on any yogic practice. The conclusion is that one who has attained the gopls' condition of life does not have to take birth as Lord Brahma or be born in a Brdhmana family  or be initiated as a Brdhmana.The most intense form of this samartha love is called prema. The various stages gradually leading up to prema are: sneha, mdna, pranaya, raga, anuraga and bhdva. In this way, love for Krsna  progresses through various stages of intensity, just as sugar goes through the stages of bija (sugar cane seed), iksu (sugar cane stalk), rasa (sugar cane juice), guda (molasses), khanda (syrup), sarkara (almost at the point of  becoming granulated), sita (granulated sugar), and sitopala (rock candy).That pure love for Krsna which is manifested in six stages, beginning with sneha, is generally known as prema by Vaisnava scholars.Lord Krsna reciprocates  the love of His devotees. In whatever way they love Him, He loves them in the same way.Prema: When love for the Divine Couple remains always constant and unbroken, even when there is ample cause to break that loving  relationship, such constant love is called prema.RadharanI to Nandlmukhl: Even though I repeatedly rebuked Him with many harsh words, such as: "I curse You because, even though I am trying to follow the religious principle of  chastity, You continue to harass Me," dark-complexioned Krsna would not give up blocking My path. O My charming friend, even though these actions may bring down upon Me the great calamity of My husband Abhimanyu's wrath,  My love for Krsna remains eternally unbroken.


Vrnda to Kundalata: My friend, who can understand the great love that exists between Candravall and peacock-feather-crowned Krsna? That love remains firm and strong and does not wilt, even though every day it is forced to see  Radharanl's beauty, love, and other virtues, which chase away all other prospective lovers.Prema is said to be divided into three kinds: Praudha, madhya, and manda.Praudha (fully developed love): Praudha prema is said to be that  kind of love which, by a delayed rendezvous or other disappointment, brings suffering to the thoughts of the lover.Krsna to Madhumarigala: My friend, please go to the forest cottage and tell My grieving beloved: O Kamala, please do  not make much of My delay in going to meet you. Please do not disbelieve Me when I say that I could not go to you immediately because first, I had to remedy the havoc caused by a wicked demon who was like a sharp lance  pointed at the head of Gokula Village. Now, I shall with great haste and love quickly arrive at your flower decorated bed.Madhya: Madhya prema enables the lover to tolerate the existence of a rival.Krsna: Even though I search for  charming, graceful Candravall on this autumn night, so suitable for happy amorous pastimes, still, tossed to and fro by the waves of wonderful pastimes enjoyed by Cupid's army, RadharanI patiently waits for Me with Her heart of  sweetest honey.Manda: That love which, because of constant intimate association, neither scorns nor yearns after the beloved, is called manda prema.


The wife of a priest tells Krsna: Please pacify Satyabhama's proud, angry friend, Asokalata, and accept her back in Your association. Those who love You should not be chastised for small faults.Praudha prema is also described as  that state of love where separation form the beloved becomes unbearable.Anguished at Her separation from Krsna, Radharani told Lalita : Give Me this charming picture of Krsna you have drawn. If you repeatedly show Me this  picture to pacify My anger at Krsna's absence, I shall take it home, cover My ears, and pass the time angrily gazing at it.When the lover is able to bear the beloved's absence only with great difficulty—that love is called madhya.

A gopl said: O beautiful-faced friend, will this long day ever come to an end? Will the auspicious beginning of night ever come, bringing with it the sight of Krsna, the prince of Vraja. His curling locks of hair covered with the dust  upraised by the cows, His face as beautiful as the moon, and His handsome form dispelling the suffering felt by our eyes?When the lover may sometimes be forgetful, that state of love is called manda.A gopi says: I was so absorbed  in jealous anger towards my gopl rivals that I forgot to string a garland of forest flowers for Krsna. The cows are now mooing, announcing Krsna's return. O my friend, what shall I do now?Sneha: When the lamp of the heart burns with  intense love, that state is called sneha.The love that makes the heart melt with emotion is called sneha. In this state, the lover never becomes satiated by continually seeing or associating with the beloved.The gopis' hearts melted  with love for Krsna. Their restless lotus eyes yearned to continually drink the sweet nectar of His charming, handsome form.


Vrnda to Radharani: Even though the two cakora birds of Your eyes continually drink the flood of nectar moonlight from Hari's face, they somehow or other never become satiated. I think this is because, on the pretext of shedding  many tears, these two intoxicated cakora eyes repeatedly vomit out whatever nectar they drink.The heart may melt from anga-sanga (the touch of the beloved's body), viloka (the sight of the beloved) or sravana-adi (hearing about  the beloved or perceiving Him in some other way). This melting condition of the heart is manifested in three stages: kanistha (the initial stage), madhyama (the intermediate stage), and srestha (the most intense stage).One of Pali's  friends told Krsna: Madhava, You are like a nectar-sweet cloud and Pali is like an ocean of feminine beauty. How is it possible that this ocean of beauty will not melt in Your embrace?Syama's friend, Bakulamala, tells Krsna: O  Mukunda, when the sun of Your face rises before her, the butter of Syama's heart begins to melt. This is not very surprising. When the moon of Syama's face rises before You, the candrakanta jewel of Your heart at first begins to melt  but then becomes a hard stone again. This is very surprising indeed. (A candrakanta jewel melts in the moonlight. It was, therefore, very surprising that the melting candrakanta jewel of Krsna's heart again became hard, being  stunned by Krsna's overwhelming love for Syama).Visakha tells Krsna: O Krsna, O killer of the Madhu demon, when the sound of half Your name approached lotus-eyed Radharani's ears, tears at once streamed from Her eyes,  washing all Her limbs, and Her intelligence becomes bewildered, intoxicated by drinking the honey-nectar of amorous passion. In that intoxicated condition, She stumbles about, yawns, and becomes stunned and motionless.


Noticing that Radharanl began to cry as soon as She stepped on the pathway previously traversed by Krsna, Nandimukhi told Her: Now that you have stepped on the pathway traveled by Krsna, Your limbs have begun to tremble.  Will Your heart now become flooded with love for Him? Will it not begin to melt with love for Him?Sneha is said to be of two kinds: love that is like butter, and love that is like honey.When the lover is overwhelmed by awe and respect  for the beloved, that condition is called sneha, like butter. Just as butter is not very palatable by itself but becomes palatable when mixed with other foods, in the same way, this sneha like butter is not palatable by itself but becomes  so in conjunction with other conditions of ecstatic love. Just as butter is hard and cool, in the same way, this sneha is hard and cool with respect and awe for the beloved. For these reasons, this kind of sneha is compared to butter.

Candravall's friend, Padma, addressed Lalita and the assembly of Radharanl's friends: Whenever Candravall arrives, Krsna, the killer of the Madhu demon, at once respectfully embraces her from a distance. With her very pure love,  she brings Krsna completely under her control. She appears like a white monsoon cloud depleted by showering a great rain of transcendental pastimes with Krsna. To what other object may I nicely compare my friend, Candravall?

Vrnda to Nandimukhi: Krsna placed Candravall's left arm around His shoulder. Thinking her left arm inferior, Candravall retracted it and placed her right arm there. As Candravall danced with Krsna, she became filled with awe.  Tears streamed from her eyes and she moved her feet very awkwardly, causing Radharanl's amused friends to smile.Understanding of the beloved's exalted position creates awe and respect in the lover. This understanding and its  accompanying awe are both present in ghrta-sneha.


Madhu-sneha (love like honey): Madhu-sneha is characterized by intense feelings of possessiveness towards the beloved. Madhu-sneha displays great sweetness. It contains within it the nectarean tastes of various kinds of loving  mellows. It is filled with an intoxicating, ardent passion. Because it is like honey, it is called madhu-sneha.Krsna to Subala: Radharanl is like a nectar-statue fashioned from the intense sweetness of love, filled with all transcendental  virtues, and softened by the great heat of ardent passion. When Her name enters the abode of My ears, I become immediately filled with incomparable bliss and I forget the existence of the entire world.Mdna (pride): When an  intense condition of love manifesting ever-fresh sweetness to the lover also displays contrariness and impoliteness—this feature is called pride and anger.In the midst of Their amorous pastimes, Radharanl rebuked Krsna. Beautiful  Radharanl knitted Her eyebrows and told Krsna: O hero of the cow herds, please stop breathing on Me with the wind from Your mouth. You are covered by dust raised by the cows and that dust makes My eyes tear.Krsna to  Kundavali: When I accidentally said the word, Radha, Candravall became tortured with pain, as if violently wounded at heart. However, in order to pacify My embarrassment and bewilderment, she doubled the smile on her lotus  face and spoke words filled with sweetness. In this way, Candravall astonished My cowherd friend.Knitting her eyebrows, this gopi stared at Hari and the two bumblebees of her eyes drank the nectar of His lotus face.Having lost the  dice game in which an embrace was the winner's prize, the doe-eyed gopl stared at Madhava with crooked eyes and stopped Him with her hand when He tried to embrace her.


During the rasa dance, a gopl, absorbed in the anger of love, bit her lips, knitted her eyebrows, and gazed at Krsna from the corner of her eyes, as if striking Him.When Krsna said, "My dear passionate friend, now you can embrace  Me in this pathway, Mangala's lips curled with distaste and she struck Him with her flower garland.Rupa-manjarl to Rati-manjarl : When, in order to taste the happiness of touching Radharanl's nipples, Kesava, His hair standing up  with excitement, dallied for a long time as He slowly painted pictures on Her breasts with perspiring fingers, restless-eyed RadharanI, anxious that someone might intrude on Their pastimes, suddenly pushed Him away, pressing  Her left breast against Him.Claiming that He was a government appointed toll collector, Krsna demanded payment from the gopls when He met them in Vrndavana. The gopls accused Him of lying and He replied that He was  speaking no lie. Lalita then spoke to Him: O Krsna, O enemy of the Agha demon, by drinking the nectar of Your bimba fruit lips, the tongues of these thousands of saintly gopls have become very pure and chaste. How is it possible  for them to speak lies about You? My dear Krsna, why is it that Your reddish hand is not able to tolerate the fact that these beautiful gopls' undergarments are tightly tied and their other garments are also.Rupa-manjarl: Her tilted  neck resting on Krsna's shoulder, her breasts touching His body, and the hair of Her body standing up in ecstatic bliss, beautiful RadharanI knitted Her eyebrows and gazed at Her lover with crooked eyes. She took Krsna's yellow  garment, more splendid than gold, and wiped the tears of joy from Her face.During the rasa dance, a gopl jubilantly placed Krsna's lotus hand in hers and another gopl placed her arms around His shoulder, which was anointed with  sandalwood paste.


A gopl maidservant gave Candravall the following advice: Do not shyly move back when lotus-eyed Krsna places bells around your ankles. The tinkling sounds of those bells will shame all your swan-like rivals.Visakha asks  RadharanI: My friend, what do You tell Krsna when You strongly embrace His shoulders with the two creepers of Your arms and, lowering Your cheeks, whisper secrets into His ear?Satyabhama to Krsna: My dear, if Your words are  true and You intend to keep Your word then You should bring this parijata tree to decorate the garden in my palace.A gopi said: Resting the two flower-buds of her breasts on His charming chest, my friend, Candravall, painted many  designs in kuhkuma dots on the forehead of Krsna, the killer of Karhsa.RadharanI considered Herself Krsna's most beloved gopi. She had become proud and had left the rasa dance with Krsna. In the deep forest, She said: My dear  Krsna, I cannot walk any more. You can take Me wherever You like.As Krsna was about to speak the secret of their nocturnal pastimes, beautiful Candravall knitted her delicate eyebrows and quickly covered His mouth with her  hand.As Tara was painting a picture on His Srlvatsa-marked chest, Krsna playfully threw the paint box in the water of the Yamuna as a joke. Tara glowered at Him with knitted eyebrows and crooked eyes. Embracing Him, she  finished the half-completed picture using her kunkuma-anointed nipple as a paintbrush.Vrnda to Nandlmukhl: Defeating Krsna in the gambling match where a kiss had been wagered as the prize, Syama gazed at Him with crooked  eyes. She bound His neck with the creeper of her left arm and drank the nectar of His lips.


Rupa-manjarl to a friend: Removing His yellow cddara, Krsna showed the scratch marks on His chest to the gopls. Shaking Her head and knitting Her eyebrows, the small hair on Her breasts standing up, Gandharvika angrily  covered Krsna's dark chest with Her hands.When, even though there is cause for great suffering within the heart, great love impels the lover to feel happiness instead.Observing Radharanl's activities, Lalita said: Even though the  blazing hot sunshine resembles a hailstorm of swords and even though the rough, uneven slope of Govardhana Hill where She stays, because Radharanl, placing Her lotus feet on a bed of blue lotus flowers, sees the cowherd  prince Krsna, She does not feel any suffering but instead remains motionless with joy.A gopl prays to the moon: O moon, surrounded by stars on the fourth night of the month of Bhadra, O Lord who causes great tidal waves in the  ocean of amorous desire, I respectfully offer arghya to you and I bow down before You. I pray that, by your mercy, my desire to become the beloved of youthful Krsna will actually become fulfilled.Nila-raga love is free from any  obstacles or diminution. It is not displayed for public view but is carefully hidden within the heart. This is the opinion of saintly devotees. Nila-raga love can be very clearly seen in the relationship between Krsna and Candravall.

Bhadra tells Krsna: O king of Vraja, even though kind, pure-hearted Candravall is completely enchanted by Your transcendental virtues and loves You deeply, she has so expertly displayed so many convincing signs of not loving  You that even her friends are convinced that she is quite indifferent to You.


A gopl tells proud Bhadra, who has recently quarreled with Krsna: Formerly, you would never leave Krsna's side to go into a slightly dark charming forest grove, even in the daytime. Such a grove would frighten you. Ah, proud  Bhadra, you are now caught in a dark night in a doubly darkened forest of black tamala trees, eagerly searching for Krsna, the killer of the Mura demon.A gopl tells Krsna: Krsna, when my friend, Syama, hears Your name, she  becomes stunned, and when she sees a snake, she becomes maddened with happiness, reminded of Your snake-like arms. She continually imagines that she sees You. I cannot properly diagnose her condition. I do not know  whether she deeply loves, or virulently hates You.Manjistha-raga love is eternal and can never be destroyed. It is independent, without any basis other than itself for its existence. It eternally increases and becomes more and more  beautiful and splendid. The love of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna is the prominent example of manjistha-raga.PaurnamasI to Nandlmukhl: The peerless, jubilant festival of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna's mutual love is eternal. It is never bound by the  confines of a single particular birth. Whatever destiny may bring to that couple, Their love never wavers. That love is supremely independent and has nothing outside itself for its cause. Those lovers relish the nectar of Their  association in spite of any fears of discovery by hostile elders. That astonishing, blissful love eternally increases in its beauty and opulence.Radharanl to PaurnamasI: Then, you advise Me to give up My love for this Krsna, who  defeated the Mura demon. My dear affectionate friend, let Me ask a benediction from you. Please bless Me so that this evening, I may become a bumblebee resting in Krsna's forest flower garland, and become attracted to the sweet  fragrance of His mouth.


The same varieties of love manifested by Candravall and her friends are also manifested by Maharaja Bhlsmaka's daughter, RukminI, and the other queens of Krsna who are her followers.The same varieties of love manifested by  Radharanl and Her followers are also sometimes manifested in Srlmati Satyabhama and Srlmati Laksmana.In this way, there are many different kinds of love manifested by the beautiful gopls in Gokula. These gopls are divided  into atma-paksa (allies), and vipaksa (rivals), and other ways also.That love, which even though continually experienced, remains always dear and ever increasingly fresh and new is called anurdga.Seeing Krsna from a distance,  Radharanl told Vrnda: Krsna now continually walks on the pathway of My eyes. I have never before seen such sweetness. My eyes are hardly able to drink even a drop of His charming handsomeness.Radharanl: O slender friend,  who is this Krsna, that when His name enters My ears, I lose all composure? Lalita : O girl blinded by love, what is it that now continually plays within Your heart? Radharanl: Don't make fun of Me! Lalita : O bewildered girl, I have  now placed You in the hand of this Krsna. Radharanl: It is true. It is true. He has now appeared before Me like a lightning flash appearing in the courtyard of My eyes.Kundalata tells Krsna: O Krsna, O subduer of the Agha demon,  what are these unprecedented waves of amorous pastimes where You and Your beloved, Radharanl, strive to conquer each other? I can see now that Radharanl has firmly chained the elephant of Your heart with the shackles of  Her love and You have also bound the deer of Her heart with the ropes of the transcendental bliss of Your love.


Lovelorn Radharanl told Lalita : O slender friend, I think birth as a bamboo rod is the best of all noble births. I shall therefore perform many severe austerities in this birth so that in My next birth, I shall become a bamboo rod flute able  to drink the sweet nectar of Krsna's bimba fruit lips.Lalita addresses a traveler on the pathway to Mathura: O traveler to Mathura, please recite this message in a loud voice before Krsna, the king of Mathura. Tell Him: A beautiful Vraja  gopi has given me this message to repeat to You. She says: O supremely independent Krsna, if You leave the capital city of Mathura then please definitely come here to Vraja at once. Why do You repeatedly torture My anguished  friend, Radharanl, by appearing before Her for one fleeting moment here, and another fleeting moment there?Vrnda to Krsna: O my Lord, you live in the forest of Govardhana Hill and, like the king of elephants, You are expert in the  art of conjugal love. O master of the universe, Your heart and Radharanl's heart are just like shellac and are now melted in Your spiritual perspiration. Therefore, one can no longer distinguish between You and Radharanl. Now, You  have mixed Your newly invoked affection, which is like vermillion, with Your melted hearts and for the benefit of the whole world, You have painted both Your hearts red within this great palace of the universe.That exalted state of  love which is very difficult even for Krsna's queens to attain, and which is understandable only by the jpis, goddesses of Vraja, is called mahd-bhdva.Mahd-bhdva love is filled with sweet nectar that charms the heart.During the rasa  dance, the gopis manifested a nectar river of love for Krsna. The broken cooing of the awakening swans in that rivee is filled with sweet nectar that charms the heart.During the rasa dance, the gopis manifested a nectar river of love  for Krsna. The broken cooing of the awakening swans in that river was the sound of the gopis' voices choked with ecstasy.


The waves and whirlpools of that river were the gopis' trembling motions. The playful fish in that river were the gopis' bodily hairs standing up with happiness. The currents in that river were the gopis' tears. The cooling spray in that  river was the gopis' becoming stunned with joy. The lotus flowers growing in that river were the gopis' transcendental bliss.This ecstatic love manifests the following features: Inability to tolerate the eyes blinking, agitation of the heart,  perceiving a kalpa to be as long as a single moment; during a period of happiness, becoming depressed because of apprehension of future suffering; becoming bewildered and forgetting everything, even one's own self. These are  the beginning of a list of many features of ecstatic love manifested in both yoga (meeting the beloved) and viyoga (separation from the beloved).The gopis saw their beloved Krsna at Kuruksetra after a long separation. They secured  and embraced Him in their hearts through their eyes and they attained a joy so intense that not even perfect yogis can attain it. The gopis cursed the creator for creating eyelids that interfered with their vision.During Krsna's meeting  with the Vrajavasls at Kuruksetra, some of the women of Dvaraka remarked: See how the waves of the gopls' love for Krsna are drawing everyone. They make the heads of the great Kuru kings reel and they make all the beautiful  girls in the heavenly planets waver in their chastity. These waves of the gopis' love are now splashing against the transcendental handsomeness of Krsna.PaurnamasI tells Nandlmukhl: As the rasa dance was performed in the  autumn moonlight, the night suddenly became as long as a night of Brahma. This did not at all surprise the gopis. They remained unaware of the transformation because they were so splashed with transcendental happiness that,  for them, the great kalpa seemed as long as a single moment.


During the meeting of Krsna, His queens, and the Vrajavasls at Kuruksetra, one of the women of Dvaraka said: Filled with waves of love, the astonishing river of RadharanI entered the sea of Krsna at Kuruksetra. Seeing this, Bhadra  became stunned and could not speak, Kalindi shed many tears, Satyabhama cheerfully laughed and joked, and grave, profound Rukmini turned white.Eclipsing Parvati, who because she is non-different from him is half of Lord  Siva's body; eclipsing Laksmi, who, because of intimate friendship with her lover, reclines on His chest; eclipsing Satyabhama, who, because of her great good fortune, is like a lotus flower that attracts the bumblebee of Krsna's  heart; and also eclipsing Candravall, who, because of her charming sweetness is the life and soul of Krsna, the ruler of Mathura—look, the ocean of Radharani's love now splashes its waves against Hari.When a lover is separated  from the beloved, the condition of happiness becomes transformed into bewilderment. Overwhelmed by feelings of separation, the lover manifests the ecstatic symptoms known as suddlpta sdttvika.Having returned from his visit to  Vrndavana, Uddhava tells Krsna: Wonderfully overwhelmed with intense love for You, RadharanI trembles, loudly grinds Her teeth, stutters with a choked up voice, cries so many tears that She makes Gokula appear like the mother  of all rivers, eclipses the kantaki fruit with the sight of Her bodily hair standing up, and stands with a complexion turned pale white.The anubhdva ecstasies described by the learned devotees include: fainting caused by remembering  the beloved, eagerness to accept any unbearable suffering to ensure the happiness of the beloved, agitating the entire universe, crying like a bird, wishing that the elements of one's body may associate with the beloved after death,  and transcendental insanity. These forms of bewilderment primarily appear in RadharanI, the queen of Vrndavana. They are very unusual and they are manifested from samsdri-moha.


A gopl said: Even though tightly embraced by Rukminl-devi in a jeweled palace in Dvaraka by the sea, Krsna, remembering the fragrance of Radharani's transcendental pastimes in the grove by the lovely shore of the Yamuna,  suddenly fainted.RadharanI to Uddhava: If Mukunda returns to Vraja, we would become very happy but if His return made Him slightly unhappy, we would not feel any happiness. If Krsna does not come here from Mathura, we will  suffer intensely but if not returning brought happiness to His heart, it would also bring happiness to our hearts.Nandlmukhl informs Dvaraka's king, Krsna, of Radharani's activities in Vrndavana: My Lord, when Radharani's sighs of  love for You travel in all directions, they make the entire universe cast out all its happiness and become overwhelmed with pain within the heart. These sighs make the human society cry out with grief. They make the lower forms of  life, sustained by the serpent, Ananta, perspire with anguish. They make the residents of Vaikunthaloka abandon all spiritual bliss and weep.Suffering from Krsna's absence, RadharanI tells Visakha: I don't know how this weak chest  is able to bear this great fire of suffering, which is harsher than a host of submarine volcanoes spitting fire. If the smoke from this fire were to emerge from My heart in the form of a sigh, it would set the entire universe ablaze.

While visiting Dvarka, Nandlmukhl tells PaurnamasI: When Krsna left for Dvaraka, RadharanI wrapped Herself in His garments and sat down by a charming creeper in a grove on the Yamuna's shore. Filled with longing, She shed  tears and sang in a shrill, choked-up voice. When the fish in the water heard Her, they became anxious, thinking the singing to be the warbling of a predator crane or pelican.RadharanI told Lalita : Now that I am separated from  Krsna, it is just as well that My body die and the various elements that compose it enter into the reservoirs of the respective elements.


I bow My head before the creator, Brahma, and beg that after My death, the water in My body may become the space that enables Krsna to travel from one place to another. I pray that the air in My body may become the breeze  created by the palm leaf used to fan Krsna.When the ecstatic emotion of enchantment gradually progress, it becomes similar to bewilderment. Then, one reaches the stage of astonishment, which awakes transcendental madness.  Udhurna and Citrd-jalpa are two among the many divisions of transcendental madness.Uddhava tells Krsna: Agitated by Your absence, what astonishing condition has RadharanI not attained? Imagining that She will meet You,  She dresses and decorates Herself nicely and carefully arranges a bed in a forest cottage. When You do not come, She feels that You are unfaithful and She becomes angry and ferociously criticizes the dark rain cloud. Yearning to  meet You, She staggers out into the frightening darkness to search for You.Radharanl's manifestation of udghurna after Krsna had gone to Mathura is clearly described in the third act of Lalita -Madhava.Citrd-jalpa: These are  conversations with the beloved in the company of friends. These conversations contain veiled anger, intense love, and great longing within the heart. Citrd-jalpa contains countless manifestations of wonderfully astonishing love for  Krsna. Nothing is more astonishing than even a brief summary of Citrd-jalpa.Praialpa: This consists of inauspicious, scorn-filled, envious, angry, passionate, mad words hurled at the beloved.


RadharanI: Bumblebee, you are accustomed to drinking honey from the flowers and therefore, you have preferred to be a messenger of Krsna, who is of the same nature as you. I have seen on your moustaches the red powder of  kunkuma that was smeared on the flower garland of Krsna while He was pressing the breast of some other girl, who is My competitor. You feel very proud because of having touched that garland and your moustaches have become  reddish. You have come here, carrying a message for Me, anxious to touch My feet. But, My dear bumblebee, let Me warn you—don't touch Me! I don't want any messages from your unreliable master. You are the unreliable servant  of an unreliable master.When the lover displays her intelligence by crookedly criticizing Krsna for His mercilessness, cheating, fickleness and other faults, such talk is called parijalpita.RadharanI: Your master, Krsna, is exactly of  your quality. You sit down on a flower and after taking a little honey, you immediately fly away and sit on another flower and taste. You're just like your master, Krsna. He gave us the chance to taste the touch of His lips and then He  left altogether. I know also that the goddess of fortune, Laksmi, who is always in the midst of the lotus flower, is constantly engaged in Krsna's service. But, I do no know why she has become so captivated by Krsna. She is attached to  Him, although she knows His actual character. As far as we are concerned, we are more intelligent than that goddess of fortune. We are not going to be cheated any more by Krsna or His messengers.

Vijalpa: Crooked words openly displaying envy, and secretly containing pride and anger towards Krsna.RadharanI: You foolish bumblebee, you are trying to satisfy Me and get a reward by singing the glories of Krsna but it is a  useless attempt. We are bereft of all our possessions. We are away from our homes and families. We know very well about Krsna. We know even more than you.


So, whatever you make up about Him will be old stories to us. Krsna is now in the city and is better known as the friend of Arjuna. He now has many new girlfriends, who are no doubt very happy in association with Him. Because the  lusty burning sensation of their breasts has been satisfied by Krsna, they are now happy. If you go there and glorify Krsna, they may be pleased to reward you.Uijalpa: When, impelled by jealous anger born from pride, the lover calls  Krsna a cheater, and enviously rejects Him.RadharanI: I can understand that you are expert in reuniting two parties but at the same time, you must know that I cannot place My reliance upon you, nor upon your master, Krsna. We left  our families, husbands, children, and relatives only for Krsna and yet He did not feel any obligation in exchange. He has left us for lost. Do you think we can place our faith in Him again? We know that Krsna cannot be long without  the association of young women. That is His nature. He is finding difficulty in Mathura because He is no longer in the village among innocent cowherd girls. He is in aristocratic society and must be feeling difficulty in making  friendship with the young girls. Perhaps you have come here to canvas again to take us there. But, why should Krsna expect us to go there? He is greatly qualified to entice all other girls, not only in Vrndavana or Mathura, but all over  the universe. His wonderfully enchanting smile is so attractive and the movement of His eyebrows so beautiful that He can call for any woman from the heavenly, middle, or plutonic planets. Maha-LaksmI, the greatest of all  goddesses of fortune, also hankers to render Him some service. In comparison to all these women of the universe, what are we? We are very insignificant.



Sanjalpa: Cutting, ironic rebukes filled with ingratitude and other similar sentiments are called sanjalpa by the wise.RadharanI: My dear bumblebee, do not place your head on My feet. You are just trying to pacify Me by your  behavior as a flatterer and therefore, you have put your head under My feet. But, I know the trick you are trying to play. I know that you are a messenger coming from a great trickster, Krsna. Therefore, please leave Me. We  abandoned our husbands, children, and other relatives for Krsna's sake and now, He has left us. Why should we be interested to hear about this fickle-minded Krsna?Avajalpa Angry, frightened words impelled by harshness, lust,  and mischief, where loving attachment is completely inappropriate, are known as avajalpa.RadharanI: Krsna advertises Himself as magnanimous and He is praised by great saints. His qualifications could be perfectly utilized if He  would only show us mercy because we are downtrodden and neglected by Him. You poor messenger, you are only a less intelligent servant. You do not know much about Krsna, how ungrateful and hard-hearted He has been, not  only in this life, but in His previous lives also.We have all heard this from our grandmother, Paurnamasl. She has informed us that Krsna was born in a ksatriya family previously to this birth and was known as Ramacandra. In that  birth, instead of killing Vali, an enemy of His friend, in the manner of a ksatriya, He killed him just like a hunter. A hunter takes a secure hiding place and then kills an animal without facing it. So, Lord Ramacandra, as a ksatriya,  should have fought with Vali, face to face, but instigated by His friend, He killed him from behind a tree. Thus, He deviated from the religious principles of a ksatriya. Also, He was so attracted by the beauty of Sita that He converted


Surpanakhd, the sister of Ravana, into an ugly woman by cutting off her nose and ears. Surpanakhd proposed an intimate relationship with Him and as a ksatriya, He should have satisfied her. But, He was so henpecked that He  could not forget Sita-devI and so He converted Surpanakhd into an ugly woman.Before that birth as a ksatriya, He took His birth as a brdhmana boy known as Vamanadeva and asked charity from Bali Maharaja. Bali Maharaja was  so magnanimous that he gave Him whatever he had and yet, Krsna as Vamanadeva ungratefully arrested him just like a crow and pushed him down to the Patala kingdom. We know all about Krsna and how ungrateful he is. But,  here is the difficulty—we cannot give up talking about Him. Not only are we unable to give up this talk but great sages and saintly persons also engage in talking about Him. We gopls of Vrndavana do not want to make any more  friendship with this blackish boy but we do not know how we shall be able to give up remembering and talking about His activities.Abhija-pita speeches are filled with remorse. They sound like the plaintive wailing of birds and they  are free of all crookedness.In my opinion, one should not hear about Krsna because, as soon as a drop of the nectar of His transcendental activities is poured into the ear, one immediately rises above the duality of attraction and  rejection. Being completely freed from the contamination of material attachment, one gives up attachment for this material world, family, home, wife, children, and everything materially dear to every person. Being deprived of all  material acquisitions, one makes his relatives and himself unhappy. Then, he wanders in search of Krsna, either as a human being or in other species of life, even as a bird, and voluntarily accepts the profession of a mendicant. It is  very difficult to actually understand Krsna, His name, His quality, His form, His pastimes, His paraphernalia, and His entourage.


Ajalpa: When, out of loathing for the beloved, the lover speaks crooked words that bring pain to the beloved and pleasure to others, such words are called ajalpa.Please do not talk any more about Krsna. It is better to talk about  something else. We are already doomed, like the blackspotted she-deer in the forest who are enchanted by the sweet musical vibration of the hunter. In the same way, we have been enchanted by the sweet words of Krsna and  again and again, we are thinking of the rays of His toenails. We are becoming more and more lustful for His ass   Therefore, I request you not to talk of Krsna any more.Pratijalpa: In pratijalpa, the lover respectfully worships the  messenger sent by her beloved. The lover humbly admits the impropriety of her strong, difficult-to-abandon enmity towards her lover.My dear friend, I welcome you. Krsna is so kind that He has again sent you. Krsna is so kind and  affectionate to Me that He has fortunately sent you back, in spite of your carrying My message against Him. My dear friend, you may ask from Me whatever you want. I shall give you anything because you are so kind to Me. You have  come to take Me to Krsna because He is not able to come here. He is surrounded by new girlfriends in Mathura. But, you are a tiny creature. How can you take Me there? How will you be able to help Me in meeting Krsna, while He is  taking rest there with the goddess of fortune and embracing her to His chest?Madana: Madana is the topmost of all kinds of ecstatic love and it is the supreme expression of hladini-sakti. Madana is eternally manifested within  Radharanl.PaurnamasI to Nandlmukhl: I offer my respectful obeisances to the astonishing moon of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna's conjugal love. Since its very beginning, that moon has never waned but remains always full. It is full of  duplicity, it melts the candrakanta jewels of the hearts, its charming splendor eradicates all fear and, rising in the evening, it manifests the transcendental opulence of eternal newness.


RadharanI addresses Krsna's garland of forest flowers: O garland of forest flowers, why do you constantly hate these pure-hearted doe-eyed goplsl Why, as you embrace Krsna's form, from His head to His broad chest to His feet, do  you contemptuously consider us gopls as unimportant as so many blades of grass?When Krsna traveled in the Vrndavana forest with Balarama and His boy friends, the reddish powder fell on the ground of the Vrndavana forest. So,  the lusty aborigine girls, while looking toward Krsna playing His flute, saw the reddish kunkum on the ground and immediately took it and smeared it over their faces and breasts. In this way, they became fully satisfied, although they  were not satisfied when their lovers touched their breasts.RadharanI to Lalita : What severe austerities must this delicate, pure-hearted Malatl creeper have performed in her previous births so that she is now able to embrace this  tamala tree that so resembles Krsna, the Prince of Vraja?In the direct union of lover and beloved, the wonderful sentiments of madana (conjugal love) become manifested. At that time, thousands of eternal pastimes are manifest.

This madana transcendental conjugal love is not at all like ordinary material lust. Even great sages are not able to perfectly or very elaborately explain this transcendental madana conjugal love.


Vaisnava literature explains that raga (attachment) is present even in the purva-raga (preliminary sentiments of love) felt by RadharanI and Her followers toward Krsna.The varieties of transcendental ecstatic love felt by the  goddesses of Vraja are beyond the perception of material logic and speculation. The description of them presented in this book is a brief outline only. It is not complete. In the general beginning stages of transcendental conjugal  love, the manifestations of love are only dimly presented. This stage is called dhumayita (smoke filled). The next stages of rati and prema, showing the sentiments of transcendental love more clearly, are called jvalita (shining). The  next five stages display transcendental love even more clearly and therefore, they are called dipta (shining brightly).Sometimes, according to place, time, and person, this transcendental love becomes manifested as its opposite.  Some of the Lord's conjugal lovers experience the varieties of love, to the stage of prema. Others attain the state of bhava. The narma-vayasya friends attain up to anuraga, and Subala and his associates attain up to the stage of  bhava.


Ujjvala (transcendental conjugal love) is divided into two parts: love in separation and direct enjoyment of conjugal pleasure. Love in separation is divided into two kinds: love in separation of the youthful couple who have not yet met  each other directly, and love in separation of the youthful couple who have already met each other.The yearning to embrace and enjoy amorous pastimes on the part of the couple who have not yet met becomes the source of their  intense pleasure. Just as one cannot redden cloth or some other object without the use of red, in the same way, the happiness of conjugal love cannot reach its fullness without there having been separation of the lovers.

That love born from seeing, hearing about, or other kinds of contact before the couple have formally met is called purva-raga by the wise. This presents a number of varieties, among which are: directly seeing Krsna, seeing Krsna in  a picture, and seeing Krsna in a dream.Happening by chance to see Krsna, Radharanl tells Visakha: With a charming necklace of pearls on His chest and yellow garments the color of molten gold, and His glistening smooth  abdomen like a brother to the blue lotus flower, this youth now fills the entire universe with amorous passion.Gazing at Krsna's picture, Radharanl said: O transcendental, splendid youth, who I see in this charming picture, Your form  shines like the flames of a submarine volcano. Please cool My eyes. We are simple and honest. Ah! Ah! Why is it that we do not know who You are?Candravall tells Padma: My friend, in a dream, I saw a river that flowed with water  as dark as a buffalo. By this river's shore was a grove of Mddhavl creepers filled with buzzing bees. In that grove was a handsome dark-complexioned, amorous youth, wearing a yellow garment around His hips. Desiring to enjoy  with me, He called me to Him in a wonderful way.


The source of hearing includes: hearing from the mouth of a troubadour, hearing from the mouth of a gopi messenger, hearing from the mouth of a gopi friend, and hearing from songs.A young girl addresses Princess Laksmana: O  Laksmana, why did the hair of your body stand up in this extraordinary way when you heard this expert troubadour recite a virudavali poem narrating Krsna's victory over Magadha's king, Jarasandha?Vrnda to Krsna: Taravali  listened very intently and looking down as I repeated Your message. The hair on the creeper of her body stood up in ecstasy and her throat became choked with emotion. She would not tolerate any conversation that was not about  You.Visakha told Krsna: O Krsna, when my friend, Radharanl, hears about You from my mouth, Her eyes become agitated like the eyes of a maddened cakora bird. As She continually hears about You, day after day, She has  gradually become very thin and emaciated, like a river drying up in the autumn season.Princess Laksmana asked her friend: With tears in his eyes, Narada sang the glories of someone as he played the vina in the royal assembly.  My friend, please tell me who was Narada describing in that song? The description of that person brought tears to my eyes.In the beginning of the rdga stage of transcendental love, the doe-eyed gopis become extremely beautiful.  The mature stage, where the couple is fully able to enjoy amorous pastimes, is called praudha.A girl asks her friend: My dear young friend, why do you leave Vraja just to enter it again, place your eyes a hundred times in half an  hour at the kadamba forest on the edge of Vraja, and emit numberless sighs from fear of your elders?


Vis'akha tells Krsna: When, even from far away, Radharani hears one of the syllables of Your name, She trembles and madly cries like a khanjana bird, and when She happens to see a beautiful dark cloud in the sky, She becomes  very eager to embrace it.Udvega: In udvega (agitation), the mind and heart tremble, the lover sighs with a warm breath, becomes stunned, is filled with anxiety, sheds tears, becomes pale, and perspires.Visakha asks Radharani: My  dear friend, how has this host of anxieties broken the peacefulness of Your heart? Why is Your red sari sprinkled with many tears? How has this trembling stolen away the steadiness of Your body? O Radharani, as fair as a golden  campaka flower, please tell the truth. It is not auspicious to conceal things from friends.lagarya: The inability to sleep is called jagarya. Becoming stunned, drying up, and disease are some of the symptoms caused by jagarya.

Radharani addresses Visakha: My friend, sleep momentarily showed Me a certain dark-complexioned person, dressed in splendid yellow garments, and then at once, left, as if angered. O My friend, Visakha, I am now filled with  anxiety. Please convince this girl, sleep, to return to Me. No one except her has the power to capture the thief who has stolen My sleep.Tanava: In tanava, the bodily limbs become thin and emaciated. Tanava causes weakness and  bewilderment, among other things.A gopi tells Visakha: O Visakha, by once hearing the sweet sound of Krsna's flute, you have suddenly become thin and emaciated like the crescent moon in its fourteenth phase and the bracelets  are falling from your wrists, which have now become too thin to support them.


Radharani laments: Dancing a tandava dance with His friends, Hari played under this kadamba tree on the Yamuna's shore. Hiding behind some creepers, I watched Him for a moment and then left. O My friends, what shall I say?  Fate has cast Me into a blazing fire of lamentation.]adima: When the lover is unaware of desirable or undesirable external conditions, does not respond to questions, and neither sees nor hears what happens—that state is called  jadima (becoming stunned). In this jadima, the lover may suddenly and unexpectedly rebuke others, become motionless, sigh, or become bewildered.A gopl addresses Pali: You suddenly cry out without any reason, you do not  hear the words of your friends, and you constantly sigh like a bellows. O lotus-faced Pali, I think the honey-nectar of the sweet sound of Krsna's flute must have been poured into the drinking cups of your ears.Vaiyagrya: In vaiyagrya,  the lover, agitated by the great depth of love, becomes intolerant. In this condition, the lover manifests illogic, loathing, depression, envy, and other similar conditions.PaurnamasI tells Nandlmukhl: This mystic yogi withdraws his  consciousness from the sense objects and fixes it on the Supreme Lord in the heart. This young girl, however, draws Her consciousness from the heart and fixes it on the objects of the senses. The great yogi yearns to see the  Supreme Lord for a brief moment in the heart and this charming girl wishes that the Supreme Lord may leave Her heart and stand before Her.Vyadhi: Not obtaining the object of desire, the lover attains the condition of vyadhi  (disease). Vyadhi is characterized by paleness, fever, chills, longings, bewilderment, sighs, and withering of the body.


Bhadra's friend tells Krishna: O Murahara, when Bhadra heard that You had extinguished a forest fire, she placed You in her heart to extinguish the forest fire of amorous passion that burned there. Your presence only doubled those  painful flames and now, she appears pale and white, as if burned to ashes.When the lover is bewildered, imagining the absent beloved always present at all times and circumstances, that condition is called unmada (madness).  Some of the symptoms of that condition are: hatred of what is ordinarily considered pleasant and desirable, sighing, and considering the blinking of the eyes to present a very formidable period of separation from the beloved.

After seeing a picture of Krsna drawn by Visakha, RadharanI said: As splendid as sapphire and decorated with a peacock feather, the young man in this picture came out from the picture and gazed at Me with moving eyebrows. His  glance made Me mad with love for Him. I madly laughed. To Me, the moon appeared as hot as fire and fire as cooling as the moon.Moha: Seeing everything in the wrong way is called moha, or bewilderment.Visakha tells Krishna:  Jatila said: Why does my daughter-in-law, Radha, continually sigh and never breath through Her nose? Why does She stare at me with crooked eyes? Fie on Her! Give me some Krsnatila so that I may wash my hands. O infallible  Krsna, as soon as the syllables Krs-na entered Her ears, She at once began to tremble. O Acyuta, You are undoubtedly the cause of Her sudden bewilderment.If the beloved does not respond to the lover's love letter invitations and  remains aloof then the lover, impelled by the tortures of Cupid's arrows, may resolve to commit suicide.


When the lover decided to commit suicide, she distributes her favorite possessions among her friends. She experiences for the last time, the sound of buzzing bumblebees, the gentle breeze, the moonlight, the kadamba flower, and  other favorite things.Vrnda to PaurnamasI: RadharanI gave a farewell embrace to the budding jasmine creeper She had planted on the Yamuna's shore. She placed the farewell gift of Her very beautiful diamond necklace in Lalita 's  hand, entered a kadamba grove filled with buzzing sounds of bees, and at once fainted, only to be reawakened by the dear gopl friends chanting the name of Hari.RadharanI said to Her constant companion, Visakha: My dear friend,  if Krsna is unkind to Me, there will be no need for you to cry because it will not be due to any fault of yours. I shall then have to die but afterwards, please do one thing for Meto observe My funeral ceremony, place My body with its  arms embracing a tamala tree, like creepers, so that I may remain forever in Vrndavana undisturbed. That is my last request.Abhilasa: The yearning to associate with the beloved and the endeavor to attain that association are called  abhilasa. In that condition, the lover decorates herself very nicely and displays strong attachment to her beloved.A friend addresses Satyabhama: O rascal, Satyabhama, even though it was only SuBhadra who, out of friendship,  called you to leave your father's home and visit Devaki's palace, you still made a great endeavor to decorate yourself very nicely. I think a secret ulterior motive hides in your heart.Cinta: Continual planning of various methods to  obtain the object of desires is called cinta, which causes: tossing about on the bed, sighing, and the lover imagines to see the absent beloved.


A friend addresses Princess RukminI: O lotus-faced RukminI, your continual sighs wilt your bimba fruit lips, your emaciated body tosses about on the bed like a moving stick, and your eyes constantly sprinkle mascara-blackened  tears. Nothing will obstruct your marriage tomorrow.Smrti: Remembrance of the beloved's features, qualities, and activities is called smrti. Some of the manifestations are: trembling, becoming overwhelmed, sleepiness, and  sighing.A friend addresses Satyabhama: The regal elephant of Krsna now sports in the lake of your mind. O Maharaja Satrajit's daughter, that Krsna-elephant repeatedly splashes the lotus flowers of your eyes. He has slackened the  lotus stems of your arms and has made the cakravaka birds of your breasts tremble.Guna-klrtanam: Glorification of the handsomeness and other transcendental qualities of the beloved is called guna-klrtanam. In this activity, the  lover trembles, her bodily hair stands up, her voice becomes choked, and she manifests other ecstatic symptoms.Princess RukminI writes in a letter to Krsna: O king of Mathura, all young girls become overwhelmed with thirst to  taste the sweet honey of Your transcendental handsomeness. Indeed, even if You Yourself taste some of that honey, Your bodily hair stands up in ecstasy. Now that it has smelled the fragrance of that honey form far away, the  bumblebee of my mind can no longer remain peaceful and composed.The general, common manifestation of ecstatic love is called sadharana-rati, which contains six charming manifestations of love, culminating in vilapa  (lamentation).


Describing the Lord's queens at Dvaraka: All these women auspiciously glorified their lives despite their being without individuality and without purity. Their husband, the lotus-eyed Personality of Godhead, never left them alone at  home. He always pleased their hearts by making valuable presentations.In addition, learned devotional scholars describe another set of ecstatic manifestations, manifested in sadharana-rati. During the stage of purva-rdga,  (preliminary attachment) in sadharana-rati, there may be giving of love letters, garlands, or other objects. These may be given directly by Lord Krsna to His gopl beloved, or they may be given by a friend.The kama-lekha (love letter)  reveals the author's love for the beloved. The letter may be given by a young girl to a boy, or by a boy to a girl. Messages written without the use of letters but written instead in scratch marks resembling a half moon or other shapes  on reddish, newly sprouted twigs, are called niraksara.Krsna to Subala: With the tip of her fingernail, Visakha scratched the half moon in this newly sprouted twig. How is it possible that this scratched amorous half moon has violently  forced its way into My heart?A message written in letters, in the Prakrit language, and by the author's own hand, is called sdksara.Sasimukhi delivered to Krsna the following letter from RadharanI: My dear Krsna, over a very long  period, You repeatedly wounded My heart and now, the powerful, infamous Cupid has entered into the wound You created. Now, I see You everywhere, in all directions, but I cannot find that Cupid anywhere.Such a letter may be  written on a large flower petal with red ink made from lotus filaments, or with black ink made from musk. The letter is then sealed with red kunkuma.


A& said to RadharanI: "My friend, Krsna, the Prince /sends You this wonderful, expertly strung garland that cle^ /proclaims His great artistic skill." When RadharanI heard these words, She began to perspire. I think that, on the pretext  of perspiration, what actually occurred was that all the peaceful composure of Her pious chastity at once flowed out of Her bodily limbs.Some other authorities list the stage of transcendental conjugal love in the following way: Falling  in love by seeing the beloved, feeling anxiety, deciding to pursue the beloved, insomnia, becoming thin and emaciated, becoming oblivious to everything except the beloved, becoming shameless, madness, fainting, and deciding  to commit suicide.In this way, the various stages of purva-rdga (preliminary attraction) may be understood. We shall now give a single example to illustrate this.Vrnda addressed RadharanI: Overwhelmed with bliss from tasting the  fragrance of His own sweet flute music, Krsna has now stopped playing His flute. He has forgotten to decorate Himself with many kinds of flower ornaments. He no longer thirsts to enjoy charming pastimes with an army of gopls. My  friend, He is now simply allowing the restless wind of His heart to be drunk by the restless serpent of Your eyebrows. (The serpent is said to maintain itself by drinking the wind).Mana (anger) is defined as that thing which prevents a  loving couple from seeing each other, embracing, or fulfilling each other's desires in various ways. Mana is, at last, a manifestation of love. It is divided into two varieties: based on a specific cause, and for which no cause may be  found.


When the lover gives special attention to a certain beloved, then all the rivals of the beloved become jealous. In this way, what was once love becomes jealous anger. Without love, there cannot be fear for the loss of the beloved and  without love, there cannot be jealousy. For this reason, this fear and jealousy are manifestations of love.As He slowly entered the palace, Krsna, who is feared by fear itself and who is the descendant of Maharaja Yadu, affectionately  meditated on His angry Queen Satyabhama. Meanwhile, hearing of how her rival, RukminI, had obtained a pdrijdta flower from Indraloka, Queen Satyabhama, who was very proud of her opulent beauty and youthfulness, became  overwhelmed with jealous anger.Still, if a girl loves Krsna in her heart, she will be unable to tolerate the Lord's giving special attention to one of her rivals. Because, except for Satyabhama, the queens did not love Krsna very  intensely, they did not become jealous when they heard that Krsna had given a pdrijdta flower to Queen RukminI.In three ways, the lover may learn of Krsna's giving special favors to a rival: by directly hearing, by directly seeing, and  by inferring from some evidence.The lover may hear from the mouth of a dear friend, a parrot, or someone else.Vrnda addressed Sasimukhi: Sasimukhi, please do not believe these lies that a hard-hearted friend has told you of  affectionate Krsna's supposed unfaithfulness. Staying in the forest, your beloved Krsna is now completely shattered because He is unable to see your face. O beautiful goddess, please be kind to Him and relieve the suffering in His  heart.After hearing her friend describe Krsna's gift of a pdrijdta flower to Queen RukminI, angry Satyabhama said: Alas, what painful news has fallen into my ears! My friend, please do not torture


/poking lies. Even though I am present, Krsna prefers /yKiwer of the heavenly pdrijdta tree to this Rukmini. Fie when Syamala became jealous after hearing a parrot narrate Krsna's infidelities, Krsna tried to appease her: This forest  parrot simply repeated the words of some cruel-hearted gopl fond of quarrels. My dear Syamala, please do not put such faith in these meaningless words of a bird. Please do not immerse your heart is this jealous anger. I am very  distressed by this. Please be merciful to Me.Bhoganka: This consists of signs of conjugal pleasure visible on the limbs of the lover and the rival.After spending an entire night waiting in vain for Krsna to arrive at the place of  rendezvous, tired Candravall fell asleep. At daybreak, Krsna arrived, speaking many excuses to justify His absence. Candravall's friend, Padma, then rebuked Him with anger: O cheater who sports on the Yamuna's shore, what is  the use of Your speaking all these sweet words? Tired-eyed, angry Candravall now sleeps in the nearby forest cottage. As for You, You should leave this place at once because Your forehead reflects something of the charming,  artistically drawn dolphins that decorated the body of Candravall's rival.When Krsna arrived at daybreak at the place of rendezvous, angry Radharani addressed Him: Ah Krsna, You have arrived an eye-blink late. I know that Your  eyes are red because so much flower pollen has fallen into them and I also know that Your lips are wounded because they are parched by the cold forest winds. Don't shrink from Me. After all, I, who have been crushed by fate, shall  not criticize You.When the beloved accidentally speaks the name of the lover's rival, that activity brings intense jealous anger to the lover. That activity brings suffering harsher than death.


Bilvamangala Thakura: Leaving the grove named Radha-mohana (the enchantment of Radharani), Krsna arrived before Candravall. Krsna: "O Radharani, all blessings be upon You." Candravall: "O Kamsa, all blessings by upon  you." Krsna: "Bewildered girl, where do you see Kamsa?" Candravall: "Why do You address me as Radharani?" At this point, Krsna bowed His head and smiled with embarrassment. 1 pray that Lord Hari may protect you all.

One time, Krsna accidentally addressed Candravall as Radharani. At the time, Candravall's friend, Padma, rebuked Krsna: Aha! It is actually the many moons of Candravall who shines before You with a splendid light, O cheater,  where do You see the sixteenth star, named Radha? O black-complexioned one, you should leave this place at once because my friend, the moon¬like Candravall, has turned red and she is not about to give up her glistening  anger.Svapna: This may be caused by hearing Krsna, or His comedian companion, Madhumahgala, talking in their sleep.As he slept by Candravall's side on the bed, in the middle of the night, Krsna began to speak in His sleep. He  said: "Radha, I curse You, that You never leave Me alone. You stay in My heart. You stay outside Me. Your are in front of Me. You are behind Me. You are in this cottage and You are in the forest by Govardhana Hill. You follow Me  everywhere." When Candravall heard these words, she became angry and turned her face from Krsna.Saibya to a friend: Look at how Candravall's face burns with pain and anger. She heard Madhumahgala say in his sleep: Krsna  has just cheated Padma's friend, Candravall, with many clever sweet words. Go^now to Radharani. Madhavl, what do you think?


Padma to Krsna: Don't lie. You left my friend, Candravall, all alone in that cave with a haste that revealed Your intention to cheat her. O king of cheaters, I followed You for a long way and finally, when I heard the suspicious tinkling  sounds of a sash of bells, I directly saw You with RadharanI at the shore.Padma to Candravall: My friend, early in the morning, I fashioned this gunja necklace and, with the yearnings of love, I placed it around the neck of the Prince  of Vraja. Look! Lalita now wears that same necklace over her heart! That sight makes my own heart brightly burn.Love may be causeless in two ways: Manifested without a cause, and manifested with the faint reflection of a cause.

The progress of loving affairs between young couples is by nature crooked, like the movement of a snake. Because of this, two types of anger arise between young couples—anger with a cause and anger without a cause.

Arriving at the rendezvous three hours late, a gopl defended her tardiness in the following words to angry, suspicious Krsna: If you are even a little suspicious of me then do not glance on me with smiling eyes. O master of Vraja, I  expertly cheated my husband and, decorated with splendid ornaments, traveled a long way on the path to get here but the moonlight did not appear until the middle of the night and then a thick mass of clouds unexpectedly  appeared and covered the moon.RadharanI to a friend: During Our midday pastimes, I wanted to pick some flowers and so I left Him. O My friend, when He finally saw Me, He was very agitated. He became very silent and His face  was as expressionless as the moon. When I anxiously placed a handful of flowers on His toenails, that deity moved His eyebrows with feigned anger and suddenly smiled.As RadharanI saw Krsna returning to Vraja from the forest,  She suddenly, for no reason, became overwhelmed by jealous anger. Seeing this, Her friend, Syama, said to Her: Krsna stands for a moment at Your doorstep, gazing at You with amorous love from the corner of His eyes. O Radha,  O friend completely devoured by pretended jealous anger, why do You simply stare at Him from Your window? Crush the jealousy in your heart. Come outside and please the Lord of Your life.


One time, RadharanI sent Krsna to pick some flowers. He returned to find Her blazing with jealous anger for no good reason. He said to Her: O passionate Radha, it is by Your order that I picked these flowers. Why are You suddenly  cold and silent for no good reason? Give up this trick and tell Me which flower I should place on Your ear.When Radha and Krsna became simultaneously jealous and angry with each other, Vrnda told Them: Krsna, why do You bow  Your head in silence for such a long time? Radha, why are You so silent and averse to Krsna? My dear friends, whose smiles have been stolen away, there is no good reason for You to quarrel with these playful, harsh words.

One time, wishing to end Their quarrel, Krsna spoke to RadharanI and Her friend, Visakha: "My friend, now that you have both come to the forest grove's entrance by the Yamuna's shore, You must certainly be tired of Our quarreling  and not seeing each other. Let Me place this round pomegranate in Your hand." The hair on Radharanl's body then stood erect with joy and a smile sprouted on Her face. Smiling and laughing, Krsna embraced Her.Jealous anger  manifested without any cause becomes spontaneously pacified in the natural course of events and the quarrelling couple naturally smile at each other and renew their original friendship.Krsna said to angry RadharanI: "O Radha, if  you are so angry with Me then why do Your cheeks blush with so much happiness?" When the beloved RadharanI was unable to conceal a smile when She heard these playful words, Krsna, the prince of the gopls, proceeded to  kiss Her.


Mt words is called sama. JTses RadharanI after a quarrel: "O beautiful M that, even though I have grievously offended /ie sweet shelter in which I repose My most ardent [dharanl heard these words, She bowed Her face and the s- /of  Her tears filled the two festive Cupid's pitchers of Her breasts.A quarrel may be ended in two ways: by speaking crooked sarcastic words, pretending to glorify the beloved, and by the rebukes of friends or other persons.Krsna to  RadharanI: O Radha, your eyes are as charming and playful as two restless fish, Your breasts are like two handsome turtles, Your lips are two sources of ever-increasing transcendental bliss, the three folds of skin at Your waist are  very lovely and graceful, and the loveliness of Your face has defeated a host of goddesses of fortune. O proud, angry girl, even though You possess such ravishing beauty, Your heart still is polluted with jealousy.By speaking  crooked sweet words, the hero may also end the quarrel.Krsna to RadharanI: It is not a fault for Yours to be harsh towards Me and affectionate to everyone else. I am not worthy to receive Your kindness. You are so beautiful that You  eclipse the young girls of the heavenly planets, making them seem like corpses. O beautiful-faced one, among the affectionate young girls of Vraja, You alone are the supreme object of worship.Bhadra, who had quarreled with  Krsna, was addressed by her friend: "O beautiful Bhadra, your lover, Krsna, has killed the Sarikhacuda demon and He has vowed to protect everyone from all kinds of fearful dangers. It is not very proper for you to neglect Him in this  way." When Bhadra, who had quarreled with Krsna, heard these words, a single tear, unobserved, glided onto the tip of her nose and shone there like a beautiful pearl ornament.


Dana: Ending a quarrel by cleverly pretending to give a gift to the beloved is called ddna.One day, Krsna told jealous, angry Padma: "I have a friend named Cupid. When he heard you were My beloved, he gave me a sapphire  necklace to give you. That necklace shall now enjoy a festival of happiness by touching your breasts." Saying this, Krsna placed His hand on Padma's breasts. She abandoned all jealous anger and smiled broadly at the joke, as  amorous Krsna passionately kissed her.Ndti: Ndti is ending a quarrel by humbly falling at the beloved's feet.Vrnda to Kundavali: When Krsna, more handsome than a host of Cupids, offered respectful obeisances, placing his  peacock feather on the ground before Her feet, beautiful RadharanI, raining a monsoon of tears from both eyes, proclaimed the end of the hot summer season of Her jealous anger.Upeksa: When a lover refuses to speak sweet  words or adopt other means to placate the angry beloved but instead, neglects and disdains the beloved and remains silent, refusing to speak to Himsuch activity is called upeksa.In the first of these verses, Vrnda told the gopis:  Krsna is the dear son of the cowherd's king. He is the foremost of heroes and He is more handsome than a host of Cupids. My friends, it is not good that RadharanI is so harsh to Him. Look, here She comes in the distance. Why is  She so hard-hearted to Krsna?In the second of these verses, Krsna told Subala: Even though I repeatedly bowed down before her, I was unable to convince Padma to abandon her jealous anger. She said to Me: I firmly vow to never  speak to you again and as for the tears I am shedding now, that is only because some flower pollen as fallen into my eyes.


Some learned scholars interpret the word upeksd to mean "pausing in the midst of decorating the doe-eyed gopis and speaking crooked words that mean something very different form their face-value.Krsna said to Candravall:  "Here is a vana-Mdlati flower in your braid and a mali flower on your left ear. What flower shall I place on your right ear?" As Krsna said these words, He smiled, and on the pretext of smelling all these flower decorations, He kissed  the blossoming cheek of Candravall.RasanTdrdm: When fear, or a similar emotion, suddenly ends a lovers' quarrel, that is called rasanTdrdm.Yadrcchikam: When an unexpected accident ends the lovers' quarrel, that is called  yadrcchikam.The gopis said among themselves: Even though Krsna spoke sweet words and tried many other very effective tactics, He was unable to convince Bhadra to abandon her jealous anger. Look! Frightened by the sound of  thunder, Bhadra now voluntarily embraces Krsna.Krsna to Subala: My friend, when all my sweet words and other expert tactics proved useless, the demon, Arista, emitted a fierce roar that acted just like a charmed mantra to quell  the flames of Visakha's jealous anger.Buddhi-purvam: When the lover deliberately plots to have fear or some other strong emotion suddenly end the lovers' quarrel, that is called buddhi-purvam.Vrnda to PaurnamasI: Closing His  eyes and contorting His face, Krsna said: "Oh! I have been bitten by a ferocious five-headed snake!" Radharani became very agitated and immediately gave up all Her jealous anger. As She repeatedly said: "What shall we do? What  shall we do?" handsome, smiling Krsna suddenly kissed her.Nandi to PaurnamasI: After offending Her, Krsna tried to appease Radharani by giving Her a flower garland. When He saw She angrily threw the garland away, Krsna  pretended to become overwhelmed with grief. Closing His eyes and contorting His face, He pretended to faint, falling to the ground. Agitated Radharani at once bent down and held His neck with both hands as Krsna suddenly  smiled and kissed Her, drinking the nectar of Her bimba fruit lips.Sometimes, without any particular scheme launched by the beloved, the jealous anger of the beautiful Vraja gopis becomes pacified by: the influence of a particular  place, the influence of a particular time, hearing the sound of Krsna's flute.


Vrnda to Bhadra: When Candravall saw Vrndavana forest filled with many blossoming flowers and buzzing bees and when she saw her smiling-eyed beloved, Krsna, under a kadamba tree, she suddenly lost all her jealous anger  and her eyes became filled with thirst to enjoy with Krsna.Vrnda to Krsna: When angry Radharani heard the gopi messenger say: "The charming, nectar autumn moon now bathes the forest on the Yamuna's shore with splendid  moonlight," angry Radharani suddenly became pacified and with the luster of Her smile, She indicated that She had suddenly become pleased with You.A gopi to angry Radharani: If You do not voluntarily give up Your stubborn  anger then the victorious sound of Krsna's flute will certainly chase it away.Radharani to Lalita : O friend, please be kind and block both My ears. In this forest, the perfect yogi of Krsna's flute now recites a mantra to cleverly exorcise  My jealous anger.When the gopis are angry with Krsna, they address Him in angry words, which include the following names: Crooked, crest jewel of the misbehaved, king of cheaters, great demon, harsh, shameless, very  misbehaved,  a serpent who attacks the gopis, debauchee who destroys the gopis" religious principles, cheater of the saintly gopis, king of debauchees, a flood of the darkness of ignorance, black-hearted, thief who stole the gopis'  garments, and the highwayman who lurks on the roads of Govardhana Hill, the Yamuna's shore, and Vrndavana forest.Prema-vaicityam: When, even in the beloved's presence, the lover, out of intense love, is aggrieved with fears of  separation in the future, such a state is called prema-vaicityam.Vrnda to PaurnamasI: Even though Krsna stood before Her, RadharanI became overwhelmed by the flames of separation born from Her intense love for Him. Placing a  straw between Her teeth, She begged: O gopl friend, please show Me where is My lover, Krsna. Seeing this, Krsna became astonished.Even though Krsna was standing before Her, RadharanI could not see Him. Immersed in  feelings of separation from Him, She addressed Madhumarigala: Where is Krsna, who responded to the pained cries of the gopas, who were frightened of the forest fire? Have I offended or avoided Him? Is it because some desired  gopi called Him to a secluded place that lotus-eyed Krsna has so quickly abandoned Me in this forest?


Sometimes, the stage of anuraga (the preliminary stage of love) induces the lover to think that the beloved has gone far away, even though He is actually right by her side.This may be nicely seen in the song of the queens of  Dvaraka.Pravasa: When the young couple, after meeting and establishing their relationship become again separated by one of them moving to a foreign country or distant place, such separation is called pravasa by the wise.  Pravasa is further divided in two ways: separation by a small distance and separation by a great distance.A gopl messenger told Krsna: O Krsna, when You are in the pasture, herding the cows, RadharanI spends Her day longing to  see You again. She fixes Her eyes on the path where You will eventually return with the surabhi cows, She engages Her tongue in repeating the two syllables Krs-na, Her ears yearn to hear the sound of Your flute, and Her heart is  fixed in the happiness of thinking of You.Separation by a great distance is of three kinds: future, present, and past.A gopi said: My dear girl, following the king of Vraja's order, the gatekeeper in Gokula has announced that Krsna and  Balarama will depart for the city early tomorrow morning. Oh, my wicked left eye is now quivering and my heart is throbbing. I cannot foresee what will happen in the future.Syama laments: The sun has now risen and Gandini-devi's  son, Akrura, stands on the chariot, happily reciting prayers for a safe journey. Alas, when the horses begin to gallop, they will break only the earth with their hooves, and not you, o my heart.RadharanI to Visakha: My friend, the  extraordinary calamity of Krsna's voluntarily leaving us does not bring Me great pain. It is the continually erupting volcano of hope for His return that torments Me within My heart and takes away My life-breath.Uddhava gave Saibya  the following letter from the absent Krsna: O Saibya, somehow or other, you have been able to tolerate the many painful attacks of the valiant soldier, Cupid. My dear friend, please simply worship My deity form for two or three days  and I shall then directly appear before these two eyebrows that now tremble with such love for Me.The girls of Vraja wrote Krsna a letter that said: "O Krsna, why is it that the constantly shining charming moonlight and the constant  breezes on the shore of the Yamuna are not able to cool the burning suffering we feel?" When Krsna heard these words within His palace, he began to sigh. Those sighs broke into pieces the pride of His beautiful queens.


Abuddhi purvaka: Separation forced upon the couple by someone else is called abuddhi purvaka. The separation may be forced by destiny imposed by the demigods, or it may be forced by many other ways.After hearing the news  that the demon Sankhacuda had stolen RadharanI, Krsna lamented: O beautiful RadharanI, because 1 was agitated with hundreds of desires, I brought You to this forest of Vrndavana, which is filled with the fragrance of the autumn  moon. Nevertheless, destiny disguised as this demon, Sankhacuda, has thwarted My plans and carried You far away.In separation, ten conditions become manifested: meditation, insomnia, agitation, becoming thin and emaciated,  withering of the body, abundant talking, disease, madness, bewilderment, and death.When Krsna, the Cupid who enchanted the gopls' hearts,left Nanda's home and followed Gandini-devi's son, Akrura, to Mathura, RadharanI,  overwhelmed by His separation, became plunged in the fathomless river of always remembering Him.That river is filled with the water of pain and the many powerful whirlpools of agitation.RadharanI tells Visakha: Girls who can  see their lover in dreams are very fortunate. As for Me, since Krsna left, My enemy, sleep, has also left Me for good.RadharanI to Lalita : Alas! Alas! My heart burns with pain! O, My beautiful-faced friend, I am drowning in an ocean of  suffering and 1 cannot see its nearer or farther shore. 1 offer My respectful obeisances to you. I place My head at your feet. Please tell Me how I can obtain a little peacefulness for a moment.Uddhava tells Krsna: O Krsna, O master of  the Yadu dynasty, separation from You has made the rising lotus flower of RadharanI's face shrivel and wilt and Her heart become muddied with bewilderment. Because RadharanI refuses to eat, the cakravaka birds of Her breasts  have withered and shrunk. Because of the fierce heat of burning pain of separation from You, RadharanI has become thin and dried up, like a small irrigation canal dried up in the summer's heat.


Uddhava tells Krsna: O Krsna, O killer of Aghasura, the calamity of Your absence has withered Visakha. The beauty of her face has become like an ambhoja lotus flower, wilting in extreme cold. Her lips have become like bandhujiva  flowers, colorless in the piercing wind, and her eyes have become like indivara lotus flowers, scorched by the autumn sun.RadharanI laments: My dear friend, where is Krsna, who is like the moon rising from the ocean of Maharaja  Nanda's dynasty? Where is Krsna, His head decorated with a peacock feather? Where is He? Where is Krsna, whose flute produces such a deep sound? Oh, where is Krsna, whose bodily luster is like the luster of the blue indranila  jewel? Where is Krsna, who is so expert in rasa dancing? Oh, where is He who can save My life? Kindly tell Me where to find Krsna, the treasure of My life and best of My friends. Feeling separation from Him, I hereby condemn  providence, the shaper of My destiny.RadharanI tells Lalita : The blazing fire of separation from Krsna, the king of Gokula, has broken My heart. That fire is more painful than the powerful drug, pita-pata, more distressing than a  strong dose of poison, more intolerable than Indra's thunderbolt, sharper than a spear plunged into the heart, and more horrifying than the advanced stages of cholera.Uddhava tells Krsna: O Murari, RadharanI has become mad  because of the intense pain of being separated from You. She aimlessly wanders about Her house, laughing for no reason, recounting Your pastimes to conscious entities and inanimate objects alike, trembling, and rolling about on  the ground.


Sambhoga: That state which, by glances, embraces, and other activities, brings pleasure to the youthful divine couple, is called sambhoga. The wise have divided sambhoga into two parts primary and secondary.The waking state of  mukhya-sambhoga is divided into four stages, namely, those manifested from—preliminary attraction, jealous anger, and the two kinds of pravdsa (separation by living in a different place, which is divided into pure pravdsa, where  the place is only a little distant, and su-dure pravdsa, where the place is very far away). Of these four stages of mukhya-sambhoga, the first is considered to be brief. The second is considered to be encroached and the third and  fourth are considered to be accomplished and perfect.Sanksipta: When, impelled by fear, shyness, and other reasons, the youthful couple enjoy only very limited transcendental pastimes, that is called sanksipta.Nandlmukhl blesses  the gopls: May Krsna's hand, which, even though it casually lifted Govardhana Hill, still trembled with fear to touch Radharanl's breasts for the first time, protect you.Even though, at that time when They had just barely met, She  covered Her face with Her sari when He tried to kiss Her and even though She retracted the creeper of her body when He tried to embrace Her and even though She showed no interest when He tried to playfully converse with Her,  Radharani still delighted Krsna, the killer of the Madhu demon.Mukhya-sambhoga: In mukhya-sambhoga, the lovers enjoy a host of amorous pastimes, including performing various cheating tricks and meditating on the beloved.  These activities are simultaneously sweet and hot, like the palatable taste of hot, cooked sugar cane.


All glories to the amorous pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna. Those pastimes contain a great abundance of transcendental bliss. Those pastimes consist of the nectar of angry words, jealous quarrels, and sidelong glance hints  that put an end to all jealous anger.Gargi to Nandimukhi: My friend, even though Radharanl's bent mouth showed Her displeasure, Her crooked eyes showed Her anger, and Her impure words showed Her jealousy, Her sweetly  beautiful form still delighted the no longer angry Krsna.Sampanna-bhogc the lover meets the beloved after separation, the great pleasure experienced is called sampanna-bhoga.In the evening, Krsna, accompanied by the gopas  and surabhi cows, returned from the pasture to Vraja village. As He passed by Radharanl's house, Visakha said: O delicate Radha, do not be shy because Your elderly relatives are present. Come from inside the house to the porch.  All day long, You have been morose because of separation from Krsna and now, that charming, smiling Krsna, who enchants the gopls' hearts, who is decorated with garlands of gunja, and whose bodily fragrance is licked by the  bumblebees, walks by Your house.Pradhurbhava: When Krsna suddenly and unexpectedly appeared before the most dear gopis, who are agitated with intense passionate love for Him, that appearance is called pradhurbhava.

When Krsna left the rasa lila dance, the gopls became very morose and when they were grieving, Krsna reappeared, dressed in yellow garments. Wearing a flower garland and smiling, He was attractive even to Cupid. In this way,  Krsna appeared among the gopis.


While Krsna was residing in Mathura, He appeared in a vision to RadharanI, who recounted it to Lalita : Listen, it was not a dream. Friend, do not disbelieve Me, thinking My mind has become bewildered. Your friend, Krsna,  unexpectedly entered the forest near Govardhana Hill and once again displayed His expertise in a lover's quarrel with Me.When the lovers meet after separation, the intense love known as rudh.a-bh.dva becomes a happiness so  great that is a limitless flood of bliss. When anuraga love is present, the pain of separation becomes doubled and the joy that comes from seeing the lover again in the pradurbhdva appearance becomes a great festival of all  happiness that can be desired. If the youthful couple is separated by fate and it is very difficult for Them to see each other, when they do meet, They experience the extreme happiness called samrddhiman.Staying in a palace in the  Nava-Vrndavana section of Dvaraka, RadharanI said to Nava-Vrnda: This body is now scorched by the desire to see Krsna. That desire is a sharp weapon piercing My heart. It is a downpour of pain. O moon-faced one, My life-breath  yearns to meet Krsna in Vrndavana and enjoy pastimes with Him in a cottage by the Yamuna's shore.Meeting Her after a long separation, Krsna said to RadharanI: I have been searching for some sign of You and now, I have found  You. I worship You. You are the goddess of fortune who reigns over all worlds. You are a shower of gold raining upon a person searching the universe for a handful of chickpeas.When the lover appears in a veiled form, the  happiness is called gauna-sambhoga by some authorities, and it is further divided into two kinds: where the lovers experience great happiness and where the lovers experience only a little happiness. In this book, only the  gauna-sambhoga that brings great happiness is described. Other kinds of gauna-sambhoga, even if desired by the lovers, are not described here.Gauna: The appearance of Krsna in a dream is called gauna. Dreams are explained  to be of two varieties—general and specific. The first one has already been described in the explanation of the vyabhicari-bhava. The very wonderful visesa variety of dream is practically indistinguishable from wakefulness.

Visesa-gauna-sambhoga is filled with the yearnings of ecstatic love. It is divided into four varieties.RadharanI to Visakha: My dear friend, every night in My dream, a certain strong young man, whose bodily luster mocks the splendor  of a host of fresh lotus flowers, and who is the crest jewel of all men who are expert at enjoying conjugal pastimes, enjoys with Me in the forest by the Yamuna's shore and kisses My mouth.


A gopl says: O beautiful-faced friend, do not be angry with me. I am not even slightly at fault. I have not extinguished the blazing fire of my jealous anger at Krsna. In my dream, a wicked man showered nectar on me and that nectar  extinguished the fire of my anger.RadharanI to Lalita : If that crest-jewel of all hard-hearted men had actually left Me then death would certainly have come to Me of its own accord. Who would be able to tolerate that situation?  Actually, on the pretext of appearing in My dreams, He regularly comes to this land of Vrndavana and brings Me great delight.RadharanI to Nava Vrnda: After My repeated attempts over a long time, Govinda finally appeared before  Me in a dream but alas, no sooner had He entered the courtyard of My eyes, Akrura, the cruel messenger of King, at once appeared on a chariot to take Him away again.The gauna-sambhoga manifested in a dream is just like the  experience when the youthful couple is awake. Sometimes, that gauna-sambhoga in a dream may continue unchecked for some time, as in the pastime of Usa and Aniruddha. In the supremely wonderful dream of perfectly  liberated devotees, many very auspicious things may be seen, just as if the seer were awake.The gopis, who are all very dear to Krsna, are situated in the fifth condition of existence, pure love of Krsna, which is above the fourth  stage, known as liberation. For this reason, it is not possible for the gopis to experience a dream that is a product of the material mode of passion. It is the charming playful nature of love of Krsna that brings one into actual contact  with Him on the pretext of seeing Him in a dream.


Now, specific charming conjugal pastimes will be described. These pastimes include: seeing, talking, touching, blocking the path, rasa dance, pastimes in Vrndavana forest, water sports in the Yamuna River and other places,  boating, playful thievery, toll-collecting pastime, disappearing into the forest or other places, drinking madhu liquor, Krsna disguising Himself as a gopi, pretending to be asleep, gambling, pulling the garment, kissing, embracing,  scratching with the fingernails, drinking from the bimba fruit lips, and union.RadharanI tells Kundalata: O restless-eyed one, as long as Krsna's lotus face, with its blossoming cheeks decorated with swinging shark-shaped earrings,  does not become invisible to us, in My heart, I am afraid of My superiors and in My mind arises concern for the good reputation of My family.RadharanI: O king of snakes and debauchees, how can pious and respectable girls tolerate  these outrages? Krsna: By biting these girls with His teeth, this snake will attain great good fortune.Krsna: O Radha, You now manifest the form of Lord Siva. The crescent moon glistens on Your forehead and Your youthful bodily  luster is covered with ashes. Your eyes are like fire. You are worshipped by Karttikeya. You burn Cupid to ashes with the flames from Your third eye. O Radha, please place me, the king of snakes, on Your chest.RadharanI: O king of  snakes, why should these mongoose girls tolerate Your outrages? Krsna: If the Krsna snake bites these mongooses, He will certainly not obtain anything auspicious or good.Krsna: "O Radha, Your transcendental form is very  beautiful and auspicious. Your forehead shines like the crescent moon. Your youthful luster is very splendid and beautiful. You gaze upon Me with glittering, playful eyes. You are worshipped by Visakha. The spark of Your sidelong  glance has aroused My amorous passion. O Radha, please place Me, the king of debauchees, on Your breasts.


Teasing the gopis by threatening to take their clothing and ornaments from them, Krsna tells them: How many times have I not taken all the necklaces and valuables from young girls on this Govardhana Hill? Even though these  poor doe-eyed girls begged Me with many pathetic words, I took everything and left them like naked mendicants. They hid their faces in shame until some far away fully grown vine friend kindly gave them some leaves.First gopi:  You look as if you have been poisoned by the touch of the snake-arms of the king of snake-debauchees. Second gopi: Don't insult me! I am pained by the cold. You yourself are unhappy and trembling and your bodily hair is  standing up with the cold.Blocking the path to Govardhana Hill, Krsna said to RadharanI: How will you be able to cross the base of Govardhana Hill, which is covered with splendid black pebbles and filled with bamboos and other  canes, moving in the wind? How will You be able to climb the Hill's tall summit? Don't take this path. Take the path that goes by the Yamuna's shore. That path You can easily traverse.(P249


(The exalted Supreme Lord, who maintains the entire world, now stands before You. His bodily luster is the color of sapphire, He holds a staff and He carries a bamboo flute tucked in His glistening belt. How will You be able to pass  through His roadblock? Instead, You should take the path that goes by the Yamuna's shore. That path You will be able to traverse.)A demigoddess, traveling over Vrndavana forest in an airplane, told her friend: Look! There is Krsna,  His complexion the color of a dark rain cloud. Even though He is a single person, He has wonderfully expanded, appearing between each two gopis and has placed His glistening arm on each gopts shoulder. Their complexions as  effulgent as lightning, the gopis stand between each two Krsnas and hold His hand as He dances with them in the festival of the rasa dance.Krsna to Radharani: With the song of the bumblebee, the land-growing lotus flower praises  Your feet. The jasmine flowers offer respectful obeisances to Your teeth with great humbleness. The bimba fruits worship Your lips. Look! This splendid Vrndavana forest is Your obedient servant.Visakha to Krsna: In the water  splashing battle with Radha, Your garland has become broken, your hero's tilaka has become invisible, and Your hair has become disheveled. On the pretext of reflecting the moon of Her face, My friend, Radha, has entered Your  Kaustubha jewel. Don't be afraid. She cannot harm a person like You.With His palms trembling during the water pastimes, Krsna delights in covering and uncovering Radharanl's face, just like the young cakravaka birds meet in the  daytime and separate again at nightfall. I pray that Krsna may protect the entire world.


Radharani to Krsna: What You say is true. There are not many waves on the Yamuna and this boat is new. O Madhava, I am afraid because You are the restless pilot.Llla-cauryam: Llla-cauryam is playful theft of the flute, garments,  flowers, or other objects.A gopl says: Silencing Her anklets by placing them on Her arms as golden armlets and carefully observing Krsna's eyes for any sign of His becoming startled, smiling Radharani stole the flute from Krsna's  lap.Up to their necks in the water of the Yamuna, the gopis said to the garment thief, Krsna: "One of us will cover herself with lotus petals, go to Vraja, and return with elderly gopis agitated by the narration of Your horrible deeds." By  speaking these words, the gopis worshipped Krsna, who is a treasure house of transcendental qualities and who has stolen the garments of the girls who had followed a vow to worship goddess Uma.Krsna tells Radharani: O  doe-eyed Radha, even though You know better, every day, covered by various disguises, You steal My sumanah blossoms. Now, after a long time, and by the intervention of destiny, you are arrested. What is the use of Your insolent  girls? Enter now the prison cell of this cave.Krsna, pretending to be a toll collector, tells Radharani: You disrespect the toll collector, argue with Him, and then refuse to pay the toll. I think You may find Yourself in an amorous battle  with this toll collector by the steep slopes of Govardhana Hill.Searching for Radharani in the forest, Krsna considers: I think moon-faced Radha may have entered this grove of asoka trees, with a desire to enjoy transcendental  pastimes here. If this were not so then how, when it is not the proper season, could the bumblebees proclaim the glories of the fragrant asoka flower, if Radha had not touched them with Her feet.


Vrnda to PaurnamasI: RadharanI became enchanted by seeing the cheerful, charming moon of Krsna's face reflected in the goblet of madhu liquor. Even though Krsna repeatedly urged Her to drink, She would not place the cup to  Her mouth but simply continued to gaze at Krsna's reflected face.Krsna to Uddhava: When RadharanI and 1 had quarreled and She was angry with Me, She asked Her friend, Visakha: "Honest Visakha, who is this  dark-complexioned girl?" Visakha replied: "She is a cowherd's daughter." Radha: "Why has She come here?" Visakha: "She seeks your friendship." RadharanI then accepted Me as Her friend but after repeatedly embracing Me,  angry RadharanI understood that the girl was Myself disguised as a woman and this made Her very embarrassed.Bilvamangala Thakura: Very gently smiling, and the hair of His body standing up out of unrestrained ecstatic love,  Krsna closed His eyes and pretended to sleep so that He could eavesdrop on the Vraja gopls playful conversation that was so charming to His ears. Let us worship that pretended sleeping of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Vrnda to Kundalata: When Krsna won the gambling prize, He playfully bit Radharanl's right cheek. She said, "Let us play again, Bengali style," and angrily threw the dice. Pretending She had won, Krsna said, "My dear beautiful girl,  You have won. I shall now do whatever You order." After saying this, Krsna proceeded to playfully bite Radharanl's left cheek. At this, as if She had become very angry, RadharanI bound Her lover's neck with the creeper-rope of Her  arm.Krsna: This jewel is very fortunate. When I madly tugged at Radharanl's bodice and She tried to cover Her breasts in the thick forest darkness, this jewel, understanding My wishes, smiled, and emitting waves of light,  embarrassing Radha.


Rupa-manjarl to a friend: Moving Her eyebrows with pretended anger, lotus-eyed RadharanI violently resisted the kissing of moon-faced Krsna, who appeared like a bumblebee resting on a lotus flower moving in the breeze.

One of Radharanl's friends said: Radharanl's complexion is the color of fresh kunkuma, and Krsna is the color of a dark rain cloud. When She madly embraces Him, His splendor eclipses the glory of a tamala tree embraced by a  golden creeper.Syama to RadharanI: Friend, these are not Your breasts. Rather, they are the forehead of the best of elephants, scratched by Krsna with Cupid's excellent elephant goad.Krsna tells RadharanI: O Radha, whose thighs  are as beautiful as elephant's trunks, do not cover the moonlight of Your face with Your hand. Let the bumblebee, Krsna, wandering in this kadamba forest drink the nectar of the rangana flowers of Your lips.Vrnda to Kundalata: Now,  Krsna very firmly presses RadharanI to Him with His arms. She has become very wanton. He intently drinks the nectar of Her lips. She sighs deeply. He expertly celebrates the festival of conjugal love. She fills the forest grove with  the inarticulate sounds of Her pleasure. In this way, the moon of Radha and Krsna's conjugal union expands.In addition to the happiness of samprayoga, learned devotional scholars expert in relishing transcendental mellows know  another kind of conjugal pastime known as lila-vildsa (foreplay), which provides for the expert lovers a different kind of pleasure.Observing Sri Sri Radha-Krsna's pastimes, the gopls say among themselves: In response to Krsna's  firm embrace, RadharanI scratches Him with Her fingernails. When He forcibly bites her lips, She resists Him with both arms. When he rips Her garments, She strikes Him with a lotus flower. These pastimes bring to Radha and  Krsna a happiness even greater than that of Their direct union rinkled Her with joking words, Radharani seeiry d gazed at Him with a wonder-struck glance ye. When He tugged at Her clothing, She .1 with the lotus flower that had  decorated.o way, these pastimes of Radharani and Krsna, the lCr of conjugal pastimes to the girls of Vraja, bring


Them a freshly palatable pleasure, greater even than the pleasure of direct conjugal union.In the beginning of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna's conjugal pastimes, various delight-giving obstacles are manifest. The standing of Their bodily hair  with joy obstructs Their firm embraces, the blinking of Their eyes obstructs Their playful glances, Their joking conversations obstruct Their drinking of the nectar of each other's lips, and Their conjugal bliss obstructs Their playful  lovers' battle.O Gokulananda (bliss of Gokula), O Govinda, O Gosthendra-kula-candramah (moon arisen in the family of Vraja's king)O Pranesa (master of our lives),O Sundarottamasa (crown of all handsome men),O  Nagara-sikha-mane (crest jewel of amorous heroes),O Vrndavana-vidhu (moon of Vrndavana),O Gostha-yuva-raja-manohara (handsome prince of Vraja). These are some of the names used by the goddesses of Vraja to  affectionately address Their lover, Krsna.Because the sweet nectar ocean of devotional mellows is bottomless and shoreless, it is very difficult to enter. Standing by its shore, I have simply touched it.This book is a splendid sapphire  (Ujjvala-nllamani) produced in the mysterious, fathomless ocean of Vrajabhumi. O Lord, I pray that this sapphire may become suitable to decorate Your shark-shaped earrings.