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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Rupa Goswami > Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa-dipika > Part Two

Part Two


Shri Krishna's Transcendental Form and Attributes

1: Shri Krishna's form glistens with the black mascara of the sweetness of His nectarean handsomeness. His complexion is the color of a blue lotus flower or a sapphire.

2: His complexion is as enchanting as an emerald, a tamala tree, or a group of beautiful dark clouds. He is an ocean of nectarean handsomeness.

3: He wears yellow garments and a garland of forest flowers. He is decorated with various jewels and He is a great reservoir of the nectar of many transcendental pastimes.

4: He has long, curling hair and He is anointed with many fragrant scents. His handsome crown is decorated with many different flowers.

5: His handsome forehead is splendidly decorated with tilaka markings and curling locks of hair. The playful movements of His raised, dark eyebrows enchant the hearts of the gopis.

6: His rolling eyes are as splendid as red and blue lotus flowers. The tip of His nose is as handsome as the beak of Garuda, the king of birds.

7: His charming ears and cheeks are decorated with earrings made of various jewels.

8: His handsome lotus face is as splendid as millions of moons.

He speaks many charming jokes and His chin is exquisitely handsome.

9: His handsome, smooth and charming neck bends in three places.  Decorated with a necklace of pearls, the beauty of His neck enchants the residents of the three planetary systems.

10: Decorated with a necklace of pearls and with the Kaustubha gem, which shines like lightning, Krishna's handsome chest longs to enjoy the company of the beautiful gopis.

11: Decorated with bracelets and armlets, Krishna's arms hang down to His knees. His reddish lotus hands are decorated with various auspicious signs.

12: Krishna's hands are beautifully decorated with the auspicious signs of a club, conchshell, barleycorn, parasol, half-moon, rod for controlling elephants, flag, lotus flower, sacrificial post, plow, pitcher and fish.

13: Krishna's charming abdomen is the pastime abode of handsomeness. His nectarean back seems to long for the playful touch of the beautiful gopis.

14: The nectarean lotus flower that is Lord Krishna's hips bewilders the demigod Cupid. Krishna's thighs are like two beautiful plantain trees that charm the hearts of all women.

15: Krishna's knees are very splendid, charming and handsome. His charming lotus feet are decorated with jeweled ankle-bells.

16-17: Krishna's feet have the luster of roses, and they are decorated with various auspicious markings, such as the markings of the disc, half-moon, octagon, triangle, barleycorn, sky, parasol, waterpot, conchshell, cow's hoofprint, svastika, rod for controlling elephants, lotus flower, bow and jambu fruit.

18: Krishna's handsome lotus feet are like two oceans filled with the happiness of pure love. His reddish toes are decorated with the row of full moons that are His toenails.

19: Although we have sometimes compared Krishna's handsomeness to various things, nothing can actually be equal to it. In this place we have given a small indication of Krishna's handsomeness to arouse the attraction of the reader.


Krishna's Friends

20: Now Lord Krishna's friends will be described. The most important of Krishna's friends is His elder brother, Balarama.



Different Kinds of Friends

21: Krishna's friends are divided into four groups: 1. suhrt [well-wishing friends], 2. sakha [ordinary friends], 3. priya-sakha [more confidential friends], and 4. priya-narma-sakha [intimate friends].


Well-wishing Friends (suhrt)

22: The well-wishing friends include Krishna's cousins: Subhadra, Kundala, Dandi and Mandala. Sunandana, Nandi, Anandi and others who accompany Krishna as He herds the cows and calves in Vrndavana forest are also well-wishing friends.

23-24: Also included among the well-wishing friends are Subhadra, Mandalibhadra, Bhadravardhana, Gobhata, Yaksendra, Bhata, Bhadranga, Virabhadra, Mahaguna, Kulavira, Mahabhima, Divyasakti, Suraprabha, Ranasthira and others. These well-wishing friends are older than Krishna and they try to protect Him from any danger.

25: Krishna's parents love their son very dearly. They consider Him many millions of times more important than their own life's breath.  Very frightened that the demon Kamsa would harm their son, they engaged these well-wishing friends [suhrt] to protect Him. The leader of these well-wishing friends is a boy named Vijayaksa, whose mother, Ambika-devi, was Krishna's nurse. Ambika-devi worshiped goddess Parvati and performed great austerities to get a powerful son who could protect Krishna.



26: Subhadra has a splendid dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and various ornaments.

27: Subhadra's father is Upananda, and his mother the chaste and faithful Tula-devi. Kundalata-devi will become his wife. Subhadra is full of the glory of youth.


Krishna's Ordinary Friends (sakha)

28-29: Visala, Vrsabha, Ojasvi, Devaprastha, Varuthapa, Mandara, Kusumapida, Manibandhakara, Mandara, Candana, Kunda, Kalindi, Kulika and many others are included in the group of Krishna's ordinary friends [sakha]. These friends are younger than Krishna and are always eager to serve Him.


Krishna's confidential friends (priya-sakha)

30-31: Krishna's confidential friends are Shridama, Sudama, Dama, Vasudama, Kinkini, Bhadrasena, Amsu, Stokakrishna, Vilasi, Pundarika, Vitankaksa, Kalavinka and Priyaskara. These friends are the same age of Krishna. Their leader is Shridama, who is also known as Pithamardaka.

32: Bhadrasena is the general who leads Krishna's childhood friends in military pastimes. Stokakrishna is very appropriately named, for he is just like a small [stoka] Krishna.

33: These confidential friends [priya-sakha] delights Lord Krishna with their enthusiastic and jubilant wrestling, stick-fighting and other sports.

34: These confidential friends are all very peaceful by nature. Each of them considers Lord Krishna equal to his own life's breath.


Krishna's Intimate Friends (priya-narma-sakha)

35: Subala, Arjuna, Gandharva, Vasanta, Ujjvala, Kokila, Sanandana and Vidagdha are the most important of Krishna's intimate friends.

36: Krishna keeps no secrets from these intimate friends. Among them Madhumangala, Puspanka and Hasanka are the leaders of those fond of joking. Handsome Sanandana is very pleased by his close friendship with Krishna and splendid Ujjvala appears like the personified ruler of all transcendental mellows. Lord Krishna, the crest jewel of playful boys, is submissive to His dear friend Ujjvala.

37: Shridama has a handsome dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a necklace of jewels.

38: He is a splendid youth sixteen years old. He is a great reservoir of the nectar of innumerable transcendental pastimes. He is Lord Krishna's dearest friend.

39: His father is Maharaja Vrsabhanu and His mother is the chaste Kirtida-devi. Shrimati Radharani and Ananga-manjari are his two younger sisters.



40: Sudama's handsome complexion is somewhat fair. He is decorated with jeweled ornaments and wears blue garments.

41: His father's name is Matuka and His mother is Rocana-devi. He is very young and fond of playing many kinds of games.



42: Subala has a fair complexion. He wears handsome blue garments and he is decorated with many kinds of jewels and flowers.

43: He is twelve-and-a-half years old and He glows with youthful luster. Although he is Krishna's friend, he is immersed in serving Krishna in many different ways.

44: He is expert at arranging the meeting of the Divine Couple.  He is charming and full of transcendental love for Them. He is cheerful and full of good qualities. He is very dear to Krishna.



45: Arjuna's glistening complexion is the color of a red lotus flower. His garments are the color of moonlight and He is decorated with many kinds of jewels.

46: His father is Sudaksina, his mother Bhadra-devi, and his elder brother Vasudama. He is always plunged in transcendental love for the Divine Couple.

47: He is fourteen-and-a half and full of the luster of youth. He wears a garland of forest flowers and many other kinds of flower-ornaments.



48: Handsome Gandharva has a complexion the color of moonlight.

He wears red garments and many different ornaments.

49: He is twelve years old and full of youthful luster. He is decorated with many kinds of flowers.

50: His mother is the saintly Mitra-devi and his father is the great soul Vinoka. He is very playful and very dear to Shri Krishna.




51-52: Vasanta has a splendid fair complexion. His garments glitter like the moon and he is decorated with various jewels. He is eleven years old. He is decorated with many different flower garlands.  His mother is the saintly Saradi-devi and his father is the great soul Pingala.



53-54: Ujjvala has a splendid reddish complexion. His garments are decorated with star patterns and he is decorated with pearls and flowers. His father is named Sagara and his mother is the chaste Veni-devi. He is thirteen years old and full of youthful luster.



55: Kokila is fair-complexioned and very handsome. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many kinds of jewels.

56: He is eleven years and four months of age. His father is named Puskara and his mother is the famous Medha-devi.



57: Handsome Sanandana has a fair complexion. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many different ornaments.

58: He is fourteen years old. He wears garlands of flowers. His father is Arunaksa and his mother is Mallika-devi.

59: Handsome Sanandana is very happy to have the friendship of Lord Krishna. He is like the splendid monarch of all transcendental mellows.



60: Vidagdha has a splendid complexion the color of a yellow campaka flower. He wears blue garments and a necklace of pearls.

61: He is fourteen years old and full of youthful luster. His father is named Matuka and his mother is Rocana-devi.

62: His elder brother is Sudama and his sister is Susila-devi. He is very dear to Shri Krishna. He is full of transcendental love for the Divine Couple.



63: Madhumangala has a slightly dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a garlands of forest flowers.

64: His father is the saintly Sandipani Muni, his mother the chaste Sumukhi-devi, his sister is Nandimukhi-devi and his parental grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi.

65: An expert comedian who always plays the buffoon, Shri Madhumangala is the constant companion of Lord Krishna.


Shri Balarama

66-67: Powerful Lord Balarama has a fair complexion the color of crystal. He wears blue garments and a garland of forest flowers.

68: His handsome hair is tied in a graceful topknot. Splendid earrings decorate His ears.

69: His neck is splendidly decorated with garlands of flowers and strings of jewels. His arms are splendidly decorated with bracelets and armlets.

70: His feet are decorated with splendid jeweled anklets. His father is Maharaja Vasudeva and His mother is Rohini-devi.

71: Nanda Maharaja is the friend of His father. Yasoda-devi is His mother, Shri Krishna His younger brother and Subhadra His sister.

72: He is sixteen years old and full of the luster of youth. He is Shri Krishna's dearest friend. He is a great reservoir of the nectar mellows of many kinds of transcendental pastimes.



73: Expert in music, drama, literature, the science of various kinds of scents and a host of their arts, the vitas are very happy to serve Lord Krishna in many different ways.


Krishna's Servants

74-75: Bhangura, Brngara, Sandhika, Grahila, Raktaka, Patraka, Patri, Madhukantha, Madhuvrata, Salika, Talika, Mali, Mana and Maladhara are the most prominent of Lord Krishna's servants.

76: These servants carry Krishna's venu and murali flutes, buffalo-horn bugle, stick, rope and other paraphernalia. They also bring the mineral dyes [the cowherd boys use to decorate their bodies].


Betel-nut Servants

77-78: Pallva, Mangala, Phulla, Komala, Kapila, Suvilasa, Vilasaksa, Rasala, Rasasali and Jambula are the most important of Lord Krishna's betel-nut servants. They are younger than Krishna and always expert at singing and playing musical instruments. They always stay near Him.


Water Carriers

79: Payoda and Varida are the most important of the servants engaged in carrying water for Lord Krishna.



Clothing Washers

Saranga and Bakula are the most important of the servants engaged in expertly washing Lord Krishna's laundry.



80: Premakanda, Mahagandha, Sairindhra, Madhu, Kandala and Makaranda are the most important of the servants constantly engaged in decorating Lord Krishna with various ornaments and clothing.


Servants Who Provide Aromatic Substances

81: Sumanah, Kusumollasa, Puspahara, Hara and others expertly provide Krishna with various aromatic substances such as flowers, flower ornaments, flower garlands and camphor.


The Napitas

82: Svaccha, Susila, Praguna and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's hair, massaging Him, giving Him a mirror and guarding over His treasury.  Vimala, Komala and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's kitchen.



83: Dhanistha-devi, Candanakala-devi, Gunamala-devi, Ratiprabha-devi, Taruni-devi, Induprabha-devi, Sobha-devi and Rambha-devi are the leaders of the gopis engaged in Krishna's service.  These gopis are expert at cleaning and decorating Krishna's home, anointing it with various aromatic substances, carrying milk and performing other duties.


Other Maidservants

84: Kurangi-devi, Bhrngari-devi, Sulamba-devi, Alambika-devi and other gopis also serve Krishna in these ways.



85: Catura, Carana, Dhiman and Pesala are the leaders of Krishna's expert spies, who travel in various disguises among the cowherd men and gopis.


Gopa messengers

86: Visarada, Tunga, Vavaduka, Manorama and Nitisara are the leaders of the gopa messengers. They carry Krishna's messages to the gopis to arrange for pastimes and also to settle quarrels.



Krishna's Gopi Messengers

87: Paurnamasi-devi, Vira-devi, Vrnda-devi, Vamsi-devi, Nandimukhi-devi, Vrndarika-devi, Mela-devi and Murali-devi are the leaders of Krishna's gopi messengers.

88: Among all these gopi messengers Vrnda-devi is the best. She is expert at arranging the meeting of Radha and Krishna and she is fully conversant with the geography of Vrndavana, knowing the best places for the Divine Couple's rendezvous.



89: Paurnamasi's complexion is like molten gold. She wears white garments and many jeweled ornaments.

90: Paurnamasi is very learned and famous. Her father is

Suratadeva and her chaste mother is Candrakala. Her husband is Prabala.

91: Her brother is Devaprastha. She is like a perfect crest jewel decorating the land of Vraja. She is expert at making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krishna.



92: Another gopi messenger is Vira-devi. She is very famous and is much respected in Vraja. She can speak very arrogantly and boldly and she can also speak sweet and flattering words, as Vrnda-devi does.  She has a dark complexion. She wears splendid white garments and various jewels and flower garlands.

93: Her husband is Kavala, her mother is the chaste Mohini-devi, her father Visala and her sister is Kavala-devi. She is very dear to Jatila-devi. She resides in the village of Javata.

94: She is expert at making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krishna.



95: Vrnda-devi has a beautiful complexion the color of molten gold. She wears blue garments and is decorated with pearls and flowers.

96: Her father is Candrabhanu and her mother is Phullara-devi.

Her husband is Mahipala and her sister is Manjari-devi.

97: She always remains in Vrndavana, immersed in love for Radha and Krishna and yearning to both arrange for Their meeting and taste the nectar of assisting in Their transcendental pastimes.



98: Nandimukhi-devi has a fair complexion and wears exquisite garments. Her father is Sandipani Muni and her mother is the chaste Sumukhi-devi.

99: Her brother is Madhumangala and her paternal grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi. She wears various jeweled ornaments and she glows with youthful luster.

100: She is expert at various arts and crafts. Full of love for Radha and Krishna, she is expert at making various arrangements for Their rendezvous.


A General Description of Lord Krishna's Servants

101: Sobhana, Dipana and other provide lamps for the Lord and Sudhakara, Sudhanada, Sananda and others play the mrdanga for His satisfaction.

102: Vicitrarava and Madhurarava are the leaders of the talented an virtuous poets who compose prayers glorifying Shri Krishna, while Candrahasa, Induhasa and Candramukha are leaders of the servants who dance for the Lord's satisfaction.

103: Kalakantha, Sukantha, Sudhakantha, Bharata, Sarada, Vidyavilasa, Sarasa and others are learned in the arts of all kinds of literary composition. They carry their books and papers with them and they are fully aware of all the mellows for devotional service.

104: Raucika is the tailor who sews clothes for the Lord. Sumukha, Durlabha, Ranjana and others wash the Lord's laundry.

105: Punyapunja and Bhagyarasi are the two sweepers who clean the area around Krishna's home.

106: Rangana and Tankana are goldsmiths who make ornaments for the Lord. Pavana and Karmatha are potters who make drinking vessels and jugs for churning butter.

107: Vardhaki and Vardhamana are carpenters who serve the Lord by building carts, couches and other objects. Sucitra nd Vicitra are talented artists who paint pictures for the Lord.

108: Kunda, Kanthola, Karanda and others are craftsmen who make ropes, churning rods, axes, baskets, balances for carrying heavy objects and various other ordinary utensils.

109: Mangala, Pingala, Ganga, Pisangi, Manikastani, Hamsi and Vamsipriya are the most important of the surabhi cows, who are all very dear to Lord Krishna.

110: Padmagandha and Pisangaksa are Krishna's pet oxen. Suranga is His pet deer and Dadhilobha is His pet monkey.

111: Vyaghra and Bhramaraka are Krishna's pet dogs. Kalasvana is His pet swan, Tandavika His pet peacock and Daksa and Vicaksana His pet parrots.


Places of Krishna's Pastimes Described

112: The best of all places of Krishna's pastimes is the great garden known as Vrndavana forest. Another important place of the Lord's pastimes is the beautiful and opulent Govardhana Hill. This Hill is very appropriately named for it nourishes [vardhana] Krishna's cows [go] with its grasses.

113: On Govardhana Hill is the cave known as Manikandali and the river-landing place named Nilamandapika. On the Manasa-ganga river is the famous landing place named Paranga.

114: The boat named Suvilasatara remains at this Paranga landing place. Another important place is Nandisvara Hill, Krishna's home, where the goddess of fortune is personally present.

115: On Nandisvara Hill is the splendid white stone house where Krishna grew up. This house is named Amodavardhana because it is always filled with [vardhana] the pleasant fragrance [amoda] of incense and other aromatic substances.

116: The lake near Krishna's home is named Pavana and on its shore there are many groves where the Lord enjoys pastimes. Also near Krishna's home is the grove named Kama Mahatirtha and the jeweled pathway named Mandara.

117: The splendid kadamba trees named Kadambaraja and the king of the banyan trees named Bhandira grow in the forest of Vrndavana. On the sandy bank of the Yamuna is the pastime place named Anagaranga-bhu.

118: On the shore of the Yamuna River is the sacred place known as Khela-tirtha, where Lord Krishna eternally enjoys pastimes with His dearmost Shrimati Radharani.


Shri Krishna's Paraphernalia

119: Krishna's mirror is named Saradindu and His fan is named Marumaruta. His toy lotus flower is named Sadasmera and His toy ball is named Citrakoraka.

120: Krishna's golden bow is named Vilasakarmana. The two ends of this bow are studded with jewels and it has a bowstring named Manjulasara.

121: His glistening jewel-handled scissors are named Tustida. His buffalo-horn bugle is named Mandraghosa and His flute is named Bhuvanamohini.

122: Krishna has another flute named Mahananda, which is like a fishhook that captures the fish of Shrimati Radharani's heart and mind.  Another flute, which has six holes is known as Madanajhankrti.

123: Krishna's flute named Sarala makes a low, soft tone like the sound of a softly singing cuckoo. Krishna is very fond of playing this flute in the ragas gaudi and garjari.

124: The wonderful sacred mantra He chants is the name of His dearmost Radharani. His cane is named Mandana, His vina is named Tarangini, the two ropes He carries are named Pasuvasikara and His milk bucket is named Amrtadohani.


Krishna's ornaments

125: On Krishna's arm is an amulet studded with nine jewels and placed there by His mother for His protection.

126: His two armlets are named Rangada, His two bracelets are named Sobhana, His signet ring is named Ratnamukhi and His yellow garments are named Nigamasobhana.

127: Krishna's string of small bell is named Kalajhankara and His two anklets are named Hamsaganjana. The tinkling sounds of these ornaments enchant the deer that are the minds of the deer-eyed gopis.

128: Krishna's pearl necklace is named Taravali and His jewel necklace is named Taditprabha. The locket He wears on His chest is named Hrdayamodana and within it is a picture of Shrimati Radharani.

129: Krishna's jewel is named Kaustubha. In the Kaliya lake the Kaliya serpent's wives gave this jewel to the Lord with their own hands.

130: Krishna's shark-shaped earrings are named Ratiragadhidaivata, His crown is named Ratnapara and its crest-jewel is named Camaradamari.

131: Krishna's peacock feather crown is named Navaratnavidamba, His gunja necklace is named Ragavalli and His tilaka marking is named Drstimohana.

132: Krishna's garland of forest flowers and leaves, which reaches down to His feet and contains flowers of five different colors, is called Vaijayanti.

133: The eighth night of the dark moon in the month of Bhadra, when the moon rose together with its dear companion, the star Rohini, is the sacred time decorated by the birth of Lord Krishna in this world.


Krishna's Dear Gopis

134: Now the very wonderful gopis, who are decorated with the good fortune of pure love of God to a greater degree than even Laksmi-devi and the other goddesses of fortune, will be glorified.


Shrimati Radharani

135: Among all the beautiful gopis Shrimati Radharani is the best.  Radharani is the Queen of Vrndavana. She has many famous friends, headed by Lalita and Visakha.

136-139: Shrimati Radharani's rival is Candravali. Among Candravali's friends are Padma, Syama, Saibya, Bhadra, Vicitra, Gopali, Palika, Candrasalika, Mangala, Vimala, Lila, Taralaksi, Manorama, Kandarpa-manjari, Manjubhasini, Khanjaneksana, Kumuda, Kairavi, Sari, Saradaksi, Visarada, Sankari, Kunkuma, Krishna, Sarangi, Indravali, Siva, Taravali, Gunavati, Sumukhi, Keli-manjari, Haravali, Cakoraksi, Bharati and Kamala.

140: The beautiful gopis may be considered in hundreds of groups, each group containing hundreds of thousands of gopis.

141: Among all the gopis the most important are Shrimati

Radharani, Candravali, Bhadra, Syama and Palika. These gopis are full of all transcendental good qualities.

142: Of these gopis Shrimati Radharani and Candravali are the best. Each of them has millions of doe-eyed gopi followers.

143: Because She possesses all charm and sweetness, Shrimati Radharani is the better of the two. She is supremely famous. In the Sruti-sastra She is known by the name Gandharva-devi.

144: Shri Krishna, the cowherd prince whose charming sweetness has no equal or superior, is very dear to Shrimati Radharani. She considers Him millions and millions of times more dear than Her own life's breath.

145: Now the beauty of Shrimati Radharani's transcendental form will be described. Shrimati Radharani is expert in all the fine arts and Her transcendental form is like an ocean of nectar.

146: Her splendid bodily luster is like the yellow pigment gorocana, molten gold, or stationary lightning.

147: She wears wonderfully beautiful blue garments and She is decorated with various pearls and flowers.

148: She is very beautiful and She has long nicely braided hair.  She is decorated with a garland of flowers and a beautiful pearl necklace.

149: Her splendid forehead is decorated with the red pigment sindura and with beautiful locks of curling hair.

150: Decorated with blue bangles, Her arms have defeated Cupid's staff with their beauty.

151: Decorated with black mascara and reaching back almost to Her ears, Shrimati Radharani's lotus eyes are the most beautiful in all the three planetary systems.

152: Her nose is as beautiful as a sesame flower and it is nicely decorated with a pearl. She is anointed with various perfumes. She is splendidly beautiful.

153: Her ears are decorated with wonderful earrings and Her nectarean lips defeat the red lotus flowers.

154: Her teeth are like a row of pearls and Her tongue is very beautiful. Decorated with a nectarean smile of pure love for Krishna, Her beautiful face is a splendid as millions of moons.

155: The beauty of Her chin has defeated and bewildered the demigod Cupid. Decorated with a drop of musk, Her chin appears like a golden lotus flower with a bumblebee.

156: Bearing all the marks of wonderful beauty, Her neck is decorated with a string of pearls. Her neck, back and sides are enchantingly beautiful.

157: Her beautiful breasts are like two splendid waterpots covered with a bodice and decorated with a necklace of pearls.

158: Her beautiful enchanting arms are decorated with jeweled armlets.

159: Her arms are also decorated with jeweled bracelets and other kinds of jeweled ornaments. Her hands are like two red lotus flowers illuminated by the series of moons that are Her fingernails.


Auspicious Markings on Shrimati Radharani's Hands

160: Shrimati Radharani's hands are decorated with many auspicious markings such as the signs of the bumblebee, lotus, crescent moon, earring, parasol, sacrificial post, conchshell, tree, flower, camara and svastika.

161: These auspicious marks are manifest in various ways on Shrimati Radharani's lotus hands. Her splendidly beautiful fingers are also decorated with jeweled rings.

162: Charming, full of sweet nectar and decorated with a deep navel, Shrimati Radharani's beautiful waist enchants the three worlds.

163: Her sloping hips lead to Her charmingly beautiful slender waist, which is bound by a creeper of three beautiful folds of skin and decorated with a sash of tinkling bells.

164: As beautiful as two exquisite plantain trees, Her thighs enchant the mind of Cupid. Her beautiful knees are like two reservoirs filled with the nectar of various transcendental pastimes.

165: Her beautiful lotus feet are decorated with jeweled ankle-bells and Her toes with toe rings as beautiful as the treasure of Varuna.


The Auspicious Markings on Shrimati Radharani's Lotus Feet

166: The auspicious markings on Shrimati Radharani's lotus feet include the signs of the conchshell, moon, elephant, barleycorn, rod for controlling elephants, chariot flag, small drum, svastika and fish.

167: Shrimati Radharani is fifteen years old and full of the luster of youth.

168: Yasoda-devi, the queen of the cowherds, is more affectionate to Radharani than millions of mothers can be. Radharani's father is King Vrsabhanu, who is as splendid as the sun.

169: Shrimati Radharani's mother is Kirtida-devi, who is also known in this world as Ratnagarbha-devi. Radharani's paternal grandfather is Mahibhanu and Her maternal grandfather is Indu.

170: Her maternal grandmother is Mukhara-devi and Her paternal grandmother is Sukhada-devi. Her father's brothers [Her uncles] are Ratnabhanu, Subhanu and Bhanu.

171: Bhadrakirti, Mahakirti and Kirticandra are Radharani's maternal uncles. Menaka-devi, Sasthi-devi, Gauri-devi, Dhatri-devi and Dhataki-devi are Radharani's maternal aunts.

172: Radharani's mother's sister is Kirtimati-devi, whose husband is Kasa. Radharani's father's sister is Bhanumudra-devi, whose husband is Kusa.

173: Radharani's elder brother is Shridama and Her younger sister is Ananga-manjari. Radharani's father-in-law is Vrkagopa and Her brother-in-law is Durmada.

174: Jatila-devi is Radharani's mother-in-law and Abhimanyu is Radharani's so-called husband. Kutila-devi, who is always eager to find fault, is Radharani's sister-in-law.

175: Lalita, Visakha, Sucitra, Campakalata, Ranga-devi, Sudevi, Tungavidya and Indulekha are the eight dearest friends of Shrimati Radharani. These gopis are considered the leaders of all the others.

176: Kurangaksi, Mandali, Manikundala, Matali, Candralalita, Madhavi, Madanalasa, Manjumedha, Sasikala, Sumadhya, Madhureksana, Kamala, Kamalatika, Gunacuda, Varangada, Madhuri, Candrika, Prema-manjari, Tanumadhyama, Kandarpa-sundari and Manjukesi are among the millions of dear friends [priya-sakhis] of Shrimati Radharani.

177: Lasika, Kelikandali, Kadambari, Sasimukhi, Candrarekha, Priyamvada, Madonmada, Madhumati, Vasanti, Kalabhasini, Ratnavali, Manimati and Karpuralatika are among those friends [jivita-sakhis] for whom Shrimati Radharani is as dear as life.

178: Kasturi, Manojna, Manimanjari, Sindura, Candanavati, Kaumudi and Madira are among Shrimati Radharani's eternal friends [nitya-sakhis].


Shrimati Radharani's Manjari Friends

179-181: Ananga-manjari, Rupa-manjari, Rati-manjari, Lavanga-manjari, Raga-manjari, Rasa-manjari, Vilasa-manjari, Prema-manjari, Mani-manjari, Suvarna-manjari, Kama-manjari, Ratna-manjari, Kasturi-manjari, Gandha-manjari, Netra-manjari, Shripadma-manjari, Lila-manjari and Hema-manjari are among Shrimati Radharani's manjari friends. Prema-manjari and Rati-manjari are both also known by the name Bhanumati-devi.


The Objects of Shrimati Radharani's Worship

182: Shrimati Radharani's worshipable deity is the sun-god, who enlivens the lotus flowers and acts as an eye for the entire world.  Shrimati Radharani's maha-mantra is the name of Lord Krishna. Shrimati Radharani's benefactor, who brings Her all good fortune, is Bhagavati Paurnamasi.


Specific Description of Various Gopis

183: Lalita-devi and the other eight principal gopis, the other gopis and manjaris have forms that are for the most part like the transcendental form of Shrimati Radharani, the Queen of Vrndavana.

184: Vrnda-devi, Kundalata-devi and their followers assist the Divine Couple in Their pastimes in the various forests of Vrndavana.  Dhanistha-devi, Gunamala-devi and their followers remain in the home of Nanda Maharaja, the cowherd king and assist the Lord's pastimes from there.

185: Kamada-devi is the daughter of Shrimati Radharani's nurse.  Kamada is an especially close friend of Radharani. Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Manjula-devi are some of Radharani's maidservants.

186: Nandimukhi-devi and Bindumati-devi are the leaders of those gopis who arrange the rendezvous of Radha and Krishna. Syamala-devi and Mangala-devi are the leaders of those gopis who act as well-wishers of Shrimati Radharani.

187: Candravali-devi is the leader of those gopis who are Shrimati Radharani's rivals.

188: The talented musicians Rasollasa-devi, Gunatunga-devi, Kalakanthi-devi, Sukhanti-devi, and Pikakanti-devi delight Lord Hari by singing Visakha's musical compositions.

189: Maniki-devi, Narmada-devi, and Kusumapesala-devi serve the Divine Couple by playing drums, cymbals, string instruments like the vina, and wind instruments like the flute.

190: In this way we have described some of the sakhis [gopi friends], nitya-sakhis [eternal gopi friends], prana-sakhis [gopi friends who are as dear as life], priya-sakhis [dear gopi friends] and parama-prestha-sakhis [dearest gopi friends].


Shrimati Radharani's Maidservants

191: Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Bhurida-devi are the leaders of those gopis who are Shrimati Radharani's maidservants. Among these maidservants are Sugandha-devi and Nalini-devi (the two daughters of Divakirti-devi) and Manjistha-devi and Rangaraga-devi (the two daughters of Nanda Maharaja's laundry washers).

192: Palindri-devi serves Shrimati Radharani by dressing and decorating Her. Citrini decorates Radharani with various cosmetics.  Mantriki-devi and Tantriki-devi are astrologers who reveal the future to Shrimati Radharani.

193: Katyayani-devi is the leader of those gopi messengers who are older than Shrimati Radharani. Bhagyavati-devi and Punyapunja-devi, the two daughters of Maharaja Nanda's sweeper, are also the maidservants of Shrimati Radharani.

194: Tunga-devi, Malli-devi and Matalli-devi are the leaders of those girls descended from the uncivilized mountain tribe known as the Pulindas. In Vrndavana some of the Pulinda girls act as the friends of Shrimati Radharani and some are the friends of Shri Krishna.

195: Also included among Shrimati Radharani's servants are Gargi-devi and other very respectable brahmana girls, Bhrngarika-devi and other girls from the ceti community, Vijaya-devi, Rasala-devi, Payoda-devi and other girls from the vita community, as well as the boys Subala, Ujjvala, Gandharva, Madhumangala and Raktaka.

196: Tunga-devi, Pisangi-devi and Kalakandala-devi always remain near Shrimati Radharani to serve Her. Manjula-devi, Bindula-devi, Sandha-devi, Mrdula-devi and others, although very young still engage in Radharani's service.

197: Sunada, Yamuna and Bahula are the most important of Shrimati Radharani's pet surabhi cows. Tungi is Her chubby pet calf, Kakkhati is Her old pet monkey, Rangini is Her pet doe and Carucnadrika is Her pet cakori bird.

198: Tundikeri is the name of Radharani's pet swan, who is fond of swimming in Radha-kunda. Madhuri is Radharani's pet elephant and Suksmadhi and Subha are Her two pet parrots.

199: The two parrots perfectly imitate Lalita-devi's playful jokes spoken to her master and mistress (Shri Shri Radha-Krishna). By this wonderful repetition the parrots astonish the gopis.


Shrimati Radharani's Ornaments

200: Shrimati Radharani's tilaka marking is named Smarayantra. Her jeweled necklace is named Harimohana, Her jeweled earrings are named Rocana and the pearl decorating Her nose is named Prabhakari.

201: Her locket which contains a picture of Lord Krishna, is named Madana. Her Syamantaka jewel is also known as Sankhacuda-siromani [Sankhacuda's crest-jewel].

202: The auspicious jewel She wears around Her neck is called Puspavan because it eclipses the simultaneous rising of the sun and moon with its splendor. Her anklets are called Catakarava because their tinkling sounds resemble the warbling of cataka birds. Her bracelets are called Manikarvura.

203: Shrimati Radharani's signet ring is named Vipaksamardini. Her sash is named Kancanacitrangi and Her ankle-bells, which stun Lord Krishna with their tinkling sounds, are named Ratnagopura.

204: Shrimati Radharani's garments are named Meghambara. Her upper garment is red like a ruby and it is the favorite of Lord Hari.  Radharani's lower garment is the color of a blue cloud and it is Her own favorite.

205-206: Shrimati Radharani's jeweled mirror is named Sudhamsu-darpaharana, which means “that which removes [harana] the moon's [sudhamsu] pride [darpa].” Her golden stick for applying mascara is named Narmada, Her jeweled comb is named Svastida and Her private flower garden is named Kandarpakuhali.

207: In Radharani's garden is a vine of golden jasmine flowers that She has named Tadidvalli [”the vine of lightning”]. Her private lake bears Her own name [Radha-kunda] and on the shore of that lake is a kadamba tree that is the site of very confidential talks between Her and Lord Krishna.

208: Her favorite ragas are mallara and dhanashri and Her favorite dances are chalikya and rudravallaki.

209: Shrimati Radharani's glorious birth occurred on the eighth day of the bright moon in the month of Bhadra. Although generally not full on that day, the moon appeared full to celebrate Radharani's appearance in this world.

210: In this way we have revealed a little about the countless associates of Shri Shri Radha and Krishna, the two Monarchs of Shri Vrndavana.