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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Rupa Goswami > Dana-keli-kaumudi > Footnotes



Footnote 1

Verse 7: If the word sanatana" (eternal) here is interpreted to mean Shrila Sanatana Gosvami, who is Shrila Rupa Gosvami's spiritual master and elder brother, this verse may be translated:


Glory to Shrila Sanatana Gosvami, whose tongue is always drawn to chant Lord Krsn a's holy name, whose good character delights the saintly devotees, and who is a festival of bliss for Rupa Gosvami."



Footnote 2

Verse 8 When he speaks the word nandimukhi, the sutradhara refers to the nandi-slokas at the beginning (mukhi) of the play. However, the actor behind the scenes assumes this word refers to the girl Nandimukhi. The actor's interpretation of the sutradhara's words may be translated in this way:


Learned   in   graceful   poetry,   why   should Nandimukhi not delight the devotees who know how to taste nectar?"



Footnote 3

Verse 12: Here the words “host of moons" (candravali) and host of lotus flowers (padmali) may also refer to two gopis counted as Radha's rivals. By accepting these words to refer to these two gopis, one may interpret the last part of this verse to mean:


The truth is that when they glimpse Radha's face from far away, splendid and nectarlike Candravali and Padma give up all pride in their own beauty. They are completely devastated."


Footnote 4

Verse 16: If interpreted to refer to Radha, this ambiguous verse may be translated:


Nobly  born,  sweet,  charming,  glorious,  fair Radha finds Her heart trembles at the soft music of Krishna's flute."


Footnote 5

Verse 23: Govardhana Hill has a hundred peaks. Therefore it has many heads".


Footnote 6

Verse 25: The cloud is Krishna, whom the gopis now see. The lightning flashes are His yellow garments and the white cranes are His glistening necklace.


Footnote 7

Preceding Verse 38: These ambiguous words may also be interpreted, A daily gift of My lips to a hundred million delicate girls".


Footnote 8

Preceding Verse 41: It is said that when kicked by a girl, an asoka tree will at once burst into bloom.


Footnote 9

Verse 41: Here Lalita hints that because His friends are hard, crooked, and full of holes, Krishna shares with them these same faults.


Footnote 10

Verse 42: The mongoose is the snake's most able enemy. A snake attacking a mongoose will be defeated. This ambiguous verse may also be translated:


How can the king of debauchees succeed in attacking saintly girls? Even biting them with its teeth, he will not attain anything good."


Or, this verse may also be translated:


How does a debauchee attack saintly girls? His happiness is biting them."


Footnote 11

Verse 43: This verse has two meanings, which run side by side, each word having one meaning for Lord Siva and another meaning for Shri Radha. The verse is given below with the relevant Sanskrit words in parenthesis.


O Radha, Your graceful (siva) form is like Lord Siva's. He carries a crescent moon on his head, but Your forehead is a crescent moon. His body is covered with ashes (vibhuti), and Your's is glorious with great splendor (vibhuti). His syes glisten with fire (krishnavartma), but Your eyes glisten as they gaze on the path (vart ma) where Krishna will come. He is accompanied  by  Karttikeya  (visakha),  and  You  are accompanied by Visakha. With the fire of a sidelong glance He burned (vidagdha) Kamadeva to ashes.  With the effulgence of Your sidelong glance You make the passions of Kamadeva come to life (vidagdha). 0 Radha, because Your form is like Lord Siva in all these ways, please accept Me as the rake who will be Your king of snakes."


Lord Siva carries a snake.  Only in this way is Radha different from Siva. Therefore Krishna here suggests that She accept Krishna as Her snake. Here the word “bhogesa" may mean either “snake" or “lover".


Footnote 12

Preceding Verse 46: The mango trees here are the gopis, and the ferocious bumblebees are their husbands.


Footnote 13

Verse 47: The words pascima, purva, daksina, and uttara in this verse may also be interpreted to refer to the four directions: west, east, south, and north. Therefore the playful second meaning of this verse may be:


You have no west, no east, and no south. Why should You also not have a north?"


Footnote 14

Verse 54: This ambiguous verse may also be translated:

“I stand, stubborn like iron, in Krsn a's path. That rake's desire to enjoy Me will be thwarted."


Footnote 15

Verse 61: This ambiguous verse may also be translated:


“Enough with these jokes! 0 deer-eyed girl, now You must happily give Your body as an offering to Me.,,


Footnote 16

Verse 62: The word for billion here is “vrnda". Therefore Subala says, “How can you offer us only one Vrnda” when the toll is actually five vrndas."


Footnote 17

Preceding Verse 69: These ambiguous words may also be translated:


“Girl with the restless eyes, My heavy hand has You in its grip. How can You gain the power to leave?"


Footnote 18

Preceding Verse 70: The sarabha beast is a huge ferocious monster with eight legs.


Footnote 19

Verse 70: These last words may also be translated, “or, accompanied by Your friends, offer Your body to Me."


Footnote 20

Preceding Verse 71: These amiguous words may also be translated: “You are famous for Your ability to fight. You robbed the gopis of their necklaces, crowns, and conchshells. It is natural that You want to fight."


Footnote 21

Preceding Verse 71: The ambiguous words “who is so fond of punnaga flowers" may also be translated “who is so fond of Me, the best of men" or “who is so fond of Me, the glorious snake of men".


Footnote 22

Verse 71: The last part of this ambiguous verse may also be translated:  “ …when she saw the dark cloud Krs”na glistening in the moonlight under a banyan tree on Govardhana Hill."




“when she saw the dark cloud Krishna decorated with a necklace splendid like the moon as He sat under a banyan tree on Govardhana Hill."


Footnote 23

Verse 76: The first goddess is Krishna's sister Ekanamsa. Her escape from Kamsa is described in the beginning of Shrimad-Bhagavatam's Tenth Canto. The sun god's daughter is Goddess Yamuna, and the sun-god's two wives are Samjna and Chaya”.


Footnote 24

Preceding Verse 88: These ambiguous words may also be translated:


“O Supreme Personality of Godhead, You are glorified by many poetic verses. We are always engaged in Your devotional service. Please grant us liberation."


Footnote 25

Preceding Verse 88: The list is dharma (religious rituals), artha (economic development), kama (desire), and moksa (liberation). That is the sequence.


Footnote 26

Verse 88: This ambiguous verse may also be translated:


“Ferocious girl, what will you gain by trying to attack Krishna decorated with graceful earrings? His. slightest whisper will make you bewildered with love for Him."


Footnote 27

Preceding Verse 91: The ambiguous sentence “I will make you so that sin no longer touches you." It may also be translated, “Now I will give you the touch of My arms."


Footnote 28

Preceding  Verse  91:         The sikhandini bird (peahen) is the ablest enemy of the snakes. No snake could defeat it.


Footnote 29

Preceding Verse 91: Here Lalita hints that Krishna should embrace the other four gopis. 


Footnote 30

Preceding Verse 91: These ambiguous words may also be translated:


“O Campakalata”, here is the tamala tree Krishna, whose fingers scratch the gopis' breasts. Embrace Him, and blossom with happiness."


Footnote 31

Preceding Verse 91: The word “visakha" may also mean “without branches". The word for “five fingers" here is “sakha", which also means “branch". Therefore this ambiguous statement may also be translated:


“Perhaps I will soon see my dear friend, who is like a tree without any branches, decorated with five long, hard, new branches."


Footnote 32

Verse 97: The ambiguous sentence “What horrible incurable disease did I get by touching that great black snake that lives in a cave in a garden on Govardhana Hill?" may also be translated:


“By touching that great black snake that lives in a cave in a garden on Govardhana Hill I caught a disease that can be cured only by Kamadeva."


Footnote 33

Preceding Verse 98: The ambiguous words, “the sun will not fail to fill the sky with light" may also be translated, “the daughter of Vrsabhanu will not fail to serve the feet of Lord Vishnu."


Footnote 34

Preceding Verse 98: These ambiguous words may also be translated:


“When Rada and Krishna are together, Krishna's friend Paurnamasi tastes sweet happiness."


Footnote 35

Preceding Verse 98: The month of vaisakha is April-May. Some possible translations of these ambiguous words are:


“It is like that. On the full-moon night the star Radha, which is the star Vaisakha's friend, is full of glory."


“Paurnamasi now sees how Visakha's friend Radha is filled with happiness."


“On this full-moon day Visakha sees how her friend Radha is filled with happiness."