Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Rupa Goswami > Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu > Southern Division

Southern Division


First Wave (Vibhava)



     Prabalam ananyashrayina nishevitah: sahaja rupena

     agha damano mathurayam sada sanatana tanur jayati


     Let there always be victory to that Sanatana, residing in Mathura, who is the destroyer of all sins.  Being very powerful, he is one's exclusive shelter.  He is easily served and worthy of worship.


Notes:    In the NOD, Shrila Prabhupada explains that in this verse, the word Sanatana may be interpreted in two ways.  If Sanatana is taken to mean Lord Krishna, then the word agha damanah: (destroyer) can be understood to mean the destroyer of the agha demon.  The words sahaja rupena can be understood to mean that he is naturally beautiful and sanatana tanuh means that he possesses a sat-cid-ananda body.  That Lord Krishna is naturally beautiful indicates that His body is not made beautiful by being adorned with various ornaments and decorations.  Rather, His body is naturally (sahaja rupena) the exclusive shelter (ananyashrayi) of excessive beauty, embellished with sweetness.  He is worshiped (nishevitah) in Mathura Mandala with all excellence.  If Sanatana is taken to mean Sanatana Gosvami, then the words agha damanah: mean the destroyer of sins (agha), and nishevitah: sahaja rupena mean that he is easily worshiped and adored.


(2)  rasamrtabdher-bhage'smin dvitiye dakshinabhidhe



(3)  asya pancha laharyyah syur-vibhavakhya'grima mata

     dvitiya tvanubhavakhya trtiya sattvika-bhidha


(4)  vyabhicaryya-bhidha turyya sthayi-sanjna ca pancami

     athasyah keshava-rater-lakshitaya nigadyate

     samagri-pariposhena parama rasarupata


     In the Southern division of Bhakti-Rasamrta-Sindhu, the general symptoms of Bhagavad Bhakti rasa are being explained.  In this division there are five waves: (1) Vibhava-(that which is the cause of tasting rati), (2) anubhava-(bodily transformations which illustrate the emotions of the mind), (3) sattvika-bhava-(ecstatic symtoms which arise from suddha-sattva-or in other words, when the mind is overwhelmed with emotion in relationship to Krishna), (4) vyabhicari-bhava-(disturbing emotions originating from and serving to enlarge the sthayi bhava) and (5) sthayi-bhava-(that bhava or permanent condition of the heart which dominates the favorable and unfavorable emotions.  It is also known as Krishna rati).  Being nourished by the aggregate of vibhava, anubhava etc, rati (attraction) toward Krishna in the form of supreme rasa is obtained.  This matter is discussed in this section.


(5)  vibhavair anubhavaish ca sattvikair vyabhicaribhih:

     svadyatvam hrdi bhaktanam anita sravanadibhih:

     esha krishna ratih: sthayi bhavo bhakti raso bhavet


     When the elements of vibhava, anubhava, sattvik bhava and vyabhicari bhava, aroused through the activities of sravana, kirtana etc, are combined with rati toward Krishna in the form of one's sthayi bhava, then tastefullness is obtained within the heart of the devotee and is called bhakti rasa.


 Notes:    Affection for Krishna in the form of sthayi bhava is of five types: shanta, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura.  When vibhava, anubhava etc, are combined with the sthayi bhava, then Krishna rati obtains a supremely marvellous (camatkari) taste and becomes changed into rasa.  In this way shanta rati is changed into shanta rasa, dasya rati is changed into dasya rasa, sakhya rati is changed into sakhya rasa, vatsalya rati is changed into vatsalya rasa and madhura rati is changed into madhura rasa.


     The word rasa has two meanings.  Rasyate (asvadyate) iti rasah, that which is tasted is called rasa, and rasyati (asvadyati) iti rasah, he who tastes is called rasa.  The very essence or life (prana) of rasa is astonishment (camatkara).  Where astonishment is not found there can be no rasa (Alankara Kaustubha 5/7)-


     rase sarash camatkaro yam vina raso rasah

     tac camatkar rasaratve sarvatraivadbhuto rasah


     When a wonderous (vismayatmak) emotion (bhava) arises in the mind of anyone by seeing, hearing and experiencing such a thing as was never previously seen, heard or experienced, it is called camatkarita (astonishment).  This astonishment is the essence (sara) or life (prana) of rasa.  But the existence of astonishment due to the presence of some tasteful object, does not alone constitute rasa.  Novelty or unprecedentedness (apurvata) of the astonishing taste is also essential.  This novelty is such that, upon tasting the object, the natural function of both the external and internal senses become stunned.  The function of all the senses, being concentrated in the wondrousness (camatkarita) of that taste, are completely unable to perceive any other object.  When such an astonishing taste of the relishable object is maintained, it is called rasa.  The complete symptoms of rasa are present within the Supreme Lord who is the form of bliss (ananda svarupa brahma), as stated in the Sruti (2/7) `rasovai saha', Shri Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Parabrahma), the very form of rasa (rasa svarupa).


     Therefore, when by performing sravana, kirtana etc, all the activities of the senses become stunned, and one obtains an astonishing taste of the ever fresh, naturally increasing sweetness of Shri Krishna, which was never previously heard, seen or experienced, at that time, sthayi bhava becomes changed into bhakti rasa.  Just as curd itself is tasteful, yet when sugar, ghee, black pepper and camphor are mixed into it, the mixture is called rasala and it becomes as tasteful as exceedingly sweet nectar.  In the same way, Krishna rati is naturally tasteful, yet by mixing vibhava, anubhava, sattvika bhava and vyabhicari bhava into it, excessively tasty nectar in the form of bhakti rasa is obtained.


Translator's note: In this fifth text of the Southern division, first wave of BRS, bhakti rasa is being explained.  In the explanation which follows the verse, two words are very important to understand: catmakarita (astonishment or wonder) and apurvata (novelty or unprecedentedness).  Bhakti rasa is defined in the verse as the combination of sthayi bhava with vibhava, anubhava, etc.  This combination brings about a wonderful emotion within the mind which is called camatkarita or astonishment.  This astonishment is instigated by the perception of something which was not previously seen, heard or experienced.  In order to distinguish this experience from the ordinary experience of astonishment in the mundane realm, the word apurvata (unprecedented) is used.  To qualify the degree of the astonishment, he explains that upon tasting the object, all of the senses become stunned and are completely unable to perceive anything else.  This complete concentration of the senses, both external and internal, in the tasting of the object, gives rise to the various bhavas, which are thus combined with the sthayi bhava.  This combination is called rasa.)


(6)  Praktanyadhuniki casti yasya sad bhaktivasana

     esha bhaktir asasvadas tasyaivam  hrdi jayate


     Only that person in whose heart exists, from his past life and from this life, the impressions for uttama bhakti, is eligible to taste bhakti rasa.


Notes: In this verse, the qualification for tasting bhakti rasa is discussed.  Even though one may be observed to possess the impressions from this life for the existence of rati, it is also essential to have such impressions from the previous life in order to obtain rasa.  If a person who is devoid of any offense, and who having accepted the shelter of the lotus feet of the spiritual master (guru padashraya), obtains rati in this life by continuous performance of sadhana, then in the next life only, he can obtain the taste of bhakti rasa, not in this life.


(7)  bhakti-nirdhuta-doshanam prasannojjvala-cetasam

     shri-bhagavata-raktanam rasika-sanga-ranginam


(8)  jivanibhuta-govindapada-bhakti-sukha-shriyam

     premantaranga-bhutani krtyany-evanutishthatam


(9)  bhaktanam hrdi rajanti samskara-yugalojjvala

     ratir-ananda-rupaiva niyamana tu rasyatam



(10) krishnadibhir-vibhavadyair-gatainubhavadhvani

     praudhananda-camatkara-kashtham-apadyate param


(11) kim tu prema vibhavadyeh svalpairnito'pyaniyasim

     vibhavanady-avastham tu sadya asvadyatam vrajet


     Those persons whose faults have been completely destroyed by the influence of bhakti, whose hearts are delighted, in other words, who have already acquired eligibility for the manifestation of suddha sattva within their hearts, who are ujjvala (radiant), in others words who are fully enriched with knowledge, who are attached to Shrimad Bhagavatam, who always delight in the association of rasika vaishnavas, and whose lives know only the wealth of happiness in devotional service unto the lotus feet of Shri Govinda, who are in intimate love (prema), in other words who with firm faith (nistha) engage in the performance of sadhana (sravana, kirtan, etc.), giving rise to bhava and the exceeding mercy of the Lord (sadhana giving rise to the development of rasa), by the impressions residing in the their hearts, due to the previous life and to this life, they are able to relish, by direct experience, radiantly blissful rati, instigated by the compelling elements known as Vibhava.  In the ultimate stage they obtain the fully matured state of bliss known as prema.  Even if this prema has achieved fitness to be tasted to only a very slight extent, being aroused by a very slight manifestation of the compelling forces (vibhava), it is nonetheless very tasteful at that time.  On obtaining complete cooperation of the compelling forces, excessive nourishment is obtained.


Notes:  In the five verses above mentioned, varieties of sadhana leading to the development of rasa, factors that act as assistants to the development of rasa, degrees of development of rasa and how this rasa is developed, are all explained.  Freedom from offenses by sravana, kirtana, etc, eligibility for the appearance of suddha sattva, love for Shrimad Bhagavatam, association with rasika vaishnavas and excution of the limbs of bhakti leading to intimate love (prema), are all counted as varieties of sadhana giving rise to the development of rasa.  The impressions gained from very firm execution of bhakti in the previous life and in this life, are considered as assistants to the development of rasa.  This rasa develops when the compelling factors known as vibhava meet with rati situated within the radiant heart of such devotees, who have become fit by all the above mentioned factors.  In that condition, the devotees are able to relish the taste of bhakti rasa.  Within the heart of the devotee who has attained prema, that prema redoubles upon union with even a slight manifestation of the compelling forces.  When there is full nourishment of prema, then the devotee relishes the taste of bhakti rasa to the fullest extent.


Atha Vibhavadi Samanya-lakshanam-


(12) ye krishna bhakta muralinadadya hetavo rateh

     karyya bhutah smitadyas ca tatha'shtau stabdhata'dayah


(13) nirvedadya sahayas ca te jneya rasabhavane

      vibhava anubhavas ca sattvika vyabhihcarinih


      Shri Krishna, the devotees of Krishna and the sound of Krishna's flute, are the causes of rati etc, (vibhava).  Hasya (laughter) etc, (anubhavas), and stambha (becoming stunned) etc, (the eight sattvika bhavas), are the actions of rati (the actions which follow after or illustrate rati).  Nirveda (disappointment, disgust, despondency or humiliation) etc, (vyabhicari bhavas) are assistants to rati.  At the time of the tasting of rasa, all these develop one after another and are called by the names vibhava, anubhava, sattvika bhava and vyabhicari bhava.


Notes:  Shri Krishna and the devotees of Krishna are classified under the section known as vibhava.  Stambha (becoming stunned), sveda (perspiration), romanca (horripilation), svarabhanga (hoarseness), kampa (tremor), vivarnata (pallor), ashrupata (shedding of tears) and pralaya (devastation), are the eight sattvika bhavas.  Nirveda (disappointment), vishad (lamentation), etc, are called vyabhicari or sanchari bhavas, of which there are thirty three.  These four kinds of bhavas will be described in full detail hereafter.


Atha Vibhava:


(14) tatra jneya vibhavastu ratyasvadanahetavah

     te dvidha'lambana eke tathaivoddipanah pare


     That which is the cause of tasting rati is called vibhava.

There are two divisions of vibhava: (1) alambana vibhava and (2)

uddipana vibhava.


tad uktamapurane:


(15) vibhavyate hi ratyadir yatra yena vibhavyate

     vibhavo nama sa dvedha'lambanoddipanatmakah


     In the Agni purana it is said that vibhava is of two types:

(1) that in which rati is tasted (alambana) and that by which

rati is tasted (uddipana).




(16) Krishnas ca krishna bhaktas ca budhair alambana matah

     ratyader visayatvena tatha'dharataya'pi ca



     Those who are learned in the science of rasa have accepted that Shri Krishna and the devotees of Krishna are classified in the division known as alambana vibhava.  Shri Krishna is the subject of rati and the devotees are the shelter or repository of rati.


Notes: Shri Krishna and the devotees of Krishna are both alambana vibhava (that in which rati is tasted).  Alambana vibhava is of two types-visaya alambana vibhava and ashraya alambana vibhava.  Rati goes toward that which it is aiming-this is called vishaya alambana vibhava.  Shri Krishna is the subject toward which rati goes.  That which is the shelter or repository of rati, in other words, that in which rati resides, is called ashraya alambana vibhava.  The devotees of Krishna are the shelters of such rati.  By the devotees of Krishna is implied, the eternal associates of Maha rasa murti Shri Krishna.  By obtaining the mercy of the lord's eternal associates, present devotees may also obtain to the position of being repositories of that rati (asraya alambana vibhava).  By the word adi (etc.) used in the above verse (ratyader-meaning rati, etc.), is implied the secondary divisions of rati (gauna rati) known as hasya (laughter), adbhuta (wonder), vira (chivalry), karuna (compassion), raudra (anger), bhayanak (dread) and vib

hatsa (ghastliness).  Shri Krishna is the vishaya alambana vibhava, and the devotees are the ashraya alambana vibhava of these indirect mellows (gauna rati) also.  The secondary divisions of rati (gauna rati) are all of the same group (sajatiya).  They are not of a different group (vijatiya) or opponents (virodhi).  Where opponents are the shelter (ashraya) stimulating rati, they are enemies of Krishna and not the devotees of Krishna.  Opponents in the subject of rati will be described later.


Translator's Note: The words sajatiya and vijatiya are important to understand.  The literal translation of sajatiya is, `of the same class or group'.  Vijatiya means `of a different class or group.'  Yet these definitions do not convey the full import of the words here.  For this discussion it may be more meaningful to translate them as favorable and unfavorable.  The following example will help to clarify the meaning.  In the Srngara rasa the gopis may sometimes become angry at Krishna.  That anger becomes the cause of tasting Krishna rati.  So in this case anger is favorable or of the same class as the rati.  This is called sajatiya.  When the enemies of Krishna exhibit anger, it may also be the cause of stimulating rati yet it is of a different class than the rati.  This is called vijatiya.  As above mentioned, the opponents of Krishna (virodhi) are also counted as asraya stimulating rati (in the devotees) yet these refer to the enemies of Krishna and not to the devotees of Krishna.


Tatra Shri Krishna:


(17) Nayakanam shiroratnam krishnastu bhagavan svayam

     yatra cityataya sarve virajante mahagunah

     so'nyarupasvarupabhyam asminnalambano matah


     The original supreme personality of Godhead Shri Krishna, is the crown jewel amongst all heroes.  All inconceivable qualities are eternally situated in Him.  When Shri Krishna, appearing in His own form, becomes the subject of rati (visaya alambana vibhava), this is called svarupa.  When He becomes the subject of rati in an alternate form, this is known as anya rupa.


Translator's Note: In the above verse, the words anyarupa svarupabhyam indicate two features in which Shri Krishna becomes the subject of rati, namely svarupa and anya rupa.  In text eighteen an example will be given to explain the meaning of Krishna as the subject of rati in an alternate form (anya rupa) and in texts nineteen to twenty two, Krishna as the visaya of rati appearing in His own form (svarupa) will be explained.


Tatranyarupena, yatha:


(18) Hanta me katham udeti savatse vatsapalapatale ratiratra

     ityanishcita matir baladevo vismayastimitamurttirivasit


     The following is an example of Krishna acting as the subject of rati while appearing in a different form (anya rupa).  "How is it that My love for this cowherd boy, who is catching hold of a calf in the midst of all the cowherd boys is suddenly arising?  Being unable to determine this, Shri Baladeva was struck with wonder."


Notes:  In the Brahma vimohana lila, Shri Krishna assumed the form of innumerable calves and cowherd boys.  Shri Baladeva did not know of this secret because on that day He had not gone to the forest with Shri Krishna to graze the cows.  One day He saw a cowherd boy catching hold of a calf.  Shri Baladeva surged with such love toward that cowherd boy, as He normally has toward Krishna.  Being unable to determine why this was so, He was struck with wonder and became stunned.  The purport of this example is that Shri Krishna Himself in an alternate form (anyarupa), in other words, in the form of one of the cowherd boys, became the subject (visaya) of love (visaya alambana vibhava).


Atha svarupam:


(19)  avrtam prakatam ceti svarupam kathitam dvidha


     Krishna's personal features (svarupam) are of two types: (1)

avrta rupa (covered) and (2) prakata rupa (manifested).




(20) anyaveshadina'cchannam svarupam proktam avrtam


     When Krishna is covered by different kinds of dress, His

personal feature is covered.


Tena yatha:


(21) Mam snehayati kim uccaimahileyam dvaraka'varodhe'tra

     am viditam kutukarthi vanitavesho haris carati


     The following is an example of Krishna becoming the subject (visaya) of rati in a covered form (avrta rupa).  Shri Uddhava said, "How is it that this woman in the inner chambers of the palace in Dvaraka is causing such unique attraction to arise in me?  It must be that Shri Krishna Himself, having accepted the dress of a woman in order to play some fun, is frolicking in this way. Notes:  Once Shri Krishna, adopting the dress of a beautiful woman for the purpose of amusement, was moving about in the inner chambers of the palace in Dvaraka.  Shri Uddhava arrived there.  Seeing that beautiful woman, there arose within him the same prema which he has toward Krishna.  He began to consider why such affection had arisen in him toward this woman.  Then he understood that Shri Krishna Himself was moving about in the dress of a woman.  Jiva Gosvami in his commentary has explained that this pastime is hinted at in Shrimad Bhagavatam (10.69.36).


     avyakta lingam prakrtishu antah pura grhadishu

     kvacic carantam yogesham tat tad bhava bubhutsaya


     "Somewhere Krishna, the Lord of mystic power was moving about in disguise among the homes of ministers and other citizens in order to understand what each of them was thinking."


     How it is that Shri Krishna covered Himself in this way is not at all astonishing.  This is an instance of Shri Krishna Himself (svarupa) becoming the subject of rati (visaya alambana vibhava) in a covered manner (avrta rupa).


Prakata svarupena, yatha:


(22) ayam kambugrivah kamalakamaniyakshipatima

     tamalashyamangadyu tiratitaram chatritashirah

     darashrivatsankah sphuradaridaradyankitakarah

     karotyuccairmodam mama madhuramurttirmmadhuripuh


     The following is an example of Shri Krishna becoming the subject of rati (visaya alambana) in His own manifest form (prakata rupa).  (Shri Uddhava, beholding Shri Krishna in His manifest form (prakata rupa), spoke as follows)-"His neck marked with three lines like a conchshell, His beautiful eyes glossy as a lotus flower, His loustrous limbs blackish like a Tamal tree, raven black hair covering His head like a canopy, His chest graced with the very fine mark of Shrivatsa, and His hands adorned with the conch, cakra, etc, that Shri Krishna, the killer of the Madhu demon (Madhu ripu), who is the personification of sweetness (madhura murti) is bestowing excessive bliss upon me."-


Atha tad gunah:


(23) ayam neta suramyangah sarvasallakshananvitah

     rucirastejasa yukto baliyan vayasa'nvitah


     Beginning in this verse and continuing up to verse ( ) the transcendental qualities of the hero Shri Krishna are being enumerated.  In this verse the first six qualities are given: (1) suramya anga-the limbs of His body are exceedingly beautiful, (2) sarva sallakshana yukta-He is marked with all auspicious characteristics, (3) rucira-extremely pleasing.  His beauty bestows great bliss upon the eyes, (4) tejasanvita-He is possessed of a powerful effulgence, (5) baliyan-He is possessed of tremendous strength and (6) vayasanvita-He is always enjoying variegated amorous pastimes, being ever situated in newly blossomed youth.


Notes: Those things by which the emotions of the heart are provoked (uddipta), in other words those things by which the heart becomes illuminated (ujjvala) with exuberance toward Shri Krishna, are called uddipan vibhava.  Here a brief introduction is given of some prominent stimulating factors (uddipan vibhava), namely, Shri Krishna's bodily features and characteristics.  This subject will be fully described ahead, beginning from text (2.1.301).  Shri Krishna possesses unlimited transcendental qualities.  Shrila Rupa Gosvami has explained that of these, sixty four are especially prominent.  Of the sixty four qualities, Rupa Gosvami first gives a description of fifty qualities.  The above verse has listed the first six of these qualities.


     The characteristics (sallakshana, ie. the second quality mentioned above) of the transcendental body of Shri Krishna are of two types-(1) gunottha (attributes of the body) and (2) ankotha (marks or signs on the body).  Redness, tallness, etc. are considerred as attibutes (gunottha sallakshana).  Seven parts of His body are reddish (lalima): the corners of His eyes, the soles of His feet, the palms of His hands, His palate, lips, tongue and His nails.  There is tallness (tungata) in six places: His chest, shoulders, nails, nose, waist and physical frame.  Three parts of His body are broad (vishala): His waist, forehead and chest.  Three parts of His body are short (laghu): His neck, thighs and genital.  Five parts of His body are long (dirgha): His nose, arms, eyes, chin and knees.  There is finness (sukshmata) in five parts of His body: His skin, the hair on His head, His bodily hairs, teeth and His fingertips.  There is depth (gambhirata) in three places: His navel, voice and intelligence.  These thirty-two auspicious characteristics are called attributes (gunottha).


     The symbols which are found on the palms of His hands and on the soles of His feet, such as the cakra etc, are called ankottha sallakshana (marks). 





Second Wave (Anubhava)


Atha Anubhavah:


(1)  Anubhavastu cittastha-bhadanam-avabodhakah

     te bahir-vikriya-prayah prokta udbhasvarakhyaya


(2)  nrityam viluthitam gitam kroshanam tanumotanam

     hunkaro jrimbhanam shvasbhuma lokanapekshita

     lalasravo'ttahasashca ghurna hikka'dayo'pi ca


     The emotions of the mind, in other words Krishna rati, are illustrated or understood by the external manifestations known as anubhavas.  Generally when these anubhavas are manifested as external transformations, they are called by the name udbhasvara.  The following are the anubhavas of bhakti rasa: (1) nrtya (dancing), (2) viluhita (rolling on the ground), (3) Gita (singing), (4) Kroshana (loud crying), (5) tanu motana (writhing of the body), (6) humkara (to roar), (7) jrmbhanam (yawning), (8) shvasa bhuma (breathing heavily), (9) loka anapekshita (to not take heed of others, (10) lalasrava (foaming at the mouth), (11) atta hasa (loud laughter), (12) ghurna (staggering about) and (13) hikka (a fit of hiccups).


Notes:  In the first wave of the Southern division, a description was given of alambana and uddipana vibhava of bhakti rasa.  In this wave the anubhavas of bhakti rasa will be described.  The word anubhava has been derived from it's two component parts `anu' and `bhava'.  The meaning of anu is that which comes after or that which follows.  Therefore, those symptoms which arise or follow as an after effect are called `anubhavas', in other words it is the effect (prabhava) itself of any thing which is called anubhava.  Acquaintance with any object is accomplished through the medium of it's effect (prabhava).  Therefore, the symptoms (lakshana) providing acquaintance with an object are also called anubhavas.  There are many things which by nature are not perceivable in and of themself, but of which knowledge may be obtained by observing their effect (prabhava) or anubhava.  Just as with fever; fever cannot be seen with the eyes, yet by the rise of temperature and other symptoms in the body, the existence of feve

r is known.  Similarly anger cannot be seen, but seeing the external transformations which are born from it, such as redness of the eyes and mouth, arousing of the voice etc, anger is known.


     In the same way, Krishna rati or bhakti is not something which can be perceived with the eyes.  When Krishna rati makes it's appearance within the heart, then gradually the transformations or symtoms are manifested in the body of the devotees or in their behavior, by which it can be understood that Krishna rati is situated in their hearts.  Therefore, these anubhavas of Krishna rati, or in other words that which manifests after the rise of Krishna rati, are called the illustrative symptoms (paricayak lakshana) of rati.  Singing, dancing and other symptoms as above mentioned are all anubhavas of bhakti rasa.


     The anubhavas such as dancing, singing, etc, are called `udbhasvara'.  Anubhavas are of two kinds, udbhasvara and sattvika.  The sattvika anubhavas, such as ashru (tears), pulaka (horripilation), kampa (tremor), etc, counted as eight in all, will be described in the next wave.  Ashru, pulaka, kampa, etc, may be considerred as either sattvik bhavas or anubhavas of bhakti rasa, but the udbhasvaras are not accepted as such.  The reason is that there is a subtle difference between these two.  Only those anubhavas which originate from sattva (goodness) are known as `sattvik'.  But those anubhavas which, although originating from sattva, are connected with the intelligence (citta), in other words which are given expression through the conscious effort of the will, are known as `udbhasvara'.  In the function of the sattvik anubhavas such as ashru (tears), pulak (horripilation), kampa (becoming stunned) etc, there is no contact with the intelligence (citta).  They spring up of their own accord.  But in the case of the anubhavas such as dancing, singing, etc., they are given expression through the conscious endeavor of the will, in other words their manifestation takes place with the help of the intelligence.  Therefore, it is said that the transformations of ecstacy (vikara) known as udbhasvara generally manifest themselves externally.  The sattvik transformations such as becoming stunned, horripilation, etc. are not manifest externally to the same extent as dancing, singing, etc.


(3)  Te shitah kshepanashceti yatha'rthakhya dvidhoditah

     shitah syurgitajrmbha'dya nrtyadyah kshepanabhidhah


      These anubhavas are of two types: (1) `Shita' (cooling) and (2) `kshepana' (throwing or movement).  Singing, yawning, etc. are shita anubhavas, whereas dancing, etc. are kshepana anubhavas.

Notes: The word adya (etc.), in gitajrmbha'dya (ie. gita (singing), jrmbha (yawning), etc.) used above, should be understood to mean shvas bhuma (breathing heavily), lokanapeksha (neglecting others) and lalasrava (foaming of the mouth).  (Oozing of blood from the pores, swelling of the limbs etc., as demonstrated by Lord Chaitanya, are also accepted as shita anubhavas.)  In other words, singing, yawning, breathing heavily, neglecting of others and foaming of the mouth, these five are counted as shita anubhavas.  Dancing, rolling on the ground, and the other remaining symptoms, these eight together with mild smiling (which has been previously described) are counted as kshepana anubhavas.  The examples of all these anubhavas will be cited next.



Tava nrtyam, yatha:


(4)  muralikhuralisudhakiram harivaktrendumavekshya kampitah

     gagane sagane sadindimadhvanibhistandavamashrito harah


     The following is an example of nrtyam (dancing)-"Seeing the moonlike face of Shri Krishna, showering nectar by the continuous manipulation of the sounds of His flute, Lord Siva, trembling in ecstacy, began to dance in the sky, while playing on his damaru drum, accompanied by Ganesa and their followers."


Viluthitam, yatha trtiye (3.1.32)


(5)  kaccidvadhah svastyanamiva aste

     shvaphalkaputro bhagatprapannah

     yah krishnapadankitamargapanshushva-

     ceshtata premadibhinnadhairyyah


Yatha va-


(6)  navanuragena tavavashangi vanasragamodamavapya matta

     vrajangane sa kathine luthanti tatram sugatra branayancakara


     The following is an example of Viluthitam (rolling on the ground) taken from Shrimad Bhagavatam (3.1.32)-(Shri Vidura after being insulted by Duryodhana and leaving Hastinapura, met with Shri Uddhava.  After inquiring about the welfare of all others, he inquired in the following way regarding Shri Akrura)-"And how is the most intelligent, surrendered and unalloyed servant of the Lord, Shri Akrura faring?  When he saw the dust along the footpaths of Vrndavan marked with the lotus footprints of Shri Krishna, he was overwhelmed with love and began to roll on the ground."


     Another example of viluhitam-"O Syamasundara!  Shri Radha has become helpless, being controlled by the ever new waves of increasing attachment (navanuraga) toward You.  She has been put into great difficulty, being intoxicated by the aroma of your garland of wild forest flowers.  Thus She has been rolling on the ground in a courtyard of Vraja, bruising Her beautiful body."


Gitam, yatha-


(7) ragadambarakarambitacetah kurvati tava navam gunaganam

    gokulendra! kurute jalatam sa radhika'dya drshadam suhrdam ca


     The following is an example of gita (singing)-"O Gokulendra!  Her mind submerged in the ocean of ever fresh loving attachment (navanuraga) toward you, Shri Radha, singing of Your unprecedented transcendental qualities, has today caused the stones to melt out of ecstatic love and Her friends to become stunned like stones."


Kroshanam, yatha-


(8)  Harikirttanjatavikriyah sa vicukrosha tatha'dya naradah

     acirannarasimhashankaya danuja yena dhuta vililyire


     The following is an example of Kroshanam (loud crying)-"Today Shri Naradaji being overwhelmed by the intense emotion of Hari kirtan, cried so loudly that the demons, considerring that Lord Nrsimhadeva had appeared, began trembling and took to their heels."


Yatha va-


(9)  urarikrtakakurakula kurariva vrajarajanandana !

     muralitaralikrtantara muhurakroshadihadya sundari


     A second example of Kroshanam-"O Vrajaraja nandana! Hearing the sound of Your flute, Shrimati Radharani has become so restless and unsteady that She is repeatedly crying very loudly just like a kurari bird."


Tanumotanam, yatha-


(10) Krishnanamani mudopavinite prinite manasi vainiko munih

     udbhatam kimapi motayan vayustrotayatyakhilayajnasutrakam


     The following is an example of tanu motanam (writhing of the body)-"Shri Naradaji, playing on his vina, and singing again and again the name of Shri Krishna, became enraptured with such overwhelming emotion that his limbs began to contort and his sacred thread snapped."


Hunkaro, yatha-


(11) vainavadhvanibhirudbhramaddhiyah

     shankarasya divi hunkrtisvanah

     dhvansayannapi muhuh sa danavam

     sadhuvrndamakarotsada navam


     The following is an example of hunkara (roaring)-"Hearing the sound of Shri Krishna's flute, Lord Shiva's intelligence became completely disoriented and he began to roar so loudly in the sky that the dynasty of the demons became vanquished and the devotees experienced supreme spiritual bliss that appeared fresh at every moment."


Jrmbhanam, yatha-


(12) vistrtakumudavane'sminnudayati purne kalanidhau puratah

     tava padmini ! mukhapadmam bhajate jrmbhamaho citram



     The following is an example of jrmbhanam (yawning)-"O Padmini (exceptionally beautiful lady) Radhike!  In this forest of Kumudavan, upon the rising of the full moon (of Shri Krishna), Your lotus face blossoms (into an expanding yawn).  This is a most astonishing occurrence."


Notes: In this verse the words `Padmini', `Kumudavan' and `Jrmbha' are subject to different interpretations and are therefore literary embellishments known as shleshalankara (a literary device in which words are used that may be subject to varied interpretation).  The word Padmini may be understood to mean either a lotus flower or a heroine of exceptional beauty (nayika).  The word Kumudavan may be understood to mean the forest of lily flowers (Kumudavan) or the maintainer of the earth, Shri Krishna, and the word Jrmbha may be interpreted either as blooming or yawning.


     In the above stated meaning, it is astonishing that the lotus face of Shri Radhika blooms upon seeing the full moon of Shri Krishna.  When a lotus flower is exposed to the moon it closes.  It does not bloom in the presence of the moon.  Therefore it is astonishing that the face of Shri Radhika, which is compared to a lotus flower, blooms in the presence of the full moon, who is compared to Shri Krishna.  In the second meaning, it is astonishing that when Padmini nayika Shri Radhe comes in front of Shri Krishna She yawns.  Therefore, in this verse, the literary embellishment in which there is use of astonishing and varied interpretion of words (camatkari shleshalankara) is employed.


Shvasabhuma, yatha-


(13) upasthite citrapatambudagame

     vivrddhatrshna lalita'khyacataki


     krshnambudakaramavekshya cukshubhe


     The following is an example of nishvas (breathing heavily)-"When the Lalita-Cataki bird came into the presence of the Syamasundara cloud, who was appearing just like a silver screen by the multi-colored array of His clothing, her thirst was magnified but on account of the violent winds in the form of her heavy sighing, the Krishna cloud was dispersed and thus she was severely agitated."


Notes: In this verse Shri Lalita has been compared to the Cataki bird, Shri Krishna is compared to the cloud, and Lalita's breathing is compared to a violent storm.  The Cataki bird drinks only the water from the rain of svati nakshatra (an auspicious constellation of stars).  It's thirst is not quenched by seeing any other dark clouds and the rain water showering from them.  Seeing the cloud in the form of Shri Krishna, the thirst of the cataki bird in the form of Shri Lalita was awakenned.  But just as a cloud is dispersed by a violent wind, a violent storm in the form of Lalita's heavy breathing arose, by which the cloud of Shri Krishna was dispersed, and because her eyes filled up with tears, she could not obtain the vision of Shri Krishna.  Therefore, remaining thirsty, she was severely agitated.


Lokanapekshita, yatha shri dashame (10.23.41)


(14) aho pashyata narinamapi krshne jagad gurau

     durantabhavam yo'vidhyanmrtyupashan grhabhidhan


     The following is an example of lokanapekshita (neglecting the presence of others) taken from Shrimad Bhagavatam (10.23.41)-"O just see the unbounded love of these women toward Jagad Guru Shri Krishna.  It is so great that it has shattered the bonds of death known as household life." (This verse was spoken by the yajnik brahmanas).


Yatha va padyavalyam (73)-


(15) Parivadatu jano yatha tatha'yam

     nanu mukharo na vayam vicarayamah

     harirasamadiramadatimatta bhuvi

     viluthama natama nirvishama


     An example of lokanapekshita is also narrated in the Padyavali-"No matter what worldly minded persons may say, they are simply talkative.  We shall not care a fig for them.  Becoming intoxicated by drinking the liquor of Krishna prema rasa, we shall roll on the ground, dance and enjoy transcendental bliss."


Lalasravo, yatha-


(16) shanke premabhujangena dashtah kashtam gato munih

     nishcalasya yadetasya lala sravati vaktratah


     The following is an example of lalasravah (foaming of the mouth)-"It seems that this muni has been bitten by the snake of Krishna prema, and is experiencing so much distress, that he is lying motionless and saliva is dripping from his mouth."




(17) Hasadbhinno'ttahaso'yam citta-vikshepasambhavah


     The anubhava known as attahasa (loud laughing) arises from the heart of the devotee who is maddened with ecstatic love of Krishna.  This attahasa is quite different from ordinary laughter.


Yatha- (18) Shanke ciram keshava-kinkarasya

            cetastate bhaktilata-praphulla


            prasunapunjashcatula skhalanti


     The following is an example of attahasa (loud laughter)-"It seems that the creeper of devotional service (bhakti lata) is blossoming in the heart of this devoted servant (kinkara) of Shri Krishna, because from his face, collections of flowers in the form of loud laughter, are falling again and again."


Ghurna, yatha-


(19) dhruvamagharipuradadhati vatyam

     nanu murali ! tvayi phutkrticchalena

     kimayamitaratha dhvanirvighurnan sakhi !

     tava ghurnayati brajambujakshih


     The following is an example of ghurna (staggering about)-"O friend Murali (The flute) ! It seems that Shri Krishna, the enemy of the Agha demon, by the trick of His blowing within you, has caused a whirlwind to enter within you, otherwise how is it that your reverberating sound has caused the lotus-eyed gopis of Vraja to begin to reel about?


Hikka, yatha-

(20) na putri! racayaushadham visrja rodamatyuddhatam-

     mudha priyasakhin prati tvamashivam kimashankase

     hari-pranaya-vikriya'kulataya bruvana-muhur-

     varakshi ! harirityasau vitanute'dya hikka-bharam


     The following is an example of hikka (a fit of hiccups)-Purnamasi said-"O daughter! Why are you unnecessarily apprehending that some calamity has come to your dearmost friend Shri Radha?  There is no need of any medicine for this.  Give up your impudent crying.  O girl with the beautiful eyes (Varakshi)! Being perturbed by the ecstatic transformations of love for Krishna, and calling out `Hari-Hari' again and again, She is having a fit of hiccups." (Thus far, examples of the thirteen principle anubhavas have been given).


(21) vapurutphullataraktodbhamadyah syuh pare'pi ye

     ativa viralatvatte nauvatra parikirtitah


     Apart from the above mentioned anubhavas, swelling of the body, hemorrhaging from the pores, and many other such symptoms of ecstacy (of which the author has described in his book known as Ujjvala Nilamani), are also known as anubhavas.  These are extremely rare and therefore, they have not been discussed further here.


     Thus ends the Second Wave of the Southern Division of Shri Bhaktirasamrta sindhu, entitled Anubhava.





Third Wave (Sattvika Bhava)


Atha Sattvikah-


(1)  Krishnasambandibhih sakshat-kincidva vyavadhanatah

     bhavaiscittam-ihakrantam sattvam-ityucyate budhaih

(2)  sattvadasmat samutpanna ye bhavaste tu sattvikah

     snigdha digdhas-tatha ruksha ityami trividha matah


     When the heart or mind (citta) is overwhelmed with emotion (bhava) in direct (sakshat) relationship with Shri Krishna, or even with some slight hindrance (vyavadhan), learned persons call this condition sattva.


     The bhava or emotion which arises from that sattva is called sattvika bhava.  This sattvika bhava is of three varieties-(1) snigdha (smooth), (2) digdha (smeared) and (3) ruksha (rough).


Notes: It may first be said that Krishna rati is of twelve varieties, five principal (mukhya rati) and seven secondary (gauna rati).  (1) Shanta, (2) dasya, (3) sakhya, (4) vatsalya and (5) Madhura are known as mukya rati.  Hasya (laughter), (2) Karuna (compassion), (3) adbhuta (astonishment), (4) Vira (chivalry), (5) Raudra (anger), (6) Bhayanaka (dread) and (7) Vibhatsa (ghastliness) are known as gauna rati.  When the mind (citta) is overwhelmed by emotions in relationship to the five principle mellows (mukhya rati), then the emotion (bhava) with which the mind is infused is understood to be in direct relation with Shri Krishna, and when the mind is overwhelmed with emotions in relationship to the seven secondary mellows (gauna rati), then the ensuing emotion is said to be somewhat hindered (vyavahit) or apart from Shri Krishna.  When the mind is overwhelmed by Krishna rati, whether it be in a direct relationship or with some slight intervention, it is called sattva.  The word sattva is a technical term.  It does not refer to the material mode of goodness (sattva guna).  When the devotee has obtained the distinctive condition known as Krishna rati, and the mind is overwhelmed by that condition (or in other words by Krishna rati), then the mind is called sattva.


     In the previous wave a description was given of the anubhavas such as dancing, singing, etc.  In reality, these anubhavas also arise from emotion (bhava) in relationship with Krishna, or in other words, when the mind is overwhelmed by emotion in relationship with Krishna.  However, in dancing, singing, etc., because there is some exertion of the intelligence (citta), these symptoms are called by the name Udbhasvara.  In the sattvika bhavas there is no exertion of the intelligence.  They arise spontaneously, of their own accord.  In these (the sattvika bhavas) there is no endeavor in accordance with desire to give expression to one's feelings, as is the case with dancing, singing, etc.  Solely on account of arising from sattva are these known as sattvika bhavas.  Next will be given examples describing the characteristics of the three varieties of sattvika bhavas, namely; snigdha (smooth), digdha (smeared) and ruksha (rough).


Tatra snigdhah-


(3)  snigdhastu sattvika mukhya gaunashceti dvidha matah


     Snigdha sattvika bhavas are of two varieties; (1) mukhyah (principal) and (2) gauna (secondary).


Tatra mukhyah-


(4)  akraman-mukhyaya ratya mukhyah syuh sattvika ami

     vijneyah krshna-sambandhah sakshad-evatra suribhih


     When the mind is overwhelmed with emotion instigated by the  principal mellows (mukhya rati) of bhakti rasa, such as, dasya, sakhya etc., the sattvika bhavas which arise from that are known as mukhya snigdha sattvika bhavas.  In these sattvika bhavas the emotion (bhava) which arises is understood by learned persons to be in a direct (sakshat) relationship with Shri Krishna.




(5)  kundair-mukundaya muda srjanti

     srajam varam kunda-vidambidanti

     babhuva gandharvarasena venor-

     gandharvika spandana-shunyagatri


     The following is an example of mukhya snigdha sattvika bhava-"Shri Radha, whose rows of teeth put to shame the buds of Jasmine flowers, was weaving a garland of kunda (Jasmine) flowers when, upon hearing the sweet sound of the flute, Her entire body became stunned in ecstacy."


(6)  mukhya stambho'yamittham te jneyah svedadayo'pi ca


     This is an example of stambha (becoming stunned), which  is classified as mukhya snigdha sattvika bhava (owing to it's arising from madhura mukhya rati). Sveda (perspiration), and other sattvika bhavas should also be understood to be of the same classification.


Atha gaunah-


(7)  ratya'kramanatah prokta gaunaste gaunabhutaya

     atra krishnasya sambandhah syat kincid vyavadhanatah


     When the mind is overwhelmed by any emotion instigated by the secondary mellows (gauna rati) of bhakti rasa, such as laughter, wonder, etc., the sattvika bhavas arising from that are known as gauna snigdha sattvika bhavas.  In this case the emotion which arises is not in a direct relationship with Shri Krishna owing to the presence of some intervention or hindrance (vyavadhan).




(8)  svavilocana-catakambhude puri nite purushottame pura

     atitamramukhi sagadgadam nrpamakroshati gokuleshvari

     imau gaunau vaivarnya-svarabhedo


     The following is an example of gauna snigdha sattvika bhava-"Gokulesvari Shri Yashodadevi is compared to the cataka bird because she always thirsts for the cloud of Shri Krishna.  When Purushottama Shri Krishna was first taken to Mathura puri, Shri Yasodadevi, her face red with anger, began to condemn Vrajaraja Nanda Maharaja, so vehemently that her voice was faltering.  This is an example of vaivarnya (pallor-ie. change of color) and svarabheda (hoarseness-faltering of the voice), which are classified as gauna snigdha sattvika bhavas (owing to their arising from Krodha, which is belonging to gauna rati, or the secondary mellows).


Atha digdha-


(9)  Rati-dvayavina-bhutairbhavair-manasa akramat

     jane jataratau digdhaste ced-raty-anugaminah


     In a devotee whose rati is already established, the mind is sometimes possessed by emotion which is not instigated by either the principal or secondary mellows (mukhya or gauna rati) of bhakti rasa.  The emotions which follow in the wake (anugami) of that rati are called digdha sattvika bhavas.




(10) putanamiha nishamya nishayam sa nishantaluthadudbhatagatrim

     kampitangalatika vrajarajni putramakulamatirvicinoti


     The following is an example of digdha sattvika bhava-"Once, at the end of night, Vrajesvari Shri Yashoda dreamt that Putana was lying on the ground in a most dreadfully fearful form.  Upon seeing her, Shri Yashoda awoke trembling (kampa), and her mind being very agitated, she began to search out her son Shri Krishna."


(11) kampo raty-anugami-tvadasau digdha itiryyate


     In this example, the syptom which was manifest by Shri Yashoda of kampa (trembling), follows in the wake of rati and is therefore called digdha sattvika bhava.


Notes: In the above stated example, Shri Yashoda is already situated in her eternally established rati of vatsalya (parental affection) toward Shri Krishna.  Yet because she was sleeping, Krishna was not displayed before her and therefore at that time, the vatsalya rati was not awakened.  Seeing Putana in a dream, the she became afraid on her own account.  Krishna was not the subject of her fear (initially) because she did not remember Krishna in sleep.  It may be understood from this that the sattvika bhava of Kampa (trembling) which arose in Yashodaji was instigated neither by mukhya rati of vatsalya nor by gauna rati of fear.  In the beginning Shri Yashoda did not remember Krishna on account of being asleep.  Seeing Putana in the dream, she became afraid on her own account and began to tremble.  But because Yashoda's view is imbued with the vatsalya rati, the fear which arose upon seeing Putana in the dream gave rise to feelings of fear in relationship to her son Shri Krishna as well.  From this fear trembling arose in her.

  It is this kampa which follows in the wake of vatsalya rati.  Only upon the awakening of the vatsalya rati did Shri Yashoda begin to tremble out of fear of Putana on account of her son Shri Krishna.  At that time she began to search for Shri Krishna.  (In other words, fear of Putana arose first, when Krishna was not manifest in her thoughts.  Then on account of that fear her natural feelings of vatsalya arose as a by-product.  Upon the arising of the vatsalya sentiments, kampa sattvika bhava became manifest).  Because this trembling follows in the wake of rati it is called digdha sattvika bhava.


Atha Rukshah-


(12) Madhurashcaryya-tad-varttotpannair mudvismayadibhih

     jata bhaktopame ruksha ratishunyo jane kvacit


     It is occasionally observed in persons who are devoid of rati (ratishunya), that emotion arises, similar to that exhibited by devotees, by hearing the sweet and astonishing recitation of Shrimad Bhagavatam.  Such emotion is called ruksha sattvika bhava.




(13) bhogaikasadhanajusha ratigandhashunyam svam

     ceshtaya hrdayamatra vivrnvato'pi

     ullasinah sapadi madhavakeligitai-

     stasyamgamutpulakitam madhuraistada'sit


     Sometimes materialistic persons, devoid of rati,  may be engaged in the practice of sadhana.  From such endeavor, a change occurs within the heart and they experience delight.  At that time the hairs of their body stand on end.  This standing of the hairs on end (utpulaka or romanca) is a kind of sattvika bhava.


Ruksha esha romancah-


(14) ruksho'yam ratishunyatvadromancah kathito budhaih

     mumukshuprabhrtau purvam yo ratyabhasa iritah


     Learned scholars call such standing of the hairs on end, in persons who are devoid of rati, as ruksha sattvika bhava.  A description was previously given (First division, third wave, texts 47-55) of ratya bhasa in persons who aspire for liberation and other such persons.  This is an example of ruksha sattvika bhava.


Notes: In text 12 the word bhaktopama appears.  Jiva Gosvami has explained that this word means `similar to devotees in whom rati is already established' (jatarati bhakta).  Shri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur has explained it to mean `similar to the siddha bhaktas'.  The purport of these statements is that those persons in whom ruksha sattvika bhava arises are not factually situated in rati nor are they siddha bhaktas, in others words rati is not present in them.  From the word ratishunya the same may be concluded.  Therefore, there is no question of such persons being situated in sattva (pure goodness).  Sometimes sattvika bhavas such as tears and standing of the hairs on end may become visible in them but in reality these do not arise from sattva.  They arise solely on account of the bliss and wonder that result from hearing the sweet pastimes of Shri Krishna.  There is not even a trace of Krishna rati in such persons.  Therefore these symptoms are called ruksha sattvika bhavas.  Although these do not arise from sattva, because they are similar to the sattvika bhavas in external appearance, they are also called sattvika bhavas.  The manifestation of tears and horripilation seen in sannyasis at the time of hearing and chanting about Shri Krishna, are only ruksha sattvika bhavas, because rati is not present in them.  Trembling, standing of the hairs on end, etc. arose in the sannyasis who witnessed Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's pastime of delivering Shri Prakashananda Sarasvati.  All these symptoms were but displays of ruksha sattvika bhavas.


(15) cittam sattvibhavat prane nyasyatyatmanamudbhatam

     pranastu vikriyam gacchan deham vikshobhayatyalam

     tada stambhadayo bhava bhaktadehe bhavantyami


(16) te stambhasvedaromancah svarabhedo'tha vepathuh

     vaivarnyamashru pralaya ityashtau sattvikah smrtah


(17) catvari ksma'dibhutani prano jatvavalambate

     kavacitsvapradhanah san dehe carati sarvatah


(18) stambham bhumisthitah pranastanotyashru jalashrayah

     tejasthah svedavaivarnye pralayam viyadashritah


(19) svastha eva kramanmandamadhyatibratvabhedabhak

     romancakampavaishvaryyanyatra trini tanotyasau


(20) bahirantashca vikshobhavidhayitvadatah sphutam

     prokta'nubhavata'mosham bhavata ca manishibhih


     (The principal cause of the sattvika bhavas is when the mind is overpowered with emotion in relationship with Shri Krishna.  When the mind is overpowered in this way it becomes severely agitated.  But what kind of agitation is experienced by the mind is expressed externally in the form of stambha (becoming stunned) etc, manifested on the body of the devotee.  In this connection it is said)-


     Upon the manifestation of the sattvika bhavas, or in other words when the mind is overpowered with emotion in relation to Krishna, the mind becomes extremely restless.  On account of this restlessness, the mind submits itself unto the vital air  (prana).  The vital air then also experiences transformations causing the body to become excessively agitated.  At that time the sattvika bhavas such as stambha (becoming stunned) etc. manifest themselves on the body of the devotee.  The sattvika bhavas are eight in number-(1) stambha (becoming stunned), (2) sveda (perspiration), (3) romancha (horripilation-standing of the hairs on end), (4) svarabheda (faltering of the voice), (5) kampa (trembling), (6) vaivarnya (pallor-change of color), (7) ashru (tears) and (8) pralaya (devastation).  The vital air sometimes supports the four elements-earth, water, fire and sky, and sometimes it acts independently, or in other words, taking shelter of the air, it begins to wander all over the body.  When the vital air comes in contact with the earth, then stambha (becoming stunned) becomes manifest.  When in contact with water, then asru (tears) become manifest.  When the vital force comes in contact with fire, sveda (perspiration) and vaivarnya (pallor) are manifested.  When in contact with the sky, pralaya (devastation) occurs.  When the vital air acts independently, it gives rise to three gradations of sattvika bhavas-mild, moderate and intense.  The symptoms manifested in accordance with these three degrees of intensity are respectively, romanca (standing of the hairs on end), kampa (trembling) and svarabheda (faltering of the voice).  All these sattvika bhavas manifest themselves very clearly on the external body, and within, they give rise to great agitation (of the emotions).  Therefore, learned scholars refer to the sattvika bhavas both as anubhavas (which manifest externally) and as bhavatva (emotionality-or that which manifests internally).


Tava Stambhah-


(21) stambho harsha-bhayashcaryya-vishadamarsha-sambhavah

     tatra vagadirahityam naishcalyam shunyata'dayah


     Stambha (becoming stunned) arises from the following emotions: harsa (jubilation), bhaya (fear), ashcarya (astonishment), vishad (despondency) and amarsha (anger).  The following symptoms are manifested in stambha; there is loss of voice, immobility (suspension of the function of the working senses such as the hands and feet) and voidness (suspension of the function of the knowledge acquiring senses).


Tatra harshadyatha tritiye (3/2/14)-


(22) yasyanuraga-pluta-hasa-rasa-


     vraja-striyo drgbhir anupavrtta-

     dhiyo'vatasthuh kila krtya-sheshah


     The following is an example of becoming stunned due to harsha (jubilation)-In Shrimad Bhagavatam (3/2/14) Shri Uddhava said to Shri Vidhura-"Upon seeing the pastimes and affectionate smile of Shri Krishna laden with sentiment (rasa), the beautiful damsels of Vraja felt greatly esteemed and became overwhelmed with jubilation (harsha).  But upon Krishna's leaving them, their vision and intelligence followed along behind Him.  Droping their household duties exacty as they were, they sat down without being able to



Bhayad Yatha-


(23) girisannibhamallacakraruddham

     puratah pranapararddhatah parardhyam

     tanayam janani samiksya shushpan-

     nayana hanta babhuva nishcalangi


     The following is an example of becoming stunned due to bhaya (fear)-"When Devaki saw her son Shri Krishna, who is more dear to her than her own life, surrounded by the assembly of wrestlers who were built just like mountains, her eyes remained unwavering and her body became motionless."(It is understood that this instance of becoming stunned (stambha) arising from fear on account of the existence of the vatsalya rati in Devaki, is a sattvika bhava.)


Ashcaryyad yatha dashame (10/13/56)-


(24) tato'tikutakod vrttas-timitaikadashendriyah

     tad-dhamna'bhud-ajas-tushnim pur-devy-antiva putrika


     The following is an example of becoming stunned due to ashcarya (astonishment)-"Shri Brahma, seeing Shri Krishna along with the calves and cowherd boys stolen by him, became struck with wonder at the majestic power of Shri Krishna, and all his senses were stunned in transcendental bliss.  He remained silent, unable to speak even a single word.  Just as statues are often established in front of the presiding deities of Vraja, Lord Brahma stood motionless before Lord Krishna, just like a golden statue with four h




Yatha va-


(25) shishoh syamasya pashyanti shailamabramliha kare

     tatra citrarpitevasid goshthi goshthanivasinam


     A second example of becoming stunned due to ashcarya is given as follows-"When the community of cowherders of Vraja saw Shri Krishna holding sky-high Govardhana hill on His hand they were struck with wonder and remained still just like painted pictures."


Vishadad Yatha-


(26) bakasodara-danavodare puratah prekshya vishantam-acyutam

     divishannikarau vishannadhih prakatam citrapatayate divi


     The following is an example of stambha arising from vishada (despondency)-"When the demigods in the higher planetary systems saw Shri Krishna enter into the belly of Aghasura, the brother of Bakasura, they were filled with despondency and became stunned exactly like dolls in a painting."


Amarshad Yatha-


(27) karttum icchati muradvishe purah

     patrimoksham-akrpe krpisute

     satvaro'pi ripunishkriye rusha

     nishkriyah kshanam-abhut-kapidhvajah


     The following is an example of stambha arising from amarsha (anger)-"Seeing Asvatthama, the merciless son of Krpi, prepared to release his arrows at Shri Krishna who was standing before him, Arjuna, who bears the flag of Hanuman, and who is quick at cutting down the enemy, became stunned and remained unconscious for some time."


Atha Sveda:-


(28) svedo harsham-bhaya-krodhad-ijah svedakarastanau


     When the mind is overwhelmed with emotion in relationship to Krishna and the body begins to perspire, such a symptom is called sveda sattvika bhava.  This sveda (perspiration) arises from harsha (jubilation), bhaya (fear), and krodha (anger).  Tatra Harshad Yatha-


(29) kimatra suryya-tapamakshipanti

     mugdhakshi! caturyyamurikaroshi

     jnata purah prekshya saroruhaksham

     svinna'si bhinna kusumayudhena



     The following is an example of sveda arising from harsha (jubilation)-(Seeing Shri Krishna, Shri Radhika became soaked with perspiration.  But in order to conceal the reason for this, She began to condemn the sun, making it appear as though Her perspiration was due to the heat of the sun.  Seeing this, one sakhi spoke as follows)-"Oh girl with the charming eyes Radhe! Why are You cleverly condemning the rays of the sun?  I can understand that upon seeing the lotus-eyed Shri Krishna standing before You, You have become afflicted with cupid's flower arrows and thus You are perspiring heavily."


Bhayad Yatha-


(30) kutukad-abhimanyu-veshinam harim-akrushya gira pragalbhaya

     viditakrtirakulah kshanadajani svinnatanuh sa raktakah


     The following is an example of sveda arising from bhaya (fear)-"One day, just to amuse Himself, Shri Krishna adopted the dress of Abhimanyu.  Seeing Him dressed in this way, Shri Krishna's servant Raktaka rebuked Him very severely.  Later, when he came to understand that it was Shri Krishna, his mind became very perturbed and for some time, he was soaked in perspiration."


Notes: In text thirty, a gopa by the name of Abhimanyu is described.  In his commentary on this text, Jiva Gosvami explains that by the influence of yogamaya, Abhimanyu thinks himself to be the husband of Shri Radha.  Yogamaya manufactured a duplicate of Shri Radha who remains with him.  This is indicated in the following verse from Shrimad Bhagavatam-(10/33/37)-


     nasuyan khalu krishnaya mohitas tasya mayaya

     manyamanah sva-parsva-sthan svan svan daran vrajaukasah


     "The cowherd men, bewildered by Krishna's illusory potency, thought their wives had remained home at their sides.  Thus they did not harbor any jealous feelings against Him."


     This Abhimanyu, the so-called husband of Shri Radha, is also a construction of yogamaya.  When Raktaka saw Krishna in the dress of Abhimanyu he became angry and rebuked Him.  When he later understood that it was his master Shri Krishna, he became soaked with perspiration due to fear.


Krodhad Yatha-


(31) yajnasya bhangadati-vrshti-karinam

     samikshya shakram sarusho garutmatah

     ghanoparishtad-api tishthatas-tada

     nipeturangad ghananir-abindavah


     The following is an example of sveda arising from Krodha (anger)-"Seeing Indra showering torents of rain on the inhabitants of Vraja on account of their abandoning the Indra yajna, Garuda, who was situated above the clouds, became very angry and began to perspire."


(32) romanco'yam kilashcaryyam-harshotsaha-bhayadijah

     romnamabhyud-gamas-tatra gatra-samsparshanadayah


     The sattvika bhava known as romanca (standing of the hairs on end), arises from ashcaryya (astonishment), harsha (jubilation), utsaha (enthusiasm) and bhaya (fear), caused by dealings in relationship to Krishna's pastimes.  Romanca is characterised by the standing of the hairs on end a feeling in the limbs as if they were touching something.


Tatra Ashcaryyad Yatha-


(33) dambhasya jrmbham bhajatas-trilokim

     vilokya vailakshyavati mukhantah

     babhuva goshthendra-kutumbiniyam

     tanuruhaih kudmalitanga-yashtih


     The following is an example of romanca arising from ascharyya (astonishment)-"Once child Krishna opened His mouth widely while yawning.  Shri Yashoda, the wife of Nanda Maharaja, seeing the three worlds in His mouth, was struck with wonder and the hairs of her body stood on end."


Harshad Yatha Shri Dashame (10/30/10)


(34) kim te krtam kshiti tapo bata keshavanghri-

     sparshotsavotpulakitanga-ruhair vibhasi

     apy anghri-sambhava urukrama-vikramad va

     aho varaha-vapusah-parirambhanena


     The following is an example of romanca arising from harsha (jubilation)-(When Shri Krishna disappeared from the rasa dance, the gopis were searching for Him from forest to forest.  Seeing the smooth grass sprouted from the earth, they believed the earth to be exhibiting symptoms of ecstatic horripilation (romanca) and inquired as follows)-"O mother earth, what austerity did you perform to attain the touch of Lord Keshava's lotus feet, which has brought you such great joy that your bodily hairs are standing on end?  You appear very beautiful in this condition.  Was it during the Lord's current appearance that you acquired this ecstatic symptom, or was it perhaps much earlier, when He stepped upon you in His form of the dwarf Vamanadeva, or even earlier, when He embraced you in His form of the boar Varahadeva?


Utsahad Yatha-


(35) shringam kelir-anarambhe ranayaty-aghamarddane

     shridamno yoddhu kamasya reje romancitam bapuh


     The following is an example of romanca arising from utsaha (enthusiasm)-"When Shridham, who was eager to engage in fighting, heard the buffalo horn of Shri Krishna, the annihilator of sins, announcing the beginning of the fighting sports, his body became decorated with ecstatic horripilation."


Bhayad Yatha-


(36) vishvarupa-dharamad-bhutakrtim

     prekshya tatra purushottamam purah

     arjunah sapadi shushyadananah

     shishriye vikatakantakam tanum


     The following is an example of romanca arising from bhaya (fear)-"Seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna standing before him in His astonishing feature as the Universal form, Shri Arjuna's face dried up and the hairs of his body stood on end."


(37) vishada-vismayamarsha-harsha-bhityadi-sambhavam

     vaisvaryyam svarabhedah syadesha gadgadika'dikrt


     Upon the arising of vishada (despondancy), vismaya (wonder), krodha (anger), harsha (jubilation) and bhaya (fear), (in endeavors that are connected to Krishna), the sattvika bhava known as svarabheda (hoarseness or faltering of the voice) becomes manifest.  The symptom of svarabheda is characterised by the faltering of the voice.


Tatra Vishad Yatha-


(38) vrajarajni! rathatpuro harim

     svayam-ityarddha vishirnajalpaya

     hrimayenadrsha guravapi

     shlathayantya kila rodita sakhi


     The following is an example of svarabheda arising from vishada (despondency)-(At the time of the departure to Mathura, when Shri Krishna climbed upon the chariot of Akrura, Shrimati Radharani abandoned all modesty in front of Shri Yashoda and the other elders and spoke as follows)-"O Vrajarajni (Shri Yashoda)!  You yourself, from the chariot where Shri Hari stands before you..."  Her voice faltering out of great lamentation, Shrimati Radharani was only able to speack this much.  Seeing this situation all of Her dear friends (priya sakhis) began to cry.


Vismayad Yatha Shri Dashame (10/13/64)


(39) shanairthotthaya vimrjya locane

     mukundam-udvikshya vinamrakandharah

     krtanjalih prashrayavan samahitah



     The following is an example of svarabheda arising from vismaya (wonder) as described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10/13/64) in regards to the Brahma vimohan lila)-"Brahmaji, after offering prostrated obeisances unto Lord Krishna, rose slowly, wiped his eyes and with a lowered head, he gazed upon Shri Krishna.   Summoning all of his concentration, his hands folded in humility, trembling and with a faltering voice, he haltingly began to offer prayers to the Lord.  (In this instance, Brahmaji's manifestation of the sattvika bhava known as svarabheda (faltering of the voice) is caused by wonder on account of seeing the astonishing sweetness of Shri Krishna.)


Amarshad Yatha Tatraiva (10/29/30)


(40) preshtham priyetaram-iva pratibhashamanam

     krshnam tad-artha-vinivarttita-sarvakamah

     netre vimrjya ruditapahate sma-kincit



     The following is an example of svarabheda instigated by amarsha (anger) as described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10/29/30)-(On the night of rasa, hearing the sound of Shri Krishna's flute, all the young gopis of Vraja abandoned kith and kin and arrived by Krishna's side.  Krishna then began to tell them they should return home.  Describing the scene at that time, Sukadeva Gosvami spoke as follows.)-"My dear Maharaja Pariksit!  The gopis were extremely attached to Shri Krishna.  They had renounced all other interests and were exclusively devoted unto Him.  They were also very dear to Shri Krishna.  However, when they heard such unpleasant words from the mouth of Shri Krishna, their eyes became practically blind from continuous crying.  Wiping their eyes and being somewhat angry, they began to speak with faltering voices."


Harshad Yatha Tatraiva (10/39/56-57)

(41) vilokya su-bhrsham prito bhaktya paramaya yathah 

     hrshyat-tanuruho bhava-pariklinnatma-locanah

     gira gadgadaya'staushit sattvam-alambya sattvatah

     pranamya murdhnavahitah krtanjali-putah shanaih


     The following is an example of svarabheda arising from harsha (jubilation) as described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10/39/56-57)-(When Akrura was taking Krishna and Balarama to Mathura, he stopped and got down from the chariot along the way in order to take bath in the Yamuna.  Akrura saw that Krishna and Balarama were also in the Yamuna and at that time he witnessed their multifarious opulence.)-"At that time the hairs of his body stood on end, his body became soaked with perspiration due to intense emotion and his eyes were flooded with tears.  "Our very own Shri Krishna is the Supreme Lord"-understanding this, Akrura, filled with great affection, bowed in reverence toward the Lord, made prostrated obeisances, and with folded hands and a faltering voice, he began to offer prayers from pure goodness."


Bhiter Yatha-


(42) tvayy-arpitam vitara venum-iti pramadi-

     shrutva madiritam-udir-na-vivarna-bhavah

     turnam babhuva guru-gadgada-ruddha-kanthah

     patri mukunda ! tad anena sa harito'sti


     The following is an example of svarabheda arising from bhaya (fear)-(One friend said to Shri Krishna)-"O friend!  I said to Your servant Patri, "Please return the flute which I had given you."  Hearing me speak these words, his complexion faded, his throat became choked and he began to speak in a faltering voice.  Therefore, O Mukunda! Your flute has been lost due to the carelessness of that Patri."


Atha Vepathuh-


(43) vitrasamarsha-harshadyair vepathur-gatra-laulyakrt


     When there is trembling in the body due to vitrasa (fear), amarsha (anger) or harsha (jubilation) such a condition is called vepathu or kampa (trembling).


Tatra Vitrasena Yatha-


(44) shankhacudam-adhirudha-vikramam

     prekshya vistrtabhujam jighrkshaya

     ha vrajendra-tanayeti vadini

     kampa-sampadamadhatta radhika


     The following is an example of vepathu (trembling) arising from vitrasa (fear)-(Once when Shri Krishna was enjoying sportive pastimes with Shri Radha and the other sakhis, Shankhacuda came there.  Stretching out his hands, he lifted Shri Radhaji and began to make off with Her.)-"Then seeing the great audacity of Shankhacuda as he spread his hands to steal Her away, Shri Radha cried out, `O Vrajendranandana! Saying only this much, She began to tremble fiercly."


Amarshana Yatha-


(45) krshnadhikshepa-jatena vyakula nakulanujah

     cakampe dragamarshena bhukampe giriradiva


     The following is an example of kampa arising from amarsha (anger)-"Upon hearing the blasphemy of Shri Krishna by Sisupala, Sadadeva, the younger brother of Nakula, his mind greatly perturbed, became insulant with anger.  At that time he began to tremble exactly as a mountain becomes tremulous during an earthquake."


Harshena Yatha-


(46) vihasasi katham hatashe ! pashya bhayenadya kampamana'smi

     cancalam-upasodantam nivaraya vrajapatestanayam


     The following is an example of kampa arising from harsha (jubilation)-(Once Shri Radha began to tremble with ecstatic bliss upon seeing Shri Krishna.  Seeing this, one of Her sakhis began to joke with Her.  Shri Radha thus spoke to Her sakhi.)-"O Hatashe! Why are you joking with me? Can't you see that today I am trembling from fear.  (In order to hide Her true feelings, Shrimati Radharani said that She was trembling due to fear instead of from the bliss of seeing Shri Krishna).  Don't go near this restless son of the king of Vraja (Vrajendranandana).


Atha Vaivarnyam-


(47) vishada-rosha-bhityader-vaivarnyam varnavikriya

     bhavajnair-atra malinya-karshyadyah parikirttitah


     When there is pallor, or a change of color arising from vishad (despondency), krodha (anger) or bhaya (fear), such a condition is known as vaivarnya.  Learned scholars in the science of discerning emotions say that when there is change of color, one also appears gloomy (malin) and emaciated (krsha).


Tatra Vishad Yatha-


(48) shvetikrtakhilajanam birahena tavadhuna

     gokulam krshna ! devarsheh svetadvipa-bhrama dadhe


     The following is an example of vaivarnya arising from vishad (despondency)-"O Krishna!  Due to separation from You, all the residents of Gokula have turned white, their color having faded.  Therefore, Devarshi Narada has mistaken Gokula for Svetadvipa.


Roshad Yatha-


(49) kamsa-shatrum-abhiyunjatah puro

     vikshya kamsa-sahajanudayudhan

     shribalasya sakhi ! tasya rushyatah

     prodyadintunibhamanana babhau


     The following is an example of vaivarnya arising from rosha (indignation or anger)-(After the death of Kamsa, when his brothers Kanka, Nyagrodha, etc. came to fight with Krishna, the city women observing the scene, began to speak among themselves as follows)-"O friend!  Just see the brothers of Kamsa coming forward wielding weapons to fight with Shri Krishna.  Just see the face of Shri Baladeva, red with anger, just as the rising of the full moon is decorated with a reddish hue."



Bhither Yatha-


(50) rakshite vrajakule bakarina parvatam varamudasya lilaya

     kalima valaripormukhe bhavannucivan-manasi bhitimutthitam


     The following is an example of vaivarnya arising from bhita (fear)-"Upon learning that Shri Krishna had easily lifted Govardhana, the King of mountains, in order to protect the land of Vraja, Indra's face turned black intimating at the fear which had arisen in his mind."


(51) vishade shvetima prokto dhausaryyam kalima kvacit

     roshe tu raktima bhityam kalima kvapi shuklima


     When there is change of color (vaivarnya) arising from vishada (despondency) then the complexion sometimes becomes whithish, sometimes dust colored and sometimes blackish.  When there is a change of color due to rosha (anger) the complexion becomes reddish and when there is change of color arising from fear the complexion sometimes becomes blackish and sometimes whitish.


(52) raktima lakshyate vyakto harshodreke'pi kutracit

     atrasarvatrikatvena nauvasyodahrtih krta


     When there is a change of color arising from excessive jubilation (harsha) the complexion becomes very distinctly reddish.  However, since this is not observed in all cases, no example has been given here.


(53) harsha-rosha-vishadadyair-ashru netre jalodgamah

     harshajo'shruni shitatvamaushnyam roshadasumbhave

     sarvatra nayanakshobharagasammarjanadayah


     When, due to harsha (jubilation), krodha (anger) or vishada (despondency), the eyes become filled with tears without any effort, such a condition is called `ashru'.  Tears arising from jubilation are cold, whereas tears arising from anger are hot.  In all the varieties (mentioned above) of the sattvika bhava known as ashru, there is restlessness of the eyes, redness and constant rubbing of the eyes.  (Running of the nose is also a characteristic part of ashru).


Tatra Harshena Yatha-


(54) govinda-prekshana-kshepivashpa-purabhivarshinam



     The following is an example of ashru arising from harsha (jubilation)-"When lotus-eyed Rukmini's vision of Shri Govinda was obstructed due to the rain of tears arising from jubilation, she began to severely condemn such jubilation (ananda)."


Notes:  In this example, it is not ananda which is condemned since by nature, ananda is not something which is to be condemned.  It is the constant wiping of the eyes, which are filled with tears on account of ananda, which is condemnable.  From the bliss of seeing Krishna so many tears began to flow that Rukmini's vision of Krishna became obstructed.  Therefore, in this instance it is only the tears arisen from excessive bliss and which presented an obstacle in seeing Krishna which is condemned.  In Jiva Gosvami's Durgama Sangamani commentary on this verse, a statement of nyaya (logic) has been partially cited.  Shripad Visvanatha Cakravarti, in his commentary on Shrimad Bhagavatam, text (11/30/1) has cited the same reference in full-"savisheshane hi vidhi-nishedhau visheshanam-upasankramatah sati visheshyabadhe."  In other words, in the application of rules with reference to nouns and their qualifying adjectives, if the application of that rule with the noun is negated, then the authority of that rule is transferred to the adjective.  In this verse the noun is `anandam'.  The relationship of the verb `anindat' (past tense of nind-to condemn) with the noun `anandam' is prohibited, since by nature ananda is not something wich is condemnable.  Therefore, it should be accepted here that the verb `anindat' is related to the adjective `vashpa-purabhimarshinam' (rubbing of the eyes due to constant crying) and not to the noun `ananda'.  The purport of these statements is that the tears presented an obstacle in seeing Krishna and it is that which is condemnable, not ananda.


Roshena Yatha Harivamshe-


(55) tasyah susrava netrabhyam vari pranaya-kopajam

     kusheshaya-palashabhyam-avashyaya-jalam yatha


     The following is an example of ashru arising from rosha (anger) as stated in Harivamsha-"Due to the furry of love, a stream of tears, just like drops of mist, began to flow from the lotus-like eyes of Satyabhama."


Yatha Va-


(56) bhimasya cedishavadham vidhitso

     reje'sru visravi rushoparaktam

     udyanmukha vadhikanavakirnam

     sandhyatvisha grastam ivendubimbam


     A second example of ashru arising from anger is given as follows-"When Bhimasena was ready to kill Sisupala his face became red with anger and his eyes filled up with tears.  At that time it appeared that his face was being decorated, just as the moon, rising in the evening sky, is decorated by a reddish hue and by drops of water."



Vishadena Yatha Shri Dashame (10/60/23)-


(57) yada sujatena nakharunashriya

     bhuvam kikhantyashru bharanjanasitaih

     asincati kunkumarushitau stanau



     In the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10/60/23), the following example is given of ashru arising from vishada (despondency)-(Once Shri Krishna, joking with Rukmini, spoke in such a way that was very unpleasant for her.  Krishna said, "O Rukmini!  You made a great mistake by selecting me as your husband, leaving aside Sisupala and all the other heroic kings.  Being that I am a desireless individual, you may now go wherever you like."  The condition which was experienced by Rukmini upon hearing this statement is described in the above verse.)-"Hearing the statement of Shri Krishna, Rukmini began to dig up the earth with the gracefully decorated red nails of her soft lotus feet.  Her breasts which were nicely adorned with Kunkum powder became consecrated with the blackish tears falling from her collyrium anointed eyes.  Her throat became choaked up and she cast her glance downward."


Atha Pralayah-


(58) pralayah sukha-duhkhabhyam ceshta-jnananirakrtih

     tatranubhavah kathita mahinipatanadayah


     When all activity (ceshta) is arrested and one looses consciousness (jnana) due to happiness or tribulation, such a condition is called pralaya (devastation) or murccha (fainting or swoon).


Notes:  In the state of pralaya, because the asraya alambana vibhava, in other words the individual in whom love is reposed, becomes merged in Shri Krishna, there is a deficiency in activity (ceshta) and consciousness (jnana).  Because the totality of the mind becomes merged in Shri Krishna, the mental faculties become devoid of activity and therefore any kind of memory or consciousness also becomes lost.


     The symptoms of the sattvika bhava known as stambha (becoming stunned) resemble those mentioned here.  The distinction between the two is that in stambha, the function of the knowledge acquiring senses is suspended but the mind continues to function.  But in murccha (fainting), the function of the mind is also lost.  This is due only to it's becoming merged in Shri Krishna.


Tatra Sukhena Yatha-


(59) militam harim-alokya latapunjadatarkitam

     jnapti-shunya-mana reje nishcalangi vrajangana


     The following is an example of pralaya arising from sukha (happiness)-"Suddenly, Shri Krishna emerged from the thicket of creepers and came towards one perticular gopi in order to meet with her.  Seeing this, she became completely motionless and fell unconscious."


Dukhena Yatha Shri Dashame (10/39/15)-


(60) anyashca tad-anudhyana-nivrttasheshavrttayah

     nabhyajanannimam lokam-atmalokam gata iva


     In the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10/35/15), the following example is given of pralaya arising from dukha (distress)-(When the gopis learned that Akrura had come in order to take Shri Krishna to Mathura, many of the sattvika bhavas arose in them simultaneously).  "The gopis were so deeply absorbed in meditation upon Shri Krishna that all the functions of their senses became completely suspended.  They had given up all interest in the things of this world so much so that they lost consciousness of their own bodies. 

Their condition was exactly like the state of liberated persons absorbed in samadhi."


(61) sarve hi sattvam-ulatvadbhava yadyapi sattvikah

     tatha'pyamisham sattvaika-mulatvat-sattvika-pratha


     Even though both the anubhavas such as dancing, etc. which are known as udbhasvara, and the sattvika bhavas such as becoming stunned etc. arise from sattva and are therefore emotions arising from unadulterated goodness (sattvika bhava), the sattvika bhavas alone are termed as such because they arise purely from goodness without any application of the intelligence.


(62) satvasya taratamyat-prana-tanu-kshobha-taratamyam syat

     tata eva taratamyam sarvesham sattvikanam syat


     The vital air and the body become agitated in accordance with the degree of sattva.  Therefore there are degrees of intensity of all the sattvika bhavas.


Notes:  Sveda (perspiration), stambha (becoming stunned), etc. alone are known as sattvika bhavas.  Yet there are conditions under which these very same symptoms cannot be accepted as sattvika bhavas.  Tears, trembling, horripilation and fainting etc. are apparently present in worldly minded persons arising from extreme happiness, distress, anger, fear etc. in connection with the practical subjects of this material world.  However these are not sattvika bhavas.  Only those symptoms which arise from sattva, in other words, only those symptoms which arise when the mind is overpowered with emotion in relationship with Krishna, are called sattvika bhavas.  Nrtya (dancing), viluhita (rolling on the ground) etc., also arise only from sattva, but because in those movements there is application of the intelligence they are not called sattvika bhavas.  They are known as udbhasvara.  Certainly these (dancing etc.) arise on the basis of sravana, kirtan etc., but in the case of the sattvika bhavas, the various practices of bhajana are not the exclusive foundation giving rise to those symptoms.


     By the degree of sattva (mentioned in the verse above), is implied the degree to which the mind is overpowered by emotions in relationship to Krishna.  In other words, the intensity of the emotions being overpowered is called the degree of sattva.  The degree of agitation of the vital air and body corresponds to the degree to which the emotions are overpowered.  Therefore, the extent to which the overpowering of the mind by emotions in relationship with Krishna is developed, determines the degree of radiance in the expression of the sattvika bhavas.  Accordingly, four grades or characteristic features of each of the sattvika bhavas are described ahead.


(63) dhumayitaste jvalita dipta uddiptasanjnitah

     vrddhim yathottaram yantah sattvikah syush-caturvidhah


     Progressively increasing sattvika bhavas are of four types-(1) dhumayita (smouldering), (2) jvalita (flaming), (3) dipta (burning) and (4) uddipta (brightly burning).  (The increase in radiance in the manifestation of the sattvika bhavas is herein likened unto the degree of radiance of the flames in burning wood.)


(64) sa bhuri-kala-vyapitvam bahvanga-vyapita'pi ca

     svarupena tathotkarsha iti vrddhis-tridha bhavet


     This increase in radiance is measured according to three different criteria-(1) the length of time for which the symptoms manifest (bhuri kala vyapi), (2) the degree to which the symptoms pervade the limbs of the body (bahvanga vyapi) and (3) the extent to which the perticular nature of the sattvika bhavas are manifest (svarupena utkarsha).


Translator's note: There are three criteria by which the intensity of the sattvika bhavas may be measured.  If we take the example of Kampa (trembling), the first criteria is how long the trembling lasts for.  The second criteria is the extent to which that trembling is spread to different parts of the body and the third criteria is the intensity of the trembling in any or all parts of the body.  According to the radiance of the sattvika bhava, as measured by the above-mentioned criteria, and it's combination with other sattvika bhavas, the ecstatic symtoms exhibited are classified in four categories as described ahead.


(65) tatra netrambuvaisvarya-varjanam-eva yujyate    

bahvanga-vyapita'misham tayoh ka'pi vishishtata


     Apart from tears and faltering of the voice, all the other sattvika bhavas are spread throughout the body.  Tears and faltering of the voice have certain specialized features.


(66) tatrashrunam drgaucchunya-karitv-amavadatata

     tatha tara'ti-vaicitri-vailakshanya-vidhayita

     vaisvaryyasya tu bhinnatve kaunthya-vyakulata'dyah


     The shedding of tears cause the eyes to become swollen and whitish and the pupils to take on a peculiar appearance.  (These are the specialized features of ashru).  When there is faltering of the voice, because of the difference (bhinnatva) in tone, the throat becomes choked (kaunthya) and the voice becomes perturbed (vyakulata). 


(67) bhinnatvam sthana-vibhramshah kaunthyam syat-sanna-kanthata

     vyakulatvam tu nanoccanicagupta-viluptatta


     By difference (bhinnatva) in tone, it is implied that the voice becomes faded (sthanna-vibramshah), in other words, it appears as if the words are rumbling from the throat.  By bluntness (kaunthya), it is implied that the throat becomes choked and thus no sound is able to come out from the throat.  By perturbation (vyakulata) it should be understood that the voice fluctuates, being sometimes high, sometimes low, sometimes hidden, and sometimes vanished.


(68) prayo dhumayita eva rukshas-tisthanti sattvikah

     snigdhastu prayashah sarve caturddhaiva bhavantyami


     All sattvika bhavas which are classified as ruksha (dried up) generally manifest only in the stage known as dhumayita (smouldering).  The sattvika bhavas which are classified as snigdha (soft) generally are of four varieties-(1) dhumayita (smouldering), jvalita (flaming), dipta (burning) and uddipta (brightly burning).


(69) mahotsavadi-vrtteshu sadagoshthitanda-vadishu

     jvalanty-alpasinah kvapi te ruksha api kasyacid


     Sometimes during religious festivals, when there is dancing in the association of devotees, sattvika bhavas which are classified as ruksha may rise to the stage of jvalita (flaming).


(70) sarvannanda-camatkara-hetur-bhavo varo ratih

     ete hi tad-vinabhavanna camatkarita'shrayah


     Attachment (rati) for Krishna alone is the cause of joyous astonishment.  Therefore, rati is the topmost emotion.  Without rati, the ruksha sattvika bhavas cannot be the basis of astonishment.


(The stages of manifestation of the sattvika bhavas (dhumayita, etc.) will be described next, in detail along with examples.)


Tatra dhumayitah-


(71) advitiya ami bhava athava sadvitiyakah

     ishad vyakta apanhotum shakya dhumayita matah


     That sattvika bhava which manifests in a very small quantity either by itself or combined with another sattvika bhava and which is capable of being hidden (by the devotee), is called `dhumayita' (smouldering).


Notes:  When stambha (becoming stunned) alone is very slightly manifest, or when other symptoms such as tears, trembling etc. manifest along with it, and when the devotee is able to hide those symptoms, then it is called dhumayita bhava.  Because the symtoms are manifest only to a small extent in the dhumayita stage, the devotee is able to conceal them.  But when the symptoms manifest to a great extent, the devotee is not able to conceal them.




(72) akarnayann-agharam-aghavari-kirtti-


     yashta darocchvasitaloma-kapolamishat

     prasvinna-nasikam-uvaha mukharavindam


     The following is an example of sattvika bhava manifested in the dhumayita stage-"When the sacrificial priest, heard the glories of Shri Krishna, which destroy all sins, a few tears began to fill his eyelids, the hairs on his cheeks were slightly raised and some perspiration appeared on his nose.  In this way his lotus face bloomed to a slight extent, being decorated with various symptoms of ecstacy (sattvika bhavas)."


Notes:  In this example, ashru (tears), romanca (horripilation) and sveda (perspiration) arose simultaneously in the priest, but only to a very slight extent.  Tears arose only in his eyelids, horripilation occured only on his cheeks and perspiration appeared only on his nose.  Therefore, this is an instance of dhumayita bhava.


Atha Jvalitah-


(73) te dvau trayo va yugapadyantah suprakatam dasham

     shakyah krcchrena ninhotum jvalita iti kirttitah


     If two or three sattvika bhavas manifest prominently at the same time, and if they can be concealed only with great difficulty, this condition is called jvalit (flaming).




(74) na gunjamadatum prabhavati karah kampataralo-

     drshau sasre piccham na paricinutah satvarakrti!

     kshamavuru stabdhau padam-api na gantum tava sakhe!

     vanadvamshidhvane parisaramavapte shravanayoh


     The following is an example of sattvika bhavas being manifest in the jvalit stage (flaming)-A cowherd boy said to Shri Krishna-"O friend! When I heard the sound of Your flute from within the forest, my hands began to tremble and therefore I was immediately unable to grasp the gunja berries.  On account of the tears which filled my eyes, I could not recognize the peacock tail, and  my thighs became so stunned that I could not move a single step."


Notes:  In his commentary on this verse, Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains the significance of the words satvarakrti.  Satvara means very speedily and krti means work or deed.  The verse says that on account of his trembling, the cowherd boy was very quickly unable to grasp the gunja berries.  This implies that after some time, he was again able to do so.  In other words, with a significant endeavor, he was able to conceal his trembling.  Therefore, this is accepted as an instance of jvalit bhava.


Yatha Va-


(75) niruddha vashpambhah katham-api maya gadgadagiro-

     hriya sadyo gudhah sakhi! vigatito vepathur-api

     giridronyam venau dhvanati nipunauringitamaye

     tatha'pyuhancakre mama manasi ragah parijanaih


     A second example of jvalit sattvika bhava is given as follows-"O Sakhi!  When I heard the sound of Krishna's flute in the foothills of the mountain, I was able to stop my tears with great difficulty.  Feeling ashamed, I was somehow or other able to conceal my choked voice also.  But I was unable to stop the trembling of my body.  Therefore all of my clever friends could easily detect the attachment for Shri Krishna that was present within my mind."


Atha Diptah-


(76) praudham trichatura vyaktim panca va yugpadgatah

     samvaritum-ashakyaste dipta dhirair-udahrta


     When three, four or five sattvika bhavas manifest very powerfully at the same time and when it is not possible to supress such expressions, this condition is known as dipta sattvika bhava.




(77) na shaktim-upabinane ciramadhatta kampakulo-

     na gadgada-niruddhavak prabhur-abhud-upashlokane

     kshamo'jani na vikshane vigalad-ashrupurah puro-

     muradvishi pari-sphuraty-avashamurttir-asinmunih


     The following is an example of sattvika bhavas being manifest in the dipta (burning) stage-"Seeing Shri Krishna before him, Narada Muni became so helpless that from the trembling in his limbs, he was unable to play his vina.  Because of the faltering of his voice, he was unable to offer prayers to the Supreme Lord.  And due to the uninterrupted flow of tears from his eyes, his vision of Shri Krishna was impaired."


Yatha Va-


(78) kim-unmilaty-asre kusum-ajarajo ganjasi mudha

     saromance kampe himamanishamakroshasi kutah

     kim-urustambhe va vanaviharanam dvekshi sakhi? te

     nirabadha radhe! vadati madanadhim svarabhida


     A second example of dipta sattvika bhava is given as follows-(When Shri Radha heard the sound of Shri Krishna's flute, her condition was such that, upon seeing her, a friend spoke to her as follows)-"O friend! Of what use is it to accuse the flower pollens for the stream of tears flowing from Your eyes?  Why are You uselessly becoming angry at the cold air on account of the trembling which has arisen in Your body?  What is the point in Your trying to attribute the stunned condition of your limbs to Your wanderings in the forest?  How many excuses will You not make, O Radhe! The faltering of Your voice has been brought about by the ache of cupid (madana)."  (In this instance, the bhava of Shri Radha is so intense that She is unable to supress any of it's symptoms).


(79) ekada vyaktimapannah pancasha sarva eva va

     arudhah paramotkarsham-uddipta it shabditah


     When five or six, or even all eight of the sattvika bhavas manifest simultaneously and attain supreme exaltation, this condition is called uddipta sattvika bhava.




(80) adya svidyati vepate pulakibhirnih spandatamangakair

     dhate kakubhirakulam vilapati mlayatyanalposhmabhih

     timyatyambubhirambakastavakitaih pitambaroddamaram-

     sadyas-tvad-virahena muhyati muhur-ghoshthadhivasi janah


     The following is an example of uddipta sattvika bhava-"O Pitambara (Krishna-who wears a yellow cloth)!  Today all the residents of Gokula are trembling and perspiring due to separation from You.  They are remaining stunned with the hairs of their bodies standing on end.  Being very perturbed, they are lamenting with voices full of anguish.  On account of extreme grief they are withering away.  They are becoming soaked from the flow of plump tears falling from their eyes like clusters and they are swooning very powerfully again and again."


(81) uddipta eva suddipta mahabhave bhavantyami

     sarva eva param kotim sattvika yatra vibhrati


     In the condition known as maha-bhava, in other words in the Krishna-rati of the gopis of Vraja, all the sattvika bhavas reach the summit of expression being extremely bright in their radiance.  Such a state is called suddipta (blazing).  (This condition of Maha-bhava is not to be found in anyone other than the gopis of Vraja.  Therefore, only in them is the condition known as suddipta observable.)




(82) athatra sattvikabhasa vilikhyante caturvidhah


     Four kinds of sattvika bhava abhasa will now be described.  (Jiva Gosvami explains in his commentary that in actuality these are not sattvika bhavas but because they resemble the sattvika bhavas, they are called sattvika bhava abhasa.)


(83) ratyabhasa-bhavaste tu satvabhas-bhavastatha

     nihsatvashca pratipashca yathapurvamami varah


     The four kinds of sattvika bhava abhasa are as follows-(1) Ratyabhasa bhava (that which arises from an abhasa of rati), (2) sattvabhasa bhava (that which arises from an abhasa of sattva), (3) nisattva (that which does not arise from sattva) and (4) pratipa (that which arises in persons who are averse to Krishna).  Of these four kinds of sattvika bhava abhasa, ratyabhasa is the best and the others are successively inferior in quality.




(84) mumukshu-pramukhoshvadya ratyabhasat-puroditat


     What was previously described (in text 1.3.45) as ratyabhasa bhava, existing in those who are desirous of liberation, etc. is also known as sattvika abhasa.


(85) varanasi-nivasi kashcid-vayam vyaharan hareshcaritam

     yatigoshthyam-utpulakah sincati gandadvayimasraih


     The following is an example of sattvika abhasa-It is sometimes observed amongst the assembly of sannyasis in Varanasi, that certain symptoms of ecstacy may become manifested in an individual upon hearing the songs glorifying the activities of Lord Hari.  Such an individual may manifest horripilation and tears.  These symptoms are known as sattvika abhasa.


Notes:  Those who are desirous of liberation generally live in Varanasi.  This was the custom in ancient times.  The sannyasis residing there are called mumukshus (those desirous of liberation).  When jnanis and yogis are desirous of liberation, then during their practice of saddhana, it is possible that they may undertake certain limbs of bhakti.  At that time some emotion may accidently manifest in them.  Although they may execute certain items of devotional service, bhakti or Krishna rati is not desired by them.  At the time of chanting the holy name or hearing the narrations of Lord Hari, they may sometimes manifest horripilation, tears and other symptoms.  It is accepted that these symptoms, known as sattvika abhasa (the semblence of sattvika bhava) are produced from rati abhasa (the semblence of rati).  These symptoms are not accepted as real rati or real sattva.  They are a mere shadow of rati or sattvika bhava.  It may also be understood from this that if by the influence of anything related to Krishna, tears, trembling, etc. arise, these also are merely sattvika abhasa.


Atha Sattvabhasabhavah-


(86) mudvismayaderabhasah prodyan jatya shlathe hrdi

     satvabhasa iti proktah satvabhasa bhavastatah


     In persons whose hearts are naturally weak (shithila) or soft (komal), an abhasa of jubilation, wonder, etc. sometimes arises and this is known as sattvabhasa.  Symptoms such as horripilation, tears etc, arising subsequently from that abhasa of sattva, are called sattva abhasa bhava sattvika abhasa (sattvika abhasa arising from sattva abhasa).




(87) jara-mimamsaka-syapi shrnvatah krishna vibhramam

     hrshtayamana-manaso babhuvotpulakam vapuh


     The following is an example of sattva abhasa-Sometimes while repeatedly hearing of the transcendental appearance and activities of Shri Krishna, mimamsaka philosophers, who are devoid of bhakti, may experiece some delight within the mind which gives rise to symtoms in the body such as horripilation.


Translator's Note:  The example given here, of mimamsaka philosophers, is just to show that such symptoms may manifest even in non-devotees.  Shrila Prabhupada explains that in actuality the hearts of such persons are not melted.  They are hard-hearted.  But the influence of the glories of the Lord is so great that even the nondevotees sometimes shed tears.


Yatha va-


(88) mukunda charitamrita-prasara varshinaste maya

     katham kathana-caturi-madhurima gurur varvyatam

     muhurttamatadarthino vishayino'pi yasyanana-

     nnishamya vajaya prabhordadhati vashpadharamami


     A second example of sattva abhasa is given as follows-"How can I describe the extraordinary sweetness, or your ingenious statements which cause to fall, the rain of nectar in the form of the glorification of the activities of Shri Mukunda?  Hearing the triumph of Shri Krishna from your mouth, even persons who are ordinarily without relationship to such speeches and who are ensnared in material sense gratification, become filled with love and tears flow from their eyes."  (In this example the tears are sattvikabhasa because persons whose minds are attached to material sense enjoyment are devoid of rati for Shri Krishna.)


Notes:  In the hearts of those persons who from birth are soft-hearted, an abhasa of harsha (jubilation), vismaya (wonder), etc. may arise upon hearing any topics connected to Shri Krishna.  This condition is called sattvabhasa.  In the heart of those devotees in whom rati is already established, harsha (jubilation), vismaya (wonder), etc, arise from emotions related to Krishna.  The heart which is overpowered by such feelings (jubilation, etc.) is called sattva, and the heart which is overcome by emotion (bhava) related to Krishna is also called sattva.  In those instances where jubilation, wonder, etc. do not arise from sattva (in other words when such feelings arise in persons in whom rati is not already established), they are merely an abhasa.  When the heart is overpowered by that abhasa it is called sattvabhasa.   Because it increases the duration of life (ayu), ghee is called `ayu'.  Similarly because it gives rise to sattvabhasa, the abhasa of jubilation, wonder etc, is called sattvabhasa.  Symptoms of ecstacy such as tears, horripilation, etc. which arise from that sattvabhasa are called sattvabhasa bhava sattvikabhasa.  In sattvikabhasa also there is the requirement of things in relationship with Krishna such as hearing the pastimes of Shri Krishna.


Atha Nihsattva-


(89) nisargapicchilasvante tad-bhyasapare'pi ca

     satvabhasam vina'pi syuh kvapy-ashru-pulakadayah


     There are persons whose hearts are naturally slippery (picchila) and who practice tears, trembling etc., but who are devoid of even the abhasa of sattva as described above.  Such tears, horripilation, etc, which are sometimes obeserved in them are called `nihsattva sattvikabhasa' (sattvika abhasa which is devoid of sattva).




(90) nishamayato haricaritam na hi

     sukha-duhkhadayo'sya hrdi bhavah




     The following is an example of nihsattva sattvikabhasa-"In the heart of this person, who is hearing the narrations of Lord Hari without concentration, the emotions of happiness and distress are not arising.  Who then can understand how it is that an uninterrupted stream of tears is flowing from his eyes?"


(91) prakrtya shithilam yesham manah picchilam-eva va

     teshveva satvikabhasah prayah samsadi jayate


     Persons whose minds are soft and slippery generally manifest such symtoms known as sattvikabhasa during festivals when there is performance of kirtan in a large assembly.


Notes:  In sattvikabhasa which has arisen from an abhasa of sattva the heart is described as being shlatha (weak) and here the heart is described as being `picchila' (slippery).  The heart which is described as `slatha' (weak) is soft both externally and internally.  The heart which is `picchila' (slippery), is soft externally but internally it is very hard.  The meaning of picchila is that which is slippery.  A person who walks upon a slippery area does not fall everytime but only upon certain specific places.  Similarly, it is not that everytime a slippery hearted person hears narrations of Shri Krishna that tears, horripilation, etc. will arise, but only on some occasional basis.  But in those whose hearts are slatha (soft), or in other words who are by nature very sentimental, tears, horripilation, etc, will arise everytime they hear Krishna Katha.  Those symptoms which arise neither from sattva, nor from an abhasa of sattva and which have no touch of harsha (jubilation), vismaya (wonder), etc. either externally or internally, are therefore called nihsattva sattvikabhasa.  Some persons practice exhibiting crying, trembling, etc, for the entertainment of others or in other words to make a display of their so-called love.  Nihsattva is therefore called sattvikabhasa only because ignorant persons consider it to be just like the actual manifestation of sattvika bhavas.  For this reason it is described in context of sattvikabhasa.  Nihsattva is inferior to sattvabhasa sattvikabhasa.  Those whose hearts are shithila (soft or weak) manifest symptoms of sattvikabhasa even without being in a festival in which kirtan is being conducted in a large assembly.  However, those who hearts are picchila (slippery) manifest such symtoms only in such large gatherings.


Atha Pratipah-


(92) hitad-anyatra krishnasya pratipah krud-bhayadibhih


     When the enemies of Krishna experience change in bodily color (vaivarnya, etc.) as a result of fear, anger, etc, such symptoms are called `pratipa' sattvikabhasa.


Tatra Krudha Yatha Harivamshe-

(93) tasya prasphuritaushthasya raktadharatatasya ca

     vaktram kamsasya roshena raktasuryyayate tada


     The following is an example of pratipa sattvikabhasa arising out of anger, as stated in the Harivamsha-"Due to feelings of great anger toward Shri Krishna, Kamsa's upper lip was quivering, and his lower lip was becoming red.  Thus his whole face became as red as the sun." Bhayana Yatha-


(94) mlanananah krshnam-avekshya range

     sishveda mallas-tvadhi-bhalashukti

     mukti-shriyam sushthu puro milanty-



     The following is an example of pratipa sattvikabhasa arising from fear-"Seeing Shri Krishna in the amphitheater the face of the wrestler became faded, and on his forehead drops of perspiration appeared.  It was as if the drops of perspiration were pearls in the form of the anticipation of libeartion (after being killed by the Lord), appearing within the oyster shell of his forehead.  With these pearls he was respectfully offering worship to the lotus feet of the Lord."  (The vaivarnya (change of color) and sveda (perspiration) which arose here in an enemy of Krishna due to fear, are called pratipa sattvikabhasa.  Pratipa sattvikabhasa is exhibited by those who are possessed of the temperament of being opposed to Krishna (virodhi bhava).  In nisattva sattvikabhasa there is no such sentiment.  Therefore pratipa is inferior to nisattva sattvikabhasa.


Notes:  In this text there is a pun on the use of the word.  Mukti.  Mukti means liberation as well as pearl.  Therefore the drops of perspiration which are compared to pearls, also refer to mukti or liberation which the wrestler was anticipating upon being killed by Shri Krishna.


Yatha- (95) pravacyamane puratah purane-

            nishamya kamsasya madatirekam

            pariplavantah karanah samantat-



     A second example of pratipa sattvikabhasa arising from fear is as follows-"Upon hearing a recitation from the Bhagavat Purana of Kamsa's pride being pulverized, great turmoil arose within the heart of one enemy of Shri Krishna and his face became gloomy."


(96) nastyarthah satvikabhasa-kathane ko'pi yadyapi

     satvikanam vivekaya dik tatha'pi pradarshita


     The author says that although there is no need to mention the varieties of sattvika abhasa, the description has been given here just to clarify the position of the sattvika bhavas.  (The import of this statement is that the symptoms of asru (tears), pulaka (horripilation), etc, are not always taken to be sattvika bhavas.  Therefore, the imitative symtoms of sattvikabhasa have been described in context of the genuine symptoms of the sattvika bhavas.)


Thus ends the Third Wave of the Southern Division of Shri Bhaktirasamrta Sindhu, entitled Sattvika Bhava.


Fourth Wave (Vyabhicari bhava)


Atha Vyabhicarinih-


(1)  athocyante trayas-trimshad-bhava ye vyabhicarinih

     visheshenabhimukhyena caranti sthayinam prati


     After the description of the sattvika bhavas, there is a description of thirty-three vyabhicari bhavas.  Movement or variation which is specifically directed toward the sthayi bhava is called vyabhicari bhava.


(2)  vaganga-sattvasucya ye jneyaste vyabhicarinih

     sancarayanti bhavasya gatim sancarino'pi te


     The manifestation of these emotions is intimated at or understood, through one's words, through the limbs (eyes, eyebrows, etc.) and through sattva or in other words, through the anubhavas arisen from sattva.  All these vyabhicari bhavas move (sancarit) the condition of the emotions.  Therefore, they are also called sancari (which moves) bhavas.


(3)  unmajjanti nimajjanti sthayiny-amrtavaridhau

     urmmivad-varddhayanty-enam yanti tad-rupatam ca te


     These vyabhicari bhavas emerge and submerge in the nectar ocean in the form of the sthayi bhava.  They increase and enlarge the sthayi bhava just like waves and then again merge into the sthayi bhava.  Just as waves rise up from the ocean and then expand the ocean, the vyabhicari bhavas arise from the sthayi bhava and then enhance the sthayi bhava.  And as the waves arisen from the ocean merge back into the ocean, and become one with the ocean, the vyabhicari bhavas arisen from the sthayi bhava, merge back into the sthayi bhava and become one with the sthayi bhava.


Notes:  The general meaning of the word vyabhicara is debauchery, misbehaviour or depravity.  Accordingly, a person who is attached to such behavior is called a vyabhicari (debauchee).  But here, the word vyabhicari is not connected with the general meaning given in the dictionary.  The word vyabhicari here has a special technical meaning.  It can be broken down into three parts: vi (opposing or intensifying), abhi (towards) and cari (going).  In other words an emotion which moves particularly in the direct

ion of the sthayibhava is called vyabhicari.  It arises from the sthayi bhava, increases the sthayi bhava and then merges back into the sthayi bhava.  It has no connection with anything apart from the sthayi bhava.


     The description of the sthayi bhavas is related in detail in the next wave.  Here it is sufficient to know that Krishna rati is called sthayi bhava.  Therefore, that emotion which arises from Krishna rati, enlarges it and then merges back into it, is called vyabhicari bhava.  Because it moves (sancarit) the condition of the emotions, it is also called sanchari (which moves) bhava.


(4)  nirvedo'tha vishado dainyam glani-shramau ca mada-garvau

     shanka-trasavega unmadapasmrti tatha vyadhih


(5)  moho mrtir-alasyam jadyam brida'vahittha ca

     smrtir-atha vitarka-cinta-mati-dhrtayo harsha utsukatvam ca


(6)  augyamarshasuyash-capalyam caiva nidra ca

     suptir-bodha itime bhava vyabhicarinih samakhyata


     There are thirty three vyabhicari bhavas as follows: (1) nirveda (self-disparagement), (2) vishada (despondency), (3) dainya (depression), (4) glani (debility), (5) shrama (fatigue), (6) mada (intoxication), (7) garva (pride), (8) shanka (doubt), (9) trasa (fear), (10) avega (agitation), (11) unmada (madness), (12) apasmrti (forgetfulness or hysteric convulsions), (13) vyadhi (disease), (14) moha (confusion or fainting), (15) mrti (death), (16) alasya (laziness), (17) jadya (inertness), (18) brida (shame), (19) avahitya (concealment of emotions), (20) smrti (remembrance), (21) vitarka (argumentativeness), (22) cinta (anxiety), (23) mati (thoughtfullness or resolve), (24) dhrti (fortitude), (25) harsha (happiness), (26) utsukata (ardent desire), (27) ugrata or augya (fierceness), (28) amarsha (intolerance), (29) asuya (envy), (30) capala (fickelness), (31) nidra (sleepiness), (32) supti (dreaming) and (33) bodha (awakening).  Hereafter these vyabhicari bhavas will be reviewed systematically along with exa



(191) iti bhavas-trayas-trimshat-kathita vyabhicarinah

      shreshtha-madhya-kanishtheshu varnaniya yathocitam


      Up to this point a description of thirty three vyabhicari bhavas has been given.  These symptoms are appropriately described according to three divisions: uttama (topmost), madhyam (intermediate) and kanishtha (beginning).


(192) matsaryyodvega-dambhershya viveko nirnayas-tatha

      klaivyam kshama ca kutukam-utkantha vinayo'pi ca


(193) samshayodharshtyam-aty-adya bhava ye syuh pare'pi ca

      ukteshvanta-bhavantiti na prthaktvena darshitah


      Besides the thirty three emotions described above, there are thirteen more mentioned as follows: matsarya (envy), udvega (anxiety), dambha (conceit), irshya (jealousy), viveka (reason), nirnaya (judgement), klaivyam (impotence), kshama (forgiveness), ashcarya (astonishment), utkantha (longing), vinaya (humility), samshaya (doubt) and dhrshtata (impudence).  Because these emotions are included within the thirty three vyabhicari bhavas already mentioned, they are not seperately described here.




(194) asuyayam tu matsaryyam trase'pyudvega eva tu

      dambhas-tatha'vahitthayam-irshya'marshe matavubhau


      Matsarya (envy or malice) is included within asuya (envy), udvega (uneasiness) is included within trasa (fear), dambha (conceit) is included within avahitya (concealment of emotions) and jealousy is included within amarsha (intolerance).


(195) viveko nirnayashcemau dainye klaivyam kshama dhrtau

      autsukye kutukotkanthe lajjayam vinayas-tatha

      samshayo'ntar-bhavet-tarke tatha dharshtyam ca capale


      Viveka (reason) and nirnaya (judgment) are included within mati (resolve or thoughtfullness), klaivyam (impotence) is included within dainyam (depression), kshama (forgiveness) is included within dhrti (fortitude), kutuka (curiosity or eagerness) and utkantha (longing) are included within autsukya (ardent desire) and vinaya (humility) is included within brida or lajja (shame).  Samshaya (doubt) is included within vitarka (argumentativeness) and dhrshtata (impudence) is included within capala (ficklene



Notes:  In his commentary on these two verses, Jiva Gosvami explains how these thirteen additional qualities are included within others previously mentioned.  Malice (matsarya) is included within asuya (envy) because the malice that one feels upon seeing the prosperity of others, is called matsarya.  This malice superimposes defects even upon qualities.  To project faults upon qualities is called envy (asuya).  Therefore matsarya or malice is said to be included within asuya (envy).


     Uneasiness (udvega) is included within fear (trasa) because the fear which suddenly arises due to lightning or other such phenomena is called trasa.  In this fear, the uneasiness which is of a non-enduring nature is called udvega.


     Conceit (dambha) is included within avahitya (concealment) for the following reason.  To conceal one's mentality, wich is called avahitya, is pretentious.  Similary to exhibit one's superiority, which is called dambha, is also pretentious.  Because both conceit and concealment are pretentious, dambha is said to be included within avahitya.


     Jealousy (irshya) is included within amarsha (intolerance) for the following reason.  The inability to tolerate the offenses of others is called amarsha or krodha (anger).  The inability to tolerate the opulence of others is called irshya (jealousy).  Since both have the inherent nature of intolerance, irshya is said to be included within amarsha.


     Determination or assessment of meaning is called mati (resolve or conclusiveness) which is also called nirnaya (judgment).  The cause of judgment (nirnaya) is thought (vicara) and the cause of thought is reason (viveka).  Since both reason (viveka) and nirnaya (judgment) are involved in the establishment of a conclusion they are said to be included within mati (resolve).


     To consider oneself to be inferior to others is called dainyam (depression or humility).  The absence of enthusiasm is called impotence (klaivyam).  Since impotence is an aspect of depression, it is said to be included within dainya (depression).


     Steadiness of the mind is called dhrti (fortitude).  Forgiveness (kshama) is called tolerance (sahishnuta) which is an aspect of steadiness.  Therefore, forgiveness (kshama) is said to be within fortitude (dhrti).


     The inability to put something off till later is called autsukya (ardent desire).  The desire to see a wondrous thing is called kutuka (curiosity or eagerness).  Curiosity is also sometimes the cause of ardent desire.  Therefore, curiosity (kutuka) is included within autsukya (ardent desire).  Utkantha (longing) is a subtle form of autsukya (ardent desire).  Therefore, utkantha is also included within autsukya.


     Doubt (samshaya) is included within argumentativeness (vitarka) because without doubt, there is no possibility of argumentativeness.  In the same way unsteadiness (capala) arises after impudence (dhrshtata).  Therefore unsteadiness is included within impudence.


(196) esham sancaribhavanam madhye kashcana kasyacit

      vibhavashcanubhavashca bhavedeva parasparam


      Some of the sancari bhavas become stimulants instigating the rise of other sancari bhavas.  In that case they are also known as uddipana vibhava.  Again, some may become anubhavas of other sancari bhavas.  Thus in the meeting of two emotions, the quality of vibhava and that of anubhava is seen simultaneously.


(197) nirvede tu yathershyaya bhavedatra vibhavata

        asuyayam punas-tasya vyaktam-ukta'nubhavata


      For example, the feeling of envy (asuyata) gives rise to disgust (nirveda).  Thus asuyata possesses the quality of vibhava in relationship to nirveda.  Similary, disgust (nirveda) follows after envy (asuya).  Thus nirveda is an anubhava of asuya. 


(198) autsukyam prati cintayah kathita'tranubhavata

      nidram prati vibhavatvam-evam jneyah pare'pyami


      Anxiety (cinta) follows after ardent desire (autsukya).  Thus cinta is an anubhava of autsukya.  Similarly, anxiety (cinta) gives rise to drowsiness (nidra).  Thus cinta possesses the quality of vibhava in relationship to nidra.  It should be understood that all other vyabhicari bhavas behave in the same way.


(199) esham ca sattvikanam ca tatha nanakriyatateh

      karyyakarana-bhavastu jneyah prayena lokatah


      The mutual relationship of cause and effect between all these vyabhicari bhavas, the sattvika bhavas and various kinds of actions, should be understood in accordance with general behavior.


Translator's Note:  The meaning of this text will be made clear by the example given in the next text.


(200) nindayastu vibhavatvam vaivarnyamarshayormatam

      asuyayam punas-tasyah kathitaivanubhavata


       When a person is intolerant of another (amarsha) and changes color (vaivarnya), he proceeds to condemn that person. Since intolerance and change of color give rise to condemnation, they are said to possess the quality of vibhava in relationship to it.  Similarly, condemnation (ninda) follows after jealousy


(asuya).  Therefore, condemnation is an anubhava of jealousy.


Translator's note:  In this example, change of color (vaivarnya) is a sattvika bhava and intolerance (amarsha) is a sancari bhava.  These two are the cause of condemnation (ninda).  Similarly condemnation (ninda) is the effect of jealousy (asuya) which is also a sancari bhava.  Thus we have mutual cause and effect of the sattvika bhava vaivarnya and the vyabhicari bhava amarsha together with the action of condemnation.  The internal emotion of jealousy is made known by the external behavior of condemnation.



(201) praharasya vibhavatvam sammoha-pralayau prati

      augryam praty-anubhavatam-evam jneyah pare'pi ca


      When a person has been assaulted (prahara) or struck with a blow, he may become stupified (sammoha) and fall uncounsious (pralaya).  Since the act of being assaulted (prahara) gives rise to stupifaction (sammoha) and fainting (pralaya), it possesses the quality of vibhava in relationship to them.  Since assault (prahara) follows as a result of cruelty (augryam), it is an anubhava of cruelty.  The same pattern holds true in regards to other emotions.


(202) trasa-nidra-shramalasya-madabhid-bodha-varjinam

      sancarinam-iha kvapi bhaved-raty-anubhavata


      Trasa (fear), nidra (drowsiness), shrama (fatigue), alasya (laziness), mattata (madness) and ajnanata (ignorance) (the last two arising from intoxication), are sancari bhavas that sometimes follow in the wake of rati.  Thus they are also known as anubhavas of rati.


(203) sakshad-rater-na sambandhah shadbhis-trasadibhih saha

      syat-paramparaya kintu lila'nugunatakrte


      These six sancari bhavas namely, fear, drowsiness, fatigue, laziness, madness and ignorance, actually have no relationship with rati.  But by indirect relation, they follow in due course of Krishna's pastimes.


Translator's note: There is no Krishna rati which directly gives rise to fear, drowsiness, fatigue, laziness, madness or ignorance.  But in due course of Krishna's pastimes they may follow as an indirect result and therefore it is said in text 202 that they are sometimes counted as anubhavas of rati.


(204) vitarka-mati-nirveda-dhrtinam smrti-harshayoh

      bodhabhid-dainya-suptinam kvacid-rati-vibhavata


      Vitarka (argument), mati (resolve), nirveda (self-disparagement), dhrti (fortitude), smrti (remembrance), harsha (jubilation), ajnanata (ignorance), dainyam (depression) and supti (dreaming) sometimes act as stimulants to rati and are therefore said to possess the quality of vibhava in relationship to rati.


(205) paratantrah svatantrashcety-uktah sancarino dvidha


      Sancari bhavas are of two kinds-Paratantra (dependent) and Svatantra (independent).


 Notes: Shanta, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura are five kinds of rati known as `mukhya rati'.  And hasya (laughter), karuna (compassion), adbhut (astonishment), vira (chivalry), raudra (anger), bhayanak (dread), and vibhatsa (ghastliness) are seven kinds of rati known as `gauna rati'.  Those sancari bhavas which are controlled by these two kinds of rati are called `paratantra sancari bhavas'.  The appearance of paratantra sancari bhavas occurs only under the influence of emotions in relationship to Krishna.  Those sancari bhavas which are not controlled either by the mukhya or gauna rati, or in other words, whose appearance is not dependent on emotions in relationship to Krishna, are called `svatantra sancari bhavas'.


Tatra Paratantrah-


(206) varavarataya proktah paratantra api dvidha


      Paratantra sancari bhavas are of two types-`vara' (principal-those which nourish either the mukhya rati or gauna rati) and `avara' (subordinate-those which do not nourish the mukhya or gauna rati).


Tatra Varah-

(207) sakshad vyavahitashceti varo'pyesha dvidhoditah


      Vara paratantra sancari bhavas are again divided into two-sakshat (direct-those which nourish the mukhya rati) and vyavahita (indirect-those which nourish the gauna rati).


Tatra Sakshat-


(208) mukhyam-eva ratim pushnan sakshad-ity-abhidhiyate


      Those sancari bhavas wich nourish the mukhya rati are called `sakshat vara paratantra sancari bhavas'.




(209) tanuruhali ca tanushca nrtyam

      tanoti me nama nishamya yasya

      upashyato mathura-mandalam tad

      vyarthena kim hanta drshor-dvayena  (Sakshadesha nirveda)


      The following is an example of sakshat vara paratantra sancari bhava-"Alas! What is the use of possessing eyes that are unable to behold the land of Mathura.  Simply by hearing the name of Mathura, the hairs of my body stand on end and I begin to dance."  In this statement nirveda (despondency or sel-disparagement) is expressed and this is an example of sakshat vara paratantra sancari bhava.


Notes:  In text 207 it was mentioned that paratantra (dependent) sancari bhavas are of two types-sakshat (direct) and vyavahita (indirect).  Although there is a difference between these two they are both of the same kind, namely vara paratantra (in other words they nourish either the mukhya or gauna rati).  Those sancari bhavas which are components (angatva) of the mukhya and gauna rasa are known as vara paratantra, and those sancari bhavas which are not components of these two are called avara paratantra.

 This will be further explained in text 213.


     In the example above, the desire to see the land of Mathura is born of Bhagavad rati.  Therefore, the sancari bhava displayed here of nirveda (despondency) is called sakshat (direct) because it nourishes the mukhya rati.


Translator's note: The suffix `tva' in sanskrit is used to convert common nouns and adjectives into abstract nouns denoting a quality or a state of being.  Thus they convey the sense of `ness' or `hood' as in happiness or childhood.  The word `angatva' used here in Jiva Gosvami's commentary and also in the sanskrit to text 213 literally means the state of being a part.  Sancari bhavas which arise in relationship to mukhya and gauna rati and which give nourishment to the same are called components of mukhya and gauna rati (vara paratantra sancari bhavas).  Those which do not arise in relationship to mukhya and gauna rati and which do not give nourishment to the later are not components of mukhya and gauna rati (avara paratantra sancari bhavas).


Atha Vyavahitah-


(210) pushnati yo ratim gaunim sa tu vyavahito matah


      Those sancari bhavas which nourish the gauna rati are called `vyavahita paratantra'.




(211) dhigastu me bhuja-dvandvam bhimasya parighopamam

      madhavakshepinam dushtam yat pinashti na cedipam


      The following is an example of vyavahita paratantra sancari bhava-"I am Bhima.  My two arms are just like thunderbolts.  Yet these two arms were not able to smash Sishupala when he was blaspheming Krishna.  Therefore all condemnation upon them."


(212) nirvedah krodhavashyatvadayam vyavahito rateh


      In this example, Bhima's condemnation of his arms is an instance of nirveda (self-disparagement) which has arisen under the influence of anger.  Anger is one of the secondary mellows (gauna rasa) of sthayi bhava.  Therefore, nirveda is taken here as vyavahita vara paratantra because it nourishes the gauna rati.


Atha Avarah-


(213) rasa-dvayasyapy-angatvam-agacchann-avaro matah


      Those paratantra sancari bhavas which are not components of  the mukhya and gauna rasa are called `avara paratantra' sancari bhavas.




(214) lelihyamanam vadanair-jvaladbhir-

      jaganti damshtra-sphutadutta-mangaih

      avekhsya krishnam dhrta-vishvarupam

      na svam vishushyan smarati sma jishnuh


      The following is an example of avara paratantra sancari bhava-When Arjuna saw Shri Krishna in His universal form, whose flaming mouths and illuminated heads were devouring all living entities existing in the universe and grinding them between His teeth, he became dried up and forgot himself.


(215) ghora-kriya'dy-anubhavadacchadya sahajam ratim

      durvara'virabhudbhitir-moho'yam bhivashastatah


      In this instance, irresistible fear arisen from ghastly activities, covered the natural rati of Arjuna toward Krishna.  From that fear illusion arose which was under the control of the fear and which gave nourishment to the fear.


Notes:  Seeing the Universal form of the Lord, the fear which arose in Arjuna was not that which is associated with gauna-rati.  Only due to seeing such a fearful form with which he was not acquainted and due to beholding such a ghastly vision, did fear arise out of apprehension that all people would be devoured.  Arjuna's natural inborn rati was covered by that fear.  From the statements of Arjuna in Bhagavad-gita it may also be understood that the natural love which Arjuna had for Shri Krishna was covered at that time.  Therefore, the fear as well as the illusion which arose from fear, are not associated with the fear of gauna rati.  Arjuna's illusion was devoid of relationship with Krishna rati.  It arose merely from fear.  His illusion was under the control offear and gave nourisment only to that fear.  Since the sancari bhava of illusion (moha) did not give nourishment to fear in relationship to Krishna rati, and since the fear was not that of gauna rati, this is an example of avara paratantra sancari bhava.


Atha Svatantrah-


(216) sadaiva paratantrye'pi kvacid-esham svatantrata

      bhupalasevakasyeva pravrttasya karagrahe


      A government official is always dependent.  In other words he is always under the subordination of the state.  But when he goes to collect taxes from the citizens he is seen to be independent.  (In the same way, svatantra sancari bhavas are also always dependent (paratantra) yet they are sometimes seen as independent).


(217) bhavajnai rati-shunyash-ca raty-anusparshanas-tatha

      rati-gandhish-ca te tredha svatantrah parikirttitah


      Those who are learned in the science of discerning emotions say that svatantra sancari bhavas are of three types-(1) rati shunya (devoid of rati), (2) rati anusparshan (wich is devoid of rati but which subsequently acquires contact with rati) and (3) rati gandhi (with a slight trace of rati).


Notes:  In the svatantra sancari bhavas, the condition of indepence is obvious in those emotions with are devoid of rati (rati shunya).  Those which subsequently contact rati (rati anusparshan) and those with a slight trace of rati (rati gandhi) are always paratantra (dependent) yet they are sometimes seen as being independent.


Tatra Rati shunyah-


(218) janeshu rati-shunyeshu rati-shunyo bhaved-asau


      Emotions which arise in persons who are devoid of rati are called `rati shunya'.


Yatha Shri Dashame (10/23/39)-


(219) dhig-janma nastrivrdyat-tad dhig vratam dhig bahujnatam

      dhik kulam dhik kriya-dakshyam vimukha ye tvadho'kshaje


atra svatantra nirvedo   


      The following is an example of rati shunya svatantra sancari bhava as given in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (10/23/39)-The yajnic brahmanas said, "Condemnation upon our high birth which has provided us with brahminical power, the sacred thread and initiation by a spiritual master.  Condemnation upon our learning, vows of celibacy, and extensive knowledge.  Condemnation upon our family lineage, and upon our eternal (nitya) and occasional (naimittika) duties, for we are averse to Adhokshaja Shri Krishna."


Notes:  In this example, nirveda (self-disparagement) arose in the yajnic brahmanas.  They were devoid of rati towards Krishna.  The nirveda which they displayed is svatantra (independent) because it is not related to Krishna rati.  It is a mere shadow of rati which is indicated by their own statement of aversion toward Krishna.  Therefore, the sancari bhava displayed here of nirveda is rati shunya svatantra.


Raty anusparshanah-


(220) yah svato ratigandhena vihino'pi prasangatah

      pashcad-ratim sprshedesha raty-anusparshano matah


      That emotion, which even though devoid of rati itself, later contacts rati due to some perticular incident, is called rati anusparshana bhava.


Translator's Note:  Rati anusparshana bhava literally means that emotion which subsequently (anu) touches (sparsha) or contacts rati.  This will become clear by the explanation given below.



(221) garishtha-rishtatankaraur-vidhura badhirayita

      ha krishna! pahi pahiti cukroshabhara-balika     (atha trasa)


      The following is an example of rati anusparsha svatantra sancari bhava-Being very perturbed and deafened by the thunderous roar of the dreadful Aristasura demon, the young cowherd girls began to yell, "O Krishna! Save us, Save us."  In this instance, trasa (fear) is cited as an independent emotion (svatantra bhava).


Notes:  Rati for Krishna is always present within the young cowherd girls of Vraja.  Therefore the sancari bhavas manifested by them are always parantantra, being under the subjugation of Krishna rati.  In this example, seeing the dreadful Aristasura demon, fear (trasa) arose independently (svatantra bhava).  This fear did not arise in them under the instigation of Krishna rati.  If fear arises upon apprehending Krishna's distress, then it is said to be under the subjugation of Krishna rati.  But in the case of the cowherd girls, fear arose due to the apprehension of their own distress.  It did not arise from Krishna rati, yet later it came into contact with rati.  How that is so, is because they called Shri Krishna for their protection.  Only on account of possessing rati for Krishna did they call for Him.  Only in this call for help is their rati being intimated at.  The fear of the young cowherd girls which was devoid of any trace of rati, came into contact with rati.  Because the fear which was devoid of rati, later came into touch (sparsha) with the rati which was naturally within them, this is taken as an example of raty anusparshana bhava.


Atha Rathi gandhih-


(222) yah svatantrye'pi tad-gandham rati-gandhir-vyanakti sah


      Those sancari bhavas which, in spite of being independent

(svatantra), manifest a trace of rati, are called rati gandhi svatantra bhava.




(223) pitamshukam paricinomi dhrtam tvaya'nge

      sangopanaya nahi naptri ! vidhehi yatnam

      ityaryyaya nigadita namitottamanga

      radha'vagunthitamukhi tarasa tada'sit   (atra lajja)


      The following is an example of rati gandhi svatantra sancari bhava-Mukhara devi said-"O Radhe!  I recognise that yellow clothing you are wearing on Your body.  Therefore, don't even try to hide it."  Hearing these words of the respectable woman, Shri Radha immediately lowered Her head in shame and covered Her face with Her veil.  In this instance, the shame of Shrimati Radharani is cited as an example of rati gandhi bhava. Notes:  In this example, the shame which arose in Shrimati Radharani is a sancari bhava, but it is to be understood as svatantra (independent) because it did not arise from Her natural inborn rati.  This shame arose because the respectable woman Mukhara understood Shri Radha's hidden secret.  That Her secret was known by a respectable woman was the only cause for shame to arise.  Therefore, this shame is independent (svatantra).  It is not subordinate to Krishna rati.  Inspite of this, the shame of Shri Radha manifests a trace of rati (rati gandha).  Only due to the rati which Shri Radha has for Shri Krishna was Krishna's yellow clothing found present on Her limbs, as a consequence of any endeavors in relationship to that rati.  Therefore, although Her shame was not produced from Krishna rati, it has a slight connection with rati.  Therefore, it is accepted that the svatantra sancari bhava of shame observed in this example is rati gandhi svatantra bhava.


(224) abhasah punaretesham-asthane vrttito bhavet

      pratikulyam-anaucityam-asthanatvam dvidhoditam


      Sancaris bhavas which exist in improper conditions (asthan) are called sancari bhava abhasa.  These improper conditions are of two types-pratikulya (unfavorable) and anaucitya (improper).


Tatra Pratikulyam-


(225) vipakshe vrttiretesham pratikulyam-itiryyate


      Emotions which arise from feelings of hostility are called pratikulya.




(226) gopo'pyashikshitarano'pi tamashvadaityam-

      hanti sma hanta mama jivitanirvishesham

      krida-vinirjit-asuradhipateralam me

      durjivitena hatakamsanaradhipasya   (atra nirvedasyabhasah)


      The following is an example of pratikulya sancari bhava abhasa-(Hearing of Krishna's killing of the Kesi demon, Kamsa spoke as follows)-"This Kesi demon in the form of a horse, was as dear to me as my own life.  Alas! now he has been killed by an illeterate cowherd boy who is unskilled in combat.  I who had easily defeated the king of the demigods, Indra, no longer know the purpose of this contemptible life, now that this tragedy has befallen me."  The disparagement (nirveda) expressed in this example is called pratikulya abhasa.


Notes:  Shri Krishna is an enemy of Kamsa.  Disparagement (nirveda) arose in Kamsa upon seeing the valour of the enemy.  In actuality though, this emotion of nirveda was not a sancari bhava because it did not arise from rati in relationship to Krishna.  This self-disparagement resembles the sancari bhava known as nirveda and therefore it is accepted as nirveda abhasa.  Sancari bhavas are favorably situated toward the subject Shri Krishna.  Those which are unfavorable are improperly situated.  It is intimated here that because Kamsa was unfavorable toward Krishna, there is impropriety in the emotion resembling nirveda sancari bhava.  Therefore it is called an abhasa.


Yatha Va-


(227) dundubho jalacarah sa kaliyo-

      goshtha-bhubhrd-api loshtasodarah

      tatra karmma kim-ivadbhutam jane

      yena murkha! jagad-ishateryyate     (atra asuyaya)


      The following is another example of pratikulya sancari bhava abhasa-(While condemning Akrura, Kamsa spoke as follows)-O fool! You are imagining this cowherd boy to be the Supreme Lord of the Universe, simply because He subdued the Kaliya serpent who is just like a harmless water snake and lifted Govardhana hill which is just like a clump of earth.  What is so astonishing about that?"  The emotion cited here is an abhasa of asuya



Atha Anaucityam-


(228) asatyatvam-ayogyatvam-anaucityam dvidha bhavet

      apranini bhaved-adyam tiryyagadishu cantimam


      Anaucitya (improper) sancari bhava abhasa is of two types-(1) asatyatyam (non-existence) and (2) ayogyatvam (incapability).  In non-moving living entities (aprani) there is non-existence of sancari bhavas (asatyatvam) and in animals (tiryag) there is incapability to experience the sancari bhavas (ayogyatvam).


Translator's Note:  The word anaucitya means the conditions under which the consideration of an emotion as a sancari bhava is improper.  These improper considerations are of two types-(1) asatyatva (when there is non-existence of the sancari bhava) and ayogyatva (when there is inability to experience sancari bhavas).  In the non-moving species of life there is no possibility of experiencing sancari bhavas.  Therefore it is said, that in them there is asatyatva (non-existence of sancari bhavas).  In the animals, there is inability to experience sancari bhavas and therefore it is said that in them there is ayogyatva (incapability).  All this will become clear from the examples given below.


Tatra Apranini Yatha-


(229) chaya na yasya sakrd-apy-upasebita'bhut

      krsnena hanta mama tasya dhigastu janma

      ma vam kadamba! vidhuro bhava kaliyarhi-

      mrdgan karishyati harish-caritarthatam te

                                               (atra nirvedasya)


      The following is an example of aprani asatyatva anaucitya sancari bhava abhasa (sancari bhava abhasa in which there is the impropriety of non-existence)-(One devotee tried to console a Kadamba tree who was condemning it's life because it had been unable to serve Shri Krishna even once by offering it's shade.)-"O Kadamba!  Do not be so miserable.  After killing the Kaliya serpent, Shri Krishna will grant your desire and thus you will ascend."


Notes:  In this example, the Kadamba tree which was inert (aprani), exhibited an abhasa of the sancari bhava known as nirveda (self-disparagement).  In actuality, because of being inert, there is no possibility of self-disparagement arising in the Kadamba tree.  Therefore it's self-disparagement is non-existent (asatya).  The person who made the above mentioned statement targeted at the Kadamba tree, understood within his own mind that such self-disparagement had arisen in the tree.  Therefore, in this example there is impropriety (anucitya) in the form of non-existence (asatyatva) and in this improper condition the superimposition of the sancari bhava known as nirveda is but an abhasa.


Tirashci Yatha-


(230) adhiro-hetu kah pakshi kakshamaparo mamadhya medhyasya

      hitva'pi tarkshya-paksham bhajate paksham harir-yasya

                                      (atra garvasya)    


      The following is an example of tiryag ayogyatva anaucitya sancari bhava abhasa (sancari bhava abhasa in which there is the impropriety of incapability)-A peacock said-"Today, leaving aside even the wings of Garuda, Shri Krishna has held my sanctified feathers.  Therefore, what other bird can be a match for me?"


Notes:  In this example, an abhasa of garva (pride) is seen in a peacock.  In reality, there is no possibility of this kind of pride being fostered in a peacock.  Such an experience is not possible in a peacock.  A person seeing a peacock feather in the turban of Shri Krishna, acknowledges the good fortune of the  peacock and then transposes the conception of pride on the peacock.  Therefore, this is an impropriety (anaucitya) in the form of ayogyatya (incapability) and in this improper condition, the superimposition of the sancari bhava known as garva (pride) is but an abhasa.


Atra Garvasya-


(231) vahamaneshvapi sada jnana-vijnana-madhurim

      kadambadishu samanya-drshtya'bhasatvam-ucyate


      (The author comments as follows regarding the analysis of the above mentioned sancari bhava abhasa.)  The Kadamba trees etc. of Vraja are bearing knowledge and realisation which is appropriate for their species.  In other words they experience sweetness in relationship to the Lord.  It is only from the common viewpoint that the symptoms observed in them are said to be a matter of sancari bhava abhasa.


Notes:  In the Kadamba tress etc. of Vraja, there is both knowledge and realization which is appropriate for their species. But it is not identical to the knowledge possessed by human beings.  If it were so, then the lover and beloved (Shri Shri Radha Krishna) would have to hide Their confidential amorous pastimes from them.  Such a condition would present a hindrance to the pastimes.  In the Shrimad Bhagavatam (11/12/8) it is clearly described that the gopis, the cows, the mountains, the dear, the snakes and all other unintelligent life forms residing in Vraja, have love or emotion toward Shri Krishna.  However, this emotion is of a general type which is not accompanied by reason.  Jiva Gosvami has said that because their knowledge was devoid of reason, the word samanya drshtya (common or general viewpoint) is given in the above verse.  (In other words, from the common viewpoint, the trees etc. are said to be incapable of expressing emotions).


     Shripad Vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura has clearly said that the trees of Vraja have experience only regarding the Supreme Lord.


     Shripad Mukunda dasa Gosvami has said that only in order to give an example (of sancari bhava abhasa) the viewpoint of ordinary trees etc. has been transposed upon the Kadamba trees, etc. of Vraja.  Therefore, their emotion is said to be an abhasa.  In reality, they always experience bhakti rasa in relationship to the Lord.  Just as the Lord is always devoid of hunger, thirst, etc.  But hunger, thirst, sleep, etc. are manifested by the pastime potency of the Lord for the purpose of nourishing the uniqueness of rasa.  Similarly, imitation of the ordinary species of trees, etc. is exhibited by the trees, etc. of Vraja, under the influence of the pastime potency in order to nourish the uniqueness of rasa.


     The purport of all these statements is that the Kadamba trees, peacocks, etc. of Vraja are not ordinary trees and birds.  They are all eternal associates of Shri Krishna, and their emotions (bhava) toward Shri Krishna exists from time immemorial.  In order to facilitate the pastimes, the knowledge residing in them is devoid of reason.  Therefore, their emotion (bhava) is here said to be an abhasa.


(232) bhavanam kvacid-utpatti-sandhi-shabalya-shantayah

      dashash-catasra etasam-utpattis-tviha sambhavah


      At various times, the sancari bhavas exist in four different conditions-(1) utpatti (the stage of generation), (2) sandhi (when there is union of two emotions), (3) shabalya (allaying of each preceding emotion by the succeeding one) and (4) shanti (pacification of a highly developed emotion).  All these conditions are possible only upon the advent or generation of emotion which is called utpatti.




(233) mandale kim-api candamaricerlohitayati nishamya yashoda

      vaisnavin-dvanidhuramavidure prasravastimitakanculika'sit


(atra harshotpattih) 

      The following is an example of utpatti (generation)-"At twilight, when the setting sun was very red, Mother Yashoda heard the high sound of the flute nearby, and a stream of milk flowed from her breasts thus moistening her bodice."  Here the generation (utpatti) of the sancari bhava known as harsha (jubilation) is seen.


Yatha Va-


(234) tvayi rahasi milantyam sambhramanyasabhugna'-

      pyushasi sakhi! tavali mekhala pashya bhati

      iti vivrtarahasye madhave kuncitabhru-

      drshamanrju kiranti radhika vah punatu (atra asuya utpatti)


      The following is an example of utpatti (generation) in connection with asuya (envy)-"O sakhi Vishaka!  At dawn, when you suddenly appeared in the bedroom, your sakhi Shri Radha being confused by your arrival, tried to fasten the belt around her waist which had been loosened in the course of amorous sports, but She was completely unable to do so.  Just see how splendid that belt has become now that it is bent irregularly.  When Shri Radha heard this confidential description from the mouth of Shri Madhava, Her curved eyebrows became bent in anger and She cast a scowling glance at Shri Krishna.  May Shri Radha purify you by the casting of such a glance.


Notes:  In this example, asuya (envy or intolerance) arose on account of malice instigated by love for Shri Krishna as a result of His jokingly manifesting His excellence.


Atha Sandhih-


(235) sarupayor-bhinnayor-va sandhih syad bhavayor-yuti


      The mutual union of two emotions of identical nature (samanarupa) or of different nature (bhinnarupa) is called sandhi.


Tatra Sarupayoh Sandhih-


(236) sandhih sarupayos-tatrabhinna-hetutthayor-matah


      If two emotions having the same nature (samanarupa) arise from different causes and meet simultaneously, this is called sandhi produced by the meeting of two alike emotions (samanarupa sandhi).




(237) rakshasim nishi nishamya nishante-

      gokulesha-grhini patitangim

      tatkucopari sutam ca hasantam hanta-

      nishcalatanuh kshanamasit



      The following is an example of samanarupa sandhi (the union of two alike emotions arising from different causes)-"Shri Yashoda, the wife of Gokula pati Shri Nanda, dreamt that the Putana demon was lying in her house, and that her son Shri Krishna smilingly sat on her chest.  Seeing this dream, Shri Yashodaji became stunned for some time."  In this example there is the meeting of two kinds of jarata (the condition of being stunned) arising from seeing the object of her adoration (ishta) and also from the perception of calamity (anishta).


Notes:  One kind of jarata (becoming stunned) arose in Shri Yashoda as a result of intense bliss from seeing Shri Krishna, the object of her adoration (ishta).  A second kind of jarata arose due to the apprehension aroused by seeing the calamity (anishta) presented by the Putana demon.  Both kinds of jarata are of the same nature (samanarupa) because in both, there is manifest  immobility of the limbs.  But the cause of becoming stunned is different.  The cause of one condition of becoming stunned is the bliss produced from seeing Shri Krishna and the cause of the other is the apprehension for the safety of Shri Krishna due to the perception of the Putana demon.  But the nature of becoming stunned is the same.  Therefore, this is an example of sandhi (union) produced by the meeting of two alike emotions.


Atha Bhinnayoh-


(238) bhinnayor-hetunaikena bhinnenapy-upajatayoh


      If two emotions arise from the same cause or from different causes, the meeting of those two emotions is called bhinna bhavadvaya milana janit sandhi (sandhi produced from the meeting of two different emotions).




(239) durvara-capalo'yam dhavan-antar-bahishca goshthasya

      shishurakutashcid-bhitir-dhinoti hrdayam dunoti ca me


(atra harsha shankayoh)     

      The following is an example of eka hetu bhinna bhavadvaya sandhi (sandhi produced from the meeting of two emotions arising from the same cause)-(Mother Yashoda spoke as follows regarding her son Shri Bala Krishna)-"The restlessness of this child is unbearable.  He is always running in and out of the cow pen.  His fearlessness brings both jubilation (harsha) and apprehension (shanka) to my heart."  In this example there is a meeting of two emotions-jubilation (harsha) and shanka (apprehension).  The cause of both of these is the same, namely seeing the restless and fearless nature of Shri Krishna.


Bhinna Hetujayor Yatha-


(240) vilasantam-avekshya devaki

      sutam-utphulla-vilocanam purah

      prabalam-api malla-mandalim

      himamushnam ca jalam drshor-dadhe

                   (atra harsha vishadayoh sandhi)       


      The following is an example of bhinna hetu bhinna bhavadvaya sandhi (sandhi produced from the meeting of two emotions arising from different causes)-"When Shri Devaki saw before her, her son Shri Krishna, with blooming eyes like lotus petals, her eyes filled with cold tears due to jubilation (harsha).  However, seeing the faces of the extremely powerful wrestlers, her eyes filled with hot tears due to apprehension."  In this example the meeting of two emotions-jubilation (harsha) and despair (vishada) arising from two different causes is seen.


(241) ekena jayamananam-anekena ca hetuna

      bahunam-api bhavanam sandhih sphutam-avekshyate


      When the meeting of several emotions arising either from one cause or from several causes, come clearly into view, it is called aneka bhava sandhi.


Tatra Eka-Hetu-Janam Yatha-


(242) niruddha kalindi-tatabhuvi mukundena balina

      hathadantah-smeram tarala-taratarojjvala-kalam


      drsham nyasyanty-asmin jayati vrshabhanoh kulamanih


(atra harsha-autsukya-garva amarsha asuyanam sandhih) 


      The following is an example of eka hetu aneka bhava sandhi (the meeting of several emotions arising from one cause)-"Once when Shrimati Radharani was walking in the forest along the bank of the Kalindi, Shri Mukunda who was very powerful, suddenly appeared and blocked Her path.  Within Herself, She was smiling out of jubilation (harsha).  Her restless eyes moved with artistic splendour due to intense longing (autsukya).  Externally She manifested contempt due to pride (garva).  Her eyes became red with anger (amarsha), and with the movement of Her eyebrows, She cast a scournful glance (asuya) at Shri Krishna which was most captivating.  In this way the jewel of the family of Vrshabhanu exhibited Her supreme excellence.  In this example there is the meeting of several emotions-harsha (jubilation), autsukya (intense longing), garva (pride), amarsha (anger) and asuya (envy).  These are all arising from one cause, namely Shri Krishna obstructing the path of Shri Radha.


Aneka-Hetu-janam Yatha-


(243) parihita-hari-hara vikshya radha savitrim

      nikata-bhuvi tatha'gre tarkabhak smerapadmam

      harim-api daradure svaminam tatra casin

      mahasi vinata-vakra-prasphuran-mlana-vaktra

                   (atra lajja amarsha harsha vishadanam sandhih)


      The following is an example of aneka hetu aneka bhava sandhi (the meeting of several emotions arising from different causes)-(Whenever any festivals were celebrated at the house of Shri Nandaraja, Shri Radhaji would also grace such occasions.  During one such occasion, Shrimati Radharani was wearing a necklace beneath Her clothes, given to Her by Shri Krishna.)  In this situation, Shri Radha saw Her mother before Her and She began to reflect within Her mind. ("For a chaste girl like me, it will be considered improper to wear the necklace of Shri Krishna around My neck.  My mother has surely detected this secret.")  Padma, the adversary of Shrimati Radharani, seeing that She was wearing the necklace of Shri Krishna, began to smile (thinking that Shrimati would be exposed).  Seeing this, Shri Radha lowered Her face in anger.  Seeing Shri Krishna in the distance, Her face blossomed with happiness.  Seeing Her husband Abhimanyu present at the festival, Shri Radha's face became withered.  In this example, shame (lajja) arose from seeing Her mother.  Anger (amarsha) arose from seeing Padma.  Jubilation (harsha) arose from seeing Shri Krishna and lamentation (vishada) arose from seeing Abhimanyu.  In this way, there is the union of four emotions arising from four different causes.


Atha Shabalyam-


(244) shabalatvam tu bhavanam sammarddah syat-parasparam


      The aggregation of many different emotions is called shabalya.  Otherwise stated, the allaying of each preceeding emotion by the succedding one is called shabalya.




(245) shaktah kim nama karttum sa shishur-

      ahaha me mitra-pakshana-dhakshi-

      datishtheyam tam-eva drutamatha

      sharanam kuryyuretanna virah

      am divya malla-ghoshthi viharati

      sa karenodda-dhara-drivaryya-

      kuryyamadyaiva gatva vrajabhuvi

      kadanam ha tatah kampate dhih


(atra garva-vishada-dainya-mati-smrti       

-shanka-amarsha-trasanam shabalyam)      


      The following is an example of shabalyam-Kamsa began to think within himself-"That Krishna is but a child, what harm can He possibly do to me?  He has no power."  (Here pride (garva) is manifested.  Then again remembering the valour of Shri Krishna he spoke as follows.)  "Alas!  This child has annihilated my friends."  (Here pride (garva) is superseded by despair (vishada).  Kamsa thought-)  "What shall I do now?  Should I immediately go and take shelter of that Krishna?"  (Here despair (vishad) is superseded by humiliation (dainya).  That very moment he thought-)  "No, I cannot take shelter of Him because no hero would do as such."  (Here humiliation (dainya) is superseded by resolve (mati).  Again Kamsa said-)  "Why should I be afraid?  I have many extremely powerful wrestlers to support me."  (Here resolve (mati) is superseded by remembrance (smrti).  But the next moment he began to think-)  "How will my powerful wrestlers be able to defeat that Krishna?  He even lifted Govardhana Hill."  (Here remembrance (smrti) is superseded by apprehension (shanka).  Then he thought-)  "Today, shall I go to Vraja Bhumi and begin to massacre all the residents there?"  (Here apprehension (shanka) is superseded by anger (amarsha).  Then again he considered-)  "But even that I cannot do because my intelligence and heart are trembling out of fear of that child."  (Here anger (amarsha) is superseded by fear (bhaya).)  In this way the mutual aggregation of eight sancari bhavas-pride (garva), despair (vishad), humiliation (dainya), resolve (mati), remembrance (smrti), apprehension (shanka), anger (amarsha) and fear (trasa) is seen if this verse.  In bhava sandhi, two or more emotions of equal strength appear together at the same time.  But in bhava shabalya, the preceding emotion is supressed by the succeeding emotion.  This is the difference between bhava sandhi and bhava shabalya.


Yatha Va-


(246) dhigdirghe nayane mamastu mathura yabhyam na sa prekshyate

      vidyeyam mama kim-kari-krta-nrpa kalastu sarvankashah

      lakshmi-keli-grham grham mama haha nityam tanuh kshiyate

      sad-manyeva harim bhajaya hrdayam vrndatavi karshati


(atra nirveda-garva-shanka-dhrti-    

vishadam-aty-autsukyanam shabalyan)    


      The following is another example of shabalya-"Conemnation upon these eyes of mine, which were not able to behold the land of Mathura."  (Here self-disparagement (nirveda) is exhibited).  "Actually, it doesn't matter if I could not see Mathura, because with these eyes I have acquired such knowledge that has made even the kings my servant."  (Here self-disparagement (nirveda) is superseded by pride (garva).  But education without worship of the Supreme Lord cannot save one from the time factor.  Thinking this he said.)  "Time destroys everything."  (Here pride (garva) is superseded by apprehension (shanka).)  "My home always overflows with prosperity due to the goddess of fortune."  (Here apprehension (shanka) is superseded by fortitude (dhrti).)  "But my body is becoming weaker every day."  (Here fortitude (dhrti) is superseded by despair (vishad).)  "Therefore, while residing at home, I shall worship the Supreme Lord."  (Here despair (vishad) is superseded by resolve (mati).)  "O, but my mind is being forcibly drawn toward Vrndavan!"  (Here resolve (mati) is superseded by ardent longing (autsukya).)  In this way, the aggregation of seven emotions-self-disparagement (nirveda), pride (garva), apprehension (shanka), fortitude (dhrti), despair (vishad), resolve (mati) and ardent longing (autsukya), is taken as an example of bhava shabalya.


Atha Shantih-


(247) atyarudhasya bhavasya vilayah shantir-ucyate


      The dissolution of a highly intense emotion is called bhava shanti.




(248) vidhurita-vadana vidunabhasastam-

      aghaharam gahane gaveshayantah

      mrdukala-muralim nishamya shaile

      vrajashishavah pulakojjvala babhuvuh  (atra vishada shanti)


      The following is an example of Bhava shanti-"Once the cowherd boys of Vraja were searching for Shri Krishna, the killer of Aghasura, in the forest.  Not being able to see Him, their faces became gloomy and their complexion faded.  Just then they heard the mellow-sweet sound of the flute from on top of Govardhana Hill.  Immediately the hairs of their body stood erect and they became radiant with happiness."  In this example, the dissolution or pacification of despair (vishad) is seen.


      Next ahead, in concluding the subject of sancari bhavas, some special information is given.


(249) shabdartha-rasa-vaicitri vaci kacana nasti me

      yatha kathanci-devoktam bhavodaharanam param


      The author Shri Rupa Gosvami, out of his humility, has said that even though the words, meanings and rasa comprising his speech, contain nothing astonishing, he has nevertheless given some examples of various kinds of ecstatic emotions (bhavas).


(250) trayams-trishad-ime'shtau ca vakshyante sthayinashca ye

      mukhyabhava-bhidhastveka-catvam-rishadami smrtah


      The thirty three vyabhicari bhavas, plus the seven secondary mellows-laughter (hasya), wonder (adbhuta), chivalry (vira), compassion (karuna), anger (raudra), dread (bhayanaka) and ghastliness (bibhatsa), plus one principal mellow (out of the five principal mellows of shanta, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura, only one is counted),  all these taken together total forty one emotions (bhavas).


Translator's Note:  Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains that the word ashtau in the above verse should be understood to mean the seven secondary mellows (laughter, anger, etc.) plus one of the principal mellows (mukhya rati-shanta, dasya, etc.).  The word ashtau here should not be confused with the eight sattvika bhavas for they are not mukhya bhakti rupa.  Only one of the principals mellows is counted here because within any given devotee one kind of Krishna rati will be present.


(251) sharirendriya-garvasya vikaranam vidhayakah

      bhava vibhava-janitash-cittavrttaya iritah


      The mental disposition (cittavrtti) which arises from the manifestation of these emotions, is said to bring about transformations in the body and senses.


(252) kvacit-svabhaviko bhavah kashcid-agantukah kvacit

      yastu svabhaviko bhavah sa vyapy-antarbahih sthitah


      Sometimes these emotions are innate (svabhavik bhava) and sometimes they are incidental (agantuka bhava).  Those emotions which are innate remain, pervading both the external and internal being of the devotee.


Translator's note: The svabhavika bhava refers to the sthayi bhava and the agantuka bhava refers to the vyabhicari bhavas.


(253) manjishtha'dye yatha dravye ragastanmaya ikshyate

      atra syannamamatrena vibhavasya vibhavata


      Just as in manjishtha (an Indian herb which is used as a natural red dye) or any substance in which the color red is innate, redness is the permanent condition which pervades both within and without.  (Thus if that substance is contacted even slightly, redness will come out).  In a similar way, in the devotee who has even a slight contact with the stimulating factors (vibhava), his natural inborn rati will be aroused.


(254) etena sahajenaiva bhavenanugata ratih

      ekarupa'pi ya bhakte vividha pratibhaty-asau


      Although the rati which follows after the innate emotion (svabhavik bhava) is of one type, it manifests in many varieties.


(255) agantukastu yo bhavah patadau raktim-eva sah

      taistair-vibhavair-evayam dhiyate dipyate'pi ca


      Just as white cloth may be dyed red, so the incidental emotions (agantuka bhavas) are manifested in the heart of the devotee by the influence of the innate emotions (svabhavika bhavas).  Therefore, they are called anubhavas or effects of the innate emotions.


Notes:  In general, rati is of one type.  In other words it is full of affection toward Krishna.  But the perticular impressions within the consciousness (vasana) which dictate the type of affection toward Krishna possessed by different devotees is of different varieties.  Therefore, according to those impressions or according to the desires of a devotee to serve Krishna in a perticular way, one type of affection toward Krishna or in other words, one type of Krishna rati manifests itself.  In the shanta bhaktas, shanta rati is manifest.  In the dasya bhaktas, dasya rati is manifest.  In this way rati is manifest in various forms.  Rati of all different varietiess is inherent within the Lord's eternal associates.  Rati is eternally situated in them since time immemorial.  In practicing devotees (sadhakas) who follow the rati of the eternal associates, the corresponding rati also develops in them.  From the very beginning, rati corresponding to the rati found in the eternal associates, exists in the hearts of those devotees (the sadhakas).


     If white cloth is dyed red, it's redness is incidental (agantuka).  It is not inherent (svabhavika) within it's nature as is the case with manjishtha.  Similarly the incidental (agantuka) emotions are not inherent.  They are only anubhavas or effects of the inherent emotions (svabhavika bhavas).


(256) vibhavanadi-vaishishtyad-bhaktanam bhedatas-tatha

      prayena sarva-bhavanam vaishishtyam-upajayate


      Generally the characteristic feature of all ecstatic emotions (bhavas) arise on account of the difference in the specific stimulating factors (vibhava) that the devotee is exposed to and on account of the difference in the moods (bhava) of different devotees.


(257) vividhanam tu bhaktanam vaishishtyadi-vividham manah

      mano'nusarad-bhavanam taratamya kilodaye


      Because of the difference in the characteristic qualities of various devotees, their minds (mana) are of different types.  The rise of specific emotions instigated by the stimulating factors is under the jurisdiction of the mind.  Therefore, according to the disposition of the mind there will be a corresponding rise of emotions (bhavas).


Translator's note:  A review of texts 250-257 will be helpful as they are a lead in to the discussion which is to follow in texts 258-270.  It is mentioned in text 250 that the thirty three sancari bhavas, the seven indirect mellows (gauna rati) plus the sthayi bhava of the perticular devotee, all together make forty one emotions.  In text 252 it is said that a certain mental dispostion arises from the combination of these different emotions which brings about transformations in the body and senses (in the form of anubhavas and sattvika bhavas).  The foundation for all this is the svabhavika bhava.  As mentioned in text 254 and the purport to text 255, Krishna rati is an anugata (a follower) of the svabhavika bhava.  The svabhavika bhava refers to the impressions within the heart (vasana) to serve Krishna in a particular way.  From those impressions, one kind of Krishna rati arises.  Then, according to the characteristics of different devotees, the mind will also be of different varieties   (text 257).  The emotions wich ensue are under the control of the mind and are dictated by the particular mental disposition of the devotee as well as the particular stimulating factors (vibhava) which come into play in a given situation.  Having explained that the rise of emotions is under the control of the mind or the heart of the devotee, Shrila Rupa Gosvami then proceeds to describe varieties of conditions of the heart in texts 258-270.


(258) citte garishthe gambhire mahishthe karkashadike

      samyag-unmilitashcami na lakshyante sphutam janaih


      A devotee whose heart is hard (karkasha), is of three varieties.  The heart may be heavy (garishtha-being compared to gold in terms of it's hardness), grave (gambhira-being compared to the ocean in depth) or big (mahishtha-being compared to a great city in size).  These are all characteristics of a heart which is said to be hard (karkasha).  In devotees whose hearts possess such characteristics, even though ecstatic emotions may thoroughly arise in them, because they are not clearly expressed trough transformations in the external body and senses, people are not able to perceive them.


(259) citte laghishthe cottane kshodishthe komaladike

      manag-unmilitashcami lakshyante vahir-ulvanah


      A devotee whose heart is soft (komal), is also of three varieties.  The heart may be light (laghistha-being compared to cotton in terms of it's lightness), shallow (uttana-being compared to a small pond in depth) or tiny (kshodishtha-being compared to a small cottage in size).  These are all characteristics of a heart which is said to be soft (komal).  In devotees whose hearts possess such characteristics, even a slight uprise of emotion is clearly visible through transformations in the body and sense

s and therefore people are able to see them very distinctly.


(260) garishtham svarnapindabham laghishtham tulapindavat

      cittayugme'tra vijneya bhavasya pavanopama


      The heart which is heavy like a lump of gold is called `garishtha' (heavy).  The heart which is light like a ball of cotton is called `laghishtha' (light).  Emotion which arises in the heart of these two, varieties should be understood to be like the wind.


(261) gambhiram sindhu-vaccittam-uttanam palvaladivat

      cittadvaye'tra bhavasya mahadrishikharopama


      The heart which is grave (or deep) like the ocean is called `gambhira' (deep).  The heart which is shallow like a small pond is called `uttana' (shallow).  Emotion which arises in the heart of these two varieties, should be understood to be like a great mountain peak.


(262) pattanabham mahishtham syat kshodishtham tu kutiravat

      cittayugme'tra bhavasya dopenebhena vopama


      The heart which is very large like a great city is called `mahishtha' (very big).  The heart which is small like a cottage is called `kshodis`tha' (tiny).  Emotion which arises in the heart of these two varieties can be compared to a lamp and an elephant.


Notes:  A strong wind has no influence on a lump of gold, but even a slight breeze will send a cotton ball flying.   Similarly, in the heart which is `garishtha' (heavy), even when there is a very powerful rise of emotion (bhava), no transformation is seen.  But in the heart which is `lagishtha' (light), even when there is a small rise of emotion, transformations are clearly seen.  In the ocean, even great mountain peaks are not seen.  But even an ordinary stone, (when thrown) in a small pond, causes a noticeable displacement of the water.  In the same way, in the heart which is `gambhira' (deep or grave), even when a very powerful emotion arises it is not seen.  But in the heart which is `uttana' (shallow), even a small rise of emotion can bring about an upheaval causing clear transformations.  In a great city, lamps and elephants are not noticed.  But in a small village, lamps and elephants are clearly seen.  Similarly in the heart which is `mahishtha' (very big), no transformations are seen on the rise of emotion.  But in the heart which is `kshodishtha' (tiny), transformations resulting from the rise of emotion are immediately seen.


(263) karkasham trividham proktam vajram svarnam tatha jatu

      cittatraye'tra bhavasya jneya vaishvanaropama


      The hard heart is said to be of three kinds-(1) like a diamond (or a thunderbolt), (2) like gold and (3) like shellac.  Emotion (bhava) which arises in these three varieties of hard hearts should be understood to be like fire.


(264) atyantakathinam vajram-akutashcanam-arddavam

      idrsham tapasadinam cittam tavad-avekshyate


      A diamond is extremely hard.  Even fire cannot melt it to any extent.  Similarly the hearts of persons who are engaged in severe austerities (in other words neophyte shanta bhaktas) are extremely hard.  They never become melted or softenned.


(265) svarnam dravati bhavagnes-tapenati-gariyasa

      jatu dravatvam-ayati tapaleshena  sarvatah


      Gold becomes melted when exposed to a very high temperature of fire.  In the same way, the heart which is hard like gold, becomes melted by intense emotions.  Shellac is completely melted by a slight temperature of fire.  Similarly the heart which is like shellac is melted by even a slight rise of emotion.


(266) komalam ca tridhaivoktam madanam navavitakam

      amrtam ceti bhavo'tra prayah suryya-tapayate


      Softness of the heart is of three kinds-(1) like wax, (2) like butter, and (3) like nectar.  Emotion which arises in the soft heart of these three varieties, is like the heat of the sun.


(267) dravedatradyayugalamatapena yathayatham

      dravibhutam svabhavena sarva-daivamrtam bhavet

      govinda-preshtha-varyyanam cittam syad amrtam kila


      Wax and butter are easily melted by the heat of the sun.  Similarly the heart of the devotee which is like wax or butter becomes melted by a slight contact with emotions (bhava).  Nectar is by nature always liquid.  Similarly the hearts of Shri Krishna's dearmost devotees are by nature just like nectar.  They always remain soft and melted.


(268) krishna-bhakta-visheshasya garishtha-tvadibhir-gunaih

      samavetam sada'mibhir-dvitrair-api mano bhavet


      The heart of special devotees of Shri Krishna always possesses two or three of the above mentioned characteristics, such as garishthata (heaviness), etc.


(269) kintu sushthu mahishthatvam bhavo badham-upagatah

      sarvaprakaram-evedam cittam vikshobhayatyalam


      But when the devotee is affected by very powerful syptoms of ecstatic love, the heart becomes severely agitated in various ways.  (In this condition it is not possible to hide the emotions).


Yatha Danakeli-kaumudyam (2)-


(270) gabhiro'pyashrantam duradhigamaparo'pi nitaram-

      maharghyam maryyadam dadhadapi hareraspadamapi

      satam stomah premavyudayati samapresthagayitum-

      vikaram na spharam jalanidhirivendau prabhavati


      As it is said in Danakeli-kaumudi (2)-The ocean which is the resting place of Shri Narayana, is always very deep and can never be crossed by anyone.  Nor does it ever extend beyond it's boundaries.  But in spite of this, on the rising of the full moon, the ocean is incapable of checking it's agitation.  In the same way, the devotee who has taken full shelter of Shri Hari, who constantly envisions the Lord within his heart, who is grave (who is capable of hiding his prema), who is possessed of all good qualities and who naturally abides by the proper codes of behavior, is incapable of supressing the transformations of ecstacy which arise when prema reaches it's zenith.


Notes:  Heaviness (garishthatva) and lightness (laghishthatva) of the heart have been described in order to illustrate the perplexity (vikshepa) and non-perplexity (avikshepa) of the heart that arises upon being exposed to the influence of the vyabhicari bhavas.  Similarly, the heart is said to be hard (karkasha) or soft (komal) according to it's degree of meltability or non-meltability by the vyabhicari bhavas.  The heart which is unmoved by a slight contact with the vyabhicari bhavas is said to be heavy (garishtha) and the heart which is easily moved is said to be light (laghishtha).  In reality, the heart is neither heavy nor light nor hard.  Only accoring to the degree of emotional frenzy experienced by the heart on contact with the vyabhicari bhavas is the heart said to be hard or soft.


     Brahma jnana and aisvarya jnana cause the heart to become hard in relationship to Krishna.  Madhurya jnana alone can produce affection (sneha) toward Shri Krishna.  Brahma jnana and aisvarya jnana can produce awe and reverence but they can not produce affection.  The mind of all individuals is produced from the mode of goodness.  Therefore, this distinguishing feature (between brahma jnana and madhurya jnana) is not due to the mind. This distinguishing feature is due only to the difference in the disposition of the heart (bhavantara).  The disposition of the heart (bhavantara) is of two types-material (prakrta-bhava) and spiritual (bhagavata-bhava).  In kanishtha adhikaris (those situated in brahma jnana and aisvarya jnana), the material disposition (prakrta-bhava) alone, is the cause of hardness or softness of the heart (garishta etc.).  But in uttama adhikaris, the spiritual disposition (bhagavata-bhava) is the exclusive cause of hardness or softness of the heart.


     In comparison to that emotion which brings about the condition of the heart which is compared to nectar, all other emotions are insignificant.  The degree of meltability of the heart varies in accordance with the sthayi bhava.  The progressive scale of meltability of the heart is mentioned in texts 263 and 266 (gold, shellac, wax, butter and nectar).  Beginning from gold (diamond is not included here because other than in very exceptional cases it cannot be melted) each successive substance has a higher degree of meltability.  The vyabhicari bhavas which bring about agitation or non-agitation of the heart are also measured in accordance with the sthayi bhava.  It is the inherent nature of the self (svabhavika bhava or in other words the sthayi bhava) which is the cause of the permanent condition of the heart such as heaviness, lightness etc.  Whereas the incidental emotions (agantuka bhava or in other words the vyabhicari bhavas) are the cause of perplexity or agitiation of the heart.


     By the application of certain chemicals, even diamond can be melted.  Similarly, if there is extreme augmentation of the sthayi bhava (by the vyabhicari bhavas), then even the heart which possesses the characteristics of heaviness and hardness can be agitated.  In support of this, the evidence of Danakeli Kaumudi is cited.


     Thus ends the Fourth Wave of the Southern Division of Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu entitled "Vyabhicari Bhava."