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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Rupa Goswami > Ujjvala Nilamani

Shri Ujjvala-Nilamani


Chapter 1

Varieties of Heroes



Invoking Auspiciousness


         All glories to the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead. His holy name attracts those expert at relishing transcendental mellows. His transcendental qualities eternally increase the bliss of His devotees. His transcendental form brings a great festival of happiness to His devotees.


         Because of it's confidential nature, the madhura-rasa was only briefly mentioned in the description of the primary rasas presented in the previous book (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu). That madhura-rasa, the king of all mellows of devotional service, is therefore described in this book in great detail.


        Madhura-rasa is made even more relishable when accompanied by the ecstatic sentiments vibhava, anubhava, sattvika-bhava, and sancari-bhava, which will all be described in this book. The learned devotees call this mellow madhura-rasa because it is the sweetest (madhura) of all mellows of devotional service.


Vibhava (the causes of ecstasy): Alambana (the basic causes): Lord Krishna and His dear devotees are the basic causes of ecstasy.


Shri Krishna

Shri Krishna's nature as an alambana is described in the following statement of Vaishnava literature, where Paurnamasi says to Radharani:


        "The beauty and splendor of Shri Krishna's lotus feet has eclipsed many billions of cupids. The artistic dancing of His sidelong glances has charmed the gopis' hearts. His form is like a glittering new rain-cloud. He is an ocean of great transcendental pastimes. He is the supreme good fortune of all beautiful young girls in the three worlds. I pray that this Shri Krishna become the cause of the great happiness in Your heart."


         The qualities of Shri Krishna may be enumerated in the following list: He is: 1. Very handsome and charming; 2. Sweet; 3. Endowed with all transcendental qualities; 4. Strong; 5. A fresh youth; 6. Eloquent; 7. A pleasing talker; 8. Intelligent; 9. Brilliant; 10. Grave; 11. Expert; 12. Clever; 13. Happy; 14. Grateful; 15. Skillful; 16. Controlled by love; 17. An ocean of profoundness; 18. The best; 19. Famous; 20. Charming to all women; 21. Eternally new and fresh; 22. His dear flute music, personal beauty, and transcendental pastimes are all superexcellent and cannot be compared to anything else. These are some of Shri Krishna's many transcendental qualities manifested in the mellow of conjugal love. These and many others have already been elaborately described in the previous book.




The four aspects of Lord Krishna's personality (dhirodatta, dhira-lalita, dhira-prasanta, and dhiroddhata) have been described in the previous book. Two other aspects of His personality: pati (husband), and upapati (paramour) are also very famous.


         The feature pati (husband) is defined as he who takes the hand of a girl in marriage.


          Lord Krishna as pati is described in the following statement of Vaishnava literature: "Powerful Krishna defeated Rukmi in battle and then took Rukmini with Him to Dvaraka. As the citizens of Dvaraka celebrated a great festival, lotus-eyed Krishna took Rukmini's hand in marriage."


          "After Krishna had already married Rukmini, the princess of Vidarbha, He performed the pastimes of marrying Satyabhama. He was initiated in the marriage sacrifice, and, very slowly, and with elaborate religious ritual, gave great wealth as daksina to the priest Narada."


        This pati-feature is also described in the following statement, where the Vraja-gopis pray to Goddess Durga:


        "O Katyayani, O Maha-maya, O great yogini, O controller of the universe, O goddess, I offer my respectful obeisances unto you. I request You: please give me the cowherd Nanda's son Krishna as my husband."


       When the young girls of Gokula desired in this way, some of them actually attained Krishna as their husband. The scripture Madhava-mahatmya confirms that before Krishna married Rukmini, these gopis celebrated a great festival of marrying Krishna.


       Now Lord Krishna's feature of upapati (paramour) will be discussed. The wise define upapati as a man who transgresses religious principles by becoming the lover of someone else's wife.


     "When Krishna arrived in Radharani's courtyard for Their rendezvous, His tinkling ornaments sounded like the cooing of cuckoos and other birds. Krishna suddenly heard the door open, and He also heard the continual jingling sounds of conch-shell bracelets. When He heard the arrogant Jarati call out, ‘Who is there? Who is there?’ He became pained at heart. Krishna spent that entire night hiding in a tree in the corner of Radharani's courtyard."


       This love of the paramour is the most attractive feature of conjugal love.


       This is confirmed by the following statement of Bharata Muni: ‘That amorous love which is forbidden by religious principles, which requires that the lovers keep their relationship a secret, and which provides many obstacles for the lovers' meeting, provides the most intense conjugal happiness for them.’


       This love of a paramour is very abominable for a material lover, but it is not so for Lord Krishna, who descended into this world to taste the sweet nectar of this transcendental pastime.


        Krishna's attachment to the conjugal mellow is described in the following statement of Bilvamangala Thakura: “Let me take shelter of Krishna, the shelter of all the worlds. His transcendental body resembles the form of a human being. He decorated with a peacock-feather. The mellow of transcendental conjugal love is His most cherished treasure.”


      The pati and upapati may be further divided into four types: 1.The faithful lover; 2. The expert lover; 3. The cheating lover; 4. The bold and arrogant lover. Cheating and boldness are especially appropriate for the upapati, and they are also appropriate during dancing. None of these features are inappropriate for Krishna. They all find their place in the great variety of His transcendental pastimes.


       When a lover is so intensely attached to his beloved that he never desires any other woman, just as Lord Ramacandra was attached to Sita-devi, then that lover is called faithful. Krishna's faithfulness to Radharani is very famous. He never looked at or thought of any other woman.


      Krishna's faithfulness to Radharani is confirmed by the following statement of Vaishnava literature, where Vrnda-devi says to Radharani: “None of the splendidly beautiful vraja-gopis expert at the art of kissing, have become the amorous lovers of Krishna, the king of the gopas. O slender-waisted Radharani, You are the crest-jewel of all pious girls. Except for You, I have never seen Krishna even glance at any other girl.”


      Krishna's faithfulness to Radharani in the dhirodatta aspect of His personality is described in the following statement of Vaishnava literature: "One time the lotus-eyed gopis waiting at the rendezvous tried to lure Krishna by expertly reciting from the corners of their eyes various artistic nandi verses from the introduction to the romantic drama of their friendship with Him. Krishna simply ignored their sidelong glances. He did not slacken from His intense earnestness to meet Radharani and enjoy transcendental pastimes with Her in the land of Vraja.”


      Krishna's faithfulness in the dhira-lalita aspect of His personality is described in the following statement of Vaishnava literature: "Krishna is no longer enjoying pastimes with His parents out of deep affection. Instead He is now decorating the forests on the Yamuna's shore, enjoying pastimes with Radharani.”


     Krishna's faithfulness in the dhira-prasanta aspect of His personality is described in the following statement of Vaishnava literature, where Visakha says to Radharani: “O doe-eyed Radharani, Krishna is so full of love for You that to see You He has now come here disguised as a brahmana priest of the sun-god. How is it possible that He has suddenly attained all the qualities of a brahmana? Look! His intelligence has become very expert at discriminating the fine points of philosophy and literature! His glance emits tolerance and patience! His words are very meek and humble! His whole body radiates the splendid gravity of a great philosopher!”



        Krishna's faithfulness in the dhiroddhata aspect of His personality is described in the following statement of Vaishnava literature, where Krishna says to Lalita: “O saintly, fair-complexioned Lalita, free from all duplicity and the spiritual master of those filled with saintly qualities, please tell Me, now that My mind glows with love for your friend Radharani, and does not desire any other girl, even for a moment, and even during dream when I dream at night, why have all My good qualities left Me, and why does this concealed jealously rise within Me?


       Daksina: A lover who pretends to love his mistress with respect and awe, even though within his mind he thinks of another girl, is known as daksina (an insincere lover).


      Nandimukhi says to Candravali: “O Candravali, you speak the truth. It is easy to see no duplicity has ever been seen in  Krishna. He is not cheating you. Pure-hearted Krishna loves you at every moment, even when He is asleep and dreaming. My dear humble friend, please do not believe the lies you have heard from these envious, back-biting, scandal-loving, gossip-monger gopis.”


        A daksina lover may treat many mistresses with equal indifference.


       This aspect of the daksina lover is described in the following statement from Dasa-rupaka:


      "O Krishna, O king of Dvaraka, Your wife, the princess of Kuntalesvara has just taken her bath and she is waiting to receive You, and some of Your other wives, the sisters of Maharaja Anga are also waiting for You. Queen Rukmini, who has spent all night playing dice only to meet defeat at the hands of Kamala, is deeply in love with You. I have now called all Your beautiful wives from the inner apartments, and they are also eager to receive You. Although wherever You go two or three beautiful wives are yearning for Your embrace, You placidly ignore all of them.”


       This daksina quality of Krishna is also described in the following statement of Vaishnava literature, where Kundalata says to Nandimukhi: "Padma is splashing waves of amorous glances at Krishna. Kamala is suggestively moving her limbs before Krishna. Tara is beginning to uncover her shoulders. Sukesi is scratching her ear. Saibya has placed her hand in her undergarment. In this way all these gopis are all simultaneously calling for their lover Krishna. Look! Krishna's mind has become distracted and He is ignoring all of them!”


       Satha (a cheater): A lover who speaks sweet words glorifying her when she is present, and then repeatedly blasphemes her behind her back is called satha (a cheater) by the wise.


      "Nandimukhi said to Syama: Last night Krishna called out in His sleep: O Pali! when Syama heard this her face turned white. She sighed. The three Yamas (three hours) of that springtime night passed for her as slowly as many thousands of yamas.


      Padma to Krishna: O Krishna, in secluded forest grove I found Your splendid golden garment suspiciously marked with the black mascara of some gopi. O Krishna, give up trying to prove Your innocence. Your guilt is already proven.


       Daksa: When the hero is not cautious to hide from his mistress the signs of his enjoying with other young girls, and when he is expert at lying his way out of the accusations levelled against him, he is called dhrsta (a bold lover).


       Krishna to Syama-gopi: O Syama, these are not the scratch-marks of some passionate rival, they are merely lines of red kumkuma drawn on My body. Do not think these are smudges of red lace from the cosmetics of some other gopi. These are merely smudges of red chalk from Govardhana Hill. Do not think these are smudges of black mascara from some other lover. They are merely My own tilaka markings drawn in musk. O My young girl, why do you see everything in the opposite way?


      The various features of the amorous hero Krishna may be considered in the following way: First, there are the four features of Dhirodatta, Dhira-lalita, Dhira-prasanta, and dhiroddhata. Each of these may be again divided in three ways, as purna (perfect) purnatara (more perfect), and purnatama (most perfect. In this way there are 12 features. These 12 features may again be divided into pati (husband), and upapati (paramour). In this way there are 24 features. These 24 features may again be divided into anukula, daksina, satha, and dhrsta. In this way there are 96 features of the amorous hero Krishna. Other features. Where the amorous hero is a gross rascal, are not present in the personality of Krishna. This fact is also confirmed by the opinion of Bharata Muni.



Chapter 2

Male Friends Who Assist in the Arrangements of Krishna's Pastimes with the Gopis



       The sahayas (male helpers) may divided into five groups: 1. cetaka; 2. vita; 3. vidusaka; 4. pitha-marda; and 5. priya-narma-sakha.


       Cleverness at speaking joking words, eternal love and friendship for Krishna, expertness at judging what is proper at different places and times, ability to pacify the gopis when they become angry, and great learning in the art of chanting secret mantras, are some of the personal qualities of the sahayas.


       Ceta: The cetas are expert at arranging Krishna's rendezvous with the gopis. The cetas can be trusted with secret missions. They are bold, arrogant, and witty. Bhangura and Bhrngara are the leaders of Krishna's ceta friends in Gokula.


       "My queen, I have just seen a very wonderful, unprecedented event. even thought the season is now autumn, I have seen nearby a madhava-creeper blossoming with many flowers." By this tricky pun, the ceta showed Radharani the pathway to the place where Krishna was staying nearby.


       Vita: The vitas are expert valets who dress Krishna. They are mischievous, clever conversationalist, and learned scholars in the scriptures describing the art of love. Kadara and Bharatibandhu are the leaders of the vitas.



        Kadara to Syama-gopi: Krishna is now playing His flute, and with it's soft, sweet sound He is breaking the peaceful composure of all young girls in the universe. He will not be inclined to stop this pastime to sport with you. My dear friend Syama, I am the friend of your friend Krishna. Again and again I beg you with sweet words: do not try to interrupt Krishna's flute-playing. this is His wish. No doe-eyed gopi in Vraja will dare to transgress His order."


      Vidusaka: The vidusaka has a voracious appetite, and is fond of quarreling. His bodily features, garments, and words are all very unusual. He is an expert comedian. Vasanta is the leader of the vidusakas. Madhumangala is the famous vidusaka described in the play Vidagdha-Madhava.


      Something of the role of the vidusaka may be seen in the following statement where Madhumangala instructs Krishna in a certain tactic to cure Radharani of Her arrogant pride. Madhumangala said: My dear Krishna, You should say to proud Radharani: the king of Gokula has now arrived on His celestial chariot. He is very eager to see Me. Before I go off with him, You should bid Me farewell by happily showering the flowers of Your smiling lips upon Me. I beg You, lease fulfill My desire at once. My dear proud girl, only those reddened with jealousy will not give the charity of their lips on the occasion of this important religious ritual.


       Also Vasanta gives similar advice to cure the arrogant Radharani. He says: O Krishna, just say to Radharani: O Radharani, Your worshipable deity, the sun-god, respectfully bowed down before Me and eagerly gave Me this splendid lotus flower. Your refusal to accept this flower has angered him and made him leave the earth. O proud girl, why have You no respect for My words?


      Pitha-marda: The qualities of the pitha-marda is the nayaka's constant, affectionate companion. Shridama may be given as the example of a pitha-marda.


      Seeing  the cowherd boy wrestler Govardhana challenge  Krishna, the  pitha-mardas  advice  him  in  the following words: With the  sole  exception  of Candravali all the people of Vraja have come here to the sandy banks of  the Yamuna  to see  Krishna's pastimes, that astonish the entire universe. O foolish wrestler Govardhana, we are the closest friends of  Krishna. The words  we speak are solely for your benefit. Take our advice, and  do  not touch this Krishna, the lifter of Govardhana Hill.


  One  day Shridama saw Candravali traversing the forest in what seemed to be a nefarious mission. He narrated this to Candravali's sister Bharundi, who answered  him  in the following words: My dear Shridama, your  concern  and respect is very encouraging to me. It comes to me just like the mercy of the goddess  Durga  is  bestowed on even the most fallen  of  women. My  sister Candravali  was walking in the forest carrying kunkuma and a  flower-garland in her hand only so that she might offer these articles to the deity of  the goddess Durga. My only feat in this regard is that wicked persons might see her, misunderstand her mission, and gossip about her imagined misdeeds.


  Priya-narma-sakha: The  priya-narma-sakhas  know  the  most  confidential secrets  of   Krishna's pastimes with the gopis. Their love for Krishna  is almost as intense as the gopi's love. Of all the gopas they are  Krishna's closest friends. In Gokula Subala and Arjuna are the leaders of the  priya-narma-sakhas.


  Subala  is described in the following statement where Rupa-manjari says to her  gopi-friend: Then, when this gopi quarreled with Krishna and left  Him, Subala met her, satisfied her with his words, and convinced her to  return and  enjoy  amorous pastimes with Krishna in the forest-cottage. After  Their pastimes  were concluded, and  Krishna rested His perspiring body on  His beloved's  breast, Subala  fanned  Him. What service is  this  Subala  not qualified to perform?


  Ujjvala says to Subala: The gopis lick the beauty of  Krishna with their restless sidelong glances. They wrap their arms around Him and press  their breasts  to  His  chest, and without any restraint they happily  drink  the nectra of His lips. O friend, do you know the gopis' history? Do you know what  austerities  they  performed  in order to  attain  this  supreme  good fortune?


  Four  kinds  of gopia-freinds help to make arrangements for   Krishna's amorous pastimes with the gopis. They are the: 1. ceta; 2. kinkara; 3. pitha-marda; and 4. vira friends of the Lord. Many gopi-messengers also help to arrange for the Lord's amorous pastimes. For the most part they will  be described  in the chapter on the gopis, but to a certain extent, as it  is appropriate, they may be described now for the understanding of the readers, learned in transcendental mellows.


   Krishna  may also personally arrange for His pastimes with the  gopis, where Visakha says to  Radharani:  Madhava's sidelong glances is a wonderfully expert magician. Even though You are very pure are heart, this magician  has  woven a spell over You, stunned You, and  filled  You  with wonder.


   Krishna's flute may also carry His messages to the gopis: May the sweet sound of  Krishna's flute, His authorized messenger, be glorified, for it expertly  releases  Radharani from Her shyness and attracts Her  from Her home to the forest.


  Apta-duti  (gopi-messengers): Vira  and  Vrnda are the  leaders  of   Krishna's  gopi-messengers. Vira speaks with arrogance and pride, and  Vrnda speaks very sweetly.


  Vira to  Radharani: Don't turn from me! Proud girl, hear my words!

Charming, beautiful young girl, go to meetKrishna, the lifter of GovardhanaHill. Do not run from Him with anger!


  One day Vrnda approached one of the gopis, offered respectful  obeisances to her, and asked her the following question: My dear beautiful gopi, your eyes are as restless and graceful as two khanjana birds. I beg you: please answer my question. What are these dangerous snakes of your eyebrows?  Krishna  was bitten by them. Stunned by their poisen He now wanders aimlessly in the forest. Even now He has not been able to enter the village of Vraja.


  The  gopi-messengers headed by Vira are extraordinary associates  of   Krishna. Other gopi-associates (silpa-karini, daivajna, and lingini) of the divine couple will be described further on.



Chapter 3

Lord Krishna's Amorous Lovers


  The  gopis have personal qualities similar to those of Lord Krishna Himself. They are filled with the sweet opulence of great and intense love for Krishna.  I  offer my respectful obeisances to the gopis. They are filled with  the most  sublime transcendental sweetness. They are the crest jewels of  those who have performed pious activities. They have carefully studied under their tutor youthfulness, and they have displayed their skill in amorous pastimes before Lord Krishna.


  The  amorous lovers of Krishna are said to be divided into  two  groups: 1. svakiya  (those married to Lord Krishna); and 2. parakiya (those married  to others).


  Svakiya: Those girls who have accepted Lord Krishna's hand in marriage, who diligently  abide  by His orders, and are faithful to Him, are said to  be svakiya.


  Lord  Krishna'squeen  are  very devoted to  their  husband. They  carefully traverse  the  auspicious path of religious  principles, and  they  happily follow  the  orders  of  their elders and  superiors. Day  after  day  they faithfully  serve their beloved husband at home with great chastity. I pray these  queens of Lord Krishna may bestow great transcendental  happiness  upon you.


  Lord  Krsn  to  Queen  Rukmini: My dear honored  wife, although  I  have thousands  of wives, I do not think that any one of them can love  Me  more than you. The practical proof of your extrordinary position is that you had never  seen  Me before your marriage; you had simply heard about Me from  a third  person, and  still your faith in Me was so fixed that  even  in  the presence of many qualified, rich and beautiful men of the royal order, you did not select any one of them as your husband, but insisted on having Me.


  It is very well known that Lord Krishna, the hero of the Yadu dynasty, had 16,108 wives at Dvaraka.


  Each  queen  had thousands of girl friends and maidservants. The  friends were  equal  to  the  queens in  beauty  and  personal  qualities, but  the maidservants were a little inferior.


  Of  all these queens  Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Saibya, Bhadra, Kausalya, and Madri were the eight most qualified.


  Of  all  these  queens  Rukmini and Satyabhama are said to  be  the  best. Rukmini is exalted because of her transcendental opulence, and Satyabhama is exalted because of her extreme good fortune.


  Rukmini, the daughter of King Bhfismaka, had the greatest opulence in Lord Krishna's palace, but Satyabhama was the most fortunate of Lord Krishna's wives.


  Lord Krishna to Rukmini: My queen, of all My 16,000 wives none is more dear to Me than you. You are as dear to Me as My own life-breath.


  Both  Rukmini  and Satyabhama have hundreds of thousands  of  friends  and maidservants, who are all full of love for them.


  The  young  girls  of Gokula were very eager to get Lord Krishna  as  their husband, although  the circumstances of their lives never allowed  them  to love Him in the svakiya-rasa (married Love).


  The  gopi's  intense  love  for  Krishna may be seen  in  the  following statement  where, while   Krishna was staying in  Mathura, one  gopi  in Vrndavana spoke the following words to her friend: If Krishna does not return here  to  enjoy  pastimes with us, then what does it  matter  that  Vraja's saintly  queen Yasoda is always affectionate like a mother to me? What does it  matter  to  me that the gopis all love me more  than  their  own  life's breath? What does it matter that Vrndavana-forest is more glorious than the forest  of  Vaikuntha? What value do these things have if we  cannot  enjoy pastimes with peacock-feather-crowned Krishna? To attain Him as our husband we dutifully worshipped the goddess Uma.


  It  is  true  that   Krishna married the gopis by  the  Gandharva  rite. However, because  their marriage was kept a secret, their love  could  not openly admitted.  Parakiya: Those women who, with great love offer themselves to  Krishna without caring for religious principles, and without caring what happens to them  in  this world or the next, are known as the parakiya lovers of   Krishna.


  Even thogh the gopis were so much in love with Krishna that they jumped over the  path of religious principles to become His lovers, Arundhati  and  the other great chaste women offer them all respect and worship. Even though the gopis  are country girls living in the rural area of  Vrndavana-forest, the slight  fragrance  of  their sweetness has dissolved the  great  beauty  and opulence  of  the goddess of fortune. The exalted position of the gopis  is very rare in the three worlds. I pray that these gopi-friends of  Krishna may grant transcendental happiness to you.


  The  parakiya  lovers of  Krishna may be divided  into  two  groups: 1. kanyaka  (unmarried girls), and 2. parodha (the wives of others). For the most  part  these parakiya lovers are residents of the Vrajabhumi  ruled  by King  Nanda. The  secret  love  of these  parakiya  devotees  brings  great transcendental bliss to  Krishna, the king of Gokula.


  The gopis' methods of attracting  Krishna are described in the following statement  where Lord Siva  says: Contrariness, playing  hard-to-get, and repulsing  the  lover's  advances  are the three  ultimate-wepons  of  cupid employed by women.


  When  the  doe-eyed gopi play hard-to-get and reject their  lover  Krishna's advances, this makes  Krishna's heart become intensely attached to them.


  What  were the other pastimes enjoyed by  Krishna and the  gopis? These were  all personally described by the great sage Shrila Sukadeva  Gosvami  in the Paramahamsa-samhita (Shrimad-Bhagavatam).


  He  said  in Tenth Canto: Even though He was the self-sufficient  Supreme Personality  of Goehead,  Krishna enjoyed the pastime of  the  rasa-dance with the gopis.


  Those who desire auspiciousness should engage in the devotional service of  Krishna, but they should not try to imitate the activities of  Krishna. This is the conclusion of the devotional scriptures. Those  who are attached to liberation, religious principles, and  similar auspicious  goals do follow the saintly path chalked out by Lord  Ramacandra and  the  other incarnations of the Personality of Godhead. These  devotees never follow the example set by Ravana and other demons.


  An individual spirit-soul, who is not the Supreme Personality of Godhead, should never try to imitate the actions of  Krishna, even in his thoughts. If  he  foolishly  tried to do this it will be the same as if  he  tries  to imitate Lord Siva by drinking the poison produced from the ocean of milk.


  That  one should not try to imitate the Lord, but simply try to carry out His  order  is  also described in  Shrimad-Bhagavatam: Krishna  manifests  His eternal  humanlike  form  and performs His pastimes to  show  mercy  to  the devotees. Having heard such pastimes, one should engage in service to Him.   Krishna  personally glorified the gopis with the following words  from His own mouth. 


When  the  gopis  were  overwhelmed  with  dissatisfaction  due  to   Krishna's absence from the rasa-lila, Krishna returned to them and told them: My dear gopis, our meeting is cerrtainly free from all material contamination. I  must admit that in many lives it would be impossible for Me to  repay  My debt  to  you  because you have cut off the bondage of family life  just  to search for Me. Consequently I am unable to repay you. Therefore please  be satisfied with your honest activites in this regard.


  Uddhava, the best of all devotees of the Lord, glorified the gopis in the following eloquent words:


  The  gopis of Vrndavana have given up the association of  their  husbands, sons and otherr family members, who are very difficult to give up, and they have  forsaken  the  path of chastity to take shelter of the lotus  feet  of Mukunda, Krishna, which one should search for by Vedic knowledge. Oh, let me be fortunate enough to be one of the bushes, creepers or herbs in Vrndavana because  the gopis trample them and bless them with the dust of their  lotus feet.


  When  the  gopis went to associate with   Krishna, Yogamaya  presented duplicates  of  the  gopis' forms before their husbands. In  this  way  the husbans  thought  their wives were always with them, and they never  became jealous of  Krishna.


  Bewildered  by the Lord's yogamaya potency, the vrajavasis who  sere  the gopis' so-called  husbans thought their wives were staying by  their  side. They  did  not know that their wives had gone to Krishna, and therefore  they were not jealous of  Krishna.


  Kanyaka (unmarried Gopis): The young unmarried gopis were still under the protection  of  their parents. They were absorbed in childhood  games  with their  friends. They  were  shy and possessed all  the  charm  of  youthful innocence.


  These  young  girls, headed  by the gopi Dhanya, devotedly  followed  an austere vow to please the goddess Durga and get  Krishna as their husband.  Krishna later fulfilled their desire, and in this way they  became  the dear lovers of  Krishna.


  My  dear friend, you are only a tiny child, intently playing in the dust without even a shirt. You are so young that your cowherd father has not even begun to search for your future husband. Even though you are so young, now that  you  hear  the warbling sounds of  peacock-feather  crowned  Krishna  in Vrndavana  forest, you  are trembling, and your eyes are rolling about  in ecstatic love.


  Parodha (the wives of others): The cowherds' wives who have not yet borne children, and who constantly yearn to enjoy amorous pastimes with  Krishna are called parodha, They are the dear lovers of  Krishna.


  Padma to Candravali: Impelled by curiosity, and wishing to collect flowers to offer to goddess Katyayani, you entered deep into the belly of this thick forest. Why  have  you done this? My friend, your breasts  now  bear  the scratch-marks of the forest-thorns, and your sister-in-law is now staring at these marks, fearing that perhaps they are the scratches of  Krishna.


  These  gopis are described with the intense sweetness of their great  pure love for  Krishna. With their beauty, opulence, and transcendental virtues they surpass even the goddess Laksmi-devi and her followers.


  When  Shri Krishna was dancing with the gopis in the rasa-lila, the gopis were  embraced by the arms of the Lord. This transcendental favor was never bestowed upon the goddess of fortune or the otherr consorts in the spiritual world. Indeed, never was such a thing even imagined by the most  beautiful girls  in  the heavenly planets whose bodily luster and aroma  resemble  the lotus  flower. And  what to speak of worldly women who are  very  beautiful according to the material estimation?


  The  gopis  may  be  divided into three  groups: 1. Those  who  attained perfection  by  engaging  in  devotional  service; 2. Demigoddesses  from thehigher material planets who descended to the earth in the form of  gopis; and 3. Those who are eternally the gopi lovers of  Krishna.


  Sadhana-para  (Those who became gopis by engaging in devotional  service): These gopis may again in turn be divided into two groups: 1. Yauthiki (Those who were part of a group whose members all became gopis); and 2. ayauthiki (Those who became gopis singly).     


  Yauthikis  (Those  who  were  parts of a group whose  members  all  became gopis): The  yauthikis  were members of a group which  jointly  engaged  in devotional service. These yauthikis may be further divided into two groups: 1. Munis (sages); 2. Upanisads (Personified Upanisads).


  Munis (Sages): The munis are described in the following statement of Padma Purana: In ancient times a group of sages worshipped  Gopala for a long time without attaining the object of their spiritual desire. Eventually they saw  Lord  Ramacandra, and the sight of His transcendental beauty  awakened intense  attraction within them. They yearned to attain Lord Ramacandra  as their husband, and as a result of this yearning they eventually took  birth as gopis in the land of Vraja.


  In the Brhad-Vamana Purana another famous passage explains that some other sages attained spiritual perfection, and were thus able to enter the Lord's rasa-dance during His manifest earthly pastimes.


  Personified Upanisads: When all the great, deeply perceptive Personified Upanisads saw the supreme, unequalled good fortune of the gopis, they became struck with wonder. The Upanisads faithfully performed austerities to become like  the  gopis, and  eventually they took birth as gopis in the  land  of Vraja. This famous history is recounted in both the Puranas and Upanisads.


  Ayauthiki  gopis: Those who sincerely follow the regulative practices  of devotional  service with love for  Krishna and yearn to become  His  gopi-associates, take birth at various times, one-by-one, or in groups of two or three, in the land of Vraja. These ayauthiki-gopis may be divided into two groups: 1. pracina; and 2. nava. Pracina gopis: After engaging in devotional pravtices  for  a long time, the pracina gopis take birth in the  sam  area where the Lord's eternally dear liberated gopis have incarnated. Nava gopis: After  a realtively short time spent in devotional practices the  nava-gopis take birth in the wombs of human, demigoddess, or other mothers, and then after that birth they are able to take birth as gopis in the land of Vraja.


  Devi  (Demigoddesses): When  Krishna incarnates on the heavenly planets by  His  partial expansion in order to please the  demigods, His  eternally dear, liberated  gopi-associates  also  appear with Him  by  their  partial expansions as demigoddesses. Those residents of the heavenly planets who are able  to understand the real identity of these demigoddesses become able  to take birth in Vrajabhumi as the gopi friends of these liberated gopis.


  Nitya-priya  (The  Eternally  Dear, Liberated  Gopis): Radharani  and Candravali  are the leaders of the nitya-priya gopis. The nitya-priya gopis are transcendental reservoirs of eternal beauty, expertise, and all  other spiritual qualities, just like  Krishna.


  I  worship  Govinda, the  primeval Lord, who resides in His  own  realm, Goloka, with Radha, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the  ecstatic potency (hladini). Their companions are Her  confidants, who embody  extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated  with

ever-blissful spiritual rasa.


  The  names  of  some of the most important gopis mentioned  in  the  Vedic scriptues are: Radha, Candravali, Visakha, Lalita, Syama, Padma, Saibya, Bhadra, Vicitra, Gopali; Dhanistha, and Palika. Candravaki is also known as Somabha, Radha  is  known as Gandharva, and Lalita is known  as  Anuradha. Somabha, Gandharva, and Anuradha are not different gopis. In addittion to the gopis mentioned in the scriptures, there are other gopis, who although not  mentioned in the original scriptures, are famous in the  community  of Vaishnavas. Some  of  these  important  gopis  are: Khanjanaksi- Manorama; Mangala, Vimala, Lila, Krishna, Sari, Visarada, Taravali, Cakoraksi, Sankari, and Kunkuma. In this way there are hundreds of groups of beautiful-eyebrowed gopis, and in each group there are hundreds and thousands of charming girls.


  The  gopis whose names are listed here, beginning with Radha, proceeding thtough Visakha, Lalita, Padma, Saibya, and others, and ending with Kunkuma, are all leaders of groups of gopis. Among them the eight closest friends of Radharan, who are headed by Lalita, are especially fortunate. Although these eight  gopis  are the leaders of many other gopis, because  they  are  very greedy  to earn Shrimati Radharani's love, they always serve Her and try  to please Her in every way possible.



Chapter 4

Shrimati Radharani


In  all respects Radha and Candravali are the best of all the gopis. Eachof them has a group of followers numbering millions of doe-eyed gopis.On  the shore of the Yamuna  krishna enjoyed the rasa dance  with  thesetwo  and  many hundreds of millions of other gopis. This ras dance is  veryfamous.


Among  the  gopis of Vrndavana, Shrimati Radharani and  another  gopi  areconsidered  chief. However, when  we compare the gopis, it  appears  thatShrimati  Radharani is most important because Her real feature expresses  thehighest ecstasy of love. The ecstasy of love experienced by the other gopiscannot be compared to that of Shrimati Radharani.


Shrimati  Radharani is glorified in all Vedic literatures. In the  Gopala-tapani Upanisad, Uttara-khanda, She is addressed by the name Gandharva. Inthe  Rg-veda-parisista  She is addressed by the name Radha and described  asthe companion of  Madhava. In the Padma Purana Devarsi Narada  narratesHer glories.


Just as Shrimati Radharani is dear to Lord Vishnu, so Her lake, Radha-kunda,is also dear to Him. Of all the gopis, Shrimati Radharani is the most dear toLord Vishnu.


Shrimati  Radharani is Lord Krishna's hladini-sakti (pleasure  potency), thebest of all His potencies. She is the form of ecstatic love for Lord Krishna.All this is described in the Tantras. She wears 16 kinds of ornaments and 12 kinds of ornaments.


Krishna to  Radharani: My dear Radharani, Your curling locks ofhair, long, restless eyes, firm breasts, slender waist, shyly bowed head,creeperlike  arms, and jewellike fingernails are all exquisitely beautiful.The jubilant festival of Your beauty makes all the three worlds tremble withtranscendental bliss.


Shrimari  Radharani's  16 ornaments are described  as  follow: 1. ShrimatiRadharani  is  nicely bathed; 2. The tip of Her nose is decorated  with  aglittering  jewel; 3. She wears exquisite blue garments; 4. She wears  acharming  belt; 5. Her  braids are nicely tied; 6. She  wears  beautifulearrings; 7. Her transcendental body is anointed with fragrent  sandalwoodpaste; 8. Her hair is decorated with fowers; 9. She wears a flower garland;10. She holds a lotus flower in Her hand; 11. She chews betel-nuts; 12. Herchin is decorated with bunches of flowers drawn with many musk dots; 13. Hereyes  are  attractively  anointed with black  mascara; 14. Her  limbs  aredecorated  with colorful designs and pictures; 15. Her feet are splendidlydecoratred with red lac; 16. She wears graceful tilaka marking. These arethe 16 decorations on the transcendental form of Shrimati Radharani.


The  12 ornaments of Shrimati Radharani are as  follow: Shrimati  Radharaniwears  the  following ornaments, all fashioned from  gold: 1. a  splendidjewelled crown; 2. earrings; 3. a belt; 4. a niska; 5. a pair of cakri-salakas; 6. bracelets; 7. a  kantha-bhusa; 8. finger-rings; 9. jewelnecklaces  that look like strings of stars; 10. armlets; 11. millions ofjewelled ankle-bells; 12. splendid toe-rings. These ornaments  decoratingShrimati  Radharani's transcendental form appear like a great host of  shiningsuns.


Shrimati radharani's twenty-five chief transcendental qualities are: 1. She is very sweet; 2. She is always freshly youthful; 3. Her eyes are restless;4. She smiles brightly; 5. She has beautiful, auspicious lines; 6. She makesKrishna happy with Her bodily aroma; 7. She is very expert in singing; 8. Herspeech is charming; 9. She is very expert in joking and speaking pleasantly;10. She is very humble and meek; 11. She is always full of mercy; 12. She iscunning; 13. She is expert in executing Her duties; 14. She is shy; 15. Sheis always respectful; 16. She is always calm; 17. She is always grave; 18.She is expert in enjoing life; 19. She is situated at the topmost level ofecstatic love; 20. She is the reservoir of loving affairs in Gokula; 21. Sheis the most famous of submissive devotees; 22. She is very affectionate toelderly people; 23. She is very submissive to the love of Her friends; 24.She is the chief gopi; 25. She always keeps krishna under Her control.In short, Shrimati Radharani possesses unlimited transcendental qualities ofform, mind, and words, just as  Krishna does.


In  this way four kinds of transcendental qualities are described as beingpresent in Shrimati Radharani, the queen of Vrndavana. In this  explanationthe word "madhura" means beautiful, navyam means the middle of adolescence,saubhagya-rekha  means the auspicious markings of a crescent-moon and  otherfigures  on Shrimati Radharani's lotus feet and the other parts of Her  body,maryada  means never wavering from the path of saintliness, lajja and  silamean  shyness and good character, and chairya means the ability to toleratesuffering. These  transcendental  qualities are all manifested  on  ShrimatiRadharani  and  they may be clearly seen in Her. Their  fullest  expressioncannot be seen on anyone else.


Madhura  (Sweetness): Shrimati  Radharani's sweetness is described in  thefollowing statement where Paurnamasi says: The beauty of  Radharanieyes  forcibly devours the beauty of newly grown blue lotus flower, and thebeauty  of  Her face surpasses that of an entire forest of  fully  blossomedlotuses. Her bodily luster seems to place even gold in a painful situation.Thus the wonderful, unprecedented beauty of  Radharani is  awakeningin Vrndavana.


Nava-vayah  (Fresh  Youthfulness): The  gopi messengers says  toRadharani: O slender-waisted  Radharani, You are now well  equippedfor  amorous  battle. Your  hips are Your  war-chariot, Your  breasts  twoSudarsana  cakras, Your eyebrows two opulent bows, and Your eyes two swiftarrows. Cupid has now placed  Krishna, the master of the surabhi cows, asthe  general  of the opposing army. General Krishna is now  fighting  on  thebattlefield of Your body. Even though You were so confident of victory, Hehas  soundly  defeated You, and He is now plundering the regal opulence  ofYour  transcendental body. He is carrying off Your wealth as  the  victor'sspoils.


Calapangi  (Restless Eyes):  Krishna to Radharani: Mi dear  moon-facedRadharani, has the lightning flash learned from Your sidelong glance the artof  moving  swiftly, or  has  Your sidelong glance learned  this  from  thelightning flash? I think Your sidelong glance must be the teacher, and thelightning  flash is it's student. Your glance is so swift that it has  evencaptured My own quickly moving mind.


Ujjvala-smita (Brightly Smiling): Visakha says to Radharani: Now that Hehas  seen on the moon of Your face the line of Your lips, from which  flowsthe nectar of Your smile, the most handsome cakora bird Krishna suddenly fliesinto the air, excited with transcendental bliss.


Caru-saubhagya-rekhadya (Beautiful, Auspicious Lines): Madhumangala saysto  Krishna: O Krishna, O killer of Aghasura, be cheerful! Look! Here arefootprints bearing the lines of the earring, creeper, flower, bracelet, andcrescent-moon. These  must  be  Radharani'sfootprints. These  footprints

proclaim that this is the place where Radharani is hiding.


She Makes Krishna Happy With Her Bodily Aroma: Tungavidya says to Radharani:My dear queen of Vrndavana, O beloved of  Madhava, do not uselessly tryto  hide  among  these blossoming  creepers. My  friend, the  intoxicatingfragrence  of  Your transcendental body will disclose Your hiding  place  toKrishna, the king of the bumble-bees. He will find You, violently captureYou, and forcibly drink the nectar of Your lips. Therefore, what is the useof trying to hide from Him?


Expert  in Singing: Vrnda-devi says to  Radharani: O  Radharani,please  give  a wonderful festival of vocal music in the  fifth  mode, thatattracts all the deer. Do not worry, Your irritable husband will not be ableto see  Krishna running to find the source of this singing.


Charming  Speech:  Krishna to Radharani: O beautiful-faced  Radharani,what  sweetness is present in the words from Your mouth? This sweetness hasfilled  the  cuckoo with despair, and made the sweetest  nectar  completelyuseless by comparison.


Expert at Joking and Speaking Pleasantly:  Radharani to  Krishna:My  dear  Krishna, are You the teacher of Your flute, or is  the  flute  theteacher  and You the student? I cannot tell, for You both act in the  sameway. You  both  perform no activity other than to steal away the  religiouspriciples of respectable young girls.


Radharani to  Krishna: O Lord who makes piety  prosper, whosesaintliness  is very famous, and who has become eternally purified  by  theauspicious  worship of the chaste gopis' breasts, please be kind to  Me. Ihave  carefully bathed for the worship of the sun-god. Please don't  touch,don't touch My body now.


Humble  and Meek: Nandimukhi to  Krishna: Everyone in Gokula knows howRadharani's superiors knit their eyebrows and forbid Her to see You.Although She humbly complies with all their demands, as soon as She sees  asingle surabhi cow in the evening, She at once leaves Her place and runs tosee You.


Radharani  to  Her gopi friends: In the pastimes of My quarrel withKrishna I repeatedly offended the Lord, and for this reason I have now becomefamous  as Radha. O slender-waisted gopi-friend, because of  the  fragrentflower  blossoms  of mercy given to Me by you gopis,  Krishna  has  againaccepted  Me. There is not other cause for His accepting Me other than yourmercy.


Full  of Mercy: Vrnda-devi to Paurnamasi: Seeing a calf whose mouth  waspierced by a sharp straw,  Radharani felt very unhappy. With tears inHer eyes, She at once dressed the calf's wound with red kunkuma.Expert:  Radharani is the original teacher of the art of  drawingpictures  in colorful mineral pigments. Her mind is  beautifully  decoratedwith expertie in the art of cooking. In the battle of speaking clever, wittywords  She bewilders even  Krishna, and even Brhaspati, the guru of  thedemigods. She  is  the  most learned scholar in the  science  of  stringingflower-garlands. In reciting poems She is more expert than the parrots. Inthe pastimes of gambling She defeats even the unconquerable  Krishna. Sheis  expert at the arts of transcendental amorous pastimes. Her intelligenceshines with all varieties of knowledge.


Cunning:  Krishna  to  Madhumangala: When  Jatila  suddenly  arrived,Radharani said, O My friend, My favorite pearl-necklace has broken. Let mefind  the scattered pearls. On this pretext She was able to  dispatch  manycharming, loving glances to Me from the corner of Her eyes as She pretendedto search for the pearls while Jatila looked on.


Shy:  Radharnai addresses Her own shyness in the following words: Although it is very difficult to see Krishna, the prince of Vraja, He has cometo this secluded place, and He appears to be filled with longings. O friendshyness, please withdraw now so that I may uncover My face for a moment andsend a sidelong glance at  Krishna.


Respectful: Syama: My friend, You look very thin and pale. If the catakibird  of  Radharani refuses to eat, She will certainly give up  the  livingcondition. Radharani: The  cataki  bird of Radharani will not  accept  anynourishment except for the nectar rain of the dark cloud of Krishna.


Radharani  to Vrnda-devi: Even though Vraja's  Queen  Yasoda  iscalling Me, I cannot come now. My superiors have forbidden Me to go. It isnot auspicious for Me to disrespect their order.


An  elderly  gopi  approaches  Radharani with a message  fromKrishna: O Radharani, You have not noticed that tonight is the full moon nightof  the  month  of Sravana, a time when all one's  desires  may  be  easilyfulfilled.  Mukunda desires now to shower You with all  transcendentalnectar. My child, please take this opportunity and consent to meet with Him.This advice I give You is the proper course of action for You to take. Afterhearing these words,  Radharani, the daughter of the sun-god's friendVrsabhanu, declined to go to the rendezvous, and instead sent Citra-gopi inHer place.


Calm: Paurnamasi to Nandimukhi: Padma spoke many lies trying to implicateRadharani. Abhimanyu's mother  Jatila  brought a flower-garland  supposedlygiven to Radharani by Krishna and later stolen by a monkey. The  affectionatechild  Saibya  brought  a jasmine flower supposedly given  to  Radharani  byKrishna. Hearing  all  this evidence, Radharani's husband  Abhimanyu  becamefurious, and he bitterly rebuked his wife. Look! Radharani is very tolerantof  all this abuse. She does not reply to Her accusers, but simply stands,calm and silent.


Grave: Rupa-manjari  to  her friend: In this midst  of  this  feroiciousquarrel  Radharani remained very sober, calm and cheerful. My friend,this exalted virtue is very rare.


Expert at Enjoying Life:  Radharani dispatches many darting glancesfrom the corners of Her playfully crooked, glistening eyes. the creepers ofHer  eyebrows dance happily. Her face is illumined by the moonlight of  Herjasmine  flower smile. Glittering earrings swing on Her cheeks. Every halfword She speaks is an inscutable, powerful mantra to invoke the presence ofcupid. With all these features She has enchanted  Krishna. With the wavesof Her cheerful playfulness She has swept away His heart.


Situated at the Topmost Level of Ecstatic Love:  Radharani cried agreat  monsoon of tears that doubled the water in the Yamuna, and made  Herappear like a candrakanta jewel melting in the moonlight. She stuttered, thesyllables breaking in Her throat. The hairs of Her body stood up, making Herappear like a kadamba tree. The sound of Krishna's flute made Her appear likea plantain tree tossed about in a hurricane.


The Reservoir of Loving Affairs in Gokula: Queen Yasoda says: The creatorBrahma must have fashioned Radharani out of transcendental love. Whenever wevrajavasi see Her our hearts become filled with love for Her.


Her Fame Shines in All the Universe: Paurnamasi to Radharani: O beautifulRadhaani, the  moonlight of Your fame makes the blue lotus flower  of  thisuniverse  blossom with appreciation. Shining on the ear of the queen of thedemigods, Saci-devi, it  appears like a white jasmine flower  there. Thatmoonlight  makes  the vegetation of the hairs of the bodily  hairs  of  LordBrahma's wife Savitri sprout with joy. That moonlight makes the candrakantajewel  earrings of the devotees' ears melt in ecstasy. That moonlight fillsthe goddess of fortune, Laksmi-devi, with terror.


She  is Very Affectionate to Elderly People: Mother Yasoda to  Radharani:You are not Kirtida's daughter. You are my daughter. What I say is true. thesight if Your face keeps me alive. When I look into Your face I see the faceof  my  own  son  Krishna. O Radharani, why  have  You  suddenly  become  soembarrassed?


Very Submissive to the Love of Her Friends:  Radharani in the midstof a violent quarrel with Krishna, speaks the following words to Vrnda-devi: OVrnda, I  am  always controlled by the love of My  gopi-friends. O  friendVrnda, please  ask this cowherd prince Krishna why He is troubling  Me. Withgreat  fear  He should at once flee the homes of respectable girls like  Me.Does He not know the power of My friend Lalita?


The Chief Gopi:  Krishna to Radharani: My dear girl with the fascinatingeyes, even if I am attacked by many beautiful-eyebrowed girls who are expertarchers  with  their restless, crooked sidelong glances, how  can  I  findhappiness for even a moment without You? I cannot. I am just like the sky.Even if the moonlight and all the stars try to illuminate the sky, it neverbecomes really bright until it is filled with the sunlight. In the same wayit  is  not  possible for Me to become bright with  happiness  without  You.Neither Candravali, Tara, or their friends can make Me happy, without thepresence of Radharani, the beautiful daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu.She  Always  Keeps  Krishna Under Her Control:  Krishna  says: My  dearRadharani, here  are the flowers untouched by bumble-bees, the many  wholepeacock feathers, and the new blossoms as splendid as the rising sun. I havecollected all this according to Your order. I am Your menial servant. Pleaseorder Me. What else would You like Me to bring You?


Shrimari  Radharani's  beautiful-eyebrowed friends are the best of all  thegopis. They  are decorated with all transcendental virtues. Their  beauty,grace and charm completely attracts  Krishna.


The  gopi-friends of  Radharani, the queen of  Vrndavana, may  bedivided  into five groups: 1. sakhis (friends); 2. nitya-sakhis (eternalfriends); 3. prana-sakhis (friends as dear as life); 4. priya-sakhis (dearfriends); and  5. parama-prestha-sakhis ( most dear  friends). Among  thesakhis the most prominent are Kusumika, Vindhya, and Dhanistha. Among thenitya-sakhis  the  most prominent are Kasturi and  Mani-manjari. Among  theprana-sakhis  the most prominent are Sasimukhi, Vasanti, and  Lasika. Thepriya-sakhis  have  spiritual  forms  closely  resembling  that  ofRadharani. Most prominent among the priya-sakhis are Kurangaksi, Sumadhya,Madanalasa, kamala, Madhuri, Manjukesi, Kandarpa-sundari, Madhavi, Malati,Kamalata, and Sasikala. Among the parama-prestha-sakhis the most prominentare Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Campakalata, Tungavidya, Indulekha, Rangadevi,and  Sudevi. These eight gopis are the leaders of all the other  gopis. Inwhatever  time, place  or circumstance these gopis are placed, their  mostexalted  and  intense love for the transcendental  divine  couple, Shri  ShriRadha-Krishna is always very easy to see.


Chapter 5

Varieties of Heroines


  In this way gopis are divided into many groups, with three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or more members.


  At  the  beginning of the rasa-dance those gopis who were already  married were not stopped by their husbands when they left home to meet  Krishna. Only those gopis who still had some small tace of material desire were stopped by their husbands and superiors.


  The  lotus-eyed gopis of Gokula descended to this material world to  enjoy amorous  pastimes  with   Krishna, the crest jewel of  those  expert  at relishing transcendental mellows, and the enemy of King Kamsa. Except  for those  gopis, learned  scholars  and philosophers do not  consider  amorous affairs between a married woman and a paramour to be good or auspicious.


  Unaware that Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the vraja-gopis thought He was the human son of Vraja's KIng Nanda. This firm conviction of the  gopis  was the symptom of their great love for Him, a  symptom  rarely manifested even for the most saintly devotees.


  Once   Shri Krishna playfully manifested Himself as Narayana  with  four victorious hands and a very beautiful form. When the gopis saw this exalted form, however, their ecstatic feeling abated. A learned scholar, therefore, cannot  understand the gopis' ecstatic feelings, which are firmly  centered upon  the  original form of  Krishna as the son  of  Nanda  Maharaja. The wonderful feeling of the gopis in ecstatic parama-rasa with Krishna constitute the greatest mystery of spiritual life.


  Sometimes  Krishna playfully manifests a four-armed form as a joke, but then, impelled  by love for  Radharani, the queen of Vrndavana, He again resumes His two-armed form.


  prior  to the rasa dance,  Krishna hid Himself in a grove just to  have fun. When the gopis came, their eyes resembling those of deer, by His sharp intelligence He exhibited His beautiful four-armed form to hide Himself. But when  Radharani came there, Krishna could not maintain His four arms in Her presence. This is the wonderful glory of Her love.


  Prostitutes  do  not  participate in the  Krishna's  amorous  pastimes, although  they may be able to percieve a pale reflection of those  pastimes. The sole exception is the Kubja, who developed ecstatic love for  Krishna, and was thus able to participate in amorous pastimes with Him in the  mellow of parakiya-rasa.


  Common  prostitutes  are simply interested in taking the money of  others. They do not dislike rogues who have no good qualities, and they do not like saintly  persons, who  have all good qualities. The realm in  which  these prostitutes move is the perverted reflection of conjugal love. They  cannot understand the original feature of conjugal love.


  Heroines may be divided into two categories: 1. svakiya ( married to the hero); and 2. parodha (married to someone else, the paramour becoming the hero). These  two  kinds  of  heroines may  again  be  divided  into  three categories: 1. mugdha  (a charming innocent girl); 2. madhya (a girl  in midway  between mugdha and pragalbha); 3. pragalbha (  a  mature, clever, arrogant woman expert at controlling her lover). Some authors claim that the last  three  categories  apply only to svakiya heroines and not  to  parodha heroines. The saintly poet Jayadeva Gosvami disagrees with them, and in his

book, Gita-govinda, gives examples of the parodha heroines in the last three categories.


  All  different kinds of heroines are present in the two divisions  svakiya and parodha. Many examples may be citied to demonstrate this.


  Mugdha: The qualities of the mugdha heroine are: 1. nava-vayah (she is a young girl); 2. nava-kama (she is inexperienced in loving affairs); 3. ratau vama (in loving affairs she acts in a contrary manner); 4. sakhi-vasa (she is  controlled  by her friends); 5. rata-cestasy (in  loving  affairs  she becomes  very  shy and makes a great endeavor to conceal her  actions. This increases her charm); 6. krtaparadhe dayite (when her lover insultes  her, her eyes become stopped with tears); 7. priyapriyoktau asakta (she is fond of talking both sweetly and bitterly); 8. mane vimukhi (when her jealously is aroused she spurns her lover).  nava-vayah  (youthfulness):  Krishna seeing Visakha from  a  distance, speaks the following words: The winter season of Visakha's childhood has now ended, and  the springtime of her adolescence has entered. The  glistening lotus  flowers  of her eyes have now blossomed, and the nectar moon of  her face shines very brightly.


  A gopi addresses the personified childhood of  Radharani: O evening darkness  of  childhood, O my friend, please leave at once the  planet  of  Radharani's  transcendental  form, for  the  victorious  sun  of adolescence  is  now  rising  above the  eastern  mountains  of  Radharani's breasts. Look! This  sun makes the stars of Radharani's eyes flicker  with unsteadiness. This  sun makes the lotus flower of Radharani's face  blossom with  a  smile. This sun is now brightly illuminating the blue sky of   Krishna.


  Nava-kama (She is Inexperienced in Loving Affairs): Nandimukhi to Dhanya: My  child, I  think you are now celebrating the amorous  festival  of   Krishna, the killer of Kamsa.I think your intently listening with bowed head, and  your  jubilantly stringing these flower garlands are simply a  ruse  to conceal that festival. My friend, please tell me: what is this new happiness that has just now entered your heart?


  Ratau  Vama  (In Loving affairs she acts in a  contrary  manner): Dhanya, stopped by  Krishna in the dana-keli pastime, speaks the following words: I am only a little girl. You should not joke with me in this way. O Krishna, who  wears a crown of peacock feathers. please do not block my path. Look! Many intelligent and clever gopis, their eyebrows knitted with  anger, are now patrolling this shore of the Yamuna.


   Krishna  to  Subala: Now I am absorbed in  remembering  Radharani. I remember  one time I chanced to meet Her on the Yamuna's beach. As soon  as She  saw  Me She began to flee. When I caught Her and grasped Her  hand  in mine, and  smiled, Her eyes moved like restless khanjana  birds, and  She stuttered: Le Le Let go go off My hand.


  Sakhi-vasa  (she is controlled by her friends): One time Radha and  Krishna met  in  Vrndavana forest.  Krishna forcibly pulled Radharani to Him  and embraced Her. When Lalita saw this, she forcibly pulled Radharani away from Krishna.  Radharani docily obeyed Lalita's command. Lalita then spoke the following words to  Krishna: My dear prince of Vraja, You are so hard and  harsh. I  will not give this delicate girl to  You. What  respectable person  would voluntarily place a newly blossomed lotus flower in the  trunk of a great regal elephant?


  One time Dhanya proudly fashioned a flower garland for  Krishna. As she was trying it on to see whether it was the right size, another gopi came on the scene. This gopi frowned ar Dhanya, thinking she had made a garland for herself  and  not  for Krishna. Dhanya then  became  afraid, and  spoke  the following  words: Friend, I  am not going to wear this garland of  jasmine flower. Why  do  you continue to knit your eyebrows in this  fearsome  way? Here, I  shall  now place this garland in this basket, where I  keep   Krishna's  ornaments. If you are


Part is mising ??


with me, what would I do  if  that lightning bolt Vrnda were to see me?


  Sa-vrida-rata  (she  is very shy in loving affairs): One time, early  in morning,  Krishna said to Subala: Syama stood at the door of the  forest grove  cottage. Although  eager  to  enjoy pastimes with  Me, she  was  so overwhelmed  with  shyness  that she could barely take two  or  three  steps inside. Her creeperlike limbs trembled, as if tossed by many waves, and she staggered as she walked. I repeatedly assured her with the sweet  fragrence of many affectionate, friendly words, and it was only after a long time that I finally convinced her to sit on the edge of the bed. This enchanting, doe-eyed Syama has charmed My heart.


  Rosa-krta-baspa mauna (When her lover insults her, she becomes silent and tears  flow from her eyes): One time, after Dhanya was gravely insulted by  Krishna, her gopi-friend approached Him and spoke the following words: My dear uncivilized fool expert at the topmost perfection of offending  others, how  will my pure-heated friend, whom You gravely wounded, be able to make You a reply? O snake who lives in this forest of kadamba trees, do not try to cheat me. It was You who made the tears stream down my friend's face.  Mane  vimukhi (when her jealousy is aroused she spurns  her  lover):  Two kinds of gopis spurn  Krishna when they become jealous of Him: 1. Mrdvi ( the  gopi who retains a sweet demeanor); 2. Aksama ( the gopi who  becomes angry and intolerant).


  Mrdvi: Dhanya-gopi, in  the midst of a proteracted jealous quarrel  with  Krishna, spoke the following words to her gopi-friends: When I try  to flee  from  Krishna  my feet insist on taking me to meet Him. When I  try  to angrily knit my eyebrows at Krishna, my eyes rebel. They earnestly yearn  to gaze at Him, and they distract me from my resolve. When I try to rebuke Him with harsh words, my wretched tongue deliberately speaks sweetly to Him. O my friends, what shall I do? My mind, limbs, and senses have all rebelled against me.


  Aksama: One  gopi said: The sight of  Krishna arouses the most intense jealous  anger  within  the hearts of the lotus-eyed  gopis. When  the  two syllables  mana  (jealous anger) enter the courtyard of  my  ear, my  heart begins to tremble.


  Madhya (the middle gopi): The madhya heroine is situated in the age where she  leaves adolescence and maturity is just beginning to manifest. She  is timid in amorous pastimes, just as the mugdha heroine. Sometimes her words show  some signs of arrogance. She is eager to enjoy amorous pastimes up to the limit of fainting from conjugal bliss. In jealous anger she is sometimes gentle and sometimes harsh.


  Samana-lajja-madana  (timid  in amorous pastimes, just  like  the  mugdha heroine): When thirsty  Krishna gazed at  Radharani with blossoming lotus  eys, She bowed Her head, covered Her smile, and pretended to  look elsewhere  while actually placing Her eyes upon Him. In this way  Radharani delighted  Krishna.


  Prodyat-tarunya-salini  (situated  in the age where youthful  maturity  is just  beginning  to  manifest):  Krishna to  Radharani: My  dear Radharani, the  movement of Your eyebrows have gobbled up the  splendor  of cupid's  bow. Your thighs laugh at the beauty of plantain trees, and  Your breasts  are like two playful cakora birds. You are the crest jewel of  all beautiful young girls.


  Kincit-pragalbhokti  (sometimes  her words show some gigns of  arrogance):  Radharani to bee: O Krishna's black bumble-bee, O bee intoxicated by the  fragrence of the lotus flower of My face, why do you obstruct Me as  I try  to serve My husband? O softly buzzing bee, if you are so thirsty  you should  go  to that other grove over there, where there are  many  splendid white flowers on the punnaga trees.


  Mohanta-surata-ksama  (eager to enjoy amorous pastimes up to the point  of fainting from conjugal bliss): One time Subala asked  Krishna: You  seem absorbed  in  thought. What are You thinking?  Krishna answered  in  the following words: I am remembering a certain gopi. As We both enjoyed amorous pastimes  in bed at night, she became covered with perspiration. Her  eyes closed  shut, her hair became dishevelled, the creepers of her arms became weak, and  her mind became so filled with happiness that she was unable  to remember anything other than our pastimes.


  Mane komala (gentle in jealous anger): Even though cheated by  Krishna,  Radharani says to Lalita: O Krishna, You are My life and soul. For how long must I remain apart from You? O Lalita, O My beautiful and  fortunate friend, I cannot remain angry with Krishna for a long time. Come here. Let us both  go to the grove by the Yamuna's shore. On the pretext of picking some flowers, there I may again meet  Krishna.


  Mane karkasa (harsh in jealous anger): Visakha to  Radharani: My dear Radharani, why do You uselessly wither Your limbs with these blasts of jealous pride? Why do you become angry when You hear the good advice of Your dear  friends? Your lover Krishna is now pining away in despair in a  forest-cottage. Go to Him. For a moment let Your merciful sidelong glance present itself before Him.


  jealous anger may be divided into three categories: 1. dhira (gentle); 2. adhira (harsh); and 3. ubhaya (a mixture of gentleness and harshness).  Dhira quality in the Madhya Heroine: When the madhya heroine manifests the dhira  (gentle  in jealous anger) quality, she speaks  crooked, offensive, biting satires aimed at her lover.


  Once   Radharani waited all night to meet Her lover Krishna  at  the rendezvous. She finally saw Him in the morning. Noticing the marks of  His unfaithfulness  clearly  visible  on  His body, She addressed  Him  in  the following saracastic words: My Lord, I think these smudges of black mascara and  red lac, and these moonlightlike scratch-marks very nicely  match  the blue  and  red color-scheme already present on Your body. Therefore  I  say these decorations are very nice. However My dear Lord of the surabhi cows, I think it is still not right for You to come here alone without Your assembly of gopi-mistresses.


  Adhira  quality in the Madhya heroine: When the madhya heroine  manifests the  adhira (harsh in jealous anger) quality, she angrily rejects her lover with many harsh words.


   Radharani, discovering   Krishna's  unfaithfulness, angrily addresses Him: My dear Krishna, this necklace You wear has certainly been the companion  of  the raised breasts of a great host of girls, and it  is  now engaged in glorifying Your nighttime pastimes with them. O rake whose  mind has  been  stolen by th gopis, O garralous bell-ringer of a host  of  lies, leave here at once. It is not proper for You to stay here.


  Ubhaya  quality in the Madhya heroine: When the madhya heroine  manifests the  ubhaya (when both gentle and harsh responses are present in her jealous anger) quality, she sheds tears as she speaks crooked words to her lover.


  Jealous  Radharani addresses  Krishna with the  following  sarcasms: My dear prince of the cowherds, do not cry. Go! Go! The queen of Your heart may still  give  up her anger. Try again. Decorate her feet with  Your  crown, flower-garland, and red lac. She may still forgive You.

 Go  at once to the queen who can fulfill Your desires! Continually  serve her and attain her mercy! In this way You will become happy. Place the red lac from her feet on Your head. Make Your mouth glisten with the remnants of betel-nuts  chewed  by  her. Decorate Your neck with the  spotless  flower-garland that has become the friend of her flower-bud breasts.


  Of  these three kinds of heroines, the madhya heroine possesses  all  the most  exalted  virtues  in the nectar of  transcendental  mellows. This  is because  the  madhya  heroine incorporates the virtues of  both  mugdha  and pragalbha.


  Pragalbha  (a  mature, clever, arogant woman expert at  controlling  the lover): The pragalbha heroine is 1. purna-tarunya (situated in the stage of fully manifested youthfulness); 2. madandha (blinded by passion); 3. uru-ratotsuka  (filled  with yearnings to enjoy  amorous  pastimes); 4. bhuri-bhavodgamabhijna (the simultaneous presence of many symptoms of ecstasy); 5. rasenakranta- vallabha  (able  to  overwhelm her lover with  the  nectar  of transcendental mellows); 6. ati-praudhokti (her words are those of a mature, proud woman); 7. ati-praudha-cesta (her actions are those of a mature, proud woman); 8. mane  catyanta-karkasa (in jealous anger she is extremely harsh and bitter).


  Purna-tarunya:  Krishna addresses Candravali: My dear candravali, your breasts eclips the charm of the frontal lobes on the elephant Airavata. Your broad hips steal away the beauty of the Yamuna's shore. Your eyes challenge the graceful motions of the restless saphari fishes. O Candravali, the sweet nectar of your youthfulness shines with great splendor.


  Madandha: Candravali to Bhadra: O golden-complexioned Bhadra, after all our gopi-friends had left that charming grove, Acyuta brought me to the bed and gazed at me for a long time with the passionate desire to enjoy with me. At that moment my consciousness became washed away by the rising wave of  my ecstatic happiness. What happened after that I do not know.


  uru-ratotsuka: Mangala to gopi-friend: O gopi-friend, my heart yearns to enjoy  increasingly bold amorous pastimes with  Krishna, where I press my entire body, down to my toes, against His body, and where in the course of our  embraces  my peacock-feather ornament  falls  away, my  gunja-necklace breaks, the bracelets slip from my wrists, and my voice coos with conjugal bliss.


  Bhuri-bhavodgamabhijna: A gopi to Syama: You are now moving the shackles of  your crooked sidelong glances, and you are also moving the creepers  of your  eyebrows. Your  face  is  decorated with the  flower-bud  of  a  very meaningful smile, and your bodily hairs are standing up in ecstasy. You stay in this forest grove for a long time, playing the lute. My beautiful-limbed friend, I  think that you desire to capture and bind the black deer of  Krishna.


  Rasakranta-vallabha: Mangala  to   Krishna: O  Krishna, look  at  these beautiful flowers in the forestt. Please pick them, make splendid ornaments from them, and then decorate my body with those ornaments. In this way the trumpet of my good fortune will loudly play among the young gopis.


  Ati-praudhokti: Once   Krishna hid in Syama's house. When she detected Him  she was simultaneously jubilant and afraid. She addressed Him  in  the following arrogant words: O Krishna, O cheater hiding behind this heap of cow-dung, why do You uselessly beg me in this way? Go away! Formerly You were more expert atricking the gopis, as when You frightened them in an old boat. Where is that expertize now? (One time  Krishna took the gopis for a ride in  an old boat. When the boat began to rock dangerously in a  storm,  Krishna  extorted  various amorous favors from the frightened gopis in  return for their rescue).

 Ati-praudha-cesta: One time, after enjoying amorous pastimes with Krishna, Candravali  became ashamed. Padma noticed this.  Krishna then  spoke  to Padma  the following fanciful explanation of Candravali's feelings of guilt: My  friend, when your friend Candravali and I were engaged in  our  festive amorous battle, the necklace on her breasts danced. During that dancing, the restless  hero who was the chief pearl on that necklace repeatedly jumped up and  many times kicked my peaceful, saintly kaustubha  jewel. Your  friend Candravali is now embarrassed for that offense.


  Mane  'tyanta-karkasa: Bakilamala addresses Syama, who has just  spurned  Krishna out of jealous anger: Your garland of malati flowers has just now wilted and fallen on the ground. O beautiful Syama,  Krishna waits at the door, depressed. If you throw away this night in sleep, you will make all your friends weep. In this state of jealous anger what has happened to your ever-fresh sweetness? I cannot see it.


  The  jealous  anger  of the pragalbha heroine may be  divided  into  three types: 1. dhira (gentle); 2. adhira (harsh); and 3. dhdhiradhira (both gentle and harsh).


  Dhira-pragalbha: The dhira-pragalbha feature may again be divided into two parts: 1. udaste  surate  dhira (the heroine who becomes  uninterested  in enjoying  amorous pastimes with her lover); and 2. savahittha sadara  (the heroine  who  pretends to treat her lover with respect, while she  actually burns with jealousy).


  Udaste Surate: Krishna: Give Me some of these betel-nuts. Bhadra: Have You worshipped  Goddess Durga today? Krishna: No, I have not. Bhadra Then  You cannot  taste these betel-nuts. Krishna: Let Me give  you  something, then. Please  take  this flower-garland I have made with My own  hand. Bhadra: I cannot take it. My husband will surely see Your workmanship in the garland, and know that You have made it. The king if Vraja is now calling me. Excuse me, I must go at once. Not hearing Krishna call her, Bhadra quickly left. In this wat, with civilized politeness, Bhadra demonstrated her jealous anger at  Krishna.


  Pali to  Krishna: My dear Krishna, I cannot place Your  nice, beautiful garland around my neck for I have accepted a very severe vow of austerity to never wear flower-garlands. I also cannot speak to You, for the very harsh brahmanas have ordered me to obswerve a vow of silence. Ah Krishna, what girl on  this  earth could voluntarily leave You, if her mother-in-law were  not repeatedly calling for her. In this way, with civilized  politeness, Pali revealed her deep, jealous anger at  Krishna.


   Krishna to Candravali: My dear Candravali, do not push My hand  away from your breasts. Do not turn away your face when I try to repeatedly kiss you lips. Do not pull away your body when I embrace it. How is it that you have become so angry with Me?


  Adhira-pragalbha: In  the adhira feature of jealous anger, the pragalbha heroine angrily attacks her lover with abusive language.


  Gauri  describes to Krishna the revenge-oriented practical joke  perpetrated on Him by the jealous-angery gopis: O Krishna, O enemy of Kamsa, we are quite bewildered. We do not know how to do this thing properly. Who shall  offer our  respectful  obeisances to our dear friend Syama, who is expert in  all these  things. O Krishna, we have tied this garland of malli flowers  around Your  neck, but yet Your eyes are now filled with fear and anger, and  you appear  discomfited bythe many bumble-bees in the garland and by  the  lotus flowers that repeatedly strike Your ears.


  Dhiradhira-pragalbha: When  the  heroine manifests both dhira and  adhira qualities in jealous anger, she is said to be dhiradhira.


  Mangala  to  Krishna: O Krishna, I will not talk with You because  I  am

strictly following a religious vow of silence. In my heart there is not the slightest scent of anger towards You. O Krishna, O killer of Agha, please flee this place at once. The gopis have a cunning plan to capture You. They yearn ti bind You with a rope of flowers and make You their prisoner.


  A gopi to her friend: When  Krishna prayed and appealed to her, Mangala insulted Him. The creepers of her eyebrows became so violently knitted they pulled  the  lotus flower from her ear. Although she yearned to strike  Him with that flower, she simply said, Go! Get out of here! and turned from Him with contempt.


  Of  all  the youthful gopis some are naturally  arrogant. These  arrogant gopis are known as pragalbhas.


  Both  madhya  and  pragalbha heroines are  devided  into  two  categories: greater and lesser, according to the intensity of the love they bear for the hero.


  Vrnda to Nandimukhi: Seeing that Tara was about to fall asleep,  Krishna affectionately and playfully placed flower pollen in the corners of her eyes to  keep  her awake. In the same way Tara affectionately fanned  Krishna with a cooling palm-leaf fan in order to make Him fall asleep.


  Vrnda to Paurnamasi: Seeing His two mistresses, Gauri and Syama, gambling at dice,  Krishna, glanced at Gauri with rolling eyes and moving eyebrows, and offered Himself as a slave for three days, as the prize for the winner. True to His word, Krishna gave Himself to Syama, the mischievous victor.


  The  gopis may be divided into different groups. Some gopis  are  jyestha (situated  in  the  topmost  stage of love for  Krishna), and  some  are apeksiki (full of hope for attaining  Krishna).


  The  number of girls in these two groups is so great that they  cannot  be counted. The mugdhas may be divided into kanyas (unmarried girls), sviya (those married to Krishna), and anyodha (those married to others).


  The  mugdha  and madhya heroines are divided into six categories  and  the madhya and praudha heroines are divided into twelve categories.


  The mugdhas are divided into three groups: kanyas (unmarried young girls); sviyas ( Krishna's wives); and parodhas (the wives of others). In ths way  Krishna's lovers may be divided into 15 groups.


  All  these  heroines  may  again  be  divided  into  the  following  eight categories: 1. abhisarika (a girl who meets her lover at the rendezvous); 2. vasasajja  (a  girl  who  carefully dresses herself  in  nice  garments  and ornaments  to  recieve her lover); 3. uthanthita (a girl longing  gor  her absent lover); 4. khndita (a girl who finds that her lover is unfaithful); 5. vipralabdha  (a  girl  cheated by her lover. She waits for him  at  the rendezvous, but he never arrives); 6. kalahantarita (a girl separated from her lover because of a quarrel); 7. prosita-preyasi (a girl whose lover is living far away); and 8. svadhina-bhartrka (a domineering girl who controls her lover).


  Abhisarika: A girl who meets her lover or arranges that he meet her at the place of rendezvous os known as abhisarika. The abhisarika may be considered in  two features: When the girl travels on a moonlit night  (jyotsni), and when  she travels on a dark, moonless night (tamasi). The abhisarika wears garments  suitable  for a journey. To silence her  tinkling  ornaments  she timidly unties them. Accompanied by a single affectionate gopi-friend, the abhisarika goes to meet her lover.


  Abhisarayitri:  Radharani to Visakha:  Krishna does not know how My heart suffers with love for Him. O My friend, please go to Him, expertly appeal  to  Him on My behalf, and affectionately bring Him here to meet  Me before this wretched moon kisses the horizen and robs Me of My life-breath.


      Jyotsni: Visakha to Radharani: O beautiful Radharani, the great circle of the moon is now filling the forest of Vrndavana with bright moonlight. Krishna, the son of Vraja's king Nanda has now marked the path You have taken and He is about to follow it. You are nicely dressed in a white silk sari, and You are anointed with camphor and sandalwood,. Will You not now place Your two beautiful lotus feet on this path that leads to Krishna?


     Tamasi: Lalita to Radharani: Their limbs completely covered by blue saris, these saintly gopis are now travelling through this kadamba forest on this dark, moonless night to meet Krishna, the enemy of Bakasura. O my friend Radharani, the sharp blades of the lightning effulgence of Your transcendental body are now piercing the thick darkness that is Your ally. in this way Your brilliant bodily luster has now become Your enemy.


        Vasasajja: A girl who decorated her body and home to attract her lover is called vasasajja.


        The vasasajja yearns to enjoy amorous pastimes with Krishna. She gazes at the path, waiting for Krishna's arrival. She enjoys telling her friends about her pastimes with Krishna. She continually looks for the arrival of Krishna's messenger. These are some of the activities of the vasasajja.


      Rupa-manjari to a gopi-friend: When Radharani sees the conjugal pastime grove with its beautiful couch of flowers, and when She sees Her own transcendental form nicely decorated, She begins to smile. repeatedly meditating on Her association with Krishna, Her heart becomes intoxicated by amorous desires.



      Utkanthita: A girl who longs for her absent lover who has neither offended her or quarrelled with her, is called a virahotkanthita heroine by those learned in the features of ecstatic love. This heroine suffers within her heart, trembles, weeps, becomes listless, and proposes various theories to explain why her lover has not come to meet her. These are some of the activities of the utkanthita heroine.


      Candravali to her gopi-friend: O moonfaced friend, is Krishna now bound by the ropes of Radharani's sidelong glances, or has He now begun a war with the powerful enemies of the demigods? Alas, it is already the eighth day of krishna-paksa, the moon is now rising in the east, and the prince of Vraja does not remember me.


      The three conditions mentioned after vasasajja, share some common features, In them the heroine is completely dependent on her lover, and she longs for him in his absence.


      Khandita: When a lover does not arrive at the appointed rendezvous to meet his beloved, but instead spends the time enjoying with a different girl, later, at sunrise, he may chance to meet the girl he cheated, displaying the clear signs of his amorous adventures. The cheated girls in known as khandita. She may become angry, sigh, or become silent. these are some of her responses.


      Bakulamala to her friend: Krishna's head and arms were smudged with red lac, and His chest was marked with kunkuma from embracing the breasts of some girl. In some places His body carried the impressions of earring or finger-rings. His garland of flowers had wilted, and His eyes were like two flower-buds rolling about. When Syama saw Him appear in this way at sunrise, she became angry within her heart, and on her lips she observed the vow of silence followed by great sages.


Vipralabdha: A girl whose dear lover fails, because of the hand of destiny, to keep his appointment with her, and who is thus very unhappy at heart, is called vipralabdha by the wise. The vipralabdha heroine manifests despair, anxiety, anguish, weeping, fainting, and singing. these are some of the ways she responds to her situation.



       Radharani to Visakha: The moon has now left the sky and returned to the heavenly planets. O friend, this Krishna, the lover of the goddess of fortune, has cheated us. What shall we do now? Please instruct us. After speaking these words, doe-eyed Radharani fainted.


      Kalahantarita: A girl who quarrels with her lover, and even when he falls at her feet and begs her to forgive him in front of all her friends, angrily rejects him, only to suffer afterwards, is called kalahantarita. she feels great remorse and suffering, becomes listless, sighs, and talks nonsense. These are some of her symptoms.


      Radharani: I have thrown far away all the garlands presented to Me by this Krishna, the enemy of Kesi. I have not allowed his sweet words of supplication to enter My ears. When He offers obeisances to Me I refuse to see His peacock-feather crown resting on the ground before Me. All His endeavors are as effective as a meal buried deep underground.


     Prosita-bhartrka: A girl whose lover has gone to a distant country is known as prosita-bhartrka. she praises her absent lover, is weak, dispirited, emaciated, unable to sleep, miserable, unsteady, stunned, and filled with anxieties. These are some of her qualities.


      Radharani to Lalita: Krishna is now happily enjoying transcendental pastimes in Mathura without Me. He is happy, but for Me this springtime brings pain at every step and from every direction. Alas, My enemy, the impossible hope that perhaps He may return, has become a great obstacle that does not allow Me to fulfill My desire to kill myself. Where can I find shelter from this enemy.


     Svadhina-bhartrka: A girl who controls her lover is called svadhina-bhartrka. Her activities include picking flowers and enjoying pastimes with her lover in the forest of Vrndavana and the water of the Yamuna.


       Vrnda to Paurnamasi: Krishna happily paints incomparably beautiful designs and pictures on Radharani's full breasts. On both Her ears He places blue lotus flowers so fragrant they attract the bees, and on Her braid H playfully places another delicate lotus flower. In this way Krishna obediently pleases Radharani for along time.


       Radharani said: Krishna, please draw some nice pictures on My breasts and cheeks. Decorate My hips with a sash, twine a garland of flowers in My braids, and decorate My hands and feet with bracelets and anklets of lotus petals. When Krishna heard all these orders, He obediently carried them out with great pleasure.


      Radharani cannot tolerate even a moment's separation from Her lover Krishna. Because She becomes completely controlled by His great love, She is known as Madhavi, the lover of Madhava.


      The svadhina-bhartrka, vasasajja, and abhisarika heroines are cheerful at heart and decorated with nice ornaments, The other five heroines are despondent and not decorated with any ornaments.



       Their heart filled with anxieties, these five heroines rest their hand against their left cheek. Among the heroines in all eight categories there are three divisions: 1. kanistha (beginners); 2. madhyama (intermediate); and 3. uttama (the most exalted).


      In this way there are gradations of love (culminating in the uttama heroine) felt by the heroines for their beloved Krishna, the prince of Vraja. Under all circumstances Krishna exactly reciprocated the love their bear for Him.


      Uttama: Radharani is described as the topmost uttama heroine in the following statement, where Krishna says to Subala: Radharani will renounce everything if that will make Me happy for a moment. Even if I torment Her with suffering She never becomes angry with Me in Her heart. If She hears the rumor, even if it is untrue, that I am slightly unhappy, Her heart cracks. With these transcendental good qualities Radharani shines as the best of all the beautiful-eyed gopis


      Madhyma: A gopi to Ranga-devi: Have you worshipped Krishna with great respect only to become wounded at heat by Him? Is that the reason you have so suddenly left? O ranga-devi, your limbs are trembling as if tossed by waves. O my friend, this is not the symptom of a beautiful girl's love for her lover.


      Kanistha: Vrnda to a gopi: A moment ago you were jubilantly praising this fierce rainstorm, saying that because of it no one would travel, and therefore you could very easily go to your rendezvous with Krishna, the slayer of demons. My dear eager girl, please tell me, then, now that a little baby cloud is yawning with a few thunderbolts, you have suddenly become reluctant to travel to the forest-grove?


      In this way we have divided the heroines into groups of five and ten. The various subdivisions and interactions of these groups give us 120 different kinds of heroines. When the eight features beginning with utkanthita, and the three features beginning with uttama, are added, there are 360 different kinds of heroines. This is the description of the learned devotees.


      Just as Krishna manifests the consciousness of all the different kinds of heros, in the same way Radharani manifests the different kinds of consciousness of most of the different kinds of heroines.




Chapter 6

Varieties of Leaders of the Gopis (yuthesvari-bheda)



Now the leaders of the gopis will be described. Some act as Shrimati Radharani's friends, some are neutrals, and some rivals.


The beautiful-eyebrowed girls of Gokula may be divided into three groups: 1. adhika ( the most fortunate and qualified); 2. sama (those whose good fortune and qualifications place them in an intermediate position); and 3. laghu (those not as fortunate and qualified as the others).


Each of these groups may again be subdivided into three sub-groups: 1. prakhara (a harsh girl); 2. madhya (a girl whose qualities place her midway between the prakhara and mrdvi); and 3. mrdvi (a girl whose disposition is sweet and gentle). The prakhara speaks arrogantly, and in argument she is almost always victorious. The mrdvi is completely free from arrogance, and the madhya is partly arrogant and partly sweet.


Each of the groups of adhika, sama, and laghu heroines may again be subdivided into 1. atyantiki (eternally the most elevated); and 2. apeksiki (those aspiring for that position).


atyantiki-adhika: A girl who is superior to others, and to whom no one is equal or superior, is known as atyantika-adhika. the madhya heroine Shrimati Radharani is the topmost atyantika-adhika, for there is no girl like Her in the land of vraja.


Syamala: Bhadra may speak fickle, charming words, Pali may blossom with happiness, Vimala may abandon all shyness, Syama may become proud, and even Candravali may strut about with her head raised high, only so long as the mantra Radha does not enter their ears.

Out of many leaders of the gopis one may aspire for the most elevated love of Krishna. Such a heroine, better than the others, is given the name apeksiki-adhika.


Adhika-prakhara: A gopi to her friend: Her comes the serpent-king Krishna slithering down govardhana Hill. My dear beautiful friend, since you do not know the mantra to tame Him, you and your frightened friends should immediately flee from this place. however, since I am an expert snake-charmer who travels around this forest of Vrndavana, I shall now weave a magical spell and bring this Krishna-snake under my control.


Adhika-madhya: One of the yuthesvaris to a gopi: My friends saw you on the sunset of the full-moon day! Why do you angrily and cleverly try to deceive me? Rascal, I shall now imprison you and your friends in my house. The king of this forest-grove, who waits for you on the path will see that He has been tricked by you, just as someone may become tricked into thinking that a rope is a snake.


adhika-mrdvi: One of the yuthesvaris says to her hopi-friend: Please do not bow your head and go far away with all your friends. Look at me. Dear friend, I love you. The flower garland you won by defeating Krishna, the demon-crusher, in the gambling match, and which you now wear in your hair, I carefully fashioned with all the artistic skill I could gather.


Just as the two kinds of adhika (most exalted) yuthesvaris were divided into three groups, the two kinds of sama yuthesvaris and laghu yuthesvaris are also divided into three groups in the same way.


Sama-prakhara: One time Krishna chastised a certain gopi for picking flowers in Vrndavana forest. When that gopi became very frightened by His words, one of the yuthesvaris spoke to her: Do you not have a friend by your side? Why do you tremble at heart? Is it because of this Krishna? My dear friend, I am accompanied by many intelligent gopis, and strength is very formidable. I shall now stand before you, and raise my arms to defend you from this Krishna.


Sama-madhya: conversation between two yuthesvari gopis: First yuthesvari: Don't touch me! Your forehead is marked with mineral pigment smudges from Krishna's body, second yuthesvari: Why do you touch me? the mistress of a snake should keep her distance. First: To hell with you! You are the mistress of a snake. Your body carries the marks of your enjoyment with your snake-lover. Second: Your friends are all snakes that have sloughed their skins and slithered from the holes of Krishna's flute.


mrdvi: One time Krishna sent Lilavati to chastise and humble Tara, whom He considered overly proud. Tara's response to Lilavati's harsh criticisms was very gentle and mild. She said: How can your friend Tara deny your words? O Lilavati, I swear, you are my life and soul. O auspicious, fair-complexioned friend, one thing I beg you: Please instruct your cowherd friend Krishna that, although it is proper for Him to deal with me in this way, He should not abuse others who are honest, simple folk in this fashion.


A prakhara yuthesvari, noticing a sama-mrdvi yuthesvari entering the forest at sunset, became suspicious, and bitterly accused her of going to meet Krishna. The mrdvi yuthesvari defended herself by saying that she was merely going to the shore of the Yamuna to worship the goddess Durga, according to her mother-in-law's instruction. The following exchange ensued: Mrdvi yuthesvari: My mother-in-law has sent me here with my friend. Why are you whispering these terrible accusations? Prakhara yuthesvari: I am mistaken. I thought you had disobeyed your mother-in-law's order. Now that it is sunset, I shall go with you and your friend to the shore of the Yamuna, and worship the goddess Durga.


The laghu yuthesvaris may first be divided into two groups:1. apeksiki (those aspiring for perfection); and 2. atyantiki (those who have attained perfection).


Among leaders of the gopis those who are in a lesser position are known as apeksiki-laghu.


Laghu-prakhara: A laghu-prakhara yuthesvari arrogantly criticizes her friend: O fickle thief who lurks in this forest of Vrndavana, are you very happy to peacefully sit by the shore of the Yamuna now that you have tightly bound me with this exaggerated glorification of Krishna? You have not only tied me up, but now you have stolen the great wealth of my peaceful composure and forcibly snatched from me the great opulence o my shy modesty. My friend, you have robbed me and made me very unhappy.


Laghu-madhya: A gopi says to Candravali: Radharani, the daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu, knows a magic potion to bring Krishna under Her control. At this moment She is entering the pathway of the eyes of Hr ever new and fresh lover, Vraja's Prince Krishna. It is very easy to see how kind and polite She is to Him, and how cruel and hard to you. O queen Candravali, who can describe the misfortune of us tormented persons?


Laghu-mrdvi: A yuthesvari friend of Radharani says to her friend: Look at the golden moon of Candravali who fills the shore of the Yamuna with a beautiful splendor. My friends, if we chance to see the wonderful cakora bird of Krishna, let us flee at once. (The cakora bird is nourished by drinking the light of the moon.)


Because Krishna is absorbed in gazing at the moonlike Candravali He is compared to this bird. In this verse Radharani's friends say they cannot bear to see Krishna gazing at Candravali. They will flee at once to avoid seeing this terrible sight.


Among the yuthesvaris the atyantiki-laghu yuthesvari is in the lowest position. The mrdvi feature is especially suitable for her character.


One of the laghu-mrdvi yuthesvaris addresses her friend: Krishna has been invited to two places this evening. All my friends have mercifully invited Him to meet me in a secluded forest grove, and at the same time my parents have invited Him to dinner. This has created a very embarrassing situation for me. O goddesses of Vrndavana, please stay here a while. Beautify my home with your presence, and please mercifully cover my embarrassment when Krishna arrives.


In this way the yuthesvaris are divided into three groups: 1. adhika (the most exalted); 2. sama (those of intermediate status); and 3. laghu (those of lowest status). Each of these three groups is again divided in three. In this way the number of groups becomes nine. The groups are again divided in two parts: 1. atyantika, or situated in perfection; and 2. apeksiki, or aspiring for perfection.




Chapter 7

Varieties of Messengers (Duti-bheda)




Some gopis assist Lord Krishna by carrying messages. Situated in the various stages of ecstatic love, beginning with purva-raga (preliminary attraction), these messenger-gopis yearn to associate with Lord Krishna. They may be divided into two groups: 1. svayam-duti; and 2. apta-duti. They will be described in this chapter.


Svayam-duti (A messenger who acts on her own volition): A gopi who is filled with varieties of ecstatic love hose intense enthusiasm overwhelmed her natural shyness, and who thus, on her own volition carries messages for Lord Krishna and His lovers, is described in the smrti-sastras as svayam-duti.


The svayam-dutis are again divided into three groups:1. vacika; 2. angika; and 3. caksusa.


Vacika (verbal messages): Verbal messages are divided into two types: 1. sabda-vyangya (where a hidden meaning, secret message is concealed n the sounds of the words); and 2. artha-vyangya (where a secret message is concealed in the meaning of the words). these may again be divided in two ways: 1. krishna-visaya; and 2. purahstha-visaya.


Krishna-visaya may be divided into two ways: 1. saksat (direct); and 2. vyapadesa (by a trick).


Saksat: The saksat message may assume various forms, such as: 1. garva (the proud message); 2. aksepa (scolding); and 3. yacna (an appeal).


Garva-sabdottha-vyangaya (the proud message where the words themselves conceal hidden meanings): Radharani to Krishna: My dear Madhava, by association with Lalita I have become very proud, and now I am confident that I am the crest-jewel of all chaste, saintly girls. For Your own good, therefore, I tell you: Do not become a snakelike rake who tries to make advances to Me on this pathway. (My dear madhava, I am always present in the thoughts of the chaste, saintly gopis, and therefore playful ecstatic love has filled Me with great pride. I have become very proud because the charming hero Krishna is so attached to Me. For Your own good, therefore, I tell You: Do not act like a snake; do not act like a debauchee; and do not try to embrace me.


Garva-arthottha-vyangya (a proud message where the hidden message is contained not in the words, but in the meaning): Syama to Krishna: My dear Krishna, whose limbs are dark like a tamala tree, why do You throw these charming sidelong glances at us? I am Syama, famous as the guru of all pious, chaste girls in all three worlds. If I try to even lightly bind these doe-like gopis with Your sidelong glance, they will become furious, surround You, and violently attack You from all direction.


Aksepa-sabdottha-vyangya (a rebuke with words that conceal a hidden meaning): A gopi says to Krishna: O rascal of Vraja, do not block my path. Turn Your eyes to the horizon and look at the big clouds that have already covered the splendor of the crescent moon. O crooked cheater, my fine beautiful, effulgent red bodice is already wet with rain drops. It is becoming ruined.


O rascal of Vraja, do not block my path, turn Your eyes to my uncovered thighs and breasts decorated with scratch-marks. My splendidly beautiful, youthful body nicely decorated with a glistening bodice, has now become stunned and pale with intense ecstatic love for You.


Aksepa-arthottha-vyangya (a rebuke where a secret message is concealed in the meaning): A gopi says to Krishna: Thief! In my presence You are stealing many fragrant, fresh, blossoming jasmine flowers from this kadamba forest. If You try to steal my splendid necklace, who will protect me? The village of Vraja is far away, and we are alone in this uninhabited forest.


Yaena (an appeal): This kind of message; is divided into two kinds: 1. svartha (with a direct meaning); and 2. parartha (with a hidden meaning).


Svartha-yaena: Radharani to Krishna: O Krishna, I yearn to get some nice flowers. I am now standing behind a beautiful flowering  creeper. Please decorate Me with some of it's sumana flowers.


O Krishna, by searching for flowers in Your company I have  become filled with amorous desires. I am a charming girl embraced by the blossoming creeper of transcendental beauty. Please satisfy My desires and make Me happy. After Radharani had spoken these words, Krishna took the flowers He had collected and placed them in Her bodice.


Radharani to Krishna: this snake-filled Vrndavana forest is not very safe. Because I neglected to offer flowers to the goddess Katyayani, I am afraid I will be punished by one of these snakes. O Krishna, O Lord who played on the raised hoods of the snake-king Kaliya, I am surrendered to You, I have full faith and trust in You. Please be kind to Me and give me a mantra to counteract the poison of snake-bites. (In this allegory the snakes and poison refer to the amorous desires in Radharani's heart. In this way these words contain a concealed invitation to Krishna. In response to this request Krishna whispered a mantra into Radharani's ear. at that time He took the opportunity to kiss Her cheek, and after that He touched Her bodice as the daksina.


Radharani: My dear Krishna, You are the glorified as the best of all famous men, and You traverse this dense, creeper-filled forest simply to protect the people staying her. O Krishna, O best of the Yadus, please be kind to us. Please be merciful, and show us the path through the forest. We women take shelter of You for we do not know the path that will bring us again to Vraja Village.


Parartha-yacna: A gopi addresses Krishna: When my friend once drank the fresh nectar of Your flute music with the cupped hands of her ears, her mind became very light and she at once fainted.Since then she has become very pale and constantly afflicted with a grave and mysterious disease. She thinks that You are the expert Dhanvantari who can cure her.


A gopi says: O Krishna, O killer of the  Madhu demon, I come to You with a message from a dear friend who faithfully loves You. Please try to understand her love for You. she is a cakora bird and she considers Your face to be like the moon. If tonight she does not get the opportunity to drink the moonlight of Your face she will die. her death will cause me great pain.


Vyapadesa (a trick): when words are employed to deceive the hearer, the device is called vyapadesa.


A gopi to  Krishna: O elephant blinded with intoxication, why do You leave this celestial Ganges River, glistening with nectarean beauty, and filled with blue lotus flowers and sweetly cooing, intoxicated swans? Why have You taken shelter of this dark, muddied Karmanasa River?


O hero who carries a lotus flower. This is the best of all girls on earth. She glistening with the great nectar of beauty, she speaks like a sweetly cooing, intoxicated swan, her breasts are decorated with musk, and she is very eager to enjoy amorous pastimes with You. O her blinded by folly, why do You ignore her and wallow in the mud of inaction?


A gopi to Krishna: My dear melodious cuckoo bird, why do You wander about Vrndavana forest, ignoring this sweet mango blossom so young that even the bumble-bees remain unaware of it's charming fragrance.


When one pretends to talk to another person, even though the words are actually intended for Lord Krishna who is standing by the speaker and hearing every word, such statements are called purahstha-visaya.


A gopi, in the presence of Krishna, addresses a malati creeper in the following words: O Malati creeper, the bumble-bees call you, wishing to collect the honey of your flowers. For myself I earnestly wish to take a beautiful flower from this fragrant punnaga tree.


O Malati creeper, the bumble-bees call you, wishing to collect the honey of your flowers. For myself, I passionately long to attain this Supreme Personality of godhead, the best of males, decorated with many beautiful, fragrant flowers.


A gopi, in Krishna's presence, addresses govardhana Hill: O Govardhana Hill, you are decorated with many creepers bearing beautiful flowers unpicked by anyone, and you are the home of many peaceful, confident birds. I wish to wander on your slope. Please tell me how I may easily do that.


A gopi, accidentally meeting Krishna in the forest: This Krishna, the Prince of Vraja, is famous for breaking the chastity of pious girls, and I am a delicate girl, unable to resist Him, even with words. Exhausted from walking, and lost in this impenetrable jungle of creepers, I have now stumbled on that Krishna.


angika: These messages consist of: 1. anguli-sphotanam (cracking the fingers); 2. vyaja-sambhramady-anga-samvrti (pretending to hastily cover the body); 3. pada bhu-lekhanam (writing on the ground with the toes); 4. karna-kanduti (scratching the ears); 5. tilaka-kriya (applying tilaka); 6. vesa-kriya (garments) 7. bhruvor dhuti (moving the eyebrows); 8. sekhyam aslesa-tadane (embracing, and also chastising a gopi-friend); 9. damso 'dharasya (biting the lips); 10. haradi-gumpha (stringing necklaces and garlands); 11. mandana-sinjutam (making the ornaments tinkle); 122. dor-muladi-prakatanam (uncovering the shoulders or other parts of the body); 13. krishna-namabhilekhanam (writing Lord Krishna's name); and 14. tarau lataya yoga (twining a creeper around a tree). These are some of the angika-messages the gopis send to Lord Krishna.


Cracking the fingers: Krishna to Subala: Beautiful-eyed Visakha, the best of all chaste and saintly girls, then began to crack her fingernails. Even though I was greatly fatigued, this activity enchanted Me and broke My mind into pieces.


Pretending to be very concerned to cover the limbs of the body: Krishna to subala: As she stood before Me this doe-eyed young gopi repeatedly covered her face and breasts with her sari. I think her heart is sorely wounded by the arrows of cupid.


Scratching the ground with the toe: Krishna to Subala: As soon as I arrived, this beautiful vraja-gopi began to scratch beautiful designs on the ground with her big toe. These designs contained the edicts of cupid, and as I read them I found My mind tightly bound with ropes and forcibly thrown into the valley between the two mountains of this gopi's breasts.


This lotus-eyed vraja-gopi scratched her ear with the tips of her red fingernails. as she scratched, the bangles on her wrist tinkled and her gold earrings playfully moved to and fro. I am now meditating on her ear-scratching.


Kundavali to Krishna: O Krishna decorated with a crown of peacock feathers, as soon as Gandharvika (Radharani) saw You, She at once began to happily decorate Her face, as beautiful as the autumn moon, with splendid tilaka dots of red sindura. As her hand, as splendid as a yellow bandhuka flower, applied the tilaka dots, Her earring swung to and fro. Her red tilaka dots looked just like the love for You that has newly sprouted in Her heart, and is now beginning to push it's new shoots onto the surface of Her transcendental body.


As she stood before Krishna, lotus-eyed Pali beamed with happiness as she playfully and suggestively placed an earring of nectar-filled lavanga flowers on her ear.





Vrnda to Visakha: My dear Visakha, why do you move the cupid's Longbows of your eyebrows in this frightening manner? What has made you so unhappy? After all, with the chains of the beauty of your moonlike face you have just chained up the maddened, ichor-scented elephant of Krishna.


Rupa-manjari to rati-manjari: Look! With a passionate sidelong glance Citra greets Krishna, who has just entered the pathway of her eyes. Her moving golden bracelets tinkling, for a long time she suggestively embraces a gopi-friend, pressing her to her own, round firm breasts.


Sakhi-tadanam: Subala to Krishna: visakha has fixed her mind on conquering You. She now directs the lightning bolts of her restless sidelong glances at Your lotus feet, and she repeatedly strikes a gopi-friend with a cluster of flower.


Adhara-damsa: Syama to Lalita: Now that vraja's Prince Krishna has entered the pathway of her eyes, your moon-faced gopi-friend has become maddened with passion. Look! She is now biting her lips as if she has become angry with a friend.


Haradi-gumpha: Krishna to subala: Who is this blossoming lotus-eyed girl? By gazing at Me from the corners of her eyes she has stolen the jewel of My heart, and placed it in the center of the necklace of pearls she strings.


Mandana-sanjitam: Krishna to Subala: Seeing Me from far away, Syama moves so that her clashing golden bracelets make a tumultuous tinkling sound. I think these bracelets are actually reciting the royal edicts of the monarch Cupid.


Dor-mula-prakatanam: Krishna to Syama: My dear beautiful and auspicious Syama, in this forest of Vrndavana there are many splendid creepers bearing many sweet fruits at their tendrils' ends, but of all these creepers, the braceleted creepers of your arms are especially wonderful, for at their roots (your breasts) they bear two glistening fruits that delight the black cuckoo bird of Krishna.


Krishna-namabhilekhanam: Krishna to Vrnda: O Vrnda, by writing My name in red kunkuma paste on the pages of her cheeks, your gopi-friend has sent Me a very clear message of her intentions.


Tarau Lataya yogah: Krishna addresses the cowherd boy Arjuna: O Arjuna, when I saw the beautiful form of this lotus-eyed vraja-gopi, I became overwhelmed with passion. At that moment, by suggestively wrapping a golden yuthi creeper around a dark tamala tree, she made me mad with happiness.


Caksusa: Erotic signals sent from the eyes are divided into the following varieties: 1. netra-smita (smiling eyes); 2. ardha-mudra (half-closed eyes): 3. netranta-bhrama (roving sidelong glances); 4. kunane (eyes turned away); 5. saciksa (tilting the neck and glancing); 6. vama-drk-preksa (crooked glances); 7. kataksa (sidelong glances).


Netra-smitam: one evening, when Radharani saw Krishna returning from the pasturing ground with the boys and cows, her eyes burst into a smile of great happiness. Seeing this, Syama, wishing to tease her friend, addressed Her: On fickle Radharani, I know very well that when You saw Krishna Your eyes became filled with amorous desire, which You craftily concealed by covering it with this smile upon Your eyes.


Netrardha-mudra: As Radharani gazed at Krishna with half-closed eyes, Her friend Kundavali jokingly addressed Her: Poets say that Krishna's face is the sky and His eyes the sun and moon. My friend, is this not the reason the lotus flowers of Your eyes are half-closed as You gaze upon them. (the lotus flower blossoms in sunlight and contracts in moonlight).


Netranta-bhrama: Vrnda to Syama: Mukunda has now lost interest in the playful duel between the bulls. His mind is no longer fixed on happily playing with His gopa-friends. O Syama, by glancing at you He has become stunned like a tamala tree. How have you become able to make your sidelong glances dance in this wonderful way?


Netranta-kunanam: Nandimukhi to Paurnamasi: As Syama was walking on the Yamuna's shore, Prince Krishna entered the pathway of her eyes. Astonished and embarrassed, she turned away from Him but then furtively glanced at Him from the corner of her eyes.


Saciksa: Krishna to subala: At the Yamuna's shore doe-eyed Radharani tilted Her neck and glanced at Me with dancing eyes. In this way She severely wounded My heart with the sharp point of cupid's arrow.


Vama-drk-preksa: One time Lalita noticed on Radharani's body the clear symptoms of Her enjoying amorous pastimes with Krishna. Lalita then addressed Her: My dear Radharani, you appear to be helplessly tossed about by the moon-agitated tidal waves of happiness moving in the dark nectar ocean of Krishna. In a very excited condition You have repeatedly drunk the nectar of that ocean with the cupped hands of Your crooked eyes. In this way You have become a great pitcher filled with that transcendental nectar.


Kataksa: The pupils of the eyes may move with wonderful, expert quickness, going from place to place. Glances from the corners of such eyes are called kataksa.


Either a gopi-messenger, or Krishna Himself, addresses Radharani: O golden-complexioned Gandharvika, the enchanting bumble-bees of the pupils of Your eyes dart to and fro, repeatedly resting on the lotus flower in Krishna's ear. The pastimes of this bumble-bee have agitated the mind of Krishna and made Him completely forget everything, even His own self. Now where is His talking about Your lotuslike gopi rivals? Now where is His talking about Padma's friend Candravali? He has forgotten them all.


In this way we have given a brief glimpse of the numberless kinds of messages sent by the gopis, and also, when appropriate, by Lord Krishna, the enemy of the Agha demon. Those learned in the mellows of transcendental love explain that these messages are outward manifestations of the internal ecstatic love of the gopis.


Duti (the gopi-messengers): The gopi-messengers are very trustworthy, and can be depended on implicitly, even if their own lives ar e placed in danger. They are affectionate and eloquent.


These beautiful-eyebrowed gopis are divided into three categories: 1. amitartha; 2. nisrstartha; 3. aptra-hari (letter-carriers).


Amitartha: A gopi who, from one or two symptoms can understand the love of Krishna and a certain gopi, and who then proceeds to voluntarily arrange for their meeting, is called amitartha.


A gopi to Krishna: O killer of the Baka demon, I could se the message of love written on Your mononlike face, and I could also see Radharani futilely carry the armor of Her modesty that had been broken to pieces by the arrows of Your sidelong glances. I could understand by seeing. I did not need a verbal explanation.


Nisrstartha: A gopi-messenger who, shunning many complicated strategies, with a single logical argument is able to unite Lord Krishna and His gopi-beloved, is called nisrstartha.


A gopi addresses Krishna: O crusher of Aghasura, the transcendental virtues of Radharani are like a host of splendid priceless jewels that have no equal in all the three worlds fie on me! I am a fool for trying to describe these jewels to You, whose heart is as hard as diamond.


patra-hari: A gopi-messenger who carries letters between the youthful divine couple is called patra-hari.


A gopi to Krishna: O mukunda, please hear this message You lotus-eyed vraja-gopi friend gave me in a secluded place. She says to You: O rascal, why did You disturb me as I was enjoying the jubilant festival of deep sleep? Was this right or proper?


The gopi-messengers in Vraja may also be considered in the following way: 1. slipa-kari; 2. daivajna; 3. lingini; 4. paricarika; 5. dhatreyi; 6. vana-devi; and 7. sakhi.


Silpakari (an artist): A gopi to Krishna: The gopis then said to me, You are a second Visvakarma, appearing in a female form.Please quickly draw a picture of the most handsome man you know in this world. Requested in this way, I drew a picture of You. When Citra saw You in the picture, she became struck with wonder, and the eyes of all the other gopis also became filled with wonder.


Daivajna (an astrologer): A gopi sent by Radharani read Krishna's horoscope: At the time of Your birth the auspicious star Rohini was resting in Vrsabha. The calculation of Your horoscope makes me very happy. O Krishna, whose form is like a dark rain-cloud, I predict that you will become illuminated by a lightning flash and a full moon with wonderfully beautiful eyebrows. (Radharani's).


Lingini (an ascetic): A gopi-messenger who dresses like an ascetic, as Paurnamasi does, is called lingini.


Paurnamasi to Radharani: Honest daughter, do not become upset. I am an old ascetic expert at reciting mystic charms. I shall become Your messenger and the Prince of Vraja will be brought under Your dominion.


paricarika (Maidservants): Lavanga-manjari and Bhanumati are the leaders of the paricarika gopi-messengers.


Lavanga-manjari to Radharani: Attracted by the jewels of Your transcendental qualities, Krishna has left the other gopis and appeared before Your eyes. O my queen, pease tell me: what else may this maidservant do for You?


Dhatreyi (the Daughter of Radharani's nurse): A gopi to Krishna: My mother nursed Radharani in Her childhood, and we are just like two sisters. My dear Krishna, I have come here to tell You something very wonderful. Although Radharani's complexion is generally as splendid as gold, now that She is pining with love for You She has become thin and pale, just like the white crescent moon.


Vana-devi (a forest-demigoddess): A gopi, sent by Vrnda to break Radharani's strong pride: I was born as a demigoddess in this forest. Out of love for You I have appeared to You at different times as Your sister, mother-in-law, gopi-friend, and sister-in-law. Now please lift your neck. Be kind, move Your eyebrows and send various amorous signals to Krishna. In this way Krishna, the elephant of the cowherd boys, will transform Your breasts into the bulging frontal lobes of His elephant-beloved.


Sakhi (the friend who becomes a messenger): Without any duplicity the sakhis have more love for each other than for their own selves. They are fully worthy of each others complete trust, and they are equal in age, appearance, and other attributes.


Visakha describes the pitiful condition of lovesick Radharani to Krishna: I don't lament for my dear friend Radharani, who is now on the verge of death, mortally wounded by the waves of the sharpened arrows of Your glances. I only lament that when She finally dies and goes to the incomparable supreme destination, the eyes of this entire material world will become useless for the lack of being able to see Her.


Messages are divided into two kinds: 1. vacya (where the meaning is presented in a straightforward way); 2. vyangya (where the message contains a hidden meaning).


Vacya: Tungavidya to Radharani: Curse me, hit me, rebuke me, throw me outside or attack me many times, still my mind does not waver from it's resolve. I shall now go to bring Krishna here. My friend, I speak the truth,: a gopi who will not work to see You reunited with Krishna, lives in vain. It is better for her to simply give up her breath and die at once.


Vyangya: A sakhi to Radharani: My friend, I can guess that You desire to be anointed with fragrant krishnaguru sandalwood paste. I shall now go to the market to purchase it.

My friend, I can guess that You desire to be anointed with the fragrant aguru scent known as Krishna. I shall now go to that amorous hero and bring Him to You.


A gopi to Radharani: My child, why are You so thirsty? Listen and I shall tell You of a place You may visit to relieve Your thirst. My dear cakori bird, at this moment the splendid, pure, reddish moon waits for You on the eastern horizon.


Krsne vacyam: Visakha to Krishna: Radharani is the most beautiful girl in all the three worlds. After Brahma had created Her, He became struck with wonder at Her unprecedented beauty. My dear Krishna, this Radharani has sent me with a message for You.


vyangyam: Two kinds of vyangya messages are sent by Lord Krishna: 1. priya-purah (directly spoken to the gopi-beloved); and 2. priya-pascat (given to the gopi-beloved in an indirect way). These messages may again be divided into two kinds: 1. saksat; and 2. vyapadesa.


Visakha, in the presence of Radharani, speaks to Krishna: O Madhava, this peahen is very difficult to please. She will not come near me. Please be kind and quickly take her with Your hand.


Visakha, in the presence of Her gopi-friend, speaks to Krishna: O Krishna, many young girls in Vraja are eager to enjoy pastimes with You. Unlike them, my envious friend here is not at all agitated with the desire to enjoy with You. In fact, when she sees You, the spiritual master of all rogues and cheaters, she becomes very angry. Look, she is now quickly placing many ardha-candra arrows of angry sidelong glances on the long bows of her eyebrows.


Visakha, in the presence of Krishna and His gopi-beloved: O kadamba-tree, O favorite of Balarama, this splendid and fragrant madhavi creeper has now left it's hard dhava tree. Does she not approach you now, yearning to take shelter of You?


O Krishna, O dear friend of Balarama, this splendid, fragrant gopi, who has conquered Your heart, has now left her harsh husband. Does she not approach You now, yearning to take shelter of You?


A gopi says to Krishna: O Mukunda, You are eternally fond of the surabhi cows and You are splendidly decorated with the glistening Kaustubha jewel. Camapakalata is glorified by all the beautiful and charming gopis, and she is both fragrant and splendid. O Krishna as splendid as a dark rain-cloud, You do not appear very handsome or glorious without the company of the new-lightning-flash-like Campakalata.


Lalita to bumble-bee: My dear bumble-bee, north of this lofty mountain is a great lake. On the shore of that lake is a large forest, and in the midst of that forest is a charming cottage of creepers. At the door of that cottage is a blossoming malati creeper (Radharani) that fills every direction with a delightful fragrance. My dear bumble-bee, that malati-creeper is now gazing at the path waiting for you to arrive.


The heroine may ask her friend to deliver the message to Krishna in a particular way. These different ways are now described in the following explanation.


The heroine may ask that the message may be delivered in one of the two ways: 12. kriya-sadhya (an activity); 2. vacika (a verbal request).


Kriya-sadhya: Nandimukhi to Paurnamasi: Slender Radharani stares at a new rain-cloud in the sky, and stretched to embrace it. Is it that, without speaking a word, She is giving her gopi-friend a message to deliver to Krishna.


Briefly hearing the sound of Krishna's flute, slender, charming Radharani became very agitated at heart. Although She did not ask Her gopi-friend to bring Krishna, She perspired and the hairs of Her body stood erect in ecstasy.


Vacika: as previously explained, the verbal request to send the message may be divided into two types: 1. kvacya (the straightforward request), and 2. vyangya (the request expressed in words containing a hidden meaning).


Radharani to Visakha: My friend, you are My own life-breath moving outside My body. Within you great expertise and eloquence reside. you are not unqualified as I am. For this reason I request you to speak with Krishna and make Him become pleased with Me.


Vyangya: the vyangya request is of two kinds: 1. sabda-vyangya (where the hidden meaning is contained in the words); and 2. artha-vyangya (where the meaning itself has a hidden intention).


Radharani to Vrnda: My dear doe-eyed friend, I do not wish to learn any art or become skilled at any particular thing. I only wish to learn from the beautiful-eyebrowed gopis the art of tying braids. (the treasure of who is Kesava).


O gopi-friend, my heart has no desire for the best ruby. It only wishes to wear a beautiful diamond (Krishna) in the middle of this necklace.


Artha-vyangya: This kind of request may be presented in various ways, for example: 1. As a rebuke to the husband or another person; 2. As praise of Lord Krishna or others; 3. As a description of a certain place or thing.


Radharani to Visakha: I have offended the creator Brahma, and for this reason My heart is not at all attracted to My husband.


This forest by the Yamuna's shore is now violently attacking My eyes and causing Me great distress. O friend, why do you not instruct this forest to not attack Me in this way?


Radharani to Visakha: My friend, you are My won life-breath situated apart from My body. Although chaste girls will never glorify another man, I must ask you: How much sweetness is in this Krishna, the Prince of Vraja? Even from a far distance, His bodily splendor crushes My eyes with flood of nectar.


A gopi to her friend: My dear friend Candala, now that the rains of childhood have fallen from me, Vraja's Prince Krishna has become the hero of my heart. My friend you are very expert at delivering messages. Please do not neglect me at this crucial time.


Radharani to Her gopi-friend: I have wandered now for a long time to collect flowers in this tree-and creeper-filled Vrndavana forest, and now I am very tired. I shall now go alone into this grove and rest for a moment. In the meantime please go and bring Me a glower (Krishna) from the Yamuna's shore.


Radharani to Visakha: The spring season and the moon have combined to make this forest on the Yamuna's shore very beautiful. My body is also very nicely decorated by it's friend youthfulness. My friend, at this moment what more need be said?




Chapter 8

Shrimati Radharani's friends (sakhi-prakaranam)



The sakhis assist Shrimati Radharani in Her transcendental amorous pastimes with Lord Krishna. They are like transcendental jewelry cases in which Shrimati Radharani places Her faith and trust. The following is an elaborate description of the sakhis.


The sakhis are attached to certain groups of gopi-friends. The may be divided into different types, such as: 1. adhika; and 2. prakhara.


In the matter of preme (transcendental love), saubhagya (good fortune), sad-gunya (transcendental qualities), and in other matters also, the sakhis are divided into three groups: 1. adhika (superior); 2. sama (intermediate); and 3. Laghu (inferior).


The prakhara (harsh) sakhi speaks heavy words which are difficult to contradict. The mrdvi (gentle) sakhi does not speak harshly at all. The sama sakhi stands midway between the prakhara and mrdvi sakhi.


The sakhis may be divided into various types, beginning with atyantikadhika (the most-exalted. In each group of sakhis the leader is atyantikadhika.


Some of the atyantikadhika sakhis are prakhara (harsh), some madhya (partly harsh and partly gentle), and some mrdvi (gentle).


Atyantika-adhika: this kind of sakhis are independent and not subject to the control of others. They are divided into three groups. Their activities are described in the following way.


Syama says: Nila, cover me with this black cape. Magha, give me this garland of damanaka flowers. My friend Campa, anoint my body with this dark aguru paste. Bharamaraksi, watch for my elders.Now that evening has arrived this great blinding darkness will aid my swift journey to the forest-rendezvous with Krishna.


Syama and Mangala are the most prominent among the atyantika-adhika-prakhara sakhis.


Radharani rebukes Her friends for delaying Her rendezvous with Krishna: Would you torture Me with these delays if your hearts were wounded by cupid's arrows? Look! The debauchee Krishna, who loves you very dearly, and who is now protecting the surabhi cows, has just now entered on the pathway of your eyes.


Radharani and Palika are the most prominent of the atyantika-adhika-madhya sakhis.

During a period when she had broken with Krishna because of a quarrel, Candravali said to Padma: Listen, friend. I shall speak to you the truth. Do my ears become tired from drinking the nectar of Krishna's flute-music? If my pride is then crushed, what is the loss? from the other gopis I have heard that you are criticizing Krishna for being too harsh to me. I think that if you glance on Krishna with half of an eye, all your criticisms of Him would at once stop.


Candravali and Bhadra are the most prominent of the mrdu (gently) atyantika-adhika sakhis.


apeksika-adhika-trikam (Three types of aspiring to become sakhi-leaders): The sakhis in the group who are subordinate to the group of leaders, and aspire to become like her, are called apeksika-adhika.


One time Lalita sent the sakhi Sumadhya for a meeting between Krishna and Radharani, who was staying in a nearby grove. Krishna, wishing to humble the overly-proud Radharani, detained the sakhi-messenger sumadhya with His clever, charming conversation. when the tardy sumadhya returned, Lalita upbraided her in the following words: Sumadhya! Do not spend all this time drinking the sweet nectar of talking with this Krishna, the intoxicated king of the cheaters and rogues. O girl greedy to enjoy pleasant pastimes, have you forgotten that Radharani is languishing in this grove which is filled with the sounds of humming bees?


Lalita addresses Citra: Fool! Be quiet! you have become hypnotized by the mantras of Krishna, the King of the rogues and cheaters. Even though you can directly see Radharani keeping Her vigil in this garden on the summit of govardhana Hill, you waste this precious time by talking to me with all these fancy words.


Lalita is the most important of the prakhara (harsh) apeksika-adhika sakhis in the group of Radharani's closest friends.


Visakha to Caturika: My dear friend Caturika, please give this garland to Damodara. Although Krishna is now glancing at me, you have neglected to tell Him that I picked the flowers for this garland. This oversight is now torturing me.


Visakha to Campakalata: My friend, why do I avoid hearing your auspicious profound words and instead allow myself to become tormented by the arrogant secrets spoken by Murari? I am now giving Krishna the splendid garland that once decorated he head of Kurangaksi. Krishna, wishing to humble Radharani's false pride, arranged in this way to honor candravali's friend Kurangaksi by wearing a garland once worn by her. Visakha laments that Krishna has impressed her into this unpalatable service.


Visakha is the leader of the apeksika-adhika madhya sakhis in the circle of Radharani's closest friends.




Krishna, wishing to curb Radharani's excessive pride, began devoting His attention to Citra. Radharani, filled with jealous anger, rebuked citra, who defended herself in the following words: My dear angry friend, I have not cast the slightest glance on this Krishna who wears a peacock-feather crown. Be kind to me. don't criticize me for no good reason. If this Krishna, His shark-shaped earrings dancing to and fro as He playfully struts about, tries to flirt with me, then how can I defend myself? How can I escape His clutches?


In the circle of Radharani's closest friends, Citra and Madhurika are the leaders of the mrdvi apeksika-adhika sakhis.


sama: the sama sakhis have firm faith and love for each other. they are divided into prakhara, madhya, and mrdvi in the following way.


My friend, don't go away, Hari is very happy to see us. Let us pretend that we have become lost. he will then decorate our shoulders with the great bolts of His arms and happily walk with us on the shore of the yamuna.


Syama: Gauri! At this moment where does Hari enjoy pastimes? Gauri: My friend, the lion is in the cave of Govardhana Hill. Syama: did a lion scratch your waterpotlike breasts that they are marked so? Gauri: I think you have become attracted by the roar of this lion. syama: Tricky dancing-girl! It is you who finds pleasure in this lion's roaring (music of Krishna's flute).


O Indulekha, please give me this pearl-necklace given to you by Krishna. If you are so proud that you will not give it tome, then I advise yo to give up your smiling, for I shall leave your company at once.


Laghu-trikam: those gopis who have firm trust in their friends and endeavor to please them, are properly known as laghu-sakhis. these sakhis are also divided into three types.


The most important quality o the laghu sakhis is their willingness to help other gopis. The laghu-sakhis may be divided into two groups: 1. apeksiki (inferior); and 2. atyantiki (superior).


Lalita is said to be the leader of the apeksika-laghu sakhis.


In the presence of Krishna, Lalita-gopi exposes Radharani's love by addressing Her in the following words: Many times You warned me, saying: Do not allow your heart to fall in love with Nanda's son Krishna, for those who love Him shed a stream of tears that never stops. My dear fickle girl, all of a sudden You are knitting Your eyebrows. You seem to give no importance to my words. I ask You: Will You not now cry forever?


The laghu-prakhara sakhis may be divided into two types: 1. yama (the left wing); and 2. daksina(the right wing).


vama: A gopi who is always eager to be jealously angered, who is very enthusiastic for that position, who immediately becomes angry when defeated, who is never under the control of a hero and who always opposes Him is called vama, or a left wing gopi.

This Krishna is an expert cheater who has many mistresses. you should be very harsh to Him. Gentleness will bring you only suffering.


Nandimukhi to Paurnamasi: When Krishna ferociously offended Bhadra with many clever insult, gentle Bhadra at first remained pleased with Him. However, when she noticed her crooked-hearted friend, respond by angrily moving her eyebrows, bhadra showed an angry expression on her face, and vehemently knitted her eyebrows also.


Lalita to Krishna: do not approach me. Please keep Your expertise at speaking clever words far away. My friend Radharani has spent the entire night keeping a wakeful vigil in that grove. she must be very tired by now. My Lord, please go to Her and establish Your kingdom of transcendental pastimes with her.


Lalita to Krishna: Among all of these 100,084 doe-eyed gopis praised by Your friend Madhumangala, My friend Radharani is the most worthy and famous in this world. O rascal, cheater Krishna, why are You not content to accept Her? Why do You desire all the other gopis as well?

Lalita is the leader of the prakhara (harsh) vam sakhis. This description is given.


daksina: A gopi who cannot tolerate womanly anger, who speaks suitable words to the hero and who is satisfied by His sweet words is called a daksina, or a right-wing gopi.


In Gita-govinda Tungavidya says to Radharani: Because even though Your lover Krishna remains affectionate to You, You are harsh to Him, because when He bows down to offer respects You remain solid and indifferent, because even thought He love You, You hate Him, and because even thought He is friendly and eager to see You, You are averse to Him, therefore everything has become reversed for You. The sandalwood paste anointing You as become like poison, the cooling moon above has become like the blazing sun, Your camphor ointment has become like burning flames, and the happiness of Your playful pastimes have become like a series of painful tortures.


Krishna left the arena of the rasa dance and took Radharani with Him into the forest. after some time He abandoned Her, suddenly disappearing from Her sight. Another gopi then happened to meet Him. she addressed Him in the following words: O Prince of Vraja, who can say whether You are at fault or not at fault for abandoning this girl? Who can say whether Your actions are auspicious or inauspicious? Still, O tilaka-marking of Nanda Maharaja's dynasty, my cruel heart remembers how this girl entered the dangerous forest for Your sake, without caring for Her own self.

Tungavidya addresses Radharani, who has quarrelled with Krishna, and refuses to speak to Him: O slender-waisted Radharani, please do not make meaningless the words I have spoken to our friends. When Krishna heard of Your glories He took shelter of me and begged me to intercede on His behalf. Radharani, look into my face. Please be kind to Him. accept Him. Overwhelm Him with the auspicious waves of Your crooked amorous glances.


Tungavidya is the leader of the harsh right-wing sakhis.


Campakalata to Krishna: Be careful. if my proud friend sees me talking with You in this pathway, she will attack us with disappointed, angry sidelong glances. O Prince of Vraja, listen, and I will give You good ad ice: Take shelter of Lalita, without her all Your plans will be spoiled.


Laghu-mrdvi: Radharani quarrelled with Krishna and refused to make peace with Him. citra then appealed to Her in the following words: My friend, I repeatedly place my head at your feet, and beg You to be kind and forgive Your lover Krishna. If You remain displeased and angry with Him, then, when You once hear he music of His flute on the Yamuna's shore, Your peaceful composure will tremble with agitation, Your eyes will become restless, and I will become able to smile at Your defeat.


Atyantika-laghu: Kusumika is the leader of the atyantika-laghu (least important) sakhis. Because of their very lowly status, these sakhis are always very gently


Kusumika to Lalita: O beautiful Lalita, I bow down to offer respects to you, and request that you please give me a letter to convince our dear friend Radharani to abandon the proud jealous anger, that makes Her war on Her lover Krishna. Although She longs to meet Krishna, She puts on an air of angry pride, and remains at home, fearing to come out lest she meet you and become convincer by your arguments to make peace with Krishna. Look! Krishna is gazing at your face from a distance! See!! Struck with wonder, the parrots have become silent, the peacock no longer wish to dance, and our friends, wondering: Who am I? Have forgotten their identities?


In conclusion, the leaders of the sakhis are divided into various types, beginning with prakhara (harsh). The sakhis situated in an intermediate status are divided into nine kinds, and the sakhis in the lowest status are divided into two kinds: sama and laghu.


In each group of sakhis, these 12 divisions are present. Now the sakhis who carry messages between Radha and Krishna will be described.


The gopis who carry messages to arrange for the rendezvous of the youthful divine couple may be divided into the following groups: 1. atyantikadhika (who are all nitya-nayika, or eternal heroines); 2. apeksikadhika (who are mostly nayikas); 3. apeksika-sama (who are half nayikas and half sakhis); 4. apeksika-laghu (who are mostly sakhis); 5. atyantika-laghu (who are all sakhis). In the first group all the messengers are nayikas, and in the fifth group all the messengers are sakhis.


Nitya-nayika: the leaders of the various groups of sakhis are described as nitya-nayika.


Because of the exalted status of the nitya-nayikas they do not directly act as messengers. They are very affectionate to the sakhis within their own groups.


Although the nitya-nayikas do not directly carry messages themselves, sometimes, out of great love for the divine couple, they engage the sakhis in their own groups to carry messages, not expressed openly, but couched in various hints.


Pretending not to have travelled a great distance to deliver a message, the sakhis speak messages in the form of hints. These hinted messages are of two kinds: 1. samaksa (those directly spoken to Lord Krishna); 2. paroksa (those not directly spoken to Lord Krishna).


Samaksa: this message is of tow kinds: 1. sanketika (a message consisting of gestures); and 2. vacika (a message consisting of words).


Sanketika: these consist of sidelong glances and other gestures containing hidden messages.


After enjoying conjugal pastimes with Krishna, a certain sakhi bore His scratch-marks on her breasts. Another gopi chided her for this, and the sakhi defended herself in the following words: My friend, I can see how you are secretly glancing at Krishna. If Krishna had not taken my hand and led me out of this jungle of thorny creepers I do not know what would have happened tome.


Vacika: these messages may be given to Krishna directly in His presence, or they may be given in an indirect way when He is not present.


Once Krishna caught a gopi picking flowers in vrndavana forest. He severely rebuked her for stealing His flowers, and threatened to punish her in cupid's prison. at that moment her friend Syama addressed Krishna in the following words: My dear Krishna, You are right. This girl is the culprit. She constantly picks Your flower blossoms, day and night. she is my friend, and she will do whatever I say, I give her to You. Take her hand. Take her home with You, and do whatever You like with her.


Radharani to Citra: The creepers rubbing against My neck have broken My necklace. It was Krishna's favorite necklace. Come, help Me pick up the scattered pearls. O My friend with beautiful face, good fortune has now appeared before us. I can tell that Krishna has accidentally dropped the flute from His hand on the peak of govardhana Hill. I shall go now, and with an expert stratagem take the flute and hide it on the hill.


Radharani to Krishna: According to My request friend Citra has gone to the flower garden on the Yamuna's shore to pick a jasmine flower. O Krishna, O killer of Aghasura, as You walk with Me from the cottage, I implore You: Please do not tease My innocent you friend Citra in this way.


......... given by a gopi to her gopi-friend in Krishna's absence, this message, using various tricks or other stratagems, brings the gopi-friend to Krishna's side.


One moonless night Rangadevi was unable to find her way through the forest to meet Krishna at the appointed place. At that time Kalavati spoke to her the following words: Your dear friend, the crescent moon, who is like a second self to you, has been stopped by the order of the Lord, and does not rise in the sky. I shall now bring auspiciousness to you. Your good fortune is now awakening. These bumble-bees, attracted by the sweet fragrance of Krishna's transcendental body, are hurrying to Him. They shall quickly show us the path to the forest-grove where Krishna waiting for us.


Vyapadesa: these are divided into the: 1. lekha (letters); 2. upayana; 3. nija-prayojana; and 4. ascarya-darsana.


Lekha: One day rasala-manjari brought a letter from Radharani to Krishna. Krishna proceeded to make advances at her. She protested, saying that she was simply a letter-carrier. Krishna replied to her in the following words: My dear proud girl, give up this letter-carrying. Why do you look at Me with those crooked eyes? Allright, if you have a letter from your dear friend, then read it aloud. In this grove there is a cottage, and in that cottage is a soft, very fragrant couch made of flowers. On the pretext of attracting many loudly buzzing bees, this flower-couch bed is calling you to lie down upon it.


One day Rati-manjari gave Krishna a flower-garland, saying it was a fiat from Radharani who personally made it for Him. Taking the garland, Krishna began to make advances at her, clutching the edge of her sari. Resisting, she addressed Krishna in the following words: Merciless boy, be kind to me. Let go of the edge of my sari. Look! The sun is setting. I have to go to evening arati now. It is not Your fault that You cannot understand my dear friend's message and You slight Her valuable gift. You are too unintelligent to understand.


Lalita to Sasikala: Radharani, the daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu, personally said to you: Last night I absent-mindedly left my favorite pearl-necklace in the cottage by the grove of kadamba trees. My friend, please go and fetch it for Me. O Sasikala, why have you come home without fulfilling Radharani's order?


Radharani to Syama and her friends: I have just seen a swan as black as a bumble-bee. I have seen a snake whose face is studded with many suns. It wears many moons around it's neck and it spouts all kinds of jewels from the top of it's head. Friends, My words have made you so eager to see this wonder that you are trembling as if burning with anger.

I have just seen the swan of Krishna, as black as a bumble-bee. I have seen a flute whose face is studded with many kaustubha gems. it's neck is decorated with many peacock feathers, and it spouts, from the top of it's head, the jewels of sweet musical sounds. Friends, My words have made you so eager to see this wonder that you are trembling as if burning with anger.


The nayika-prayas are divided into three types. Because they are not as exalted as the nayikas, they sometimes engage in carrying messages.

Lalita to Sambhali: My dear Sambhali, now you have fallen into my hand. please do not be so disturbed. I do not take very seriously your desperate begging to not meet Krishna. You have no come to the edge of the forest-grove. Why are you now stunned and motionless? Dark-complexioned Krishna, the husband of many lionesslike gopis, will now tear away the pearl-decorated bodice covering the elephant's forehead of your breasts.

Once Visakha, speaking false promises, tricked an unwilling gopi-friend into meeting with Krishna in the forest: gopi: You always cause me great trouble and suffering. Visakha: With my crooked words I am gradually teaching you what is right. Gopi: You have cheated me. Visakha: O proud girl, even though you may try to attack Krishna, striking Him with the movements of the dancing girl of your eyebrows, He will defeat you and bring you under His control. O elephantlike girl, I shall then see the great independent elephant of Krishna enjoy transcendental pastimes with you.


Citra to her friend: Every day you arrange for me to meet Krishna at the cottages in the flower-filled groves on the Yamuna's shore. I am very ungrateful. what can I do for you in return?


The sama-sakhis are nayikas who carry messages. They are of three types: 1. prakhara (harsh); 2. madhya; and 3. mrdvi.


A gopi to her friend: In the past we have always acted as each other's messenger, and today it is my turn to become your messenger. Your trembling left eye is now begging me to find Krishna. O my friend, O vraja-gopi, decorate your body and set your eyebrows dancing, for I shall now go to find Krishna.


Describing the activities of Sasikala and Kamala (two friends of rangadevi), Rupa-manjari said to Rati-manjari: "Kamala said: O Sasikala, I shall go now and leave you in Krishna's hand. Sasikala replied: Why do you speak these lies. I am your servant and messenger. It is I who should go, and you who should stay. Look! Krishna has become charmed by the sweetness of the extraordinary love these two gopis bear for each other. Simultaneously He embraces them both to His chest, and passionately enjoys amorous pastimes with them both.


Krishna addresses the two gopi-messengers Madhavi and Malati: Madhavi, where are you going with My Malati? And you, Malati, where are you going with My Madhavi? My dear extraordinary beautiful and qualified girls, the dark-complexioned young bumble-bee of Krishna shall now take you both to a secluded place, drink the honey of your kisses, and enjoy transcendental amorous pastimes with you.


The intimate, sweet, rare friendship existing among the sama-madhya-sakhis is very difficult to understand. Only those learned in the intricacies of transcendental love can understand it.


Krishna said to gopi-messenger Mandaraksi: I am very glad to tell you that your friend Radharani said to Me: Mukunda, follow Mandaraksi and quickly bring her to Me in the cottage of creepers in this forest-grove. Appearing like a moon standing between two stars, Krishna then enjoyed transcendental pastimes with Radharani and Mandaraksi.


Sakhi-praya: The sakhi-prayas are less important than the sakhis. They are engaged in carrying messages, and they are divided into three types.


Tungavidya to Radharani: Exhausted by continually carrying You in His heart, and burning with amorous passion, Krishna yearns to drink from the nectar-filled bimba fruits of Your lips. My friend, You can decorate His lap for a moment. what is the fault? after all, a few pennies from the transcendental opulence of Your moving eyebrows have purchased Him, and now He is like the  obedient servant of Your lotus feet.


Visakha to Radharani: My dear passionate friend, are Your eyebrows arched like this because of fondness for these flowers, or because You know that in this grove by the Yamuna's shore, Vraja's Prince Krishna is now hiding?


Saibya to Candravali: Fan Krishna with the edge of your sari as He sleeps in this forest-cottage, and I shall bring bunches of lotus flowers newly blossomed in the moonlight.


The sakhis may be divided into two groups: 1. those who have some desire to become nayikas; and 2. those who do not desire to become nayikas, but simply desire the transcendental happiness of friendship with the sakhis.


The first group is described where Radharani addresses Lalita's friend Sasikala: Now please bring Me a bunch of peacock feathers (marked with the bodily symptoms of conjugal love) from this grove of kadamba trees. Sasikala! Why does My request for a hundred peacock feathers make you suddenly smile with embarrassment? Why do you now bow your head and cover it with your sari in this forest-cottage?


A gopi to her friend: Do not repeatedly leave me on the pretext of going to pick flowers in Vrndavana-forest. I fear that you will suffer in someway when you are alone in the forest. O beautiful-faced friend, I tell you the truth: I simply wish the happiness of your friendship. I have no desire to enjoy amorous pastimes with Krishna.


The sakhis who are always satisfied by the friendship of the other sakhis, and do not aspire to become nayikas (direct lovers of Krishna), are called nitya-sakhis. The nitya-sakhis may be divided into two types: 1. atyantiki laghu; and 2. apeksiki laghu.


One day Radharani tried to arrange a conjugal meeting between Krishna and her friend Mani-manjari. Mani-manjari declined the invitation, saying: My friend Radharani, I have no desire to taste the happiness You enjoy by touching the transcendental limbs of Krishna. I simply yearn to expertly engage in Your service. This Mani-manjari has no desire at any time for a conjugal meeting with Krishna.


A gopi to Krishna: My dear Govinda, I request that You please engage me in expertly arranging for Your splendid transcendental conjugal pastimes on the dancing stage of Radharani. This service is the topmost treasure in the exalted kingdom of all the gopis' hearts. My heart has no desire to personally taste the nectar of the touch of Your transcendental body.


Nitya-sakhi: A gopi to Krishna: My friend has not entered this forest grove. Knitting her eyebrows, she became angry with me, and hid in the entrance to the grove. O Krishna, O moon of Vrndavana forest, I request You please pacify her anger.


The sakhis who aspire to become prakhara (harsh) nayikas, act harshly, and the sakhis who aspire to become mrdvi (gentle) nayikas act gently. I shall not describe them further, for I fear that description would greatly increase the size of this book. According to various situation of time and place, the prakhara and mrdvi sakhis sometimes act in a way contrary to their actual nature.


Lalita says to angry, jealous Radharani, who has just quarreled with Krishna: Tonight there is a great, fearful darkness. There is a rainstorm showering great streams of water, and there is a fierce whirlwind. Krishna now stands at Your door. Give up Your anger. Be kind. Touch Your lover's neck and embrace Him. this person named Lalita bows down at Your feet, and begs You to accept Him.


Citra to Radharani: My friend with a crooked heart, who glances at Krishna from the corner of Her eyes and pretends to glorify Him, why do You not give up this pretended politeness, and show Your anger towards Him? Even gentle Citra thinks it proper to become angry with Him, just as the cold forest descends on the lotus flowers.


A gopi-messenger may meet Krishna in a secluded place. Although Krishna may appeal for her mercy, He may sometimes be refused and spurned.


A gopi-messenger to Krishna: Krishna, now that I have met You in this secluded place I can give You the message of my dear friend Radharani. Krishna, why do You raise the fearful cupid's bows of Your eyebrows in this way? O Krishna, O moon of Vrndavana, if You neglect my friend and instead try to make advances upon me, I shall give up my life on the spot.


Some of the activities of the sakhis are: 1. glorification of mutual love transcendental qualities; 2. creating attachment to the divine couple; 3. arranging for the meeting of the divine couple; 4. presenting their friends before Krishna; 5. speaking joking words; 6. speaking words of consolation; 7 dressing and decorating the divine couple; 8. expertly revealing the actual feelings within the hearts of the Divine couple; 9. covering the faults of the heroine; 10. cheating the husbands and other superiors; 11. giving instructions; 12. arranging for the rendezvous of the divine couple at the appropriate time; 13. fanning the divine couple at the appropriate time; 13. fanning the divine couple and rendering other services; 14. and 15. rebuking the hero and heroine; 16. sending messages; and 17. endeavoring to protect the heroine's life.


Visakha to Krishna: O killer of the mora demon, why are You so cruel to this fawn-eyed gopi? Even though You have thrown her into the ocean of unhappiness, she refuses to give up her intense love for You.


Campakalata to Radharani: O Radharani, are there not many lotus-eyed gopis in Vraja-village expert at enjoying amorous pastimes with Krishna? Tell me then, what great austerities have You performed to make Krishna neglect them and love You so deeply?


Lalita to Krishna: When she sees my gopi-friend's beauty, Laksmi criticizes her own beautiful form. When she considers my gopi-friend's cleverness and virtues, Parvati becomes ashamed. In this universe what girl is like my gopi-friend? She is very exalted and rare. What boy is qualified to meet her?


Lalita to Radharani: My dear friend, this newly youthful Krishna, the moon in the family of Nanda maharaja, is so beautiful that He defies the beauty of clusters of valuable jewels. All glories to the vibration of His flute, for it is cunningly breaking the patience of chaste ladies by loosening their belts and tight dresses.


Lalita and Visakha to Radharani: O slender, beautiful Radharani, your life is not at all barren and useless, for even though all the directions are now anointed by the waves of the sweet fragrance of campaka flowers, the bumble-bee of Krishna neglects those flowers, and prefers to enjoy transcendental pastimes with You and drink the honey of Your lips to His heart's content.


Visakha to Krishna: O black bumble-bee of Krishna, if You decline to enjoy the festive and fragrant mallika flower of Radharani, then what is the use of Your splendid youthfulness? What is the use of Your expertise in enjoying pastimes in the Vrndavana forest?


Rupa-manjari to Radharani: Filling the entire sky, and covering the splendor the nectar moon, the dark cloud of Krishna has now met the monsoon rains of Lalita.


Sudevi to Radharani: Out of respect for You the sun is now setting in the west, and, according to Krishna's desire, it has now become very dark. Just as the cuckoos lament, I repeatedly appeal to You: O charming girl, to delay is fruitless. Now is the time for Your delightful rendezvous with Krishna.


Visakha to Krishna: A host of virtues have worshipped Brahma for the right to live in this girl's heart, and fullness of youth has performed austerities to become eligible to serve her body. She is now intoxicated by the transcendental bliss of the sweetness of freshly aroused love for You. O Krishna, O killer of the Mora demon, I now place this girl in Your hand.


Lalita to Radharani My friend, Your transcendental body is the abode of splendid pastimes and beauty, of which this world does not posses even a pale reflection. Your restless eyes burning with curiosity, do not enter this network of creepers. In this forest wanders a lovely demigoddess decorated with black-mascara, who lure s beautiful young girls into her forest-domain.




Lalita to Radharani: O Radharani, O daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu, please do not become unhappy to see the sun setting in the west. Delighting Your eyes and dispelling the great darkness of the dust kicked up by these surabhi cows, a moon is now rising to replace it.

While decorating Radharani, Lalita spoke the following joking words: As I draw pictures and designs in musk upon Your forehead, I cannot but think that eventually drops of perspiration will wash them away and use them to decorate the face of Krishna.


Lalita to Radharani: My dear young friend, do not close Your eyes and shrink from me. Tell me the truth: What girl in gokula is chaste and faithful to her husband? I think You alone walk upon the path of chastity.


Lalita to Radharani: My friend, Your charming youthfulness has now become the kingdom of cupid, who carries a bow of flowers, and Your transcendental beauty sprinkles nectar on the eyes of all the three worlds. In spite of all these virtues, You are married to an old man who cannot properly act as Your husband. O my friend burning with shyness, among all the girls of Vraja, You are the only one who has been cheated in this way.


One time Radharani, returned home forgetting that She was wearing Krishna's yellow cloth around Her shoulders. When Radharani's mother-in-law Jatila saw this yellow cloth instead of the customary cloth of another color, she sensed foul-play, and angrily started at her daughter-in-law. At that time Visakha tried to protect her friend Radharani by speaking the following words to Jatila: At the festival the young girls, their hearts fluttering with happiness, playfully doused Radharani with a strong mixture of turmeric and water, which dyed Her silken shoulder-cloth yellow. That is the reason this cloth is now yellow. O noble Jatila, why do you stare at my friend Radharani from the corner of Your crooked eyes?


One morning Krishna, disguised as a brahmana boy, and accompanied by a gopi, arrived at Radharani's house. The gopi then addressed Radharani's pseudo-husband Abhimanyu in the following words: This dark-complexioned brahmana boy is Gargacarya's student, and He is very expert at performing the karma-kanda rituals. I have brought Him to this home so He may direct Radharani's worship of the sun-god. O cowherd Abhimanyu, go now, find a red-eyed, red-complexioned cow (for such cows are very dear to the sun-god), milk the cow, and then return with the milk to offer to the sun-god. Meanwhile I shall make a garland of red lotus flower.


An experienced gopi addresses a newcomer: First fan Krishna with a fan made of lotus-petals and vine-flower petals, then gently massage His lotus feet, then peel some betel-nuts, mix them with camphor, and place them in His mouth. Acting in this way, a young girl can become the intimate friend of Krishna.


Lalita instructs Radharani: My friend, be very respectful to Your lover's cowherd friends, carefully keep the secrets He entrusts to You, and do not press Your own desires on Him when they conflict with His wishes. Acting in this way, You will quickly bring the supremely independent Krishna under Your control.


Rati-manjari to Rupa-manjari: The lake of Radharani, it's lotus-flower eyes filled with darting bumble-bee glances has become unhappy now that the day has ended. The twilight of Lalita has now caused that lake to meet the rising moon of Krishna.


Exhausted and perspiring, Radharani rested on the chest of Krishna, in the forest grove. Waving a fan of vine-flowers, Lalita fanned Her.


One evening Krishna failed to meet Radharani at the rendezvous, and left her unhappily waiting for Him in vain. Afterwards Lalita rebuked Him for this in the following words: My friend Radharani is as beautiful as the moon, and She passionately loves You like the blazing autumn sun. O Krishna, O killer of Putana, why are You so harsh to Her? Why do You torture Her in this way?


One time, as Radharani was stringing a flower garland, Candravali's friend Padma arrived. Radharani greeted her and politely spoke with her for some time. After Padma had left Radharani showed Her flower-garland handwork of Lalita. Incensed at Radharani's polite treatment of Padma, Lalita rebuked Her in the following words: My friend, although You tremble with eagerness to enjoy amorous pastimes with Mukunda, You are nevertheless friendly and polite to Your rival and deadly enemy. Your attempt to master the art of decoration is a hopeless failure. Why are You so foolish that You cannot grasp an opportunity when it presents itself?


Lalita asks a swan to deliver the following message to Krishna: O Krishna, O tilaka decoration of Vraja, You have certainly forgotten Your friends in Vraja. I ask You, in these circumstances, why has Yamaraja, the lord of death and the husband of Dhumorna, not yet killed my friend Radharani? Why is She left to suffer unbearable pain for so many days amidst the fragrant flowers of Vrndavana forest?


After returning to Mathura from Vrndavana, Uddhava spoke the following words to Krishna: When Radharani begins to faint from grief, the gopi Madhavi restore her consciousness by deliberately lying to Her, earnestly vowing that You are arriving at that very moment, by showing Her a jewelled picture of You, or be telling Her that the sound of the bamboos rattling in the wind is actually the sound of Your flute. O king of the Yadavas, in this way Madhavi keeps Her alive.


Within the groups of sakhis there is another groups of types: 1. asama-sneha and 2. sama-sneha


The asama-sneha and sama-sneha sakhis may again be divided into two groups: 1. Those who direct their love to Krishna; and 2. Those who direct their love to the gopi-leader of their group.


The asama-sneha sakhis who feel greater love for Krishna feel great pride in their hearts, thinking "I am the property of Krishna." They love Krishna, take shelter of and worship their gopi-leader, and remain unattached to others.


These sakhis direct all their love towards Krishna. They are very eager to carry messages to Him and serve Him directly in various ways. They are known as Krishna-snehadhika (those who have great love for Krishna).


Dhanistha to Radharani: When anything other than Krishna enters my heart or my words, that does not bring me happiness. When You, O my friend, treat me with great respect, that does not bring me happiness. However, just as one may become devastated by staying for a moment under the blazing sun, in the same way I become overwhelmed with happiness by seeing the charming spotted moonlight of Krishna's face.


O beautiful friend, I bow my head before you and before all the demigods also. I appeal to you: please enable me to continually please Radharani and Subala's friend Krishna with my chosen devotional service.


In this way the sakhis who have great love for Krishna have been described.


Priya-sakhyam snehadhika: The sakhi-snehadhika sahkhis love a specific gopi-friend slightly more than they love Krishna. The love of these sakhis is eternal. They always think: I am the property of my friend.


A sakhi-snehadhika gopi tries to dissuade Vrnda from arranging for a Radharani's rendezvous with Krishna: O Vrnda, don't carry this message. O friend, tell Vraja's Prince Krishna to not come to this rendezvous. This monsoon night is filled with many dangerous poisonous snakes. Why should you not be afraid to go to the forest on govardhana Hill on this night?


Mani-manjari says to the young, inexperienced Catura: Catura, let me teach you what I have learned from my own experience. If you make friends with Radharani, then within that friendship is automatically included ecstatic love for Hari.


The sakhi-snehadhika gopis may be further divided into: 1. friends as dear as life; and 2. eternal friends. In this way the learned devotees have described them.


Those who love Radha and Krishna equally: Those who have great love for both Krishna and His dear friend Radharani, are known as sama-sneha sakhis.


If She is not together with Krishna, Radharani brings great pain to my heart. O my friend, if He is not accompanied by Radharani, Krishna also brings me great pain. I pray that I shall never take a birth where even for a moment I shall not have the opportunity to drink with my eyes the nectar of the two festive moon of the faces of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna.


The sama-sakhis love Radha and Krishna equally. They think: We are the property of Radharani. They may be divided into: 1. very dear friends of Radharani; and 2. dear friends of Radharani.



Chapter 9

Lord Krishna's beloved gopis (hari-vallabhah)




The beautiful-eyebrowed girls of Vraja may be divided into four groups: 1. sva-paksa (members of the personal party); 2. suhrt-paksa (friends); 3. tata-stha (neutrals); and 4. (rivals and enemies).


Sva-paksa (the personal party), and pratipaksa (rivals and enemies) may be considered the two original divisions of the gopis in the nectar of transcendental mellows. The suhrt-paksa (friends) and the tata-stha-paksa (neutrals) may be considered to have been manifested from those two original divisions.


The sva-paksa will now be specifically described. After that, the general direction of the suhrt-paksa and other groups will be summarily presented.


Suhrt-paksa: The suhrt-paksa gopis work to fulfill their friend's desires and check any attempt to thwart (nullify) them.


Kundavali enters the assembly of Syama and her friends and addresses them in the following words: My dear Syama, my dear friends, Radharani's friendship for you has astonished the hearts of the entire world. Addressing you by name, She happily gives you this camphor and other fragrant ointments so that when the opportunity arises you may present them to Krishna, who wears a crown of peacock feathers.


One day Candravali's friend Padma informed Radharani's mother-in-law jatila that Radha and Krishna were enjoying pastimes together in Bhandiravana forest. Jatila arrived at that place and saw Radha and Krishna together. At that time the following conversation occurred between her and Radharani's friend Syama: Jatila: Agitated by a foolish girl, I have come here. What am I to believe? Syama, I have firm faith in you. Tell me: What is happening here? Syama: What I tell you is the truth. I am not deceiving you. what you se is Subala, dressed up like a girl, clowning with Krishna, the funny comedian of Vraja village.


The tata-stha-paksa (neutral party), which is situated between the suhrt-paksa (friends) and vipaksa (enemies, will now be described.


Padma says to Syama: My dear beautiful-aced Syama, you feel neither happiness or distress in Candravali's good or ill fortune. You take no account of her virtues or faults, and your mind is unagitated by either love or hatred for her. You appear just like a silent sage, neutral in relation to her.


The vipaksa gopis hate their rivals, lie about them, thwart their desires, and bring misfortune to them.


Vrnda to Krishna: O Mukunda, Jatila overheard Subala say: "O Radharani, crooked-hearted Padma saw Hari as He followed with His eyes Your path into the forest, and by a trick she has now brought Candravali to this place". Now, as the sun is rising in the morning, Jatila, seeing on Her body a blue garment (suitable for remaining unobserved while going to a rendezvous at night), is severely rebuking the stunned Radharani.


Jatila: My dear daughter Padma, from where have you come? Padma: Mother Jatila, I have come from Govardhana Hill. Jatila: Where are the gopis? Have you seen them? Padma: They are in front of the sun-god's temple. Jatila: Such a long time has passed. why has Radharani not come here yet? Padma: Krishna stopped Her as She was coming here. Please go now, find Her, and angrily attack Her.


The pratipaksa (enemy) sakhis manifest the following qualities in their words and actions: 1. cadma (trickery); 2. irsya (jealousy); 3. capala (fickleness); 4. asuya (envy); 5. matsara (hostility); 6. amarsa (anger); and 7. garvita (pride).


Bhanumati to Mani-manjari: One day Padma said to Lalita: Thinking dark-complexioned Krishna to be a rain-cloud on the peak of Govardhana Hill, and thinking the sound of His flute to be thunder, these unintelligent cows are now fleeing with great haste, O Lalita, you are very intelligent. Why are you fleeing in the same way? Speaking some expert lies, Lalita deceived Padma, and then quickly ran to Radharani's house, to tell Her where she may meet Krishna.


Irsya: After proudly displaying the garland given by Krishna, Padma received the following haughty rebuke from Lalita: My friend Padma, why do you show off this garland of forest-flowers so? Push aside your curling locks of hair, and look at this person stretched out like a blue stick resting on my porch.  The person is Krishna bowing down before Lalita.)


Padma addresses one of Radharani's friends who was wearing a jewel necklace given to her by Krishna: Krishna bowed down before me and begged me to take this necklace, but I refused because the jewel in the center is seriously flawed. Such a flawed gem will bring ill luck. What will it benefit you? This necklace is just a serpent about to bite. O my friend, even though you would like to keep this necklace, you should throw it away at once, for your own good.


Accidentally discovering Krishna enjoying pastimes with Candravali, Radharani's friend Padma addressed a firefly in the following sarcastic words: My dear firefly, do not needlessly trouble yourself to try to illuminate this forest-grove. Candravali, who is splendid and effulgent as you are, now stands beside the dark cloud of Krishna, as if she were a brilliant lightning flash.


Rangadevi to Padma: My dear Padma, your friend Saibya has danced very enthusiastically in Bhandiravan forest. Who would not become astonished by her wonderful dancing? In fact, if slender Saibya were beautiful and learned in dancing, I think she would have charmed the entire world.


Padma to Candravali: O charming girl, although Hari decorated Radharani's breasts with a great necklace of very precious jewels, and although He gave you only a few small flowers for your braided hair, still, because your mind is situated beyond all dualities, and because, like a great sage, you do not make distinctions between good and bad, you do not become angry with Krishna and refuse to enjoy amorous pastimes with Him in this forest.


Candravali to a friend: My friend, even though I have made a great garland of gunja-berries and large, newly-blossomed flowers, and even though you have personally presented this garland to Krishna, the killer of the Mora demon, still, when I see the earring that Krishna has placed on Radharani's ear, my mind knows that you and I are very unimportant in relation to Her.


Garvita (pride): Pride is said to have six features: 1. criticizing others by glorifying oneself; 2. in a crooked manner glorifying one's own love for Krishna; 3. praising one's own pastimes with Krishna; 4. mocking the enemy; 5. pride in one's own skill; and 6. proclaiming one's own superiority.


Ahankara is when one criticizes others by glorifying the virtues of oneself and one's friends.


One time Lalita entered the assembly of Candravali's friends. When Padma said that Candravali appeared like a splendid crescent moon rising in the sky of Krishna, Lalita became angry, and replied: The sky of Krishna is as dark as sapphire and can hardly be illumined by the crescent moon of Candravali which gives only a faint glimmer of light. That sky must remain dark until the rising of the brilliant sun of Radharani removes the darkness before our eyes.


Abhimana is when a gopi crookedly glorifies her own love for Krishna.


Lalita to Candravali: My dear Candravali, your intelligence is very sober, calm, and steady, for when you heard that Hari had jumped into the Kaliya lake, you remained cool, calm, and unmoved. My friend Radharani is not so steady-minded, for when She heard that Krishna had climbed the kadamba tree and was about to jump into the lake, She trembled, wailed aloud, and pounded Her breasts in lamentation.


Lalita's friend Ratnaprabha to Padma: You are fortunate. Your limbs are now filled with happiness because Krishna, with His own hand, has artistically painted so many nice pictures and designs on your forehead. I am not so fortunate. Alas, I am cheated! Whenever  Krishna sees the moonlike face of Lalita, He becomes stunned and looses all His artistic power, and cannot draw nice pictures on her forehead. When Krishna draws on Padma's forehead, He is not agitated by amorous desire, and therefore He can draw nicely with a steady hand. However, when He sees Lalita, He becomes filled with amorous passion. (and with a trembling hand cannot draw very nicely. This is a description of Krishna's love for Lalita).


Pride is said to be darpa when a gopi praises her pastimes with Krishna.


Once, as Nandimukhi was telling stories from the Puranas, Lalita noticed that the gopis were beginning to fall asleep. At that time she turned to Padma, and said: O Padma, I think you must be the crest jewel of all pious girls, for only you are able to sleep peacefully in this house during these moonlit autumn nights. I wonder what impious acts I have performed in my previous births so that the tree of karma is fructifying to cause this dark-complexioned elephant (Krishna) from Vrndavana forest to completely madden my heart so that I cannot sleep a wink.


Once Padma was waiting in Vrndavana forest to meet Krishna and take Him to rendezvous with Candravali. Just as Krishna was about to arrive, He met Lalita, who began to talk with Him and gradually lead Him away to meet Radharani. Seeing Krishna slip away from her grip, Padma began to lament. At that time Visakha addressed her with the following satirical words of pretended consolation: My friend, please do not sigh in this way. Be content. give up striving for the unattainable. When I see you so disconsolate my heart becomes tortured with compassion. O honest, pious friend, look, the black deer of Krishna has not unwittingly fallen into the hunter's trap of Lalita's crooked words.


Once, as Lalita was picking flowers in Vrndavana forest, she encountered Padma, who addressed her in the following words: On Lalita, I think you are the most fortunate girl in the entire universe, for you constantly worship the sun-god with these fragrant, wonderful flowers. I am not so fortunate. When I make garlands of flowers, Candravali and my other friends take them all and do not leave even a single petal for me to offer to goddess Katyayani.


Once Lalita overheard Padma say: O Nandimukhi, now is the time for Radharani and Candravali to compete. Now we shall see who is better. Lalita immediately emerged from behind the forest-creeper, and angrily addressed Padma: The flag of Radharani's glory and victory dominates the entire universe. Who in Vrajamandala can compete with Her? O Padma, it is only because Her heart melts with compassion for you wretches that you are able to serve Krishna for even a moment.


Sometime the gopis speak puns which contain veiled criticisms.


Once, Campakalata addressing Candravali's friend Bhavya, Campakalata insulted the gopi Saudamini in this way: My dear Bhavya, your friend Saudamini is decorated with such nice ornaments presented to her by Govinda. She loves Krishna so much that she becomes very unhappy when she is separated from Him. She is very expert. Her body display the beauty of eternal youthfulness. She is the most saintly and virtuous. Her good fortune is eternal and will never end.


My dear Bhavya, your friend Saudamini wears ornaments that are very displeasing to Govinda. Her absence brings Krishna great joy. She is very expert at quarrelling, and her complexion is the color of iron. She is the least saintly and virtuous. Her misfortune is eternal and will never end.




Rangadevi speaks to Saibya, containing hidden insults directed towards Khelavati: O Saibya, the dancing of your friend Khelavati is just like nectar. She is so expert that even though she takes many wonderful steps, her necklace and ornaments do not move to and fro, but remain still. Her beautiful complexion eclipses the splendor of golden waves of the yellow pigment haritala. She brings a great festival of happiness to the eyes of all.


Because of their natural gravity, politeness, and other virtues, the leaders of the groups of sakhis are not directly jealous of the rival gopis.


Vrnda to Paurnamasi: When she sees the excessive pride of a rival gopi, Mangala becomes timid. She at once plunges into the swiftly moving mountain-stream on shyness, the surface of which shines with the bubbles and foam of her rare and beautiful smile.


The gopis of lower station are more harsh. They jealously criticize the leaders of the rival gopis behind their backs.


Padma, speaking to Campakalata, pretends to glorify Radharani: My dear charming girl, you are lucky, for Maharaja Vrsabhanu's daughter Radharani has now come to the nearby shore of the Yamuna and released you from the great shackles of my words. Sarasvati, the goddess of eloquence who plays in my words, has become plunged into the ocean of embarrassment by your escape in this way. (Padma implies that the goddess Sarasvati is ashamed to see the illiterate cowgirl Radharani).


Those in this world who do not understand the nature of transcendental mellows say that negative emotions such as hatred and envy are always improper in relation to the dear devotees of Krishna.


In Vraja the mellow of transcendental conjugal love is the submissive and dear friend of Krishna, who is more charming that a host of cupids. When Krishna is present, the mellow of conjugal love, incites the negative emotions of hatred and jealousy between the two camps of rival gopis in order to please Krishna. When Krishna is absent, these negative emotions are aroused in order to increase the gopis' love for Him.


Once, after Krishna had gone to Mathura, and Radharani was afflicted, feeling great pain because of His absence, She happened to see, reflected in a Salagrama-sila, Krishna, with Herself standing by His side. Thinking the girl next to Krishna to be Candravali, Radharani addressed her: O beautiful Candravali, this suffering Radharani can see how fortunate you are to be repeatedly embraced by Hari. I request you, please take from Krishna's neck on of His now wilted flower-earrings and give them to me with your own hands. In this way you will help keep Me alive for a little longer.


Now the difference between the leaders of the groups of sakhis, personal friends of the heroine, and the other groups of sakhis will be described.


The intimate friends of the heroine are exactly like her in all respects. The other friends of the heroine are a little different from her in some ways.


The neutrals are only slightly like the heroine, whereas the rivals and enemies possess natures radically different from that of the heroine.


Because of their different, contradictory natures, the rival groups of gopis are not pleased with each other. They become bitter enemies, unable to tolerate each other.


Radharani to Vrnda: This crescent moon of Candravali is passive, neutral, splendid, cool, and dumb. Her moonlight makes the lotus flower of intelligence and cleverness close it's petals. She yearns to meet Krishna. In this pleasant earth who is able to tolerate the sight of this Candravali.


Candravali: Radha! Give up Your name, the name of the sixteenth star. O abode of contrariness, the peaceful, saintly sages are now displeased with You for Your lack of humbleness. Even though Krishna, the crown of all who possess good qualities, and the worshipable prince of Vraja, offers obeisances to You falling down at Your toes, still You will not even lift an eyebrow to acknowledge His presence.


To the extent that the gopis have similar natures they are friends, and to the extent their natures are different, they are enemies.


No rival or friend has love of Krishna, or any virtue or opulence even slightly equal to what Radharani possesses.


The leaders of the groups of sakhis all possess a similar very exalted nature. It is very difficult for anyone to attain a status like theirs.


If, because of a happy accident, friendship may be established among certain gopis, in the same way, according to their own nature, enmity and rivalry may also be established among them.




Chapter 10

That which stimulates ecstatic love




That which stimulates ecstatic love between Lord Krishna and His beloved gopis are: 1. transcendental qualities: 2. names; 3. pastimes; 4. ornaments: 5. things in relation to the object of love; and 6. things that have no relation to the object of love.


The transcendental qualities are divided into three broad groups: 1. the qualities of the mind and intelligence; 2. qualities of speech; and 3. qualities of the body.


Transcendental qualities of the mind and intelligence: 1. gratefulness; 2. tolerance and patience; and 3. compassion.


Krishna is so grateful that He allows Himself to become controlled by one who performs even the slightest service. He is so forgiving and tolerant that He smiles patiently even if the greatest unforgivable offense is committed to Him. He is so compassionate that His heart becomes tormented if He sees others suffering even slightly. When I see this Hari, my heart thirsts to be with Him.


Qualities of speech: The first feature of these speeches is that they delight the ear.


Hiding behind a creeper, Radharani eagerly eavesdropped on a conversation between Krishna and His friend Subala. Afterwards Visakha asked Radharani why She was so eager to hear Krishna's words. She said: My friend, the nectar of Madhava's words is filled with an unprecedented sweetness that enchants the ears. I am not satisfied to have once sipped that nectar but I yearn to drink it again and again.


Qualities of body: 1. youthfulness; 2. rupa; 3. levanya; 4. saundarya; 5. abirupata; 6. sweetness; and 7. delicateness.


Yuth is divided into the following four parts: 1. vayah-sandhi; 2. navya; 3. vyakta; 4. purna.


Previously in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu these qualities have been described in relation to Kesava. In the following portions of the present book these same qualities will be described as they apply to Krishna's beloved gopis.


The junction of childhood and youth: A gopi-messenger to Radharani: Dark black without the slightest trace of brown, the hairs on Krishna's chest have become letters written in King Cupid's royal edict. The two restless saphara fish of Krishna's eyes now aspire to churn the waters of fresh youthfulness.


Nandimukhi to Krishna: O Krishna, O king of Vraja, the greedy hunter cupid, clutching his five arrows has climbed the mountain summit of Your sidelong glance, greedy to capture the does of the gopis' eyes. Seeing this hunter in Vrndavana forest, the frightened does of the gopis' eyes have now become filled with tears.


Seeing Radharani from a distance, Krishna said to Subala: The young king of youthfulness is now entering his kingdom in Radharani's transcendental body. Understanding the king's greatness, Radharani's beautiful hips greet him with the tinkling sounds of a sash of bells. Fearing it's destruction at his hand, Radharani's waist girds itself with three folds of skin. The two ripe fruits of Radharani's breasts offer themselves as a suitable gift to the young king.


Visakha jokes to Radharani: The bumble-bee of Your sidelong glances now desires to land on the blue lotus flower of Your eyes, the young swan of Your heart now searching for the tender lotus sprout of Your shyness, and a flood of the honey of joking words now rises on the lotus flowers of Your mouth. O beautiful Radharani, I think You are now preparing a great festival of happiness for the pleasure of Madhava.


The age when a girl's breasts begin to sprout, when her eyes become a little restless, she smiles mildly, and the sentiment of amorous love begins to manifest within her, is called the beginnings of youth.


Vrinda to Radharani: Your breasts are now a little raised, Your words a little crooked, Your eyes a little restless, Your hips a little firm, and Your waist a little slender. The romavali line of hairs between Your navel and breasts is now becoming a little manifest. O beautiful-faced girl, Your fresh youthfulness is now perfectly suitable to engage in the service of Hari.


After entrusting her with a message for Krishna, an older, experienced gopi says to her younger sister-in-law: My child, as you wander about searching for Lord Krishna, you restlessly cast a host of glances on the path trod by the surabhi cows, and you are agitated by Krishna's bodily aroma carried in the breeze. The fire of love for Krishna is just now becoming ignited in your heart, and at this stage it is still filled with smoke.


In the stage of vyaktam a girl's breasts become clearly manifest, three charming folds of skin appear on her waist, and all the limbs of her body are filled with luster.


Nandimukhi to Indravali: Indravali, your youthful beauty has made you appear like a lake filled with nectar. Your breasts are like two cakravaka birds in that lake, your eyes are like two saphara fish, and the three folds of skin at your waist are like the waves on the water's surface.


Syama to Radharani: O girl with very beautiful teeth, You now wear a pearl-necklace of scratch-marks, and Your lotus flower garland now lies scattered throughout these forest groves. O doe-eyed Radharani, how were You able to bind with a glance the handsome lion of hari, who is like an ocean of chivalrous power, and lead Him into the cage of Your breasts?


Purna: In this stage a girl's hips become broad, her waist slender, her breasts large, and her thighs like the trunks of plantain trees. All her limbs are very lustrous and beautiful.


Vrnda to Lilavati: Your two eyes check the waves of beauty emanating from the playful saphara fish, the beauty of your abdomen eclipses the charming sweetness of the moon, and your completely sprouted breasts bewilder the beholder into thinking them actually large waterpots. O Lilavati, your youthful beauty is quite unprecedented.


Once, as Candravali was lamenting the good fortune of Radharani, Padma comforted her in this way: What rival young gopi is not afraid of the beauty of your face? What gopi does not become stunned by seeing the showers from the raincloud of your love for Krishna? What girl in Vraja has not become your student in the various arts? O Candravali, expert at relishing the transcendental mellows, you are the reigning queen of the kingdom of this forest grove of Vrndavana.


Of all the beautiful young girls of Vraja, some are especially beautiful.


When a girl's beauty is so great that her unornamented limbs appear as if decorated with various ornaments, such beauty is called rupam.


Vrnda to Lalita: O Lalita, seeing how beautiful Radharani is, even though simply dressed without any ornaments. Padma becomes embarrassed and considers all her elaborate efforts to decorate herself with ornaments to be a useless waste of time.


Krishna to Radharani: Your curling locks of hair make these tilaka decorations drawn in musk useless and redundant. Your eyes are so beautiful that they make the two lotus flowers on Your ears wilt by comparison. The waves of the beauty of Your splendid smile has crushed Your necklace into dust. O Radharani what is the use of You wearing all these decorations. You are already splendidly decorated by the beauty of Your limbs. These other decorations are simply a useless waste of time.


When a girl's limbs appear like the central gem in a pearl necklace, her beauty is called lavanyam.


Krishna to Radharani: O doe-eyed Radharani, the beautiful luster of Your limbs mocks the splendor of jeweled mirrors. Even though Lord Brahma searched the entire universe, he could not find anything as beautiful as You.


Once, as Radharani was enjoying pastimes with Krishna, Visakha addressed Her: My friend, listen, I shall now whisper something in Your ear. Please do not force the moon of Your face to become so pale. Rest it against Krishna. Allow it to be reflected in the sapphire mirror of His chest. No other doe-eyed gopi is reflected there.


When each limb and organ is perfectly proportioned in relation to the whole body, this is called saundaryam beauty.


Krishna says to Radharani: your face is as beautiful as the full moon, Your chest is splendidly decorated with beautiful large breasts, Your arms are nicely connected to Your shoulders, Your waist is the size of my hand, Your hips are broad, and Your gently tapering thighs are very lovely. O Radharani, no other thing is as beautiful as Your charming transcendental form.


When an object assumes the beauty of another object nearby, that borrowed beauty is called abhurupata by the wise.


Pointing to a distant place where Krishna was playing the flute, Visakha said to Radharani: As it touches His splendid teeth, Krishna's flute looks like a crystal wand. where it touches His red lotus palm it looks like a ruby stick, and where it touches His blue lotus cheek it looks like sapphire. Look! In this way Krishna's flute looks like these three different jewels.


Krishna to Radharani: O Radharani, when it rests against Your large waterpotlike breasts, this white lotus bud appears like a golden campaka flower. When You hold it in Your beautiful palm decorated with red sindura, it appears like a red kokanada lotus, and when it is placed in your curling locks of hair it at once appears like a blue indivara lotus flower. In this way this white lotus bud, the friend of the bumble-bees, assumes the appearance of these three different flowers.


Bodily beauty so great that it cannot be described is called madhuryam.


Visakha to Radharani: The chest of Krishna, the enemy of Bakasura, eclipses the splendor of the dark rain clouds, His graceful gestures steal away the eyes, and His ever-fresh sweetness makes pious girls falter in their vow of chastity.


When one cannot bear the touch of even the softest object, that is called mardavam. Mardavam is of three kinds: 1. greatest; 2. intermediate; and 3. least.


Rupa-manjari to Rati-manjari: Radharani slept last night on a bed of very fresh jasmine flowers. Although not a single flower was even slightly wilted, Her delicate transcendental body became bruised by lying on that bed.


Lalita to Dhanistha: Dhanistha, your large full breasts have become bruised by the touch of your fine silk garments. Friend, your irritated body appears now to be anointed with red sandal paste. This is very astonishing.


The delightful, fragrant lotus flower of Padma's face is decorated with the bumble-bees of her black, curling locks of hair. That lotus flower face is so delicate that if, for even a moment, it is exposed to the faintest sunlight, it at once becomes red with sunburn.


Vrnda to Krishna: Then I said to Radharani, O golden-complexioned friend, look at this happy Krishnasara stage surrounded by these does on the Yamuna's shore. When beautiful Radharani heard Your name in this way She at once became flooded with amorous passion.


Pastimes may be divided into two kinds: 1. anubhava; and 2. lila. Anubhava pastimes will be described in the future. Now the lila pastimes will be described.


The lila pastimes included: 1. charming pastimes; 2. tandava dancing; 3. playing the flute; 4. milking the surabhi cows; 5. lifting Govardhana Hill; 6. calling the surabhi cows; and 7. walking.


The rasa-dance and playing games with a ball are prominent among the caru-vikrida pastimes.


Syama to Radharani: O playful Radharani, when the demigoddesses from the heavenly planets see lotus-eyed Krishna enjoying charming pastimes in the circle of the rasa-dance, they become overwhelmed by waves of amorous passion. Hiding behind a network of creepers, Radharani and the gopis watched as Krishna played ball-games with His friends. Radharani then addressed the gopi: Appearing like a moving braid of hair, Mukunda tosses the red ball in the air and then swiftly pursues it. As His large eyes gracefully dance about, following the movements of the ball, Krishna brings us a great festival of transcendental happiness.


Hiding behind a jungle of creeper, Radharani commented to the gopis as She observed Krishna dancing with His cowherd friends: As Hari dances in the rhythm carcari with His friends on the Yamuna's shore, His earrings and peacock-feather swaying to-and-fro, He brings Me great delight.


Lalita to Radharani: O most beautiful friend, please accept the personality of bliss. the borders of His eyes roam from side to side, and His eyebrows move slowly like bumble-bees on His lotuslike face. Standing with His right foot placed below the knee of His left leg, the middle of His body curved in three places, and His neck gracefully tilted to the side, He takes His flute to His pursed lips and moves His fingers upon it here and there.


Visakha, showing where Krishna was milking the cows, said to Radharani: Resting on half His feet, grasping he udder between His thumb and finger, spraying Himself with two or three stray drops, and making a charming stream of milk pour into the pail balanced between His arched knees, Damodara milks the surabhi cow.


Radharani to Visakha: Placing His right hand on His hip, and raising His right; smiling Hari lifts Mount Mandara's brother Govardhana Hill as if it had become a ball. As He lifts the hill the restless bumble-bee of His sidelong glance makes the lotus flower of my heart tremble.


Radharani to Lalita: To the surabhi cows who have strayed far away Krishna calls: O Pisangi! O Manikastani! O Pranatasrngi! O Pingeksana! O Mrdangamukhi! O Dhumala! O Sabali! O Hamsi! O Vamsi-priya! By this Krishna has now stolen away My heart.




Radharani to Lalita: As Krishna walks the great bolts of His arms slowly and happily swing back and forth with great charm, and His peacock feather crown also moves slightly. His playful motions stun the pride of the leaders of the elephants in the heavenly planets. O My friend, the sweetness of Madhava's graceful movement makes Me mad with happiness.


Of mandanam there are four kinds: 1. garments; 2. ornaments; 3. garlands and necklaces; and 4. ointments and cosmetics.


Radharani to Lalita: O beautiful eyebrowed Lalita, do you not see on lotus-eyed Krishna's hips a beautiful garment as splendid as the sunlight? This garment now covers the peaceful composure in My heart.


Krishna to Radharani: All glories to Your wonderful, ruby-red silk sari. O Radharani, this sari has doubled the passionate love I bear for You in My heart.


Radharani to Lalita: why has the kadamba flower in hari's hair become cupid's weapon and attacked Me? Why has Lord Krishna's peacock-feather crown become cupid himself and wounded My heart?


Describing His meeting with Lalita on the pathway, Krishna says to Subala: With her splendid pearl necklace, the pair of earrings swinging at her cheeks, and her glistening golden armlets, this Lalita enchants and delights Me.


Krishna to Subala: In Her hair that seems to be a cluster of moving bubble-bees, Radharani wears a nice garland. On her cheeks are the beautiful signs of her having chewed betel-nuts, and on He limbs is the fragrance of various perfumes. These decorations of beautiful-eyed Radharani bring great delight to My eyes.


A gopi to Krishna: O Damodara, why do the sandalwood paste and other fragrant substances anointing Your body arouse such amorous passion in the gopis? Why does Your garland fill them with ecstatic love for You?


Things directly touching the beloved: 1. the sound of the flute; 2. the sound of the buffalo-horn bugle; 3. singing; 4. sweet fragrance; 5. the tinkling sounds of ornaments; 6. footprints; 7. the sound of the lute and other musical instruments; 8. expert artistic craftsmanship.


Vrnda to Radharani and Her friends: the sweet sound of Krishna's flute makes the trees and creepers blossom with happiness. That flute sound is thunder that drowns out the kuhu kuhu chanting of the cuckoos at sunset. That flute sound is a playful breeze that fans the flames of ardent love in the moon-faced gopis. That flute sound is a thunderbolt that breaks to pieces the mountain of Radharani's peaceful composure.


As Madhava wanders in this pavilion of madhavi creepers filled with buzzing bees He expertly plays on His flute music very pleasing to the ear. That flute is like a fishhook to catch the fish of the gopis' hearts.


Of all these, the nectar flute music from the moon of Krishna's mouth is said to be the best.


Radharani addresses Krishna's buffalo-horn bugle: Because Krishna's flute has taken birth in a family of pious bamboos, she is very straight, and when she drinks the nectar of the moon of Krishna's mouth, she plays the fifth note with great virtuosity. O buffalo-horn bugle, you have many crooked curves and you are as black as coal. Even though you also drink the nectar of Krishna's lips, the sound you make brings us great pain.


Once, when Radharani had quarreled with Krishna, She angrily said to Lalita: By raining the nectar of this singing, the black cloud of Krishna is now extinguishing the blazing fire of My jealous anger. O My friend, do not become angry with Me. Be kind to Me. Blow the breeze of your charm on this Krishna-cloud and send Him far away from here.


Once, as Radharani was going to the rendezvous in the forest, She said to Lalita: Whose bodily fragrance is now causing the hairs on the creeper of My body to stand up like fresh flower buds? I think Madhava must have been here. This sweet fragrance clearly announces His presence.


Krishna: A very sweet fragrance has suddenly made My heart mad with happiness. Radharani, whose teeth are as beautiful as pomegranate seeds must be nearby, collecting flowers at the base of Govardhana Hill.


Vrnda to Krishna: Radharani walked along the Yamuna's shore as gracefully as a swan. Hearing the cooing of swans nearby, and thinking this was the sound of your tinkling ankle-bells, She began to tremble. She forgot the waterpot on Her head. It at once slipped and fell to the ground.


Krishna: Moving through the air in waves of sweetness, the tinkling sounds of Radharani's ankle-bells silences the cooing of the sarasa birds maddened with amorous passion. That tinkling sound fills My heart with a host of ecstasies.


Radharani: Filled with flower buds bearing the marks of Krishna's fingernails, and decorated with Krishna's footprints displaying the marks of the flag, thunderbolt, elephant-rod, and lotus, these forest of Vrndavana make My heart tremble with transcendental happiness.


Krishna praises Syama's lute-playing: Milking the Vedas of their beauty in order to create the introductory stanza of cupid's romantic drama, Syama's glorious lute-music brings Me great joy.


Radharani: With great artistry Hari has strung this beautiful flower garland on a silken string. This garland must be cupid's quiver filled with sharpened arrows to make My heart tremble in this way.




Things near the beloved: 1. remnants of flowers and other things offered to the beloved; 2. peacock feathers; 3. necklaces of gunja; 4. mineral pigments from the hills and mountains; 5. the herd of surabhi cows; 6. the stick; 7. flute; 8. buffalo-horn bugle; 9. glances of the beloved; 10. dust raised by the cows; 11. Vrndavana forest; 12. the residents of Vrndavana forest; 13. govardhana Hill; 14. the Yamuna River; 15. the rasa-dance arena and other places of Krishna's pastimes.


Radharani to Visakha: The sandalwood paste from Krishna's body is a precious jewel that attracts the gopis. The name of Krishna, the master of the flute, is a mantra that bewitches the gopis. The remnants of Krishna's flower garland is a powerful portion that enchants the gopis'[ heart. Who will not agree that these three things possess inconceivably great power?


One time, in the Nava-Vrndavana section of Dvarka, Candravali said to Radharani: O slender-waisted girl, now that You are staring with wide-open eyes at Krishna's splendid golden dhoti, why has your body become covered with upright hairs like blossoming kadamba flowers, and why have Your eyes become filled with tears that seem like broken strands of crystal gems?


Noticing Radharani's symptoms of ecstatic love for Krishna, Mukhara says to Paurnamasi: When She sees a peacock feather, She begins to tremble, and when She sees a gunja berry, She cries with tears in Her eyes. I do not know what new thing has entered this girl's heart to make Her dance in this strange and wonderful way?


Seeing the mineral pigments of Govardhana Hill, Radharani said: So lovely that they eclipse the charm of the fireflies' light, these mineral pigments are known to beautify the transcendental body of Krishna, the Prince of the cowherds. These pigments make Me passionately thirst to see Him.


After Krishna had gone to Mathura, Padma wrote to Him the following letter: When Candravali sees the surabhi cows in the barn at sunset, their faces marked with yearning to see You, and their mooing lamenting Your absence, her heart becomes filled with anxiety and she becomes stunned. O king of the Yadavas, in these circumstances, how will she be able to remain alive.?


After Krishna had gone to Mathura, a gopi lamented His absence in the following words to her friend: As He delighted us with pastimes on Govardhana Hill, Krishna leaned on this stick, pushing it against the ground and resting His hand and chin upon it. Now that He is gone the sight of this stick violently thrashes my heart.


After Krishna had gone to Mathura, Lalita sent Him the following message: Because Your flute contains the nectar of Your lips, I placed it against Radharani's heart to counteract the unbearable poison of separation from You that burns there. Instead of counteracting the poison, that flute increased it by hundreds of times. O king of the Yadavas, what overwhelming passion does not now strike Radharani's heart?


After visiting the resident of Vrndavana, Uddhava returned to Mathura, and gave Krishna the following report: Now whenever it appears before their lotus eyes, Your curling, dust-spotted buffalo-horn bugle violently devours the vraja-gopis.


Rupa-manjari to her friend: One day as Radharani was drawing dolphins in musk on Visakha's breasts, She happened to glimpse Subala nearby. The sight of Subala reminded her of Krishna. She became agitated with love, the hairs of Her body stood up in ecstasy, and She proceeded to draw on Visakha's breasts a picture of Krishna wearing a garland of forest flowers.


Krishna to Madhumangala: As I was busy killing the demons and protecting My friends and relatives, the fire of separation from Radharani remained somewhat subdued and peaceful, ut now that I see Lalita's intense love for Her, that fire has suddenly become a great conflagration.


Padma to Candravali: My friend, since morning you have been stringing these sumanah flowers. Why do you not have a vaijayanti garland by now? O charming girl, it is already evening, for the thick dust-cloud raised by the surabhi cows has now entered the sky, to the great delight of the peacocks of the gopis' eyes.


Radharani: My friend, I employ newer and newer ropes of hope to keep My life within this body. How many good opportunities have I missed because I am so timid? These blossoming trees in Vrndavana forest remind Me of many pastimes with Krishna. In this way they are violently wounding My heart?


The living entities who have taken shelter of Vrndavana forest are enumerated in the following list: 1. birds; 2. bumble-bees; 3. deer; 4. groves of trees; 5. creepers; 6. tulasi-devi; 7. karnikara flowers; 8. kadamba and other flower.


Paurnamasi to Krishna: Seeing Your glistening peacock-feather crown, the peacocks think You are a blue rain-cloud, and they begin to dance with jubilant abandon. Observing this wild dancing, what human resident of Vraja would not become agitated with love for You?


Afflicted by Krishna's absence, Radharani spoke the following words: Although these bumble-bees are sweetly buzzing the fifth note, just as if they were gently playing a lute, still, their humming sounds to Me just like the cracking of thunderbolts. Alas, who will not become the enemy of one checkmated by destiny?


Radharani, unhappy because of her separation from Krishna, addresses the does: O does, I can see that you appear to be stunned, and the grass is falling, half-eaten from your mouths. Is this because charming Krishna has stolen your heart? Is it because you h ave met the wandering guest of Krishna's sidelong glance, or because you have heard the sweet music of His flute?





Uddhava reads to Radharani the message of Krishna: O red-lipped Radharani now withering away with grief, Nanda's son Krishna, trembling with love for You, humble bows before You and begs from You the following request: Please do not ever look at the groves of madhavi creepers that directly witnessed Our happy loving pastimes on Govardhana Hill.

Searching for Krishna in the forest, Radharani appealed to the pants and creepers in the following words: O Tulasi, you are very beautiful, O jasmine creeper, you are filled with charming blossoms, O land-growing lotus flower, you appear very splendid surrounded by these bumble-bees, O my friends, please quickly tell Me where is Nanda's son Krishna, the king of cheaters?


Abandoned by Krishna in the nava-Vrndavana section of Dvarka, Radharani laments: Krishna, who wears a peacock-feather crown left the arena of the rasa dance with Me. He decorated My hair with karnikara flowers, and then He disappeared O My friend, now the sight of these karnikara flowers blooming on the Yamuna's shore makes Me burn with pain.


Some time after Krishna had left for Mathura, a gopi lamented: O my friend, at the gateway of Vraja village, Krishna, whose eyes are like hundred-petalled lotus flowers, planted this kadamba tree when it was a baby sapling with only two leaves. Now the sight of that same kadamba tree in full bloom violently attacks the gopis and causes them great pain.


Radharani, suffering from Krishna's absence, appeals to Govardhana Hill: O Govardhana, you shine very splendidly in this land of gokula, with your many lofty peaks thrusting into the sky, and even touching the planets of the demigods. O Govardhana, please look around in all directions, and tell Me where Krishna, the jewel of the cowherd boys, is now enjoying His pastimes.


One of Radharani's friends: Now that the gopis say Krishna is at the gate about to go to Mathura, the Yamuna's waters are again burning with the poison of Kaliya-naga.


After visiting Vrndavana, Uddhava reported to Krishna: O king of the Yadavas, when the beautiful doe-eyed gopis reverentially glance out from Vraja village, the place known as Vamsivata at once carries the rasa-dance arena from a great distance and places it in the troubled courtyard of their hearts. That rasa-dance arena then proceeds to rob the gopis of their senses and cruelly toy with their lives.


Neutral parties: prominent among these are: 1. the moonlight; 2. clouds; 3. lightning; 4. springtime; 5. autumn; 6. the nectarean full-moon; 7. the fragrant breeze; and 8. the birds.


Lalita and her friends entered a grove of creepers so thick that even the moonlight could not penetrate it. Somehow a single moonbeam fell from a cakora bird's beak into this grove. When Lalita saw that moonbeam she at once fainted.




Radharani once mistook Govardhana Hill, a cloud and a lightning flash for Krishna wearing a peacock feather and yellow garments. Lalita then said to Her: Where are the yellow garments You mentioned? Where is the peacock feather? Where is Krishna, the enemy of Kamsa? O eager friend blinded by passion, please do not fall into illusion in this way. Look! What You see is actually a lightning flash, cloud, and rainbow above tall Govardhana Hill.


Vrnda to Nandimukhi: During the monsoon season a certain gopi embraced Madhava When a lightning flash illuminated the beauty of His black Form. She became embarrassed and  tightly embraced Krishna as a lightning flash clings to a rain-cloud.


Afflicted by Krishna's absence, and annoyed by the presence of the pleasant spring season, a certain gopi said to her friend: These bees buzzing around the jasmine flowers in Vrndavana forest are very annoying and inconsiderate. My friend, why this wretched, unintelligent spring season want to come to this world now?


A gopi, afflicted by Krishna's absence, said to her friend: Filled with the charming talking of the kalahamsa swans, and bringing an intense sweetness to this Vrndavana forest, this autumn season is like a messenger sent by Hari to rob my peace of mind.


Once Radharani became angry with Krishna and refused to see Him. Later, the sight of the full moon, reminded Her of Krishna and made Her have a change of heart. At that time Visakha said to Her: This nectarean full moon has no power to remove the darkness from Vrndavana forest. O full-moon faced Radharani, how is it then able to remove the dankness of jealous anger from within the cave of Your heart?


Anguished by Krishna's absence, Radharani addressed the fragrant breeze: O southern breeze filled with the fragrance of the sandalwood forest, O bringer of amorous happiness, please give up your contrariness and be kind to Me. O breath of the universe, please place Madhava before Me and make Me breathless.


Krishna to Radharani: My charming beloved, now that the clouds have come,the swans of the beautiful-eyebrowed gopis have angrily left. At this moment only the playful cataka birds remain in this kadamba forest.


Rupa-manjari to her friend: blossoming with youthful beauty, Radharani became frightened when She saw Krishna, because Her elderly relatives were nearby. Only after Lalita encouraged Her with friendship and support, did Radharani become bold enough to glance at Krishna from the corners of Her restless eyes.




Chapter 11

Anubhava ecstasy



Those learned in the science of bhakti divided the anubhava into three main groups: 1. alankara (ornaments); 2. udbhasvara; 3. vacika.


Twenty astonishing alankaras (ornaments) are manifested in the youthful lover because of the great intensity of love. They are manifested on the bodily limbs, and seven are manifested spontaneously, without any effort.


Bhava: When amorous love is manifested for the first time in the beginning of youth in the heart, it is called rati or bhava. In this stage of bhava the transformation of spiritual ecstatic emotions are completely absent.


When, even though the causes of material emotional transformation are present, the heart remains unchanged, this state is called: pure goodness or bhava. In this state of bhava the original emotional spiritual emotional transformation of love for Krishna is manifested in seed-form.


When, in the flower-filled Khandava forest in your father's pasture-land you formerly saw Mukunda, your heart did not tremble, and you did not cry in ecstasy. O my friend, now that you see the same Krishna happily dancing in Vrndavana, why do your eyes move restlessly to and fro, and why have your ears transformed from white kumuda lotus flowers to blue indivara lotuses.


Hava: That stage where there is a slight manifestation of ecstatic love, where the neck becomes tilted, and the eyebrows, eyes, and other bodily features blossom with happiness, is called hava.


Padma to Radharani: O golden-complexioned Radharani, now that springtime, the friend of the cuckoos, has made the sumanah flowers blossom on the Yamuna's shore, the creepers of your eyebrows has begun to gently dance, and the bumble-bee of Your eyes, resting now on the flower-bud above Your tilted, stiffened neck, is now moving to and fro between the two creepers of Your ears.


O golden-complexioned Radharani, now that Madhava, the friend of the beautiful gopis brings them transcendental pleasure on the shore of the Yamuna River, the creeper of Your eyebrows has begun to gently dance, and the bumble-bee of Your eyes, resting on the flower-bud above Your tilted, stiffened neck, is moving to and fro between the two creepers of Your ears.


Hela: after hava is the stage hela, the harbinger of amorous pastimes.


Visakha to Radharani: As you listen to the sound of Krishna's flute, Your breasts throb and heave with many sighs, Your eyes have become crooked, Your cheeks blossom with happiness, Your belt has slipped, and Your garments are drowned in perspiration. O my friend, do not become careless. Your elderly relatives are now approaching on Your left.


Sobha: In the state called sobha the body is decorated with various symptoms of conjugal enjoyment. Krishna to Subala: Grasping a kadamba branch with the budding reddish twigs of her fingers, Visakha left the cottage of creepers at daybreak. Her eyes were rolling and her partly dishevelled hair moved to and fro on her shoulders. This Visakha is now residing inside My heart, and she will never leave it.


Kanti: When beauty increases amorous desire, this stage is called kanti.


Krishna to Subala: Charming Radharani is filled with amorous playfulness, and Her limbs are marked with rising youthful beauty. This Radharani enters My heart and drives Me mad with love for Her.


Dipti: If beauty is greatly increased by youthfulness, amorous enjoyment, place, time, various qualities or other things, that condition of increased beauty is called dipti.


Rupa-manjari to a friend: Standing in the grove by the Yamuna's shore wonderfully decorated by the moonlight, Her beautiful eyes gracefully closed, Her perspiration carried away by the gentle Malayan breeze, and the splendid necklace broken on Her beautiful breasts, youthful Radharani aroused amorous desires within the heart of Hari.


Madhuryam: When all activities are naturally charming and graceful, this is called madhuryam.


Rati-manjari: Slightly tilting her head, fatigued and indolent from the rasa-dance, and pressing her bent foot against the ground, this moon-faced gopi jubilantly places her right hand on Krishna's shoulder and her left hand on His hip.


Pragalbhata: Complete lack of shyness in the course of amorous pastimes is called pragalbhata by the wise.


Vrnda: Expertly enjoying amorous pastime, Radharani bites Krishna with Her teeth and scratches Him with Her nails, as if She has become His enemy. These activities bring Krishna incomparable pleasure.


When one is always humble in all situations, this quality is called audaryam by the wise.


Krishna to Madhumangala: Sincerity has entered the corners of Candravali's eyes, many humble prayers reside in her words, and she is very respectful to Me. Her kind politeness has expertly checked the anger in My heart.


After Krishna had gone to Mathura, anguished Radharani spoke the following words: Even though Hari is naturally grateful, even though His heart is pure, He does not remember this land of Gokula. I think His forgetfulness is the bad fruit of the tree of the sins I performed in some previous birth.


When the mind is very steady, this is called dhairyam.


Radharani to NavaVrnda: O My friend, even though He may become indifferent, harsh, or neglectful for thousands of years, never, even after countless births, shall My heart become bewildered and give up the loving service of My dear most beloved Syamasundara.


Lila is the imitation of the charming appearance, activities, or other things of the beloved.


Maddened by Krishna's absence, the gopis began to imitate His pastimes: Another gopi said: Wicked Kaliya, stand still! I am Krishna. She raised her arms and imitated the priceless treasure of Krishna's pastimes.


Rati-manjari describing Radharani's madness in the anguish of separation from Krishna: Radharani anointed Her body with black musk to imitate Krishna's dark complexion. She dressed in yellow silk garments, wore a garland of flowers, placed a charming peacock feather in Her braided hair, and played a bamboo flute, tilting it to touch Her shoulder. May this Radharani, who thus imitated the appearance of Krishna, protect us.


The graceful gestures of the face, eyes, and other features while walking, sitting, standing, and enjoying various pastimes with the beloved, is called vilasa.


Vira to Radharani: O Radharani with the beautiful teeth, when Krishna stands before You, why do You hide Your smile, pretending to move the pearl decorating the tip of Your nose? From behind that smile the slightly visible splendor of Your charming teeth is now eclipsing the sweetness of the nectar moonlight.


Vrnda to Radharani: When You see Krishna, the youthful Prince of the cowherds, sitting in the pastime-cottage near the kadamba tree, You become full of happiness, and the beautiful waves of the milk ocean of Your glances make the dark Yamuna River as white as the Ganges.


Vicchitti is beautifying the body with various ornaments.


Vrnda to Nandimukhi: By placing on Her ears red mango-petal earrings that move in the breeze and delight Mukunda's heart, Radharani has made the lotus flower of Her face blossom with happiness.


Vaisampayana Rasi: Decorated with a garland of amalaki petals around His neck and a peacock feather moving in the breeze, Krishna is splendidly handsome.


Some authorities define vicchitti in the following way: Angry at her lover's offenses, a beautiful heroine may have her friends remove all her ornaments.


Jealous and angry Radharani addresses Visakha: remove this tight ring. Throw these two armlets far away. Untie this hard jewel necklace. O My charming friend, these jewelled ornaments are poisoned by the powerful glance of the black snake known as Krishna. I will not allow them to remain and increase My thirst to see Him again.


Hastily preparing to meet her lover, the bewildered heroine may place the necklace, flower-garland and other ornaments in the wrong places.


Lalita to Radharani: You have placed the sapphire necklace in Your braided hair, the lotus flower crown on Your waterpot-like breasts, mascara on Your arms and legs, and musk perfume around Your eyes. In great haste  to meet Krishna, the enemy of Kamsa, You have forgotten everything.


Some of the gopis wanted to decorate their faces with cosmetic ointments and to dress themselves very nicely before going to Krishna, but unfortunately they could not finish their cosmetic decorations nor put on their dresses in the right way because of their anxiety to meet Krishna immediately. Their faces were decorated hurriedly and were haphazardly finished; some even put the lower part of their dresses on the upper part of their bodies and the upper part on the lower part.


Some other authorities define vibhrama in the following way: When, out of contrariness,the heroine becomes displeased with her lover Krishna, even though He is very submissive and eager to serve her.


Radharani to Krishna: O Govinda, why ask to braid My hair? It is not worth the trouble. I like it unbraided. Do not wipe the perspiration from My face. It pleases Me. Do not garland My head with these jasmine flowers. They are so heavy they give Me a headache.


Pride, ambition, weeping, smiling, envy, fear and anger are the seven ecstatic loving symptoms manifest by a jubilant shrinking away, and these symptoms are called kila-kincita-bhava.


Krishna to Subala: First I made great happiness appear on the pathway of the gopis' eyes, and then I forcibly placed My hands on Radharani's budding breasts. She responded by knitting Her eyebrows. The hairs of Her body stood up in ecstasy, and Her splendidly beautiful face simultaneously smiled and cried. In My heart I remember Radharani in this way.


May the sight of Radharani's kila-kincita ecstasy, which is like a bouquet, bring good fortune to all. When Krishna blocked Radharani's way to the dana-ghati, there was laughter within Her heart, Her eyes grew bright, and fresh tears flowed from Her eyes, reddening them. Due to Her sweet relationship with Krishna, Her eyes were enthusiastic, and when Her crying subsided, She appeared even more beautiful.


When the heroine remembers or hears about her lover Krishna, love for Him is aroused in her heart, and she hankers for His association.


Vrnda to Krishna: O Krishna, who is dressed in yellow garments, when Pali asked that she not be told anything that would make her unhappy, then the gopis eloquently described Your glories. As Pali listened, the lotus flower of her face blossomed with happiness her lips became red like bimba fruits, and the hairs of her body stood up, making her appear like a beautiful, blossoming kadamba tree.


When the border of her sari and the cloth veiling her face are caught, she externally appears offended and angry, but within her heart she is very happy.


Radharani to Krishna: O Krishna, please do not be so free with Your hands. Even though My braids are becoming loosened and My garments are slipping, Your sole reply is laughter. O merciless one, what are You madly doing at this unsuitable time? I fall at Your feet and request You: Please leave Me in peace, even if for only a moment.


Krishna to Radharani: Please don't knit Your eyebrows. Don't hit Me with Your hands. Don't block Your face, it's cheeks bristling with signs of ecstasy. O beautiful, sweet Radharani, let the bumble-bee of Krishna enjoy Himself by drinking the honey of Your bandhujiva flower lips.


Even though pleased by Krishna's gift, the heroine may pretend to proudly and angrily dislike it.


Pointing to Syama, Rupa-manjari said to Bakulamala: Look! Peacock-feather-crowned Krishna, entreating her with thousands of sweet words, presents a flower-garland to Syama as her rivals stand nearby. Contrary Syama at first accepts the garland, but, even though her heart is pleased with it, she smells it for a moment, and now she throws it away with contempt.


Syama to Radharani: Krishna, the killer of Aghasura, now stands before You, gazing at Your face, and waiting for a response. O mad girl, You glance at Him with a deeply contemptuous smile, and then ignore Him, putting all Your attention into stringing a garland of forest flowers.


A gopi to Gauri: O friend, now that you angrily disdain Hari's many sweet words, do not waste your time trying to teach something new to your nicely trained female parrot. (The parrot was trained to call out Krishna's names, such as: O Krishna! O Hari! O Govinda! The gopi says here that no matter how hard Gauri tries to prevent the parrot from addressing Krishna in this way, she will remain always unsuccessful.


Playful, enchanting movements of the eyebrows, and graceful, delicate movement of the limbs, are called lalitam.


Krishna: Angrily knitting Her eyebrows at the creepers whose flowers are cupid's arrows, beautiful Radharani happily moves Her two lotus feet first in one, and then in another direction. With Her delicate hand She brushes aside the bumble-bees attracted by Her sweet fragrance. In this way She enjoys pastimes just as if She were the lovely goddess of fortune descended into Vrndavana forest.


When shyness, anger, and jealousy are not openly expressed in words, but displayed only by action, this is known as vikrtam by the wise.


Once Krishna greeted Radharani and began to speak to her. Out of shyness She did not respond. Later Krishna asked the reason for this from His friend Subala, who replied: O Mukunda, listen, and the answer to Your question will come from my mouth. Beautiful Radharani greeted You, but not with words. She greeted You with the brilliant luster of Her cheeks and with the hairs of Her body standing up in ecstasy.


Visakha to Lalita: I jokingly said to Radharani: You are a pious, chaste girl, born in a respectable family. It is not proper for You to look at another man. If You see a man other than Your husband, You should turn Your face away from Him. Radharani took these words seriously, and when Hari glanced at Her, even though She yearned to gaze at Him, She turned Her merciful glance from Him and placed it upon me instead.


Krishna to Uddhava: Even though I expressed My intense attachment for her, angry, proud Satya ignored Me as she decorated herself, not breaking the silence, although she actually yearned to speak. She hid from Me, partly covering her face with the lid of the sapphire jewelry-case. This action reminded Me of the beautiful moon hiding during an eclipse.


Krishna to Subal: When I met Radharani on the Yamuna's shore, I demanded of Her: Thief, return the flute You stole from Me! Radharani did not reply, but simply stared at Me with angry eyes and knitted eyebrows.


In this way I have described the twenty alankaras (ornaments of ecstatic love felt by the gopis) for Krishna, and manifested on their limbs and hearts. Most scholars mention these twenty, although some others mention other kinds of alankaras also. Because Bharata Muni has mentioned only these twenty, I shall here describe only two of the other alankaras, which both increase the sweetness of the Lord's pastimes.


When, although fully understanding the situation, the lover, pretending to be ignorant, asks a question of the beloved, this is called maugdhyam.


Satyabhama to Krishna: O Krishna, who will want the pearl from my bracelet? What kind of creeper will it sprout? Where will it grow, and what kind of fruit will it bear?


Great and unfounded fears in the presence of the beloved are called cakitam.


Crying: Save me! Save me! This frightening creature is heading towards my campaka flower earring! the doe-eyed gopi, frightened of a bumble-bee, earnestly embraced her protector Hari.


Ecstatic symptoms that increase bodily luster are called udbhasvaras by the wise, and included: Loosening of the undergarments; 2. loosening of the bodice; 3. loosening of the braids; 4. crushing the limbs; 5. yawning; 6. expansion of nostrils. and 7 sighing.


Seeing Her enjoy pastimes with Krishna at Gauri-tirtha, Vrnda addressed Radharani: O Radharani, now that You have met Krishna, Your eyes are full of tears of joy that have washed away Your black mascara. You have become so excited that perspiration has washed away the red kunkuma adoring Your breasts. As You gaze at Krishna's chest, You yearn to embrace it. Your undergarment has also become loosened. I think it wishes to become untied altogether.


Krishna jokingly says to Radharani: O Radharani, the love in Your heart is greater than My love. I shall now prove this fact. Your love is so great that it can no longer be content to remain locked up in Your heart. It is now emerging from Your heart, and in My presence it is pushing aside the red bodice that stands in it's way.


Vrnda to Radharani: O golden-complexioned Radharani, Krishna grants liberation to the demons He kills, and therefore it is not at all surprising that Your bound up hair has also attained liberation simply by meeting Him.


Nandimukhi to Vrnda: In this courtyard of Vraja, as this beautiful doe-eyed gopi playfully glances at Krishna, the best of the cowherd boys, is it that she has become crushed by violent waves of amorous desire that her body appears to be devastated in this way?


Krishna to Candravali: Noticing that his flower-arrows had become dull, cupid must have studied the art of the invincible yawning weapon from you. O My chaste friend Candravali, I think he must have violently attacked you with that weapon, and that is the reason you are now yawning in the outskirts of Vraja.


Krishna to Subala: When lotus-eyed Radharani breathes, Her ruby-like nostrils flare wide open, and the pearl on the end of Her nose rocks to and fro as if riding on a swing moving in the breeze. This sight has carried Radharani into My heart.


The wise describe the twelve ecstatic symptoms manifested in speech.


Very affectionate words are called alapa.


The gopis address Krishna: My dear Krishna, where is the woman within the three worlds who cannot be captivated by the rhythms of the sweet songs coming from Your wonderful flute? Who cannot fall down from the path of chastity in this way? Your beauty is the most sublime within the three worlds. Upon seeing Your beauty, even cows, birds, animals and trees in the forest are stunned in jubilation.


Krishna to Radharani: O Radharani, whether You are harsh or gentle to Me, You will always remain My life and soul. Just as the cakora bird takes shelter only of the moonlight, in the same way I take shelter of You. I love You only. You have no rival.


Krishna: My dear young girl, please step into My boat. Radharani: What power do I have to climb tree, I mean boat. Radharani: Why should I want to go to the sun? Krishna: All these words I have used mean boat. Radharani: I know all these words are meant to bring us together. I worship the unconquerable Lord Krishna, who happily smiled as Shrimati Radharani defeated Him in this playful verbal-duel.


Intoxicated by drinking madhu nectar, Radharani stutters: O Hari, the sound of Your flute ute ute churns urns urns the vraja-gopis' heart. Afflicted Lalita ita ita now takes shelter of You and worships ips ips You.


Seeing a tamala tree growing beside bandhuka flowers, lotus flowers, and colony of bees, Radharani, bewildered by intense ecstatic love, thought the combination of these things was Her lover Krishna. At that time Lalita spoke to Her: This Krishna You see is not, not Krishna, but a tamala tree. This flute music is not, not flute music, but the buzzing sounds of a bee-colony. This gunja-necklace is not, not a junga-necklace, but a cluster of bandhuka blowers. These two eyes are not eyes, but a pair of lotus flowers.


One day, during a period when Radharani was angry with Krishna and refused to see Him, the following conversation occurred: Radharani: What girl would not yearn for this spring season (madhava), filled with so many splendid, blossoming forest flowers? Visakha: O Radharani, You actually desire Krishna. Radharani: Never! Never! My dear enemy, I used the word madhava to mean springtime.


Padma addresses a traveller: O traveller, please speak the following riddle to Krishna, the king of Mathura: Where do the phases of the moon hide on the new-moon night? The answer to this riddle is: The phases of the moon hide in the sunlight.


Padma: When she becomes frightened by the sounds of the cuckoos, where does Candravali find shelter? The answer is: Candravali finds shelter in the arms of Krishna.


During a time when Radharani was angry with Him, Krishna tried to appease Her by bowing down to Her lotus feet. When He arose Lalita asked Him: Why did You bow down before Radharani? Neither Krishna nor Radharani said anything,and the silence was finally broken by Vrnda, who said: O Prince of gokula, do not waste Your time with these useless remedies. Lalita has spoken Radharani's thoughts. Lalita is like a vina accompanying Radharani's singing.


Nandimkhi to Paurnamasi: When Syamala heard her elderly relatives say: Some cuckoo must have bitten these two splendid large pomegranates and some bumble-bee must have bitten these two red flowers as he drank their honey she quickly tugged her sari with her hand and covered the teeth-marks on her breasts.


Angry Radharani refused to see Krishna. Tungavidya then spoke to Her: My dear charming, bewildered Radharani, you are filled with the beauty of youth and You are as splendid and restless as a lightning flash. In this grove of Vrndavan filled with the buzzing sounds of host of bees, You have now met Govinda, who is very difficult to meet, and whose handsome form astonishes the three worlds. Enjoy transcendental pastimes with the Krishna, the Master of the goddess of fortune.


Visakha to Krishna: O Krishna, this is my fortunate friend Radha, this is my friend Lalita, and I am Visakha, We three have come here to collect many flowers.


Seeing Krishna kiss her rival Lalita, the gopi Malati spoke the following words ostensibly addressed to a bumble-bee, but actually meant for Krishna's ear: Look at this splendid blossoming malati creeper in Kamyavana forest! Why do you ignore it and prefer to kiss this mediocre tumbi flower? You must be a very unintelligent debauchee bumble-bee. What further can we say.


These are the vacika-anubhavas, Because they increase the sweetness of Krishna's amorous pastimes, they have been described in this book.




Chapter 12

Sattvika ecstasya



Becoming stunned: Krishna to Madhumangala: Radha and five of Her friends are now standing before us. Radha has now dropped Her golden locket. She perspires, trembles, and squints Her eyes. Why has She now become so stunned that She now appears like a motionless wooden doll?


Madhumangala: Frightened by thunder, the firm-breasted vraja-gopi Radharani embraces Hari, and remains stunned and motionless in His arms.


Madhumangala to Krishna: O Mukunda, look at Radharani who now stands motionless before You. As She gazes with unblinking eyes at Your transcendental sweetness, which has no equal in all the three worlds, Her heart has become struck with wonder.


A gopi to her friend: Noticing lotus-eyed Krishna's delay, and considering that He would not come to the rendezvous, Citra became stunned as she waited for Him in the cottage.


Hearing in the middle of the night that Madhava had abandoned her and gone to Gotra-devi, Syamala became stunned. For a moment she became pale and lusterless, and she stared into space without blinking as if she was a demigoddess. (The demigods and demigoddesses do not blink their eyes).


Perspiration: Parasara to Maitreya: When Lord Hari touched the gopi's cheek, His arms became like two clouds of perspiration raining upon the sprouting crops of His bodily hairs standing up in ecstasy.


Lalita to Krishna: O Madhava, Radharani is actually a staff fashioned from candrakanta gems. On the pretext of profusely perspiring, She melts whenever the moon of Your face rises before Her. (The candrakanta stone melts when exposed to moonlight).


Once, as Visakha was enjoying pastimes with Krishna in the forest, she became frightened by rumor that her husband had left home to search for her. Krishna tried to reassure her in the following words: My dear Visakha, please do not tremble with fear, your husband is far away, and the jungle of trees and creepers around this place is impenetrable. Aside from this, your perspiration has completely washed away all evidence of the dolphins I so carefully drew on your cheeks.


Nandimukhi to Paurnamasi: When Pali heard Krishna accidentally addressed her as Syamala, she pretended to meekly ignore it. Nevertheless, the shower of perspiration that moistened her sari testified to her anger.


Hair standing up: When asked about the rasa-dance, Paurnamasi told Gargi: When the demigoddesses in the sky saw Krishna, in a single moment, kiss an entire army of doe-eyed gopis, they became struck with wonder. Their eyes opened wide and the hairs on their bodies stood up.


One gopi carried Krishna through her eyes into her heart. She then closed her eyes and embraced the Lord in her heart as if she was a yogi rapt in meditation. In this way she became flooded with transcendental bliss and the hairs of her body stood erect.


Isvara Puri to his disciples: All the young hairs on Krishna's transcendental body stood up as if craning their necks to see the beauty of the beloved Rukmini. These hairs appeared like many new buds on the blossoming twig of Krishna's body.


A gopi to her friend: Agitated by the sweet aroma, a swarm of bumble-bees raced to Pali's mouth. She trembled and the hairs of her body stood up. Even though His exquisite sweetness had made her very shy, she intently embraced Krishna.


Speaking broken words: A gopi to Krishna: O cheater Krishna, doe-eyed Radharani is agitated with intense love for You. The hairs of Her body stand up, She breathes long signs, Her heart is stunned, and She mutters broken, emotion-charged appeals to You. She always thinks of You. She is drowning in the nectar ocean of love for You.


Radharani to Lalita: When I heard the sound of Hari's flute, I became astonished. The hairs of My body stood up and My throat became choked up. Even though you repeatedly signalled Me with your hand, I remained completely unaware of your presence beside Me in the network of creepers.


Krishna to Visakha: How many wonderfully beautiful girls love Me in this village of Vraja? The happiness I experience from the great flood filled with the waves of their splendid amorous joking words is hardly equal, to Me, to the happiness I experience by hearing two or three drops of broken syllables of angry, jealous insults fallen from the waves of Radharani's trembling lips.


When a friend said to her: We shall see Krishna again, Rukmini-devi harshly rebuked her in order to conceal the happiness that showed itself in many broken words.


Krishna to Visakha: My friend, when I joked with Her at Our first meeting, Radharani became so frightened that She repeatedly stuttered. In this way She made a stream of fresh nectar flow by the shores of My ears.


Trembling: One day, as Radha and Krishna's pastimes were suddenly interrupted by Jatila, Visakha then reassured the frightened Radharani in the following words: Kesava has already disguised Himself as a young girl, and aside from that Your husband Abhimanyu is a childish fool easily tricked. Why are You trembling like a plantain tree in a hurricane?


Lalita to Radharani: Why do You tremble so when you meet the cowherd-Prince Krishna? Do not fear. I, the clever Lalita am by Your side.


Krishna to Padma: My dear Padma, the flame of an oil-lamp in a windless place does not waver. If you are actually not angry with Me, then why does your body shake so violently?


Turning pale: A gopi to Krishna: Your absence has turned Radharani pale. She now looks like white ivory spotted with kunkuma, and Her face is like the moon. O Krishna, O enemy of Putana, to what else may I compare the pale, doe-eyed Radharani?


One night, when Radharani saw Herself reflected on Krishna's chest, She thought the reflection was another girl, Her rival. At that time Krishna said to angry, pale Radharani: Please tell Me why, as We enjoy these amorous pastimes in the middle of the night in Vrndavana forest, Your reddish face has suddenly become as pale as the full moon in the autumn season?


Vrnda to Paurnamasi: One time, as Radharani was enjoying pastimes with Madhava on the shore of the Yamuna, She saw something nearby that She thought might be Her husband Abhimanyu. She suddenly became pale with terror.


Shedding tears: When Radharani saw Her beloved Krishna, Her eyes, from their trembling pupils to the corners, leading to the pathways going to the ears, became filled with tears of joy that flowed like a great stream of perspiration down Her cheeks.


Flushed cheeks, bodily hairs standing up, and tears are considered to be manifestations of transcendental bliss.


A gopi to her friend: After waiting all night at the rendezvous place, Indumukhi finally saw Krishna at daybreak. With crooked eyes she stared at His chest, which bore the tilaka pictures and decorations drawn by some other girl. Not saying a word, she released a flood of angry tears.


Krishna appeals to Radharani, angry at Him for enjoying pastimes with a rival gopi: Radharani, I have not offended You. Why do You speak these harsh, angry words? Why have You shed these tears, resting like a jewel-necklace on Your breasts?


Moved by jealous anger, the gopis shake their heads, sigh, display trembling lips and cheeks, cast sidelong glances, knit their eyebrows, and cry with jealous anger.


To Radharani, who lamented Her separation from Krishna, Visakha said: O beautiful-thighed Radharani, do not stain Your moon-like face with these tears from Your eyes. Hari, who is like an ocean of mercy, will be merciful to You again.


Devastation: Lalita to Visakha: Now that Radharani has directly met Madhava, Her eyes have become fixed upon Him with an unblinking gaze. Her legs are stunned. No sound comes from Her throat, and no breath from Her nostrils. Her heart is washed by the nectar of transcendental bliss. I think just like a great sage, She has attained the meditative trance of samadhi.


Paurnamasi describes the agony of the gopis after Krishna has departed for Mathura: I pray that the serpent of Krishna may angrily bite the chest of King Kamsa, I pray that Hari may again bring the life-giving water of His association to the dried-up pond of Vraja village. Alas! The saphari fish of the gopis are now rolling about on the dry ground in agony. The waves of their life-breath are stopping. They are on the verge of death.


Smokey symptoms of ecstasy: A demigoddess travelling in a flower-airplane over Mathura city, addresses her friend: My dear friend, why do your eyes become filled with tears and your cheeks flushed with happiness when you gaze on the Supreme Lord in the courtyard of Mathura city?


The symptoms of ecstasy are manifested in three stages. The first, smokey, is when ecstatic symptoms are partially manifested. The second, burning, is a more complete manifestation of ecstasy, and the last, blazing brightly, is the complete manifestation of ecstasy symptoms.


Burning: A gopi addresses Dhanya: My dear Dhanya, your thighs are stunned, your bodily hairs stand up with happiness, and your eyes are filled with tears. O lotus-faced friend, the blue treasure of Krishna must have secretly fallen into the palms of your lotus hands.


Blazing: Visakha tells Radharani: O fair-faced Radharani, the tears from Your eyes are turning Your black mascara into mud, Your sighs are making Your bodice dance exuberantly, and a network of erect hairs is covering Your body. I think the sweetness of Madhava must have approached Your ears.


Uddhava describes to Krishna the condition of Lalita in separation from Him: Lalita is bathed with the tears from her eyes, ornamented with the pearl-necklace of her perspiration, anointed with the sandalwood paste of her new pale complexion, dressed in the garment of her bodily hairs standing up, and conversing with her friends with the charming eloquent of many stuttering words. In this way the stunned Lalita has decorated herself to meet You again.


Once, when Radharani was in the forest, She became overwhelmed with ecstasy by accidentally hearing the sound of Krishna's flute. A gopi friend observed this, and immediately ran to Krishna to give the following report: When Radharani heard the sound of Your flute, She became covered by a monsoon of perspiration. Her tears became like a great river to slake the heifers' thirst, and her body became covered from head to feet with the blossoming flowers of erect hairs. Stunned and pale, She looked so much like Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, that many fools thought She was Sarasvati's deity form, and they began at once to worship Her in order to become great scholars.



Chapter 13

The Vyabhicaris



The 23 vyabhicaris, beginning with nirveda (disgust), will now, except for augrya (fierceness) and alasya (laziness), be described.


The vyabhicaris, although consisting of seemingly undesirable things, such as marana (imminent death), are glorious because they increase the gopis' love for Krishna.


Radharani: Desiring the happiness of His association and embraces, My dear friend, I disregard even My superiors and relaxed My shyness and gravity before them. Furthermore, although you are My best friend, more dear to Me than My own life, I have given you so many troubles. Indeed, I even put aside the vow of dedication to My husband, a vow kept by the most elevated women. Oh, alas! Although He is now neglecting Me, I am so sinful that I am still living. Therefore I must condemn My so-called patience.


Lamenting in Krishna's separation, Radharani tells Lalita: My friend, I have not the slightest fragrance of love for Mukunda. When you see me crying, you should know that I cry not for Him, but for My own selfish welfare. Even though I can no longer see Krishna, who plays the flute pressed to His lips, I still remain willing to maintain My insect-life, even though it bites Me from moment to moment.


When Candravali, jealous of Radharani's good fortune, lamented her own inferior position, Padma consoled her in the following words: My dear friend, your face appears faded and wilted with unhappiness. Please do not rebuke yourself in this way. You are very important and famous. After all, who on this earth has not heard of Candravali and Tara?


At the very moment of Radha and Krishna's meeting, Radharani's old mother-in-law jatila suddenly arrived on the scene. Krishna quickly disappeared, and Radharani whispered the following words to Visakha: I did not get the chance to drink the nectar of Hari's words, and I did not get the chance to gaze at His face from the corner of My eyes. After a long time I finally obtained this delightful opportunity to meet Krishna, and now unkind fate, disguised as this old Jatila, has checkmated all My desires.


The gopis: O friends, those eyes that see the beautiful faces of sons of Maharaja Nanda are certainly fortunate. As these two sons enter the forest, surrounded by Their friends, driving the cows before Them, They hold Their flute to Their mouths and glance lovingly upon the residents of Vrndavana. For those who have eyes, we think there is no greater object of vision.


Radharani, separated form Krishna by a quarrel, tells Lalita: My mind only considers Krishna's virtues, and completely discounts His faults. It foolishly refuses to become angry with Him and remains always pleased with Him. Even though Krishna ignores Me and passionately enjoys amorous pastimes with other young girls in My absence, still My crooked mind continues to desire Him, What shall I do?


After Krishna had left for Mathura, Radharani told o Her friend: O beautiful-faced friend, I was not able to fully drink the nectar of Krishna's joking words with My ears, I was not able to fearlessly gaze without restriction on His lotus face, and I was not able to very firmly embrace His chest to My heart's content. Moment after moment My mind remembers all this as it trembles in pain.


Immersed in a lovers' quarrel with Krishna, Radharani said: I will not let Krishna's sweet words enter My ear. I will not look at Krishna when He bows down before Me. I will curse the gopi-friend who comes as His emissary. My heart burns with the fire of anger for this Krishna.


O flute expert at drinking the nectar of the breath from Mukunda's smiling lotus mouth, I offer my respectful obeisances unto you. I beg you, when you touch the charming bimba fruit of Krishna's lips, please whisper in His ear how I am burning with the desire to attain Him.


Gopis to Krishna: Dear Krishna, you are known as Hari. You destroy all the miseries of all living entities, specifically of those who have left their homes and family attachment and have completely taken to You. We have left our homes with the hope that we shall completely devote and dedicate our lives to Your service. We are simply begging to be engaged as Your servants. We do not wish to ask You to accept us as Your wives. Simply accept us as Your maidservants. Since You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead and like to enjoy the parakiya-rasa and are famous as a transcendental woman hunter, we have come to satisfy Your transcendental desires. We are also after our own satisfaction, for simply by looking at Your smiling face we have become very lusty. We have come before You decorated with all ornaments and dress, but until You embrace us, all our dresses and beautiful feathers remain incomplete. You are the Supreme Person, and if You complete our dressing attempt as the purusa-bhusana, or the male ornament, then all our desires and bodily decorations are complete.


Radharani to Krishna: Even though I repeatedly brush him away with My hand, this restless bumble-bee still tries to land on My face. O Krishna, O crusher of the Agha demon, I offer My respectful obeisances to you. Please be kind and merciful to Me and stop this wicked bee.


After quarreling with Krishna and then being rebuked for that by Visakha, Radharani said: My friend, you are right. Bitten by the wicked serpent of pride, I have offended Krishna. I simply hope that Krishna, who wears a crown of peacock feather, will excuse My offense.


Weakness: Vrnda tells Paurnamasi: After a long water-splashing battle with Krishna and the smiling gopis, lotus-eyed Radharani became very tired and emaciated. In this condition She was not able to prevent Her jeweled bracelet from sliding off Her wrists into the Yamunas water.


Lalita gives to a swan the following message to carry to Krishna in Mathura: Tortured by amorous desires, lotus-eyed Radharani is on the verge of death. all friendly remedies have abandoned her, and now only the friend of Her hope to someday regain You stays to forcibly keep Her alive.


The gopis say: Radharani violently throws Herself into the amorous battle trying to defeat Her lover Krishna. However, after only a brief struggle, Her hips are trembling, the creeper of Her arms is slackened, and He chest is heaving with sighs. How is it possible for a girl to manifest great chivalrous power and defeat Her lover in cupid's battle?


Fatigue: The gopis say: Her heart agitated with love for Krishna, Radharani has become exhausted from walking on the path to the far-away rendezvous. After taking two or three steps, She considers Her toy lotus flower to be an unbearable burden, and She sets it down by the road. After three or four steps She sets down the garland of jasmine flowers decorating Her braids, and after five steps, She removes the pearl-necklace from Her neck. After this She rebukes Her hips for being so heavy. But She cannot abandon them, and so She is forced to carry them.


Vrnda tells Paurnamasi: The exquisitely beautiful gopis became exhausted by performing the hallisa dance with Krishna. They moved with slow gracefulness, resting their lotus hands on Krishna's shoulders. Their curling locks of hair languidly moved on their foreheads, and they became covered with perspiration.


After enjoying conjugal pastimes with Visakha, Krishna says: My dear beautiful-faced Visakha, now your arms move languidly and your cheeks are covered with perspiration. Your charming form has filled My heart with the nectar of transcendental pleasure.


Intoxication: Kundavalli tells Nandimukhi: Without shyly covering Her mouth with Her sari, the young gopi Radharani openly drank madhvika liquor as She sat by hari. Intoxicated, She stuttered many charming words like a female parrot reciting different phrases by rote.


Pride: Inside a forest-cottage Visakha tells Radharani: Leaving His cowherd friends and ignoring many gopis who long for His association, Hari stands at the doorway, gazing at Your face. O Radharani intoxicated with pride, smiling with blushing cheeks, You ignore Him as You casually continue to fashion shark-shaped earrings out of yutha flowers. You will not even glance at Him from the corner of Your eye.


Padma defends Candravali's beauty in the assembly of Lalita and her friends: On this earth who is able to properly describe the beautiful moonlight of Candravalis face? Even Krishna, who wears a peacock feather drown, comes to this forest cottage to see Candravali'[s beauty.


After hearing Padma's words, Lalita proceeded to glorify Radharani: My friend, Radharani's splendid beauty eclipses the shining of hundreds of Candravalis.


One of Lalita's friends: The singing of the pigeon gopis pleases Krishna only so long as the cuckoo bird Lalita does not sing sweetly.


Satyabhama tells Saci: I know your husband is Indra, king of the demigods. Still, even though I am only a human girl, I shall now take this parijata tree from you.


Radharani, in the assembly of Her friends, addresses Krishna's stick, which had been left lying on the ground: The flute does not bow down to offer respects like this, and he has become expert at tasting the sweet nectar flowing from the moon of Mukunda's mouth. O stick, you are wasting your time by bowing down. You will never become eligible in this way to taste even the slightest scent of the flute's rare good fortune.


Laksmana describes her garlanding of Krishna during her svayamvara: My curling hair encircled my face, which was shining with a bright luster due to the reflection of my various rings. My eyes blinking, I first of all observed all the princes present, and when I reached my Lord I very slowly placed the golden necklace on His neck.


Anxiety: A gopi said: Stealing the flute from sleeping Krishna's hand, Radharani carried it into the dense darkness of the creeper-jungle of the grove of creepers. When She noticed that the luster of Her face, which eclipses the splendor of the autumn moon, illuminated the entire area, She became frightened, and bitterly criticized the creator Brahma for giving Her such an effulgence.


Vrnda: Her head bent down, and her loosened hair fallen over her shoulder, Pali anxiously stops in the dense darkness, and moved her trembling eyes in all directions. She covers her face and fearfully walks from the forest grove to the village of Vraja.


Because beautiful girls are naturally fearful, a slight cause of anxiety fills them with fear.


Krishna: Learning of My confidential pastimes with her, this fool Abhimanyu must have forced Radha to stay at home, or else he may have taken Her to Mathura, the capitol of the Yadu dynasty.


Rupa-manjari to Kundavalli: When Radha saw the lightning in the sky, She trembled with fear. With restless eyes She flung Herself against Hari's chest, just as a lightning flash enters a dark rain cloud.


Krishna to Radha: Attracted by Your red lotus flower earrings, the best of the bumble-bees hovers around You, followed by Your restless sidelong glances like a swarm of bumble-bee. Jingling Your bracelets, You wave Your creeper-like arms to chase him away. O Radha, your fear of this bee brings Me great delight.


Krishna: My dear thundercloud, you repeatedly confirm the truth of the rumor that you are My dear friend. Your friendship is demonstrated by this loud thunder that makes Radha tremble with fear, and, abandoning all Her pride, place Herself upon My chest.


Agitation: Radha: My dear friend, who is this fearless young man? He is as bright as a lightning cloud, and He wanders in His pastimes like a maddened elephant. From where has He come to Vrndavana? Alas, by His restless movements and attractive glances He is plundering from the vault of My heart the treasure of My patience.


Recognizing that Jambavati is actually Lalita, Satyabhama is Radharani, and the Syamantaka jewel is the crest jewel of Sankhacuda, Krishna speaks to Madhumangala: Now I can understand that this girl Jambavati under the tree is actually Lalita, that this beautiful Satyabhama is Radharani, and this Syamantaka jewel is the crest-jewel of Sankhacuda. These facts have made Me become agitated with extreme wonder.


Kundavali to her friend: O Dhanya, the mascara has fallen from your eyes. O Padma, you absent-mindedly placed your armlets on your ankles. O Sarangi, you only decorated one foot with tinkling ankle-bells. O Pali, your belt is falling, O Lavngi, you unthinkingly decorated your cheeks with the tilaka intended for your forehead. O Kamala, you decorated your eyes with the red lac meant for your feet. Because you are not properly decorated, I request you all: please do not run with great agitation to the far away place where you hear the sweet music of Krishna's lute.


Vrnda says to Radharani, as Krishna is about to leave by chariot for Mathura: One moment You cry bitterly, the next moment You roll about on the ground before the chariot, the next moment You gaze with tear-filled eyes upon Hari's face, the next moment You place a blade of grass between Your teeth; and bow down before Balarama and beg Him not to leave Vrndavana. O Radha, is there any person whom Krishna will not throw into the ocean of His mercy?


Kundavali to Nandimukhi: When the king of Vraja's gatekeeper made the terrible announcement that Krishna and Balarama would leave for Mathura city at dawn, his word  became like a thunderbolt striking the pathway of the gopis' ears and filling them with continual agitation.


Madness: Vrnda: When this gopi saw Hari, she became mad with transcendental bliss. She was so bewildered that she addressed a bumble-bee: My dear beautiful-eyed friend, please be kind and check this young boy, as splendid as a dark rain cloud, who has come here to embrace me.


Uddhava, having returned from Vrndavana, speaks to Krishna: Her disheveled hair tossed to and fro, Radha sometimes rolls about on the ground. sometimes She cracks Her finger-joints, sometimes She knit Her eyebrows or gnashes Her teeth, sometimes She curses Kamsa without restraint, sometimes She becomes very agitated by seeing a dark tamala tree, and She swiftly runs to embrace it. O king of the Yadus, in this way Radha is burning in a great fire of separation from You.


Lalita sent the following letter to Krishna in Mathura: O Krishna, her heart flooded by waves of separation from You, my gopi friend flails her limbs, shouts a continual stream of high-pitched nonsense, rolls her eyes, and constantly foams at the mouth. Observing all this, her elders think she has become an epileptic.


A gopi informs Krishna of Radharani's sickness: Although Her flower-decorated sick-bed has become fragrant with the aromatic powders anointing Her limbs, the lotus petals and palm-stalks on that bed have all wilted from the intense heat of Her feverish body. She is decorated with lotus stems and blades of grass, and sandalwood powder is placed on Her breasts to reduce the fever. She is given a powerful medicine that makes Her foam at the mouth.


Bewilderment: Radharani tells Lalita and Visakha: When Krishna, as splendid as a slightly blossomed blue lotus petal touches Me with His lotus hand, I feel intense pleasure that makes Me so excited, My friend, that I no longer know where I am, who I am, or what I am doing.


A gopi says: My dear friends, Krishna is so nicely dressed that He appears to be the impetus to various kinds of ceremonies held by the womenfolk. Even the wives of the denizens of heaven become attracted after hearing the transcendental sound of His flute. Although they are travelling in the air in their airplanes, enjoying the company of their husbands, on hearing the sound of Krishna's flute, they immediately become perturbed. Their hair is loosened and their tight dresses are slackened.


After hearing Uddhava's report on the condition of the Vraja-gopis, Krishna said: Sleeping on a bed of blossoming twigs, and protected by a circle of gopi-friends with tears in their eyes, beautiful Radharani is now very thin and emaciated. Her throat quivers as if Her life-breath were moving there.


My dear friend, when Krishna returns home with His cows, the footprint of the soles of His feet relieves the pain the earth feels when the cows traverse it. He walks in a stride which is so attractive, and He carries His flute. Just by looking at Him we become lusty to enjoy His company. At that time, our movements cease. We become just like trees and stand perfectly still. We even forget what we look like.


Death: In this connection death may be attempted, but it is never described as actually occurring.


Radharani to Lalita: O Joy beautiful-faced friend, now that Krishna, the enemy of Mura, has left with Akrura, and is no longer present before us, I bow down before you and beg a favor from you. Near My home is a jasmine creeper whose flowers I repeatedly picked to make earrings for Krishna. I ask you to please take care of that creeper.


Laziness: In this connection laziness is not directly manifest, but is displayed only obliquely.


One time Radharani became frightened to learn that her mother-in-law Jatila was about to interrupt Her pastimes with Krishna in the forest. At that time Rupa-manjari gave Her the following advice: My friend, fill this churning pot to overflowing with yogurt, and then churn it with exaggerated, contorted motions. Let go of a great yawn, and then pretend to faint in the presence of Your mother-in-law. All these pastimes will be like a crown You fashion to place on Hari's head.


Becoming stunned: Kundavalli to Nandimukhi: Hearing the jingling sound of Krishna's ankle-bells outside her door, and eager to run outside to see Him, this beautiful gopi became so stunned with happiness that she remained seated with closed eyes, as if she were tied to that spot.


Hearing from her friend the unpleasant news of Krishna's departure, Candravali, alas, became overwhelmed. The half-strung flower-garland slipped from her hand, and she at once fainted as if dead.


Visakha: Because we please Krishna by speaking charming joking words, we gopis are considered to be very fortunate. Still, I say to hell with our good fortune. It is insignificant in comparison  to the good fortune of Radharani, who becomes stunned and rolls about on the ground in ecstasy when She sees Krishna face-to-face.


Vrnda to Purnamasi: As She was enjoying pastimes with Hari at the edge of the forest, Radha suddenly saw Abhimanyu. Stunned with anger, She appeared like a statue of the goddess durga.


Vrnda to Krishna: O Krishna, O killer of the Mura demon, Your absence has so stunned beautiful-faced Radharani that as She talks at night with Her friends She cannot member whether She took any betel-nuts, whether betel-leaves are in her hand, or betel-nuts in Her mouth.


Shyness: Krishna to Subala: I said to Radha: O moon-faced girl, come sit on this bed. Why not? Your obedient servant begs You. Be kind. In this way I repeatedly appealed to Radha with many sweet words as She stood in the doorway looking like the beautiful goddess of fortune descended into Vrndavana forest.


One time the young gopi Malati disguised herself as Radharani's grandmother, and teased Radharani with the following word: My daughter, I see that You are a very expert thief, for You have certainly stolen this priceless necklace from Hari. When Your elders learn of this, they shall punish You very severely. As Radharani heard these words, She turned Her face from Krishna's jewelled necklace.


Hearing Herself being praised, Radharani began to shyly retreat. At that time Vrnda told Her : O Radha, please do not shrink form hearing these truthful words. The moonlight of Your glory illuminates the universe. You are the eternal, transcendental kunkuma powder anointing the chest of Hari.


Radharani, angry at the unfaithful Krishna, told Him: I see on Your chest the red lac from some other gopis' feet, shining as if it were Your love for her outwardly displayed. O cheater Krishna, I suffer when I see this. The sight of You makes Me ashamed of My great love for You.


Concealing one's actual feelings: Mandanika: Krishna reads the words of Sasimukhi's letter as if He were becoming intoxicated by drinking the nectar of a blossoming lotus flower. Carefully concealing the amorous passion in His heart, He smiles mildly. who can describe His expression?


Syamala, who is angry with Krishna, speaks the following words to Krishna's messenger Tarala: Messenger Tarala, don't tell me any more about this rascal Krishna who plays a flute on the Yamuna's shore. I won't approach even the boundary of hearing about Him. My bodily hairs are now standing up, it is because of this world-famous, harsh winter wind.


Speaking to Madhumangala, Krishna describes the symptoms of Candravali's feigned anger: Candravali has not eclipsed the moonlight of her smile, and the sweetness of her words has not turned bitter. What anger is characterized by restless, anxious, warm sighs that make a girl's bodice heave up and down?


Paurnamasi: Decorating Herself with the sweet fragrance of musk, lotus-eyed, restless Radharani shyly tries to silence the loud trumpeting of the regal mad elephant of Krishna in the forest garden of Her heart. In spite of all Her attempts, that elephant, sporting on the Yamuna's shore loudly proclaims His victory.


Radharani's messenger tells Krishna: Within Her heart Radharani burns with love for You, although Hr outward appearance is calm and peaceful, She is like a sami tree that burns within and blossoms without.


A gopi says: Performing household chores in her husband's presence, and beginning to tremble as she heard the sound of Krishna's flute, Candravali rebuked the sound of the thunderbolt for making her tremble in fear.


Vrnda: Seeing the flower garland she strung with her own hand stolen from her and placed in a rival gopi's braided hair, Candramukhi at first became angry, ut them, flooded by waves of respect for Krishna, became calm and silent.


Lalita to a swan: When the Pulinda girls see a tamala tree bear Govardhana Hill, they become reminded of Govinda, and their bodice burn with passionate love for him. They wipe the perspiration from their bodies by standing before the cooling breezes carrying drops of water from the Yamuna river. My dear swan, as you fly through Vrndavana, you will certainly see this Govardhana Hill and Yamuna River.


Suffering  from Krishna's separation, Radharani tells Uddhava Even for a moment My heart cannot forget the sweet fragrance of the shower of nectar that was Krishna's words. My heart cannot forget Krishna's splendid peacock feather crown, His lustrous complexion as enchanting as a dark tamala tree, His charming pastimes, His face that rebukes the shining of the autumn moon, and His eyes as beautiful as lotus flowers. Constantly remembering all this, My heart staggers about in the gitiation of love.


Guessing: Madly searching in the forest for Her absent lover Krishna, Radharani says: These restless bumble-bees fly to and fro without drinking the nectar of these flowers. This parrot has become stunned, and will not eat the pomegranate near him. This doe has become pale and declines to eat the green grass beneath her. These are certain symptoms of the fact that Krishna, who walks like the best of graceful elephants, must have travelled down this path.


Radharani: There, in the far distance is Krishna, decorated with a peacock-feather crown, and embraced by the golden-complexioned gopis. No. I think it is not Krishna. It is only a raincloud, lightning, and rainbow resting on Govardhana Hill.


Meditation: To Radharani, who is rapt in meditation on the absent Krishna, Visakha says: You refuse to eat. You have stopped all activities of the senses. Your eyes are fixed on the tip of Your nose, and Your minds fixed on a single thought. You are now silent, and You see the entire world as a void. Friend, please tell me, have You become a mystic yogini, or are You now rapt in meditation on Krishna?


Noticing Krishna rapt in thought, Paurnamasi said: Murari's eyes move restlessly, and His repeated sighs have wilted His flower garland. I wonder: What fortunate beautiful girl in gokula is object of His deep meditation?


Nandimukhi to Paurnamasi: Now that the moonlight of Radharani's youthful sweetness illuminates Her transcendental body and breaks apart whatever remains of Her childhood, the lotus flower of Her rival Padma's face begins to wilt, and the bumble-bee of Padma's heart languishes in despair.


My dear Candravali, please do not become unhappy to see Radharani's good fortune. After all, those learned in astronomy know that the star of Radharani has great power over the dark moon of Krishna.


Let Krishna tightly embrace this maidservant, who has fallen at His lotus feet. Let Him trample Me or break My heart by never being visible to Me. He is a debauchee, after all, and can do whatever He likes, but He is still no one other than the worshipable Lord of My heart.


Princess Rukmini writes in a letter proposing marriage to Krishna: Brahma, Siva, and all the worshipable leaders of the demigods all worship Your lotus feet, what to speak of ordinary kings, who possess only a slight quantity of pious karma. O Krishna, O lord of the universe, O ocean of sweetness, O jewel among men, what unmarried young girl like me would not yearn to serve You?


Satisfaction: The gopis, who were mostly all followers of the Vedas in their previous births, became very happy to see Krishna again. When the gopis had Krishna in their company, not only all their grief, but their lamenting in the absence of Krishna was relieved. They felt they had no desire to be fulfilled. Fully satisfied in the company of Krishna, they spread their cloths on the ground. These garments were made of fine linen and smeared with the red kunkuma which decorated their breasts. With great care they spread a sitting place for Krishna. Krishna was their life and soul, and they created a very comfortable seat for Him.


Visakha to Padma: Radharani is eternally situated in the full bloom of youth. Her beauty astonishes all the doe-eyed gopis. She possesses a host of extraordinary transcendental virtues. The Supreme Lord loves her alone and desires no other girl. What other girl is like Her in this world?


Happiness: Seeing their beloved Krishna, the gopis' eyes blossomed wide with happiness. The slender gopis rose to greet Krishna as if He were their life and soul.


As She gazes upon the form of Krishna, Radharani speaks with Lalita: Is this a nectar moon to make the lotus flowers of the gopis blossom with happiness? Is this a regal festival of youthfulness appearing in Gokula? Is this a garden of lowers to delight the cuckoo bird of My heart? O slender-waisted Lalita, this person I see now is sprinkling My eyes with waves of nectar.


Nava Vrnda describes Radharani's meeting with Krishna: As Radharani gazed at lotus-eyed Krishna, Her eyes became flooded with tears, and She soon found herself unable to see Him at all. The creepers of her arms became stunned and lost all power to embrace Him, and Her voice became choked up and unable to reply to His words. These symptoms of doe-eyed Radharani's ecstatic happiness became obstacles in Her meeting with Krishna.


Eagerness: To the friend who is decorating her with ornaments and cosmetics, one of the women of Mathura city said: Stop! Let my red foot remain undecorated with red lac! What is the use of all this decoration? My charming friend, I shall now turn outside, for the sweet words of Mathura's women makes me think that perhaps Krishna, the cupid of Vrndavana forest, is now walking past my doorstep.


A gopi to Krishna: Radharani eagerly wits for You. She constantly meditate on You as She decorates Her limbs and carefully prepares the bed. Whenever a leaf flutters She thinks You have come. She yearns to enjoy hundreds of pastimes with you. She refuses to spend the night without You.


Harsh punishment: Radharani's grandmother Mukhara tells Krishna: Restless libertine Krishna, it is not proper for You to stand so close to my young granddaughter Radharani. you obviously have no fear of violating religious principles. Although even at noontime this old lady cannot see very well, still she can be very harsh. O son of Nanda, if You do not leave my doorstep at once. Then I am not to be blamed for complaining before the king at Mathura. How far do You think mathura is on this path?


Anger: Smarting from His joking insults, Rukmini-devi tells Krishna: My dear Lord, You have advised me to select one of the princes such as Sisupala, Jarasandha or Dantavakra, but what is their position in this world? They are always engaged in hard labor to maintain their household life, just like the bulls working hard day and night with the oil-pressing machine. They are compared to asses, beasts of burden. They are always dishonored like the dogs, and they are miserly like the cats. They have sold themselves like slaves to their wives. any unfortunate woman who has never heard of Your glories may accept such a man as her husband, but a woman who has learned about You-that You are praised not only in this world, but in the halls of the great demigods like Lord Brahma and Lord Siva-will not accept anyone beside Yourself as her husband.


Lalita to Radharani: My child, reclaim Your heart from this Krishna who is fond of gazing at the breasts of young gopis from the corner of His eyes, and whose heat is as hard as a glistening black stone. Do we chaste, respectable, pious girls attracted to enjoy amorous pastimes with Him, not know that the libertine Krishna will contaminate us with many sins, and then, without doubt, simply leave us for good?


Envy: In the middle of rasa-dance, Krishna left with the most fortunate gopi, Radharani. Finding Krishna's footprints, Candravali addressed the other gopis: O friends, just see?! At this particular spot we do not see the footprints of that gopi. It appears that because there were some pin-pricks from the dried grass, Krishna took Her on His shoulder. O, She is so dear to Him.


My dear gopis, what auspicious activities must the flute have performed to enjoy the nectar of Krishna's lips independently and leave only a taste for the gopis for whom that nectar is actually meant. The forefathers of the flute, the bamboo tree, shed tears of pleasure. His mother, the river, on whose bank the bamboo was born, feels jubilation, and therefore her blooming lotus flowers and standing like hair on her body.


O charming friend, do not become very proud that you are always drinking the nectar of Krishna's lips., After all, you only take the remnants of what Krishna's flute drinks. What are you in comparison to that fortunate flute?


To Padma, who is very proud of her expert garland-making, a gopi says: O charming one, my friend Visakha is more expert than you at making beautiful garlands of forest flowers. When Visakha makes a garland she becomes overwhelmed with love for Krishna, and if the flood of her tears does not spray upon her hands, at least they block up her eyes.


Fickleness: Resisting Krishna's advances, Lalita says: O elephant-Krishna, please play if you like for a long time with the other, beautiful, blossoming lotus flowers growing in this lake of gokula, but do not touch with Your hand this delicate, unblossomed lotus.


Surrounded by many beautiful-eyebrowed gopis in the midst of the jubilant rasa-dance festival, and blinded with love, Radharani tightly embraced Krishna's chest, Saying, on the pretext of singing His glories: Your lips are as sweet as nectar, She passionately  kissed Him. I pray that Lord Hari, whose smile enchants the heart, may protect you.


Radharani to Lalita: This crooked heart forest-flower garland refuses to ever leave Hari's neck, the abode of all our happiness. I curse that unqualified garland to meet it's destruction on Krishna's chest.


Sleep: Vrnda to Nandimukhi: Exhausted from enjoying many amorous pastimes, His bandhuka-flower petal abdomen moving as He breathed, holding His stick and His pearl necklace, holding the beautiful-eyebrowed gopi's undergarment, and resting on Her beautiful, auspicious waterpotlike breasts, Hari, the hairs of His body standing up in ecstasy, peacefully slept on a flower-decorated bed on Govardhana Hill.


Lalita asks a swan to deliver the following message to Krishna: her hair decorated with freshly fragrant madhavi flowers, and Her eyes like flower buds closed in the happiness of sleep as She rest in Your lap in the forest-cottage terrace aromatic with the lotus flowers growing in the nearby Yamuna River, when will I serve Radharani by fanning Him with a bunch of budding twigs.


Rupa-manjari to rati-manjari: Her nipples illuminated by the kaustubha gem, her left arm placed around Krishna, and saying in Her sleep, Don't follow My path. Let Me go to the Yamuna alone. Exhausted, lotus-faced Radharani fell deeply asleep in the cave.


Vrnda to Nandimukhi: When doe-eyed Radharani saw the hairs on the cheeks of vraja's prince Krishna standing up as He enjoyed the pastimes of sleep, She thought He must be awake. Even though, as She sat on the edge of the bed, She yearned to taste the happiness of stealing the flute that had already slipped from His garments, She did not take it.


Vrnda to Paurnamasi: Even though it interrupted the pleasure of His sleep, peacock-feather crowned Krishna glorified the lion's loud roar, for it quickly awakened frightened Radharani, and impelled Her, with restless eyes, to tightly embrace Him, pressing the regal mountains of Her breasts against His body.


Rupa-manjari says: Even though the hairs of Her body were standing up in ecstasy as She enjoyed transcendental pastimes with Hari on the summit of Govardhana Hill, still Radharani took time to playfully wipe the perspiration from Lalita's brow, decorated with curling, dishevelled hair.


The beginnings of love: Gazing at Radharani's beautiful face, Krishna says to Sasimukhi: This girl is very sweet and charming My dear Sasimukhi, please do not say that there is any ferocity in the girl I now see in this forest-garden. I have now become absorbed in meditation on this girl who looks at Me with crooked eyes and a bent smile as She listens to My words by your side.


Meeting: Vrnda to Paurnamasi: Seeing Krishna, whom She yearned to see for a long time, and at the same time seeing Her husband Abhimanyu stuttering and red with anger, lotus-faced Radharani became stunned. Motionless, and staring without blinking, She appeared just like a statue.


Paurnamasi: The hearts of all the gopis burned with pain by the thought that Krishna was carrying the heavy burden of Govardhana Hill, and at the same time they became filled with a great festival of happiness by seeing their beloved Krishna day and night. In this way two contradictory emotions were simultaneously present in the gopis' hearts.


Vrnda describes to Kandalata the meeting of Padma with Radha, Krishna, and Their gopi friends: As Madhava displayed His deep love for Radharani, Lalita attacked padma with insults. Lotus-faced Padma replied by anxiously scratching the ground with her big toe. She began to perspire with anger.


Separated from Krishna by a lover's quarrel, Radharani says: fortunate are the doe-eyed girls who enjoy transcendental pastimes with youthful Krishna. When Lalita sees how fickle I am that no longer I am angry with Krishna, she will rebuke Me. Oh, My heart yearns to embrace moon-faced Govinda. Fie! I curse the crooked destiny that has created this poison named jealous anger.


Nandimukhi says: The violent ax-strokes of the gopis' logical arguments were not ale to cut down the tall, strong tree of jealous anger and pride that grows on the shore of Kamala's heart. The swiftly flowing mountain streams of the gopi-messengers' pleading words were not able to carry that tree in their currents. The faint breeze of Krishna's flute, was, however able to completely uproot that tree in a single moment.




Chapter 14

Steady ecstasy (sthayi-bhava)




This context of the mellow of conjugal love, sthayi-bhava (steady ecstasy) is defined as madhura-rati (charming amorous pastimes).


Sthayi-bhava is described in the following statement of Govinda-vilasa: Aroused by the darting tongue of the black snake of their ecstatic love for Him, the gopis have mortally wounded Lord Krishna with the wonder of their sidelong glances. With restless glances from the corners of His reddish, rolling eyes, Lord Krishna has also shattered the hearts of the chaste gopis. I pray that Lord Mukunda may grant auspiciousness to You.


After seeing Radharani at the dana-ghata near Govardhana Hill, Krishna told Madhumangala: Who is this girl near Govardhana Hill that wounds Me with the sharp arrows of her sidelong glances shot from the trembling bows of Her eyebrows above these jewel earrings?


In ascending order, from lowest to most exalted, the stages of ecstatic sthayi-bhava love for Krishna are:


Abhiyoga: An outward display of love, either by oneself or someone else.


Radharani tells Visakha: When I saw Hari in the forest by the Yamuna's shore, His restless sidelong glance bit the delicate creeper-blossom of My lips, arousing intense love for Him within My heart.


Krishna tells Subala: My dear Subala, who is this girl on the Yamuna's shore? Her restless glances creating lotus flowers everywhere, She has enchanted the bumble-bee of My heart.


Radharani's gopi-messenger tells Krishna: O Prince of Vraja, when chaste and saintly Radha drinks the madhvika nectar of Your words, She becomes intoxicated with love for You. In this condition She remains unaware of how Her loosened undergarments are beginning to slip from Her.


Visaya (sense-objects): 1. sound; 2. touch; 3. form: 4. taste; and 5. fragrance are the five objects of the senses. These sense-objects inspire sthayi-bhava in the heart of the lover.


After hearing the sound of Krishna's flute, Radharani tells Lalita: My friend, what is this sound moving among the kadamba trees that has now entered the pathway of My heart? I cannot understand it. It has forced Me into a condition very abominable for a respectable married woman.


Radharani to Her friend: Since I have heard the name of a person called Krishna, I have practically lost My good sense. Then, there is another person who plays His flute in such a way that after I hear the vibration, intense madness arises in My heart. And again there is still another person to whom My mind becomes attached when I see His beautiful lightning effulgence in His picture. Therefore I think that I am greatly condemned, for I have become simultaneously attached to three persons. It would be better for Me to die because of this.


A gopi to her friend: Darkness now holds me in it's grip and swallows up my body as I walk to Vraja-village in the evening. When this unknown person touches me, I become frightened. I become Very alert, and the hairs of my body stand up because of anxiety. Look! My anxiety does not stop for even a moment.


Lalita tells a swan to deliver the following message to Krishna in Mathura: My dear Murahara, killer of the Mura demon, simply by once seeing Your attractive, playful form from a distance, my friend Radha has forgotten what is auspicious and what is not. She has become like a moth, entering the fire of love for You, and repeatedly, hopelessly burning in it's flames.


A gopi tells her friend: My dear charming friend, because your bodily hairs are now standing up, your limbs are trembling, and waves of intense love splash within your heart, therefore it is clear that, unobserved by anyone, you must have taken some small portion of chewed betel-nuts ejected from Krishna's mouth, and placed them in your own.


After receiving a garland once worn by Krishna, a gopi tells her friend: My friend, where are the beautiful and happy trees whose flowers made this incomparable vaijayanti garland? Even though it is an old garland, it is still so fresh that swarms of bumble-bees are attracted to it. The sweet fragrance of this flower garland is now paralyzing my heart with overwhelming feelings of love for Him.


Extraordinary, eloquent words may also quickly create the sentiment of sthayi-bhava.


Sambandha (relationship): Noble family, beautiful form, and other good qualities may also arouse sthayi-bhava


Rebuked by her friend for falling in love with Krishna, a gopi spoke the following words in her own defense: Krishna is so strong He lifted the great Govardhana Mountain as if it were a toy ball. He is so handsome He appears like an ornament decorating the earth planet. He took a very high birth in the palace of the king of the gopas. He has millions of transcendental good qualities, and His extraordinary pastimes astonish the entire world. My dear foul-mouthed friend, what girl is able to keep her peaceful composure when she sees this Krishna?


Abhimana: The thought "There may be many objects of beauty in this world, but among them only one specific person is the object of my desire" is called abhimana by the wise.


Nandimukhi jokingly explained that Radharani need not choose Krishna, for there are many other qualified men for Her to choose, and Radharani insists that She desires Krishna only: Nandimukhi: On this earth many men are filled with waves of charming sweetness. There are many men who are crest jewels of many expertness, and who are sought by many virtuous girls. Radharani: My friend, any of these men who does not wear a peacock-feather on his head, does not place a flute to his lips, and does not decorate his body with mineral pigments, I do not consider as important as a blade of grass.


Foot prints, the land of Vraja, and the dear devotees are some of the causes of sthayi-bhava.


Pada: Radharani to Visakha: My friend, whose footprints are these, marked with the signs of the chariot-wheel, lotus flower, and thunderbolt? These footprints on the shore of the Yamuna agitate My heart and make the hairs on the creeper of My body blossom with happiness.


A gopi says: Filled with unprecedented sweetness, this land of Vraja maddens my heart with transcendental bliss. His handsome form like an ornament decorating the three worlds, a certain king of amorous heroes enjoys transcendental pastimes in this Vraja. Those persons who are filled with intense ecstatic love of Krishna are called priya-jana (the dear devotees).


Forbidden to see Radharani, whom her elders thought insane because She had become paralyzed with ecstatic love of Krishna, a certain gopi tells her friend: Even though my elders have forbidden me to see Radharani, the abode of all auspiciousness for my eyes, O slender friend, my heart still thirsts to see Her, as She enjoys transcendental pastimes in the role of a beautiful motionless statue.


Upama (similarity): When two things share some similar features, this similarity is called upama.


Observing Krishna through a window, a gopi says: My heart beautiful-faced, slender-waisted friend, is this a charming fresh raincloud descended to the earth, or is this a teenage boy imitating the dancing of His cowherd-king father in the assembly that has entered the pathway of my eyes?


Vrnda: My dear beautiful friend, this fresh raincloud looks just like your lover Krishna. This rainbow looks like His peacock-feather crown, and this lightning flash like His yellow garments. I can see that as you hear these words your thoughts become fixed on Krishna and your eyes filled with tears.


Svabhava: Internal ecstatic emotion, which ignores external events, is called svabhava. This ecstasy is of two kinds: nisarga and svarupa.


Nisarga: When by briefly hearing about Krishna's transcendental attributes and handsome form, one's eternal love for Him is aroused, this is called nisarga.


Princess Rukmini says: My elder brother may rebuke me, my friends leave me, my father may become embarrassed, and my mother may cry many tears, still, now that I have heard about the transcendental qualities and handsomeness of Krishna, the leader of the Yadu dynasty, I shall give my heart to Him. My friend, I refuse to eve give it to this Sisupala, the king of the Cedis.


A gopi says: Dark-complexioned Krishna may be ugly, or He may be the crest-jewel of all handsome men. He may be devoid of all good qualities, or He may be the best of the all virtuous men. he may hate me, or He may be an ocean of mercy to me. Let Him be whatever He may be, He shall always remain my heart and soul.


Svarupam: Causeless independently perfect ecstatic love is called svarupam. It is divided into three types.


Krishna-nistham (Faith in Krishna): Krishna-nistham is easily attainable by those persons free from all demonic qualities.


Seeing Krishna disguised as a woman in one of His pastimes, a demigoddess, who happened to fly nearby in her flower-airplane, said to her friend: This is not a gopi who makes the hearts of all of us demigoddesses tremble with ecstatic love, but it is Krishna playfully disguised as a woman. Who else but Krishna or the sun-planet could remove the darkness of everyone's eyes in this way.


Lalana-nistham: In lalana-nistham svarupam the devotee loves Krishna, even without seeing or hearing Him.


A gopi says: In Vraja there is a person who wears yellow garments and has a complexion the color of a dark raincloud. Very expert at hiding, He remains always unseen and unheard in all the three worlds. My mind is now breaking apart with the desire to attain Him.


Ubhaya-nistham: Ubhaya-nistham svarupam ecstatic love is directed to both Krishna and the beautiful-eyebrowed gopis.


Seeing Krishna disguised as a brahmana priest at the surya-puja ceremony, Radharani said to Lalita: My friend, this person must be Hari disguised as a brahmana, for otherwise how would it be possible for this person to make My heart melt with ecstatic love? Just as only moonlight, and nothing else makes the Candrakanta jewels melt, in the same way only Krishna makes My heart melt with ecstatic love.


The different kinds of spontaneous ecstatic love described here, which begin with abhiyoga, and are displayed to enhance the Lord's transcendental pastimes, are primarily manifested among the beautiful-eyebrowed girls of Gokula.


Three kinds of sthayi-bhava are manifested among Kubja and her associates, the queens at Dvaraka, and the goddesses of Gokula respectively.


These three kinds of sthayi-bhava are like a jewel, a cintamani jewel, and a Kaustubha jewel respectively. The first is not easy to attain the second is very difficult to attain, and the third may be attained only by the Vraja gopis and no one else.


Sudharan: Sadharani love for Krishna is generally not very intense. It is inspired by directly seeing Krishna, and it arouses the desire to enjoy pastimes with Him.


Kubja to Krishna: My dear friend, kindly remain with me at least for a few days. Enjoy with me, You and Your lotus-eyed friend. I cannot leave You immediately. Please grant my request.


In Radharani love a lack of intensity creates a limited desire to enjoy amorous pastimes. This places distinct limits on sadharani love.


Samanjasa: When the lover considers herself Krishna's wife, when her thirst to enjoy amorous pastimes is aroused by understanding His transcendental qualities and other glories through the medium of hearing and the other senses, and when that thirst is very strong and only slightly weakened by other things, that love is called samanjasa.


Queen Rukmini to Krishna: O Mukunda, You delight the heart of all people. No one is Your equal in noble birth, good character, handsomeness, knowledge, youthful vigor, wealth, and strength. O lion among men, what intelligent, virtuous girl would not choose You as her husband?


Because of limited desire to enjoy amorous pastimes, samanjasa love cannot completely subdue Krishna and bring Him under it's control.


The sixteen thousand queens used to exhibit their feminine characteristics by smiling and moving their eyebrows, thus throwing sharpened arrows of conjugal love just to awaken Krishna's lusty desire for them. Still, they could not arouse the mind of Krishna or his sex appetite.


Samartha: When the desire to enjoy amorous pastimes is so great that the lover and beloved become one, the love is called samartha.


Aroused either by lalana-nistham or Krishna-sambandhi, samartha is the most intense kind of love directed towards Krishna. The slightest scent of samartha love makes one forget everything except Krishna.


Observing the activities of a certain young gopi, Vrnda informs Krishna: A certain gopi, who considered herself Your most dear lover, was surrounded by elderly relatives who prevented her from going to be with You. Imaging that she heard the sound of Your ankle-bells far away, she became like a madwoman loudly calling "O Krishna".


The pastime-waves of this samartha love fill everyone with wonder. In samartha love the desire to enjoy amorous pastimes is constant. It never diminishes or becomes interrupted.


In samartha love the lover strives only to make Krishna happy. In the other previously described kinds of love, however, there may sometimes be the endeavor for one's own personal happiness.


This samartha love is the most exalted kind of love for Krishna. Liberated souls and exalted devotees attain the samartha love.


Uddhava: Among all the loving entities who have accepted the human form of life, the gopis are superexcellently successful in their mission Their thought is thoroughly absorbed in the lotus feet of Krishna. Great sages and saintly persons are also trying to be absorbed in meditation upon the lotus feet of Krishna, who is Mukunda Himself, the giver of liberation, but the gopis, having lovingly accepted the Lord, are automatically accustomed to this habit. They do not depend on any yogic practice. The conclusion is that one who has attained the gopis condition of life does not have to take birth as Lord Brahma or be born in a brahmana family or be initiated as a brahmana.


The most intense from of this samartha love is called prema.The various stages gradually leading up to prema are: sneha, mana, pranaya, raga, anuraga and bhava.


In this way love for Krishna progresses through various stages of intensity, just as sugar goes through the stages of bija (sugar-cane seed); iksu (sugar-cane stalk), rasa (sugar-cane juice), guda (molasses), khanda (syrup), sarkara (almost at the point of becoming granulated), sita (granulated sugar), and sitopala (rock-candy).


That pure love for Krishna which is manifested in six stages beginning with sneha, is generally known as prema by Vaishnava scholars.


Lord Krishna reciprocates the love of His devotees. In whatever way they love Him, He also loves them in the same way.


Prema: When love for the Divine Couple remains always constant and unbroken, even when there is ample cause to break that love relationship, such constant love is called prema.


Radharani to Nandimukhi: Even though I repeatedly rebuked Him with many harsh words, such as: I curse You because, even though I am trying to follow the religious principle of chastity, You continue to harass Me, dark-complexioned Krishna would not give up blocking My path. O My charming friend, even though these actions may bring down upon Me the great calamity of My husband Abhimanyu's wrath, still My love for Krishna remains eternally unbroken.


Vrnda to Kundalata: My friend, who can understand the great love that exists between Candravali and peacock-feather-crowned Krishna? That love remains firm and strong and does not wilt, even though every day it is forced to see Radharani's beauty, love and other virtues, which chase away all other prospective lover.


Prema is said to be divided into three kinds: Praudha, madhya and manda.


Praudha (fully developed love): Praudha prema is said to be that kind of love which, by a delayed rendezvous or other disappointment, brings suffering to the thoughts of the lover.


Krishna to Madhumangala: My friend, please go to the forest cottage, and tell My grieving beloved: O Kamala, please do not make much of My delay in going to meet with you. Please do not disbelieve Me when I say that I could not go to you immediately, for first I had to remedy the havoc caused by a wicked demon who was like a sharp-lance pointed at the head of Gokula Village. Now, I shall with great haste and love, quickly arrive at your flower-decorated bed.


Madhya: Madhya prema enables the lover to tolerate the existence of a rival.


Krishna: Even though I search for charming, graceful Candravali on this autumn night so suitable for happy amorous pastimes, still, tossed to and fro by the waves of wonderful pastimes enjoyed by cupid's army, Radharani patiently waits for Me, with Her heat of sweetest honey.


Manda: That love which, because of constant intimate association, neither scorns nor yearns after the beloved, is called manda prema.


The wife of a priest tells Krishna: Please pacify Satyabhama's proud, angry friend Asokalata, and accept her back in Your association. Those who love You should not be chastised for small faults.


Praudha prema is also described as that state of love where separation form the beloved becomes unbearable.


Anguished at Her separation from Krishna, Radharani tells Lalita: Give Me this charming picture of Krishna you have drawn. If you repeatedly show Me this picture to pacify My anger at Krishna's absence, I shall take it home, cover My ears, and pass the time angrily gazing at it.


When the lover is able to bear the beloved's absence only with great difficulty, that love is called madhya.


A gopi says: O beautiful-faced friend, will this long day ever come to an end? Will the auspicious beginning of night ever come, bringing with it the sight of Krishna, the prince of Vraja. His curling locks of hair covered with the dust upraised by the cows, His face as beautiful as the moon, and His handsome form dispelling the suffering felt by our eyes?


When the lover may sometimes forgetful, that state of love is called manda.


A gopi says: I was so absorbed in jealous anger towards my gopi-rivals that I forgot to string a garland of forest-flowers for Krishna. The cows are now mooing announcing Krishna's return. O my friend, what shall I do now?


Sneha: When the lamp of the heart burns with intense love, that state is called sneha.


The love that makes the heart melt with emotion is called sneha. In this state the lover never becomes satiated by continually seeing or associating with the beloved.


The gopis' hearts melted with love for Krishna. Their restless lotus eyes yearned to continually drink the sweet nectar of his charming, handsome form.


Vrnda to Radharani: Even though the two cakora birds of Your eyes continually drink the flood of nectar-moonlight from Hari's face, they somehow or other never become satiated. I think this is because, on the pretext of shedding many tears, these two intoxicated cakora-eyes repeatedly vomit out whatever nectar they drink.


The heart may melt from anga-sana (the touch of the beloved's body); viloka (the sight of the beloved); or sravana-adi (hearing about the beloved or perceiving Him in some other way). This melting condition of the heart is manifested in three stages: kanistha (the initial stage); madhyama (the intermediate stage); and srestha (the most intense stage).


One of Pali's friends tells Krishna: Madhava, You are like a nectar-sweet cloud and Pali is like an ocean of feminine beauty. how is it possible that this ocean of beauty will not melt in Your embrace?


Syama's friend Bakulamala tells Krishna: O Mukunda, when the sun of Your face rises before her, the butter of Syama's heart begins to melt. This is not very surprising. When the moon of Syama's face rises before You, the candrakanta jewel of Your heart at first begins to melt, but then becomes a hard stone again. This is very surprising indeed. (A candrakanta jewel melts in the moonlight. It was, therefore, very surprising that the melting candrakanta jewel of Krishna's heart again becomes hard, stunned by Krishna's overwhelming love for Syama).


Visakha tells Krishna: O Krishna, O killer of the Madhu demon, when the sound of half Your name approached lotus-eyed Radharani's ears, tears at once stream from Her eyes washing all Her limbs, and Her intelligence becomes bewildered, intoxicated by drinking the honey-nectar of amorous passion. In that intoxicated condition She stumbles about, yawns, and becomes stunned and motionless.


Noticing that Radharani began to cry as soon as She stepped on the pathway previously traversed by Krishna, Nandimukhi told Her: Now that you have stepped on the pathway travelled by Krishna, Your limbs have begun to tremble. Will Your heart now become flooded with love for Him? Will it not begin to melt with love for Him?


Sneha is said to be of two kinds: love that is like butter; and love that is like honey.


When the lover is overwhelmed by awe and respect for the beloved, that condition is called sneha like butter. Just as butter is not very palatable by itself, but becomes palatable when mixed with other foods, in the same way this sneha like butter is not palatable by itself, but becomes so in conjunction with other conditions of ecstatic love. Just as butter is hard and cool, in the same way this sneha is hard and cool with respect and awe for the beloved. For these reasons this kind of sneha is compared to butter.


Candravali's friend Padma addresses Lalita and the assembly of Radharani's friend: Whenever Candravali arrives, Krishna, the killer of the Madhu demon, at once respectfully embraces her from a distance. With her very pure love she brings Krishna completely under her control. She appears like a white monsoon cloud depleted by showering a great rain of transcendental pastimes with Krishna. To what other object may I nicely compare my friend Candravali?


Vrnda to Nandimukhi: Krishna placed Candravali's left arm around His shoulder. Thinking her left arm inferior, Candravali retracted it and placed her right arm there. As Candravali danced with Krishna she became filled with awe. Tears streamed from her eyes, and she moved her feet very awkwardly, causing Radharani's amused friends to smile.


Understanding of the beloved's exalted position creates awe and respect in the lover. This understanding and it's accompanying awe are both present in ghrta-sneha.


Madhu-sneha (love like honey): Madhu-sneha is characterized by intense feelings of possessiveness towards the beloved. Madhu-sneha displays great sweetness. It contains within it the nectar tastes of various kinds of loving mellows. it is filled with an intoxicating, ardent passion. Because it is like honey it is called madhu-sneha.


Krishna to Subala: Radharani is like a nectar-statue fashioned from the intense sweetness of love, filled with all transcendental virtues, and softened by the great heat of ardent passion. When Her name enters the abode of My ears I become immediately filled with incomparable bliss and I forget the existence of the entire world.


Mana (pride): When intense condition of love manifesting ever-fresh sweetness to the lover, also displays contrariness and impoliteness, this feature is called pride and anger.


In the midst of Their amorous pastimes, Radharani rebuked Krishna: Beautiful Radharani knitted Her eyebrows and told Krishna: O hero of the cowherds, please stop breathing on Me with the wind from Your mouth. You are covered by dust raised by cows, and that dust makes My eyes tear.


Krishna to Kundavali: When I accidentally said the word Radha, Candravali became tortured with pain, as if violently wounded at heart. However, in order to pacify My embarrassment and bewilderment, she doubled the smile on her lotus face and spoke words filled with sweetness. In this way Candravali astonished My cowherd friend.


Knitting her eyebrows on her forehead, this gopi stared at Hari, and the two bumble-bees of her eyes drank the nectar of His lotus face.


Having lost the dice-game in which an embrace was the winner's prize, the doe-eyed gopi stared at Madhava with crooked eyes, and stopped Him with her hand when He tried to embrace her.


During the rasa-dance one gopi, absorbed in the anger of love, bit her lips, knitted her eyebrows, and gazed at Krishna from the corner of her eyes, as if striking Him.


When Krishna said, My dear passionate friend, now you can embrace Me in this pathway, Mangala's lips curled with distaste, and she struck Him with her flower-garland.


Rupa-manjari to Rati-manjari: When, I order to taste the happiness of touching Radharani's nipples, Kesava, His hairs standing up with excitement, dallied for a long time as He slowly painted pictures on Her breasts with perspiring finger, restless-eyed Radharani anxious that someone would intrude on Their pastimes, suddenly pushed Him away, pressing Her left breast against Him.


Claiming that He was a government-appointed toll-collector, Krishna demanded payment from the gopis when He met them in Vrndavana. The gopis accused Him of lying, and He replied that He was speaking no lie. Lalita then spoke to Him: O Krishna, O enemy of the Agha demon, by drinking the nectar of Your bimba-fruit lips, the tongues of these thousands of saintly gopis have become very pure and chaste. How is it possible for them to speak lies about You? My dear Krishna, why is it that Your reddish hand is not able to tolerate the fact that these beautiful-eyebrowed gopis' undergarments are tightly tied? and their other garments are also.


Rupa-manjari: Her tilted neck resting on Krishna's shoulder, her breasts touching His body, and the hairs of Her body standing up in ecstatic bliss, beautiful-faced Radharani knitted Her eyebrows and gazed at Her lover with crooked eyes. She took Krishna's yellow garment, more splendid than gold, and wiped the tears of joy from Her face.


During the rasa-dance, one gopi jubilantly placed Krishna's lotus hand in hers, and another gopi placed her arms around His shoulder anointed with sandalwood paste.


A gopi-maidservant gives Candravali the following advice: Do not shyly move back when lotus-eyed Krishna places bells around your ankles. The tinkling sounds of those bells will shame all your swanlike rivals.


Visakha asks Radharani: My friend, what do You tell Krishna when You strongly embrace His shoulders with the two creepers of Your arms, and, lowering Your cheeks, whisper secrets in His ear?


Satyabhama to Krishna: My dear, if Your words are true and You intend to keep Your word, then You should bring this parijata tree to decorate the garden in my palace.


A gopi says: Resting the two flower-buds of her breasts on His charming chest, my friend Candravali paints many designs in kunkuma dots on the forehead of Krishna, the killer of Kamsa?


Radharani considered Herself Krishna's most beloved gopi. She had become proud and had left the rasa-dance with Krishna. In the deep forest She said: My dear Krishna, I cannot walk any more. You can take Me wherever You like.


As Krishna was about to speak the secret of their nocturnal pastimes, Beautiful-eyed Candravali knitted her delicate eyebrows and quickly covered His mouth with her hand.


As Tara was painting a picture on His Shrivatsa-marked chest, Krishna playfully threw the paintbox in the waters of the Yamuna as a joke. Tara glowered at Him with knitted eyebrows and crooked eyes. Embracing Him, she finished the half-completed picture using her kunkuma-anointed nipple as a paintbrush.


Vrnda to Nandimukhi: Defeating Krishna in the gambling match where a kiss had been wagered as the prize, Syama gazed at Him with crooked eyes. She bound His neck with the creeper of her left arm and drank the nectar of His lips.


Rupa-manjari to a friend: Removing His yellow cadar, Krishna showed the scratch-marks on His chest to the gopis. Shaking Her head and knitting Her eyebrows, the small hairs on Her breasts standing up, Gandharvika angrily covered Krishna's cloud-dark chest with Her hands.


When, even though thee is cause for great suffering within the heart, great love impels the lover to feel happiness indeed.


Observing Radharani's activities, Lalita says: Even though the blazing hot sunshine resembles a hailstorm of swords, and even though the rough, uneven slope of Govardhana Hill where She stays because Radharani, placing Her lotus feet on a bed of blue lotus flowers, sees the cowherd prince Krishna, She does not feel any suffering, but instead remains motionless with joy.


A gopi prays to the moon: O moon surrounded by stars on the fourth night of the month of Bhadra, O Lord who causes great tidal waves in the ocean of amorous desire, I respectfully offer arghya water to you and I bow down before You. I pray that by your mercy my desire to become the beloved of youthful Krishna will actually become fulfilled.


Nila-raga love is free from any obstacles or diminution. It is not displayed for public view, but is carefully hidden within the heart. This is the opinion of saintly devotees. Nila-raga love can be very clearly seen in the relationship between Krishna and Candravali.


Bhadra tells Krishna: O king of Vraja, even though kind, pure-hearted Candravali is completely enchanted by your transcendental virtues and loves You deeply, she has so expertly displayed so many convincing signs of not loving You that even her friends ar convinced that she is quite indifferent to You.


A gopi tells proud Bhadra, who has recently quarreled with Krishna: Formerly, you would never leave Krishna's side to go into a slightly dark charming forest-grove even in the daytime. Such a grove would frighten you. Ah, proud Bhadra, you are now caught in a dark night in a doubly darkened forest of black tamala trees, eagerly searching for Krishna, the killer of the mura demon.


A gopi tells Krishna: Krishna, when my friend Syama hears Your name, she becomes stunned, and when she sees a snake she becomes maddened with happiness, reminded of Your snakelike arms. She continually imagines that  she sees You. I cannot properly diagnose her condition. I do not know whether she deeply loves, or virulently hates You.


Manjistha-raga love is eternal and can never be destroyed. It is independent, without any basis, other than itself, for it's existence. It eternally increases and becomes more and more beautiful and splendid. The love of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna is the prominent example of manistha-raga.


Paurnamasi to Nandimukhi: The peerless, jubilant festival of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna's mutual love is eternal. It is never bound by the confines of a single particular birth. Whatever destiny may bring to that couple. Their love never wavers. That love is supremely independent and has nothing outside itself for it's cause. Those lovers relish the nectar of Their association in spite of any fears of discovery by hostile elders. That astonishing, blissful love eternally increases in it's beauty and opulence.


Radharani to Paurnamasi: Then you advise Me to give up My love for this Krishna, who defeated the Mura demon. My dear affectionate friend, let Me ask a benediction from you. Please bless Me so that this evening I may become a bumble-bee resting in Krishna's forest-flower-garland, and attracted to the sweet fragrance of His mouth.


The same varieties of love manifested by Candravali and her friends are also manifested by Maharaja Bhismaka's daughter Rukmini and the other queens of Krishna who are her followers.


The same varieties of love manifested by Radharani and Her followers are also sometimes manifested in Shrimati Satyabhama and Shrimati Laksmana.


In this way there are many different kids of love manifested by the beautiful-eyebrowed gopis in Gokula. These gopis are divided  into atma-paksa (allies), and vipaksa (rivals) and other ways also.


That love, which even though continually experienced remains always dear and ever increasingly fresh and new is called anuraga.


Seeing Krishna from a distance, Radharani told Vrnda: Krishna now continually walks on the pathway of My eyes. I have never before seen such sweetness. My eyes are hardly able to drink even a drop of His charming handsomeness.


Radharani: O slender friend, who is this Krishna that when His name enters My ears I loose all composure? Lalita: O girl blinded by love, what is it that now continually plays within Your heart? Radharani: Don't make fun of Me! Lalita: O bewildered girl, I have now placed You in the hand of this Krishna. Radharani: It is true. it is true. He has now appeared before Me like a lightning flash appearing in the courtyard of My eyes.


Kundalata tells Krishna: O Krishna, O subduer of the Agha-demon, what are these unprecedented waves of amorous pastimes where You and Your beloved Radharani strive to conquer each other? I can see now that Radharani has firmly chained the elephant of Your heart with the shackles of Her love, and You have also bound the deer of Her heart with the ropes of the transcendental bliss of Your love.


Lovelorn Radharani tells Lalita: O slender-waisted friend, I think birth as a bamboo-rod is the best of all noble births. I shall therefore perform many severe austerities in this birth so that in My next birth I shall become a bamboo-rod flute able to drink the sweet nectar of Krishna's bimba-fruit lips.


Lalita addresses a traveller on the pathway to Mathura: O traveller to Mathura, please recite this message in a loud voice before Krishna, the king of Mathura. Tell Him: A beautiful vraja-gopi has given me this message to repeat to You. She says: O supremely independent Krishna, if You leave the capital city of Mathura, then please definitely come here to Vraja at once. Why do You repeatedly torture My anguished friend Radharani by appearing before Her for one fleeting moment here and another fleeting moment there?


Vrnda to Krishna: O my Lord, you live in the forest of Govardhana Hill, and, like the king of elephant, You are expert in the art of conjugal love. O master of the universe, Your heart and Radharani's heart are just like shellac and are now melted in Your spiritual perspiration. Therefore one can no longer distinguish between You and Radharani. Now You have mixed Your newly invoked affection, which is like vermillion, with Your melted hearts, and for the benefit of the whole world You have painted both Your hearts red within this great palace of the universe.


That exalted state of love which is very difficult even for Krishna's queen to again, and which is understandable only by the gopis, goddesses of Vraja, is called maha-bhava.


Maha-bhava love is filled with sweet nectar that charms the heart.


During the rasa dance the gopis manifested a nectar river of love for Krishna. The broken cooing of the awakening swans in that river was the sound of the gopis voices choked with ecstasy. The waves and whirlpools of that river were the gopis' trembling motions. The playful fish in that river were the gopis' bodily hairs standing up with happiness. The currents in that river were the gopis' tears. The cooling spray in that river was the gopis' becoming stunned with joy. The lotus flowers growing in that river were the gopis' transcendental bliss.


This ecstatic love manifests the following features: Inability to tolerate the eyes blinking; agitation of the heart; perceiving a kalpa to be as long as a single moment; during a period of happiness becoming depressed because of apprehension of future suffering; becoming bewildered and forgetting everything, even one's own self; perceiving a single moment to be as long as a kalpa; These are the beginning of a list of many features of ecstatic love manifested in both yoga (meeting the beloved) and viyoga (separation from the beloved).


The gopis saw their beloved Krishna at Kuruksetra after a long separation. They secured and embraced Him in their hearts through their eyes, and they attained a joy so intense that not even perfect yogis can attain it. The gopis cursed the creator for creating eyelids that interfered with their vision.


During Krishna's meeting with the Vrajavasis in Kuruksetra, some of the women of Dvaraka remarked: See how the waves of the gopis' love for Krishna are drawing everyone. They make the heads of the great Kuru kings reel and they make all the beautiful girls in the heavenly planets waver in their chastity. These waves of the gopis' love are now splashing against the transcendental handsomeness of Krishna.


Paurnamasi tells Nandimukhi: As the rasa-dance was performed in the autumn moonlight, the night suddenly became as long as a night of Brahma. This did not at all surprise the gopis. They remained unaware of the transformation, for they were so splashed with transcendental happiness that, for them, the great kalpa seemed as long as a single moment.


Dear Krishna, we careful hold Your delicate lotus feet upon our hard breasts. When You walk in the forest, Your soft lotus feet are pricked by small bits of stone. We fear that this is paining You. You are our life and soul, and our minds are very disturbed when Your lotus feet are pained.


My dear Uddhava, just as great sages in yoga trance merge into self-realization, like rivers merging into the ocean, and are thus not aware of material names and forms, similarly, the gopis of Vrndavana were so completely attached to Me within their minds that they could not think of their own bodies, nor of this world, nor of their future lives. Their entire consciousness was simply bound up in Me.


Dear Uddhava, all of those nights that the gopis spent with Me, their most dearly beloved, in the land of Vrndavana seemed to them to pass in less than a moment. Bereft of My association, however, the gopis felt that those same nights dragged on forever, as if each night were equal to a day of brahma.


Lord Siva tells Parvati: O Parvati, if all the happiness and pain in the spiritual worlds of Vaikuntha, and in the millions of material universes consisting of three planetary systems, were added together they would barely equal two drops in the oceans of bliss and pain that spring from Radharani's love for Krishna.


NavaVrnda: The desire tree of Shri Shri Radha Krishna's transcendental bliss eternally shines with great splendor. Radha and Krishna's sweet words are the warblings of the cuckoo birds on the tree branches. Their transcendental beauty is that trees trunk, Their amorous desires that tree's many new shoots, Their perspiration it's pear-fruits, and Their tears it's honey. Although remaining in one place, that tree trembles with amorous passion.


Among Radharani and Her friends transcendental happiness is not limited to modana, but also includes the charming, opulent, transcendental pastimes of hladini-sakti.


During the meeting Krishna, His queens, and the vrajavasis at Kuruksetra, one of the women of Dvaraka says: Filled with waves of love the astonishing river of Radharani entered the sea of Krishna at Kuruksetra. Seeing this, Bhadra became stunned and could not speak, Kalindi shed many tears, Satyabhama cheerfully laughed and joked, and grave, profound Rukmini turned white.


Eclipsing Parvati, who because she is non-different from him is half of Lord Siva's body, eclipsing Laksmi, who, because of intimate friendship with her lover, reclines on His chest, eclipsing Satyabhama, who, because of her great good fortune, is like a lotus flower that attracts the bumble-bee of Krishna's heart, and also eclipsing Candravali, who, because of her charming sweetness is the life and soul of Krishna, the ruler of Mathura, look, the ocean of Radharani's love now splashes it's waves against hari.


When a lover is separated from the beloved the condition of happiness becomes transformed into bewilderment. Overwhelmed by feelings of separation, the lover manifests the ecstatic symptoms known as suddipta sattvika.


Having returned from visit to Vrndavana, Uddhava tells Krishna: Wonderfully overwhelmed with intense love for You, Radharani trembles, loudly grinds Her teeth, stutters with a choked up voice, cries so many tears that She makes Gokula appear like the mother of all rivers, eclipses the kantaki fruits with the sight of Her bodily hairs standing up, and stands with a complexion turned pale-white.


The anubhava ecstasies described by the learned devotees include: fainting caused by remembering the beloved; eagerness to accept any unbearable suffering to ensure the happiness of the beloved; agitating the entire universe; crying like a bird; wishing that the elements of one's body may associate with the beloved after death; transcendental insanity. These forms of bewilderment primarily appear in Radharani, the queen of Vrndavana. They are very unusual, and they are manifested from sansari-moha.


A gopi says: Even though tightly embraced by Rukmini-devi in a jewelled palace in Dvaraka by the sea, Krishna, remembering the fragrance of Radharani's transcendental pastimes in the vanira grove by the lovely shore of the Yamuna, suddenly fainted.


Radharani to Uddhava: If Mukunda returns to Vraja village we would become very happy, but if His return made Him slightly unhappy we would not feel any happiness. If Krishna does not come here from Mathura city, we will suffer intensely, but if not returning brought happiness to His heart, it would also bring happiness to our hearts.


Nandimukhi informs Dvaraka's king Krishna of Radharani's activities in Vrndavana: My Lord, when Radharani's sighs of love for You travel in all directions, they make the entire universe cast out all it's happiness and become overwhelmed with pain within the heart. These sighs make the human society cry out with grief. They make the lower forms of life, sustained by the serpent Ananta, perspire with anguish. They make the residence of Vaikunthaloka abandon all spiritual bliss and weep.


Suffering from Krishna's absence, Radharani tells Visakha: I don't know how this weak chest is able to bear this great fire of suffering harsher than a host of submarine volcanoes spitting fire. If the smoke from this fire were to emerge from My heart in the form of a sigh, it would set the entire universe ablaze.


While visiting Dvarka, Nandimukhi tells Paurnamasi: When Krishna left for Dvaraka, Radharani wrapped Herself in His garments and sat down by a charming creeper in a grove on the Yamuna's shore-filled with longing, She shed tears and sang in a shrill, choked-up voice. When the fish in the water heard Her they became anxious, thinking the singing to be the warbling of a predator crane or pelican.


Radharani tell Lalita: Now that I am separated from Krishna it is just as well that My body die and the various elements that compose it enter into the reservoirs of the respective elements. I bow My head before the creator Brahma, and beg that after My death the water in My body may become the space that enables Krishna to travel from one place to another. I pray that the air in My body may become the breeze created by the palm-leaf used to fan Krishna.


When the ecstatic emotion of enchantment gradually progress, it becomes similar to bewilderment. Then one reaches the stage of astonishment, which awakes transcendental madness. Udhurna and citra-jalpa are two among the many divisions of transcendental madness.


Uddhava tells Krishna: Agitated by Your absence, What astonishing condition has Radharani not attained? Imagining that She will meet You, She dresses and decorates Herself nicely and carefully arranges a bed in a forest-cottage. When You do not come She feels You are unfaithful, and She becomes angry and ferociously criticize the dark rain-cloud. Yearning to meet You, She staggers out into the frightening darkness to search for You.


Radharani's manifestation of udghurna after Krishna had gone to Mathura city is clearly described in the third act of Lalita Madhava.


Citra-jalpa: These are conversation with the beloved in the company of friends. These conversations contain veiled anger, intense love, and great longing within the heart.


Citra-jalpa contains countless manifestations of wonderfully astonishing love for Krishna. Nothing is more astonishing than even a brief summary of citra-jalpa.


Prajalpa: This consists of inauspicious, scorn-filled, envious, angry, passionate, mad words hurled at the beloved.


Radharani: Bumblebee, you are accustomed to drinking honey for the flowers, and therefore you have preferred to be a messenger of Krishna, who is of the same nature as you. I have seen on your moustaches the red powder of kunkuma which was smeared ont the flower garland of Krishna while He was pressing the breast of some other girl who is My competitor. You feel very proud because of having touched that garland, and your moustaches have become reddish. You have come here carrying a message for Me, anxious to touch My feet. But My dear bumblebee, let Me warn you-don't touch Me! I don't want any messages from your unreliable master. You are the unreliable servant of an unreliable master.


When the lover displays her intelligence by crookedly criticizing Krishna for His mercilessness, cheating, fickleness and other faults, such talk is called parijalpita.


Radharani: Your master Krishna is exactly of your quality. you sit down on a flower, and after taking a little honey you immediately fly away and sit in another flower and taste. You're  just like your master Krishna. he gave us the chance to taste the touch of His lips and then left altogether. I know also that the goddess of fortune, Laksmi, who is always in the midst of the lotus flower, is constantly engaged in Krishna's service. But I do no know shy she has become so captivated by Krishna. She is attached to Him although she knows His actual character. As far as we are concerned, we are more intelligent than that goddess of fortune. We are not going to be cheated any more by Krishna or His messengers.


Vijalpa: Crooked words openly displaying envy and secretly containing pride and anger towards Krishna.


Radharani: You foolish bumblebee, you are trying to satisfy Me and get a reward by singing the glories of Krishna, but it is a useless attempt. We are bereft of all our possessions. We are away from our homes and families. We know very well about Krishna. We know even more than you. So whatever you make up about Him will be old stories to us. Krishna is now in the city and is better known as the friend of Arjuna. He now has many new girl friends, who are no doubt very happy in association with Him. Because the lusty burning sensation of their breasts has been satisfied by Krishna, they are now happy. If you go there and glorify Krishna, they may be pleased to reward you.


Ujjalpa: When, impelled by jealous anger born from pride, the lover calls Krishna a cheater, and enviously rejects Him.


Radharani: I can understand that you are expert in reuniting two parties, but at the same time you must know that I cannot place My reliance upon you, nor upon your master Krishna. We eft our families, husbands, children and relatives only for Krishna, yet He did not feel any obligation in exchange. He has left  us for lost. Do you think we can place our faith in Him again? We know that Krishna cannot be long without the association of young women. That is His nature. He is finding difficulty in Mathura because He is no longer in the village among innocent cowherd girls. he is in aristocratic society and must be feeling difficulty in making friendship with the young girls. Perhaps you have come here to canvas again to take us there. But Why should Krishna expect us to go there? He is greatly qualified to entice all other girls, not only in Vrndavana or Mathura, but all over the universe. His wonderfully enchanting smile is so attractive and the movement of His eyebrows so beautiful that He can call for any woman from the heavenly, middle of plutonic planets. Maha-Laksmi, the greatest of all goddesses of fortune, also hankers to render Him some service. In comparison to all these women of the universe, what are we? We are very insignificant.


Sanjalpa: cutting, ironic rebukes filled with ingratitude and other similar sentiments are called sanjalpa by the wise.


Radharani: My dear bumble-bee, do not place your head on My feet. You are just trying to pacify Me by your behavior as a flatterer, and therefore you have put your head under My feet. But I know the trick you are trying to play. I know that you are a messenger coming from a great tricker, Krishna. Therefore, lease leave Me. We abandoned our husbands, children, and other relatives for Krishna's sake, and now He has left us. Why should we be interested to hear about this fickle-mended Krishna?


Angry, frightened words impelled by harshness, lust,and mischief, where loving attachment is completely inappropriate, are known as avajalpa.


Radharani: Krishna advertises Himself as magnanimous, and He is praised by great saints. His qualifications could be perfectly utilized if He would only show us mercy, for we are downtrodden and neglected by Him. You poor messenger, you are only a less intelligent servant. You do not know much about Krishna, how ungrateful and hard-hearted He has been, not only in this life, but in His previous lives also. We have all heard this from our grandmother Paurnamasi. She has informed us that Krishna was born in a ksatriya family previously to this birth and was known as Ramacandra. In that birth, instead of killing Vali, an enemy of His friend, in the manner of a ksatriya, He killed him just like a hunter. A hunter takes a secure hiding place and then kills an animal without facing it. So Lord Ramacandra, as a ksatriya, should have fought with Vali face to face, but, instigated by His friend, He killed him from behind a tree. Thus He deviated from the religious principles of a ksatriya. also, He was so attracted by the beauty of Sita that He converted Surpanakha, the sister of Ravana, into an ugly woman by cutting off her nose and ears. Surpanakha proposed an intimate relationship with Him, and as a ksatriya He should have satisfied her. But He was so henpecked that He could not forget Sita-devi and converted Surpanakha into an ugly woman. Before that birth as a ksatriya, He took His birth as a brahmana boy known as Vamanadeva and asked charity from Bali Maharaja. Bali Maharaja was so magnanimous that he gave Him whatever he had, yet Krishna as Vamanadeva ungratefully arrested him just like a crow and pushed him down to the patala kingdom. we know all about Krishna and how ungrateful he is. But here is the difficulty for us to give up talking about Him. Not only are we unable to give up this talk, but great sages and saintly persons also engage in talking about Him. We gopis of Vrndavana do not want to make any more friendship