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YA. (xi) This letter means "Yaga", "Yata" (one who goes) or "hero". (Agni Purana, Chapter 348)


YADAVA. See under Yaduvarizga.


YADAVI. Mother of the King Sagara. (For more details see under Sagara).


YADU I. The founder of Yadava Varh9a or Yadu Varh9a. 1) Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in the following order: -Brahma-Atri- Candra - Budha -~-Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa-Yayati-Yadu. 2) 2adu FaWa (Yadavd'Tranda). The origin of Yadu Varizsa is from Atri. Candra, Durvasas and Dattatreya Muni were the sons of Atri by Anasuya. Budha was born to Candra, Pururavas was born to B,udha, Ayus was born to Pururavas, and Nahusa was born to Ayus. Two children, Ayati and Yayati were born to Nahusa. Yayati had two wives, Sarmistha and Devayani. Three (M.B.Bhisrnasons, Druhyu, Anudruhyu and Puru were born to Sarmistha. The Puru variisa takes its origin from Puru. Yayati had two sons by Devayani. They were Yadu and Turvasu. The descendants of Yadu are the Yadavas.


Four sons, Sahasrajit, Krosta, Nala and Ripu were born to Yadu. Sahasrajit had a son, gatajit. Three sons Mahabhaya, Venuhaya and Hehaya were born to Satajit. Of them Hehaya became famous under the name of Ekavira and founded the Hehaya variis a. The Hehayas and Bhargavas were on terms of enmity. Dharma was born to Hehaya, and Kunti or Kuni was born to Dharma. Kuni had four sons-Sadajit, Mahisman, Bhadrasena and Durdama. Dhanaka was the son of Bhadrasena and Dhanaka had four sons-Krtavirya, Krtagni, Krtavarma and Krtaujas. Of them, Krtavirya who was the eldest, was the father of Kartaviryarjuna.


From here, Yadu varina continues from Kartaviryarjuna. He had five sons, Jayadhvaja, Surasena, Vrsabha, Madhu and Crjjita. Vrsni was the son of Madhu, the fourth of them. From this point, Yadu variisa continues from Vrsni. Yadava varina from this stage is also known as Vrsnivarii9a. Vrsnihadfoursons-Sumitra,Yudhajit, Vasu and Sarvabhauma. Yadu varhsa continues from Yudhajit. He had two sons, Sini and Nimna. Sini's son was Satyaka and Satyaka's son was Satyaki. Satyaki had another name, Yuyudhana. Jaya was Satyaki's son. Kuni was the son of Jaya, Anamitra was the son of Kuni and Prsni was the son of Anamitra. Prsni's sons were Citratatha and Svaphalka. Viduratha and Kukura were born to Citraratha. aura was the son ofViduratha. Sini was the son of Sura, Bhoja was the son of Mini, Hrdika was the son of Bhoja. Four sons, Devavaha, Gadadhanva, Krtaparva and $ura, were born to Hrdika. Sura married Marisa and their children were Vasu, Devabhaga, Devasravas, Anaka. Srnjaya, Kakanika, S`yamaka, Vatsa, Kavuka and Vasudeva. Vasudeva married Devaki, the sister of Kariisa. Sri Krsna was their son. Pradyumna was the son of Sri Krsna. Aniruddha was the son of Pradyumna and Vajra was the son of Aniruddha. The last known link of that branch of Yadu varhsa was Vajra.


Kariisa also belonged to Yadu vamp a. Kukura who was the brother of Viduratha was the ancestor of Kariisa. Ugrasena who was a lineal descendant of Kukura, was the father of Kamsa. The Puranas mention Devaki, the mother of Sri Krsna as Kamsa's sister. But in fact she was not his direct sister. Ugrasena, Karhsa's father, had a brother named Devaka. This Devaka had three sons, Devapa, Upadeva and Sudeva. Devaki, Sri Krsna's mother was the daughter of Devapa. Devaki had six sisters who were-Srutadeva, $antideva, Upadeva, Srideva, Devaraksita and Sahadeva.


Akrura who went to Ambadi also belonged to another branch of Yadu varii9a. Prsni who was of the ninth generation from Vrsni, had two sons-Citraratha and Svaphalka. Akrura was the son of S`vaphalka.


3 ) Other details about Y'adu Varizsa


(i) Once Yayati wanted his son Yadu to transfer the tatter's youthfdlness to Yayati. The son refused to oblige the father who therefore pronounced a curse that Yadu's descendants would not enjoy kingship. ( For detailed story, see under Yayati ).


( ii) Yadu's descendants are ca1led Yadav4s: ( M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 10) .


(iii) Yadu was the son of Devayani and the grandson of gu4acarya. Although Yadu was a hero, he was dullwitted. He did not obey his father. He used to despise his father and brothers. His capital city was Hastinapura. He became dull-witted after the loss of his kingdom by the curse of his father. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 149) .


4) The end of Tadu VariiSa. Sri KMrs was one of the most important members of the Yadu Vamsa. That family continued only for 36 years more after the end of the Bharata Yuddha. At the end of the thirtysix years, evil omens began to appear in Dvaraka. Whirlwinds began to blow furiously. Frightened birds began to fly helterskelter. Rivers began to flow upwards. The whole land was enveloped in mist. Comets continued to drop from heaven, scattering sparks of fire. The sun's disc was eclipsed with clouds of dust.


At that time, one day, the sages Vi9vamitra, Kanva and Narada happened to come to DVaraka. A band of Yadavas, under the leadership of Samba, gathered round the sages to make fun of them. They dressed Samba like a pregnant woman and asked the sages what child "she" would bear. The enraged sages replied that the "Child" would be an iron pestle which would be the cause of the death of all the Yadavas. Besides, they added that, with the exception of Rama, (Balabhadra R1ma ) and Krsna, the whole of Yadava Varhsa would come to ruin.


Next day Samba did give birth to an iron pestle. The frightened Yadavas recalled the curse of the sages. They reported the matter to their king. The king, in deep gloom, had the pestle filed into dust and ordered his men to throw the dust into the sea.


People recalled Gandhari's curse on Sri Krsna after the Bharata Yuddha. The curse was that the family of Sri Krsna who was the cause of all mischief, would be wiped out within a period of 36 years.


At that time, women began to be stolen from Dvaraka every night by a dark woman monster. Sri Krsna's weapon, Cakra slipped out of Krsxia's grip and rose up to heaven, in the very presence of the Vrsnis. Seeing these evil omens, the alarmed Vrsnis and Andhakas began to leave the place on a pilgrimage. They reached the shore of Prabhasa tirtha. The Uddhavas parted company with the Yadavas there. Nobody prevented the Uddhavas. Sri Krsna who saw that the end of the Yadavas was approaching, also kept silent. The Yadava leaders in despair, took to drinking. Intoxicated by drinking they began to quarrel. The particles of the iron pestle thrown into, the sea, were carried-and deposited on the shore by the waves. They began to sprout into a kind of grass. The blades of this grass soon transformed themselves into iron pestles. The Yadavas pulled them out and began attacking each other with them. Most of them were beaten to death by their own kinsfolk. Sri Krsna who was in a state of trance in "Yogasana", was hit on his toe by an arrow shot by a hunter and he fell into Samadhi. Balabhadra Rama renounced his body and went to Patala.


After that the sea advanced and submerged the whole of Dvaraka. (M.B. Mausala Parva)


YADU III. King of Yadus. There are references to this king in many places in the 1st Mandala of Rgveda.


YAJA. A sage born in Kasyapa gotra. ( Fox further details, see the word Upayaja and Pancali).


YAJATA. A Yajnakarta ( Performer of Yajnas) celebrated in the Rgveda.


YAJIVA. An incarnation of Mahavisnu. Svayambhuva Mann had two sons, Priyavrata and Uttanapada and three daughters, Akuti, Devahuti, and Prasuti. Ruci Prajapati married Akuti. Yajna was their son. Devi Phagavata, 8th Skandha mentions that this Yajna was an incarnation of Adi Naravana.


Yajna had a sister named Daksina. They were twins. They married each other. The twelve sons who were born to them were the Devas known as Yamas, during the Svayambhuva. Manvantara. ( Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 7).


Yajna's twelve sans were:-Tosa, Pratosa, Samosa, Bhadra, Santi, Idaspati, Iddhma, Kavi, Vibhu, Sraghna, Sudeva and Virocaka. Their father Yajna was the Indra


of Svayambhuva Manvantara. (Bhagavata, 4th Skandha ).


YAJIVABAHU. An ancient sage who was the son of Priyavrata and grandson of Svayambhuva Manu. Svayambhuva Manu had two famous sons named Priyavrata and Uttanapada. Of these, Priyavrata married Surupa and Barhismati, the two daughters of ViSvakarma. Yajnabahu was the son of Priyavrata by Surupa. The ten sons born to Priyavrata and Surupa.were:-Agnidhra, Iddhmajihva, Yajnabahu, Mahavira, Rukmas ukra, Ghrtaprstha, Savana, Medhatithi, Vitihotra and Kavi. They had a daughter, Urjjasvati. Bhagavata, 8th Skandha).


YAJIVADATTA I. A youthful sage. In Agni Purana. Chapter 6, it is stated that this youth was shot dead with an arrow by Dasaratha, mistaking him for an elephant, on the bank of the river Sarayu. But Valmiki Ramayana says that the name of the boy-sage who was shot dead by Dasaratha was "Sravana". For more details see 3rd Para under Dagaratha.


YAJIVADATTA II. A Brahmana. There was a Brahmana village called Mahat at the foot of the Yamuna mountain, between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna. ,This Brahmana was born and brought up here. There~ is a story in Padma Purana, Chapter 92, about him, which says that by mistake he was taken to hell by Kala's messenger and that he was reluctant to leave hell. The story is as follows:-


Once Yama (Kala) ordered his agent to bring the Brahmana named Yajnadatta, who lived in Mahat village, born in Vasisxha gotra and was gentle, scholarly and well-versed in Yajna practices. He was specially warned that he should not make a mistake as there was another Brahmana with the same name who lived in the neighbourhood and who resembled Yajnadatta in appearance, learning and in every other respect. But in spite of Yama's, specific warning, his agent brought the wrong person.


Yama, with his sense of justice, received him with due respect and allowed him to return to the world. But Yajnadatta was not willing to return to the world.


YADU II. There is another Yadu .mentioned in the YAJNADATTA III. See under Pataliputra.

Puranas, who was the son of Uparicara Vasu. Maha- YAJNASARMA. A Brahmana made famous in the Puranas.

bharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 31, says that He was the son of Sivasarma. (For detailed story, see this Vasu was never defeated by anyone at any time. under Sivai arma).


YAJNASATRU. A Raksasa who fought against Rama and Laksmana in the forest. Khara, Dusana and Trisiras were the three Raksasas who declared war on Sri Rama. Yajiasatru was one of the twelve military commanders of Khara. Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, 26th Sarga, mentions that the twe1ve heroes who were Khara's commanders were: - Syenagami, Prthugriva, Yajnasatru, Vihangama, Durjaya, Karaviraksa, Parusa. Kalakarmuka, Meghamali, Mahamali, Sarpasya and Rudhiras ana.






See under Pancatantra.


Drupada, the son of King of Pancala. (For more details see under Drupada).


YAJNAVAHA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. There is a reference to him in Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 80.




1) General. Puranas say that this sage spent the major part of his life at the court of King Janaka. He was also King Janaka's priest. In Agni Purana, Chapter 16, it is mentioned that Kalki was Yajnavalkya'spriest. Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva,Chapter 4, Verse 51, mentions that Ydjfiavalkya was a "Brahmavadi son" of Visvamitra,


2) Thousand cozens. Once King Janaka conducted a Yaga. At that time he wished to find out the most. eminent among the sages. He promised to present a thousand cows to the sage who was a consummate scholar. A bag of gold coins was also tied to each horn of the cows. Janaka announced that the sage who claimed to be a consummate scholar might come forward and take the cows with him. No one among the numerous sages who were present, dared to come forward. Yajnavalkya,however, ordered his disciple to take the cows home with him. The other sages questioned his right to claim the cows. Yajnavalkya asserted his right to do so. One of the sages named Arthabhaga stood up and asked him the following question :-


Arthabhaga :-When a man who has not acquired divine knowledge dies, his "Jnanendriyas" (senses of knowledge) are also merged with it. How is it possible for him to accept another body afterwards ? "Yajnavalkya:-Karma (action) becomes the cause of his rebirth."


Next Kahola and many other sages put various questions to him. ''he substance of their talk is given below :-


Kahola :-What have you to say about the .invisible and omnipresent Brahman ?


Yajnavalkya :Four soul is the omni-present Brahman. The soul has no hunger or thirst, fear or desire, old age or death. Those who wish to know the soul, become sages after transcending love of wife, children or worldly riches. The two qualities essential for sages are scholarship and spiritual knowledge.


Gargi :-Who is the warp and woof of everything ?


Yajna :-It is Brahman. Do not ask further; if you do, your head will be broken to pieces.


Aruni :-Who is he who exists within ? (Antaryami)..


Yajna :-He who is contained in Jagat (the universe) without the knowledge of Jagat, he whose body is Jagat, he who controlsJagat as antaryami, he is within every one. He cannot be seen, but he sees. He cannot


An ancient sage who was a profound


be heard; but he hears. He is capable of thinking; but he is beyond our thoughts. He exists as one who sees, hears and thinks, in all creatures.


Gargi :-I have two questions to ask. They are as sharp and pointed as two arrows. By what force is fixed that which is above Heaven, below the earth and that which is between them, like warp and woof ?


Yd jna :-By the sky.


Gargi :-By what force is the sky held in position like warp and woof ?


Yajna :-Under the command of God, the sun and moon do not deviate from their orbits. The sky and the earth remain in their respective places. Rivers run making the fields fertile. One who lives and works without the ability to know God does not obtain immortality. He who dies without knowing God is a Krpana (spiritual bankrupt). On the contrary, he who knows God attains Moksa.


Sakalya :-How many gods are there ?


Yajna :-Thirtythree. They are-8 Vasus, 11 Rudras, 12 Adityas, Indra and Prajapati. The 8 Vasus are= Agni, Prthvi, Vayu, Antar3ksa,Aditya,Dyau (Heaven), Candra and Stars. The 11 Rudras are the combination of the 10 jnanendriyas and the working of the mind. The ruling deities of the 12 months are known as the 12 Adityas. They receive into them our lives and our Karmans (actions).


Ydjfiavalkya gave suitable answers to all other questions of Sakalya. At last, he asked Sakalya : "Now I will ask you a question. Whom do the Upanisads describe ? If you do not answer, your head will break." Sakalya could not answer it. He dropped down with a broken head. He asked the other scholars who had gathered there, if any of them wanted to ask him more questions. But no one came forward. All remained dumb. Then he continued :-"Fresh leaves sprout from a tree which has been cut. If the seed is destroyed, the tree does not grow out of it. How is it that a man is born again after his death ?"


No one was able to answer that question. Thus after defeating all of them in argument, Ydjfiavalkya went home with the cows.


3 ) In Janaka's court again. On another occasion, Yajnavalkya went to see ping Janaka. The King asked him whether he had come for getting cows or to ask abstruse question. The sage answered that be had come for both. Their conversation continued as follows :-


Janaka : Jita Muni has said that "Vacana" (word) is Brahman or God. What is your opinion ?


Yajna :-It is correct. But did he .say which is the body and abode of God ?


Janaka :-No.


Yajna :--In that case he has said only onefourth about God. Vacana is god's body and sky, his abode. Brahmavidya depends on the word. The word is Parabrahman. Janaka was highly pleased. He decided to give a thousand bulls to the sage. But Ydjfiavalkya said that his father's principle was to give effective knowledge to the pupil and not to receive any daksina ( Payment ) from him. Janaka again wanted Yajnavalkya to explain clearly what "Brahma Vidya" means.


Yajna : Just as a person can reach his destination-by walking or by travelling in 'a chariot or by sailing in a boat, in order to secure peace for the soul, you are depending on the Upanisads. But although one is learned in Vedas and Agamas, or adored by others or wealthy, or well-versed in Upanisads, unless one has known God-unless one acquired Brahmajnana-one cannot be said to be gratified. Do you know where you will go after renouncing your body?


Janaka :-I do not know.


Yajfia :-I shall tell you. The deity of the right eye is "Inda" (light). People call it "Indra". The deity of the left eye is Indrani, the wife of Indra. Indra is eater and Indrani is food. In a state of consciousness they are separated. (Then the soul is called Vaisvanara) . In a state of dream, the two are united. (Then the soul is called Taijasa). In a state of slumber, the soul is in "Prjfiaa" state. (Since there is no activity it is called Prajfia) . In the fourth or "Turiya" state, one becomes capable of transcending the three other states and to attain Parabrahman. It is a state of fearlessness transcending birth and death.


The King who was pleased by this teaching dedicated the kingdom of Videha and even himself to the sage.


4) In Janaka's court for the third time. After some years Yajfiavalkya went again to janaka's court. At that time also there was a philosophical discussion between the King and the sage in the form of questions and answers. Janaka :-Which is the light that gives us guidance during the day time ?


Yajfia :-The Sun.


Janaka :-After sunset which is the light that guides us? Yajfia .-The Moon.


Janaka :-And in the absence of the sun and moon ? Yajfia :-Agni.


Janaka :-Which is the light that guides us in the absence of the sun, moon and Agni ?


Yajfia :-Vacana.


Janaka :-Which is the light that shines in the absence of a)1 these luminaries ?


Yajfia :-Atmajyotis (soul's light). Janaka :-Who is Atman ?


Yajfia :-"Purusa" who is formed by the union of "vyana" in pranas (lives) and jyotis (light) in the heart. The soul is disposed to action with the help of intelligence. In the end it transcends the body, senses and mind and attains Moksa. In the state of consciousness the soul's activities become manifest to us. When in sleep, after deputing "Prana" for the protection of the body, the soul remains. outside the body. The senses become inactive. Therefore we should never wake up one who is asleep. When tho soul remains in the body and the senses are active, it is in a most vigilant state. Thus the soul is above the states of wakefulness, dream and slumber. The soul is the divine light of pure energy.


Janaka who was pleased, gave the, sage a, thousand cows more. After that Yajnavalkya spoke about liberation from worldly bonds:


Yajfia :-The soul has no connection with the three conditions. Just as the actions in a dream do not affect the soul, the actions in a wakeful state, also do not affect it. Just as a fish jumps from one side of the river to the other and back again, life keeps jumping from the state of wakefulness to the state of slumber and vice versa.


Just as a kite goes up flying and then comes back to its nest, one moves from the state of wakefulness to sleep and back again. In deep slumber, he merges with God,


but he does not know that. In that state, the father or the mother does not have the knowledge that they are the father or mother.


After that Yajnavalkya explained the nature of the soul and the various aspects of its working in a state of wakefulness and of slumber. He added:-"As long as there is "Kama" (desire) there is "Karman" also. Life goes on passing from birth to death and from death to birth. One attains perfection when one is above all desires, and acquires the highest divine knowledge. He is liberated from birth and death and becomes immortal.


By jfiana, dana and tapas we become self-purified and thus become worthy of the highest divine grace. We have to go from the vVor1d of Karman (action) to the world of atman (soul). One who has acquired Brahmajfiana (knowledge of Brahman) becomes a Brahmana.


Hearing these famous teachings of Yajfiavalkya, Janaka became his permanent disciple.


5) His end. Yajfiavalkya had two wives named Kalyani and Maitreyi. After giving his all to his wives he-passed into immortality. (Brhadaranyaka; M.B. 8anti Parva, Chapters 3-9) .


6) Has works. Yajfiavalkya has written a Smrti on the subject of law. "Mitaksara" is its famous commentary. Mitaksara is the highest authoritative treatise on Law in South India. 7) Other details. (i) Yajfiavalkya flourished in Yudhisthira's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 12 ).


(ii) He was also a member of Indra's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 12) .


(iii) Yajfiavalkya was the priest at the Rajasuya Yajfia of Dharmaputra. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 35) .


(iv) Yajfiavalkya had his knowledge of Vedas from Suryadeva. (M.B. 8anti Parva, Chapter 318, Verse 6) .




1) General. The Caturvedas are:-Rgveda, Yajurveda Samaveda and Atharvaveda. Visnu Purana, Part 3, Chapter 5, mentions that Vaigampayana, the disciple of Vedavyasa, divided Yajurveda into twentyseven branches and taught them to his disciples. Among those disciples there vas Yajfiavalkya, the son of Brahmarata. It was Vyasa who divided the Vedas into four parts. After dividing them, the sage Vyasa taught Rgveda to Paila, Yajurveda to Vaisampayana, Samaveda to Jaimini and Atharvaveda to Sumantu.


The rules for Japa, Homa etc. of Ydjurveda were taught to Vyasa by Agnideva. If all the rules of Yajurveda are correctly observed, all desires will be fulfilled. There are special rules for the observance of homa for the fulfilment of particular desires.


YAKRLLOMA. An Indian town. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 46) .




1) General. A class of Semi-gods. There are chiefly three classes of inhabitants in Heaven:-Devas, Ganadevas and Upadevas. Ganadevas consist of the 12 Adityas, 10 Visvadevas, 8 Vasus, 36 Tusitas, 64 Abhasvaras, 49 Anilas 220 Maharajikas, 12 Sadhyas and 11 Rudras.


Among the Upadevas there are 10 subdivisions. They are, Vidyadharas, Apsaras, Yaksas, Raksasas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Pisacas, Guhyakas, Siddhas and Bhutas.

2) Origin. -There are different views relating to the origin of the Yaksas. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 1 we find that the Yaksas took birth after Brahma's birth from "Virat Purusa's" anda. According to a statement in Agni Purana, Chapter 19, Yaksas and Raksasas were born from Muni, the grand daughter of Kasyapaprajapati. Thus Yaksas and Raksasas are related as brothers. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 7, there is another passage which says that Yaksas are the progeny of the sage Pulastya. -


3 ) Other details.


i) Once Sukadeva sang the story of Mahabharata to the Yaksas. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 108).


(ii) Lakhs of Yaksas remain in Kubera's assembly, worshipping him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 18) .


(iii) There are Yaksas in Brahma's assembly also. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 56).


(iv) Kubera is the King of Yaksas. ( M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 111, Verse 10).


( v) Bhimasena once drove away Yaksas and Raksasas. I (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 57).


k vi) On another occasion, Sunda and Upasunda defeated and persecuted the Yaksas. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 208, verse 7) .


YAKSAGRAHA. A Graha (Evil Spirit) connected with Yaksas. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 230, Verse 53, mentions that people become mad owing to the adverse influence of this Graha..


YAKSAVATA. A place made famous in the Puranas. In Devi Bhagavata, 5th Skandha, there is a statement saying that it was at this place that the Danava called Rambha took a she-buffalo as his wife.


YAKSAYUDDHAPARVA. A sub-division of Vana Parva, in Mahabharata, Chapters 158 to 164 of Vana Parva, are included in this sub-division.


YAKSESVARA: An incarnation of diva. The devas were puffed with pride when they secured Amrta by churning the ocean of milk. In order to allay their pride, diva took birth as Yaksesvara.


One day he put a blade of grass on the ground before them and asked them to take it up. Although the Devas tried their best, they were not able even to move it. It was only then that they became convinced of their own incapacity. (diva Purana, Satarudra Sarizhita).


YAKSy (YAKSINT). Women folk of Yaksas. Agni Purana, Chapter 50 mentions that the images of, Yaks! to be installed in temples should have fixed and long eyes. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 105, states that Yaksini is a Devi and by eating the prasada (naivedya) of the Devi one would be absolved of the sin of Brahmahatya (killing a Brahmana).


YAKSINf TIRTHA. A famous sacred place situated on the borders of Kuruksetra. By bathing at this place one's desires would be fulfilled. The place is also famous for offeringworship to the Pitrs. A visit to this place will be rewarded with the benefit of Asvamedha Yaga. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 23 mentions that this tirtha was founded by Paras urama.


YAKSMA (RAJAYAKSMA). The disease of consumption (Tuberculosis). There is a story in Mahabharata which says that this disease was created by Daksa Prajapati. ( For more details see under Candra) .


MAMA. Kala. (For more details see under Kala).


YAMA (S) : A band of special gods of the Svayambhuva Manvantara (See under Manvantara).


YAMADUTA. One-of the Brahmavadi sons of Visvamitra. ( M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 51) .


YAMAJIHVA. A prostitute. In Kathasaritsagara, Saktiyasolambaka, 1st Taranga, there is a story about her as follows :--

In the city of Citrakuta Ratnavarma a wealthy Vai;:ya, had a son named Isvaravarma. In order to avoid his son falling under the influence ofprostitutes, the father decided to teach "vesyatantram", to TSvaravarma while he was a boy. Yamajihva, the prostitute undertook this task for a reward of 1000 Niskas. (a gold coin of that time) .


After completing his education on the wiles and tricks of prostitutes, he was sent by his father to start a trade with a capital of five crores of Niskas. Lvaravarma and his friend Arthadatta on their way, stopped at a park on the outskirts of the city of Kancanapura. There he fell a victim to the bewitching charms of a prostitute named Sundari. He spent the lion's share of the money given by his father, on her. On the advice of his friend Arthadatta he was about to leave the place when Sundari pretended to be in danger of falling into a well and asked for his help. ysvaravarma was again caught in her trap and he was forced to spend the res of his money also on her. When he was rendered penniless the prostitute and her mother deserted him.


Lvaravarma returned home to his father, empty-handed. Ratnavarma took his son to Yamajihva again and told her the whole story. He said that his son fell into this plight because Yamajihva's training was not effective. After listening to the whole story, Yamajihva promised to recover the whole amount Icyst by fsvaravarma. She brought her trained monkey named "Ala" and placed 1,000 Niskas before him. She taught him to swallow the whole amount. After that, she taught him to give out by vomiting, the swallowed money in instalments of twenty, thirty, forty etc., as ordered. Then Yamajihva said to I'svaravarma :-"Take this monkey with you and go to Sundari's place. Make him swallow the money in secret and get it again from him, in instalments, in her presence. She would think that the monkey is an inexhaustible source of wealth and would be prepared to buy it at any cost- even by offering her whole wealth in return. At first you must pretend to be unwilling to part with the monkey. In the end, you must make him swallow 2,000 Niskas which he would be able to give out in two days at the rate of 1,000 on each day. Exchange him for her whole wealth and leave the place immediately."


With this advice Yamajihva sent Isvarawarma with the monkey. He went to Kancanapura in the company of his friend Arthadatta after receiving two crores of Niskas from his father. When Sundari knew that Lvaravarmaa, had come again with more money, she welcomed him with due respect and invited him to live with her. He accepted her invitation and took up his residence there. One day, he brought the monkey into the house and in the presence of Sundari asked him to produce various amounts of money for different purposes.


The monkey promptly vomited the various amounts separately without making any mistake. Sundari and her mother Makarakati were naturally amazed at the marvellous performance of the monkey. 1svaravarma explained that the monkey was capable of giving in this way, 1,000 Niskas daily. Sundar! made up her mind to purchase the wonderful animal at any price. She requested Is varavarma to give her the monkey in exchange for the crores of Niskas she had taken from him earlier. But he turned down her request. At last she persuaded him to sell the monkey to her for the entire wealth she possessed. Isvaravarma secretly made the monkey swallow 2,000 Niskas before handing it over to Sundar! and left the place at once to go to Svarnadv~pa for trade.


Ala, the monkey gave'Sundarl 1,000 Niskas on each of the first two days, but on the third day she was disillusioned. In her disappointment and anger, she beat Alan. The enraged monkey attacked both Sundar! and Makarakat! and harmed them by biting and tearing with its nails. They in turn, beat him to death. Thus Sundar! lost all her ill-gotten wealth and was reduced to utter poverty and distress.


YAMAKA. A region in ancient .India. The inhabitants of this place were called "Yamakas". Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, refers to the presents offered by the princes and people of Yamaka at Yudhisthira's AgvamedhaYajna.


YAMASABHA. Yama's assembly. This assembly is described in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8.


It was Visvakarma who built Yamasabha. It is 100 yojanas in length and 100 yojanas in width. Although it is illuminated with sun-light it has an equable temperature. Sadness, old age, hunger or thirst are unknown there. There is a dense growth of Kalpavrksas. All the dead people who were famous in ancient times are members of this assembly.


YAM I. A daughter of Surya. One of the wives of Surya was Samjfia, the daughter of Visvakarma. Three children, Mann, Yama and Yam!, were born to Surya by Sarhjfia. (Visnu Purana, Part 3, Chapter 2).


YAM1. A wife of Dharmadeva. The ten wives of Dharmadeva are-Arundhati, Vasu, Yami, Lamba, Bhanu, Marutvati, Sankalpa, Muhurta, Sadhya and Viva. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 15).


YAMINT. A daughter of Daksa Prajapati. She was- one of the wives of Kagyapa. (Bhagavata, 6th Skandha).


YAMUNA. Another name for the river Kalindi. (See also under Kalind!).


1) How the water in Kalindi turned Black :-The water in the river Kdlindi is black in colour. There is a story behind the changing of the colour of this river-water into black. Originally it was clear.


After the death of Sat!, Daksa's daughter, Siva broke up Daksa yaga and went about rambling round the world. Kamadeva who saw Siva who had lost his wife (Sat!) shot him with "Unmadastra" (an arrow causing madness and excitement). Siva, in his excitement, always thinking about Sad, wandered about, finding peace and rest nowhere. In his excited, and restless state he plunged himself into Kalindi river. Just then, the clear water of the -river turned black. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 6) .


2) The greatness of Kdlindi (Yamund). The Puranas declare that by bathing in the holy Kalindi one attains heaven. There is a story illustrating this - in P4dma Purina, Chapter 30, as follows :-


Long ago, in Krtayuga, there lived in the country of


Nisadha, a very wealthy Vaisya, by name Hemakundaia. By doing various kinds of business, he had earned eight crores of golden coins. By that time he was advancing in age. At this stage he began to think of the transitoriness of worldly pleasures and set apart one-sixth of his entire wealth for charitable purposes. He built two temples-one for Vi snu and the other for Siva. He offered daily worship to the gods and spent money in generous hospitality. His two sons, grikundala and Vikundala were growing up. He entrusted the burden of domestic affairs to them and went to the forest to perform austere tapas, after which he attained Visnulqka.


His sons, who were intoxicated with their affluent and luxurious life, deviated from the path of virtue and began to indulge in all kinds of sensual pleasures. It did not take long for them to be reduced to-utter poverty. Their relatives and dependants left them td their fate and at last, they began to resort to stealing. For fear of the King, the public and the law, they changed their residence to the woods. One of them went to a mountain and the other to a forest. One day, the elder brother was caught by a tiger arid the younger was bit by a snake. Both of them died on the same day. Yama's agents took both to Yamaloka. Dharmaraja (Yama) ordered the elder brother to be sent to Naraka (Hell) and the younger one (Vikundala) to be sent to Heaven.


Vikundala who knew that he did not deserve Heaven by any standards, asked Yama's agent how this had happened. The agent gave him this answer :-"There was a Brahmana well-versed in Vedic lore, who was the son of Harimitra. His asrama was on the southern bank of Yamuna. While you were living in the forest, you were associated with him. As a result of that contact, it so happened that you bathed for two months in the holy river Kalindi, the waters of which have the power of absolving sinners. By your bath in the first month you were liberated from all sins. By the second you have become eligible for Heaven. -You have qualified yourself for the eternal bliss of Heaven, by that holy act."


Yamuna is being worshipped as a goddess. Devotees of this goddess imagine her as riding on a tortoise, carrying a water pot in her hand and is of black complexion. (Agni Purana, Chapter 50) .


YAMUNA I. A town in ancient India. (Mahabharata, Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 51).


YAMUNA II. A mountain, made famous in the Puranas, standing between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 3) .


YAMUNADV IPA. An island in the river Yamuna. It was on this island that Vyasa was conceived as the result of the union of sage Parasara with Satyavati. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 2).


YAMUNAPRABHAVA. A sacred place. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 44, mentions that the man who bathes here obtains the reward of As vamedha Yaga and enters Heaven.


YAMUNATIRTHA. A holy tirtha on the bank of the river Sarasvati. Mahabharata, Salya -Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 11, refers to a Rajasfiva Yajfia performed at this place by Varuna, the son of Aditi,.


YANA. One of the royal qualities like Sandhi, Vigraha etc. (For more details see under $adgunas).


YANASANDHIPARVA. A subdivision of Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva. Chapters 47-71 of Udyoga Parva, are included in this Parva.


YA8AHKETU. A King of the city called 8obhavati. He was one of the chief characters in the sixth story told by the famous Vetala in Kathasaritsagara.


YASAS. Father of Kalki, the tenth incarnation of Mahavisnu. Agni Purina, Chapter 16, mentions that towards the end of Kaliyuga all people will become atheists, there will be an intermixture of castes and all people will become thieves and devoid of virtue. At that time, the 15 branches of the Veda called Vajasaneyas alone will be the authority. Mlecchas (low-class people) assuming the form of Kings will begin to eat human beings. Agni Purana states further that at that time, Lord Visnu will incarnate as Kalki, the son of Yasas and Yajnavalkya's priest and after training himself in archery and weapons, annihilate all Mlecchas.


YA8ASVINII. AwomanfollowerofSubrahmanya. (M.B. S,a~lya Parva, Chapter46, Verse 10).


YASASVINI II. A sister of Pancali. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


YASKA. A famous Sanskrit Grammarian of ancient times. Although the people of India always believed in the greatness of the Vedas, the Vedas became unintelligible even to scholars owing to changes in language and differences in grammar. It was Yaska and Sayana who saved the country from that plight. Yaska became famous by composing "Nirukta" (etymology). There is a reference to this ancient sage in Mahabharata, Chapter 342, Verse 72.


YASOBHADRA. A son of King Manobhadra. PadmaPuraUa, KriyakhandamentionsthatYasobhadra happened to be born in a royal family because in his previous birth he had bathed in the Ganga.


YASODA. Foster-mother of Sri Krsna. How Sri Krsna's fostermother, is explained in a in Bhagavata, 10th Skandha:-


Once Drona, one of the Astavasus, and his wife Dhara, caused displeasure to Brahma. In his anger, Brahma cursed them to be born in the world as human beings and to spend a life-time on earth, tending cattle. Drona became sad and with tears in his eyes, prayed to Brahma that during his life on earth he should be blessed with Visnu's darsana. Brahma granted that prayer. It was in fulfilment of this prayer that Drona was born ahs Nandagopa and Dhara as Yasoda in Ambadi.


YAJODHARA I. Son of Durmukha, who fought on the side of the Pandavas against the Kauravas. (Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 184, Verse 5 ).


YASODHARA II. A son of Sri Krsna by Rukminidevi. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 33) .


YASODHARA. Daughter of King Trigarta. She was married by Hasti, King of the Puru dynasty and they a had a son named Vikantha. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 35) .


YASOVATI I. The name of 19ana's city. DeviBhagavata, 8th Skandha mentions that god Dana, -the ruler of the north-eastern part, lives in the city called Yasovati.


YASOVATIII. A princess. (See under Ekavira).


YATHAVASA. A muni (sage) who followed the Vanaprasthadharma. He attained Haven as a Vanaprasthadharmi. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 244, Verse 17) .


YATI I. A king who was the eldest son of Nahusa and the eldest brother of Yayati. Mahabharata, Adi Parva,

she became story given Chapter 75, Verse 31, mentions that he became a yogi and lived in the forest.


YATI II. One of the sons of Visvamitra. (Mahabharata, Anus asana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 58) .


YATI III. A community-group. They were perhaps enemies of yajnas. There are references to them in various parts of the Rgveda.


YATINATHA. An incarnation of diva. Ahuka, a forestdweller and his wife who lived in Arbuda (Abu) mountain were blessed by, Yatinatha and as a result of the blessing they were born as Nala and Damayanti in their next birth. (Siva Purina, Satarudra Samhita).


YATUDHANA. One of the sons of Kasyapa and Surasa. All Rakgasas who were born in this family are known as "Yatudhanas".


YATUDHAN I. A Raksasi who was born from the sacrificial fire when King Vrsadarbhi performed a yaga. As directed by the king, she proceeded to the forest to destroy the Saptarsis. She remained there as the owner of the tank in which the sages used to take bath. Seeing her standing alone there, they enquired who she was. She answered that she was guarding the tank: She allowed them to enter into the tank after each of them explained the meaning of his name. Accordingly, the sages Atri, Vasistha, Kasyapa, Visvamitra, Gautama and Bharadvaja explained the meaning of their names before getting down into the tank. At last when sage Sunassakha's turn came, he said that he was not prepared to explain in detail, the meaning of his name and that she should be satisfied with his statement that he was the sage gunassakha. Yatudhani became angry on hearing it and insisted on his giving the meaning of his name. $unassakha with a single stroke with his "tridanda" (trident) killed her. Sunassakha was really Indra himself. ( M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 93) .


YATUKARNA. A Devaguru. (See under Guruparampara).-


YAUDHEYA I. A son of Dharmaputra. Mahabharata. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 76, states that this prince was born to Dharmaputra by Devikadevi, daughter of Govasana, king of Sibi land.


YAUDHEYA II. A native of Yaudheya country. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 14, mentions, that the Yaudheyas had participated in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya.


YAUDHEYA III. A king. According to Matsya Purina, he was the son of Prativindhya.


YAUGANDHARAYANA. Minister of Prince Udayana who is celebrated in the Puranas.


YAUNA. A particular caste. Mahabharata, anti Parva, Chapter 207, states that they were Can alas and were as ignorant as animals and birds.


YAUVANAAVA. Mandhata, the son of YuvanaAva. (For more information see under Mandhata).


YAUYUDHANI. Son of Satyaki the Yadava King. This hero who escaped from the ruin of the Yadava dynasty was presented with the region lying in the Sarasvati river valley, by Yudhisthira. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 19).,-


YAVAKRITA I. A sage. (See under Arvavasu).


YAVAKRITA II. Mahabharata, anti Parva, Chapter 208, Verse 26, refers to Yavakrita who was the son of Angiras and the supporter of the eastern land.


YAVAKSA. A famous river in Bharatavarsa (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 30) .




1) General. There are many references to Yavanas and the land of Yavanas in the Puranas: There is a statement in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 34,. that the Yavana r4 ;e takes its source from Turvasu, the son of Yayati. There is another version in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 174, Verse 36, that Yavanas were born from the womb and the sides of Nandini.


2) Other details.


(i )Arjuna's brother Sahadeva once conquered the Yavana land. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 73) .


(ii) Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 17, mentions that on another occasion, Nakula defeated the Yavanas.


(iii) According to Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 35, the world will be filled with Yavanas and other Mleccha (low class) kings.


(iv) In the course of his conquests, Karna once subdued the Yavanas. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Verse 8) . (v) Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 21, mentions that king Sudaksina of Kamboja approached Duryodhana with an "Aksauhini" along with the Yavanas, to take part in Bharata Yuddha.


(vi) Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 65 states that at the time of Mahabharata, Yavana land was part of India.


(vii) Originally Yavanas were Ksatriyas. But they became 9udras by the curse of Brahmanas. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 18).


(viii) Once there was a duel between a Yavana king and Mucukunda. (For further details, see under Mucukunda).


YAVASA. A particular region of Plaksadvipa. Bhagavata, 5th Skandha says that Plaksadvipa had seven divisions which were - ~ivam, Yavasam, Subhadram, Santam, Moksam, Amrtam and Abhayam.


YAV INARA. A king of the Puru dynasty. Bahyagva was his father. Five sons were born to Bahyagva. They were Mukula, Srnjaya, Brhadistha, Yavinara and Kramila. These five persons became famous in later ages under the name of PaficAlas. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278) .


YAYATA. An ancient holy place in India. King Yayati conducted a Yaga at this place. From that time the place became sacred. (M. B. galya Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 32).


YAYATI. An eminent king of the Lunar dynasty.


1.) Genealogy and Birth. From Visnu were descended in the following order-Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha -Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa-Yayati.


Sage Atri had three sons-Candra, Durvasas and Dattatreya-by his wife Anasuya. Candra's son was Budlia, Budha's son was Pururavas, Pururavas's son was Ayus, Ayus's son was Nahusa who had six sons-Yati, Yayati, Sarhyati, Ayati, Ayati and Dhruva. Yayati had two wives, Devayani and Sarmistha. Two sons, Yadu and Turvasu, were born to Devayani. Of them, Yadu became the founder of Yaduvarhsa. garmistha had three sons who were Druhyu, Anudruhyu and Puru. The Puruvarh4a traces its origin to Puru.


2) . Yaydti's marriage. Yayati married Devayani, the daughter of sage 9ukra and $armistha, the daughter of Vrsaparva.


There is a story behind this marriage, given in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 76.


Once there was keen rivalry between Devas and Asuras. For achieving victory Devas accepted Brhaspati and Asuras accepted 8ukra as their preceptors. Although Devas slaughtered all Asuras they were restored to life by Sukra by the power of his mantra. Devas and Asuras, resumed their battle. "Mrtasanjivani" (the art of reviving the dead) was then unknown to the gods. Devas sent the handsome youth Kaca to Sukra, to learn Mrtasanjivani from him. There, Kaca fell in love with Devayani, ~ukra's daughter. But after acquiring the knowledge about Mrtasanjivani he returned, without marrying Devayani. At the time of his departure, Kaca and Devayani cursed each other. Devayani's curse was that Kaca's newly acquired knowledge would not produce the desired result, while Kaca's curse was that Devayani would not be married by any youthful rsi.


Sarmistha was the daughter of Vrsa arva, the Daitya king. Devayani was the daughter of Sukra, the Daitya preceptor. One day they were enjoying a bath in a forest brook with their maids, after leaving their clothes on the bank of the stream. At that time Devendra who came that way, transformed himself into a strong wind and carried all the clothes to a place and put all of them in a heap. Seeing this, the women rushed out of the water and in the hurried confusion in snatching their garments Devayani and Sarmistha happened to put on each other's clothes. A quarrel took place between them on this mistake and the angry Sarmistha pushed Devayani into an unused well. Thinking that Devayani was dead, Sarmistha and her maids went to the palace.


At this time, Yayati who was a king of the lunar dynasty happened to come there exhausted after his hunting. After rescuing Devayani from the well and enquiring about her identity and the circumstances in which she fell into the well, he returned to his palace


Devayani sent her maid Ghurnika to her father and informed him about her mishap. The father, sage S`ukra became angry towards Vrsaparva, and came down from Daityaloka and settled down in the forest with his daughter. Afraid of his preceptor's curse and anger, Vrsaparva came to Sukra and offered profuse apologies to him for his daughter's misconduct. But gukra answered that he would be prepared to forgive only if Sarmislha with 1000 maids would go and serve Devayani. Finding no other way, Vrsaparva yielded to the condition. Soon Sarmistha and her 1000 maids went to the forest and began to serve Devayani. Sukra returned to Daityaloka. Some time after this, Yayati came to the forest one day for hunting. There he met Devayani, being attended by many maids. In the conversation that followed, Devayani was able to recognize Yayati. She felt-in love with him. But Yayati insisted that he was not prepared to marry her without the consent of Sukracarya. So she sent one of her maids to her father and informed him of her desire. The sage readily agreed and had their marriage performed. He also presented them 1,000 maids. After the ceremony, Yayati returned to his place with his bride. Sarmistha and the 2,000 maids also accompanied them. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 76-81).


3) Yaaydti's domestic Life. After his arrival in his capital city, Yayati made arrangements forDevayani'sresidence in his own palace while armislha took up her residence in Mokavanika. In due course, Devayani gave birth to a son. The sight of the child roused the motherly instincts of Sarmistha who spent a thousand years in heartburning. One day, while she was brooding alone in her garden, Yayati happened to come there. As they met, their hearts were moved by tender feelings. Sarmistha approached Yayati and begged for a son. But he tried to evade her by pleading that it was not proper to do anything in violation of Dharma. But in the end, he had to yield to her earnest supplications and philosophical arguments. Thus Sarmistha conceived a son in secret.


When the child was born and it grew up, Devayani's mind was constantly vexed with the thought as to who was the father. Once in an angry mood she questioned .~armistha herself about it. She answered that the child's father was a sage whose identity she could not ascertain in the excitement of her union with him. Any way, this answer satisfied Devayani.


Soon after, another son was born to Devayani. The first boy was named Yadu arid the second son, Turvasu. As a result of the secret relations between Yayati and Sarmistha, three boys were born to her and they were named Druhyu, Anudruhyu and Pam, respectively. These boys also grew up in A4okavanika.


Once Devayani was in her garden with her husband and children. Just then, ~armistha's children also happened to come there. Devayani who somehow had her own suspicions, enquired of them their parentage and the innocent children replied that their mother was 8armistha and their father was Yayati. Devayani who became furious, immediately went to Asuraloka and informed her father Sukra about it. On hearing it, the sage who was beside himself with anger owing to his paternal affection, cursed Yayati so that he fell a victim to the infirmities of old age. Yayati entreated Sukra to withdraw the curse since he had not enjoyed his youth to the full.


Sukra lifted the curse by assuring him that one of Yayati's sons would accept his father's old age in exchange for his youth and the son would be crowned K3ing g after Yayati. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 82 and


4) Rejuvenation. Yayati asked his eldest son Yadu for his youthfulness. But the latter was not prepared to exchange it for his father's old age. Next the father approached his younger sons, Turvasu, Druhyu, and Anudruhyu, with the same request, but all of them in turn refused to oblige him. Even though Yayati promised to return the youthfulness to them after a thousand years, they refused to exchange it for his old age. Yayati in his anger, cursed Yadu that his progeny would never become Kings. Turvasu's family would be completely destroyed and Druhyu would float down the river, with unfulfilled desires and faded prosperity. Puru wholeheartedly accepted his father's old age in exchange for his youth and went to the forest. From that day Yayati began his reign with a cheerful heart. (M.B. Adi parva, Chapters 84 and 85) .


In Padma Purana, thereis a slightly different version about the way in which Yayati fell a victim to the infirmities of old age. It is as follows:-Seeing the rigorous observance of Yayati's virtuous life, Devendra began to be alarmed at the thought that he might be dislodged from his place. He called his charioteer Matali and ordered him. to bring Yayati with him to Indraloka.


When Matali failed in his mission, Devendra sent some Gandharvas to enact the drama of "Vamanavatara" before Yayati. Enchanted by the charm and performance of Rati on the stage, the King became irresistibly fascinated by the female sex.


Once the Raksasi named Jara and Madana got access to Yayati's body. While in that state, one day he went to the forest for hunting. There he happened to meet a beautiful girl named "ASrubindumati". From her companion-maid, Vigala, the King came to know of her history. Vi6ala said to Yayati-"Long ago when Kamadeva was burnt Rati was in deep grief. The gods were moved to pity by her tears and they restored Kama to life. Rati who was extremely happy, began to shed tears of joy. A beautiful girl was born from the tears which fell from her left eye. This maid who is standing before you is that girl. She is now looking for a suitable person for her Svayamvara." On hearing this story the King expressed his desire to marry her. Agrubindumati agreed to become his wife on condition that he exchanged his old age with some young person for his youthfulness.


Yayati returned to his palace and asked each of his sons to give him his youth. Puru alone fulfilled his father's desire. After this Yayati married Asrubindumati. But he was compelled to submit to another condition also, that he should not maintain any contact with his other wives. Devayani and garmistha naturally, became distressed and furious when they saw Yayati and Asrubindumati as husband and wife. So Ya•,ati asked Yadu to kill both of them. But Yadu refused to obey him. Yayati who became angry at this, cursed his son that one of his descendants would marry his uncle's daughter and become heir to his mother's wealth.


After some time, on Menaka'S advice, A$rubindumati urged Yayati to go on a visit to Heaven. So he entrusted his kingdom to Pfiru and went to Vaikuntha.


5) Yayciti's reign. The Puranas describe Yayati as a noble and eminent King. Some of the events which took place during his reign and which deserve special praise, are given below:


(i) Gift of cows. Once when King Yayati was in the company of his subjects, a Brahmana approached him with a request for Gurudaksina. At once Yayati gave him a gift of 1,000 cows. (kB. Vana Parva, Chapter 195).


(ii) Yayciti and Gdtava. See para 6 under Galava.


(iii) His end. After a thousand years, Yayati handed over his kingship to Puru and went to the forest. He spent many years living in Bhrgutunga in the company of sages, and feeding on fruits, roots, etc. and in the end died in the forest and attained Heaven.


(iv) Yaydti''s fall from Heaven. Yayati remained in Heaven for many years. Once he insulted the Devas; Indra and other gods and kings in the divine assembly. The gods looked at one another, wondering who this proud fellow was. They asked how this man reached Heaven without renouncing his pride. In the meantime Yayati lost his balance and fell down from Heaven to the earth. While descending, he prayed that he should fall in the midst of good men.


Just at this time, four kings named Pratardana, Vasumanas, gibi and Astaka were performing a Yfiga in Naimisaranya. Yayati happened to fall head downwards into their midst. But since they caught him in his fall he did not crash to the ground. He explain~4 his story to them. They allowed him to accept the fruit of their Yajna and to go to Heaven. But since he was a Ksatriya he told them he had no right to it. Just then, his daughter Madhavi arrived there. She allowed him to take half of the divine grace which she had earned and with the help of it Yayati ascended to Heaven again. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 120).


6) Other details.


(i) Yayati witnessed the battle between Kauravas and Pantiavas which was fought as a result of the theft of King Virata's cows. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 9).


(ii) In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 8, it is stated that King Yayati continues to be in Yama's assembly.


(iii) Yayati once gave 1,000 cows to a Brahmana as "Gurudaksina". (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 195).


(iv) He came riding in Indra's chariot and witnessed the battle between Arjuna and Krpacarya, from the sky. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 9) .


(v) Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 115, mentions that Yayati had conducted 1,000 Yagas and that he was the leader of all Kings.


YAYATIPATANA. A holy place. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 48, mentions that a visit to this place will give the same reward as an Asvamedba Yaga.


YAYAVARA(S ). A particular section of Brahmins. Their special feature is that they wander about here and there, following the course of life of the sages. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 13, mentions that the reputed sage Jaratkaru was a Yayavara.


YODHYA. A country in ancient India. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 254, we read that this country was conquered by Karna.


YOGA I. A sage who was the grandson of Svayambhuva Manu and son of Sraddha. Yoga was born to Sraddha by Dharma. (Bhagavata, 4th Skandha).


YOGA II. It is Jnana that reveals Brahman. Yoga is the concentration on Brahman. Agni Purana, Chapter 372, mentions that Yoga is the perfect union of jivatma and Paramatma.


In fact Yoga is activity with the body as its basis. It may be doubted how a mere physical karman helps Parabrahmadarsana. But Maharsis assert that there is an inseparable connection between matter and soul. Matter and soul are merely the two phases of the single "Astitva". The object of Yoga is to achieve union with Parabrahman; in other words, to attain Moksa. The recitation of mantras is important in many disciplines connected with the practice of Yoga. The letters and words of mantras are so arranged that their recitation in the proper manner produces profound and favourable effects in the body. The habitual recitation of mantras helps the practice of Yoga.


There are two broad divisions of Yoga-Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga. The two are interconnected and have to be practised simultaneously. Hatha Yoga is mainly concerned with disciplining the body by various kinds of exercises. Standing in Paficagni with the arms held aloft; standing on one leg or standing 9n the head are some of these exercises. Raja Yoga aims at arousing Prajna by control of the senses.


Raja Yoga involves the practice of eight disciplines. They are :-Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. An account of each of these is given below :-


i) Tama. Yama means refraining from evil courses or sinful things like cruelty or dishonesty. Yama demands the practice of Ahimsa, satya, asteya, brahmacarya and aparigraha. (Ahimsa=non-violence or not killing any creature. Satya=truth; practising truth in thoughts, words and deeds. Asteya=not stealing. Brahmacarya= sexual continence. Aparigraha =not coveting wealth or pleasures which are not absolutely necessary).


ii) Niyama. While Yama is a negative discipline, Niyama is a positive one. It requires the positive practice of virtuous courses. Niyama includes five things :-$auca (cleanliness), Santosa (contentment), Tapas (penance and austerities), Svadhyaya (study of the Vedas and incantations or mantras) and Isvarapranidhana (prayer and meditating on God). Sauca means not only cleanliness of the body, but also of the mind. The mind must be purged of all °malas' like kama, krodha and lobha. Tapas means ability to endure opposites (dvandvas) like heat and cold or joy and sorrow. Svadhyaya is "study of philosophical works." fsvarapranidhana-dedicating all actions unto God.


iii) Isand. The way of sitting or posture. Different postures have been prescribed for different actions. First of all, the yogi must choose a suitable place.


(The place must be level, neat, free from stones, fire or gravel, agreeable to the mind and not causing irritation to the eyes). (Svetasvatara).


Different asanas like Padmasana, Svastikasana and Siddhasana have been prescribed for the practice, of Yoga.


Putting the left leg on the right thigh and the right leg on the left thigh, holding the right toe with the left hand and the left toe with the right hand, place the chin on the chest and look at the tip of the nose. This is Padmasana.


Sitting upright with the feet tucked under the hips is Svastikasana.


Placing the left leg under the genitals, put the right leg on it. Insert the chin into the pit of the throat; control the senses; with steady eyes look at the point between the eye-brows. This is Siddhasana which will break open the doors to Moksa.


iv) Pranayama. This is regulation of breathing. Inhale air through the left nostril, retain the air in the lungs for a few minutes and then exhale it through the right nostril. The process may be reversed-that is inhalation through the right nostril and exhalation through the left. This is the first step in Pranayama. Exhaling the breath and then not inhaling for some time is called recaka; the opposite process is called puraka. The object of pranayama is to awaken Kundalini.


v) Pratyahara. This is a process of withdrawing the five senses from the outer world. A man who practises Pratyahara becomes oblivious of the outer world. This helps the concentration of the mind on the Atman.


vi) Dhdrand. Withdrawing the mind from outer objects and concentrating it on the self.


vii) Dhydna. Meditation, concentrating the mind on several places like Bhrfimadhya and nabhicakra. Repeating the sacred syllable OM is very useful in dhyana.


viii) Samadhi. In Samadhi the soul and mind kite, the mind merging . into the soul. Samadhi is defined thus :-


When the mind and soul unite just as salt and water unite, that state is called Samadhi.


YOGAMAYADEV I. The form of Devi in the state of Yoga. It was Yogaxnayadevi who transferred the seventh child of Devaki (Balabhadrarama) from her womb to that of Rohini. (Devi Bhagavata 4th, Skandha).


YOGAVATI. Third daughter of Mend. She was the wife of the sage Jaigisavya. (Padma Purana, Srsti Khan~,da).


YOGISVARA (S) . A community of famous yogins. Kavi, Hari, Antariksa, Prabuddha, Pippalayana, Avirhotra, Drumila, Camasa and Karabhojana belonged to this community. They were the sons of the sage Rsabha and used to go about naked, everywhere. This community of yogins participated in the yajna of Nimi, King of Mithila and gave him advice on BhAgavatadharma. (Bhagavata, 4th Skandha).


YONIDVARA. A sacred place on the Udaya mountain. (Maliabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 95 ).


YONITIRTHA. A sacred place in North India. A bath in this place will make a person handsome and he will get the reward of a gift of 1000 cows. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 84 ).


YOTIMATSAKA (POTIMATSAKA). A King in ancient India. There is a passage in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 20, which mentions that the Pandavas had sent an invitation to this King to take part in the war.


YUDDHA (WAR). (i) In ancient times in India war was considered a "Rajadharma". A war declared under this law was known as "Dharmayuddha"


(ii) It is forbidden to use a weapon describing it falsely as another weapon. The use of arrows heated in fire, is also against Dharmayuddha.


(iii) It is also against the rules of Dharmayuddha to kill a person who gets down from the chariot, a eunuch, one with joined palms, one who squats on the ground, one who seeks refuge, one who is asleep, one who is naked, an unarmed person, one who has come to witness the fight, one who is fighting with another, one whose weapon is broken, one who is bereaved by the death of a son or other relative, one who is vanquished, one who flees from battle, and one who refuses to attack in return etc.


(ivy If a warrior fleeing from battlefield is killed. by his enemy, he carries with him his master's sins.


(v) All the grace earned by the young man who flees from battle, passes to his master.


(vi) The soldier himself may take all booty in the battle except chariots, horses, elephants, umbrellas, wealth, corn, cows, women, weapons, silver and gold.


(vii) All costly articles, seized in battle, such as gold, silver, jewels etc. are to be handed over to the King, according to the Vedas. (Manusmrti, Chapter 7) .


YUDHAJIT I. A Kekaya King. This Yudhajit was the brother of Kaikeyi, Dasaratha's wife, and the uncleof Bharata. Dasaratha's death took place at the time when Bharata was living in Kekaya country, at the invitation of Yudhajit. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, 73rd Sarga).


YUDHAJIT II. A King of Avant!. Lilavati, the daughter of Yudhajit was married by Sudargana of the


Iksvaku dynasty. In course of time their relations became hostile and they separated. At last Yudhajit exiled Sudarsana from his country and .crowned his own brother, Satrujit as King of Ayodhya. (See under Dhruvasandhi).


YUDHAJITA. A Yadava King. In Padma Purana, Srstikhanda and in Matsya Purana, it is stated that Yudhajita was the son of Anamitra by Prthvi.


YUDHAMANYU. A warrior who fought against the Kauravas from the side of the Pandavas. The following references are made to him in the Mahabharata.


(i) Yudhamanyu was a prince of the Pancala royal family. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 5) .


(ii) He took his position'in the battle as the bodyguard of Arjuna. (M. B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 15, Verse 19) . (iii) Yudhamanyu's war-horse was a wonderful animal, both in spirit and shape. (M.B. Drona Parva; Chapter 23, Verse 3).


(iv) In Bharata Yuddha he fought against Krtavarmd, Duryodharia, Krpacarya, Citrasena the brother of Karna, and Asvatthama. Krpacarya defeated him. He (Yudhamanyu)_ killed Karna's brother Citrasena. (Drona Parva, Chapters 92, 130; Karna Parva, Chapters 61, 83).


(v) Yudhamanyu met with his death in his fight against A9vatthama. (M.B. Sauptika Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 38).


YUDHISTHIRA. See under Dharmaputra.


YUGA. See under Manvantara.


YUGANDHARA I (YUGANDHARAS). In the Puranas there are references to a mountain called Yugandhara. The inhabitants of that place were known as Yugandharas. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 9, there is a statement that these people used to drink the milk of camels and donkeys,


YUGANDHARA II. A warrior who fought against the Kauravas from the Pandava party. He attacked Dronacarya in the battle and was killed by him in the end. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 30) .


YUGAPA. A Deva Gandharva. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 56, mentions that he participated in Arjuna's birth festival.


YUKTASVA. A sage who was a Samavedin. There is a story about this sage in Pancavims a Brahmana :-


Yukta9va who was a scholar in Vedas and $astras once abducted two new-born babies and killed them. As .a result of that sin, he lost all his Vedic knowledge. To recover his lost learning, he started an austere tapas. After many years of tapas, he got back the whole of hisVredic knowledge.


YUPAKSA I. A military commander of Ravana. In the battle between Sri Rama and Ravana, he was killed by Hanuman. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sundara Kanda, 46~~3,2) .


YUPAKSA II. A Raksasa. In the battle between Sri Rama and Ravana, this Raksasa was killed by the monkey Mainda. (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda 76 : 34).


YUTAJIT. A son of King Bhoja of the Yaduvarizga. King Bhoja had six sons, who were-Nimroci, Kinkana, Vrsni, Sahasrajit, Satajit and Yutajit. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


YUVANASVA I. A King of the Iksvaku dynasty.


1) Genealogy. From Visxiu were descended in the following order :-Brahma-Marici-Kasyapa- Vivasvan-

Vaivasvata Manu=Iksvaku-Vikuksi- $agada - Kakutstha (Puranjaya)-Anenas-Prthulasva-Prasenajit- Yuvanasva. This Yuvand9va was the father of Mandhata.


2) Other details.


(i) Yuvand9va performed many Yagas. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 126, Verse 5).


(ii) Once he drank water which had been subjected to special mantras (incantations) and as a result he became pregnant. Mandhata was born by cutting open his belly. (For more details see under Mandhata).


(iii) Yuvanasva once received a wonderful sword from King Raivata. He presented that sword to King Raghu. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 78 ).


(iv) In Mahabharata, Anugasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 61, it is stated that he had received "Paravaratattva" (ability to know the highest and the lowest) because he had renounced meat-eating.


YUVANASVA II. Another Yuvand9va was the grandson of Visvagasva of the Iksvaku dynasty and the son of Adri. This Yuvand9va was the father of King Srava. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 202, Verse 3).


YUVANASVA III. Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 15, refers to another Yuvand9va who was the son of Vrsadarbha. He attained Heaven by offering gifts of jewels, women and dwelling houses.


YUVANASVA IV. A King of the Iksvaku dynasty who was the grandson of Mandhata. There is reference to him in the Rgveda. (Rgveda, 10; 134) .


YUYUDHANA. Another name for Satyaki. For further details, see under Satyaki.




1) General. Son of Dhrtarastra by a Vaisya woman. He is not included in the 100 sons of Dhrtarastra. Yuyutsu is referred to by another name, `~Karana" in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 113.


2) Other details.


(i) It was Yuyutsu who disclosed to the Pandavas that once Duryodhana gave poisoned food to bhimasena. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 128, Verse.37).


(ii) Yuyutsu was present at the Svayamvara of Draupadi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 2 ).


(iii) In Bharata Yuddha, Yuyutsu joined the Pandava party. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 100).


(iv) He was an eminent warrior and an honest and


mighty hero. Many Kings attacked him in the city Varanavata. He was not able to fulfil his desire to kill all of them. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 58) .


(v) In Bharata Yuddha he fought with Subahu and cut off his hands. (Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 13) . (vi) The bullocks tied to Yuyutsu's chariot were killed by Bhagadatta's elephant. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 56) .


(vii) Yuyutsu severely rebuked the Kauravas who rejoiced over the death of Bhagadatta. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 60).


(viii) Yuyutsu was defeated in his fight with Uluka. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 25. Verse 11) .


(ix) As advised by Sri Krsna and Dharmaputra, Yuyutsu went to Hastinapura with the ladies of the r86)oyal family. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 29, Verse


(x) On his return after the battle, Yuyutsu described the details of the battle to Vidura. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 29. Verse 21).


(xi) At the suggestion of Dharmaputra, Yuyutsu began to attend on Dhrtarastra to serve him. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 17) .


(xii) Yuyutsu was guarding Hastinapura when the Pandavas went to the Himalayas to get money from Marutta. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 24).


(xiii) Under the leadership of Yuyutsu, the Pandavas offered Jalanjali (offering libations of water) to Dhrtarastra. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 39, Verse 12).


(xiv) When the Pandavas departed on their Mahaprasthana after handing over the reign of the country to Pariksit, it was Yuyutsu who was entrusted with the task of supervising Pariksit and the country. (M.B. Mahaprasthana Parva Chapter 1, Verse 6) .


(xv) In Mahabharata the following names are given for Yuyutsu :-Dhartarastra, Dhrtarastraja, Dhrtarastraputra, Karana, Kauravya, Kaurava and Vaisyaputra.


YUYUTSU II. There is a reference to another Yuyutsu who was the son of Dhrtarastra by his wife Gandhari in Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 93.