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U (3). The letter 'u' means 8iva. (Agni Purina, Chapter 348) .


UT. (,:3;) This letter means `protection'. (Agni Purina, Chapter 348) .


UCAKA. A King of the Solar dynasty. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


UCATHYA. A muni in the line of the disciples of Vyasa. (Bhagavata, Skandha 12) .




1) Birth. A horse which emerged from water during the churning of the sea of Milk. (See under Ksirabdhimathana). Devendra grabbed it the moment he saw it, and thenceforth it became his vehicle. (M.B. Adi Parva7 Chapter 23, Verses 33-37) .


2) Colour of the horse. Once, during 3 controversy, Vinata, wife of Ka'syapa, contended that the colour of Uccaigsravas was white, while another wife of Kagyapa, Kadru said that its tail was black in colour. It was decided to bet that she who got defeated in this controversy should become the slave of the winner. Because the serpents, the sons of Kadru, cheated Vinata, she had to become Kadrfz's slave. (See under Vinata). (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 20) .


3) Laksmadeai became mare. Devi Bhagavata relates a story of Mahilaksmi becoming a mare on account of Uccais ravas. King Revanta, son of Surya and friend of Indra, once went to Vaikuntha to pay his respects to Bhagavan Visnu, riding on Uccaisgravas. Mahalaksmi, who was then with Visnu was surprised at the arrival of Revanta. Seeing the scintillating form of Ucsaissravas, her brother, Mahalaksmi sat looking at the horse unmindful of all other things. (Mahalaksmi and the horse were both born from the Sea of Milk and hence were sister and brother). Thus occupied Mahalaksmi did not hear Mahavisnu asking, "Who is this one who comes like a second Cupid ?" Angry at this Visnu said-


"So much attracted by the horse, you have not answered me. Because you enjoy (Ramasi) so much your name in future will be Rama. You will also become frivolous like an uncultured woman. You have never been constant. Because you felt so much attracted to this horse in my very presence, you will be born as a mare in the world of men."


According to this curse Mahalaksmi had to be born as a mare in the world; the Hehaya dynasty had its origin from her. (See under Ekavira). (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 6) .


UCCAISSRAVAS II. A Maharaja of the Puru dynasty. He was one of the six sons of King Av;ksit. (M,B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 53) .


UCCHIKHA. A serpent born in the family of Taksaka. It was burnt to death at janamejaya's serpent. yajfa. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 9) .


UCCHRiZGA. One of the two attendants given to Skanda by Vindhya. The other was named Atisrfiga. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 49).


UDANAVAYU. One of the five life-breaths. The five life-breaths are Prana, Apana, Samaria, Udana and Vyana.


UDAPANA TIRTHA. A holy bath on the bank of the river Sarasvati. It is said that Balabhadra Rama, while going-on a pilgrimage, had visited this holy bath. There is a story showing how this place became a holy bath. Long ago there was a hermit named Gautama, who had three sons called Ekata, Dvita and Trita. The father was much pleased at the dutiful and devotional character of his sons. One day he performed a sacrifice and went to heaven. Then the kings and the priests who were present for the sacrifice began to honour and respect Trita. Ekata and Dvita did not like this. The three brothers performed sacrifices and acquired a large number of cows: With these cows they started for the.east. Trita walked before. Ekata and Dvita who were behind, made a consultation and drove the cows another way. Trita walked on in front, alone. On the bank of the Sarasvati he saw a wolf and getting terrified, he fell into a well in which there was no Water. Standing in the well, he imagined a creeper that was hanging to the well as 'Soma' (a herb used as oblation in sacrifice) and performed sacrifice, chanting the Vedas. His chanting was heard in heaven and Brhaspati and other gods came to him and asked him what boon he desired. Trita told them that he only wanted to be saved from the well. Immediately the river Sarasvati flowed into the well and the waves began to swell. Standing on the waves he praised and glorified the gods. Then he returned home and cursed Ekata and Dvita and transmuted them into wolves. Trita said that their children would become monkeys and cattle. It happened so. The place where the Gods appeared before Trita, became famous and got the name Udapanatirtha. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 36).


UDAPEKSI. A son of Visvamitra. He was a Vedantin. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 59).


UDARAKSA. A warrior of Skanda Deva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 63).


UDARA8ANDILYA. A hermit ofthe Durbar of Indra. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 31) .


UDARKA. A minister of Mahisasura. The ministry of Mahisasura was very powerful and efficient. The brave and haughty Ciksura was the war minister. Udarka was the general of the army. (See under Mahisasura).


UDAYAGIRI I. The mountain of the rising. It is supposed by poets that the Sun and the Moon rise from this mountain.


UDAYAGIRI II. An ancient place of pilgrimage. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 93, that by conducting evening prayer and devotion at this place once, one could obtain the fruits of conducting evening prayer and meditation for twelve years continuously.


UDAYANA. A renowned king of the Candravarhsa (Lunar dynasty) .


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order: Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha - Pururavas - AyusNahusa - Yayati - Pfiru janamejaya-Pracinviin-PraviraNamasyu-Vitabhaya gundu-Bahuvidha-Samyati -Rahovadi - Raudrasva - Matinara - Santurodha - DusyantaBharata-Hasti-Ajamidha-Rksa-Sariivarana-Kuru jahnuSuratha - Viduratha- Sarvabhauma Jayatsena-RavyayaBhavuka-Cakroddhata-Devatithi-Rksa- Bhima - Pratipagantanu-Vyasa- Pandu - Arjuna - Abhimanyu - Pariksit Janamejaya-$atanika-Sahasranika-Udayana.


2,) Birth. There was a city called Kausambl situated in the middle of the famous kingdom known as Vatsa in North India. The palace of king Satanika, born of the family of Arjuna, was in Kaugambi. Visnumad was the queen of gatanika. She had been childless. One day while Satanika was hunting in the forest, he met with the hermit Sandilya, by whose blessings Visnumati conceived and gave birth to a son. That son was Sahasranika. When he came of age, 8atanika left the country with his son and went to the heaven to help the gods in their battle with the Asuras, .and he died there. Sahasranika became a mighty emperor. Once he got an invitation from Indra to go to heaven and help the gods to fight the Asuras. After having defeated the Asuras, one day, he was walking with Indra in the Nandana Park, when he saw the gods p1aying with their wives in the park. Immediately the unmarried king became thoughtful and Indra read correctly, the reason for the sudden change in the king and said to the king. "Oh King! Don't be worried. A girl becoming you in every aspect, is born in the world. Her name is Mrgavati."


Sahasranika was greatly pleased at this and he returned to the earth. In the chariot there were Tilottama and the charioteer, with the king. The king who. was deeply immersed in thinking about Mrgavati, did not attend to the conversation of Tilottama, who getting angry cursed him thus:-"May you be separated for fourteen years from the person whose thought has prevented you from attending to what I have been telling you."


The king married Mrgavati. She became pregnant. One day she told the king about her desire to dip in a pond of blood. The king got a pond ready, filled with the juice of Laksa (a kind of wax, the boiled water of which will look like blood) and such other things. Mrg-. -vati began to dip and splash in the pond of blood. When she was dipping under the juice, taking her to be a large piece of flesh, an eagle took her from the pond and flew away. The king was overwhelmed with grief and fell down. Then the charioteer came down from heaven and informed the king of the curse of Tilottama, and then he returned.


The eagle left M9r in the mount of the Rising Sun and flew away. She cried aloud. A huge snake neared her to swallow her. Then a divine person appeared there and saved her from the snake and vanished. Then a hermit-boy came there and asked the lonely woman, clad in only one garment, about her story and took her to the hermitage of the hermit Jamadagni. who blessed her. After some days she gave birth to a son. At that time an unknown voice was heard saying "This boy would become the most renowned king Udayana and his son would become the supreme Lord of the Vidyadharas." Because he was born in the Udayadri (the mount of the Rising Sun) he got the name Udayana. The boy Udayana grew up in the hermitage.


3) Udayana to his father. The hermit Jamadagani who knew the past, present and the future performed all the rituals, necessary for a boy of Ksatriya caste (kingly race) such as Caula, Upanayana etc. and gave him education in every branch of knowledge. Because of her love and regard for her son, Mrgavati put on his arm a bangle with the name Sahasranika inscribed in it, which she had been wearing so long. One day, while Udayana was walking through the forest, he saw a snake-charmer catching a snake. He felt sorry for the snake. So he gave the bangle to the snake-charmer and set the snake free. When the snake charmer was gone, the snake told Udayana its story. That serpent was Vasunemi, the elder brother of Vasuki. Out of gratitude the serpent gave Udayana the famous Lute Gho~avati and betels and taught him the art of making garlands and marks on the forehead which would never fade.


The snake-charmer took the bangle to the capital for sale. Seeing the name of the king inscribed on it, the king's men took him before the king. He told the king everything. The king who had been suffering for the last fourteen years form the pangs of separation, started for the mount of the Rising Sun, without any loss of time. The hermit Jamadagni gave him his wife Mrgavad and son Udayana. They all returned to Kaugambi,


4) The anointment of Udayana. Sahasranlka anointed his son Udayana as the heir to his throne, and appointed Yaugandharayana, Rumanvan.and.Vasantaka, the sons of three ministers, as ministers of Udayana. At the time of the anointment there was a shower of flowers from the sky and an unknown voice said "With the help of these ministers Udayana would bring the whole of the earth under his control." After a time Sahasranika went to the Himalayas with his wife for penance.


5) . TTasavadattd became Udayana's wife. A daughter was born to the king of Ujjayini. Her name was Vasavadatta. Her father Candamahasena decided to give her in marriage to Udayana the king of Vatsa. How to bring this to pass ? Candamahasena and Udayana had been enemies. Finally he found out a way. It was to entrust Vasavadatta to Udayana (who was a . great teacher of music) for teaching her music. Ultimately he would fall in love with her and thus Udayana would become his son-in-law. This was the plan.


King Candamah-sena sent a messenger to Kausambi. The messenger was sent back with a reply that, if his daughter was sent to.Kausambi, he would teach her music. Candamahasena did not like this. So he decided to take Udayana a prisoner somehow or other. The king had an elephant called Nadagiri. He ordered for an artificial elephant to be made equal in size to Nad5lgiri, and placed some soldiers inside the elephant. The artificial elephant with soldiers inside it was taken to the great forest in the Vindhya mountain and placed there. The men of Udayana saw this elephant and reported it to the king. Udayana decided to see the huge elephant which had appeared in the Vindhya. Udayana went to the forest and saw the huge elephant standing at a distance. The king found out a plan to catch it. Playing mild notes on his lute, the king alone neared the elephant. As the night was drawing and as he was immersed in music, he did not understand that it was an artificial elephant. As the king was nearing the elephant it went on retreating, and thus got the king away from his men. Then the soldiers got out of the elephant, surrounded the king and took him a prisoner. Thus Udayana began to live in the palace of Candamahasena. His work was to teach Vasavadatta




The news reached Kausambi. Yaugandharayana entrusted the affairs of the government to Rumanvan and started for Ujjayini with Vasantaka. At Ujjayini they got Yogesvara a Brahmaraksasa as friend. According to his advice Yaugandharayana took the guise of a mad old man. Vasantaka adopted the guise of a sick man, suffering from pain in the stomach an uncouth figure to look at. They entered the city. The madness of Yaugandharayana was an entertainment to the people. The ladies of the court liked him much. Vasavadatta invited the madman to the harem. Udayana instantly recognized the mad man. Vasantaka also got admittance to the palace. He told Vasavadatta the story of LohajaAgha in an interesting way. (See under Lohajangha) Vasavadatta began to be drawn more and more towards Udayana. She seemed to have forgotten even about the fact that her father was an enemy of Udayana, who had been thinking seriously of means of escape from the palace. Vasavadatta agreed to accompany him. Asadhaka got Bhadravati, the elephant of Vasavadatta, ready for the flight. In the night Udayana and his retinue got on the elephant Bhadravati and fled from the palace. Kaficanamala the maid of Vasavadatta also accompanied her mistress. When they had passed


the Vindhya mountain the elephant Bhadravati fell dead. When they all were standing around the dead elephant sadly, they heard an ethereal voice saying, "Oh King! I am a Vidyadhara woman called Mayavati. I had been an elephant for so long. The son you are going to get, will also be helped by me. Your wife Vasavadatta also, is a goddess, born as a woman purposely." Next day, all reached the palace of Udayana and the marriage of Udayana and Vasavadatta took place shortly. Candamahasena recognized that marriage.


6) Udayana's marriage with Padmdvatf. Udayana spent his days with Vasavadatta in the harem. The ministers Yaugandharayana; Rumanvan, Vasantaka and others thought that the behaviour of the King was detrimental to the well-being of the country. They wanted to remove the King from the palace for a little while and to form an alliancewith the powerfulKing of Magadha. By a marriage alliance all these could be achieved. The King of Magadha had a beautiful daughter called Padmavati. The ministers began to work with this end in view.


Once Yaugandharayana took Udayana to the forest of Lavanaka and stayed there. It was reported to the King of Magadha that the King of Vatsa was drawins near to his kingdom. Fearing an attack from Udayana, the King of Magadha began to think of concluding a treaty with Vatsa. The King of Vatsa used to go for hunting everyday. One day he went to a distant place for hunting, and the minister went to the house of Vasavadatta and informed her of their plans. Though it was not at all palatable to her, she gave her consent and agreed to help them as it was meant for the wellbeing of the King and the country. Accordingly, Yaugandharayana took the guise of an old Brahmin, Vasavadatta that of a young Brahmin lady and Vasantaka that of a Brahmin celibate with only one eye. They went to the kingdom of Magadha. Runaanvan set fire to the house of Vasavadatta and spread the rumour that Vasavadatta and Vasantaka had been burnt to death. Yaugandharayana, Vasavadatta and Vasantaka reached Magadha. They got into the capital and saw Padmavati sitting in the garden. The old Brahmin conversed with the princess for a while. She enquired about the young woman who was with him. The old Brahmin replied thus :-"She is my daughter Avantika. Her husband has left the country. I request you to keep her with you till I find him out and bring him here. She may not like to be separated from her people. So let her brother, the celibate, also be here with her."


Padmavad took them with gladness and Yaugandharayana, bidding farewell, returned to the forest Lavanaka. Avantika and the Celibate lived in the palace with Padmavati. Vasavadatta who had learned from Udayana the art of making garland3 ans marks on the forehead which would not fade, had prepared them for Padmava ti.


The King of Vatsa returned to the forest Lavanaka and found the house of his wife burnt down to ashes. He fell unconscious when he heard that Vasavadatta and Vasantaka had been burnt to death.


The spies of the King of Magadha who were in the forest of Lavanaka, reported the rumour about the death of Vasavadatta and Vasantaka to their King in Magadha, who wished to give his daughter Padmavati in marriage to Udayana. The marriage proposal was accepted by Udayana and wearing garlands and marks that would not fade Padmavati entered the wedding dais. Udayana married Padmavati. Yaugandharayana made the King of Magadha take an oath that he would go for no more aggression. Udayana and his people reached Kausambi. On the way the King happened to see the mark on the forehead and the garland on the neck of Padmavati and asked her who had made them. Padmavati told the King the story of Avantika. Udayana was definite that Avantika was Vasavadatta herself. Avantika was brought before the King. Padmavati congratulated Vasavadatta. Both of them loved each otlr; r and lived together as the loving wives of Udayana. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka).


7) Udayana gets a new throne. Once Udayana was sitting in the court-hall, when a Brahmin came there and made a complaint to the King that some cowherds had broken the legs ol~ his son. The Brahmin said that a bov named Devasena sat on a stone in the forest and instantly he got kingly power. The leg of the Brahmin boy was broken by the friends of Devasena because he did not bow before Devasena.


When he heard the story, the minister Yaugandharayana said that that place must have some peculiarities. Accordingly the men of the King dug the place. He got a throne of gems. (Kathasarits5gara, Lavanakalambaka).


8) The son of Udayana. Vasavadatta became pregnant and gave birth to a child. He was named Naravahanadatta. Narada granted him a boon that Naravahanadatta would become the emperor of the Vidyadharas. (See under Naravahanadatta).


The princess of Taksas ila .named Kaliirgasena fell in love with Udayana and she came to Kausambi. But no marriage took place. (See under Kahiigasena). Naravahanadatta, the son of Udayana, married Madanamancuka who was the incarnation of Rati Devi (the wife of Madana). Udayana entrusted the country to his son and led a life of retirement with his wives. (Kath5saritsagara).


UDDALAKA I. A disciple called Aruni of the teacher Ayodhadhaumya. To know how Aruni got the name Uddalaka, see under Ayodhadhaumya.


It is stated in Mahabh5rata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 12 that this hermit Uddalaka was a prominent figure in the Durbar of Indra. Uddalaka had a son called Svetaketu arid a daughter called Sujata. He gave his daughter Sujata in marriage to his favourite disciple Kahodaka. The hermit Astavakra was their son. See under Astavakra. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 132). Once Uddalaka caused the river Sarasvati to appear at the place of sacrifce. From that day onwards Sarasvad got the name `Manorama' because when the thought came to his mind (manas) the river made its appearance. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 33). It is mentioned in Mahabh5rata, Santi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 10, that Uddalaka expelled his son Svetaketu from the house because the son was a hater of Brahmins.


UDDALAKA II. The story of another hermit of the name Uddalaka is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Anu' asana Parva. Chapter 71. This hermit is known as Uddalaki


also. Once this hermit happened to forget that he had left flowers, food and his waterpot on the bank of the river and reaching his hermitage, he asked his son Naciketa to fetch them from the bank of the river. When Naciketa reached the bank of the river, those things had been washed down by the current. The son returned and reported the matter to his father. The father got angry and cursed his son to death. Seeing the son lying dead on darbha (mattress made of darbha grass) the hermit cried aloud. In that flow of tears life returned to the body arid the son woke up as if from sleep. The father asked the son about the news of the realm of Yama (the god of death) and the son told the hermit the news about the world of the dead.


UDDA1:DASASTRI. One of the eighteen and a half famous poets of Kerala. He was a Sanskrit poet. His native place was Latapura on the bank of river Mar in Tondamandala in the Tamilnad. The name of his father was Sri Krsna and that of his mothter was Rangadevi. Poet Ulloorsays that Sastri had another name Irugupanatha. He had a very good education. After having completed his education, he travelled through Andhra, Karnataka, Kalinga, Cola, Kerala and many other countries and finally came to Kozhikode and visited the King Manavikramamaharaja. At the instance of the king he composed the drama called Mallikamarutam. Besides this we have obtained only the `Kokilasandesa'and some other single poems of Sastri. It is said that there is a thesis on dramas also. Sastri was not in the habit of respecting those who did not pay respect to him, however superior they might be. So some say that he was arrogant. A Malayala Brahmin called Bhattatiri of Kakkasseri, rose against Sastri in. Kerala.




(1 General information. A Yadava. He was a friend and minister of Sri Krsna. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 186, Stanza 18, mention is made that Uddhava was present on the occasion of the Svayariivara (marriage) of Draupadi. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 218, Stanza 11, that at a famous celebration held in the mountain of Raivata, Uddhava was present. (See under Subhadra).


Uddhava was a disciple of Brhaspati, and a man of great intelligence. It was this Uddhava who brought the dowry of Subhadra to Indraprastha, when Arjuna married her. (M. B. Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Stanza 30 ).


Once a. king named Salva besieged the city of Dvaraka. At that time Uddhava saved Dvaraka.


Vana Parva, Chapter 15, Stanza 9 ).


2) . The message carried by Uddhaaa. Karhsa -sent Akrura to Ambadi, and brought Sri Krsna to Mathura. Sri Krsna killed Karirsa and made tgrasena king, and stayed in the city of Mathura for a time. At that time Sri Krsna sent Uddhava to Ambadi to know about the well-being of the people there. The moment Uddhava entered Ambadi, the Gopas and gopa women, (cowherds) Yagoda and Nandagopa, all surrounded him to hear about Sri Krsna. They felt much pleased at knowing that Sri krsna was getting on well. They sent through him many presents to Sri Krsna. He got all those presents into his chariot and took them to Sri Krsna in Mathura. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).


3). The end. Sri Krsna informed Uddhava beforehand the fact that the Yadava dynasty was going to end. Uddhava felt grief and requested Sri Krsna to take him also to Vaikuntha (the abode of Mahavisnu) . Sri Krsna taught Uddhava the. doctrine that the body of man and such other things seen in the whole universe were nothing but mere delusion. At that time Uddhava asked Sri Krsna twentyone questions about Bandha and Moksa (Bondage and deliverance).


To all these questions Sri Krsna gave him satisfactory answers. (Bhagavata Skandha 11).


Before the destruction of Dvaraka, the Yadus left the city. They went to Prabhasatirtha, a place on the sea coast and lived there. Uddhava who knew that the destruction was imminent, bade farewell to them and walked away alone. He was filled with a brightness. Sri Krsna did not stop him. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 3).


It is stated in Bhagavata, Skandha 11, Chapter 29, that Uddhava went to the hermitage of Badarika and engaged himself in penance.


UDIPAKA. See under Pancatantra.


UDICYA. One of the disciples of Vyasa. (Bhagavata, Skandha 12).


UDRAPARAKA. A serpen t born in the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent fell in the sacrificial fire of Janarriejaya and was burnt to death. (M. B. Adi Parva , Chapter 57, Stanza 17).


UDVAHA I. A Ksatriya king born from the family of Krodhavaga, an asura: (M.,B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 64) .


UDVAHA II. A part of air. It is believed that air or wind is the breath of Mahavisnu. In the Puranas mention is made about 49 types of Maruts or winds. Seven breaths are important among them. They are : (1) Pravaha (2) Avaha (3) Udvaha (4) Samvaha (5) Vivaha (6) Parivaha and (7) Paravaha. About Udvaha mention is made in Bhasa Bharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 329 thus:


"Which is the wind that takes water from the four oceans and gives it to the clouds? That ever-blowing great wind is Udvaha."


UDYOGAPARVA. A sub-section of Mahabharata. (See under Bharata).


UGRA I. A military captain of Surapadmasura, Chief of asuras. In the Viramahendra Kanda of Skanda Purana, two warriors, Ugra and Mayura are reported to have attacked Indrapuri.


UGRA II. (one of the sons of Dhrtarastra. (M. B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 103 ). Bhimasena killed him (M. B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, Verses 34, 35).


UGRA III. A Yadava prince. The Pandavas sent to him also an invitation letter to help them in the war. (M. B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 12) .


UGRA IV. A synonym of Lord Siva. (M. B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 100) .


UGRA V . Son of Kavi, the Prajapati. (M. B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 133) .


UGRA VI. See under Varna.


UGRADANISTRI. A daughter of Mahameru. Merudevi had nine daughters, Meru, Pratirupa, Ugradarhstri Lata, Ramya, Syama, Nari, Bhadra and Devavithi. They were wedded by the sons of a king .named Agnidhra. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha)


UGRAKA. A serpent. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 7) .


UGRAKARMA I. King of 9alva. Bhimasena killed him. (M. B. Karna Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 41 ).


UGRAKARMA II: Military Chief of 'the Kekaya prince, Visoka. Karna killed him. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 8, Verses 4, 5) .


UGRARAVAS. A muni. He killed one Duspanya (Setumahatmya). Duspanya was the last son. of a merchant in Pataliputra. He killed many,children for sport and his father sent him away. He went to the forest and there drowned to death a muni called Ugraravas, who was engaged in tapas. Ugraravas cursed him to death by drowning and his soul to wander about as a devil. The curse came true. (Setumahatmya).


UGRASENA I. King Ugrasena, father of Karfrsa:


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus: BrahmaAtri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas- Ayus - Nahusa - YayatiYadu-Sahasrajit-Satajit-Hehaya-Dharma-Kunti-(Kuni )Bhadrasena - Dhanaka - Krtavirya - KarttaviryarjunaMadhu-Vrsni-Yudhajit-Sini - Satyaka - Satyaki (Yuyudhana)-Yaya-Kuni-Anamitra- Prgni-Citraratha-Kukura Vahni - Viloma - Kapotaloma - Tumburu - DundubhiDaridra-V a su-Nahuka-Ahuka-Ugrasena-Karirsa.


2) Ugrasena became king. Ugrasena became king of Mathurapuri. His Kingship was not a hereditary acquisition. There is a story behind it. In olden days, in the plateau of Kalindi there was a famous place called Madhuvana. The place was called so because it was the abode of an Asura named Madhu. Madhu had a son, Lavana. Satrughna killed him as he was a very troublesome fellow and a thorn on the side of the Devas. gatrughna then established a beautiful kingdom there and ruled it. He named it Mathura. After the death of Satrughna his two sons ruled Mathura. Then, when the Solar dynasty came to its end, Mathura came under the Yadavas. A Yadava king called Sfirasena ruled over the kingdom. Vasudeva, father of Sri Krsna was the son of Surasena. After the death of his father Vasudeva took up the profession of herding cows, and therefore Ugrasena, another king of the Yadava dynasty had to become king of Mathura. (Devi Bhagavata, 4th Skandha).


3) Ugrasena and Kariasd. There is a common belief that Karhsa was the son of Ugrasena. But, the Bhagavata relates the following to the effect that Karhsa was born to a Gandharva called Dramila of Ugrasena's wife.


When once Ugrasena's wife was in her monthly periods, she walked in the forest with her companions. A Gandharva called Dramila saw her then, felt attracted by her and made her pregnant. Angered at this, she cursed Dramila thus: "Since you have procreated a son in me, while I am in my periods this son will be killed by a boy born in my husband's family." Karhsa was the son born to her in the above manner. Karnsa ascended the throne after putting Ugrasena in prison. According to the curse of Ugrasena's wife, Sri Krsna was born in Ugrasena's family and he killed Karirsa. Narada had informed Karhsa of the Dramila interlude. Kariisa told this story secretly to Akrura when the latter was deputed by him to invite Krsna to the dhanur yajna. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).


The name fIhuka. Genealogy states that Ugrasena was the son of Ahuka. But, in certain contexts Ugrasena is called Ahuka also. "Afterwards we made Ahuka-


Ugrasena King  " (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 128, Verse 39) .


5) Ugrasena imprisoned. Vasudeva, father of Sri Krsna was Ugrasena's minister. Kamsa, when he attained majority imprisoned Ugrasena and became himself king. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 22) .


6) Ugrasena regained kingdom. Sri Krsna killed Kariisa with the permission of Ugrasena and made him king again. During the reign of Ugrasena, Jarasandha and Salva attacked Mathurapuri. (See Linder Krsna).


7) Ugrasena and the iron rod. While Ugrasena was ruling the Kingdom, the sages Visvamitra, Narada and Kanja once came to Dvaraka. To insult the sages, the Yadavas brought before them, Samba dressed as a pregnant woman. The Yadavas told the sages that she was Babhru's wife, and wanted to be told whether the child she delivered would be male or female. The sages understood their evil mentality, and prophesied that Samba would deliver an iron rod fierce enough to annihilate the whole Yadava race. According to the prophecy the next day Samba delivered an iron rod. The Yadavas imparted the news to Ugrasena, who got the iron rod reduced to powder and deposited the powder in the sea. He also enforced prohibition of liquor in the country. (To know how the powder of the rod ruined the Yadava dynasty see under Krsna). (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 1 ).


8) After death. After his death, Ugrasenl joined the Visvadevatas. Bhurisravas, Sala, Bhuri, KamsaUgrasena, Vasudeva, Uttara with his brother Sankhathese kings (after death) joined the company of Vi9vadevatas. (M.B. Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verses 16, 17).


UGRASENA II. A brother of King Janamejaya. He, along with his two brothers thrashed the son of Sarami. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 3, Verses 1 and 2) .


UGRASENA III. Son of Kasyapa by his wife Muni. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 42) . He was pre-


sent at the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 52) . He was also present to witness the fight between Arjuna and Krpicarya at the Virata city. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 56, Verses 11 and 12) .


UGRASENA IV. A king who was Svarbhanu, the asura, reborn. (M. B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verses 12 and 13) .


UGRASENA V. A son of Dhrtarastr-i. He is also called Citrasena. (M.II. Adi Parva. Chapter 67, Verse 100) . This Ugrasena was killed by Bhima. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 137).


UGRASENA VI. Son of Pariksit, king of the Lunar dynasty. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 52-54).


UGRAJRAVAS I. Son of Muni Lomaharsa. He is the Suta who told Puranic stories to the munis at Naimisaranya. (M.B. Adi larva, Chapter 1, Verse 1).


UGRAJRAVAS II. A son of Dhrtarastra. Bhimasena killed him in the battle of Kuruksetra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 100, and Drona Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 19) .


UGRASRAVAS III. Husband .of 8ilavati. (See under Atri, Para 7) .


UGRATAPAS. Son of Sutapas, a muni of the Bhrgu dynasty. Oace h° concentrated his mind and thoughts on Sri Krsna immersed in love of the Gopis with the result that he was born as daug4ter of Sunanda, the Gopi in Ambadi, and served Krsna. (Padma Purina).


UGRATEJAS I. A synonym of Lord Siva. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 5 ).


UGRATEJAS II. A serpent. It welcomed Balabhadrarima once. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15) .


UGRATIRTHA. A Ksatriya king, who was Krodhavawa, the asura, reborn. (1VI.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 6%, Verse 65 )_


UGRAYUDnA I. A son of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 99 ). He was present at the wedding of Pancali. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185) .


UGRAYUDHA II. A Pancala king and partisan of the Pandavas. Karna wounded him in war. (Karma Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 44) .


UGRAYUDHA III. A powerful person, who fought on the Kaurava side. (M.B. galya Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 37)


UGRAYUDHA IV. An emperor killed by Bhisma. (M.B. gAnd Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 10) .


UGRODHA. A king of the lunar dynasty. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


UJJAYA. One of the sons of Visvamitra. They were Brahmavadins. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 58).


UJJANAKA. The Asrama of Arstisenamaharsi was situated near Mount Gandhamadana in front of Manasa lake. Ujjanaka was a lake near the asrama. A dip in the waters of the lake, it was believed, would wash off all sins. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 35).


UJJAPALAKA. A desert near the asrama of Uttanka muni. Dhundhu, offspring of the asuras, Madhu and Kaitabha, lived in this desert. (See under Dhundhu).


UJJAYANTAPARVATA. A mountain near the Pindaraka temple in Saurastra. It is believed to possess wonderful siddhis. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 21) .


UJJAYINI. One of the seven very sacred places in ancient India. Its ancient name was Avanti. The seven sacred cities are.: Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya, Kasi. Kanci, Avantika, and Dvaravati. The famous Mahakala temple described by Kalidasa was on the banks of the river Sipra flowing through Ujjayini. Jyotirlinga of Siva is the presiding deity in the temple. There is also a holy bathing ghat called Kotitirtha here. A bath in it is as beneficial as an As vamedha yajna. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 82):


UKTHA. Agni, the father of Paravani. This agni is saluted with three kinds of Uktha hymns. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 25) .


UK,T~HA (M). A particular portion of Samaveda.


ULUKA I. The son of gakuni. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 25) . It is Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 182, Stanza 22, that Uluka was present at the Svayamvara (the Bride choosing a husband' of Draupadi. In the Bharata Battle Uluka was sent as a :messenger to the camp of the Pandavas by Duryodhana. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 161). After that he returned to Duryodhana with the message of the Pandavas. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 163). He combated with the King of Cedi on the first day of the battle. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45) . After that Sahadeva attacked tluka. (M:B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 72, Stanza 5). Arjuna defeated Uluka. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 171, Stanza 40) . After the death of the teacher Drona, Uluka fled from the battle-field. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 193, Stanza 14). It is mentioned Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 25, Stanzas 9 to 11, that Uluka defeated Yuyutsu. Next fight was between Sahadeva and Uluka in which Sahadeva killed Uluka. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 28, Stanzas 32 and 33 ). The following are the synonyms of Uluka, given in the Mahabharata :-Sakuni, Kaitaka, Saubalyasuta and Kaitavya.


ULUKA II. A Yaksa (a demi-god). It is stated in Mahdbharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 32, that Garuda and this Yaksa fought with each other.


ULUKA III. A son of Visvamitra. He became a hermit. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 51) . It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 47, Stanza 11, that this Uluka visited Bhisma on his Bed of arrows.


ULUKADUTAGAMANAPARVA. A sub-section of a Parva in the Mahabharata. (See under Bharata).


ULUTKASRAMA. A holy place. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 186, Stanza 26).


ULUTPI. Wife of Arjuna.


1) How she became the wife of Arjuna. Once Arjuna happened to enter the palace in which Dharmaputra was living with Paficali. As a result, Arjuna had to go on a pilgrimage for a year. (See under .Iravan). Arjuna reached Gangadvara. When he got down into the river Gaiiga, he saw Ulfipi the daughter of Ndgaraja (King of the serpents). He asked her a few questions. She told him thus :-"I am the daughter of the serpent Kauravya of the family of Airavata. I came to bathe in the river and when I saw you I grew amorous." Arjuna told her that Dharmaputra had imposed on him celibacy for twelve months and that it was not right to marry in the meantime. Ulupi argued with Arjuna and convinced him that it was not wrong to marry her. Arjuna married her. A son named Iravan was born to her.


2) How Ulupf caused Arjuna to be killed and how he was brought to life again. (See paras 28 and 29 under Arjuna).


3) The end of Utupf. After having brought Arjuna back to life, Ulupi reached Hastinapura with Babhruvahana and Citrangada. (M.B. Mvamedha Parva, Chapter 87) . As soon as she reached there she greeted Kunti, Draupadi and Subhadra. She gave them various kinds of presents. It is mentioned in Ma.habharata, Asramavasika Parva, Chapter I, Stanza 23 that Ulupi served Gandhari at one time. In Mahabharata, Xsramavdsika Parva, Chapter 10, Stanza 46 it is mentioned that Ulupi was greatly loved by the subjects. When the Pandavas began the `great departure' (Mahaprasthana) fJlupi entered the River Ganges. Citrangada went to Manalurapura.


-Ulupi, the daughter of the serpent Kauravya, jumped into the Ganges and to Manalurapura, went Citrangada." (Bhasa Bharata, Mahaprasthanika Parva, Chapter 1, Stanza 27).


4) The other names of Ulupf. Bhujagatmaja, Bhujagendrakanyaka, Bhujagottama Kauravi, Kauravyaduhita, Kauravyakulanandini, Pannaganandini, Pannagasuta, Pannagatmaja, Pannagesvarakanya, Pannagi, Uragatmaja. These are the synonyms used in the Mahabharata for Ulupi.


ULLTTA. A country in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 54) .


UMA. Parvati. (For details see under Parvati).


UMLOCA. A celestial woman. Umloca with other celestial women participated in the birth celebration of Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 65) .


UNCHAVRTTI. A brahmin. His story is told as follows in Jaimini Asvamedha Parva.


This poor brahmin who lived by begging got one day some food grain powder. After offering a portion of it to Agni and Brahmins, he divided the balance equally between the children. Then he sat down to take his own food when Dharmadeva, disguised as a brahmin, appeared and demanded food. Ufichavrtti gave all his food to the guest. Since that did not satisfy the guest, the sons also gave their shares of the food to him. Greatly pleased at the noble act of Unchavrtti, Dharmadeva took the brahmin family with him to Svargaloka. One day a few particles of the foodgrain powder which remained with the brahmin fell on the earth. A mongoose came and played on that ground. That part of his body which got smeared with the food-grain powder became golden in colour. Though the mongoose went to the yajfia ground of Dharmadeva and repeated the above process there, the remaining portion of its body did not become golden.


UNDRA (M) (UTRAM). A place in South India. Sahadeva subjugated this place. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 7 1). People of Undram were present at the Rajasiiya of Yudhisthira with presents. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 22) .


UNMADA. A celestial woman.


1 1 Became a woman by the curse of Uravasf. Hamsa, the King of Gandharvas (semi-gods) had a general of the army called Durmada. He was a dangler. He had an eye on Urvas i. She was the wife of Pururavas a famous King. On several occasions Durmada followed Urvasi, with lustful desire. He had expressed his amour for her on several occasions. But Urvasi did not pay any heed to his words.


One day Pururavas and Urvasi were present in the durbar of Indra. Pururavas and Urvasi had signalled a rendezvous for that night at the corner of the Nandana Park. Durmada understood this. He called a celestial woman named Unmada to his side. They made a plan and accordingly Unmada disguised herself as Urvasi and Durmada took the guise of Pururavas and both of them entered Nandana park. Pururavas went to Unmadaand conjugated with her. In the same way Urvasi received Durmada, mistaking him for Pururavas. After the conjugation Durmada laughed loud as if he had played a trick on Urvasi. Urvasi understood everything. Pururavas also arrived there. Urvasi cursed Durmada to take birth in the earth as a Raksasa and cursed Unmada to be born in the earth as the daughter of a King and she said that at that time she would love one man and become the wife of another man. The aggrieved Durmada and Unmada prayed for liberation from the curse. Urvasi gave them liberation thus :"This Durmada will be born as the son of Unmada. Seeing the death of her husband and son, she would jump into fire. After that she will enter heaven. Durmada will be killed by the sword of an enemy and will obtain heaven." According to this curse Durmada was born as the son of Dirghajangha, the emperor of Hiranyapura, under the name Pingaksa and Unmada was born as the daughter of the King of Videha. Her name was Harini (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 3) .


2) The marriage and death off1hrinE. Harini grew up to be a young woman Once Pihgaksa growing lustful took Harini and went through the sky. She cried aloud for a long time. Pifigaksa, the asura, left her in a wild forest. At that time a King named Vasumanas came by that way hunting. He killed Pingaksa and then having heard the story of Harini got her on the horse called Jimuta and sent her to Videha (Mithida). Her father was much pleased at getting her back. He wanted to give her in marriage to Vasumanas. The date of the marriage was fixed. Invitations were sent to many Kings. Among them there was a king named Bhadrasrenya, who took her by force and went away. There was a fierce battle between the two Kings, Bhadrasrenya and Vasumanas and Vasumanas was defeated. Seeing this Divodasa, the King of Kas i, attacked Bhadrasrenya. Though Divodasa defeated Bhadrasrenya, he did not like to harm the beaten King. So he returned to his kingdom. Bhadrasrenya took Harini to his palace and married her. A son was born to her and he was named Durmada. This was the same Durmada who had taken birth and died as Pifigaksa and who had been born again as the son of Harini. This Durmada took by force the daughter of his uncle called Citrangi and a child was born to them. Bhadrasrenya again engaged in a battle with Divodasa, the King of Kas i, and was defeated. Then his son Durmada got into the battlefield and he also was defeated.


When all this news reached Vasumanas, the King of Ayodhya, he became jealous of Bhadrasrenya. A battle was fought between them in which Vasumanas was defeated. But a fierce battle was fought again in which Bhadrasrenya and his son Durmada were killed. Durmada obtained heaven. Stricken with grief at the death of her husband and son, Harini got into fire and went to heaven. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 3) .


UNMADINy. A beautiful woman. She was the daughter of a Vaisya in the city of Sravasti. He went to the King Devasena and requested him to marry his daughter. Because of the interference of his favourites, the King did not marry her. The King's general married her. Once the King happened to see her by chance. When he saw how beautiful she was, he felt sorry that he did not marry her. From that day onwards the King grew morbidly torpid and finally died.


This story was told by Yaugandharayana, minister of Udayana, the King of Vatsa. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka; Taranga 1) .


UNMATHA I. Yama ( Kala) presented Skandadeva with two attendants. One was Unmatha and the other Pramatha. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 30)


UNMATHA II. An attendant presented to Skandadeva 51 Parvad. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza


UNMATTA. A warrior of a class of Raksasas (giants). In Agni Purana, Chapter 10, it is mentioned that ibis warrior died in the battle between R5ma and Ravana. Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order :-Brahma-Heti-Vidyutkes a- Sukega-Malyavan-Unmatta.


Vidyutkesa was born to Heti, the son of Brahma by his wife Bhaya; Sukesa was born to Vidyutkesa by his


wife Salakatanka and Mali, Sumali and Malyavan were born to Sukes a of his wife Devavati, and to Malyavan by his wife Sundari, seven sons named Vajramusti, Virizpaksa, Durmukha, Suptaghna, Yajnakosa, Matta and Unmatta and a daughter named Nala were born. Prahasta, Akampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumraksa and some more Raksasas were the sons of Sumali, brother of Malyavan. Kaikasi, the mother of Ravana, was the sister of Prahasta.


UNMUCA. A hermit of south Bharata. Mention is made about him in Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 28.


UPABARHANA. See the 2nd para under Narada.


UPACARA (Hospitality). They are sixteen in number. (Things to be offered to the guest). They are called Sodasopacaras. They are given below :-(1) Asana ( seat) (2) Padya (water to wash feet (3) Arghya (water to drink) (4) Snaniya (bath) (5) Anulepana (ashes or other fragrant things for. besmearing) (6) Dhupa (smoke) (7) Dipa (light) (8) Naivedya (food) (9) Tambula (Betel) (10) Sitalajala (cool drinks) (11 ) Vasana (clothing) (12) Bhusana (ornaments) (13) Malya (garland) (14) Gandha (sweet-smelling things) (15) Acamaniyaka (water to rinse mouth) (16) Sutalpa (Good bed).


These are the sixteen offerings that we have to give to our guests.


UPACITRA. A son of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 95) . In the Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 136 Stanza 22 it is mentioned that he was killed by Bhimasena.


UPADEVA. A King of the Puru dynasty.


UPAGAHA. A son -)f Vis vamitra. He was a Brahmavadin. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 56).


UPAGIRI. A hilly place in North Bharata. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Stanza 3 ).


UPAGUPTA. A King of the Candravarhsa (Lunar dynasty). (See under Genealogy).


UPAJALA. A river. In the Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 13, Stanza 31, it is mentioned that by bathing in this river the King Usinara got power and position higher than that of Indra.


UPAKICAKAS. Kicaka, the brother-in-law of King Virata, had one hundred and five brothers. They are called Upakicakas. Kicaka and the Upakicakas were born of a portion of Kalakeya an asura. At the palace of Virata, Kicaka harassed Pancali and was killed in the night by Bhima. (See under Kicaka). Hearing about the death of Kicaka, the hundred and five Upakicakas came there and decided to burn PdIlcali also, because they thought she was the cause of the death of their elder brother. They bound and carried her to the cremation ground. Hearing her loud cry, Bhima jumped over the wall and ran to the cremation ground. He uprooted a tree, killed all the hundred and five Upakicakas and brought Pallcali to the palace. (M.B, Virata Parva, Chapter 23) .


UPAKOAA. The daughter of the teacher Upavarsa. (See under Vararuci).


UPAKOSALA. See under Satyakama.


UPAKR,S~TAKA. A warrior of Skandadeva. (M.B. ~alya larva, .Chapter 45, Stanza 57) .


UPAMANYU I. A dutiful disciple of the teacher Ayodhadhaumya. This teacher had three disciples of prominence. They were Aruni, Upamanyu and Veda.


To know how Upamanyu was put to test by the teacher see under Ayodhadhaumya.


UPAMANYU II. In the Krtayuga, there lived a hermit named Vyaghrapada who had two sons. They were called Upamanyu and Dhaumya. Some learned men are of opinion that Upamanyu the son of Vyaghrapada and Upamanyu the disciple of Ayodhadhaumya, were one and the same. Once Upamanyu visited another hermitage along with his father. He happened to drink the milk of the cow there. After that they returned to their own hermitage, Upamanyu went to his mother and asked her to make milk pudding for him. But the mother felt very sorry because there was no milk. At last she mixed flour in water and made pudding and gave it to him. Upamanyu did not accept it. His mother told him that there was no way to get milk and that men could get wealth,.crops etc. only by the grace of Siva.


Upamanyu who was of a wilful nature did penance with meditation and contemplation on Siva. Finally Siva appeared before him in the shape of Indra and told him to ask for his boon. Upamanyu boldly replied that he wanted no boon from anybody else except Siva. Siva made his appearance in his own form and made Upamanyu a deva (God).


Upamanyu said all these things when he talked with Sri Krsna. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14).


In the Book "Our hermits", written by Ramasvami Sastri in Tamil, it is mentioned that Upamanyu had written a book "Siva bhaktavilasa" in which biographies of devotees of Siva of great attainments are given.


UPAMANYU III. In the Brahm5nda PurAna we come across another Upamanyu as the son of a hermit named Sutapas. Upamanyu reached the hermitage of Kasyapa, with the idea of marrying Sumati, the daughter of Kasyapa and the elder sister of Garuda. Nobody liked the idea of giving Sumati in marriage to that old man. The hermit got angry at this and cursed Kasyapa that if he gave his daughter in marriage to any Brahmana his head would break into a hundred pieces. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 18) .


UPANANDA I. A son of Dhrtarastra. Bhimasena killed him. (M.B. Karna Parva, 6hapter 51, Stanza 19).


UPANANDA II. A serpent. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Stanza 12) .


UPANANDA III. A warrior of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 64)..


UPANISAD. The four Vedas are Rk, Yajus, Sarha and Atharva. Each of these four has a Brahmana (a treatise relating to prayer and sacrificial ceremony). Next come the Aranyakas (forest texts-writings meant for the forest-dwelling hermit) as appendices to the Rrahmanas. Then come the Upanisads as appendices ,to the Aranyakas. These four classes of .literary works (the Vedas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the Upanisads) constitute the Vedic literature proper. The Aranyakas and the Upanisads are inseparably connected with each other. The Upanisads are called Vedantas (the end of the Vedas) . The bulk of these Vedantas belong to different periods anterior to the Later Vedic Period. The students begin the study of Upanisads only after having completed the study of the Mantras (Vedic hymns) and theBrahmanas (the ritual).


The meaning of the word `Upanisad' is that which is most near. Upa = near. ni = most. sad = exist. (or sit). The Upanisads can be called the Jnanakanda of the Vedas. They describe the nature of Brahman. The figure of the supreme Spirit (Brahman) exists in the Upanisads. Apparently the Upanisads are explanations of the mantras, but they are concerned more with the allegorical significations and the mystic meanings of the tattvas or essence, of the origin of life, the world, the soul, God etc. The Upanisads are the basis of the Sad-darsanas, the six systems of philosophy. There are a large nu-nber of Upanisads. The most important among them are 108 in number.


UPAPATAKA (UPAPAPA) (Minor sins). In accordance with the Rastramimarilsa (political philosophy) of Ancient India, crimes were divided into two types. They were called Upapatakas (minor crimes) and Patakas (major crimes). To know about major crimes (Patakas) see under Papa (sin). Upapatakas are given below:-Cow-slaughter; sacrificing by one who, is unworthy to perform it; seducing another man's wife; forsaking one's father, mother and teacher; forsaking self-study, agni (fire) and son; becoming Parivetta (one who gets mar6ed before one's elder brother is married.) Younger brother finishing education before the elder; giving an unmarried girl to Parivitti or Parivetta; performing sacrifice by a parivitti or a parivetta; slandering an unmarried girl; Living on the interest of money that is lent; violating one's vow; selling pond, garden, wife or son; becoming an outcaste; forsaking relatives; Teaching the Vedas after receiving remuneration; selling things which should not be sold; working in mines; working with big machinery; destroying medicinal herbs,; living by women; to impede rites; cut down fresh trees (not dried) for fire-wood; kidnapping women; mingling with slanderers of women; selfish activities; eating forbidden rice; not keeping Sacrificial fire; theft; not repaying loan; learning forbidden sciences; doing things which are bad and will cause grief to others; stealing of base metals, grains and cows; contact with drunken women; killing women, 8udra, Vaisya and Ksatriya and becoming an infidel are all Upapatakas.


Causing grief to a Brahmin; inhaling the smell of liquor and other prohibited things; resorting to tricks or deceit and engaging in pederasty are sins which would make one an outcaste.


Slaughter of dog, donkey, camel, lion, sheep, junglegoat, fish, serpent and mungoose are sins of a mixed character.


Receiving money from the despicable; buying and selling; serving a sudra;. telling a lie; acting so as to render oneself. unworthy; killing worms and birds; eating food along with liquor; stealing fruits, flowers and butea; and becoming a coward are also sins.


UPAPLAVYA. A minor city in the country of Virata. This minor city stood near the capital city of Virata Kingdom. After their incognito-life, the Pandavas are said to have lived-in the city of Upaplavya. (M.B Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Stanza 14) .


UPAPURANAS. See under Purana.




Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order: Atri° Candra- Budha - Fururavas-- Ayus-- Nahuga


-Yayati-Puru- Janamejaya - Pracinvan - Pravira Namasyu-Vitabhaya-Sundu-Bahuvidha - Sarhyati -Rahovadi - Raudrasva -Matinara - Santurodha -Dusyanta - Bharata - Suhotra - Suhota - Gala -Garda-Suketu-Brhatksetra-Hasti- Ajamidha - RksaSariivarana -Kuru-Sudhanva - Sugotra - Cyavana-K,rtiUparicaravasu.


2) How he got the name Uparicaravasu. Once Vasu built a hermitage and began to perform penance in accordance with the advice of Indra. When the penance became too severe Indra appeared and gave him an aerial chariot. Since then Vasu used to travel through air in the chariot. So he got the name `Uparicaravasu' (Vasu, who travels above). (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 63).


3). Pasu and Indra festival. Indra gave Vasu a garland (Vaijayantimala) which would never fade, and gave a boon that, so long as he wore that garland, he wou1d not receive any wound. He was given a bamboo stick (Venudanda) and was instructed to fix that rod on the earth and celebrate the festival of Indra. Vasu celebrated the festival of Indra and from that day onwards the festival of Indra came to be celebrated in the world. (See under Indrotsava).


4). The sons of Vasu. Five sons named Brhadratha, Kusamba (Manivahana), Mavella, Yadu and Rajanya were born to him.


5) . Kicking and slitting Kolahala. The river guktimati flowed through the capital city of Vasu. Once the great hill Kolahala grew amorous of 8uktimati and caught hold of her. Uparicaravasu got angry at this and kicked the mountain which was split into two and Suktimati flowed out of the gap. Still two children were born to the great hill by guktimati. The river was pleased at the freedom accorded by the king and placed the two children at the feet of the king. They grew up. The son became general of the army and the daughter Girika became the wife of the king. (M. B. Adi Parva Chapter 63) .


6 ). Vasu goes ahunting. One day the king decided to go to hunt. On the same day his wife had her monthly course. Still without changing his programme he started for the forest. Even after entering the forest the thought of his wife lingered in his mind. The forest was in full bloom as it was Spring. Seeing this the king grew amorous and sat under a tree. A mild breeze was blowing. Instantly the king had seminal flow. He collected the semen in the leaf of a tree and sent it to the queen through an eagle. Thinking that to be some food, another eagle got near and a quarrel arose. The semen fell in the river Yamuna. A fish named Adrika swallowed it. (See under Adrika). A fisherman caught hat fish. He got a male child and a female child from the stomach of the fish. That girl is the famous Satyavati Matsyagandhi who became the queen of Santanu. (See under Satyavati). The fisherman gave the boy he got from the fish to king Uparicaravasu. (M. B. Adi Parva Chapter 62).


7) . ,Other information.


(i) It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 20, that Uparicaravasu was famous as a member of the council of Yama.


He was a friend of Indra, a devotee of Visnu and a righteous and diligent man who loved and esteemed his father. Because of the grace of $ri Narayana, he


secured an empire. He consecrated everything before god. Once Indra gave him half of his seat. (M. B. 8anti Parva, Chapter 355 ). Because of the grace of Bhagavan (Lord), Garuda made him a traveller of the sky. (M. B. 8anti Parva, Chapter 337, Stanza 37).


(iii). In Mahabharata, 8anti Parva, Chapter 337, Stanza 38, it is mentioned that finally Uparicaravasu entered the world of Brahma.


(iv). Once a controversy arose between Indra and the hermits, whether cow-slaughter during sacrifices, was desirable. At this time Uparicaravasu happened to come there. As he was a man of truth, he was asked to make a decision. Uparicaravasu stood on the side of Indra and gave his opinion in favour of slaughter. The hermits who were against cow-slaughter got angry and cursed Uparicaravasu to go down to the world of Patala (netherworld). (Matsya Purana, Chapter 152 ).


This story is seen with slight difference in Mahabharata 8anti Parva, Chapters 322-324.


UPASLOKA. A son born to Sri Krsna by Sairandhri. He learned all sciences and Philosophies and finally became a follower of the Sariikhya-Yoga cult. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10) .


UPASRUTI. The patron-goddess of Uttarayana (The sun's progress towards North in the former half of the year). In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 166 mention is made of how this goddess made it possible for Indrani to see Indra through the holes of a stalk of lotus. It was by the help of Upasruti that Sacidevi and Indra met together. (M. B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 14, Stanzas 12 and 13) .


UPATYAKA. A country in Bharata. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 2, Stanza 55) .


UPAVARSA. The younger brother of the Teacher Varsa. He also was a teacher. For further information see under Vararuci.


UPAVASA. Upavasa means going back from sin and leading a good life. (Upa (varta) -go back and Vasa= A life). All actions which are not good, must be relinquished. Those who observe Upavasa should abstain from using flesh, Masura (pulse), canaka (a kind of gram), Varaku (a kind of grain), green leaves prepared), honey, rice etc. and from contact with women. He should not wear flowers, ornaments, or fashionable dress; should not inhale fragrant smoke, and fragrance of any sort. Cleaning the teeth and using collyrium also are prohibited. Instead of cleaning the teeth in the morning Pancagavya (Milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung of cow) should be taken in. Drinking water several times, using betel leaves, sleeping in the day time and sexual act also should be avoided. (Agni Pur5na, Chapter 175).


UPAVEN'A. A river. This river is considered to be the mother of Agni (fire). Some are of opinion that this river is Krsnavena a tributary of the great river Krsna (R.Kistna) of South India. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Stanza 14).


UPAVITA. The sacred string or Uttariya. The twice born (the three upper castes) wear this. When it is worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm it is called Upavita, when it is worn over the right shoulder and und,x the left arm it is called Pracinavita and if it is worn around the neck as a garland it .is called Nivita. (Manustnrti? Chapter 2- Stanza 63) ,


UPAVRTTA (M) A country in Bhirata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 91, Stanza 84).


UPAYA (S) . See under Caturupaya.


UPAYAJA. Brother of the hermit Yaja. Both of them lived on the banks of the Gaiiga. Dhrstadyumna and Pancali were born to the King Drupada of Pancdla as the fruit of the sacrifices performed by these hermits. The story is given below:


The famous teacher Drona was the son of" the hermit Bharadwja, who was a friend of the King Prsata of Pancala. So King Prsata sent his son Drupada to the hermitage of Bharadvaja for education. Thus Drona and Drupada were fellow students.


After completing his education Drupada became King of Pancala. At that time the teacher Drona once visited the palace of the King. But Drupada did not duly receive his former classmate. Drona got angry at this and went to Hastinapura and became the teacher of the Pandavas and the Kauravas. As a remuneration for teaching them Drona demanded that Arjuna should bind Drupada and bring him before him. Arjuna did so. Drupada gave Drona a portion of his kingdom and got his liberty. From that day onwards Drupada wished for a son who would take revenge on Drona, and requested the hermit Upayaja to perform a sacrifice for getting a son. At first the hermit refused. The King served the hermit for a year. The hermit was pleased and asked the King to invite Yaja for the sacrifice. The King did as he was told and Yaja and Upayaja came to Pancala and performed the sacrifice for getting a son. From the sacrificial dais Mrstadyumna and Pancali were born. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 166 and Sabha Parva, Chapter 80, Stanza 45).


UPENDRA. A synonym of Visnu. Mahavisnu once took birth by Aditi the wife of Kasyapaprajapati. In that birth Mahavisnu had the name Upendra. He was known as Vamana too. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).


UPENDRA. A river. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 27).


UPENDRABALA. Son of a minister of the King named Sri Datta. (See under Sri Datta) .


URAGA. A class of serpents. Ten daughters were born to Krodhavasa wife of Kasyapa. The Uragas were born from the daughter Kadru and the nagas were born from the daughter Surasa. (Valmiki Rimayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 14) .


URDHVABAHU. A son of Vasistha. His mother was Urjja. (Agni Purina, Chapter 20). It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 150, that this Urdhvabahu did penance in South India.


URDHVABHAK. A fire. This Agni (fire) was the fifth son of Brhaspati. (M.B) Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Stanza 20).


URDHVAPUNDRA. A mark worn on the forehead with yellow ochre. This mark should be made by earth or ochre, which should be taken from the top of a mountain peak, banks of rivers, seashore, Saivite temple serpent-hill or from under a holy basil. The fruits of wearing the mark will vary according to the colour of the ochre. Black ochre will afford peace, red soil will procure docility, yellow soil will get prosperity, and white ochre will give duty or righteousness. As the fruits vary according to the colour, so also it will vary according to the finger used to put the sign. If the mark is


made with the thumb the man will become stout. If it is done with the middle finger he will have long life. If it is done with the fourth finger (andmika), he will get food and if it is made with the index finger ;tarjani) he will get salvation. The form of the mark also could be changed. The mark may be made in the form of a flame, the leaf of bamboo reed, a lotus-bud, a fish, a turtle or a conch. If the mark is as large as ten fingerbreadths it is superfine. If of nine finger-breadths, it is medium super-fine; and if it is eight and a half fingerbreadths, it is lower superfine. In the same :Nay if the finger-breadth of the mark is seven, six or five they will be super medium, medium medium and lower medium. If it is four, three and two they will be of the low, medium low and lowest.


It is also ordered that when one wears the IJrdhvapundra in a particular spot of the body one will have to think of a particular name of Visnu.


"Kesava in the forehead, Narayana in the stomach, Madhava in the heart, Govinda in the neck, Visnu on the right side of the stomach, Madhusudana on the middle of right hand, Trivikrama on the left ear, Vamana on the left side of stomach, Sridhara on the left hand, Hrsikesa on the right ear. Padmanabha on the hinder Part, Damodara on the nape and Vasudeva on the head, shculd be meditated upon." (Devi Bhe,gavata, Skandha I 1) .


URDHVAVENTIDHARA. An attendant of Skandadeva. (M.B. qalya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 18).


URJJA I. A wife of Vasistha. Seven sons named Rajas, Gotra, Urdhvabahu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapas and Sukra, were born to Vasistha by his wife Crjja. These seven holy men were the seven hermits (Saptarsis) in the third Manvantara. (Visnu Purina, Arhsa 1, Chapter 10).


URJJA II. One of the seven hermits of the Svarocisa Manvantara. The seven hermits of the Svarocisa Manvantara were Orjja, Stambha, Prana, Vita, Prsabha Niraya and Parivan. (Visnu Purina, Arihsa 3, Chapter 1) .


URJJA. III. A King of the Hehaya dynasty. He was the grandfather of the famous jarasandha. (Agni Purina, Chapter 278) .


URJJAKETU. A King of the dynasty of King janaka. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


URJJANI. A daughter of the Sun. (Rgveda, Maridala 1, Anuvaka 17, Sukta 119) .


URJJASVATI. A daughter born to Priyavrata, the son of Manu Svayambhuva, by Surupa the daughter of Visvakarma. Urjjasvati had ten brothers. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8). Priyavrata gave LJrjjasvati to the teacher-priest Sukra. De vayani, the wife of Yayati, was the daughter born to ~ukra by Urjjasvati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 5) .


URJJAYONI.., One of Vi•.,vamitra's sons who were expounders of Vedas. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 59) .


URMILA. Laksmana married LTrmila, the daughter of King janaka and the sister of Sita. When Laksmana went to the forest with Sri Rama and Sita, LTrmila remained in Ayodhya. After the forest life, Sri Rama and Laksmana returned with Sita. When Sri Rama was ruling over the country, two sons were born to Laksmana by Crmila. The elder son was named Taksaka and the second was given the name Chatra-




ketu. At the instruction of Sri Rama, Laksmana went to the Eastern sea and killed the foresters there and built there a city called Agati. Taksaka was made the King of Agati. Laksmana then went to the western sea and killed the Barbarians there and built a city called Candramati and made Chatraketu the King of that city. Being punished by Sri Rama, Laksmana drowned himself in the river Sarayu. (See under Laksmana). After that Crmila jumped into a pile of fire and reached the world of Visnu. (Uttara Ramayana).


LJR]TA. A wife of Mari-ci. In the Svayambhuva Manvantara Marici had a wife called Ilrna and six mighty sons by her. When they saw Brahma once, they teased him by calling him `a father who had married his daughter.' Brahma got angry with them, and cursed them to take birth as Daityas (demons) on the earth. Accordingly they took birth as the sons of' Kalanemi on earth. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 4) .


URNANABHA (SUDARSANA). A son of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 96 ). It is M*entioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 67, that Bhimasena killed him.


IJRNAYU. A Devagandharva. He had participated in the Birth celebration of Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 52) . Once this Devagandharva fell in love with Menaka. (Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Stanza 16).


URU. A son born to Manu Caksusa by his wife Nadvala. Uru had nine brothers named Puru, Satadyumna, Tapasvi, Satyavak, Kavi, Agnisthu, Atiratra, Sudyumna and Atimanyu. Six great sons were born to Cru by his wife Atreyi. They were Anga, Sumanas, Svati, Kratu, Angiras and Gaya. Vena was born to King Anga by his wife Sunitha and the famous emperor Prthu was born as the son of Vena. (Agni Purana, Chapter 18).


URUKRAMA. Another name of Vamana.


URVA (AURVA). A luminous hermit of the family of Bhrgu. He was the son of Cyavana and the father of Rcika. He created a tremendous fire for the destruction of the three worlds and extinguished it by putting it in the ocean. (For details see under Aurva).


URVARA. A celestial woman in the palace of Kubera. In the company of some other celestial women, she danced before the hermit cal1ed Astavakra. (M.B. Ahusasana Parva, Chapter 19, Stanza 44) .


URVARIYAN. Son of the Prajapati Pulaha. Three sons named Kardama, Urvariyan and Sahisnu, were born to Pulaha by his wife Ksama. (Visnu Purana, Arilsa 1, Chapter 1) .


URVASI I. A famous celestial damsel.


1) Birth of Uraasf. In days of old two hermits named Nara and Narayana did penance to Brahma in the holy hermitage of ~adarika for a thousand years. (Nara and Narayana were the children born to Dharma, the son of Brahma) . Because of the severity of their penance Indra was struck with fear Thinking that they were doing this severe penance with a view to become Indra, he approached the hermits and told them that they might ask for any boon. Even though Indra told them several times, they did not speak a word nor did they make any stir. Indra's fear increased. So Indra decided to create some delusions which would arouse in them fear, desire etc., so that their penance might be broken. . He began to bring around them wild animals such as lion, elephant wild snake etc. and natural phenomena such as storm, heavy rain, forest-fire etc. to terrify them. The efforts of Indra were futile. The disappointed Indra sent for Kamadeva .(Cupid) and consulted him, as a result of which Kamadeva and his wife Ratidevi with many celestial maids came to the hermitage in the mountain of Gandhamadana with the intention of hindering the penance of Naranarayanas. The season of spring was created in the forest. The celestial women such as Rambha and others came before the hermits and began to sing and dance. The hearts of the hermits began to swell with passion. When they opened their eyes what they saw was a beautiful sight. The famous celestial women, Menaka, Rambha, Tilottama, Sukesini, Manorama, Mahe,vari, Puspagandha, Pramadvara, Ghrtaci, Candraprabha, Soma, Vidyunmala, Ambujaksi, Kaficanamala, and others with their ten thousand and eighty hand-maids stood before them. Hermit Naravana who got terribly angry struck on his thigh with his hand and instantly there arose a woman -of extreme beauty. Because she had originated from the Cru (thigh) of Narayana, that woman, who was the most beautiful in the three worlds, got the name Urva~i. All the others were struck with wonder at the sight of this new creation. After that so many other beautiful women also were created. The, hermit Narayana gave all of them to Indra. With shame Indra accepted them and returned to heaven along with them. Thus Urvasi arrived at the realm of the devas (gods). (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 4).


2) Position of Uraasi. It is mentioned in Mahabharata that Urvasi had the eleventh place among the singers. The expert dancers were Anucana, Adrika, Somakegi, Misra, Alambusa, Marici, Sucika, Vidyutparna, Tilottama, Ambika, Ksema, Rambha, Sub,hu, Asita, Supriya, Pundarika, Sugandha, Surasa, Pramathini, Kamya and ~aradvati. Urva~i got the first placc among the celestial maids in beauty. (M B. Adi Parva, Chapter 123).


3) Uraasi and PuY86YavaS. Pururavas was the son of Budba born of Ila. He grew up and became a king of great renown. His fame reached even the realm of the gods. One day during that period Brahma cursed Urvasi. "Go and be born on the earth." (It is stated in the Devi Bhagavata that it was Brahma who cursed Urvar'.i and in the Bhagavatathat it was the Mitravarunas who cursed Urvasi). Urvasi had heard about the fame of Pururavas and had felt tender. love for him. The celestial maid reached the earth. She went to the palace of Pururavas and saw him. Because of the perfection of their figures, both loved mutually. The king asked her to become his wife. She agreed. But she laid down three conditions. (i) I have with me two lambs which I bring up as my sons. You must take care of them. No harm should befall them.


(ii) I take in only ghee. On no account should you compel me to eat any other food.


(iii) Don't come near me in nudity except at the time of coition.


The king agreed to all these conditions. From that day onwards Urvagi lived in the palace of the king as his wife. They lived happily for a long while without separating from each other.


Urvagi became conspicuous by her absence in the realm of the gods. She was the most expert actress in heaven.


Indra missed her. So a search was made and they found out that she was in the palace of Pururavas. Indra asked the Gandharvas to bring that celestial woman to heaven somehow. Visvavasu and some others of the Gandharvas reached the palace of king Pururavas and waited for an opportunity. One midnight they stole the lambs and took them away,through the sky. At that time the king was with Urvasi in the harem. Urvasi heard the cry of the lambs and she was flurried. She reviled the king who was not capable of taking care of two lambs. Hearing her harsh words the king took his bow and arrow and following the cry of the lambs he was about to chase the thieves. Taking this opportunity the Gandharvas caused a lightning to flash in the king's harem. In the light of the lightning Urvasi saw the king standing nude. The Gandharvas having achieved their task had left the lambs and departed before the king hod got out of the room. The king caught hold of the lambs and returned to the harem, within a short while. But Urvasi had gone out of the palace and was on her way.


The king was full of grief. He wandered all over the country in search of UrvaAi. At last he reached Kuruksetra and saw Urvagi there. He bowed low before her and implored her to return to the palace. But Urvasi replied thus:-


"Women are like wolves. Don't have alliance with them Oh King! Kings should not put faith in women and thieves."


Saying thus, Urvasi vanished. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 1) .


4) The reason why Pururavas had to remain separatefrom Urvali.


Pururavas had once gone to heaven, in accordance with the invitation of Indra to help the Gods in the battle with the asuras. Indrahad killed Mayadhara, a noble Asurajn that battle and had celebrated a festival. In that festival Rambha was dancing before Tumburu, the sage-priest, and detecting some flaw in her dance Pururavas teased her. Rambha retorted by asking the King what he knew about dance, and the king replied that he had learned from Urvasi more dance than Tumburu the teacher of Rambha. Tumburu got angry at this, and cursed the king Pururavas to suffer from the pangs of separation from Urvagi. Stricken with grief, Pururavas returned to his palace. It was after this that the Gandharvas took away Urvasi. Pururavas went to Badarika9rama and performed penance, meditating on God Visnu for the nullification of the curse. Urvasi, aggrieved by separation from her husband, sat motionless as a picture, in the custody of the Gandharvas. Lord Visriu was pleased with the penance of Pururavas. The Gandharvas brought hex back to the King. Thus it became possible for the king to meet Urvagi at least once a year. (Kathisaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka, Tarariga 1).


6) The sons born to Pururavas by Urvafi. The king became very sad when Urvasl was about to depart from him at Kuruksetra. Seeinghis grief Urvasi told him. "Oh King, if you want so much to live with me, you have to worship the Gandharvas. They will be pleased and will give me to you. Don't be sorry. Now I am pregnant. Come to this place at the- end of a year. We can spend that night together. Then we will get another son also that night." Pleased at what Urvasi had said, the king returned to his palace. On completion of a year Pururavas went to Kuruksetra and spent a


night with Urvass i. Urvag i gave Pururavas a very beautiful child and then she vanished. The king sat there and praised the Gandharvas, who gave the king an Agnisthali (a fire pot). Because of his derangement, thinking it to be Urvasi the king took the sthali (pot) and wandered about in the forest. At last placing the pot in the forest, the king returned to his palace. On that day Tretayuga (one of the four ages of the word,) commenced, and the Vedas dawned in his mind as three in number. He returned to the place where he had left the Sthali in the forest and took it. After that he made two `aranis' (wood from which fire is kindled by attrition) out of a banyan tree and placed his body between them and made fire. That fire is called `Jatavedas'. Thus jatavedas became the son of Purtaravas.


Pururavas generated three fires from Jatavedas. The first of them is Pranava. The second is called Narayana and the third Agnivarna. (Srimad Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


To Pururavas six sons were born from the womb of Urvasi. They were Ayus, Srutayus, Satyayus, Raya, Vijaya and Jaya. (A little difference is observed in these names in the Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 75, Stanzas 24 and 25) .


6) To know how a Gandharva named Durmada and a Vidyadhari named Unmada played a trick on Pururavas and Urva~i, see under Unmada.


7) How Agastya and Fasiytha were born to Mitravarunas because of Urva~i. In days of old there was a renowned king named Nimi in the family of Iksvaku. He decided to perform a sacrifice of a long duration. He began preparation and invited famous hermits such as Bhrgu, Arigiras, Vamadeva, Pulastya, Pulaha. Rcika and others. Finally he invited Vasistha. At that time Indra had begun. another sacrifice in heaven. So Vasistha went to heaven for that sacrifice, telling Nimi that he would conduct the sacrifice on his return. The emperor Nimi did not like it. Recognizing the hermit Gautama as the main priest, he began performing the sacrifice. The sacrifice of Indra lasted for 500 years. When Vasistha returned after that, the sacrifice of Nimi was over. Vasistha cursed Nimi. "You will become devoid of body." Nimi cursed back. "Let Vasistha also become thus."


The aggrieved Vasistha went to his father Brahma and complained about the curse. Brahma told Vasistha. "You penetrate the brightness of Mitravarunas and stay there. In due course you will get a birth which is not of awomb." Hearing these words, Vasistha reached the hermitage of Mitravarunas. He left his body there and fused himself into their effulgence. During this period Urvati came to that hermitage. Seeing her, Mitravarunas had seminal flow. The semen fell in a pot. From the pot two bright and handsome sons were born. The first of them was Agastya and the second Vasistha. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8).


8) Indra cursing UrvaSi. Once Agastya went to the durbar of Indra. On the occasion Indra asked Urva i to dance. In the midst of the dance she saw Jayanta, the son of Indra, and became amorous and her steps went wrong. Narada who was playing his famous lute called Mahati could not play well. Agastya got angry and cursed jayanta to become a bud. He cursed Narada also. So his lute became ,the lute of the world.. Urvasi i born on the -earth under the name Madhavi due to the curse.


9) Urvadi changing Arjuna into eunuch. (See under Arjuna).


10) Other information.


(i) It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Stanza 11, that Urvasi had been in love with Kubera once.


(ii) Urvasi was dismayed when SukadevaattainedSupreme Bliss. (See under Suka).


URVASI II. Another name of Gaitga. As she sat on the Uru (thigh) of Bhagiratha, Ganga got the name Urvasi. (M.B. Drona Parva,Chapter 60, Stanza 6).


URVASITIRTHA. A holy place and Bath. Those who bathe in this holy bath will be honoured by the world. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 157) .


USA I. The daughter of Banasura and the wife of Aniruddha.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order:- Brahma - Kasyapa - Hiranyakasipu - PrahladaVirocana-Mahabali-Bana-Usa.


2) Marriage of U,sd. See under Aniruddha.


USA II: The daughter of a hermit. The king of ESalva once attacked Satyaratha, the king of Vidarbha, and killed him. The queens of the king of Vidarbha went to the forest. One of them who was pregnant gave birth to a child on the bank of a river. When she got down into the river to drink water, a crocodile swallowed her. Then a hermit's daughternamed Usa brought up the child. (Siva Purana).


USA III. The night is called Usa and the day, Ghusti. The time between Usa and Ghusti is called Sandliya. (Visnu Purana, Aril a 2, Chapter 8).


USAkGU I. A hermit who lived in the western country. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 30).


USAfIGU II. A synonym of giva.(M.B. Anusasana Parva,U Ch pt 17, Stanza 105).


SAMU III. A king of the Yadu family. His father was Vrjinivan and his son was called Citraratha. (M.B. Anu asana Parva, Chapter 147, Stanza 29).


USM~GAVA. A member of the durbar of the king Yama (god of death). (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 26).


USAh1KU (RUSA\fKU). A hermit. Seeing that old age was.coming on him this hermit forsook his body in the Prthudaka tirtha'and went to the realm of Visnu. Arstisena, Vigvamitra, Sindhudvipa, Devapi and such others got Brahmanya (the state of being Brahmin) by doing. penance in the hermitage of this hermit. (M.B. Santa Parva, Chapter 38, Stanzas 33-39) .


USANAS. The teacher Sukra, the son of the hermit Bhrgu. (See under Sukra).


USIK 1. A hermit about whom mention is made in the Rgveda.


USIK II. One U9ik as the wife of the hermit Dirghatamas is mentioned in the Rgveda Mandala 1, Anuvaka 16, Sukta 112. This iisik was the maid of the queen of the old King of Kalinga. The king requested Dirghatamas to beget children by his queen. The queen did not like this. She senthermaid U~iktol)irghatamas. The hermit Kaksivan was the son born to Dirghatamas by Usik. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 18, Sukta h125).


UJINARA I. A famous king of the Candravarhia (Lunar dynasty).


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order:- Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha- Pururavas - AyusNahusa-Yayati-Anudruhyu-Sabhanara-Kalanara - Srnjays-Usinara. Usinara was the father of gibi and Vena. 2) The reason for the curse of the eight Vasus. Once the Astavasus (Vasus eight in number) came to the hermitage of Vasistha, with their wives. The wife of Dyau, one of the Astavasus, saw the cow '`Nandini' in the hermitage. She and the daughter of Usinara were intimate friends. She wanted to get Nandini, so that she might give it as a present to the daughter of Usinara. According to her Wish the Asavasus caught hold of the cow and took her home. At' that time Vasistha had been away. When lie returned, he knew about the theft of the cow and cursed the Astavasus to take birth in the wombs of women on earth. It was according to this curse that the Astavasus took birth in Gangadevi the wife of Santanu. See under Bhisma. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 2) .


3) Indra testing Minara. U9inara was a just and liberalminded King. Indra decided to test the King regarding his liberality. He got Agnideva (fire-god) for his help. Indra took the form of a Kite and Agni that of a dove. Both flew down to USinara as if the Kite was chasing the dove. Usinara agreed to protect the dove. The Kite argued with the King that it was not meet and right on his part to rob him of his lawful food. The King agreed to give any other kind of flesh to the Kite. But the Kite would have none of them. Finally the Kite agreed to accept the flesh of the King instead, equal to the weight of the dove. The King cut more and more flesh from his body, but it could not weigh equal to the dove. At last the King himself got into the balance. Then the gods had pity on the King and the Kite and the dove appeared in their real form and blessed the King and then they returned to heaven. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 131). In Mahabharata a story like this occurs about King Sibi also.


4) Other information.


(i) Usinara gave Galava two hundred horses as dowry and married Yayati's damsel Madhav3. (See under Galava).


ii) The King Sunaka gave U6inara a sword. (M.B. anti Parva, Chapter 166, Stanza 79) .


(iii) Udinara performed a sacrifice on the bank of the river Vitasta and became equal to Indra. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 130, Verses 20-21).


(iv) Uginara attained heaven by giving cows as gifts. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 76, Stanza 25).


USINARA 11. A King of the Yadavas. In the Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 20, it is mentioned that this King was present on the occasion of the Svayarimvara (the bride choosing a husband) of Draupadi.


USNARA III. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 32, that Vrsadarbhi was another name of Us inara and that he had once ruled over the kingdom of Kas i.


US INARA IV. A country. It is stated in Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 47, that Arjuna had killed the warriors of this country. In Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 33, Stanzas 22 and 23, mention is made that due to the curse of Brahmins the Ksatriyas (the ruling class) had become Sudras (servile class.)


USIRABIJA I. A mountain in North India. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 139, Stanza 1 ).


USIRABIJA II. A place on the northern side of the Himalayas. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 111, Stanza 23, that the King Marutta once fought a battle here.


USMA. The son of the Agni (Fire) named Paficajanya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Stanza 4).


USMAPA. A group of Pitxs (the Manes). It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 30, that these Pitrs (the manes) live in the palace of Yama.


USTADESA. An ancient place in Krauncadvipa (the island of Kraufica). Krauficaparvata (the mountain Kraufica) stands near this place. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 21) .


US_'YIK. One of the seven horses of the Sun. The seven horses of the Sun are, Gayatri, Brhati, Usnik, Jagati, Tristup, Anustup, and Pankti. (Visnu Purana, Ariisa 2, Chapter 8) .


USNINABHA. A Visvadeva (a class of gods). (Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Stanza 44) .


USTRAKARTRTIKA. An ancient place in South India. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Stanza 71, that this place was brought under control by Sahadeva.




1) General. Son of sage A giras. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 5) . Ile gave advice on subjects of statecraft to King Mandhata. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 90) . He married Soma's daughter Bhadra. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 154, Verse .12).


2) Utathya drank up the sea dry. Varuna deva had an eye on Soma's daughter Bhadra when Utathya married her.. Incensed at the marriage, Varuna carried Bhadra off to the sea one day when U tathya was not present. Narada informed Utathya that it was Varuna who stole his wife. Though Narada, at the request of Utathya, asked Varuna to return Bhadrto the former he did not oblige. Enraged at this ' Utathya drank tap the sea dry. Yet, Varuna did not come round. Then Utathya rendered all the lakes of Varuna dry. Trembling at this Varuna returned BhadrA to Utathya and prostrated at his feet. He pardoned Varuna and gave back the sea to him. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 154).


UTATHYA II. The muni Satyatapas. (See under Satyatapas.)


UTKALA I. A place in India where people lived in safety. Karna conquered this place. (Drona Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 8).Utkala is believed to be modern Orissa.


UTKALA Il. Son of Vaivasvata Manu. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 31).


UTKOCA (M). A holy place. Dhaumya, the younger brother of D~-vala lived in Utkocatirtha. The Pandavas went there and made Dhaumya a priest. (kB. Adi Parva, Chapter 182) .


UTKOCAKA (M). An ancient holy place. Dhaumya did tapas here, and it was here chat the Pandavas took Dhaumya as their priest. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 152, Verses 2-6) .


UTKRATHINI. A female attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 16) .


UTKROSA. One of the two attendants Indra gave to Skanda; the other was called Pancaka. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 35).


UTPALAVANA. A holy bath in the Panjab. At this place Vi~vamitra performed a sacrifice. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 87, Stanza 15) .


UTPALIN I. A river flowing near the forest known as Naimisaranya. Arjuna had seen this river. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 214, Stanza 6).


UTPATAKA. A holy bath. Those who bathein this tirtha (bath) will get the merits of a fast. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 41).


UTSAVA. Celebrations conducted in temples from olden days. There are SJastraiC (scriptural) injunctions as regards conducting utsavas. Utsava is an indispensable celebration when once the deity (idol) is installed in the temple. Utsava should be celebrated for one day, three days or seven days in the very same month in which the deity was installed, because noncelebration of Utsava will render the installation ineffective. Utsava should be conducted either during Uttarayana(movement of the sun from south to North) or Visu (when the Sun is in the centre) or at a time suitable to the temple authorities who conduct the utsava in Sayana, Upavana or Grha. It should commence with auspicious ceremonies like the sowing of seeds of nine varieties of foodgrains, and with dance, song, instrumental music etc.


UTSAVASAi-IKETA. A place in the South Bharata. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 61).


UTTAMA. A King born in the dynasty of Svayambhuva Manu who had two famous sons, of whom Priyavrata married Surupa and Barhismati, two daughters of, Visvakarma. Priyavrata begot three children, Uttama Tamasa and Raivata by his wife Barhismati. These three sons attained exceptional prowess and became lords of the ages of Manu (Manvantaradhipatis). Priyavrata, with his children ruled the country in all happiness and prosperity for ten crores of years. (Devi Bha.gavata, 8th Skandha). Uttanapada, the second son of Svayambhuvamanu begot one son, Uttama by his wife Suruci and another son Dhruva by his wife Suniti. (See under Dhruva). (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 11) .


UTTAMASVA. A particular place in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 41) .


UTTAMAUJAS. A warrior who fought in the great war on the Pandava side. He belonged to the Paficala country.


It was Uttamaujas who guarded the right wheel of Arjuna's chariot. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 15, Verse 19) . He fought fiercely with Angada (Drona Parva, Chapter 28, Verses 38-39). He fought Krtavarma also. (Drona Parva, Chapter 92, Verse 27-32) . He was defeated in a fight with Duryodhana. (Drona Parva, Chapter 130, Verses 30-43) . Krtavarma also defeated him. He killed Susena, son of Karna. (Karna Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 13). This valiant warrior was killed by Asvatthama. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 8, Verses 35-36) . His cremation is described in Verse 34, Chapter 26 of Stri Parva.


UTTANABARHIS. The son of Saryati, a King of the Family of Vaivasvata Manu. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


UTTANAPADA. A King. He was the son of Svayambhuva Manu, the son of Brahma. Svayambhuva Manu had two sons Priyavrata and Uttanapada. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8). A son named Uttama was born to Uttanapada by his wife Suruci. Uttanapada had another wife called Suniti. (Visnu Puraxia, Arhsa 1, Chapter 1 1 ). See under Dhruva.


UTTA&KA (UTAI~LKA). An ideal disciple of Veda who was the disciple of Apodadhaumya.


1) Uttafika and the Guru's wife. After entrusting management of the asrama to Uttanka, Veda once went out on a tour of the country, and Uttanka stayed in the Asrama carrying out the instructions of the Guru. Then came the menstrual period of Veda's wife, and his other wives requested Uttafika to do the needful, so that the fertile period of their co-wife was not wasted. Uttanka's reply to them was as follows:- "Asked by women, I shall not do this improper act; and the preceptor has not asked me to do such a thing though it might be improper."


His Guru, Apodadhaumya returned to the Asrama some time after this, and was very pleased to hear about the above incident. He blessed Uttanka. (M.B. Ad! Parva, Chapter 3) .


2) His tuition fee. His education being over, it was now time for Uttafika to give due offerings-tuition fee to his guru, and Uttafika enquired of the guru as to what he would have by way of daksina. The guru asked Uttafika to get his wife's instruction in the matter and act accordingly. Because of the aforesaid incident (Uttarika not acting on the guru's wife during her menstrual period) she had a grouse against him, and therefore, asked him to bring as his tuition fee the earrings worn by the Ksatriya wife of King Pausa.


Uttanka set out to procure the ear-rings. On the way he saw an ox, and on its back a big man, who called out to Uttafika to eat the excretion of the ox: When Uttanka hesitated to do so, the man on the ox asked him again to eat it, pointing out that his guru, Veda, had done it. Then did Uttafika consume both the excretion and urine of the ox, and did his oblations, in his perplexed mood, standing. Uttafika arrived at the palace of King Pausa and told him about the object of his visit. The King agreed to it. But, when Uttafika entered the Zenana Pausa's Ksatriya wife could not be seen. When Uttanka told the King about this, he remained thoughtful for some time and told the former that he might surely have become impure due to performance of oblations in the wrong manner, and that his wife would not be visible. due to her chastity, to the eyes of such impure folk. Uttanka admitted to having, on his way, performed oblations not in the proper manner, and then he sat down facing the east after washing his hands, feet etc. and performed oblation in the correct manner. Then did the wife of King Pausa become visible to him, and she, pleased at his humility, handed over her ear-rings to him. She also advised him to be very careful about the earrings as they had once been coveted by Taksaka, King of the serpents. Bidding adieu to the queen, Uttanka saw the King and they sat together to take food. Not only was the rice cold; but a hair was also found in it. Uttafika cursed the King and rendered him blind, and the King, in turn, cursed Uttafika not to have children. But, both of them became calm quite soon and withdrew their curses.


On his way back to-the Asrama with the ear-rings, he had only just stepped into a pool for a wash, when a naked Buddha sannyasin, who was following him, snatched and ran off with the ear-rings. It was really Taksaka disguised as the sannyasin who thus snatched the ear-rings. Uttafika chased him and caught him when he assumed his original form of the serpent King and disappeared into a cave. Uttanka waited at the mouth of the cave stupefied, when Indra deputed his Vajrayudha to help Uttarika. The Vajrayudha cut a tunnel-like route to Patala from the earth and through the cave Uttaiika reached Patala by this route and found out the palace of Taksaka.


Though Uttanka praised and cajoled the Nagas (serpents) their King Taksaka did not make his appearance. Uttafika saw there two women, who had been weaving clothes, and on one machine there were black and white threads. The machine had one wheel with twelve spokes and was turned by six boys. Also was there a horse, and a man. When Uttanka praised them, the horse and the man approached him. The man advised Uttaiika to blow through the anus of the horse so that the snakes could be brought round. Uttafika did so, when to ! from all the pores on the body of the horse, flames of fire began sprouting out. When the Nagaloka (;country of serpents) got thus filled with fire and flames, Taksaka lost his nerves and came out with the stolen ear-rings, which Uttafika received back. But, that was the last day on which the rings had been promised to be given to his guru's wife by Uttanka, who remained there gloomy and sorrow- stricken at the thought that he would not be able to travel all the distance before sunset and give the ear-rings to the guru's wife. Then the horseman gave the horse to Uttanka, who reached the Asrama just in time when the guru's wife was about to curse Uttanka for not returning with the rings though it was nearly dusk time. Now the guru and his wife blessed Uttanka, who detailed to them his experiences since leaving the Asrama in quest of the ear-rings. Then the guru spoke thus to Uttaitka-"The two women whom you found engaged in weaving were Dhata and Vidhata, the white and black strings, day and night, and the six boys who turned the wheel with twelve spokes were the six seasons. The ox seen by you on the way was Airavata (Indra's elephant), the horse seen in Patala was Agnideva, and the horseman, Indra. The excretion you ate on your way was nectar and that was the reason why you did not die in the Nagaloka. Indra who is my friend blessed you because of mercy towards you, my disciple. You could bring back the ear-rings also because of Indra's blessings."


Then the guru blessed Uttanka and the latter took leave of thim. (M.B Adi Parva, Chapter 3).


3) Uttanka and ,7anamejaya's serpent yajna. Uttanka, determined on taking vengeance on Taksaka, went away directly from the asrama to Hastinapura, where he metJanamejaya and told him the fact that it was Taksaka, who had bitten to death Pariksit, his (Janamejaya) father. It was thus prompted by Uttanka to take revenge upon Taksaka that Janamejaya performed the serpent yajna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter, 3).


4) Uttafika and Dhundhumara. See under Dhundhumara. 5) Uttafika attained salvation. Uttafika was put up at a place called Ujjalaka. When he became old, he went about visiting many temples. During this tour one day Uttanka saw a hunter in the forest called Gulika attempting to steal the golden plates on the dome of the Visnu temple in Sauvira. Gulika raised his sword to kill Uttanka, when he told the former that he would have to suffer the results of sin during many births if he committed a sin. This admonition of Uttafika so touched the heart of the hunter that he fell dead on the spot with a repentant heart. Uttanka sprinkled Ganga water on the corpse of the hunter, who attained Vaikuntha (abode of Visnu). On the advice of Visnu, Uttafika went to Badari where he did tapas and also attained Vaikuntha. (Naradiya Purana).


In Chapters 53-58 of Asvamedha Parva of Mahabharata is related the-story of one Uttafika muni, under the caption `Utankopakhyana'. In Mahabharata (original) he is referred to as Uttanka; but in its Malayalam rendering he is called Utanka. There are no substantial differences between the story of Uttafika and that of Utanka, Veda's disciple. But, since, there are differences, in certain aspects some information about the Uttanka of the `Utankopakhyana' is given below-


1) General. Uttanka was a disciple of Gautama, the husband of Ahalya. The guru had more love for Uttanka than for his other disciples, and therefore did not permit the latter to leave the Asrama even after the other disciples were sent away. Uttafika became old; wrinkles attacked his body and greyness his head.


2) Tuitionfee (Gurudaksind). Uttanka once returned from the woods with firewood, in a very tired condition. The daughter of the guru shed tears at the sight. Gautama called Uttanka to him and asked him about the cause of his grief and sorrow. Uttanka replied that the hairs on his head turned grey on account of sorrow that he was not permitted to leave the AA rama although it was hundred years since he had gone there first as disciple. Then Gautama permitted Uttanka to quit the krama. Uttanka asked Gautama what he should offer as tuition fee. Gautama consulted his wife on the topic and she suggested as tuition fee the two ear-rings of gems worn by the wife ot'King Saudasa, who used to eat the flesh of man. Immediately Uttanka set out to fetch the ear-rings and on his way met Saudasa in the forest, and told the latter about his mission. Saudasa tried to eat Uttanka, who told him that he was in duty bound to obtain the ear-rings for his guru's wife and that, after fulfilling the mission, he would return to Saudasa to be eaten up by him. Saudasa agreed to the proposition. He directed Uttanka to his wife Madayanti, who spoke to him thus-"Devas and Maharsis covet these ear-rings. If I place them on the ground, serpents will steal them; if handed over to Ucchista, Yaksas will steal them, and if the watchman sleeps, Devas will snatch them off. Therefore, you should bring some token for me to believe that you are deputed by my husband." Accordingly Uttanka went back to Saudasa and returned to his wife with a token from him, and Madayand handed over her ear-rings to Uttanka. Being told by Saudasa that Uttanka need not return again to him, Uttanka started for Gautama's atrama with the oar-rings. Feeling hungry on the way,


Uttafika tied to the branch of a vilva tree the ear-rings bundled in deer skin and ate vilva fruits. Just then the bundle of deer skin got untied and the ear-rings kept in it fell on the ground. A serpent carried off the rings between its teeth and concealed itself in a mole-hill. Highly grieved and upset by the sight, Uttaiika fell down from the tree. For 35 days Uttanka dug the molehill. Then Indra felt great sympathy for him, appeared on the spot, and passed his Vajrayudha through the mole-hill. Then the earth burst open and Uttanka entered Patala through the opening, and a horse, its tail white and the rest of the body black in colour presented itself to him. It asked Uttanka to blow through its anus. Uttanka did so and the Nagaloka was filled with flames of fire. (The horse was Agnideva). Then did the serpents return the ear-rings to Uttanka, who returned with it to Gautama and presented it to him (Gautama) as tuition fee.


3) Uttaaika about to curse Sri Krsna. Uttanka once went to Dvaraka, and during their talk was about to curse Krsna for not attempting to bring about a compromise between the Kauravas and the Pandavas. At once Krsna exhibited his Visvarupa (himself as containing the whole universe). Thereupon Uttafika saluted Krsna, who asked him to request for any boon. He prayed for the boon that water might be made available in any desert he visited. K,rsna told him that whenever he required water he might successfully think of him.


4) Indra tested Uttanka. Some time afterwards, while roaming about quite thirsty and tired in a desert, Uttanka thought about Krsna, and at once there appeared before him a naked dandala, his body covered with mud. Dogs encircled him. Uttanka hesitated to drink the water given to him by this Candala, who had some water with him. The Candala again insisted on Uttanka drinking the water,, but he again refused the offer. The candala then disappeared with the dogs. Within a few minutes a person with disc, conch; club etc. about him appeared, and Uttafika recognised him as Sri Krsna. Uttafika told Krsna that it was not proper to give water to a Brahmin through a candala. Krsna's reply to this was as follows: "I asked Indra to give you nectar instead of water, and he argued that it was not proper that men should be given nectar. I pleaded for you again. Indra replied to this that, he himself would, in the guise of a candala give nectar to you, and he should not be found fault with, if you refused the nectar. I accepted that proposition of his. But, you did not accept nectar thus offered to you. So, you cannot be given nectar now. But, there will appear water-laden clouds in deserts which you traverse, which would be known as `Uttanka clouds' and they would give you sweet water.


Uttafika was pleased, and it is the Uttanka clouds, which form as per the above orders of Krsna that cause rain to fall, though rarely, in deserts even today.


UTTARA I. The son of King Virata of Matsya. Mention is made in the Mahabharata, Virata Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 9 that Bhuminjaya was another name of Uttara. Uttara also accompanied his father Virata, when he went to take part in the Svayariivara (choice of a husband) of Draupadi: (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 3).


2) Uttara and Arjuna. See the paragraph Ajfiatavasa under Arjuna„


3) The end of Uttara. Uttara had taken part in the battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 77 that a combat took place on the first day of the battle between Uttara and Virabahu. Uttara attacked Salya who killed Uttara. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 47, Stanzas 36 to 39). Uttara who met with a glorious death in the battle, got a place in heaven with the gods. (M.B. Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Stanzas 17 and 18) .


UTTARA II., A King who had gone down because of his contemptuous behaviour towards his superiors.


UTTARA III. A fire. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Stanza 29 and Sabha Parva, Chapter 22 ).




1) General information. Daughter of Virata, the King of Matsya. Her brother was called Uttara.


2) Up to marriage. The Pandavas led their incognito life in the capital of the Matsya Kingdom. Arjuna adopted the name Brhannala and was employed as the tutor of princess Uttara in music and dancing. At the end of the life, King Virata gave his daughter Uttara in marriage to Abhimanyu the son of Arjuna. (See the paragraph Ajnatavasa (incognito-life) under Arjuna). 3) Son. The. son born to Abhimanyu and Uttara was Pariksit, who ecame a very famous King later. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Stanzas 83 and 84) . See the seventh paragraph under Agvatthama).


4) The death of her husband. Abhimanyu was killed in the battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 78, Stanza 37 that Uttara fell unconscious, when she heard of the death of her husband. Sri Krsna consoled Uttara. In the Mahabharata, Stri Parva,~ Chapter 20, Stanzas 4 to 28 the lamentation of Uttara over the death of Abbimanyu is mentioned.


5) 7 o the forest. Uttara also was seen among the women who accompanied Dhrtarastra, to a little distance when he went to the forest after the battle. (M.B A4 ramavasika Parva, Chapter 15, Stanza 10) .


UTTARADISA. See under Galava.


UTTARAJYOTISA. An ancient city which stood in the western part of Bharata. It is said in the Mahabharata that Nakula conquered this city. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Stanza 11).


UTTARAKOSALA. An ancient country in Bhdrata. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 30,: Stanza 3 that Bhimasena conquered Uttara Kosala.


UTTARAKURU. Apart of the jambudvipa (Island of Jambu). Mention is made in the Mahabharata that during his conquest Arjuna had gone up to this place and carried away from there plenty of wealth. It is believed by common people that this place is inaccessible to human beings. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 28, Stanzas 7 to 20) . The southern end of this place is the Nilagiri and the Northern end Mount Meru. The inhabitants are gifted people, with trees bearing flowers and fruits, the flowers fragrant and the fruits sweet.


A particular type of tree known as Ksiri (milky) grows here from which milk will flow. There are also trees which will give you whatever you ask. It was the belief of ancient people that with the fruits of Ksiri, you could make garments and ornaments. The soil of this place contains gems and in the sand there is gold.


Those who fall down from heaven live in this region. The average age of the inhabitants of this place is said to have been eleven- thousand years. There is a kind of bird in this place called Bbarunda. These birds drag dead bodies away to caves. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 8, Stanzas 2 to 13).


UTTARMANASA. A holy place of pilgrimage. Itis stated in the Mahabharata, Anus asana Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 60, that those who visit this holy place will get atonement from the sin of Bhrunahatya (causing embryoctony).


UTTARAPARCALA. An ancient country in Bharata. Drupada became the King of this country on the death of King Prsata. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 129, Stanza 43) . In course of time Uttarapancala came under the control of the Acarya Drona. (See under Drona). In the Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 137, Stanzas 70 to 76 it is mentioned that this country was on the north bank of the Gariga.


UTTARAPARIYATRA. A. mountain. (Bhasa Bharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 313, Stanza 8) .


UTTARAPATHA. North Bharata. (M.B. $anti Parva, Chapter 207, Stanza 43).


UTTARA RAMAYANA. The second part of the Ramayana. Uttara Ramayana comprises the story from Sri Rama's return from the exile in the forest and assuming the ruling of the country onwards.


UTTARA ULUKA. The country of Uluka in North India. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Stanza 11 that Arjuna conquered this country.


UTTEJINT. A follower of Skandadeva. (M.B. 8alya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 6).