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TA (cT). This letter means a thief or the inner down of a bird. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348) .


TA (2~) . This letter means the act of singing. (Agni Purina, Chapter 348) .


TADITPRABHA. A female follower of Subrahmanya. (Verse 17, Chapter 46, 8alya Parva).


TAIJASA. A holy place. This is situated in Kuruksetra The importance of this place lies in the fact that it wa at this place that all devas together crowned Subra't manya as their Commander-in-chief. (Sloka 16, Chapter 83, Vana Parva).


TAITTIRI. A celebrated sage of the Taittiriya branch of sages. He attended the Yaga conducted by Uparicaravasu. (Santi Parva).


TAKSA. A son born to Bharata of his wife Mandavi. This prince along with his brother Puskara conquered Gandharadesa and created Taksa4ilanagari there. (Uttarakanda, V almaki Ramayai*ia, and Vayu Purina).


TAKSAKA I. A fierce serpent.


1 ) Genealogy and birth. Descending in order from Vi snu-Brahma-Marici -- Kas yapa- Taksaka.


Kas yapamum got of his wife Kadru serpents and Taksaka was one of the serpent chiefs. (9loka 5, Chapter 35, Adi Parva ). See also under Kadru) .


2) Takyaka and Pariksit. In his boyhood Taksaka went out from the family. The reason was a curse by his mother. Once Kadril and Vinata, another wife of Kasyapa, entered into a controversy regarding the colour of the hair of the tail of the horse Uccaissravas. Kadru said, it was black and Viiiata said it was white. It was decided that she who lost the wager should become the servant of the other. That night Kadra called her children and asked them to go and hang on the tail of the horse so that it should appear black. Some of the righteous children opposed this deceitful attempt of their mother and refused to go. Kadru cursed them saying that they would be burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. Kadru sent those children out from home and Taksaka became their leader.


At that time Pariksit (King of Bharata) became the victim of a curse that he would die by the bite of Taksaka within seven days. (To know more details regarding this curse of the sage see under Ast:ka). The worried King in consultation with his ministers decided to take protective measures. At first he moved to a seven-storeyed palace and stayed on the seventh storey. Physicians of fame and those well-versed in mantras were posted at the palace. Brahmins were put on duty for prayers. The entire palace and precincts were guarded by huge elephants. Security arrangements were such that even wind found it .im.possible to enter the palace without permission. The King did all his daily routine activities in the palace itself.


At that time Kasyapa [There is a version that it was Dhanvantari who was thus sent back by Taksaka. 9th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata] was the greatest of all physicians and mantrikas and, greedy that he was, he started to the palace of Pariksit thinking that it would be the best opportunity to obtain some money from the King. Taksaka also was going to the palace in the guise of a brahmin. On the way Taksaka met Kasyapa and knowing well that the presence of the celebrated Kasyapa at the palace would be an obstacle to the achievement of his mission, he approached Kagyapa. They talked on the way and Ka'syapa said he was going to the palace to save the King from the bite of Taksaka. Then Taksaka, revealing his identity, said that i t was impossible to save anybody from the result of his bite. Both then decided to test their skill then and there. A huge banyan tree with many branches spreading wide was standing nearby and Taksaka gave it a bite. Within seconas the huge tree was charred to destruction; Kagyapa then took some water and reciting a mantra poured the water over the ashes of the tree and then to the surprise of Taksaka, the tree rose up and stood in its original form. On seeing that Taksaka confessed that Kasyapa was superior to him. Taksaka then coaxed him to his side and giving him a huge amount as bribe bade him return home.


Six days went by and on the seventh day Taksaka reached the palace of Pariksit. He found the palace well-guarded and watched. There was no way to go in. Taksaka then called all his relatives and had them disguised as brahmins. He sent them in with fruits and roots, like people who had come to pay homage to the King. Taksaka crept into one of the most attractive of the fruits as a tiny worm. The guards at the gate stopped them. The fake brahmins then said that they had come a long way from a far off tapovana and should be allowed to see the King. The information was carried to the King. The King said he would see the brahmins the next day but ordered their gifts to be brought to him. When the fruits and roots were brought to him, he gave a fruit each to the ministers, himselftaking the most beautiful fruit of the lot. When he cut the fruit open he saw a worm with two black eyes and a red body sitting inside it and was a bit surprised. Then he addressed hi; ministers thus : "Oh, best of ministers, by your earnest and sincere endeavour nothing has happened to me till now. The Sun is going to set and the term of the curse is going to end. There is no need to be afraid of any poison now. But let not a curse of a sage go futile. Let this worm bite me and fulfill the curse." So saying the King took the worm and placed it on his neck. The worm changed itself into the fierce Taksaka and bit the King and the King fell down dead. (12th Skandha, Devil Bhagavata) .


3) How Taksaka became India's friend. Once the son of a sage of great divine splendour named Uttafika was studying under a Guru named Veda. When his education was complete, the Guru asked him to bring as daksina (fees) the ear-rings worn by the Ksatriya wife dk ing Pausya. Indra made Taksaka steal the ornament and created many obstacles on the way. (For details see under Uttanka). That incident made them mutual friends and gradually Taksaka became an intimate friend of Indra.


From that clay onwards Uttafika waited for an opportunity to take vengeance on Taksaka. It was at that time that janamejaya, son of Pariksit, became the king. Janamejaya was only eleven years old when he became king and he was not then aware of the details of the death of his father. Uttafika went to him and told him how Taksaka killed his father. Janamejaya became furious and asked him how to wreak vepgeance on 1-im. Uttahka suggested the performance of a Sarpasa tra to which all the serpents should be attracted by mantro.s_ and burnt to death there. The young king agreed and Uttafika with other rsis commenced the Sarpasatra.


One by one all the serpents came and fell into the sacrificial fire but Taksaka was not to be found. Where is Taksaka? This question was heard from m-iny lips. Taksaka was specially invoked by Uttahka. Taksaka could not bear the power of Uttafika and he ran and prostrated before Indra. Indra not only did give refuge but gave him half of his seat in the throne arid Taksaka sat on it fully confident of security. UttaAka was enraged, when after repeated calls by mantra, Taksaka did not appear and so he sat in meditation for some time to know the cause. He then saw Taksaka sitting on the throne of Indra and the sight threw him into fury and he invoked Taksaka, Indra and the throne and all. Lo ! in an instant Indra, Taksaka, the throne arid all started moving towards the sacrificial fire ! Within seconds all would have been burnt to death but for the timely intervention of a brahmin boy named Astika, son of the sage jaratkaru. (See under Astika, Taksaka escaped death that time).


Taksaka by instructions from Indra was living in the forest of Khandava, and when that was burnt by A'ni, it was Indra who saved Taksaka from the fire. (See under Khandavadaha).


4) Other details.


(i) A king called Candrafigada lived in the house of Taksaka for some time. (See under Candr5ngada).


(ii) Taksaka in the guise of a brahmin named KF2.panaka went to the sage Uttafika and stole the ornaments from hirn. (See under Uttarika).


(iii) Once the Earth was made into a cow and everybody milked from her what each wanted. The serpents milked poison from her am! they then used Taksaka as the calf. (See under Prthu).


(iv) During the burning of the forest of Khandava, Arjuna slew the wife of Taksaka. (See Linder KhAndavadalia) .


(v) When the soul of Balabhadrarama, after his death, reached Patala, Taksaka received it with respect. !Sloka 15, Chapter 4, Mausala Parva).


(vi) Taksaka livesin the court of Varuna worshipping him. (Sloka 8, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva).


TAKSAKA II. The elder of the two sons of Laksmana of his wife CrmM.. The other was Chatraketu. Following the instructions of~ri Rama, Laksmana went to the. east sea coast, defeated the forest tribe there. lie then constructed a city there named Agati and mad, Taksaka the king there. He then went to the west sc,a-cast and destroying the barbarous tribe there constructed a city there called Candramati and made Ch~i.trakfl!rz (? candraketu) the king. (Uttara Ramayana).


TAKSA~ILA. A place of Puranic celebrity situatcd in the north-west of Bharata. Even from ancient times this

was an educational and cultural centre. From the descriptions of the Chinese traveller Huen Tsang it is found that Nalanda and Taksagila were two great universities before Christ. The famous Sarpasatra of Janamejaya was conducted at this place situated on the banks of the river Vitasta. The story of MahAbharata was first told at this place and at the end of the narration Brahmins were given gifts. (Chapters 3 and 5, Adi Parva).


TALA. A hell. There are many hells under water including Tala. (Chapter 6, Arhsa 2, Visnu Parana).


TALACARA. A place of human habitation in ancient Bharata. (Sloka 26, Chapter 140, Udyoga Parva).


TALADHVAJA. The phantom husband of Narada. Once Narada became a woman and a king called Taladhvaja married her (Devi Parana). It was to show how the mind is covered with illusion that Mahavisnu made Narada into a woman.


Once Narada went to Mahavisnu and asked him about the secret of life. Mahavisnu said that there was nothing called life and life exists because of Maya the illusion of the mind. Narada insisted that he should see `Maya' (illusion) and so Visnu started from Vaikuntha with Narada on the back of Garuda.


Crossing forests, rivers, cities, lakes, villages and mountains they reached Kanyakubja. There they saw a beautiful lake. Garuda landed and Visnu and .Narada got down. They walked along the shore of the lake for. some time and then they sat beneath a tree for some time. After some time Mahavisnu asked Narada to take a bath in the lake. Pleased at this command Narada placed his violin and deer-hide on the shore and after first washing his face and feet and doing °acamana' with Kusa grass in his hand stepped into the water for his bath. Mahavisnu'stood near the violin and deer-hide of Narada and Narada dipped himself in the water. What a surprise ! Narada was changed into a woman of great beauty. She had no memory of her previous birth and getting herself on to the shore she stood there watching the surroundings there. Then a king called Taladhvaja came on horse-back that way. He addressed the beautiful woman as Saubhagyasundari and started talking with her. Within hours- they got married and Taladhvaja took her to his palace and spent the honey-moon there happily. Twelve years went by and Saubhagyasundari became pregnant. In due course she got a son named Viravarma. After another two years she got another son named Sudharmi. Thus she delivered a son every two. years for twentyfour years becoming the mother or twelve sons. After some tame she bore eight more sons also. When all the twenty sons came of age they were married according to the custom and in due course those sons also got sons. Thus Taladhvaja and Saubhagyasundari became the heads of a large fancily of children and grand-children and lived happily. One day a king from a far-off place with a great army suddenly came and surrounded Kanyakubja. In the fight that ensued most of the sons and grand-sons of Saubha,gyasundari were killed. The king fled from the battlefield and came to the palace. Saubhagyasundari was in great distress and when the enemies left the battlefield she secretly went there to have a last look at her sons and grandsons lying dead. The sight terrified her. They lay there without heads, hands or legs, eyes protruded, stomach cut open, intestineslying out and blood oozing out from everywhere. She fell to the ground


and wept bitterly. Then Mahavisnu came there disguised as an old brahmin and talked to her. He' gave her instructions on some truths about life. Saubhagyasundari then called Taladhvaja and they both went to the old lake and as instructed by the old brahmin Saubhagyasundari took a dip in the water. Lo ! she became the old Narada.


When Narada got up from the lake Mahavisnu was still standing near his violin and deer-skin smiling at him. The sight of Visnu gave him knowledge of all that had happened. He stood there recounting in his memory how he had requested Visnu to show him Maya and how he had taken a bath in that lake and how he had spent a long period of married life ending in misery and how Visnu had come to her in the form of an old brahmin when she had cried to him in agony and .how the old brahmin had taken her and Taladhvaja to the lake again and how he had become his old self again. He stood there still pondering over these when Visriu called him and said "Come on Narada, how slow you are. Finish your bath and come soon. What are you thinking about ?" TAladhvaja, however, was unmoved by any of these. He was puzzled to find a bearded Sannyasi rising up from the place where his beautiful wife had dipped herself for a bath. He went to Narada and asked "Oh best of sages, where is my wife who has just dipped herself in this same place ? From where do you come'?", Even before waiting to hear a reply from him the King began to make a hue and cry about the loss of his wife. Then Mahavisnu went to him and consoled him by saying with illustrations that `human ties are only ephemeral' and asked him to take a bath in the lake. Taladhvaja after his bath became disgusted with life and after doing penance in the forests attained moksa. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


TALADHVAJA II. See under Sirhhadhvaja.


TALAJA&GHA. Jayadhvaja, fifth son of Karttavirya, got a son named Talajangha. The sons of this valiant man are called Talajanghas. There was once a great fight between Vitihotra, the eldest of these sons, and Paragurama. (Chapter 88, Brahmanda Purina).


TALAKATA. An ancient place of habitation of Daksina Bharata. (81oka 60, Chapter 31, Sabha Parva).


TALAKETU. A demon. Sri Krsna captured this demon from the Mahendra mountain in the IrAvati river and killed him at Harhsanemipatha. (Sloka3 4, Chapter 12, Vana Parva).


TALAKKULATTU BHATTATIRL He was a great writer and celebrated astrologer of Kerala. He was born in A.D. 1537 in a village called Alattur in a place called Talakkulam, two miles to the south of Tirur in South Malabar. He lived upto A.D. 1595. His great work is `Dasadhyayi' a book on astrology.


TALAVANA I. An ancient place of Daksina Bharata. This place was conquered by Sahadeva. (Sloka 61, Chapter 31, Sabha Parva).


TALAVANA II. A garden on the side of the mountain of Latavegta near Dvaraka. (Chapter 38; Sabha Parva).


TAMA. A King who was the son of Srava of the race of King Grtsamada. (Sloka 63, Chapter 30, Anusasana Parva).


TAMAS I. A hell.


TAMAS II. One of the three qualities of the soul. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are the three qualities. It is through the union of these three qualities that the inner soul enters the life of all animate and inanimate objects. The attributes of Tamas are greed, sleep, bravery, cruelty disbelief in god, bad habits, begging and indifference. It is because of the action of tamoguna that one becomes a prey to lust. It is the worst result of tamasic activities that people are born as inanimate objects, worms, insects, fishes, serpents, tortoises, cows and deer.


As a better result of Tamasic activities people are born as elephants, horses, Sudras, barbarous people, lions, tigers and hogs. It is the good result of tamasic deeds that produce pilgrims, good castes, egoistic people, demons and devils. (Chapter 1 2, Manusmrti ).


TAMASA. A sacred river. People of Bharata were using the water of this river for drinking. (Sloka 3, Chapter 9,, Bhisma Parva). The famous fi9rama of Valmiki was on the banks of this river. This place was the scene of the well-known episode of the Kraunca birds and the famous curse of Valmiki beginning with `Ma nisada'. (Bala Kanda, Sarga 2, Valmiki Ramayaa).


TAMASA. The fourth Manu. (See under* Manvantara). Svayambhuva Manu, son of Brahma, was the first Manu. He had two sons of Puranic fame named Priyavrata and Uttanapada. Of these Priyavrata married the beautiful and virtuous daughters of Visvakarma the Prajapati. They were SurupA and Barhismati. Of his first wife Surupa, he got ten sons Agnidhra and others.


The youngest child was a daughter named CJrjjasvati. Of the sons, Kavi, Savana andMahavira became detached from worldly life and became learned in spiritual knowledge.. Priyavratagot of his second wife Barhismati


three sons named Uttama, Tamasa and Raivata. They were very valiant and they gradually became chiefs of Manvantaras. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata) .


TAMIS)ERA. A hell. (See under Kala).


TAMO NTAK RT. A soldier of . Subrahmanya. (Sloka 58, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


TAMRA. A demon, son of Murasura. The demon Mura had seven children named Tamra, Antariksa, Sravana, Vasu, Vibhavasu, Nabhasvan and Aruna. Of these TAmra was Mahisasura's minister for a long time. The Chief Minister of Mahisasura was Asiloma; Defence Minister, Ciksura; Foreign minister, Vidala and Finance minister, Tamra. Udarka was the Commander-in-chief and Baskala, Trinetra and Kalabandhaka were Cabinet Ministers. He was killed along with his father Mura, by Sri Krsna. (10th Skandha Bhagavata and 5th Skandha, DeviBhagavata).


TAMRA. Daughter off Daksa. Tamra was married to Kasyapa and he begot of her five daughters named Kraunci, Bhasi, $yeni, Dhrtarastri and Suki. Of these Kraufici delivered owls, Bhasi delivered Bhasas, Syeni, Kites and Vultures, Dhrtarastri, swans, geese and cuckoos, and Suki delivered Nata and Nata in turn Vinata. (Sarga 14,Aranya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


TAMRACODA. A female follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 18, Chapter 46, Anu4 asana Parva).


TAMRADV IPA. An ancient place of habitation of ' Daksina Bharata. This place was conquered by Sahadeva in his victory march. (Sloka 68, Chapter 31, Sabha Parva).


TAMRALIPTA. A King in ancient Bharata. Sahadeva dwing his victory march conquered this King. (S1oka 24, Chapter 30, Sabha Parva).


TAMRALIPTAKA. An ancient place of habitation on the north-east side of Bharata. (Sloka 57, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


TAMRAPARI1I. A holy river of Daksina Kerala. Once the Devas did penance on the banks of this river to obtain salvation. (Sloka 14, Chapter 88, Vana Parva).


TAMRARUi:ATIRTHA. A sacred place. He who visits this place would get the benefit of doing an asvamedhayajna and he would go to Brahmaloka. (Sloka 154, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).


TAMRAVATI. An ancient river. It is believed that fire is generated from this river. (Sloka 23, Chapter 222, Vana Parva).


TAMROSTHA. A Yaksa who sits in the court of Kubera. (Sloka 16, Chapter 10, Sabh5 Parva).


TAMSU. A King of Puruvam: a. He was the son of Matinara and father of Ilina a King. (Chapter 94, Adi Parva).


TANAYA. A place of habitation of ancient Bharata. Sloka 64, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


TANDI. A celebrated sage. It was the sage who repeated to Brahma the thousand names of Siva. (Chapter 14, Anusasana Parva).


TANDULIKASRAMA. A sacred place of ancient Bharata. He who visits this place would enter Brahmaloka. (Sloka 43, Chapter 82, Vana Parva).


TANDYA. A sage. He was a friend of Indra. He once took part in the Yajna of Uparicaravasu. He observed correctly the duties of Vanaprastha and attained svarga. (Sloka 17, Chapter 244, Sand Parva).


TA.h1GANA. An ancient place of habitation of Bharata. (Sloka 64, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


TANTRIPALA. The false name adopted by Sahadeva when he lived incognito in the city of Virata. (Sloka 9, Chapter 3, Virata Parva).


TANTU. A Brahmavadi son of Visvamitra. (Chapter 4, Anug asana Parva).


TANU. An ancient sage. This sage lived in the palace of King Viradyumna for a long time. (ChapterF 127 and 128, Sand Parva).


TAPA. A Deva of fire-like splendour. Born of the power of penance of five sages named Kasyapa, Vasistha, Pranaka, Cyavana and Trivarcas, this Deva has got a name Pancajanya (born of five) also. He did severe penance (tapas) and got the name Tapa. His head is like fire, his hands like Sun, his skin and eyes are of golden hue and his waist, blue. (Sloka 4, Chapter 220; Vana Parva).


TAPANA. A soldier of the country of Patlcala. He was killed by Karna in the Mahabharata battle. (Sloka 15, Chapter 48, Karna Parva).


TAPASARANYA. A Sacred place crowded with sages. (Sloka 20, Chapter 87, Vana Parva ).


TAPASV I. A son born to Caksusa Manu of Naclvala. (Chapter 13, Amsa 1, Visnu Purana).


TAPATI. A daughter of Surya.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu are Brahma-Marici-Kasy apa-Surya-Tapati.


2) Birth. Surya married Sarhjna daughter of Vi4vakarma. He begot of Samj6a two children named Kalindi and Yama. At that time Surya (Sun) wa$ not of the form as seen now. Samjna, unable to bear the splendour of Surya who was of the shape of an egg entrusted her maid Chaya with the work of serving her husband and left for a temple in the guise of a mare to do penance. Chayd disguised as Sarhjfia served Surya for a very long period. Surya begot of her two children, Sanais cares and Tapati. Besides these, Surya had another daughter named Savitri also. (Chapter 47, Bhavisya Purana).


3) Marriage. There was a mighty king in the Lunar race called Rksa in the beginning of Krtayuga. He had a son named Sarhvarana. He was made king of his country by his father even while he was a boy. He was a ;pious and righteous man. Vasistha was his Guru and he taught Sariivarana the Vedas along with the Arigas.


Once Samvarana entrusting the administration of the state to Vasistha went to do penance in the forests. On his way he followed a deer for a long distance on horseback and reached a deep forest named Vaibhr5ja alone. There he saw a lotus pond full of blossomed lotuses and Kalhara flowers. Celestial maidens were playing there without interruption. Amcng them he saw a. very beautiful maiden. She was Tapati daughter of Surya. Even at first sight they became lovers. The king looking at her lost his balance and fell from the horse. At once great anti charming Gandharvas approached the king and sprinkling water on his face brought him back from swoon. Tapati was also upset and the other nymphs took her to her father's house and consoled her.


Sarhvarana returned on horse-back to his residence the city of Pratistha. But the king neither slept nor ate any food. The sage Vasistha knew that all the ailments of the king were due to his love for Tapati, daughter of Surya. So he flew up by his yogic powers and met Surya sitting in his chariot in all splendour. The sage described to Surya the love affair between Safvarana and Tapati and pleaded on behalf of the king for giving Tapati to Samvarana. Surya was pleased to hear that and sent Tapati along with Vasistha to Sariivarana. Before long the marriage of Tapati with Sariivarana was celebrated solemnly at Pratisthanagara. The celebrated emperor Kuru was the son born to Tapati of Sariivarana. (Chapter 21, Vayu Purana).


4) . How she got that name. Because she was the daughter of Surya who makes the sky hot (tapa) by his brilliance, she was called Tapati. (Sloka 6, Chapter 171, Adi Parva).


5) . Tapatf becomes river Narmadd. gurya, father of Tapati, blessed her and said she would thereafter flow west from the Vindhya as a river named Narmada. The present holy river Narmada is but Tapatidevi transformed. (Chapter 47, Bhavisya Purana).


TAPATYA. Kuru was the son born to king Sariivarana of his wife Tapati. All the descendants of Kuru were known as Kauravas and because they were of the generation of Tapati, they were known as Tapatyas also. The young Gandharva, Citraratha, who fought against Arjuna on the banks of the river, Gafga addressed Arjuna as Tapatya. (Sloka 79, Chapter 169, Adi Parva).


TAPOLOKA. The place of abode of Vairajas who could not be burnt by fire. This is above Dhruvapada by eleven crores of yojanas. (Chapter 7, Arii'a 2, Visnu Purana ).


TAPTAKUMBHA. A hell. There are twentyeight hells according to Visnu Purana including Taptakumbha.


TAPTAMITJRTI. A hell. (See the section Naraka under Kala).


TARA. A monkey who was a devotee of Sri Rama. This big monkey was the son of Brhaspati. Brhaspati made this monkey greater in size and intellect than all other monkeys. This Tara was the minister of Bali. (Sloka 10, Sarga 17, Bales Kanda. Vdlmiki Ramayana and Uttara Ramayana). In the Rama-Ravana battle this monkey fought against the demon Nikharvata. (Sloka 9, Chapter 285, Vana Parva) .


TARA I. Wife of Bali, best of Vanaras (monkeys). There are two stories different from each other regarding the birth of Tares. One version is that Tares was born during the churning of the Milk-Ocean. Airavata, Uccaissravas, Kalpavrksa, Cintamani, Kaustubha, Candra, Apsarases, Mahalaksrni Tares and Ruma rose from the sea of Milk. (Yuddha Kanda, Kamba Ramayana). The second version is that Tares was the daughter of Susena. Bali at the time of his death is said to have spoken thus of his wife Tares "Tars, daughter of Susena, is well learned and is capable of assessing a situation and suggesting the correct thing to be done at that time. If she says a thing is good, it is never otherwise." (Chapter 22, Kiskindha Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana). From this it can be understood that Tares was the daughter of Susena and we get an idea of the character of Tares also from this. (See under Bali).


TARA II. Wife of Brhaspati. She was extremely beautiful. Once she fell in love with Candra (Moon) and leaving her husband started living with him. Candra was the disciple of Brhaspati. The devas were angry when they found the wife of their preceptor staying with a disciple of his. Brhaspati sent word to her to return home but she did not heed. At last the Devas decided to fight against Candra. Then they came to a compromise and Tares was sent back to Brhaspati. In due course Tares delivered a son. He was Budha, father of Pururavas. There arose then a dispute between Candra and Brhaspati regarding the fatherhood of the child. Then the Devas called Tares and asked her to name the child's father. Tares said that the child was of Candra and so Budha was looked after at the house of Candra. (9th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


TARADATTA. Wife of Kalingadatta,King of Taksasila situated on the shores of the river Vitasta. Once a celestial maiden named Surabhidatta came to be born as the daughter of Taradatta due to a curse of Indra. She was then called Kalingasena. (See under Dharmadatta).


TARAKA (TARAKASURA) I. An asura chief (demon). This demon even while he was very young did penance to propitiate Siva and got a boon to the effect that none other than a son born to Siva should be able to kill him. He became arrogant with the power of this boon and soon became a terror to the world. Then to kill Tarakasura Subrahmanya was born as the son of Siva. In the great battle between the devas and the asuras Taraka was killed by Subrahmanya.


Tarakasura was the father of Taraksa, Kamalaksa and Vidyunmalika. (See under Subrahmanya). (Slok.a 5, Chapter 33, Karna Parva).


TARAKA II. Siva Purana mentions about a Taraka, son of the minister of Bhadrasena, a King of Kashmir. This Taraka was the rebirth of a he-fowl. Bhadrasena had a son named Sudharma. He was the rebirth of a monkey. There is a story regarding how this fowl and the monkey came to be born in Kashmir as above.


Once in the village of Nanda there was a prostitute named Mahanandd. Though she was a great devotee of Siva she was living the life of a prostitute for her livelihood. She was having a monkey and a he-fowl as pets. She would adorn the necks of her pets with the rudraksa necklace (rosary) made of berry beads favourite of Siva and when she sang songs in praise of Siva those pets danced to the tune.


One day a Vaisya came there. He had a diamond Siva lin,ga with him. Mahananda felt a great fancy for that and so promised the Vaisya that if he gave her the diamond liriga she would remain a faithful wife to him


for three days. The Vaisya agreed and the diamond Iinga was kept in a very secure place That night when both the Vaisya and Mahananda were sleeping tired after a hectic amorous sport, the house got fire and the diamond was burst into pieces. The Vaisya greatly griefstricken by the loss of the diamond,jumped into the fire and committed suicide. Mahananda faithful to the promise that she would remain his wife for three days started to jump into the fire and abandon her life. At once Siva appeared before her in person and said thus: "Oh, Mahananda, do not commit suicide. I came to you disguised as a Vaiaya to test your devotion. You can now ask of me any boon."


With tears of joy running down her cheeks she said she wanted to live with Siva. So Siva carried her soul to Kailiisa. Not only that, Siva blessed the fowl and monkey and said they would be born as devotees of Siva in their next birth and attain moksa at the end of their life on earth. Accordingly the monkey and the fowl were born in Kashmir as Sudharma and Taraka.


TARAKSA (TARAKAKSA). A son of the demon Tirakasura. This demon was the lord of a golden city called Tripura. Siva killed him during Tripuradahana (burning of the Tripuras). See under Tripuradahana.

(Chapters 33, 34, Karna Parva).


TARALA. A place of habitation of ancient Bharata. This place was conquered by Karna. (Sloka 20, Chapter 8, Karna Parva).


TARANTUKA. A Yaksa. This Yaksa is installed on the boundary of Kuruksetra. If one. spends one night in this holy place one would get the benefit of giving away a thousand cows as gifts. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva).


TARKSYA I. Garuda. See under Garuda.


TARKSYA II. A sage. He was a member of the court of Indra. He was known as Aristanemi also. He had no fear of death. He once discussed with Sarasvatidevi about the soul. (Chapter 184, Vana Parva).


TARKSYA III. A Ksatriva youth of the country of Tarksya. He came to the Rajasdya of Yudhisthira and gave much wealth for the purpose. (Sloka 15, Chapter 53, Sabha Parva),


TARKSYA IV. A synonym of Siva. (Sloka 98, Chapter 17, Anusasana Parva).


TARUNAKA. A serpent born of the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpa-

satra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 19, Chapter 57, Adi Parva)


TATAKA. A fierce demoness. It was because of a curse of the sage Agastya that Tataka became a demoness.


There was once a great Yaksa named Suketu, a son of Suraksa. He did penance to propitiate Brahma to get a child and by the blessing of Brahma Suketu got a daughter named Tataka. Brahma gave her the strength of a thousand elephants. Tataka was by nature interested in cruel and violent deeds and doing deeds of magic. She made Sunda, son of jharjha, her husband. She got two sons named Marica and Subahu. They also became mighty ones great in deeds by magic.


Once Sunda attacked the asrama of Agastya in a mood of intoxicated arrogance. Sunda was burnt to death in the fire of his fury. Tataka coming to know of the death of her husband got angry and attacked the asrama of Agastya with her sons. Agastya cursed them and made them into demons. Tataka and her sons who immediately turned themselves into fierce-looking demons went first to Patdla with Sumali, father of the demon race and then went with Ravana, King of the demons, to Lanka and stayed there. With the help of Ravana, Tataka conquered the great deep forest .near Karusa and stayed there with her sons. No. e, d(-,vas, demons or men, dared to step into that forest. Even the Sun or Clouds avoided passing above that forest.


It was at that time that ggri Rama and Laksmana came to that forest with Visvamitra. Tataka attacked Sri Rama and Rama killed her with one arrow. The heavy body of the demoness fe1l to the ground like a big mountain. Her soul then rose up as a beautiful Gandharva lady and Tataka who was thus released from the curse Praised Sri Rama and left the place. Chapters 24 to 26 of Bala Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana and Kamba Ramayana).


TATAKAYANA. A Bralhmavadi son of Visvamitra. (Sloka 56, Chapter 4, Anugasana Parva).


TATA&KA. The name of Sirhhadltvaja, King of Simhala, in his previous birth. (See under Simhadhv4ja).


TEJASCANDA. A deva who adorns the god Surya with a flower garland daily. The idol of Tcja canda is also used to be installed in temples. The idol is figured as one with a huge face and holding a sword and a lotus in his hands. (Chapter 51, Agni Purina).


TEJASVATI I. A heroine in a story in Kath= saritsagara intended to show that all happenings either good or bad are but the workings of fate.


Tejasvati was the daughter of king Vikramasena of Ujjayini and was very beautiful. She never liked any male and so never wished to marry. One day while she was sitting upstairs in her palace, she happened to see a young man passing that way and surprisingly was attracted by him. She sent her companion to him and informed him of her liking for him. He did not like the idea first, but the clever persuasions of the maid made him agree to a clandestine meeting with the princess at a temple at night that day. Tejasvati anxiously waited for the night to come.


About that time a Rajput prince ;ready grieved at the loss of his father and subsequent loss of his kingdom started on a tour to see an old friend of his father. That night, by sheer accident, he came and rested in the same temple where the rendezvous of the princess was fixed. When night fell the princess came to the temple and without the least suspicion went and embraced the solitary figure sitting in the temple. The prince did not show any surprise and responded fully. The princess then understood all details of her lover and took him to his father the next morning. Somadatta (that was the prince's name) then told Vikramasena al1 his mishaps and Vikramasena got back all the lost kingdom of Somadatta and also gave his daughter in marriage to him. (Taranga 4, Madana Maficukalambaka, Kathasaritsagara).


TEJASVATI II. The queen of Adityasena a king of Ujjayini.


TEJASVI. One of the five Indras. (See under Paficali).


TEJEYU. A prince born to Misrakesi of Raudrasva, son of Puru. - (8loka 11, Chapter 94, Adi Parva).


TEJOVATI. The capital city of Agni. This is situated on the south-east corner of Mahameru. In the centre is Manovati, capital city of Brahma. To the east of it is Amaravati, capital city of Indra. In the south-east corner is Tejovati. In the south is Sarhyamani, city of Yama. In the south-west is Krsnafijani of Nirrti. In the west is graddhavati of Varuna. In the north west is Gandhavati of Vayu. In the north is Mahodaya of Kubera. In the north east corner is Yasovat? of Isana. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


THA (q) This letter means taking food. (Chapter 348, Agni Purana).


THA (3) This letter means Candramandala (moon-disc), emptiness and giva. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348).


THINTHAKARALA. A prodigal person who lived in Ujjayini. He used to defeat all in the game of dice. With the money so received from defeated persons he would buy wheat and go to the burial ground and after making bread with it would eat it dipped in ghee sitting before an oil light placed before an idol of Mahakala (lord of the burial ground). He would then lie there itself and sleep.


One night he saw the idols in the Mahakala temple twinkling. He jumped up and challenged the idols for a game of dice. The idols stood mute and Thinthakarala taking their silence to be consent according to the rules of gambling fixed a wager and played. He won and then he said addressing the idols "°I have defeated you. Give me the money due to me." The idols stood silent and he, therefore, wrestled with them. Still the idols stood dumb. Then Thinthakarala took his sword. Instantly the devas gave him the money due to him. Early morning he went away from there and spent the money lavishly. At night he came back again and challenged the idols for gambling as before. This became a daily routine and the devas felt themselves harassed. They, therefore, approached the goddess Camundi and she advised them to refrain from playing as there was no loss of honour if one refused to take a challenge to gamble.


That night also as usual Thinthakarala came and challenged the idols for a game of dice. Then the idols said .`We are not prepared to play." Then he challenged Mahakala himself to play. Mahakala also refused to play. Then suddenly the mind of Thin changed and he did penance to please MahakaIa. Mahakala was pleased with him, appeared before him and blessed him.


Once a few nymphs came to bathe in the Mahakali pond and as per the instructions of Mahakala, Thintha-


karala took away their robes while they were bathing. He demanded a nymph named Kalavati in return for their robes and finding no other way they gave him Kalavati.


Kalavati thus became the wife of a Man due to a curse of Indra. Once she praised sexual enjoyment with men on earth and decried the same with Devas. Indra heard it and he cursed her "Then let her become the wife of a man on earth and enjoy the pleasures there." All this story Thinthakarala learned from Kalavati. She added she wanted to go to Devaloka the next day for a dance with Rambha. Thinthakarala consented and he also went to Devaloka and saw the dance, sitting along with the Devas.


When Rambha's dance was over, there was the dance of a goat. Seeing that Thinthakarala said to himself: "Why, this is a goat I used to see daily in Ujjayini. How did it come here to dance?" When the dances were over and the people dispersed, Kalavati took Thinthakarala to the MahAkali temple. Next day he met the same goat in Ujjayini and then he enquired "Hi, do that dance which you did yesterday before Indra in devaloka. Let me see" The goat stood dumb thinking of how this man on earth came to know of the dances in Devaloka. Thinthakarala once again compelled the goat to sbow its dance but when the goat still refused to dance, he thrashed it with a stick on its head and the goat immediately went to Devaloka and informed Indra about the incident. Indra felt sad when he saw blood oozing from the wound on its head. Indra by his divine powers then understood that Kalavati was at the bottom of all this trouble and cursed her to remain as a doll on a pillar in the temple belonging to King Narasirhha of Nagapura. Alambusa, mother ofKalavati,who heard the curse begged for relief' and Indra said she would get freed from the curse when the king himself demolished the temple and razed the place to the ground.


True to the curse, Kalavati after giving all her ornaments to Thinthakarala bid him good bye and went and remained as a doll on the temple-pillar at Nagapura. Deeply distressed at this mishap of his wife, Thinthakarala dressed himself as an ascetic and went to Nagapura. There he purchased five earthen pots and filled them with the ornaments of Kalavati. He buried four of the pots in the forests and the fifth in the bazaar near the temple. Then he built a hermitage on the shores of a near-by river and started living there. News soon spread that a great yogi had come to the city and the King went to see him. They talked for a while on religious and spiritual matters and the King was about to leave when they heard the howl of a jackal. The yogi smiled and the King asked him why he smiled. He refused to answer but the King insisted and then the yogi said "Oh King, the jackal says that in a forest to the east of the city under a silver plant is a treasure." The King immediately ordered his men to go and dig at the place and when they did they got the treasure. The King. offered the treasure to the yogi but he refused to accept it. Thinthakarala then on three different occasions pointed out to the King the three other pots in the forests and the King got great confidence in the powers of the yogi: One day he went to the temple with the King and while they were walking around a crow cr w and the yogi smiled. The King again asked him the reason and the yogi said that there was a treasure pot in the bazaar near-by. When they searched at the spot directed by the yogi the treasure was found.


On another day the King and the yogi went to the temple and as they walked about they saw the doll on one of the pillars crying. The King asked the yogi the reason for the doll crying thus. The yogi replied "0h' King this temple is not located in a proper place. Further the deity here was not installed at an auspicious time. If this continues the King will come to ruin. That was why the dol1 cried." On hearing this the King ordered the temple to be completely demolished and the place made a plain ground. The order was carried out and Kalavati got release from the curse. She went to heaven and told Indra all that had happened. Indra immediately sent Kalavati to fetch Thinthakarala to heaven and then both of them lived happily in heaven. (TaraAga 2, Visamagilalambaka, Kathasaritsagara).


TILABHARA. A place situated in the north-east part of Bharata. (gloka 53, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


TILOTTAMA. A prominent celestial maiden.


1) Birth. Tilottama was born to Pradha, wife of Kasyapa, grandson of Brahma and son of Marici. Alambusa, Misrakesi, Vidyutparna, Aruna, Raksita, Rambha, Manorama, Subahu, Kesini, Surata, Suraja and Supriya were all sisters of Tilottama. (Chapter 65, Adi Parva).


There is a story about the birth of Tilottama. Two demons named Sunda and Upasunda obtained invincible powers by doing penance. To make these two brothers quarrel with each other, by directions from Brahma, Visvakarmacreated Tilottama. Visvakarma collected from all inanimate and animate objects parts of objects beautiful to look at and created the enchanting Tilottama. Tilottama was then made to come to the world through the womb of Kasyapa's wife. Because she was made by the tilams a (small particle) of all the best (uttama) articles of the world she got the name of Tilottama. (Chapter 215, Adi Parva ).


The good girl named Tilottama was formerly created by Brahma from small particles of diamonds. (9loka 1, Chapter 141, Anusasana Parva)-.-


2) How Siva got four heads and Indra a thousand eyes.


When the two demon brothers Sundopasundas were creating great havoc in the world by their cruel and immoral deeds, it was Tilottama who was deputed by Brahma to create a split between the brothers. On the eve of her departure to the world she went to Devaloka to bid adieu. Brahma stood facing south and Siva stood facing north and Tilottama stood in the centre surrounded by the Devas. Tilottama circled round the devas worshipping them. Siva was enamoured of her beauty and wanted to see her always and so a face on all the four sides of his head sprang up so that he could see her always as she circled round him. Indra was also enamoured of her and he found his two eyes insufficient to enjoy her beauty. So instantly a thousand eyes sprang up in the face of Indra. (Chapter 215, Adi Parva).


3) How Tilottama cursed Sahasranika. (See under Sahasranika).


4) Tilottamd and Sundripasundas. See under Sunda. 5) Other details.


Tilottama partook in the Janmotsava (birthday


festival) of Arjuna. (Sloka 62, Chapter 122, Mahabharata).


TIMIDHVAJA. A demon who was ruling in the state of Vaijayantapura. He was called Sambara also. This demon once attacked Devaloka. Indra. was not able to kill him. So he sought the help of Das aratha. Dasaratha went and fought against the demons. Dasaratha was made to faint in the battlefield by the magic of Tirnidhvaja and Kaikeyi who was there then, took him away and gave him all first aid. Pleased at this Dasaratha promised two boons for her and it was these boons that Kaikeyi demanded of Dasaratha on the advice of Manthara at the time of the coronation of Sri Rama. (Sarga 9, Ayodhya Kinda, Valmiki Ratnayana ).


TIMIIZGILA. A King. Sahadeva defeated this king during his victory campaign in the south. (9loka 69., Chapter.31, Sabha Parva)..


TIRAGRAHA. An ancient place situated on the northeast part of $harata. (Sloka 52, Chapter 9,- Bhisma Parva).


TIRAYATTAM. A form of unrefined drama current in Kerala. This ancient art originally came into being to propitiate some gods. There are others of this kind like `Mutiyettu' `Tiyattu' and `Ayyappan Pattu' which all belong to a class of Ritualistic plays.


This folk drama is a colourful pageant devoted to gods. Its artistic value is worth noticing. This is known by different names like `lira', `Teyya'and `Kaliyattam'. `lira' in ancient language means `daivadarsana' (sight of gods) `Teyya' is the corrupt form of `daiva'. Tirayattam is a visible amusement where actors appear dressed as gods. Because the actors dance in the dresses of gods, this is called devattam also. Teyyattam is the distorted form of devattam. Because this is both a Kali (play) and an attam (dance) this is called Kaliyattam also.


This is held in different parts of Malabar during the period of January to April. It is a programme of three days. The first programme is to exhibit an Alakolam. This is done on the night of the first day. The second programme is to exhibit the vellattukolam which will be done on the second day evening. An indication of this is given on the first night itself. The programme of the second day begins with a dance called Velakkali. On that day there will be worshipping of gods at intervals. The Vellattukolam begins by five in the evening. The chief actor will present himself before the public in the colourful robes of a god and will begin to dance to the accompaniment of drums and music. As the dance and music continues even those without dresses would start dancing. Gradually sounds of pop-guns and instrumental music will rend the air. The chief dancer after dancing for some-time would place a stool before the temple and spread a white cloth on it. Then the dancer would sit in meditation and do the ceremony called `calling the gods'. He would then pray to the gods to. bless the function and appear at the zodiacal sign of Virgin. The dance and music start again. Then the people assembled would throw rice and flower into the cloth on the stool. The dancer-god holds a weapon in his hand and changes it often making huge uproars. Then after finishing the ceremonies like Kavuttu and Arulappatu, the Vellattakkaran retires. Then another actor in the dress of another god appears as Vellattakkaran and repeats the programme of his predecessor. Because the dance (attam) is done before a white(vella) cloth .the dance is called Vellattam.


After the vellattam before midnight T irayattarn begins. The dresses of the teyyas difi-r slightly from each other. Some Tiras wear jackets and skirts while some wear flower garlands made of Tulasi leaves (basil plant) arid cetti (jungle geranium). All the tiras rush to the temple in great spirit and they are followed by lamp-holders arid torch-bearers to the accompaniment of loud sounds of musical instruments and uproars from the spectators. When the first round of dances is over, the `Teyya' stands dancing, pouring blessings to the people and deciding ways of atonement for the sins done. Then food is offered to the gods and the function ends with a 'Vela' circling the temple.


TIRUJNzkNASAMBANDHA (R). He was one of the four Daksinatya Saivamat5caryas. He lived during the early part of the seventh century. The book on Daksinatya Saivamata is called Tirumura. There are twelve songs in that book. They were compiled by Nambiy5ndar Nambi who lived during the period of Rajaraja Cola. The first seven of these are devotional songs called Tevar-as. They were composed jointly by Tirujnanasambandliar, Tirunavulckarasar and Sundaramurti. The first three tevaras are of TirujAanasambandhar. The twelfth tirumura is called Periyapurarra. Its author was Sckkizhar. He was called Arulmozhitteva also. He was the chief minister of Anap-5yacola who ruled during the period 1063 to 1112 A.D. The theme of Periyapurana is the life history of sixtythree Saivasiddhas who were renowned as Nayanars and At:yars. It is in the sixth chapter of the second part of this book that they discuss Tirujnana.sambandhar.


He was born in the village of Sirkazhi (Brahmapura) rear Kumbhakonam in the district of Tafij dvur. His father was Sivapadardya and mother Bhagavatiy~r. Once when Sivapadaraya went to bathe in the temple tank called Brahmatirtha he took along with him his son Sambandhar also. Keeping his son on the steps of the tank Sivapadaraya plunged himself into the waters. Siva and Parvati who came that way saw the child sitting alone and Parvati went and fed him with her breast-milk. From that moment onwards the child started sin jing songs in praise of Siva and Parvati. When he grew up, he did many wonderful deeds visiting many Siva temples of Pandirajya. His father fixed up a marriage for him and the bride's party assembled even before time at the Cidambara temple. Tirujfianasambandhar came there in time and standing before the temple deity sang a song in praise of Siva. The song was greatly appealing and at thf° end of the song before all those assembled there Sambandhar .to the astonishment of all merged with the deity.


TIRUNAVUKKARASA (R) . He was a Saivaite like T'irujfianasambandhar (Refer above) and a disciple also of the latter. He was born in the village of Tiruvamur in South Arcot district. His father was Pu,galanar and mother Madiniyar both of whom were Vellalas. They got a daughter named Tilakavatiyar and a son named Marullnikkiyar. It was this Marti lnikkiyar who became famous as Tirunavukkara ar. This siddha who acquired divine knowledge has composed 4900 songs in praise of Siva of which only 312 are in use now.


TIRTHA. A holy place. Even from very ancient times the people of Bharata believed in the sacredness of holy places and they considered a pilgirmage to holy places as a part and parcel of their life. Almost all the Puranas have praised the greatness of holy places.


It is not true that all those who visit holy places and bathe in the sacred ponds there would get salvation. In Chapter I 1 of Padma Purana it is stated thus:


He would get salvation whose limbs, mind, knowledge, austerity and fame are under his own control. He who lives clean in body, without egoism, contented and never accepting gifts for services done would get salvation by visiting holy places. He who would fast if lie did not get food, whose organs of sense are all under control would get salvation if he visits holy places. Ire who is righteous, free from anger, treats all animate objects like himself would get salvation if he visits holy place.


Once the great sage Cyavana told Prahlada thus: "Only those who are pure in heart would get the benefit of visiting sacred places. It is a sin for others to do pilgrimage. The banks of Gariga are crowded with villages and cities. Many types of people like. Parayas, Fishermen, Vangas, Khasas, Huns and N4lecchas live there. They bathe in the holy river and drink the holy water, but they do not get salvation because their mind and heart are not clean." (4th Sk«ndha, Devi Bhagavata).


TIRTHAKOTI. A holy place. He who visits this place would attain Vi9nuloka after obtaining the benefit of doing a Pundarika yajna. (Sloka 121, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).


TIRTHANEMI. A female attendant of Subrahmarrya. (Sloka 7 Chapter 46. Salya Parva) .


TTRTHAYATRAI~ARVA. A sub-divisional Parva of Vana Parva. This comprises Chapters 80 to 156 of Vana Parva.


TITIKSA. One of the sixteen daughters born to Daksa of his wife Prasuti. Of these thirteen were married to Dharmadeva. Titiksd was one of them. The others were Sraddhd, Maitri etc. (4th Skandha Bhaoavata).


TITIKSU. A King born of the family of Turvasu. He was the son of Usinara and father of Rusadratha. (Chapter 277, Agni Purana).


TITTIBIIA. An asura. This demon shines in the court of Varuna. (Sloka 15, Chapter 9,. Sabha Parva ).


TI'I'TIBHASARAS. A sacred pond near the asrama of Valmiki. There is a story about this pond. Once a water-fowl lived there with his mate. One day the male fowl went out for food and as ho was returning home he found a few other water-fowls going that way and the male fowl suspected the chastity of his wife. The male fowl decided to abandon his mate and the innocent shefowl prayed to the Asta.dikpalakas for help. The Astadikpalakas instantly appeared there and made a pond and said that if the she-fowl could reach from one shore to tire other without getting herself drowned sire must be treated as chaste. The she-fowl was accordingly put into the waters and asked to swim to the other shore which she did without any accident: From that clay onwards the pond was called Tittjbhasaras. (Tittibha = water fowl.. Saras=pond).


When Slid came to the 5.9rama of Valmiki after being abandoned by Sri Rama, Valmiki wanted to test her chastity. So the sages asked Sita to enter the pond and reach the other shore. "Oh goddess of Earth, if even in my dreams no other person than my husband has entered my thoughts, let me reach the other shore safe." So saying Std entered the water and the goddess of Earth placed her in her lap and took her to the other shore. Slta did not get even wet. All the sages called her `Mahasadhv!' meaning supremely chaste woman. (Tarariga 1 Alankaravatilambaka, Kathasaritsagara).


TITTIRA. A place of habitation in ancient Bharata. (Sloka 51, Chapter 50, Bhisnia Parva).


TITTIRI I. A kind of bird. T o know about the origin of this bird see under the head Tri:=iris.


TITTIRI II. A celebrated serpent horn to tile sage Kasyapa ofKadru, his wife. (Sloka 15, Chapter 35, Atli Parva).


TITTIRI III. A sage who was a member of the council of Yudhisthira. (~loka 12, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


TITTIRI IV. A special breed of horses. Ai juna got this breed from Gandharvanagara during his victory campaign. (Sloka 6, Chapter 28, Sabha Parva).


TOLA. A great satirical poet of the Malayalarn Literature. A great humorist, Sanskrit scholar and actor, he was minister to Bhaskra Ravi Varma who was ruler of Kerala during the period from 978 to 1027 A.D. According to Kodinigallur Kunjikkuttan Tampuran, a great Sanskrit scholar and poet, Tola was born in Kondolififiaru in the village of Airanikkulam near Adur in Cochin in a Nambudiri family. His original name was Nilakantha. When he was a young man, he was ostracised from his community for having had illicit connections -with a low-caste servant-maid named Cakki. He was wearing then a deerskin belt (Tol) on his body as the usual mark of Brahmacarins (bachelors) and he threw it away of his own accord earning for him the name Tola. There is another version that Tola is the decayed form of `Atula' meaning matchless. He was mainly interested in writing funny ridicules. There are many such poems now available believed to be those of Tola.


TOMARA. A place of habitation situated on the northeast part of Bh rata. (Sloka 69, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


TORANASPHATIKA. Duryodhana decided to make the Pandavas beggars by defeating them in a false game of dice. Dhrtara tra stood as an accomplice to that. To play the game Dhrtardstra constructed a palace and that palace was called Toranasph tika.


That diamond-studded palace had a thousand pillars and a hundred entrances. It had crystal fortresses and golden thrones in all the „chambers. This palace was called Dyutabhavana also. (Chapter 56, Sabha Parva) .


TRAISANI. A King of the family of Turvasu. He was the father of Karandhama. (See under Vari-igavali).


TRAIVALI (TRAIBALI). A sage. He shone as a membe in the court of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 13, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


TRAIVARNIKA (S). Brahmins, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas are the three castes of people called Traivarnikas.


TRASADASYU. A King of - the Iksvaku dynasty. He accepted sannyasa (ascetic life) and became a Rajarsi. 1) Genealogy. Descending in orderfrom Visnu-BrahmaMarici-Kagyapa-Vivasvan- Vaivasvata Manu - IksvakuVikuksi-Sa'ada-Puranjaya (Kakutstha) -Anenas- Prthulasva-Prasenajit - Yuvanasva - Mandhata - PurukutsaTrasadasyu.


2) Other details.


(i.) Because he made dasyus (evil people) `tras' (to tremble with fear) he got the name of Trasadasyu. (7th -Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


(ii) The Mvinidevas once saved him from defeat in a fight. (Sukta i 12, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


(iii) Once Agastya, Srutarva and Bradhnasva, three eminent sages, came to the country of Trasadasyu. On hearing that the sages were. coming, Trasadasyu abandoned all his work and went to receive the sages at the state boundary. He asked them the purpose of their visit and they said they wanted some money. The King then showed them his accounts and convinced them that he was poor. (Sloka 16, Chapter 98, Vana Par va) .


(iv) Trasadasyu was one among those whose name should be remembered early in the morning. (~loka 55, Chapter 165, Anus asana Parva).


TRASARENU. An ancient measure of weight of metals. Jalantaragate bhanau


Yat suksmam drsyate rajah j Prathamarh tat pramananarn Trasarenurii pracaksate. / (Sloka 132, Chapter 8, Manusmrti).


Eight trasarenus make one Iru. Three irus make one Mankatuku. Three mankatukus make one Venkatuku. Six venkatukus make one Madhyastrlyava, Three madhyastriyavas make one kunnikkuru. Five kunnikkurus make one Masa. Sixteen masas make one Suvarna. This is the weight of two and a half var~-Ihas. Four suvarnas make one Pala. Ten palas make one Dharana.


TRAYI Veda. Formerly only three Vedas, Rgveda, Yajurved.a and Samaveda were recognised and so Tray! meaning group of three was used to denote the Vedas: (See under Veda).


TRAYYARUNA. A King of the Solar dynasty. He was the son of Tridhanva and father of 1'risanku. (Chapter 57, Bralimanda Purana).


TRAYYARUi~TI . A sage of the line of disciples of Vyasa. (See under Guruparampard).


TRETAYUGA. Second of the four yugas. Krtayuga, 'l retayuga, Dvaparayuga, and Kaliyuga are the four yugas. There are three thousand deva-varsas (divine years) in Tretayuga.


Sri Rama was born at the end of Tretayuga. Tretayuga came to an end in B.C. 867100. Sri Raga ruled the country for eleven thousand years.




Daga-varsa-satani ca / Ramo rajyamupasitva Brahmalokam prayasyati. /11


(Valmiki Ramayana).


(After serving his land for ten thousand years and another ten hundred years (ten thousand plus thousand years) Sri Rama will go to Brah.maloka). When Rama took over the reins of administration he was only forty years old. See under Manvantara and yuga. (Classical Sanskrit Literature).


TRIBHANU. A King born of the family of Yayati. (9th Skandha, Bhagavata).


TRIDASYU. The son born to Agastya of Lopainudra. (See under Idhmavaha ).


TRIDHAMA. The tenth incarnation of Siva. At this time Bhrgu Maharsi was Vyasa. (Siva Purina, Satarudrasarhhita) .


TRIDHANVA. A King of the Solar dynasty who was the grandfather of rrisanku. (7th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


TRIDIVA. A river of Bharata. (Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva ).


TRIGA&GA. A holy place. (Sloka 29, Chapter 84, Vana Parva ).


TRIGARTA. A powerful kingdom of ancient Bharata. There are several references in the Mahabharata to the Kings of T rigarta. The following are a few of them worth noticing :-


(i) The Pandavas passed through the country of Trigarta while they were wandering in the forests after the fire accident at the waxpalace. (8loka 2, Chapter 155, Adi Parva).


(ii) Arjuna during his victory march to the north defeated the King of Trigarta. (Sloka 18, Chapter 27, Sabha Parva ).


(iii) Nakula once conquered the country of Trigarta. (9loka 7, Chapter 32, Sabha Parva).


(iv) The Kings of Trigarta used to pay tribute to Dharmaputra. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Sloka 14) .


(v) A King of Trigarta once killed the horses tied to the chariot of Dharmaputra and then committed suicide. (Sloka 12, Chapter 271, Vana Parva).


(vi) A King of Trigarta named Suratha was slain by Nakula. (Sloka 18, Chapter 271, Vana Parva).


(vii) SW King of Trigarta with his army joined the Kaurava side and carried away the cattle of the King of Virata and also fought with him. Arjuna during his stay incognito at the palace of the King of Virata killed many Trigartas. (Chapter 32, Virata Parva).


(viii) Susarma, King of Trigarta, took the King of Virata as a captive and enraged at this Bhimasena was about to kil1 Sugarma when Arjuna intervened and stopped him from that. (Chapter 23, Virata Parva).


(ix) Satyaratha, King of Trigarta, had four brothers and the Pandavas fought against all the five. (Sloka 9, Chapter 166, Udyoga Parva).


(x) In the Garuda-vyuha constructed by Bhisma (battle array in the shape of a vulture) five Trigarta princes stood at the head of the formation. (Chapter 56, Bhisma Parva).


(xi) Arjuna used the Vayavyastra against the Trigartas in the great battle. (Chapter 102, Bhisma Parva).


(xii) Sri Krsna once defeated the Trigartas. (Chapter 11, Drona larva) .


(xiii) Once Parasurama killed many Trigartas. (Chapter 70, Drona Parva).


(xiv) There was a fight between Satyaki and the Trigartas once. (Chapter 181, Drona Parva).


(xv) Arjuna who led the sacrificial horse of the Agvamedhayajna of Dharmaputra created great havoc to the Trigartas. (Chapter 74, As vamedha Parva ).


(xvi) The Kings of Trigarta live in the court of Yama. (aloka 20, Chapter 8, Sabha Parva ).


TRIJATA (GARGYA). A sage. Though he was a sage he lived by farming. He had a wife and children and his earnings from farm work were insufficient to make bpth ends meet. They were living in poverty and it


was at that time that Rama started for his life in exile in the forests. Before he commenced his journey to the forests he gave immense wealth to all the Brahmins who had assembled around him. At that time Trijala never knew about it and when it came to the ears of Trijata's wife she ran to the fields and persuaded Trijata to go and see Sri Rama. When Trijata came to the scene, Rama had almost finished his distribution, but Trijata took courage and pushing forward through the crowd approached Rama and said "Oh, famous King, I am a poor man with many children. Give something for this poor man who lives by farming."


Hearing this, Sri Rama giving him? a small stick asked him to throw the stick into the midst of the cattle grazing nearby. The Brahmin tightening his clothes and getting ready threw the stick with all his might to the south. The stick fell beyond a lakh of cattle grazing there. Sri Rama gave him all the cattle which stood inside the area covered by the stick. (Chapter 32, Ayodhya Kanda Valmiki Ramayana).


Trijata was the son of V19vamitra. (Sloka 55, Chapter 4, Anus asana Parva ).


TRIJATA. A servant demoness of the palace of Ravana. Trijata was one among the demonesses who were deputed to entice Sita, sitting dejected under the Asoka tree, to the side of RAVana. All the demonesses slept around Sita. Trijata had a dream one night which is described in Chapter 27 of Sundara Kanda thus: "Sri Rama dressed in pure white robes and accompanied by Laksmana dropped to the place from air in a chariot built with ivory and drawn by a thousand swans. After that they came to Sita on the back of Airavata. Sri Rama took Sita in his lap and rose up into the air. They went high to reach the Sun and Sita was seen patting on the Sun and the moon. Then Airavata which was carrying Rama, Sita and Laksmana came to the top of Lanka. Then they came to this place in chariot. Then they travelled to the north in a Puspaka vimana. Ravana with oil smeared on his body and looking all red was lying on the ground His head was clean shaven. He was drinking oil from a pot and was shouting loudly. Then Ravana went to the south on the back of a donkey. When he had travelled a short distance he fell from the donkey head downwards. Rising from there he was muttering many vulgar words. Then sank


into a foul-smelling dung-mire. A black woman wearing a red saree and mud smeared all over her body came near him and dragged him to the south. Kumbhakarna also was subjected to her torture. All the members of RAvana'9 family were seen smeared with oil. After that they all travelled south again. At that time Ravana was seen on the back of a hog, Kumbhakarna on the back of a camel and Indrajit on the back of a crocodile. Vibhisana alone was seen standing near the Puspaka Vimana on, the back of a four-tusked elephant wearing white robes and white garlands and sweet-smelling pastes smeared all over his body and holding a white umbrella with the four ministers by his side and the royal band playing. At that stage the beautiful city of Lanka with its whole army fell into the ocean. Then a . monkey messenger of Sri Rama burnt the city of Lank. All the women demonesses and Kumbhakarna were-seen lying in a cowdung spit wearing red dress,''

When Trijata repeated her dream to her companions all were frightened to death. After the Rama-Ravana, battle, it is stated in Valmiki Ramayana, that Sri Rama gave presents to Trijata.(Sloka 41, Chapter 291, Vana Parva).


TRIKAKUBDHAMA. A synonym of Mahavisnu. (Sloka 20, Chapter 140, Anusasana Parva).


TRIKUTA. A mountain. There are twenty mountains on the four sides of Mahameru including Trikuta. Puranas say that the city of Lanka, the abode of Ravana, was at the top of Trikuta. Mahameru is at the north of Bharata. Lanka is to the south of Bharata. Then how is it possible for Lanka to be on the top of Trikuta ?


There is a story to substantiate this belief. Once there arose a quarrel between Vasuki and Vayubhagavan and they decided to find out who between the two was more powerful. Vasuki went and lay wound round Mahameru so tightly that even Vayu (air) could not enter it. Vayu got enraged and broke into a cyclone shaking the whole world. Even Mahameru began to shake but Vasuki lay unaffected. The Cyclone began to increase in vigour and the devas were frightened and they went to Mahavisnu accompanied by Siva and Brahma. After hearing their story Visnu called Vasuki and Vayu to his side and commanded them to stop the quarrel. Vasuki then unwound a part of his winding and that was from Trikfita. At once Vayu entered there and separating Trikuta from other parts carried it away and dropped it in the southern sea. It fell to the south of the southern end of Bharata. Lanka is the city built on it by the celebrated architect, Vis vakarman.


TRILOKITILAKA. A Yogesvari mantra. If one mutters this mantra (a sacred prayer addressed to a deity) one hundred and one times daily, one will become omniscient. Not only that, he would be able to move about to any place he wants. The mantra is this: "Hririi Gauri, Rudramayi to yogesvari hum phat Svaha" (6th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata) .


TRINETRA. A minister of Mahisasura. The cabinet of Mahisamra was extremely strong and brilliant. Ciksura, virile and an expert in military science, was the Defence minister. The great economist, Tamra, was the minister for finance. Udarka was the Commander-in-Chief and


the three advisory members were BASkala, Trinetra and Kalabandhaka. Sukracarya was the minister for education. (5th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


TRIPADA. A demon. In the battle between the demons and the devas Subrahmanya slew this demon. (Sloka 75, Chapter 46, Salya Parva).


TRIPURA. A phantom city built by Maya.


1) Origin. Kasyapa Maharsi son of Marici and grandson of Brahma had many wives. Of them Aditi got the first place and Did the second place. Both of them were daughters of Daksa Devas were born of Aditi and the asuras were born of Diti. Armies of asuras under the leadership of 8urapadma, Sirhhavaktra, Tarakasura, Gomukha, Hiranyaksa, and' Hiranyakag ipu gave immense trouble to the devas. The devas joined together under the leadership of Indra and fought the asuras. The nectar received from the ocean of Milk always made `the devas the conquerors. When Subrahmanya slew Taralasura the asuras became very weak.


At this stage Kamalaksa, Tarakaksa and Vidyunmali, sons of Tarakasura, did severe penance and made Brahma appear before them. They demanded a boon that they would never be killed by anybody in any of the three worlds. Brahma told them to ask any boon other than that. Then they said: "Great Lord, we must live in three cities and then roam about freely in the three worlds by your grace. Every thousand years all the three of us should join together at a place with our cities. After that meeting, we should separate and roam about freely for another thousand years. If at all there is death for us, it should occur only when we three are together and that also by one arrow." Brahma granted the boon and disappeared.


The asuras then approached Maya and asked him to construct three separate cities for them. Maya built three wonderful cities. One was with gold, another with silver and the third with iron. Tarakaksa took the golden one, Kamalaksa took the silver one and Vidyunmali took the iron one. The asuras started living in these cities. The three puras were respectively in Svarga, Akasa and the Earth. But each city had the power to travel to any other place at will. The power of controlling these cities was given to Bana. Hiranyakagipu's son was Prahlada. Prahlada's son was Virocana. Mahabali was Virocana's son and Bana was Mahabali's son (Chapter 14, Padma Purana). All these three cities together were named Tripura.


2) M,rtasanjFvani Vdpi. (The life giving tank). Even with the existence of Tripura the asuras began to die in numbers and the Tripuras thought of a way to escape from this calamity. Hari, son of Tarakasura, did penance and made Brahma appear before him in person. According to a request from Hari Brahma made Maya build a tank wonderful in nature. Brahma filled the tank with nectar. If any asura died, it was enough if he was dipped in the tank and the dead asura would soon come to life with added strength and vigour. Asuras became immortal since this and the Tripuras started teasing the devas and men with increased ferocity.


3) Consultation with oiaa. The aggrieved devas approached Brahma and finding him incapable of helping took him to Siva. Siva heard everything and assured them that he would kill them when they next met together at the end of a thousand years.


4) siva makes preparations.As a first step to the slaughter of the Tripuras, Siva sent Narada to Tripura. Narada by his unusual spiritual powers made the asura women feel more and more attached to the devas. Siva at that time thinking about the convenience for a fight with the Tripuras came and settled down on the shores of the river Narmada. That was how Narmada became a holy river. (Chapter 13, Padma Purana).


Siva had to make grand preparations for a fight with the Trzpuras. He invoked half the strength of the devas to himself to make Sivagakti (Javelin of Siva) greater than Asurag akti. The devas made Vis vakarma construct a special chariot for Siva. On the banks of the river Narmada at a place which became renowned as Mahesvara Siva stayed for a thousand years thinking about the fight with the Tripuras. He made the mountain of Mandara his bow, Vasuki, the string and Visnu his arrow. He installed Agni ft the tip and Vayu at the bottom of the arrow. Four devas stood as horses to his chariot. The earth itself was the chariot and ail the animate and inanimate objects of the devaloka arrayed at different parts of the chariot. On the wheels stood the Asvindevas and Cakrapani stayed on the axle. Gandharvas took places on the spokes. Indra stayed on the bow and Vaissravana on the arrow. Yama took his place on the right hand and the dreadful Kala on the left hand. Brahma acted as the charioteer.


Equipped thus, Siva stayed in the godly chariot for a thousand years. When the three cities joined together in the sky Siva split the cities by his three forked spike. Then he sent an arrow to the cities. Bad omens began to appear in T ripura. People became lifeless in the cities. Soon an arrow from Siva burnt the cities and the Tripuras were burnt to death. (7th Skandha, Bhagavata; Chapters 31 to 34, Padma Purana; Chapters 33 and 34, Karna Parva).


TRIPURT. An ancient country of South India. Sahadeva during his victory march conquered this country. (Sloka 60, Chapter 31, Sabha P arva ).


TRIRATHIKA (S). (Three charioteers). Asvatthama, Krpa and Satyaki, the three eminent bow-men who tools part in the Bharata battle were called Trirathikas meaning three great charioteers. (See under Asvatthama).


TRIR,7~VA. One of the children of Garuda. (Sloka 11, Chapter 101, Udyoga Parva).


TRIW1KU 1. (SATYAVRATA, MATARGA). A celebrated King of the Solar dynasty.


1 ) Genealogy. Descending in order from Brahma -M:.rici - Kasyapa - Vivasvan - Vaivasvata ManuIksv~iku-Vikuksi-Sasada-Puranjaya (Kakutstha)Anenas-Prthula:'~va - Prasenajit, Yuvanasva-- Mandh4ta-Purukutsa---Trasadasyu-Anaranya- Haryas va Vasumanas - Sudhanva - Trayyaruna - Satyavrata (Trig anku) .


2) F.:thc, discards him. When Satyavrata grew up he became a lewd, lustful imprudent man. One day while he was leading such a contemptuous life, a marriage was being conducted in a brahmin house. Guests had assembled, the bridegroom had come and the ceremony was about to start when Satyavrata entered the marriage hall and carried away by force the bride to the shock of all those present there. Some of the Brahmin guests immediately went to Trayyaruna and told him what a shameful crime his son had committed. The enraged father at once sent Satyavrata out from the palace. Satyavrata left the country altogether and went and stayed in a colony of hari;ans. Though he lived with those low-caste people he did not adopt their mode of living. He went out daily to the forests with his bow and arrow and made his food. He never felt any animosity towards his father who had thus sent him out from his country. He thought thus "Of course, my father got terribly angry when he heard the complaints of the Brahmins and in that mood punished me thus, though the punishment was a bit too much. But our family preceptor Vasistha, who knows everything, who is a moralist and a righteous man, who has the knowledge and authority to prescribe atonement for all sins, did severe punishment. That was very hard." As he thought more about it in this vein, he felt a great hatred towards Vasistha.


3) satyaarata and Maamitra's family. When his only son -Satyavrata was turned out from the family, King Trayyaruna was greatly distressed. He went to the


forests to do penance to get another son. At that time the country did not have rains for twelve successive years as a punishment for the King for sending out his son. The people suffered much. Among the people who were suffering were the wife and children of Visvamitra. Visvamitra at that time had gone to the shores of river Kaus iki for doing penance. Visvamitra's family consisting of his wife and three sons during that famine lived in hunger. At last the mother decided to sell the middle son and buy food with the money received by the sale. She put a rope made of darbha grass round the neck of the boy and took him to the market. On the way Satyavrata saw them and on hearing their sad story told them not to sell the child. He assured them that he would take care of them till the return of Visvamitra. He removed the darbha rope from the child's neck and the child got the name of Galava from that time onwards. (Gala=neck). He promised them he would daily place enough meat at the foot of a tree near the asrama. True to his promise, he hunted in the forests and brought to the foot of the tree fresh flesh of deer or bare or boar and also fresh fruits. The family lived happily because of him.


4) Curse of hasistha and the name of Trisaytku. When Trayyaruna went to the forests to do penance, it was Vas:stha who was managing the affairs of the palace. The heir-apparent Satyavrata lived in the but of a can&,.la. Every minute Satyavrata's hatred towards Vasistha increased in strength. One day Satyavrata did not get any game even after a day's hunting and at dusk he happened to reach the asrama of Vasistha where he saw Nandini, the beloved cow of the sage, grazing by the side of the asrama. Anger, desire and hunger made him imprudent and without thinking of the consequences Satyavrata killed Nandini and after eat irg enough to appease his hunger took the rest to feed the family of Visvamitra. The wife of Visvamitra little knowing that it was cow's flesh cooked it and ate it.


That night when Vasistha came to the asrama he found Nandini missing and he went in search of it. After some time the sage knew that Satvavrata had killed and eaten it. The enraged sage called Satyavrata to his side and cursed him thus "You will from today become a candala. Three sankus (sins) namely wrath of a father, abduction of another man's wife and consumption of cow's flesh will give you life-long trouble and thus you will earn a name, Trisanku (Three sankus). Instantly Satyavrata became a candala and started roaming about in the streets.


5) Trisafku becomes King. Trig anku, distressed at heart by a father's wrath and a Guru's curse walked about aimlessly in the forests. He expressed his desire to the rsis and Brahmins to do a yaga and get himself absolved of all his sins. But nobody was willing to help a wretched man cursed and abandoned by both his father and his Guru. Feeling desperate, he decided to - commit suicide. He made a great fire-pit and prepared himself to jump into it. Before doing that he prayed to the goddess and when the goddess knew that his devotee would jump into the fire and become ashes, she appeared before him in person and said thus: "Son, why do you try to jump into the fire ? Your father has become old and day after tomorrow he will crown you as King and then go to the forests to do penance. Look, there comes your father's minister to take you to the palace." When the goddess disappeared Satyavrata returned to his asrama in a pensive mood. Narada went and informed the king of everything that happened in the forest and the king immediately sent his ministers to fetch Satyavrata to the palace. When Satyavrata came the king crowned him as king and then went to the forests for penance.


6) Satyaarata becomes Canddla again. Satyavrata ruled the country for a long time. He was a pious ruler, devoted to god and soon he developed a desire to go to heaven with his mortal body. He approached Vasistha first for this purpose. But the family preceptor told him there was nothing in the gastras about any yaga which could help one to go bodily to heaven. Disappointed he approached the sons of Vasistha who ridiculed him when he told them of his queer desire. Trisanku got angry and left them saying "Let me see whether there are others in this country who could send me bodily to heaven." Those arrogant words annoyed Vasistha and his sons and they cursed him and made him a candala again. Trisaiiku thereafter did not return to the palace, but went to the forests to live there. He knew if he returned to the palace as a candala he would not be recognised by his wife and children.


Haris candra, son of Trig anku, heard about the curse on his father and sent the ministers to fetch his father to the palace. But Tris anku did not comeback and so the ministers made Hark' candra the king of Ayodhya.


7) Visaamitra meets irisanku: When Haris candra became king, Tris afiku was living in Ambavana (forest of Amba ) as a great devotee of the goddess. It was at that time that Vigvamitra returned home after hispenance. Visvtsmitra enquired of his wife how they managed to live during the great famine. Then Satyavati, wife of Visvamitra, told him the whole story of how Satyavrata helped them, why he killed Nandini, Vasistha's cow, and how they ate cow's flesh, how Satyavrata was cursed to be a candala, how he was called back as king and how he was at that time living in Ambavana. The eyes of Visvamitra became wet when he heard the sorrowful story and he decided to end the candtslatva (state of being a candila) of Satyavrata. He went straight to Ambavana and met Tris aftku there.


t3) Trisafiku Soarga (Heaven of Trisariku). Visvamitra promised Trig anku that he would send him to heaven bodily and made preparations for a yaga. No other sage partook in the yaga because of instructions from Vasistha. But undaunted, Visvamitra conducted the yaga alone and, as the power of his performances increased, Trisanku started rising bodily from earth slowly and soon rose up to heaven. When the devas found a Candala standing with his physical body before the gates of heaven, they ran to Indra and told him. Indra got angry and pushed him out from heaven and Trisanku came falling down with his head turned downwards to the earth. Trigaciku cried loudly calling Visvamitra by name. When ViSvdmitra, hearing the noise, looked up he saw poor Tri!;atiku descending fast from heaven with his head turned upside down. Visvtsmitra's anger knew no bounds and he roared aloud "Let Trisahku stay where he is now." Trisafiku stopped in mid-air. Indra did not allow Trisatiku to come up and Visvamitra did not allow him to come down. Indra then made


a separate heaven for Trisanku below original heaven. Then Visvamitra started to create another Indra and devas for the new heaven. The devas were frightened and Indra then approached Visvamitra and requested him to desist from his attempt to make duplicate devas promising him that he would give Trisanku a seat in his heaven itself. Visvamitra agreed to it. At once Indra brought a golden Vimana and took him bodily to heaven. (Sargas 57 to 59, Balakanda, Valmiki Ramayana 7th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata; 9th Skandha, Bhagavata; Chapter 13, Harivarinsa; Sundara Kanda, Kamba Ramayana; Chapter 71, Adi Parva; Chapter 12, Sabha Parva ) .


TRISIRAS I. A demon who was a friend of Ravana. The Khara-Dusana-Trisiras combination led the attack on Sri Rama in the forest of Dandaka when Laksmana cut off the nose and breasts of the demoness 8urpanakha. Rama and Laksmana killed all the three. Trig iras was a powerful fighter and Sri Rama's forehead was wounded by an arrow from Trisiras. The latt ox came and fought in a chariot drawn by four horses. He was killed by an arrow from Rama. (Sarga 26, Aranya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


TRISIRAS II (VISVARLTPA). Once there was a celebrated Prajapati of name Tvasta. Though he was of a pious nature interested in the welfare of Brahmins, he hated Indra. He thought of destroying Indra somehow. With that purpose in view he produced by his wife Recants, a powerful son and named him Vis varupa. The bov had three heads and so he was called Trisiras (Tri=Three Siras-head) also. He could use his three heads for three different purposes at a time. He would drink wine with one head and mutter the Veda-mantras by another head and see the world by the third.


Even from boyhood he disliked worldly pleasures and, abandoning even food, started to do penance. During the hot season he would sit amidst fire and during the cold season he would sit in water to do penance. He would stand with his head down and do penance. The penance of Trif iras was so severe that Indra began to get frightened. He sent celestial maidens to stop the penance but all the attempts proved futile before that great ascetic. Then Indra himself riding on Airavata went and killed the sage by his Vajravtidha. Indra feared whether Trisiras would come to life again and wreak vengeance on him. So he ordered a carpenter standing nearby to bring to him the three heads separated from the body. The carpenter cut off the heads from the body and as each head fell to the ground several kinds of birds were found escaping from it. From the head which used to mutter Vedic mantras rose the Kapinjala birds; from the head used for drinking wine rose Kalapinga birds and from the third rose the Tittiri birds. When the birds thus rose to the air Indra was convinced that Tri iras was dead and he went away See under Visvarupa. (6th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


TRISOKA. A sage who was the son of Kanva. ThcAsvinidevas once redeemed the cows belonging to this sage. (Sukta 112, Anuvaka 16, Mandala 1, Rnveda). Sri Krsna on the way.


TRISRnIGA. A mountain. This stands to the north of Mahameru. Mahlmeru spreads over an area of eighteen thousand square miles and is two thousand miles high. It is surrounded by eight other small mountains two on each side. To the east is Jathara and Devakuta. Pavamana and Pariyatra stand to the west while to the south are Kaillsa and Karavira. On the north are Tri rnga and Makaragiri. (8th Skandha, Devi BhAgavata).


TRISROTASI. A sacred river. This river lives in the court of Varuna worshipping him. (Sloka 23, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva).


TRISTHANA. A holy place. If one lives and fasts here for one month, one would be able to see God. (Sloka 15, Chapter 25, Anusasana Parva).


TRISTUP. One of the seven horses tied to the chariot of Surya. The seven horses are; Gayatri, Brhati, Usnik, Jagati, Tristup, Anustup and Pankti. (Chapter 8, Arhia 2, Visnu Purana).


TRISULA. A weapon of Siva with the Vaisnava tejas


(brilliance of Visnu) obtained by churning Surya. Visvakarmamade the following: Cakrayudha (Discus weapon) of Visnu, Trisula (three-forked spike) of Siva, Puspaka Vimana (Aerial chariot) of Kubera and the weapon Sakti of Subrahmanya. (Chapter 2.. Alhsa 3, Visnu Purana). (See under Visvakarmafor more details).


TRISfJLAKHATA. A sacred place. If a man bathes at this place and worships the devas and the manes, he would attain a place equal to that of Ganapati. (Chapter 84, Vana Parva).




1) General information. A son of the sage Gautama. He had two brothers called Ekata and Dvita. (See under Ekata ).


2) Other details.


(i) Ekata, Dvita and Trita were born to clean the hands of the devas when they become smeared with the sacrificial butter during the yagas. Of these Trita once fell into a well while drawing water and the asuras closed the well. But, Trita escaped opening the top. (Sakta 52, Anuvdka 10, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


(ii) Once Ekata, Dvita and Trita were stranded in a desert and desperately needed water to quench an increasing thirst. At last they found a well and Trita after getting down and quenching his thirst brought water to his brothers. The cruel brothers, after drinking the water pushed Trita into the well and covered the well with the wheel of a bullock-cart. Trita prayed to the A.4vinidevas for help and they appeared before him and rescued him from the well. (Sukta 105, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


TRTVARCAS (TRIVARCAKA)> A sage who was the son of Angiras. He joined with four other sages and did penance and produced a son named Pancajanya equal to the god Agni in splendour. The other four sages were Kagyapa, Prana, Cyavana and Agni.


(Slokas 1 to 5, Chapter 220, Vana Parva).


TRIVAKRA. A hunchback of a woman who was engaged in the work of making scented cosmetics for Kamsa. This woman saw Sri Krsna on his way to the palace of his uncle Kamsa in Mathurapuri. Even at the first sight she felt a great respect and devotion towards Krsna and qhe gave him the scented cosmetics she was carrying to Kaxhsa. Krsna placed a foot of


his on hers and holding her chin by both the hands raised it up and to 1 she stood straight without her hunch. She requested Krsna to stay with her that night but Krsna left her saying he would stay with her on another day which he did the next day itself. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


TRIVIKRAMA. Another name for Vamana.


TRIVIKRAMASENA. A mighty king.


TRIVISTAPA. A sacred place inside Kuruksetra. If one bathes in the holy tank there and worships Siva one would go to heaven. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva).


TRNABINDU I. A lake in the forest of Kamyaka. The Pandavas once during their exile went to Trnabindusaras from Dvaitavana. (Sloka 13, Chapter 258, Vana Parva) .


TRNABINDU II. A sage. This sage sat and did penance at a place called Rsitirtha. (Chapter 20; Padma Purana).


1) Grandfather o f hifraaas. Vi-•', ravas, father of Ravana was the son of Manini, daughter of T,rnabindu- There is a story about him in Uttara Ramayana,


Once the sage Pulastya was doing penance in a secluded place in the Himalayas when a few Deva Gandharva women came to that place and disturbed his penance by their dances and noise. The angered sage gave a curse to that place saying that any woman coming to that place would become pregnant. Manini, daughter of Trrabindu went to this place unaware of the curse and got pregnant. She came weeping to her father and Trnabindu immediately took his daughter to Pulastya and asked him to marry Manini. Pulastya married Manini and Visravas was born ro her.


2) How he cursed Hanuman. Once Hanuman caught hold of a lion and elephant in fight and tied them each to a post on the two sides of the asrama of Trnabindu. When the sage stepped out from the hermitage, he was for a moment frightened by the sight of two mighty animals on the sides of his lsrama and knew by his divine powers that the perpetrator of that deed was Hanuman and so he cursed him saying that he would lose all his divine powers forthwith. Hanuman begged for relief and the sage said that he would regain his powers at the time of his going in search of Sit! when another member of his species would remind him of his lost divine powers. Hanuman remained oblivious of his powers till the time when the monkeys were trying to leap to Lanka from the Mahendra mountain on the shores of Bharata. Jambavan, a mighty monkey chief called Hanuman to his side and made him understand the great powers latent in him. From that moment onwards Hanuman regained his lost powers and became his old self. (See under Hanuman).


TRNAKA. A saintly King. He sat in -the court of Yama and worshipped him. (Sloka 17; Chapter 8, Sabh! Parva).


TRNAPA. A Deva Gandharva. He partook in the Janmotsava of Arjuna. (Sloka 56, Chapter 122, Adi Parva).


TRNASOMAhLGIRAS. A sage who lived in the south of Bharata. (Sloka 34, Chapter 150, Anuglsana Parva).


TRNAVARTA. A 'demon who was the son of Taraka. sura. This demon was living serving Kaxhsa. Karisa once sent Trnavarta to kill Krsna growing up in Ambadi. Trnavarta, in magic disguise went to the house of Nandagopa. Even when he entered the place bad omens were visible. Yagoda was breast-feeding baby Krsna keeping the babe in her lap. Soon Yagoda felt the babe gaining weight and very soon she felt the weight unbearable and rose up to place the child on a mat on the ground. But even before that Yagoda was fixed to the ground by the weight of the babe. But somehow she placed the babe on a mat on the ground and went out to wash her hands and face. When she came back she could not find the babe on the mat. Trnavarta had come in the form of whirl-wind and had already carried away the child. But after some time the weight of the babe increased so much that Trnavarta, unable -to carry the weight, wanted to drop the child to the ground. But the child stuck on to his neck and breast tightly and Trnavarta finding no escape from the tight hold which suffocated him, fell to the ground dead on a hard rock. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


TRTIYA. A river. This river sat in the court of Varuna worshipping him. (Sloka 21, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva).


TRUTI I. Thirty alpakalas make one Truti. (See under Kalamana).


TRUTI II. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 17, Chapter 46, Salya Parva).


TRYAKSA. An ancient place of habitation. When the King of this place went to see Dharmaputra with gifts the gate-keepers did not allow him to enter the palace premises. (Sloka 17, Chapter 51, Sabha Parva).


TRYAMBAKA. One of the Ekadas a Rudras (eleven Rudras). See under Ekadasarudra).


TUGRA. A King extolled in the Rgveda. This King sent his son Bhujyu with a large army by sea to conquer his enemies in dvipantara. When they were a long distance away from the shore the boats carrying them capsized in a storm and the prince and army were drowned in the sea. The prince then prayed to the A vinidevas and they saved him and his army from the sea and sent them back to the palace. Those boats could travel both in the sea and the air. ( Sukta 116, Mandala 1, Rgveda, Anuvaka 17) .


TUHARA. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


TUHUNDA. A demon. This demon was born to Kasyapa of his wife Danu. (Chapter 65, Adi Parva).


Accompanied by Tarakasura this demon once attacked Subrahmanya. Tuhunda threw an iron mace against Ganapati who blocked his chariot. By a single stone of Ganapati, the diamond-studded mace of the demon broke into six pieces. When he found his mace gone the demon caught hold of Ganapati and beat him with a spiked club on his forehead. Ganapati cut him with his weapon (Axe) `Venmazhu'. The demon fell to the ground in two pieces but still his hold on Ganapati was not released. Ganapati tried his best but could not loosen the hold. Then Kundodara, a leader of the attendants of Ganapati smashed the hands of Tuhunda with an iron mace. Tuhunda was killed thus. (Chapter 65, Vayu Purana).


This Tuhunda was born in his next life in the world as a King called Senabindu. (Sloka 19, Chapter 67, Adi Parva) .


TULADHARA. A charitable and righteous Vaisya who lived in Kasi. He gave the sage,Jajali dharmopadesa and both of them entered heaven. (See under jajali) .


TULAPURU$ADANA. See under Merudana.


TULASI. (Holy Basil plant.


1) General information. Tulasi is a plant held most sacred by the Hindus. There is a Puranic background for Tulasi attaining this spiritualistic importance. In fact it is Mahalaksmi, wife of Visnu, who had herself taken the form of tulasi. There is a story about it in Devi Bhagavata.


2) The curse of Sarasvati. Sarasvati, Gapga and Laksmi were all, in the beginning, wives of Mahavisnu. The Lord loved all the three equally. One day all the four .were sitting together when Ganga sent lustful glances at Visnu which was immediately noticed by both Sarasvati and Laksmi. Sarasvati got angry and rising up caught hold of the hair of Ganga and dragged her to the ground. Laksmi then caught hold of Sarasvati to prevent further assault but Sarasvati then poured all her rage on Laksmi and cursed her to be born as a plant on earth. Gangadevi could not bear this and she cursed Sarasvati to be born as a river on earth. Sarasvati retorted with a curse that Gaizga also would be born as a river. When the whole tumult was over Visnu called Laksmi to his side and said-"Oh Devi, do not worry. Things have happened as predestined. You go and be born as the daughter of Dharmadhvaja and grow up there. From there by divine grace you will be transformed into a plant sacred enough to make all the three worlds pure. That plant will be named Tulasi. When you will be thus living as Tulasi, a demon named 8ankhacuda with part of my virile strength will be born and he will marry you. Then you can come back to me. The holy river Padmavati will also be another form of your spirit."


3) The story of Dharmadhaaja. Who was this Dharmadhvaja to whom was born Mahalaksmi as a daughter ? In times of old there was a Manu called Daksasdvarni who was extremely virtuous and a part of Vi'snu. Descending from Daksasavarni were Brahma3avarniDharmasavarni-R udrasavarni-D evasavarni-I ndrasavarni Vrsadhvaja. This last named was a great devotee of Siva and because of his great affection for this devotee Siva lived a whole period of a devayuga in the asrama of Vrsadhvaja. King Vrsadhvaja by an edict prohibited the worship of any other deity than Siva in his country. Even the worship of Mahalaksmi ordained by the Vedas during the month of Bhadra (September) became extinct. All Yagas and worship of Visnu came to a stop. Sarya (Sun-god) got angry at this belittling of other gods than Siva and cursed the King Vrsadhvaja that he would cease to be prosperous. Siva did not like it and he went to punish Surya holding his tridea-t in his hand. Sfirya was frightened and he approached his father Kasyapa. Kasyapa and Surya went to Brahma and acquainted him with all details. Brahma also was helpless in the matter and so all the three of them went to Mahavisnu. They prostrated before Visnu and told him all. At that time Siva also came there. Addressing all of them Visnu said "Oh, Devas, within this half an hour twentyone yugas have passed by on the earth. He about whom you have come to speak to me is dead and gone. Even his son Rathadh-vaja is dead. The latter has two sons named Dharmadhvaja and Kusadhvaja. Thty are dull and splendourless now because of the curse of Sfirya and are now worshipping Laksmi." Saying thus Visnu disappeared.


4) Birth of Tulasi. Dharmadhvaja and Kusadhvaja did penance to propitiate Mahalaksmi. Kusadhvaja had a wife named Malavati. She bore a daughter named Vedavati. Sita, wife of Sri Rama, was a rebirth of this Vedavati.


King Dharmadhvaja had a wife named Madhavi. Mahalaksmi entered her womb as an embryo and after a hundred years Madhavi gave birth to a daughter. Even at the time of birth the child looked like a matured girl and was extremely pretty. She was therefore, called Tulasi, meaning matchless. (Tula= match). This Tulasi abandoning all worldly pleasures went to Badarikasrama and started doing penance there with the prayer that Mahavisnu should become her husband. She did penance for twentyfour thousand years sitting amidst fire in the hot season and sitting in water in the cold season and taking only fruits and water as food. Then she did penance for another thirtythousand years eating leaves only, another forty thousand years taking air only as food and another ten thousand years without any food. At this stage Brahma appeared and asked her the object of her Penance. She replied she wanted Mahavisnu to be her husband. Hearing this Brahma said thus-"Devi, you know the cowboy Sudama born of a part of Sri Krsna. That brilliant cowboy has now been born on earth, due to a curse of Radha, as a demon named Sarikhactzda. He is matchlessly eminent and has once fallen in love with you seeing you at Goloka. You will become his wife and later you can become the wife of Narayana. At that time a part of your divine body will remain on earth as a plant named Tulasi. Tulasi will become the most sacred of all plants, dear to Visnu, and all worship without using Tulasi leaves would be ineffective."


5) Marriage of Tulasi. Due to a curse of Radha, Sudama, the cowboy, was born on earth as a demon named gankhacuda. He did penance sitting at Badarika9rama and obtained Visnukavaca. Another object of his was to marry Tulasi. He obtained a boon from Brahma that his death would occur only when the Visnu Kavaca was romoved from his body and the chastity of his wife was lost. At that time Sankhacuda and Tulasi met each other in the forests and were married. Sankhacuda, brilliant and majestic, went about with Tulasi in amorous sports creating jealousy even among the devas. His arrogance gave innumerable troubles to the devas and they along with Brahma and Siva approached Mahavisnu for a remedy. Visnu then sent Siva with his spike to kill ~afikhacuda and he himself started to molest the chastity of his wife Tulasi. Sankhacuda took leave of Tulasi to go and fight with Siva. When Tulasi was thus left alone, Mahavisnu in the form of Sankhacuda approached Tulasi and after some preliminary talks entered into sexual acts. Tulasi found some difference in the usual sexual methods and suspecting foul play jumped up to curse the impostor. At once Mahavisnu appeared in his true form and said "You have been doing penance for a long time to get me as your husband. Your husband Sankhacuda was the chief of my Parsadas, Sudama. It is time for him to go back to Goloka getting himself released from the curse. By this time Siva would have killed him and he would have gone to  Goloka as Sudama. You can now abandon your body  and come with me to Vaikuntha to enjoy life as my wife.  Your body will decay and become a holy river named Gandaki; your hair will become Tulasi plant the leaves of which will be held sacred in all the three worlds."


Tulasi then changed herself into the form of Laksmi and went to Vaikuntha with Mahavisnu. (9th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata) .


6) The greatness of Tulasf. Everything of the Tulasi plant, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, twigs, skin and even the soil around is holy. The soul of a dead one whose dead body is cremated using Tulasi twigs for firewood would attain a permanent place in Visnuloka. Even great sinners would be absolved of their sins if their dead bodies are cremated with Tulasi twigs. If at the time of death one thinks of God and mutters His name and if his dead body is later cremated with Tulasi twigs, he would have no rebirths. Even he who has done a crore of sins would attain moksa if at the time of cremating his dead body a piece of Tulasi twig is placed at the bottom of the funeral pyre. Just as all waters become pure by the union with. Ganga water, all firewood is made pure by the addition of a small piece of Tulasi twig. If the dead body of one is cremated using Tulasi twigs alone, one's sins for a crore of Kalpa years would be washed away. Yamadutas would keep away from one whose dead body is cremated with Tulasi twigs and servants of Visnu would come near. If alight is burnt for Visnu with a Tulasi stick it would be equal to burning several lakhs of lights for Visnu. If one makes the Tulasi leaves into a paste and smears it on one's body and then worships Visnu for one day, one would be getting the benefit of a hundred ordinary worships and also the benefit of doing a hundred godanas. (gifts of cows). (Chapter 24, Padma Purina).


TUMBITRU 1. A Deva Gandharva. He was the best musician among the Gandharvas.


1) Birth. Tumburu was the son of Kasyapa, son of Marici and grandson of Brahma, born of his wife Pradha. Of the sons of Kasyapa the four Gandharva sons, Tumburu, Bahu, Ha.ha. and Huhu were noted for their sweet and pleasant conversation.


2) Tumburu and the Pdndaaas. Mahdbharata states about several occasions when Tumburu has shown a special and deep interest in the Pandavas. The following few are of special mention-


(i) Tumburu attended the Janmotsava of Arjuna. (Sloka 54, Chapter 122 ,Adi Parva).


(ii) Once this Gandharva gave Yudhisthira a hundred horses. (Sloka 24, Chapter 52, Sabha larva).


(iii) Tumburu welcomed Arjuna when the latter went to Devaloka at the invitation of Indra. (Vana Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 14) .


(iv) Once when the Pandavas were living incognito in the country of Virata the Kauravas carried away the cattle of the King. Arjuna in disguise then fought against the Kauravas and Tumburu watched the fight with interest. (Sloka 12, Chapter 56, Virata Parva) .


(v) Tumburu was present at the Asvamedhayaga of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 39, Chapter 88, Aivamedha Parva).


3) How Tumburu was born as hiradha. When Rama and Laksmana were in the forests in exile a demon named Viradha attacked them. That demon was none other than Tumburu. Once when Tumburu was living in the city of Kubera he committed a sin and Kubera cursed him and made him into a demon. Kubera had then told him that he would get relief from the curse when he was slain by Rima, son of Dasaratha. Sri Rama killed Viradha and the latter regaining the form of Tumburu left for Gandharvaloka. (See under Viradha). 4) How he cursed Pururaaas. It is found in Kathasaritsagara that the temporary separation which Pururavas had from Urvagi was due to a curse by the Gandharva Tumburu.


After marrying Urvasi Pururavas once went to Devaloka at the invitation of Indra. He was invited to help Indra in his f;ght against the asuras. Indra celebrated the day on which one of the best of the demons, Mayadhara was killed. Rambha was dancing before acarya Tumburu on the occasion and Pururavas finding fault with her dance mocked at her. Rambha felt insulted and asked the King thus : "Fool of a King, what do you know of the divine dances of Devaloka P" Pururavas retorted that he had learnt more of dancing from Urvasi than what her preceptor Tumburu knew. Tumburu got angry and cursed Pururavas that he would live separated from Urvasi till he did penance to please Mahavisnu. The Gandharvas then carried away Urvas i from Pururavas. (See under Pururavas ).


5) Other details.


(i) Tumburu was a member of the court of Indra. (Sloka 14, Chapter 7, Sabhd Parva).


(ii) Tumburu was a member of the court of Kubera. (Sloka 26, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva).


(iii) The songs of Tumburu who was a worshipper of Kubera used to be heard from the mountain of Gandhamadana on the full-moon day. (Sloka 29, Chapter 159, Vana Parva).




Some details.


(i) This sage was one among the many sages who came from the north to visit Sri Rama on his return to Ayodhya after the exile. Those who came from the north were-Kasyapa, Vasistha, Atri, Visvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja, Sanakadis, Sara_ bhanga, Durvasas, Nlatafga, Vibhandaka and Tumburu. (Uttara Ramayana).


(ii) Tumburu was one among the rsis who visited Bhisma lying on his bed of arrows. (Chapter 47, Sinti Parva).


TUN DA I. A King. The Pandavas invited this King to take part in the great Mahabharata battle. (Sloka 2 1, Chapter 4, Udyoga Parva).


TUNDA II. A demon. This demon who was one among the army of Ravana fbught against the monkey leader, Nala, in the Rama-Ravana battle. (Sloka 9, Chapter 285, Vana Parva).


TUNDIKERA. An ancient place of Eli arata. The people of this place took part in the great Mahabharata battle. (Sloka 20, Chapter 17, Drona Parva).


TUPZGAKARANYA. A holy place. The sage Sarasvata did Devatidhyayana on behalf of other sages at this place. (Sloka 46, Chapter 85, Vana Parva).


TUIZGAVENA. An ancient holy river of Bharata. People of Bharatae came pure by drinking the water of this river. (Sloka 27, Chapter 6, Bhisma Parva) -


TURIYA. A .state of existence of Man. (See under jagrat) .


TURVASA. A King extolled in the Rgveda. Narya, Turvasa and Turviti were contemporaries. (Sukta 54, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


TURVASU. A son born to Yaydti of his wife Devayani. Yaydti had two wives Sarmisthi and Devayani. Of Sarmistha, Yayati had three sons named Druhyu, Anudruhyu and Puru and of Devayani, two sons named Yadu and Turvasu.


Once Yaydti called all his five sons to his side and asked them if any one of them would be willing to exchange his youth with his father's old age. All the four refused but Puru agreed to accede to his father's request. Yaydti then cursed Turvasu and all the other three. (See under Yayati).


TIJRVAYAYA, A King extolled in the Rgveda. (MaI7.dala 1, Rgveda).


TURV ITI I. A King extolled in the Rgveda.


TURVITI II. A King. But since in some places he is mentioned as a sage, it must be presumed that he must have been a King who had become a sannyasin during the latter part of his life. Once this sage was drowned and Indra came in time and rescued him. (Sukta 61, Mandala 1, Rgveda ).


TUSARA. A place of habitation of ancient Bharata. Scholars are of opinion that the present Tukharistan was the ancient Tusara. The people of this place used to be called Tusaras and their King Tusara. The King of Tusara was the store-keeper during the Rajasuyayajna of Yudhisthira, (Chapter 51, Vana Parva). The Pandavas during their exile crossed this country of Tusara on their way to Dvaitavana from the mountain of Gandhamadana. During the great battle, the Tusaras arrayed themselves on the right side of the Kraunca Vyuha (an army formation in the shape of a stork) constructed by Bhigma. (Sloka 21, Chapter 75, Bbisma Parva). There is a statement in Chapter 65 of Santi Parva that a barbarous tribe called Tusaras lived in the country of Mindhata.


TUSITAS. There were twelve good devas called Tusitas in the Caksusa Manvantara. When the Caksusa Manvantara ended and the Vaivasvata Manvantara commenced all the twelve were born as sons of Kasyapa of his wife Aditi. Because they were born of Aditi they were called Dvidasadityas. They were Visnu etc. Thus the Tusitas of the Caksusa Manvantara were the Dvadasadityas of Vaivasvata Manvantara. (Visnu Purana, Ariisa 1, Chapter 151.


TUSTI. A daughter of Daksa. She became the wife of Dharmadeva. Dharmadeva accepted as wives the thirteen daughters of Daksa including Tusti. Their younger sister Khyati etc were married to Marici etc. (Chapter 7, Arhsa 1, Visnu Purina).


TUSTIMAN. A King of the Yaydti dynasty. (9th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


TVASTA I. A Prajapati. This Prajipati was an asura also. (Sukta 94, Anuvika 14, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


1) Birth. There are contradictory statements in the Purinas regarding the birth of Tvasta.


(a) Visvakarma got four sons named Ahirbudhnya, Tvasta Ajaikapat and Rudra. The great ascetic Visvarupa was the son of Tvasta. (Chapter 15, Arpsa I, Visnu Purina).


(b) Ka~yapa got as his sons the Ekadasarudras of his wife Surabhi. Surabhi who became pure by penance got by the grace of Mahadeva five other sons named Aja, Ekapat, Ahirbudhnya, Tvasta and Rudra. The noble and famous Vis;varupa was the son of Tvasta. (Chapter 18, Agni Purina).


(c) Ka yapa Maharsi got a son named Tvasta of his wife Aditi. (S1oka 34, Chapter 226, Adi Parva) . ,


Bacause of such varied statements it is not possible to say whose son Tvasta was.


2) Indra's enemy. Even frorxt the beginning, Tvasta hated Indra. Tvasta begot of his wife Recana. a son named Visvarupa to kill Indra. Visvarupa was the younger brother of Sannivesa. Visvarupa was called Trisiras also. (See under Trisiras). While Visvarupa was doing penance Indra killed him by his Vajrayudha. Enraged at this T vista produced another asura named Vrtra to kill Indra. (See under Vrtra). Indra killed Vrtrasura also. At last greatly disappointed Tvasta cursed Indra that he would suffer from Putraduhkha (loss of son) and then went to the mou .t Meru to do penance.


3) Other details.


(i) Tvasta also treated as a Rudra. (Chapter 15, Arii a 1, Visnu Purina).


(ii) When the forest of Khandava was burnt, he stood on the side of Indra and fought against Krsna and Arjuna. He separated huge portions from the mountain and threw them against Arjuna and Krsna. (Sloka 34, Chapter 226, Adi Parva).


(iii) Tvasta shines in the court of Indra. (Sloka 14, Chapter 7, Sabha Parva).


(iv) Kuseru, daughter of Tvasta was once abducted by Narakasura. (Chapter 38, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva).


(v) Visvakarmaalso used to be called Tvasta. (Sloka 24, Chapter 100, Vana Parva).


(vi) The monkey called Nala was the son of Tvasta. (Sloka 41, Chapter 28:3; Vana Parva).


(vii) Tvasta presented Subrahmanya with two Parsadas named Cakra and Anucakra. (Sloka 40, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


TVASTA II. A King of the family of Bharata. This Tvasta was the son of Bhauvana and father of Viraja. (5th Skandha, Bhagavata).


TVASTADHARA. One of the two sons of Sukracarya who were deputed to do heinous acts of worship by gukra. The other was Atri. (Sloka 37, Chapter 65, Adi Parva).