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SA (,T). The letter Sa means to lie down and also gamkara. `Sam' means comfort or happiness. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348 ).


SA (u r). Sa means noble, sublime. (Agni Purana,


Chapter 348) .


SA (Zf). The sound `Sa' means indirect; `Sa, Laksmi (Goddess of wealth and prosperity) and `sam' means hair. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348).


SABALA. A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of his wife Kadru. (Adi Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 7).


SABALAKSA. A divine maharsi. He once visited Bhismah. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7) .


SABALAJVA I. The thousand sons born to Daksa of his wife Virani, are known as Sabalasvas. To procreate man-kind Daksa,first created five hundred sons by his wife Asikni and named them Harya'vas. Daksa had to create the Sabalasvas as the Harya:.vas were misled by Narada. But, Narada approached and told the 9abalasvas also that it was not correct on their part to procreate children before they had studied the interior, exterior, bottom and top of the earth. Believing Narada's advice the gabalasvas also set out to measure the extent of the earth and they have not yet returned. Because of this Brahma cursed that Narada, instead of living at one place, should always h be on the move. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 15 ).


SABALAJVA II. A King born in the dynasty of King Kuru. His father, Aviksit or ASvavdn was the grandson of King Kuru. Aviksit had, besides gabal5sva, seven sons calied Pariksit, Adiraja Viraja, Salmali, UCcaIS,"ravas, Bharimgakara and jitari. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 52 ).


JABARA. A mleccha-low caste. The Mahabharata has the following about gabaras.


(i) Sabaras were born from the dung and urine of Nandini, the cow of Vasistha. ~Adi Parva, Chapter 174, Verse 16 ).


(ii) When Satyaki annihilated the Kauravas the dead bodies of thousands of gabaras were heaped on the battle-field. (Drona Parva, Chapter 119, -Verse 46) .


(iii) In early days the Sabaras lived in the kingdom of M Wndhata, their profession being murder and looting. (Santi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 13 ).


(iv) Siva had once taken the form of forest-dwellers and Sabaras. (Anus asana Parva. Chapter 65, Verse 17) .


(v) Many Ksatriyas lived for many years hidden in caves for fear of Parasurama, and as they had no association with ksatriyas during the period, they became gabaras. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 15) .


SABARI. A woman of the tribe of forest-dwellers. Sri Rama, during his life in the forest, gave her salvation.


1) Former life. Sabari, in her former life, was the only daughter Malini of the Gandharva King, Citrakavaca. An erudite scholar, Vitihotra, married her. As he was ever immersed in contemplation of Brahman his wife Malini, (later 8abari) kept one hunter, Kalmasa, as her paramour, and her husband cursed her thus : "As you have become a lover of the hunter, you turn out to be a hunter-woman."


2) At the Suburbs of Matanga's hermitage.


Malini in tears sought redemption from the curse from her husband, and he told her that she would get absolution from her infamy and the curse from Sri Rama. Immediately she was transformed into a hunter-woman and she came to the suburbs of Matangasrama. She took a special liking for the place, the reason being that the flowers in the asrama possessed a special fragrance. Once while the disciples were carrying a load of flowers for the muni (Matanga) a few drops of sweat from their bodies fell on the ground, and the muni blessed that the trees and creepers, which grew up from the sweat and their flowers would never fade. This is described as follows in Canto 73, Aranyakanda of Valmiki Ramayana.


"Oh ! Rama ! nobody plucks and wears those flowers. They neither fade nor fall down. ' %Thile the disciples of Matanga were carrying a load of lowers for him, they sweated on account of exhaustion and some drops of sweat fell on earth which developed themselves into flowers due to the prowess of the guru's tapas. Even today may be seen there gabari, who has taken to sannyasa and who tends the flowers. She will attain heaven only after seeing you."


Sabari lived for long there serving Matanga's disciples, performing tapas and learning knowledge about Brahman. At the time of the munis giving up their physical bodies they blessed ~abari that without further delay she would meet Rama and get redemption from the curse. They also blessed that she would possess divine eyes to see hidden things and also the past and the future. After that she was spending her days awaiting the arrival of Rama.


It was the period of the life in the forest of Rama and Laksmana. After visiting various asrarnas Rama at last came to Matangasrarna. Hearing about Rama's


visit Sabari had gathered a lot of fruits. Now, Ram and Laksmana came and Sabari received them mos respectfully. After herself biting each fruit to test it taste she gave the fruits for them to eat. The left-over: of Sabari appeared as nectar to Rama. Then Sabar: told Rama,thus: "When you go a short distance south wards there is the beautiful stream called Pampa. Yot cross Pampa and advance a little further and you wil: reach mount Rsyamfika. On the top of that mountain lives Sugriva, son of Sun, and if you enter into alliance with him you will succeed in finding out and getting back Sita after annihilating the enemies. Oh ! Lord ! my salutations."


After speaking thus, Sabari the great anchorite and chaste woman closed her eyes. Immediately she was transformed into Malini, the Gandharva damsel, and all at once a handsome Gandharva prince appeared there in a divine plane. It was Vitihotra, the husband of Malini. After saluting Sri Rama he took away his wife in a chariot to the Gandharva city. (Kamba Ramayana, Aranyakanda).


SABARIMALA (sABARI MOUNTAIN). A sacred place in South India in the eastern region of Kerala on a mountain called Sabarimala. It is not quite certain whether the name of this mountain is in anyway related to Sabari, to whom Sri Rama had given salvation. At any rate a very ancient temple with Sasta as the presiding deity therein is found at Sabarimala today. It is proof positive of the great sanctity attached to the ancient temp1e that every year lakhs of devotees from all parts of India visit it braving dense forests, mountains and wild beasts on their way. Historical evidence about the origin of the temple or its philosophical importance is sparse, but there is a legend, more illuminating than facts of history, about Sasta (Ayyappan) the deity installed in the temple. The legend is as follows-


In olden days the royal family of the Pandyas divided itself into two branches, one of them settling down at Veiiiyur and the other at Madura. When the king of Madura one day went ahunting in the forest he met a handsome and very powerful and courageous Malayali youth. The king immediate1y took a liking for him and appointed him as an officer in his army. The youth gradually rose up in military service to become the Commander-in-Chief. The other officers, who were


jealous due to the rise of the youth-Ayyappan--began conspiring to drive him out. The queen became a weapon in the hands of the conspirators, and at their instance she pretended herself to be very ill and lay in a fainting fit. All the physicians acknowledged defeat in curing her. Then a physician, an agent of the conspirators, came forward and assured the king that he would cure the queen of her illness within one and a half hours if a leopard's milk was made available. The king told Ayyappan about it.


Ayyappan went into the forest and returned to the palace with many she-leopards. He rode a tiger leading the leopards. People in the royal court were frightened by the sight of the leopards. The King realised that Ayyappan was not an ordinary person. Being questioned about him by the King,; Ayyappan replied that God was his father and the whole world his home. As he did not like to live any further with tale-bearers and conspirators he returned to Kerala.


Ayyappan's departure made the King sad and very restless in mind. After giving all his immovable property on rent the King followed Ayyappan to Kerala taking all his ornaments, jars and other utensils, and came at last to Pantalam. This region of Kerala was then in the control of a petty Chieftain called Kaippuzha Tampan. The King of Madura purchased some land from the Tampan, put up a palace there and lived therein with the members of his family.


Ayyappasvami on. his way back to Kerala met Parasurama,who told the former that he had already, for the protection of Kerala, installed on mountains and the sea-coast idols of his (Ayyappasvami) and that he would install another idol of Ayyappan at Sabarimala where they had now met each other. From that day onwards Ayyappasvami took his abode there.


One of those days the Pandyan king living at Pantalam had a dream, and in that dream Ayyappasvami appeared and told him that he (Ayyappan) was living at Sabarimala and the King might meet the Svami if he went there. The next day morning the King with his retinue started for Sabarimala. At Sabarimala the King got the forest cleared and made a search of the ground where he found an idol installed by Paras urama. The King built a temple there and installed the idol of Ayyappasvami therein. He also got necessary purificatory ceremonies conducted in the temple by the famous tantri (high-priest) Tazhama.n. A .routine programme for the conduct of affairs in the temple was fixed. As, it was difficult for m.en to live in the forest infested by wild beasts and conduct puja etc. daily, it was fixed that p5jas need be conducted only for five days in every month and that Makarasarfikranti should be the annual festival day. From the first of Makaram (January) for five days it was to be utsava with the deity led in procession. On the fifth of Makaram every year a `Kalabham' and on the seventh day a `guruti' also were ordained.


On the annual festival day the temple priest, the senior pilgrim, marars and other employees go to 8abarimala carrying with them rice etc. for food and calling aloud °Svamiye Saranam Ayyappa' (Oh! lord Ayyappa! you are our refuge), devotees climb the mountain today also repeating this slogan. (See under Sasta).


SABHAKA (SALAKA). See under Dhananjaya V.


SABHANARA. A King of the Bharata Dynasty. He was son of Anudruhyu, and the father of Kala.nara. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


SASHAPARVA. An important section in the Mahabharata. The main theme mentioned in this section is the building of the palace of the Pandavas. (Sabha= palace).


SABHAPATI. A prince who tuck the side of the Kauravas and fought against the Panclavas. Mention is rr,ade in Mahabharata, Kariia Parva, Chapter 89, Stanza 64, that this prince was killed by Arjuna.


SAC T. Daughter of Puloma and wife of Ind: a. The following information about Sac! is gathered from. the Mahabhara ta.


(1) It was from an a.sp(ctof Sac! that Pancali, daughter of King Drupada was born. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 15 7).


(2) Sac! is seated on the best throne in the assembly of Devas in the court of Indra. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 4).


(3) She worships Brahma also in his court. (Sabha Parva, ChaRpter 11, Verse 42 ). . Sri (4) It was ~~Icidevi, queen of Indra, who took Krsna and Satyabh.ama, during their visit to Devaloka to the Devamata. (mother of Devas ). (Sabha Parva, Daksinatyapatha, Chapter 38) .


(5) When Indra, afflicted by Brahmahatya, hid himself away from Devaloka Sacidevi was kept under the protection of Brhaspati. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 20) .


~6) While he was made Indra, Nahusa wanted to take aci for wife and she tried hard not to fall into his clutches. (See under Nahusa).


(7) Sac! was present at the birth of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 13) .


SADACARA (Good conduct).


1) General information. Each country has good customary practices of its own. A man with good habits or behaviour is considered as having conquered the two worlds. The sound `Sat' denotes `Sadhus'. Sadhus are those who are without any bad conduct or behaviour. The habits and practices of the Sadhus are called Sadacara. The Saptarsis; (the seven hermits), the Prajapatis (Lords of all creatures) and Manus (the fathers of men), were persons who were careful to keep up the good practices. Once the hermit Aurva advised Sagara, what the good usages of the people of Bharata ought to be. The laws of good conduct according to hermit Aurva are given below


2) The passing of excrement and urine. Everyone should wake up in the Brahmamuhurta (Two hours before dawn). After having risen, he should go to the southwest corner of the village or house at a distance of an arrow-shot fbr stooling acid passing urine; should not pour the wates~used for washing the face and the legs, in the courtyard; should not pass urine in one's own shadow, or in the shade of a tree, or facing cow, the Sun, fire, wind, teacher and Brahmin. Ploughed fields, fields where grains are ready for harvest, cattleshed, crowd, path, lakes or rivers and their banks, are places, forbidden for stooling or passing urine. When there is. no danger, a wise man should pass urine, facing the north in the day and facing south at night. When passing excrement the ground should be covered with grass and his head should be covered with cloth. Should not sit long or talk much when stooling.


3) The conduct of ablution. after answering the calls of nature and rinsing the mouth after meals. Soil such as taken from white ant-hill, ground thrown up by moles or rats, soil at the bottom of water, remainder of soil used by another, soil taken from the wall, soil gathered by worms and flies, ploughed soil etc. should not be used for ablution. By using soil, do the cleansing of the urethra once, the anus thrice, the left hand ten times, and both the hands together, seven times. After this use pure water (in which there is no mud or foam and which has no foul smell) and rinse the mouth. Take soil again and wash the legs with it. Rinse the mouth thrice and wipe the face twice. Then holding water in the hand, touch the apertures'in the head such as eye, etc. the crest of the head, both upper arms, navel and heart. With this rinsing take bath. After bath, with the help of a mirror, tie the hair, anoint the eyes with collyrium, and wear flower garlands etc. carefully. Bathing should be done in river, rivulet, lake, jungle-stream, mountain or holy bath (tirtha), or draw water from the well and bathe there or carry well-water home and bathe there. After the bath put on clean dress. Then take some water in the hand, offer it as oblation to gods, sages, and the manes with care. Throw water thrice for the blessing of the gods and hermits and to Prajapati once, as ordained. In the same way, to the manes and the great ancestors also give oblation of water thrice.


After so much is done do the customary sacrificial offerings, prayer etc. to Devi. Then invite guests to the house and welcome them. (Visnu Purana, Amsa 3, Chapter 11) .


SADAJIT. A king of the dynasty of Bharata. He was the son of Kunti and the father of Mahisman. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


SADAKANTA. A river in India, Purartically very famous. Mention is made of this river in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 25.


SADANIRA. A river in India very famous in the Puranas. Mention is made of this river in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9; Stanza 204. Some scholars are of opinion that this river is the same as the Karatoya of Modern India.


SADARBHAKA (S). Six sons of Marici. Subjected to a curse they had to live many lives and ultimately they resumed their old forms as children of Devaki. (For details see under Kadlsa, Para 2) .


SADASVA. A king of ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 12, that this king remains in the palace of Yama, glorifying him.


SADASYORMI. A king. He is a worshipper of Yama.

(M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 11) .


SADGUNA I. The six qualities or attributes of Bhagavan (God). Aisvaryam (prosperity), Viryam (prowess), Vairagyam (non-attachment or renunciation), Vijnanam (super-knowledge ), Sri (welfare and prosperity) and Yasas (fame, reputation) are the six attributes of Bhagavan.


SADGUNA II. Six kingly or political policies. Sandhi, Vigraha, Yana, Asana, Dvaidha and Asraya are the six policies of state-craft. (Manusmrti, Chapter 8, Verse 160)


1) Sandhi. To enter into peace and concord with the enemy is Sandhi. One may make peace for one's own benefit with the enemy, who is powerful and is fighting. There are sixteen kinds of sandhi called Kapdlasandhi, etc. No kind of peace or treaty should be made with twenty kinds of kings, i.e. infants ; old men; one suffering from chronic disease; cast out by one's own people; coward; one whose supporters are cowards; miser; one whose people are misers; who is very much addicted to women and such other material things; one, who has not a mind of one's own and is ruled by more than one adviser; he, who does not respect Devas and brahmins; one hated or forsaken by God; blasphemer; one subject to scarcity and sorrow; one not with satisfactory army; local person; one with many enemies; one whose days are numbered and one devoid of truth And righteousness. One shall only fight and not enter into peace with the above types of people.


2. Vigraha. Fighting, i.e. war is vigraha. War is the result of mutual evil-doings. The king, who desires prosperity who is troubled by others and in whose favour time and circumstances are, should go in for war. The main causes of war are the following


the desire to capture kingdom, woman, position etc. haughtiness and imperiousness, obstruction to duties and rights, the interest of friends and allies, destruction to one's allies, both parties getting interested in one and the same thing etc. Enmity is engendered chiefly due to the following causes:-rivalry of co-wives, disputes about property and women, verbal controversies and wrongs committed. The following kinds of wars should not be fought:-Wars the benefit of which is meagre or futile; war which would cause harm in the present as also in future; with the enemy whose strength is not correctly known; incited by others, for others, on account of women, which would continue for long; with brahmins, where time and fate are not in favour; with him, who has powerful allies, though of temporary advantage but which will not be so in future; though of advantage in future but useless at present.


The king should always do what will be of advantage at present as also in future. If one's own army is strong and enthusiastic and when the army of the adversary is not so, one may go in for war. Also, when all circumstances are in one's favour and against the antagonist one may fight.


3) Ydna. Yana means marching for war. One may start for war after declaring it, after making peace, after making alliances; and incidentally also.


4) Asana. To remain quiet or doing nothing which is also of four kinds as yana.


5) Dvaidha. To get in between the contending parties to support with words only and to remain without joining either side is dvaidha. He who takes up the stand should, on meeting both the parties, serve the stronger side. But if he finds that both the parties are making peace, and not in need of his aid, he should approach their -enemy, who is more powerful than they, or he should fight by himself.


6) Asraya. When one is attacked by a stronger enemy and if one finds no means to retaliate, one should depend upon another person, who is noble, truthful and powerful. To put on a supplicant's look, to understand the moods of that person whose help is sought and to be humble to him--these are the characteristics and traits of the dependent. (Agni Purana, Chapter 240.


SADHU. An incarnation of Siva. The Brahmanda Purana contains the following story about it.


When the Himalaya and .Mainaka mountains once began a very intense tap-s, the Devas and f'earino great ruin to the world in case the mountains got salvation, sought Siva's protection and prayed for a solution for the problem. So Siva, in the guise of a brahmin named Sadhu, went to the mountains, spoke to them condemning Siva and thus made them retract from their devotion to Siva.


SADHYA. Mother of the Sadhyas. {See under Sadhyas).




1. General. A Ganadevata. These Devatas often used to play an important role in Puranic movements and incidents. The Sadhyas were born from the seed Viral Purusa. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 35). But accord ing to Visnu Purana (Part 1, Chapter 35) the Sadhya; were the grand-children of Daksa-praj apati. Of the sixty daughters of the Prajapati by his wife Asikni, ten were married by Dharmadeva; The Visvadevas were the sons of Dharmadeva by his wife Visva and the Sadhya! were his sons by Sadhya.


2. Other information.


(i) The Sadhyas fought with Garuda, who went to Devaloka for Amrta and got defeated. (Adi Parva, Chapter

32, Verse 16 ).


(ii) The Sadhyas feared Visvamitra. (Anus asana Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 39) .


(iii) Sadhyaganas participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 70).


(iv) Sadhyas took their place in planes above the palace of Drupada to witness Draupadi's wedding. (Adi Parva Chapter 186, Verse 6).


(v) They were present at the Devayajfia conducted at Naimisa forest. (Adi Parva, Chapter 195, Verse 3) .


(vi) They were present with various Kinds of arrows at the battle between Sri Ki'sna and Arjuna on the occasion of the burning of the Khandava forest. (Adi Parva, Chapter 22G Verse 38 ).


(vii) They live in Indra's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 22).


(viii) They go to the court of Brahma also and worship him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 44 ).


(ix) In the battle between Subrahmanya and Tarakasura they fought on the side of the former. (Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Verse 71) .


(x) Once they made a prayer to Dattatreya muni. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 3)


(xi) On the occasion of the battle between Karna and Arjuna at Kuruksetra the Sadhyas wished success for the flatter. (,~a1ya Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 29).


(xii) They served as store-keepers at the yajfia performed by king Marutta. (Sand Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 22).


(xiii) They remain on Mount Mufijavan worshipping 8iva. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 1).


SADYASKA. A yajfia ordained for Rajarsis-. It could be performed in one day. (Vana Parva, Chapter 204, Verse 16) .


SAGAIZA. A king of the solar dynasty, Sagara ruled Ayodhya.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Brahma thus: BrahmdKaSyapa-Vivasvdn-Vaivasvata Manu-Iksvaku - VikuksiSas ada-Purafijaya-Kakutstha-Anenas-Prthulasva-Prasenajit - Yuvanasva - Mandhata - Purukutsa - TrasadasyuAnaranya-Aryasva-Vasumanas- Sudhanva - TraiyarunaSatyavrata (Trisanku)-Hariscandra-Rohitasva-HaritaCuficu-S udeva-Bharuka-Ba huka-Sagara.


2) Birth. Bahuka, father of Sagara, was known as Subahu also. Sagara was Bahuka's son by his wife, Yadavi. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 16). Though Sagara was a prince he was born at the asrama of Aurva, and there was a reason for it.


Subahu and Yadavf did not have a child for long. But, as a.result of many yajfias conducted for the gift of a child, Yadavi conceived. While she was in the seventh month of her pregnancy her co-wife administered poison to her with the result that she did not further advance in pregnancy and deliver in due time. Thus she continued as a pregnant woman for seven years. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 16). The King became an old man. During this period Talajangha, king of ITehaya, attacked Ayodhya with his army, and Subahu, despite his old age, fought back. But the fighting grew fiercer. Subahu found that he would not be able to defeat Talajangha and so he escaped into the forest with his


wife Yadavi. They took shelter in the asrama of sage Aurva. Subahu expired there due to old age and Yadavi got ready to follow him in his pyre. The Muni prevented her from doing so by pointing out to her that the child in her womb was a very fortunate one and would become emp.~ror of the seven islands when he grew up to manhood. Yadavi delivered shortly. As the poison (gara) given to her by the co-wife had immobilised her pregnancy for so long Aurva named her child Sagara. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapters 16 and 17) .


3) To Ayodlya. Sage Aurva conducted the Upanayana ceremony ofthe boy and taught him the Vedas ete. Once Yadavi wept to hear the boy address the muni `father', and when the son asked her the reason for it she told him that the muni was not his father, who was really greater than the muni. She also told him their previous history, and Sagara decided to return to Ayodhya somehow.


The people of Ayodhya lived scattered here and there in fear of Talajangha, and disgusted with such an existence, they came together and took refuge with Vasistba, who told them that king Subahu had expired in Aurvasrama, but that his son Sagara was there in the asrama. He further advised them to bring Sagara back and reconquer Ayodhya. Yadavi wept at the sight of the people from Ayodhya and they insisted upon Sagara's return to the state as their king. They waited in the asrama for five days for SagpLra. Then Sagara and his mother, with the blessings of the Sage, returned to Ayodhya along with the people. Sagara fought Talajangha, reconquered Ayodhya and crowned himself as king. (Brahmar~da Purana, Chapters 20 to 23 ). 4) Family life. Sagara had two wives cal1ed Sumati alias Vaidarbhi and Kesini alias 8aibya. Sumati was the daughter of Garuda.


As he had no issues for long, Sagara, with his wives, went to Himalayas and began doing tapas at Bhrguprasravana mountain. After hundred years Bhrgu appeared and blessed Sagara that one of his wives would give birth to 60,000 sons and the other to one, who would add to the glory of the dynasty. Sumati chose 60,000 sons and Kesini the one son.


The king and the queens returned to Ayodhya and in due course Sumati delivered the son called Asamafijasa who was to bring prosperity to the dynasty. Sumati gave birth to a lump of flesh, which developed into 60,000 children. They were put in pots of ghee and they grew up to become young persons. (Va1miki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 33) .


Some Puranas contain stories somewhat different from the above about the birth of the 60,000 children. e.g. in the 9th Skandha of Devi Bhagavata, the story is related as follows ; "Kesini delivered the son Asamanjasa and Sumati did not deliver at all. So she did tapas for Siva for children and because of his blessing she conceived. Sumati delivered only hundred years after continuing to be pregnant, and even that was only a piece of flesh; and she began weeping addressing diva, who appeared before her and cut the mass of flesh into 60,000 parts. Each piece of flesh transformed itse1f into a very powerful and effulgent man.




5) Loss of Children. Kapila turned into ashes the 60,000 sons of Sagara. Bhagiratha revived them. (For details see under Bhagiratha).


6) Triumphal tour. Sagara ruled the kingdom well and while living happily thus with his sons, he set out on a triumphal tour. After conquering the northern regions he moved towards the south, his object being Mahismad, Kingdom of the Hehayas. He destroyed the Hehayas completely in battle. (Brahmanda Purina, Chapters 89 and 90).


7) Evening of life. Sagara ruled the kingdom for 30.0 years. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 91 ). His son, Asamanjasa was a tormentor of his subjects. In the evening of his life, Sagara transmitted the throne to his grandson Arhsuman (son of Asamanjasa). The rest of his life he spent in Aurvasrama with his wife engaged in meditation.


8) Other information.


(i) Sagara worships Yama in his court, (Sablia Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 19) .


(ii) Sagara ousted Asamafijasa from the palace, because he led an immoral life. (Vana Parva, Chapter 107, Verse 89).


(iii) Sagara went to heaven after handing over the throne to Arirsuman. (Vana Parva, Chapter 107, Verse 64) .


(iv) Sagara had' gone, in the plane of Indra to Viratanagara to witness the fight between Arjuna and Kr pa. (Virata Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 10).


(v) Sri Krsna once described the yajfia and dana of Sagara. (~inti Parva, Chapter 29 Verse 130) .


(vi) Sagara never ate flesh in his life. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 66).


(vii) He is considered to be one of the kings to be remembered both at dawn and dusk. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 49) .


SAGARA. Ocean. Samudra (ocean) got the name Sagara as it was formed later at the place where the 60,000 sons of King Sagara dug the earth in the course of their quest for the missing yajfiic horse. (See under Sagara).


SAGARAKA. A Ksatriya king who lived at the place called Sagara. He participated in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 18) .


SAGARODAKA. Holy water of the sea. He who bathes in it will go to heaven in an aerial chariot. (Anusasana zParva, Chapter 25, Verse 9) .


SAGNI (S). Pitrs, who are sons of Brahma. Agnisvittas, Barhisadas, Anagnis and Sagnis are the Pitrs born from Brahma. (Agni Purina, Chapter 20) .


SAHA I. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed in the great war by Bhimasena. (Karna Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 8) .


SAHA II. A very powerful Agni. (Vana Parva, Chapter 222) .


SAHA. A Celestial woman. She also was with the apsara women who were present at Indraloka to receive Arjuna. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 30).


SAHABHOJA. A bird in the line of the offsprings of Garuda. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12).


SAHADEVA I. The fifth among the Pandavas. Facts about Sahadeva are related under the headings,  Dharmaputra, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Pandavas.




Only those facts, which have not been so related are given hereunder.)


1) A brief biographical sketch. Sahadeva was the son of Pandu by his wife Midri. Two sons, Nakula and Sahadeva were born to Madri by the Asvinidevas. Along with Yudhisthira, Bhima and Arjuna, sons of Kunti, Nakula and Sahadeva spent their childhood in the company of Sages at Satasrnga mountain. Pandu died and Madri followed him in the funeral pyre. After that the Pandavas lived at Hastinapura under the care of Kunti. When the `lac-palace' was burnt down, they took themselves to the forest and ruled the kingdom with Indraprastha as capital. The Pandavas, who were defeated in the game of dice went again into the forest. Their going into the forest has been described as follows by Vidura.


Yudhisthira, covering his face with cloth and Bhima stretching out his powerful hands moved into the forest. Arjuna followed them throwing up sand particles. Sahadeva went rubbing his face with earth, Nakula, the most handsome of men, followed them, his body smeared with dust. Paficali, her face concealed in hair and weeping went behind the king. Sage Dhaumya with Kusa grass in his hands, accompanied them chanting Vedic hymns. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 80 ).


Dhrtarastra asked Vidura why the P~-,ndavas assumed these different poses and attitudes and Vidura answered him thus : Yudhisthira covered 'his face to show that he would not retaliate in anger though he had lost the kingdom due to cheating. Bhima stretched out his hands to show that he was unrivalled in manual power. Arjuna threw out sand to say that he would shoot his arrows into the enemy camp like particles of sand. Sahadeva rubbed earth on his face as he did not want anybody to distinguish his face. Nakula, the most handsome of men, smeared his face with dust so that, on the way, women should not desire him.


When the Pandavas returned after twelve years' stay in exile in the forest and one year's stay incognito Duryodhana refused to allot them even a single house, and war for eighteen days between the Kauravas and the Pandavas was fought in the field of Kuruksetra. The Kauravas were wiped out. Yudhisthira became king and performed the Rajasuyayajfia after which the Mr. rdavas went out on the great journey and gave up their lives.


2) Other information about Sahadeaa.


(1) He was dedicated to the service of e1ders. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 114).


(2) He was exceptionally handsome. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 111 ).


(3) In the fight that followed Arjuna's endeavour to capture king Drupada to be presented as Gurudaksina (tuition fee to Drona, who trained the Pandavas in the use of arms) Nakuia and Sahadeva protected the wheels of Arjuna's chariot. (Adi Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 27).


(4) A son calld Srutasena (Srutakarman) was born to him of Paficali. (Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 80).


(5) He had also married the daughter of King Dyutiman off Madra called Vijaya and the couple had a son called Suhotra. (Adi Parva, Chaptcr 95, Verse 80).


(6) He defeated Virata, the Matsya king in battle. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 2).


(7) He conquered the southern kingdoms on the orders of Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 30) .


(8) He defeated Dantavaktra in battle. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 59) .


(9) He defeated Nila, king of Mahismati, in a fierce battle and collected taxes from him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 59).


(10) He deputed Ghatotkaca to collect taxes from Vibhisana, king of Lanka. Vibhisana sent Ghatotkaca back with a lot of gold and gems. Vibhisana also deputed 88,000 Raksasas to carry the gold etc. (Sabha


Parva, Southern text, Chapter 31).


(11) He was Yudhisthira's minister during the Rajasuya yajna. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 40) .


( 12) After the yajfia was over, he conducted Drona and Asvatthama back to their palaces. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 48) .


(13) He took the vow that he would kill Sakuni. (Sabha Parva; Chapter 77, Verse 9) .


(14) In the battle that followed the abduction of Draupadi by Jayadratha, the chariot of Yudhisthira went out of action and he, therefore, rode in the chariot of Sahadeva. (Vana Parva, Chapter 271, Verse 15) .


(15) During his life-incognito he thought of assuming the name Tantripala. (Virata Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 9) .


(16) He went to king Virata disguised as VaiSya called Aristanemi and got himself appointed as head of the king's .dairy. (Virata Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 5 ). (17) He, in the guise of a dairy-man, used to give milk, butter-milk etc. to the Pandavas. (Virata Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 9) .


(18) Sanjaya emphasized the fact that Sahadeva was a heroic warrior to Dhrtarastra. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 31).


(19) When Yudhisthira, during the great war, divested himself of his armour and started towards the Kaurava army, Sahadeva questioned the action. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 19) .


(20) On the first day of the battle he fought a duel with Durmukha. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 25).


(21) He defeated Vikarna, Salya and others in the, battle. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 83).


(22) He annihilated the cavalry of the Kauravas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 89, Verse 32).


(23) He ran away from the battle-field. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 105, Verse 16) .


(24) He fought a duel with Krpacarya. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 12).


(25) He fought with Sakuni. (Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 22 ).


(26) He fought again with Durmukha. (Drona Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 13 ).


(27) He killed Nirmitra, the Trigarta prince. (Drona Parva, Chapter 107, Verse 25).


(28) In the fight with Karna he got defeated. (Drona Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 15).


(29) He defeated Dussasana in battle. (Drona Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 2).


(30) When Satyaki was about to kill Dhrstadyumna, he pacified the former by a tactful speech. (Drona Parva, Chapter 198, Verse 53 ).


(31) He defeated Paundrar5ja. (Karna Parva, Chapter 22, Verse 14).


(32) He defeated Dus95sana again. (Karna Parva, Chapter 23).


(33) He got wounded in the fighting with Duryodhana. (Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 7) .


(34) He defeated Uluka. (Karna Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 43 ).


(35) He killed Salya's son. (Salya Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 43) .


(36) He killed Uluka, son of Sakuni. (Salya Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 32 )..


(37) He killed Sakunr. (Salya Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 46).


(38) After the war, Yudhisthira allotted Durmukha's palace to Sahadeva. (anti Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 12).


(39) In the matter of dharmarthakamas (righteousness, material wealth and enjoyment of love life) he attached more importance to artha (material resources). (anti Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 22) .


(40) During the Rajasuya the duty of managing domesstic affairs was entrusted to him by Vyasa and Yudhisthira. (A,,vamedha Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 20).


(41) After the great war he visited and saluted Kunti, who lived in the forest then. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 8).


(42) In the great journey (Mahaprasthana) he walked in front of Pancali and behind Nakula. (Mahaprasthanika Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 31).


(43) Synonyms used in Mahabharata for Sahadeva: Asvineya, Asvinisuta, Bharatasardula, Bharatasattama, Kauravya, Kurunandana, Madriputra. Nladreya, Nakulanuja, Pandava, Pandunandana, Tantripala, Yama, Yamaputra.


SAHADEVA II. A maharsi, who lived in the court of Indra. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 16). -


SAHADEVA Ill. A King in ancient India. He lived in the court of Yama worshipping the latter. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 17) .


SAHADEVA IV. A son of Jarasandha about whom the following facts are collected from the Mahabharata.


( 1) Asti and Prapti, two wives, of Karnsa were the sisters of this Sahadeva. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 31) .


(2) He was present at the wedding of Draupadi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 8) .


(3) After the. death of Jarasandha he took refuge with Sri Krsna, who crowned him King of, Mathurapuri. (M.B. Southern text, Sabha Parva, Chapter 24).


(4) In the great war he came to the help of Yudhisthira with one aksauhini (division of army). (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19' Verse 8) .


(5) He was one of the seven Maharathins of the Pandava army. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 187, Verse 11 ).


(6) He was killed in the great war by Drona. (Drona Parva, Chapter 225, Verse 45) .


SAHADEVA V. A Raksasa, son of Dhumraksa and father of Krs56va. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


SAHADEVA VI. A King of the Solar dynasty, son of Dharmandhana (or Dharmanandana) and father of Jayatsena. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


SAHADEVA VII. A King of the Solar dynasty, son of Sudasa and father of Somaka. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9.


SAHAJA. A Cedi King. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 16).


SAHAJANYA. An apsara woman. The following information about her occurs in the Mahabharata.


(1) She is one of the six noble celestial girls, the other five being Urvasi, Purvacitti, Menaka, Ghrtaci and Vigvaci. (Adi Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 69).


(2) She was present at the Birthday Celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 64).


(3) She is an actress in Kubera's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 11) .


(4) Sahajanya was among the celestial women who danced when Arjuna came to Devaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 30) .


SAHAJIT. A King of the Bharata dynasty. He was one of the sons of Mahabhoja. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9.


SAHASRABAHU. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (8alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 59).


SAHASRACITYA. Grandfather of King Satayupa. Sahasracitya was King of Kekaya. A very righteous person, he abdicated the throne in favour of his elder brother's son and performed tapas in the forest. He gave up his body for a brahmin and attained heaven. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 20; Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 6) .


SAHASRAJIT. A King of the Bharata dynasty, Sahasrajit'was a son of Mah5bhoja. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) . He gave up his life for brahmins and attained heaven. (anti Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 31).


SAHASRAJYOTI. One of the three sons of King Samrat. He had a million sons. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 46).


SAHASRAKA. A holy place of pilgrimage. This place is situated in Kuruksetra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 158, that those who bathe in this place will get the merits of giving thousand cows as gifts.




1) General. A Daitya King, who ruled Trilokapuri, a country thousands of miles away from India. Trilokapuri was an island at the centre of the seas. He was a terror to the whole world and possessed a thousand heads and two thousand hands.


2) Secured boon. This Ravana once went to Satyaloka and performed the most intense tapas for many years. Yet, Brahma did not appear and then he began cutting his heads one after the other and offering them in the fire. Nine hundred and ninetynine of his heads were cut thus. When he was about to cut the last head also, Brahma, fearing the end of the world, appeared and granted him the following three boons.


(i) You will not die at the hands of anyone, but a woman.


(ii) Brahmastra, which would annihilate, will be at your disposal.


(iii) You will also possess an aerial chariot for travels as you please,


Sahasramukha, who returned to his country with the boons became emperor of all Daityas and then conquered heaven, Patala, Kailasa, Vaikuntha and the eight regions of the world.


He then defeated Patalaravana and wedded his only daughter Indumukhi. He got as a present a weapon called Kathorakuthara. He propagated in the world the customs and practices of heaven with the resu1t that all the customs of the Devas were derogated. Good people felt harassed. In the rise of unrighteousness righteousness became helpless.


3) Curse. Once on his way to his father-in-law's house Sahasramukharavana raped a Vidyadhara woman, Cancalaksi, who was performing tapas of Laksmidevi and Cancalaksi cursed him that Laksmidevi would kill him.


4) Son. Vajrabahu was Sahasramukha's son. He secured from Siva Pasupatastra and an armour impenetrable by anyone. Vajrabahu captured Indra and Subrahmanya killed the former.


5) Death. Sahasramukha had an army-chief named Bana and both of them together did incalculable harm to the three worlds. Sri Rama was King of Ayodhya at the time, and Devas and sages complained to him about Sahasramukha and as soon as the complainants left Ayodhya, Sugriva and Vibhisana came there. They told Rama about the abduction by Sahasramukha's second son, Candragupta of Sugriva's daughter and Vibhisana's daughter-in-law. At once Sri Rama, along with Laksmana, Sugriva, Vibhisana, Hanuman and a great army of monkeys reached Sahasramukha's capital city. Sri Rama sent word to him through Hanirman that Sugriva's daughter and Vibhisana's daughter-in-law should be returned, Indra should be released and that pardon should be begged for, for his errors. Angered at this message Sahasramukha deputed Bana to fight Sri Rama. Bana was killed in battle. (See under Bana IV). Then ensued a fierce battle between Rama and Sahasramukha, the latter aided by Candragupta. Angada was about to be overpowered by Candragupta, and then the following celestial voice was heard : "Candragupta will not die as long as his wife Padmavati is reciting Brahmamantra imparted by Brahma." Then Vibhisana sent Hanuman to the women's quarters and as a result of the latter using a `Kutatantrayantra' great confusion and quarrels broke out among the women-folk, and utilising the opportunity Angada killed Candragupta.


Sahasramukha fought Sri Rama single-handed. All tactics of Rama proved to be of no use. Then he remembered Brahma's boon to Sahasramukha and Cancalaksi's curse upon him. Immediately Sri Rama brow ht down Sita from Ayodhya and the latter shot the S~aktika arrow at the throat of Sahasramukha and he was killed. (Kamba Ramayana, Uttarakanda),


SAHASRANAMA (N). (Sahasra = thousand; nama = name).


Hymns containing the thousand names of Visnu, Siva and Devi are generally known as Sahasranama. The recitation of these names is considered to be annihilative of all sins. Sahasranama of Visnu is more popular.


SAHASRANIKA. A King of the lunar dynasty. (For details see under Udayana).




1) General. A maharsi, who was transformed into a serpent by the curse of Khagama, another maharsi. But a talk with King Ruru restored him to his former self. (For details see under Ruru, para 4).


2) Other information. Ruru desired to get some information about serpent yajna from Sahasrapat, who answered the former that he would hear the story of Astika from brahmins and then disappeared. (Adi Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 3)


SAHASRAVAK (SADAHSUVAK). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 100).


SAHISNU. One of the three sons of Pulaha Prajapati by his wife Ksama, the other two being Kardama and Urvariyan. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 10).


SAHODHA. A child conceived by a girl while she is unmarried but delivered after she is married. (See under Pu tra )


SAHYA. A mountain on the plain of Lavanasamudra (salt sea). Monkeys, in the course of their search for Sita crossed this mountain, which is one of the saptakulaparvatas (seven great mountains) in India. Nahusa once picnicked on this mountain along with apsara women. (Udyoga Parva, Chapters 11 and 12; Vana Parva, Chapter 282; Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9).


SAIBYA I. An ancient King of India. He was the father of Srnjaya and a close friend of Sage Narada and Sage Parvata. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 7).


SAIBYA II. King of the Sibi land. Mahabharata gives the following pieces of information about him :-


(i) Govasa, King of Sibi land was the father-in-law of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 76).


(ii) Saibya adorned Yudhi sthira's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 25 ).


(iii) gaibya and the King of Kas i had come to UpapIavya city with an "Aksauhini" (division of the army) to attend the marriage of Abhimanyu. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 16).


(iv) Duryodhana admitted that Saibya was the greatest archer in the army of the Pandavas. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 5 ).


(v) During the Bharata Yuddha, Saibya and the King of Kasi were standing to protect Dhrstadyumna's "Krauncavyuha". (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 56) .


(vi) This Saibya was the grandson of Usinara. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 64).


SAIBYA III. Name of a horse tied to Sri Krsna's chariot. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 20, 22, and 283).


SAIBYA IV. A Ksatriya hero born in the Vrsni family. In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 34, we read that he learnt Dhanurveda (science of archery) from Arjura and shone in Yudhisthira's assembly.


SAIBYA V. A Ksatriya King who was defeated by Sri Krsna. There is a reference to this Saibya in Mahabharata, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38


SAIBYA VI. A warrior who fought against the Pandavas on the side of Kauravas. He fought from the "Sarvatobhadravyuha" formed by Bhisma. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 2).


SAIBYA VII. King of Sauvira land. When ,jarasandha invaded Gomanta city, Saibya was put in charge of


the defence of the western gate of that city. (Bhagavata,, 10th Skandha ). His daughter Ra tnd. married Akrura. (Matsya Purana, Chapter 45, Verse 28).


DAIBYA I. One of the wives of King Saga:a. Sagara had two wives named Sumati and Ke'sini. In Devi Bhagavata, 9th Skandha we see that Sumati had another name, "Vaidarbhi" and Kesini had another name, "Saibya". Prince Asamanjasa was the son of Saibya.


SAIBYA II. Queen of Dyumatsena, the King of Salva. This Saibya was the mother of Satyavan. (See under Satyavan).


SAIBYA III. One of the wives of Sri Krsna. When her husband Sri Krsna renounced his body, this Saibya jumped into the fire and was burnt to death. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 73).


SAIKHAVATYA. An ancient sage. Amba who was forsaken by the King of Salva went and mourned over her misfortune in Saikhavatya's asrama. This sage consoled her. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 175, Verse 38).


SAILABHA. A Sanatana Visvadeva. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 32).


SAILAKAMPI. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 63).


SAILALAYA. A King of ancient time. He was the grandfather of Bhagadatta. After performing tapas in the tapovana at Kuruksetra he attained Indraloka. (M.B. A.ramavasika Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 10) .


SAILODA. A river flowing between the two mountains, Meru and Mandara. Arjuna conquered and subdued the low class people who inhabited the valley of this river. A low-class people known as "Khasas" used to live on the banks of this river under the shade of the dense growth of bamboo trees. These low class people had brought presents of gold for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya_. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 52. Verse 2).


SAILUSA. A Gandharva. A class of Gandharvas is also known as "$ailusas". Some references found in the Puranas concerning gailusas are given below :-


(i) Sri Rama sent Bharata and completely destroyed the class of Gandharvas called gailusas who were causing trouble on the shore of the eastern ocean. (Kamba Ramayana, Uttara Kanda).


(ii) During the reign of Sri )lama, as ordered by him, Bharata killed with his shower of arrows, the wicked Gandharva named Sailusa and his three crores of sons who lived on the banks of the river Sindhu. (Agni Purana, Chapter l I),


(iii) Ravana's brother, Vibhisana had married Sarama the daughter of a Sailusa Gandharva. (Uttara Ramayana).


(iv). The Gandharva named Sailusa serves Kubera and remains in Kubera's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 26).


SAIIVIHIKEYA (S). The Asuras (Demons) who were the sons of Sirhhika. Two sons named Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu and a daughter named Simhika were born to Prajapati Kasyapa by his wife Diti. Sirhhika was given in marriage to Vipracitti. The sons of this couple were known by the name Saimhikeyas. Rahu was the first of the Sairiihikeyas. (Agni Puran.a. Chapter 19 ). For further details see under Rahu.


SAINDHAVA I. A disciple of the hermit Saunaka. (See under Guruparamparaj.


SAINDHAVA II. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 25, that the inhabitants of the kingdom of Sindhu were called Saindhavas.


SAINDHAVARANYA. An ancient holy place of pilgrimage in Bharata. This holy place is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 89, Verse 15 ).


SAINDHAVAYANA. One of Visvamitra's sons, who were expounders of Vedas. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 51).


SAINYANIRYANA PARVA. A sub-section of Udyoga Parva in Mahabharata. This subsection comprises Chapters 151 to 159 of Udyoga Parva.


SAIRANDHRI. The pseudonym assumed by Pancali, when the Pandavas lived incognito in the palace of King Virata. (See under Pancali).


SAIRISAKA. A region in India, celebrated in the Puranas. Nakula, in the course of his triumphal march in the western regions, conquered this land also. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 6) .


SAISAVA. A land famous in the Puranas. The Ksatriya Kings of this country brought presents for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 18).


SAiSIRAYANA. A Maharsi. The famous Kalayavana was his son, born to him by his wife Gopali. Saig irayana was the priest of King Trigarta. Once the king ordered the sage to have sexual union with his wife Vrkadevi to test his virility. (Harivarhsa, 1; 35; 12) .


SAISIREYA. An acarya who was the disciple of Sakalya. "Sail iriya Sarilhita", a work produced by him is considered to be an authoritative treatise on the Sakalyah branch of knowledge.


JAISIRINDHRA. A country in ancient India. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma  Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 57.


JAIVACAPA. Siva's bow. It was made by Visvakarma. He made a Vaisnavacapa and a Saivacapa for the purpose of a battle which was fought once between Visnu and Siva. (See the 7th sub para, 7th para under the word Visnu).


Long ago when Siva set out to break up Daksayaga, he was armed with this bow. After defeating the enemy and breaking up the yaga, Siva cooled down and presented the bow to his devotee, the king of Videha. The king took the bow to his palace, kept it in his armoury and used to offer due worship to it. His descendants also continued to worship it. (Kamba Ramayan*a, Bala Kanda).


SAIVALA. A town in India. There is a reference to it in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 18.


SAKA. A particular sect of people or caste. The following information about the Sakas is gathered from the Mahabharata.


(i) Sakas were. born from the breastof Nandini, Vasistha's cow. (Adi Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 36).


(ii) Bhimasena, during his triumphal tour of the eastern regions subjugated the Sakas. (Sabha Parva. Chapter 32, Verse 14) .


(iii) Nakula conquered them. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 14) .


(iv) King of the Sakas participated in Yudhisthira's RaJasuya. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 32) .


(v) The Pandavas invited them to take part in the great war. (IJdyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15).


(vi) They did along with Sudaksina,kingof Kamboja, service in Duryodhana's army. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 21) .


(vii) Sri Krsna once conquered them. (Drona Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 45).


(viii) Karna once defeated them and conquered their country. (Karna Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 18) .


(ix) Sakas who were originally Ksatriyas were demoted as Sudras as they incurred the displeasure and anger of brahmins. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 21 ). (x) As the Sakas and the Yavanas had helped the Haihaya kings Parasurama, Sagara and Bharata defeated them in war and drove them off from the country. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


SAKA. A tree in the Saka island. The island got the name from this tree. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 23 ).


SAKADVIPA. One of the Saptadvipas (seven islands). Sanjaya once gave Dhrtarastra a description of this island. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11 ). Jambadvipa, Plaksadvipa, Salmalidvipa, Kusadvipa, Krauncadv~pa, Sakadvipa and Puskaradvipa are the Saptadvipas. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha).


SAKALA. A-city made famous in the Puranas. Once it was the capital of the Madra kingdom. (Sabha Parva Chapter 32, Verse 14) , Modern scholars opine that the modern Siyalkot was the old 8akala.


SAKALADVIPA. An ancient kingdom referred to in the Puranas. Prativindhya, king of this kingdom was defeated by Arjuna. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 14).


SAKALYA. A maharsi in the lineage of gurus (preceptors). (See under Guruparampara). He systematised the Vedasarilhitas. It was Badarayanakrsna, who became later famous as Vedavyasa, who first arranged in systematic order the Vedas arilhitas. Prominent scholars hold the view that Vyasa lived between 13001500 B.C. The sadlhita text now popular systematised by Sakalya is called Sakalya sakha (Sakalya branch).


Sakalya is reported to have saved Kasyapa maharsi once. When king Pariksit was cursed that he would die by Taksaka's poison Kasyapa started for his court to save the king from the calamity. But, Taksaka met him on the way and sent him back laden with presents of gems, ornaments etc. People derided Kasyapa, who on account of covetousness, retreated from the duty of saving the king's life and non-cooperated with him in every way. In this contingency Kasyapa sought the help of Sakalya, who advised the former to bathe in the sacred tirthas in the rivers Godavari and Sarasvati. Kasyapa did so and regained his old reputation.


SAKAMBHARI A sacred place dear to Devi. He, who fasts for three nights here, will derive the same benefits as of eating lettuce (saka) for twelve years. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 13) .


SAKATA. An asura. (See under Krsna, Para 9, Sub Para 2).


SAKATALA. An intelligent minister. under Vararuci ).


SAKATAYANA. A famous grammarian. He lived before Yaska and Panini. He is considered to be the author of the well-known text on grammar called `Unndisutrapatha'. He is referred to as the foremost among the grammarians in the astadhyayi of Panini. (Paninisutra, 1, 4, 86 and 87).


SAKAVAKTRA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Mahabharata, galya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 78 ).


SAKAYANYA. A maharsi. (For details see under. Brhadratha).


SAKHA. According to one view gaakha was the younger brother of Subrahmanya while there are others who maintain that he was Subrahmanya's son. In verse 37, Chapter 44 of Salya Parva it is-stated that Sakha was the son of the Vasu Anala and the younger brother of Subrahmanya and that he had two brothers called Vais akha and Naigameya. It is stated in Chapter 15, part 1 of Visnu Purana as follows:- "Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Agni, Pratyusa and Prabhasa are the astavasus. Vaitanda, Srama, Santa, and Dhvani were sons of Apa. Kd1a, who annihilates the entire world is the son of Dhruva and Varccas is Soma's son. Varccas gives people the vital glow. Dravina, Hutahavyavaha, Sisvara, Prana and Varuna were the sons of Dharma by Manohard.. Anila's wife was Siva, and two sons, Manojava and Avijhatagati were born to the couple. Kumara, son of Agniwas born in Sarastamba and he had three brothers called Sakha, Visakha and Naigameya."


The following story about the birth of 8akha is from Tarafiga 6, Lavanakalambaka of Kathasaritsagara: Defeated in battle by Tarakasura, Indra decided to have no more fight with him and retired to Mount Mahameru. Devas and maharsis sought asylum with Subrahmanya, who gave them protection. Indra came to know of it and fought with Subrahmanya feeling that the latter had captured his kingdom. Two sons, S`akha and Visakha were born from the face of Subrahmanya wounded by the Vajrayudha of Indra.


SAKRA. A synonym of Indra. (See under Indra.)


SAKRADEVA. A prince of Kalinga, who fought on the Kaurava side in the great. war and got killed by Bhima. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 24) .


SAKRAKUMARIKA. A sacred place from very olden days. Those who bathe there will attain heaven. (Vana

h Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 81).


SAKRAVAPT. A naga, which lived in a forest near Girivraja. The forest was near the asrarna of Gautama. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 9) .


SAKRAVART TA. A holy place. He who worships Devatas and the souls of his ancestors 'here will attain the holy world. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse ~29).


SAKRDGRAHA. A rural area in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 66).


DAKTA. Son of Manasvi, the great-grandson of emperor Puru. Sauviri was his mother. He had two brothers called Samhanana and Vagmi, both of them great in warfare. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94; Verse 7) .




(1) General. Son of Vasistha by Arundhati. He was the first-born among the hundred sons of Vasistha. Kalmasapada, the Raksasa captured and ate $akti and his pregnant wife. Adriyanti spent her days in great grief with Vasistha. Parasaramuni, father of Vyasa, was Adrsyanti's son. (For details see under (Adr9yanti ).


2) Other information


(i) It was Siva, who incarnated himself as the son of Vasistha.


(ii) Gopayana, Bharadvaja, Apastamba and Arnodara


belong to the line of disciples of Sakti. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 6) .


SAKTI II. The weapon of Subrahmanya is called Sakti, and it was made by Vi6vakarman. Visvakarman once grilled Surya (sun) on his machine and reduced his glow. The glow thus released by Visvakarman fell on the earth and Visvakarman made with that glow the cakra (disc) of Visnu, the trisula (trident) of Siva the Puspaka, aerial chariot of Kubera and the Sakti of Subrahmanya. (Visnu Purana, Part 3, Chapter 2 ).


SAKTI III. The sound `S' means welfare or prosperity and `kti' prowess. Therefore Sakti means she, who is the embodiment of prosperity and prowess or she, who grants prosperity and prowess. The definition of `Bhagavat3' is, she who combines in herself knowledge affluence, wealth, reputation, power and the female organ. Therefore the word `Sakti' may be taken to mean Bhagavati and Parvati, and what are termed as Bhagavati, Sakti, Devi, Ambika, Parvati etc. are the manifestations of ~akti, Siva's spouse. This Sakti ekists fractionally in all Devas. When,, once upon a time the devasura war broke out the Saktis of Devas like Brahma emerged to help Candika. The vehicle, ornaments, weapon etc. of each Deva, his Devi also possessed. The Saktis (Devis) of the Devas appeared in the following manner. Brahmani, wife of Brahma, rode on the swan wearing beads around her neck and holding the water-vessel in her hands. She was followed by Vainavi Visnu's Sakti on Garuda wearing yellow clothes' a*and with the conch, disc, lotus etc. in her hands. Sarlkari Siva's Sakti rode on the ox with the crescent moon and serpents as ornaments and holding in her hands the Sala. `Kaumari', Subrahmanya's Sakti rode on Airavata with gala in hands. The Sakti called `Varahi in the form of a great boar rode carrying a corpse, Narasirirhi' Sakti took the form of narasirhha (half man and half lion). Yamya, Yama's sakti, rode on buffalo holding in her hands a long stick. Saktis called Kauberi and Varun! took their respective forms and in this manner all the Saktis came to the help of Devi. This sight pleased not only the Devas, but the mother of the universe also. Along with them incarnated on earth Sarhkara, who gives `s arh' (happiness) to the world and blessed Candika on the battle-field (Devi Bhagavata, 5th and 9th Skandhas).


SAKTIBHADRA. A dramatist in Sanskrit, who lived in the seventh century A.D. He belonged to Chengannur in the. Kerala State. He was .a disciple of Sarikaracarya. The Dramatic composition `Ascaryacudamani' is his work.


Saktibhadra, after writing his drama, once read it out to Safikaracarya. As the acarya was observing silence that day, he made no comments about the drama. Disappointed at this silence of his Guru, the dramatist burnt his work to ashes in fire. When his observance of silence was over, the Guru asked his disciple for the drama. When told about the burning of the drama the acarya repeated from memory the whole drama. The above legend is widely prevalent in Kerala.




1) General. In ancient times people in all countries used to consider Sakunas to be harbingers of good or evil things. Today also many people believe in omens. In India


Sakuna had developed as a science even in olden days. A general description about omens, good and bad, according to the Indian concept, is given below.


Mixed medicines, black grains, cotton, grass, dried cowdung, charcoal, molasses, one whose head is shaven clean or whose body is smeared with oil or who is naked; flesheater; iron, dirt, skin, hair of the head, insane person, eunuch, prison, guard; women, who are either carrying or are widows; oil cake, paddy husk, ashes, skull, bone, broken vessel etc. are evil omens. Broken, fierce or murmuring instrumental music also is a bad omen.


It is a good omen to hear the voice of beckoning (come) in front of the .traveller, but it is not good if the voice is heard from behind. It is good if the voice of. farewell (go) is heard from behind, but is bad to be heard in the front. Disapproving or.prohibitive words like "Where are you going, stop, don't go", "what is to be done by going there?" etc. will cause death. It is a bad omen to see carnivorous birds perched on the top of flag-staff etc. For vehicles to bump, weapons to break and head to get wounded by dashing against doors etc. as also for umbrella or clothes to fall down are ill omens. Praising or worshipping Visnu will do avray with the inauspicious results of ill omens. But, if evil omens are seen continuously the traveller should return home.


White flowers are good omens. Full pots are the best of omens. Flesh, fish, sound from afar, old man, solitary man, cow, goat, ox, horse, elephant, devas, burning fire, Durva grass, fresh cow-dung, prostitute, gold, silver, gems, Orris root, mustard, medicinal herbs rooted out of soil, Bengal gram, weapon, sword, stool, royal symbols, dead body being carried without lamentation, fruits, ghee, curdled milk, milk, aksata, mirror, honey, conch, sugarcane, auspicious words, music by devotees, loud thunder and lightning are auspicious omens.


2) Two kinds of omens. Omens are divided into two varieties, dipta (glowing) and santa (quiescent, mild). Glowing omens bring about auspicious results and the other inauspicious results. There are six ways or elements, which make omens diptam, i.e. vela (time), dik (region), desa (place), Karana(action),ruta(cry)and jati (kind). The power or effect of dipta increases in ascending order.


To see creatures, which move about during day time as moving about during night and vice-versa is veladipta. In the case of stars, lagnas (the dominant zodiac) and planets, those which are virulent are considered to be diptas. With regard to stars and lagnas, those which the Sun enters into are dhumita, those wherein the Sun is already present are jvalita and those from which the sun has left are Am arini. These three are diptas and the rest santas. (This is called veldadipta)> When dik (region) is dipta it is called digdipta. To see forest animals in village and village-animals in forest is digd-pta. To see good brahmins at inauspicious places is desadipta. To see some one doing work not ordained to his caste is karanadipta. To hear different horrible voices is rutadipta. To see purely flesheating animals is jatidipta. If all the characteristics of dipta do not synchronise but differ from one another it is called santa and if the characteristics of dipta and s anta are mixed up it is called mis ra.


3) Birds, animals etc. If the casa bird (wild crow) makes sound when the king gets out of the palace,he will meet with dishonour. If the sound is heard on the left side, there will be quarrel, but food will be served. If the


bird is sighted on the right side at the start. of the journey, it is a good omen. If the peacock makes different sounds, threats from thieves will result. If a deer is seen in front of the king going out on a journey, death will happen to him. To see the monkey-bear, rat, tiger, lion, cat and donkey coming in the opposite direction also will bring about death. Donkey braying in awkward notes is also inauspicious. To see kapinjala bird on the left side is an excellent omen; on the right side also it is not bad. But, behind the person, it is a bad omen. Tittiri bird also on the rear is not good.


It is always a good omen if the deer, boar and spotted deer cross the path from the left to the right side; the opposite of it is bad omen. It is a favourable omen if the ox, horse, jackal, tiger, lion, cat and donkey pass from the right to the left side. It is auspicious to see the females of the jackal etc. on the right side and the males on the left. To hear the serpent, hare, boar and wild lizard named is good, but to see them is not so. Contrary to this is the effect to see the monkey, ox etc. The result of the important and powerful omens witnessed at the start of the journey will be experienced the very same day. The omen of the intoxicated, those craving for food, children, people quarrelling and those who stand away from the limits of the road is effectless. To hear the jackal howl once, twice, thrice or four times is a good omen, but to hear it five or six times is bad, The seventh time is good.


If heard for more than the seventh time it will have no effect. Dipta omen facing the Sun will horripilate men, cause fear in the case of vehicles and is to be greatly feared. If saranga (lotus, deer, elephant, peacock, cuckoo, lion, horse etc.) is met as the frst thing in an auspicious place its good effect will last for one year, and if these are met at the inauspicious place, the result will be bad. Everybody should see saranga at some auspicious place every dawn.


If the crow is found crowing in fear on the left side of camps put up for the army of the King, the head of the army will have to face great threats. If the crow, p°rches on and pecks on the shadow, vehicle, slippers, umbrella, clothes etc. the owner of those things will die. If they are respected by the crow, honour will accrue to their owner. If the crow flies about the entrance of the house it means that he, who had left the house will return. If the crows bring and scatter red coloured and baked things in the courtyard, the owner of the house will meet with imprisonment. If the crow carries to a house something yellow in colour, gold or silver, the owner of the house will get such things. Whatever thing the crow carries away from the house, such things therein will be destroyed. If the crow vomits raw flesh in the rear of the house, the owner of it will come into possession of wealth; if soil is deposited thus, land will be acquired. If gem is deposited, extensive lands will come to the owner of the house. If the crow flies in the same direction as the one chosen by the traveller, prosperity and success will result to him and if it flies in the opposite direction not only will the traveller not achieve his object but, he will also meet with danger. If the crows come crowing against one starting on a journey, it will be hindered. To see the crow on the left side is a good omen. If it is seen on the right side, the journey will not end in success. It is very good if the crow flies in the same direction as the traveller on his left side, if on the right side the result will be of medium nature. If it flies in the opposite direction on the left side the traveller will face hindrance. If the crow flies into the house when one is about to start on the journey, it means the journey may be begun. The crow which looks at the sun with one eye and perched on one leg is surely indicative of fear for the traveller. If it is in the hollow of a tree great calamities will happen. To dream of crow with its mouth full of excretion is indicative of all-round success.


If the dog enters and barks in the house the result will be sure death of the owner of the house. But, if the dog smells on the left side of the man it is good, and if it smells on the right side, it is bad. If the dogs come against the person about to start on a journey, it will cause hindrance to him. If the dog stands blocking his path there will be threat from thieves. If it comes facing him with a piece of bone in its mouth, he will fail to achieve the object of his travel; if it comes biting a cord, the same will be the result. It is auspicious to see dog, which carries a slipper in its mouth or the mouth of which is filled with flesh. Fear will overtake him in front of whom the dog urinates and goes away. But if not a bitch and if, after urination, it goes to an auspicious place, to the shade of an auspicious tree or towards an auspicious thing, then it is a good omen. The same considerations are valid in the case of the jackal etc.


If cows cry without cause or reason, it indicates ruin to the master. If the cry is in an awkward tone, death will result. If the ox murmurs during night, it is good for the master. Ox tied to a cord also is good omen. If cows are found to treat their calves without love, it spells ruin for pregnant women. It is a good omen to see cows which have got wet and whose horns are smeared with earth. These considerations apply to buffaloes as well.


If elephants indulge in the sexual act in villages, it augurs ill to the villages. If the she-elephant delivers or gets mad in the country, i.e. not in the forest, it spells ruin to king. Ruin to the King will be the result if the elephant objects to his mounting it or runs back home or if the mad elephant is found without madness. It is an auspicious omen if the elephant places its right foot on the left foot of it and also if it holds its tusk with its trunk.


JAKUNI I. A serpent born in the Dhrtar5stra dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yajna conducted by Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 16) .


SAKUNI II. An asura who was the son of Hiranyaksa and brother of Sambara, Trimurdh5, Sanku and Arya. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19) .


SAKUNI III. A king born in the dynasty of Bharata, son of Dusyanta. Sakuni was Bhimaratha's son and father of Urudbhi. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


SAKUNI IV. A son of Iksvaku. (For details see under Visvakarma, Para 2) .


SAKUNI V. A maharsi to whom were born nine sons called Dhruva, Sali, Budha, Tara, Jyotismdn, Nirmoha, Jitakama, Dhydnakastha, and Gunddhika. The first five of them led householder's life while the last four took to Sannyasa even as children. (Padma Purana Adikhanda, Chapter 31) .


SAKUNI VI. The notorious uncle of Duryodhana. Son of King Subala of Gandhara and brother of Gandhari. Sakuni, staying at Hastinapura, pulled the strings for all the evil actions of Duryodhana. It was Sakuni's hands, which worked in the background in driving the Pandavas out of the kingdom and in denuding Pancal3 of her clothes. It was also his evil tactics, which tore asunder all chances of conciliation with the P5ndavas on their return from the forest and thus led to the great war that lasted for eighteen days. At last he was killed by Sahadeva during the war. (Salya Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 61) . A resume of the part played by Sakuni in the Bharata story is given below


(1) It was with his help that Duryodhana defeated Dharmaputra in the foul game of dice. (Adi Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 50) .


(2) He was born, due to the anger of the Devas, to destroy righteousness. (Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 111).


(3) He was Dvapara re-born. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 78).


(4) It was he who took the initiative in marrying Gandhari to Dhrtarastra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 109 Verse 15) .


(5) He was present at the wedding of Draupadi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 2)


(6) He once advised Duryodhana to annihilate the Pandavas, root and branch. (Adi Parva, Chapter 199) .


(7) He was present at the Rajasuya yajna performed by Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 66).


(8) Even after the yajna was over and everyone had departed, he remained there for some time more with Duryodhana. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 68) .


(9) It was he who first discussed with Dhrtarastra the question of inviting Dharmaputra for a game of dice so that the wealth of the Pandavas might be extracted from them. (SabhS Parva, Chapter 49).


(10) By foul play he defeated Dharmaputra in the game of dice. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 61).


(11) It was he who cooperated with Duryodhana to invite Dharmaputra again for a ga;_:e of dice fixing the bets and in defeating him in the game. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 76, Verse 9) .


(12) He once prophesied that the Pandavas would not return after their life in forest. ( Vana Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 7) .


(13) While the Pandavas were living in the Dvaita forest Sakuni suggested the need for leading a procession to them. (Vana Parva, Chapter 238, Verse 21).


(14) Sakuni and Duryodhana led the procession. In the forest he got wounded in fighting with the Gandharvas and he returned home. (Vana Parva, Chapter 241, Verse 17) .


(15) Afterwards he once advised Duryodhana to restore the kingdom to the Pandavas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 251, Verse 1) .


(16) He too participated in the great war and on the first day of the war he fought a duel with Prativindhya. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 63).


(17) In the battle that followed, Iravan killed five brothers of Sakuni. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 25) .


(18) He then fought with Yudhisthira, Nakula and Sahadeva and got defeated. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 105, Verse 8),.


(19) He fought with Sahadeva. (Drones Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 22).


(20) Then gakuni resorted to certain magical tricks. Arjuna successfully faced the tricks and gakuni ran away from the battlefield. (Drones Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 15 ).


(21) He fought with Abhimanyu. (Drones Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 5) .


(22) He fought with Nakula and Sahadeva. (Drones Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 2 i) .


(23) He fought with Satyaki. (Drones Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 11).


(24) Bhimasena killed the seven maharathis and five brothers of gakuni. (Drones Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 22 ). (25) Nakula defeated gakuni. (Drones Parva, Chapter 269, Verse 16).


(26) He attacked the Pandava army at the instance of Duryodhana. (Drones Parva, Chapter 170, Verse 66)


(27) Arjuna defeated gakuni. (Drones Parva, Chapter 161, Verse 25) .


(28) On the death of Dronacarya gakuni ran away from the battlefield in great fear. (Drones Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 9) .


(29) In the fight that followed he defeated grutasena (Karna Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 40).


(30) Sakuni was defeated in the fighting with Satyaki. (Karna Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 48).


(31) In the fight with Bhima he fell down. (Karna Parva, Chapter 77, Verse 66) .


(32) In the next fight he killed the Kalinda prince. (Karna Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 7).


(33) Cavalry of the Pandavas attacked gakuni and he got wounded. (Salya Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 41) .


(34) In the battle that followed Sahadeva killed Sakuni. (Salya Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 61).


(35) After the war was over Vyasa summoned the souls of those killed in the war to the surface of Ganges and gakuni's soul was present among them. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 9) .


(36) After his death he joined Dvapara.(Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 21).


(37) Synonyms of 8akuni used in Mahabharata: Gandharapati, Gandhararaja, Gandharardjaputra, Gandhararajasuta, Kitava, Parvatiya, Saubala, Saubalaka, Saubaleya, Subalaja and Subalaputra.


SAKUNLA maharsi, who lived in Madhu forest. Of the nine sons of Sakuni, Dhruva, Sila, Budha and Tares were house-holders and agnihotris (those who sacrificed offerings in fire). (Padma Purana, Svarga Khanda 8i) .


SAKUNIGRAHA. Vinata, in her fierce attitude or aspect is Sakunigraha. Brahmins call it Skandapasmara also. (Vanes Parva, Chapter 280, Verse 26) .


SAKUNIKA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva Chapter 46, Verse 15) .


SAKUNTA. A son of Visvamifra. He was a Vedantin. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 50) .


SAKUNTALA. Foster-daughter of sage Kanva.


1) Birth. Sakuntala was a daughter born to Vi9vamitra of the Apsara woman called Menaka. Visvamitra was engaged in intense tapas on the banks of river Malini in the Hima1ayas. Indra deputed Menaka to break tire maharsi's tapas. She enticed him away frown


his tapas and got pregnant by him. But she forsook the child on the banks of Malini and returned to Devaloka.


2) Childhood. Birds gathered round the forsaken orphan-child. While ~akuntas i.e. birds were petting the child Kanva came that way, saw the child and took it with him to the asrama. As sakuntas had petted it, the child was named Sakuntala.


3) As queen. King Dusyanta of the lunar dynasty married Sakuntala and to the couple was born the famous Bharata. This is the original story about Sakuntala's married life. All the Indian languages contain two different versions of Sakuntala's life. One version is that related in Vyasa's Bharata and the second is that contained in Kaliddsa's Sakuntala. Many scholars opine that in the matter of the Sakuntald episode Kalidasa has gone a step further and for the better, and therefore both the versions of the story are to be carefully studied by us.


(i) TTyasa's :Sakuntala. Sakuntala, now grown up as a maiden, was alone in the asrama when King Dusyanta, out in the forest on a hunting expedition, came there. In the absence of her foster-father Kanva, Sakuntala welcomed the King. They fell in love with each other and the King ma:-ried Sakuntala according to the Gandharva way of marriage and lived with her for a few days. Sakuntala became pregnant. The King returned to his palace.


Kanva returned to the asrama and he was pleased that what had been destined to take place had happened. In due course of time ~akuntala delivered a boy, who was named Sarvadamana. When the child was grown up, Kanva sent his mother along with him to Dusyanta's palace. The King did not recognise them, but: a celestial voice convinced him that the child was his own son. The King heartily welcomed his wife and son and Sakuntald lived in the palace as his honoured wife.


(ii) Kdlidasa's ~fakuntala. Ka~va brought up Sakuntala born to Visvdmitra of Menaka in his asrama and she had two companions called Anasdya and Priyarnvada. All the three grew up and became maidens.


King Dusyanta, who went out hunting in the forest followed a deer to Kanva's asrama where he saw Sakuntala watering the garden with her companions. Kanva was then away at Cakratirtha. Dusyanta, who fell in love with Sakuntala, married her according to the Gandharva rules and lived with her at the asrama for a few days. Meanwhile Sakuntala became pregnant, and emissaries from the palace came and the King returned with them. He left the a6rama after promising Sakuntala that he would soon return to her. He gave her his signet ring.


Sad over the separation from Dusyanta and immersed in thought about him, Sakuntala was sitting there in the asrama when Durvasas came there. She did not see the maharsi nor welcome him respectfully. He got angry at this and cursed her that she be forgotten by him about whom she was so intensely thinking. Sakuntala did not hear -the curse either, but her companions who heard it begged .pardon of the muni on behalf of Sakuntala and prayed for absolution from the curse. Then he said drat if Sakuntala showed the King any sign about their relationship the King would remember her. Her companions did not tell ~akuntala about the above incidents. Kanva gladly welcomed gakuntala's wedding with Dusyanta.


Days and months passed by, yet Dusyanta did not return and Kanva sent gakuntala, in whom signs of pregnancy had become prominent, to the palace of the King in the company of Gautami and garngarava. Anasuya reminded gakuntala to take particular care of the signet ring. On their way to the palace gakuntald and others bathed in the Somavaratirtha, and nobody noticed gakuntald losing from her finger the ring in the tirtha. They reached the King's palace. None noticed them. Dusyanta did not remember having even seen her. The signet ring was missing. After leaving gakuntald at the palace her companions returned to the asrama. Menaka, whose heart melted at the pathetic wailings of gakuntald led her to Kasyapa's as r ama, left her there and returned to Deva1oka.


The signet ring lost by gakuntald was swallowed by a fish, which was netted by a fisherman, who went about the streets to sell the ring extracted from inside the fish. Servants of the King took the fisherman captive. At the sight of the ring thoughts about the past dawned on the King and he remembered all about gakuntala. His days became sad pondering over separation from gakuntala.


gakuntald delivered a boy at the asrama of Kasyapa. The child was named Sarvadamana and he grew up as a courageous boy.


On his return from the devasura war, Dusyanta entered Kasyapa's asrama where he saw Sarvadamana counting the teeth of a lion he had captured. Having heard details about him from the boy the King went inside the a4rama and saw Kasyapa and ggakuntala. He returned with gakuntald and the boy to the palace with Kasyapa's blessings. It was this boy Sarvadamana, who afterwards became Bharata, the famous emperor of India.


SALA I. One of the, three pugilists deputed by Karhsa to attack Krsna at Mathura, the other two being Canura and Mustika. Krsna kicked gala to death. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha)


SALA II. A serpent born in Vasuki's dynasty and burnt to death at the serpent yajna of janamejaya.


SALA Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 5 )


SALA III. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed in the great war by Bhima. (Karna Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 3).


SALA IV. Son of Somadatta, a King born in the Kuru dynasty. He had a brother called Bhfirisravas.


(1) gala was present at the wedding of Draupadi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 15 ).


(2) He was present at Yudhisthira's Rajasuya yajna. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 8).


(3) He was a fierce warrior in Duryodhana's army. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 68) .


(4) He fought from the southern wing of the great vyuha set up by Bhisma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 57).


(5) He fought with Abhimanyu in the great war. (Drones Parva, Chapter 37) .


(6) He was killed by grutavarman in the battlefield of Kuruksetra. (Drones Parva, Chapter 108, Verse 10 ).


(7) He was one among the valiant souls brought to


the surface of the Ganges by Vyasa (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 10).


(8) After death he became one with the Visvadevas. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 16).


SALA V. Son of King Pariksit of the Iksvaku dynasty. Sus obhana, daughter of the Manduka ~ King was his mother. He had two brothers called Dala and Bala. gala did not return some horses, which he had taken as loan from Vamadeva maharsi. Angered at this the maharsi created some Raksasas, who killed Sales. (Vanes Parva, Chapter 192) .


SALABHA I. An asura, son of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Danu. He was born in his next life as Prahlada, the Balhika King. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 30) .


SALABHA II. A warrior, who fought against the Kauravas on the Pandava side. He was killed by Karna. (Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 49) .


SALABHA. Wife of Atrimaharsi. (Brahmanda Purana, 3, 8; 74-78) .


SALABH1. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (8alya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 26 ).


SALAGRAMA. A stone emblem of Visnu.


1) Origin of the name. Salagrama is the kind of ammonite, used for making the image of Visnu. Mahavisnu is known by the name Salagrarna also. This name originated from the name Salagrama, which is the name of the place from where the river Gandaki, which flows through Nepal, starts. This Salagrama is considered to be a holy place. Mahavisnu and other gods always dwell in this place. Salagrama is the name of Visnu who dwells in Salagrama. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanzas 123 to 125).


2) The importance of Salagrdma. The place Salagrama is at the origin of river Gandaki. There are various kinds of stone figures which are called Salagramas. These Salagramas themselves have orginated from portions of Visnu. That is why those stones are used for making images of Visnu. There is a story in the Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 9, stating that the derivation of these stones is from a portion of Visnu.


During the early days, Sarasvati, Laksmi and Ganges were wives of Mahavisnu. One day there arose a family quarrel among them. (See under Tu1asT). As a result of this quarrel, the Devis cursed each other. Sarasvat3 cursed Laksmi and changed her to holy basil plant (Tulasi) on the earth. When Laksmi was about to depart as Tulasi, Mahavisnu blessed her thus. "Look


Laksmi ! you will live in the world as a holy basil and when the curse has been completed you will come back to me. On that day, a river named Gandaki, will start from your body which will be in the shape of the holy basil plant. (It is also said that the river Gandaki has taken birth from the sweat of Siva and Visnu. Refer to 'the word Gandaki). On the bank of that river, I will remain as a stone image. There will be so many worms with strong tusks and teeth, which will pierce the stone into the shape of Sudarsana cakra (the weapon of Visnu) and will create numberless Salagramas. The Salagramas thus made, will be of various sizes and shapes."


3) Different classes of Sdlagrdmas. Mention is made in the Puranas about nineteen classes of Salagramas. They are given below;


(i) Lakfminarayana. With one hole, four cakras (wheels) and Vanamala (a 1ine like the garland) and of the colour of clouds.


(ii) Lakrmyanardana. This is the same as Laksminarayana, with the difference that there will be no Vanamala.


(iii) Raghwidtha. With two holes and four wheels and mark of the hoof of a calf. This also will have no Vanamala.


(iv) hdmana. With two very small wheels and the colour of the cloud. This too will have no Vanamala.


(v) gridhara. This is the same as Vamana with the exception that it will be haying Vanamala. The house in which this is placed will have a prosperity and well being of its own.


(vi) Damodara. Will be large and round with two cakras (wheels) and with no Vanamala.


(vii) Ranarama. Neither too large nor too small, but of medium size and round, with two wheels and the marks of child's kick, bow and quiver.


(viii) RajarajeSvara. Of the size of Ranarama with seven cakras, (wheels), ornamented with the mark of umbrella. This will earn for the possessor kingly wealth.


(ix) Ananta. Somewhat thick with fourteen wheels, and as black as a cloud. This Salagrama will give men the four Purusarthas (objects of life) `Dharmarthakarnamoksa' (Duty, wealth, desire and salvation).


(x) Madhus udana.- A salagrama in the shape of a wheel with two wheels, and impression of cow's hoof, having the shade of cloud, of ordinary size. This will be very bright.


(xi) Sudarsana. Sudarsana will have only one cakra (wheel).


(xii) Gadadhara. This also will be having only one wheel which will not be bright.


(xiii) Hayagriva. This will have two wheels and the face of a horse.


(xiv) Ndrasiriaha. With a very wide mouth, two wheels, and awful shape. This Salagrama will cause instant self-renunciation.


(xv) Laksminarasihha. This also will be having a wide mouth and two wheels. Besides these, there will be the Vanamala also. This will make house-holders cosy and comfortable.


(xvi) hasudeva. The Salagrama with two wheels at the region of the hole and with round shape having vividness and brightness, is Vasudeva. This wilt grant all desires.


(xvii) Pradyumna. This will have only a minute wheel. The colour will be that of clouds. But on the outer side, there will be a hole in the inside of which there will be a number of cuts or dents. This will give householders Comfort always.


(xviii) Sarikarsana. In the Sankarsana two wheels will be joined face to face. The fore-part will be thinner than the hind-part. This also will do good to house-holders.


(xix) Aniruddha. The colour of this is yellow. This will be quite round and bright. This also will give comfort to the house-holder. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 9; Agni Purina, Chapter 46) .


4). The greatness of Salagrdma. Of these, the stones with cakxas (the weapon Discus), are Bbagavan Visnu


in reality. Those who worship this stone with mark of cakra, need not have to take another birth. He who habitually worships Salagrama, should avoid arrogance and should be charitable. lie who worships Salagr5ma with the mark of wheel should not covet others' wealth and women. The cakra from Dvaraka and the stone from Gandaki will bring atonement in a moment for sins incurred in a hundred births. Even if one has incurred thousands of sins, one will get remission for all of them by drinking the water of Salagrama. Brahmaria, Ksatriya, Vaisya and 9udra will attain heaven if they become house-holders according to Vedic convention and worship Saiagrama. On no account should women worship Salagrama. If by ignorance, a woman, whether she is good-natured or of a higher status, happens to touch Salagrama, all her merits earned by good deeds will be lost and she will go to hell. Brahmin sages say that women throwing flowers as oblation on Salagrama, commit the greatest sin. If a woman touches a Salagrama, the offering of Sandal-wood will be like poisoned rice, flowers lake diamond, and meals presented to god before being eaten by the servants in the temple, will be like Kalakuta (thc poison of Vasuki), to Bhagavan Visnu. If a woman touches Salagrama, she will have to remain in hell for the duration of fourteen Indras. Even the sin of Brahrnahatya (killing a brahmin) will be remitted by drinking the water of Salagrama and he will attain heaven. Basil (tulasi) sandalwood, water, conch tinkling bell, wheel, stone, copper pot, and name of Visnu comprise `Padamrta' (the celestial nectar of words) which is said to have the power of remitting sins. The merits obtained by bathing in all the' tirthas and the performing of all the yagas (sacrifices) dwell in each drop of water of Salagrama. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter 20).


SALAKA. Wife of maharsi DL nanjaya, who belonged to Vasistha gotra. (For, details see under Dhananjaya V).


SAKARA. A naga born in Taksaka's dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 9) .


SALAKATA&KATA (SALAKATA&KA) I A synonym for Alambusa. (See under Alambusa).


SALAKATAIRKATA II. A giantess who was the daughter of Sandhya. The giant Vidyutkesa married this giantess Salakatankata. A son named Sukesa was born to them. (See under Vidyutkesa).


SALAKATARKATI. Another name -of the giantess Hidimba. (See under Hidimba).


SALAioIKAYANA. A son of Visvamitra. He was an expounder of the Vedas. Mention is made in .Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, about this Salankayana.


BALI. A maharsi in the lineage of Gurus (preceptors) . See under Guruparampara.


SALIHOTRA. A muni of ancient days. Vyasa had once lived in his asrama. There was a tree near the asrama which had outlived, time. A drink of the water in the pond here quenches hunger and thirst. The tree and the pond were created by the power of Salihotra's tapas. The Pandavas, during their life in exile in the forest, visited this place in the company of Hidimbi and quenched their hunger and thirst by drinking water from this pond. (M.B., Southern text, Chapter 154) .


Salihotra was an adept in asvasastra,(science about horses) . To bathe in the tirtha called Salisurya created by the muni is to derive the same result as that of making a gift of a thousand cows. (Vana Parva; Chapter 71, Verse 27 and Chapter 83, Verse 107).


SALIKA. A divine maharsi. He met Krsria once on his (Krsna's) way to Hastindpura and had a talk :vith the lord. (M.B. Udyoga Pava, Southern Text, Chapter 83).


SAL1PIr-DA. A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of his wife Kadru (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 14).


SALISIRAS. A Devagandharva, son of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Muni. He participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 4) .


SALISURYA. A holy spot in Kuruksetra. It is said to have been the place where muni Salihotra lived. To bathe at this place is to derive the same result as that of making a gift of a thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 10).


SALMALL A King of the lunar dynasty. He was the grandson of Kuru and son of Aviksit. He had seven brothers. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 52).


SALMALIDVIPA. One of the seven islands.


1) General. Sdlmali island, which is double in extent of Plaksa island is surrounded by Iksurasa (sugar-cane juice) ocean on all four sides of it. There are seven mountains there which produce gems and they are seven boundaries which separate the regions. Just like this, there are also seven rivers there. The seven rivers are Yoni, Toya, Vitrnd, Candra, Muktd, Vimocani and Nirvrti. Mere remembrance of the seven rivers is sufficient to annihilate all sins. Here people divided into the four classes live. Brahmins, Ksatriyas Vaigyas and Sudras here are called Kapilas, Arunas, Pitas and Krsnas. These devout people worship Visnu in the form of Vayu by sublime yajnas. Devas are ever present on this most beautiful island. A tree named Sdlmali which gives mental comfort grows in this island. The island is surrounded on all four sides by an ocean of Surd (liquor). (Visnu Purdna, Part II, Chapter 4).


2).~ galmali island and nagastra. See under 1Vagastra. SALLIKINI. A sacred place in Kuruksetra. To bathe in the Dasas vatirtha there, is to derive the same benefit as performing ten asvamedhas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 13 ).




1 ) General information. The lover of Amba (q.v) the daughter of the King of Kasi. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 16 that this Ksatriya King Sdlva was born from a portion of Ajaka the younger brother of Vrsaparva.


2) Other details.


(i) Salva was the ruler of the city named Saubha. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 102, Verse 61 ).


(ii) He was present at the Svayamvara marriage of Draupadi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 186 Verse 15).


(iii) He was present at the sacrifice of Royal consecration (Rajasuya) of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 9).


(iv) At the death of Sisupdla, King Salva became angry and besieged DVdraka. In the battle which followed ~ri Krsna killed Salva. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 15 to 22) .


(v) Sdlva had several friends such as Damaghosa; Anga , Kalinga, Malava, Kekaya, Vanga, Magadlha, Kosala, Konkana, Hehaya, Cola, Pandya, Kerala and others. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).


SALVA II. There is a story in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, stating that three Salvas and four Madras were born to Bhadr5 from the dead body of her husband Vyusitdsva. (See under Bhadra II).


Here, `Salvas' means the rulers of Salva. It is stated in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 26 that the people of Salva fled to the south in fear of Jarasandha. Satyavan, the husband of Sdvitri, was a native of Salva. It is also mentioned that the soldiers of Salva who joined the army of the Kauravas fought against the Pdndavas. There were Salvas on the side of the Pdndavas also. Mention is made in Drona Parva, Chapter 154, that the Salvas on the side of the Pandavas, attacked Drona, the teacher.


SALVA III. A king of the low castes. The details given below about this king are from Mahabharata.


(1) This king attacked the vast army of the Pandavas in the battle-field of Kurukgetra. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 1).


(2) The elephant of this Salva was, as big as a mountain and be1onged to the family of elephants called Mahdbhadra. (Salya Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 2) .


(3) Duryodhana had honoured this low caste King Salva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 2) .


(4) Satyaki killed this king Salva; and Dhrstadyumna killed his elephant in the battle of Bharata. (kB. galya Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 4).


SALVA IV. In Uttara Ramayana a Salva, who was a contemporary of Kusadhvaja, is mentioned. Kusadhvaja once approached this king Salva and requested for some financial help. But the covetous Salva did not give any help. So Kusadhvaja performed a sacrifice to obtain wealth and prosperity. Sita was born from that sacrificial fire. (Uttara Ramayana) .


SALVA V. A story occurs in Brahmanda Purana, describing how Renuka, the wife of Jamadagni, was infatuated at the sight of a handsome Salva, and how this event subsequently led to her death. (See under (Renukd).


SALVASENI. An ancient place in South India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 61) .


SALVAYANA. A king in anc•ent India. He ran away to


South India with his brothers and attendants in fear of Jardsandha. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 27) .


SALYA. A king who gave advice and leadership to the Kauravas. He ruled over the Madra or Balhika kingdom. Madri, wife of Pandu was Salya's sister. Yet, in the great war he stood firmly on the Kaurava side and died at Kuruksetra. The following role he played in the Bhdrata story.


(1) At the instance of Bhisma he gave his sister Madri in marriage to Pandu. (Adi Parva, Chapter-1 12) .


(2) He was present at the wedding of Draupadi in the company of his sons Rukmangada and Rukmaratha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 18).


(3) At the ~vayarnvara of Draupadi he withdrew from stringing the bow, owning defeat. (Adi Parva, Chapter 186, Verse 28 ),


(4) Bhima defeated him at the wedding of Draupadi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 189, Verse 23)


(5) During his triumphal tour of the west, Nakula be friended his uncle galya, and entertained him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 14) .


(6) He participated in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya yajna.

(Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 7 ).


(7) Sis upala once opined that ~alya was nobler than Sri Krsna. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 14).


(8) He presented a good sword and a golden jar to Yudhisthira on the occasion of his coronation. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 53, Verse 9 ).


(9) When Dharmaputra went to Hastinapura to play the game of dice, Salya was found to have arrived there earlier. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 24) .


( 10) Before the great war began he visited the Pandavas and blessed them. Moreover he agreed to act as Karna's charioteer and render him impotent so that the Pandavas could become victorious. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 8). (I1 ) Salya joined the Kauravas in the great war with an aksauhini (a particular division of soldiers). (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 16) .


(12) Salya wished that Yudhisthira won the war. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 43,Verse 79 ).


(13) On the first day of the war he fought a due1 with Yudhisthira. (Bh-isma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 28).


( 14) Salya killed Uttara, the Virata prince. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 35).


( 15) He defeated ~ankha, another Virata prince. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 35) .


(16) He fought with Dhrstadyumna. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 62).


(17) Bhimasena defeated 8alya. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 27 ).


(18) He fought with Yudhisthira again. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 20) .


19) Nakula and Sahadeva attacked ~alya. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 81, Verse 26) .


(20) Sahadeva defeated Salya. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 51) .


(21) Salya attacked gikhandi. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 27).


(22) In the battle that followed he attacked the whole lot of Pandavas and wounded Yudhisthira. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 105, Verse 30) .


(23) Bhima and Arjuna fought with Salya. (Bhisma Parva, Chapters 113 and 114).


(24) Salya fought a duel with. `s'udhisthira for the third time. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 116, Verse 40).


(25) He fought with Nakula. (Drones Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 31).


(26) Abhimanyu and ~alya fought with each other. (Drones Parva, Chapter 14,Verse 78).


(27) Afterwards in a club-fight with Bhima, Salya got defeated. (Drones Parva, Chapter 15).


(28) He fought again with Yudhisthira. (Drones Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 15).


(29) In the fight with Abhimanyu he fell down unconscious. (Drones Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 38) .


(30) Abhimanyu defeated him again. (Drones Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 14) .


(31 ) He fought for the fifth time with Yudhisthira. (Drones Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 99) .


(32) Afterwards he clashed with Arjuna as the protector of Jayadratha. (Drones Parva, Chapter 145, Verse 9) .


(33) He killed ~atanika, brother of Virata. (Drones Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 30).


(34) When Drona was killed galya ran away from the battlefield. (Drones Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 11) . (35) Srutakirti attacked Salya. (Karna Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 10) .


(36) Duryodhana insisted upon Salya acting as charioteer of Karna. At first Salya got angry about the suggestion, but finally he took up the charioteership. (Karna Parva, Chapter 32).,


(37) As the charioteer of Karna Salya cried down the former and praised Arjuna. (Karna Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 33).


(38) Karna threatened to kill Salya. (Karra Parva, Chapter 40).


(39) Salya cried down Karna by relating to him the story of the swan and the crow. (Karna Parva, Chapter 41).


(40) When Bhima wanted to cut off Karna's tongue Salya reminded him of Arjuna's vow and thus made Bhima retract from his plan. (Karna Parva, Chapter 50; Mahabharata, Daksinatyapatha).


(41 ) When Karna attempted to kill Nakula, Sahadeva and Yudhisthira, Salya prevented him from doing so. (Karna Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 21).


(42) He consoled Karna, who got alarmed by the prows ss of Bhima. (Karna Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 8).


(43) Salya comforted Duryodhana, who grieved over the death of Karna. (Karna Parva, Chapter 92, Verse 10) .


(44) As desired by Duryodhana, he assumed charge over the army as its commander-iii-chief. (Salya Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 28).


(45) He fought a fierce battle with Bhima and Dharmaputra. (Salya Parva, Chapters 11 and 12)


(46) Dharmaputra defeated galya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 63) .


(47) In the battle that followed, Salya was killed by Yudhisthira. (Salya Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 52).


(48) Among the souls of those killed in battle beckoned to the surface of the Ganges, Salya's soul also was present. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 10) .


(49) Samhlada, brother of Prahlada and son of Hiranyakasipu was another birth of Salya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 6).


(50) Synonyms used in the Mahabhdrata for Salya


Artayani, Balhikapungava, Madradhipa, Madraja, Madrajanadhipa, Mddraka, Madrarat, Sauvira etc.


SALYAHARANy. See under Mrtasanjivani.


SALYAPARVA. An important Parva of the Mahabharata.


SAMA I. Son of the Vasu called Aah. Aah had, besides Sama, three sons called iyoti, Santa and Muni. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 28) .


SAMA II. One of the three sons of Pharmadeva, the other two being called Kama and Harsa. Sama's wife was Prapti. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 32 ).


SAMA. A dog which followed Yama. It was one of the two offsprings of Sarama. (Brahrnanda Purana 3.7. 312).


SAMA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed in the Bharata-battle, by Bhimasena. (M.B. Karna Parva. Chapter 51, Verse 7).


SAMA. A populous centre in front of the Puskara island (Puskaradvipa;. In Puranic days there were


thirtythree regions in this centre. Devas such as Vamana, Airavata, Supratika, Anjana and so on dwell here. The people of this place live by inhaling the breath coming from the noses of these gods. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 32) .


SAMA. One of the Caturupayas (four tactics). (See under Caturupaya).


SAMADHI. The state when the soul (atma) and the mind become one. When the soul and the mind' mingle with each other as salt and water, it is Samadhi (contemplation). (For more details see under Yoga.


SAMADHICHETTI. A Vaigya who became learned and abstemious by the grace of Devi. The story of this Vaisya, who ran away ,from the cruel and wicked treatment that he had suffered from his wife and children, and took to spiritual knowledge by the force of circumstances was told to Janamejaya by Vyasa. After telling several stories about the kind regard of Devi towards those who worship her with devotion, Vyasa continued as follows :-


During the time of Svarocisa Manu, there lived a King named Suratha. Because of his liberality and truthfulness he had very few enemies. While he was ruling over the kingdom known as Kolapura, once the low caste people of the mountains fought a battle with the King. Though the army of the low castes was small it was the King who sustained defeat.. He returned to the palace thoughtful. He had no peace of mind. So he went to the forest to get peace. After travelling for a long time on horse-back, he reached the hermitage of the sage Sumedhas. Forgetting himself in the peaceful stillness of the hermitage, the King got down from the horse and sat undt;r a tree. The hermit Sumedhas came there and talked with the King. The King told his story to the hermit, who invited the King to live with him. Thus the King lived in the hermitage eating fruits, roots etc.


The King found it difficult to reconcile himself with the purity and simplicity of the hermit's surroundings. He always thought of his wife and children. He was troubled in mind by thinking that the money kept in the treasury would be wasted by others. Thus thinking about many things, with a troubled mind, the King was sitting under a tree near the hermitage once when he saw another man coming towards him, with a troubled mind like himself. They talked with each other. The new-comer said to the King "I am a Vaisya. My name is Samadhicetti. My wife and children love wealth. They want to take possession of. my wealth and to waste it. But I was against it. I did not favour unnecessary expenditure. They resolved to remove the obstacle from their path, and began to make preparation for it secretly. I understood it and fearing death I ran away from the house."


As soon as the king heard this story he said his own story to the Vaisya. The Vaigya continued. "Oh ! Still, my mind is troubled. I am worried about my wife and children. They will be put to much difficulty if I am not there to look after them. Who is there to support them without me ? All the children are lean. My wife also is likewise, 1ean. They are all always ill. What will they do without me ? While I think of all these things I have no peace of mind at all."


Suratha : "What a fool are you ! You yourself have said that all your children are wicked and cruel. Moreover they and their mother joining together had


been trying to murder you. Why do you feel so miserable about such a wife and children ?"


When the King had finished saying thus much, Sumedhas came there. To remove the darkness of illusion from their minds, the hermit taught them the Nine-lettered Mantra (spell) with prayer and meditation. Thus giving them the mantra, the teacher hermit advised them to go to the bank of the river and select a suitable place and worship Devi with devotion and concentration of mind. Accordingly they went to the bank of the river and selected a pure and solitary place, and concentrating their minds on Devi, began to meditate and' worship her taking only very little food. Thus engaged in deep meditation they spent two years. One day in a' dream Devi appeared to them. She was clad in red clothes, and wore beautiful ornaments. They were full of joy on seeing the goddess. The third year of the penance was over. But Devi did not appear directly before them. In the third year they took only water. They finished the fourth year without seeing the goddess. They decided to do severe penance. Their intention was to offer their bodies to Devi. So they made a triangular cavity, with three parts each having an extension of 1 1 ft. and made the walls of the cavity firm and kindled a large fire in it. The King and the Vaisya began to cut pieces of flesh from their bodies and offered to Devi in the fire, and with the blood coming from the body they performed sacrifice to Devi. Instantly Devi appeared before them and asked them what boon they wanted. The King wanted to get his kingdom back. Devi said. "You return home. Your enemies shall leave the kingdom. Your ministers will fall at your feet and beg your pardon. You can rule over your country for ten thousand years. After that you will take rebirth as Savarni Manu, the son of the Sun."


What Sama.dhi Cetti wished was a life of self-renunciation. Devi gave him the wisdom and knowledge to renounce everything he had and to live a life of complete abstinence. Then Devi disappeared. The King returned to his kingdom and resumed his rule. Cetti renounced everything and wandered about immersed in meditation on Devi. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 5).


SAMAGA (S ~ A particular line of disciples of Vyasa. (See under Guruparampara ).


SAMM~IGA I. A cowherd who had been looking after the cattle of Duryodhana. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 289, Verse 2) .


SAMA&GA II. An ancient hermit. Once this hermit talked to Narada, about his comfortable life. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 286, Verse 5) .


SAMA&GA III. A river. Because Astavakra bathed in this river, his bents were straightened. (See under Astavakra).


SAMASIGA IV. A country in South India. Mention is made about this country in . Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 60.


SAMANTARA. A country in India. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 50.


SAMANTAPARCAKA. A holy tirtha (bath). founded by Para.. urama.


1) General informatfbn. See under Parat;urama, Para 7.


2) Other details.


(i) Para~ urama made here five rivers through which blood flowed. There, with hands dipped in blood, he offered oblations to the manes. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 4).


(ii) By the blessings of the ancestors of Paras urama this place became a holy bath. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 8) .


(iii) At the ending and the beginning periods of the two yugas Dvapara and Kali, the Kauravas and the Pandavas fought the great battle at this place. Because of that this place got the name Samantapancaka. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 13) .


(iv) It was according to the advice of Balabhadrarama that this place was selected as the battlefield. ( galya Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 5) .


(v) Duryodhana was killed at Samantapancaka.. ($alya Parva, Chapter 89, Verse 40) .


SAMARA One of the hundred sons of Prthusena, a King of the Bharata dynasty. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


SAMARATHA. A brother of King Virata. He was a prominent helper of the Pandavas in the Bharata battle. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 42) .


SAMASAURABHA. A Brahmin who was well-versed in the Vedas and the Vedangas. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 53, Stanza 9, thats he was a guest at the snake-sacrifice of janamejaya.


JAMATHA. A learned brahmin. He once gave Yudhisthira a description of the yajna performed by King Gaya, son of Amurtarayas. (Vans Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 17) .


SAMAVEDA. See under Vedat


SAMAVEGAVA9A. A country of South India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 16).


SAMAYAPALANAPARVA. A sub-section of Virdta Parva, consisting of Chapter 13 of Virdta Parva.


SAMBA I. The son born to Sri Krsna by his wife jambavati.


1) Birth. A story about the birth of Samba, occurs in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 4, as follows


Children were born to Rukmini and the other wives of Sri Krsna. But jambavati alone did not give birth to children. Jambavati was filled with sadness when she saw the children of her co-wives. One day she went to the presence of Krsna and requested him to.•give her a son like Pradyumna. Hearing this, Sri Krsna went to the mountain where the hermit Upamanyu did penance and making the hermit his teacher, according to his advice, did penance before Parama iva. He .did penance for the period of a month holding-a-skull and a hermit's rod. .He did penance in the second month, standing only on one leg and drinking water alone. In the third month Krsna did penance standing on the tees using only air as food. When the penance was continued for six months in this state, Paramasiva appeared as Samba (Ardhanarigvara) and asked what boon he wanted. Sri Kgsna expressed his wish. Siva said that jambavati would get a son. Soon jambavati gave birth to a son. The child was named Samba.


2) Marriage. Samba married Laksana the beautiful daughter of Duryodhana. Hearing about the Svayamvara marriage of Laksana, Samba went to Hastinapura and took her by force from among the various Kings who were present there. Duryodhana and the others captured him. This news reached Dvaraka through


Narada. Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama went to Hastinapura and rescued Samba and took the bride and the bridegroom to Dvaraka. Ten sons beginning with Sumitra were born to Samba by his wife Laksana. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).


3) Prabhavatf abducted. Prabhavati was the daughter of Vrajanabha, the King of Supuranagari. Samba, with his brother Pradyumna entered the city Supura in the guise of drama-actors with a view to kidnap the beautiful daughtVr of Vrajanabha. They produced four performances such as `Rambhabhisara' and three other dramas and earned the praise of everybody in Supura. In this way they got access to the palace of the King, and when the time suited, they took away Prabhavati to Dvaraka. (Harivamsa, 2 : 93) .


4) . The delivery of an iron rod. Once some Yadavas with Samba at their head abused Kasyapa and some other hermits who came to Dvdraka. They cursed the Yadavas, in consequence of which Samba gave birth to an iron pestle, which caused the extermination of the Yadavas. (See under Krsna, Para 39, Sub Para 2) . 5) The curse of 9rF Krrrta. Samba was extremely handsome, and even the wives of Sri Krsna fell in love with him. Under the circumstances Samba tended to become wicked. Sri Krsna came to know of the unnatural attachment between his wives and Samba, from Narada and cursed Samba that he would become a leper, and cursed his own wives, that they would be carried away by thieves and plunderers. Accordingly Samba became a -leper and the wives of Sri Krsna were carried away by the Abhiras, after the submerging of Dvaraka.


After a few years, according to the advice of Narada, Samba began to worship the Sun, at a place called Sambapura in the basin of the river Candrabhaga, to get recovery from leprosy. A brahmin also was brought from Suka (Kusa) island to perform the fast and vow correctly. (Samba.3; Bhavisya Purana, Brahma Parva, 66. 72; 73. 126; Skanda Purana 4. 2. 48; 6. 213 ).


6) .Other details.


(i) Samba was present at the Svayarhvara marriage of Draupadi. (M.B. Chapter 185, Verse 17).


(ii) Among the YadavaS, who brought the dowry, when Arjuna married Subhadra there was Samba also. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 31).


(iii) Samba learned archery froriz Arjuna. After this he was a member of the court of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 34) .


(iv) Samba was one of the seven great chariot-fighters of Dvaraka. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter -14, Verse 57) .


(v) Samba was present at the Rajasuya (royal consecration-sacrifice) of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva,,Chapter 34, Verse 16).


(vi) Samba was defeated in the battle he fought with Ksemavrddhi the minister of r Salva. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 80.)


(vii) Samba killed the asura Vegavan in a battle. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 17) .


(viii) Samba participated its the marriage of Abhimanyu conducted at the city Upaplavya. (M.B. Virdta Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 22) .


(ix) Samba came with Sri Krgtna to Hastinapura and took part in the Rajasaya of Yudhisthira. (M.B. A9vamedhika Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 3) .

(x) When the Yadavas died by hitting one another with the iron pestle, Samba also was killed. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 44) .


(xi) After his death, Samba entered the group of Visvadevas. (M.B. Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 16) .


SAMBA 11. A Brahmin scholar. When Dhrtaras_tra started for the forest towards the close of his life, the people bade him farewell. This Brahmin stood among the people and spoke words of consolation. (M.B. A:: ramavasika Parva, Chapter 10, Verse I 3) .


SAMBARA I. An asura.


I ) General. Various Puranas refer to this leader of the asuras as having played a prominent part in the devasura war. After many such wars he was killed by Siva.


2) Sambara's magic power. He possessed marvellous magic powers. Once while fighting with him, the Devas were non-plussed by his magical powers, and they hid themselves in a forest. Sambara was pleased and he roamed about freely without any fear and burnt the palaces of the protectors of the world. The Devas left their homes and disappeared in disguise. The Devas began killing those whom Sambara had appointed as army-chieftaius. To counter this attack by the Devas, he created three powerful asuras by his powers of magic. The three asuras called Dama, Vyala and Ghata began killing the warriors of the Devas, and the Devas told Brahma at Satyaloka about the depredations of the asura. Brahma encouraged them for further fighting., and the three asuras were killed and Sambara ran away and hid himself. (ffianavasistha Sthitiprakaranam).


3) ~ambara in Vgaeda. There are various references to Sambara in the Rgveda. He was King of the Dasyus. He had mastery over hundred cities. The forts and trenches in those cities were very, strong. The forts are referred to as Asvamayi, Ayasi, Satabhuji etc, in the Rgveda. The chief enemies of the Aryans were the race of people called Panis in the city. There is a hint about the killing of Sambara in Sdkta 17, Anuvaka 8, Mandala 1 of the Rgveda.


4) Other information.


(i) Sarribara was Kasyapaprajapati's son by his wife Dann.


(ii) Dasaratha had, at the request of the Devas defeated Sambara in a war fought in Devaloka. (See under Dasaratha, Para 5) .


(iii) Indra, on another occasion, defeated Sambara. (Adi Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 43).


SAMBARA II. An asura.


He was the son of Hiranyaksa and brother of Sakuni, Dvimurdha, Sanku and Arya. (Agni Purina, Chapter 17). Sambara, who was a great adept in magic, was killed in the company of his wife Mayavati, by Pradyumna, the son of Sri Krsna. (See under Pradyumna).


SAMBHALA (SABHALA, SAMBHALA). A village famed in the Puranas. According to Mahabharata Mahavisnu will incarnate as Kalki in this village. (For details see under Kalki).


SAMBHAVA. A King of the Puru dynasty, son of Crja and father of Jarasandha. (Agni Purina, Chapter 278) .


SAMBHAVAPARVA. A Sub-Parva of Adi Parva Chapters 65-139 ).


SAMBHU I. Dhruva's wife. The couple had two sons called Sisti and Bhavya. (Visnu Purina, Part 1, Chapter 13) .


SAMBHU II. Grandson of Tvasta, son of Ka4yapa by Surabhi. Tvasta had a*son called Visvarupa who begot fourteen sons of whom Hara, Bahurupa, Tryambaka, Aparajita, Vrsakapi, Sambhu, Kapardi, Raivata, Mrgavyadha, Sarpa and Kapali these eleven sons of Vis'varupa form the Ekada:`arudras. (Agni Purina, Chapter 18).


SAMBHU III. One of the three sons of Ambarisa, the other .two being Virupa and Ketuman. (Bhagavata, 9th-Skandha) . Sambhu never tasted meat in his life. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 66).


SAMBHU IV. A Raksasa, the son of Vidyujjihva by Surpanakha. Sambhu, who was engaged in tapas in Dandaka forest when Sri Rama visited the forest was attracted by the beauty of Sita and transformed himself into a tree to enjoy her bea,.tty with his eyes. Laksmana, who was felling down trees to build an asrama felled this tree also, which disappeared immedi,itely leaving behind the dead body of a Raksasa. It was the corpse of the Raksasa and Rama comforted Sita and Laksmana by revealing the fact to them. (Kamba Ramayana. Aranyakanda).


Uttara Ramayana contains a story of how Devavati (or Vedavati) daughter of Kusadhvaja once cursed Sambhu. Devavati was born. from the mouth of Kusadhvaja (son of Brhaspati) while he was learning the Vedas. Sambhu wanted to marry the child when she was grown up, but Kugadhvaja did not consent to it, and Sambhu, in retaliation, killed Kusadhvaja in his sleep. Next morning Devavati awoke from sleep to see the dead body of her father. She cursed Sambhu. Her curse was a contributory cause for the death of Sambhu by Laksmana.


SAMBHU V. An agni, which occupies a status equal to that of a brahmin well-versed in the Vedas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 5)


SAMBHU VI. A son born to Sri Krsna by Rukminidevi. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 33).


SAMBHU VII. A King of the Bharata uynasty. He was one of the eighty sons of Ugrasena. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


SAMCHLTTA. A King, son of Trasadasyu and father of Anaranya. (Vayu Purana, Chapter 88, Verses 7475).


SAMBHUT.I I. Wife of Marici, son of Brahma. The couple had a son called Paurnamasa. (Agni Purina, Chapter 20).


SAMBHIJTI II. Wife of Jayadratha. The couple had a son called Vijaya. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


SAMBIJKA. A Sudra muni. During the reign of Sri Rama a great number of children died in the country and many parents wept before the king about the loss of their offsprings. According to Vasistha's advice Rama enquired whether anybody indulged in actions not proper to his station in life. Sri Rama surveyed the country from the air in a Vimana, and during the survey he found Sambuka, the sudra muni hanging with his head down and inhaling smoke from a fire lit under him. 'Thus, having found out that the tapas by that sadra was the reason for the children's death, Rama killed Sambuka immediately. (Kamba Ramayana, Uttarakanda).


SAMEDI. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 13) .


SAMGATA (SAI~IGATA). A King of the Maurya dynasty. He was the son of King Suyasas and the father of King Salisuraka. (Bhagavata, Skandha 12) .


SAMGAVA (SAI~IGAVA). The supervisor of the cattle-shed of Duryodhana. It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 228 that this Sangava helped Duryodhana in the fight which ensued at the time of the great procession conducted by the Kauravas, to the Pandavas in the forest.


SAMGHAM (SAIWHAM). An organisation formecin olden days for the cultivation of Sentamil (classic Tamil) literature, which took its origin in south pravida land in the 4th century B.C. The Pandyas set up three Saxighams for the promotion of this literature, the first one in southern Madura. When the city was swept by erosion of the sea they set up the second Sangham at Kapatapura. When Kapatapura also was destroyed by the sea, the third Sangham was founded in Dravida Madura. The first Sangham was called Mutarcankam, the second Itaiccankam ar.d the third one Kataiccankam. Reliable information about the first two Sanghams is not available. But, there are reasons to believe that a Sangham called Kataiccankam flourished for about six hundred years from 2nd century B_C. to the close of the 4th century A.D. (History of Kerala Literature by Ullur, Part 1, Page 47).


The Pandyan King had built at Madura a hall (mandapa) for the poets and scholars of the third Sangham to assemble together to produce their works. Even to this day there exists a temple called Sanghattarkovil at the south-western corner of the outer sector of the Sundaresvara temple. There the idols of Sarasvati and of the fortynine poets of the Sangham are being worshipped even today. The growth and influence of the Buddhist and the Jain religions and also that of the Pallava royal dynasty, contributed to the downfall of the Sangham. The Sangham poets have written many excellent books. According to legends, Agastyam is a text on grammar of the first Sangham and Tolkapyam of the second Sangham. There were authoritative text books on music written by the last poets of the Sangham. But, none of these books has been unearthed yet. Again, references are found to dramas like Muruval, ` Jayantam, etc. They too have not yet been found out. Five mahakavyas (Epic poems) and five short Kavyas also belong to Sangham works. Purananuru. Akananuru, Patittuppattu, Aim kurunuru, Kalittokai, Kuruntokai, Paripia.tal and Nattinai are included in the Sangham work called Ettuttokai. Most of them are collections of many compositions. The authorship of the four hundred songs in Purananuru is distributed among nearly 160 poets. Airn Kuruniiru contains five hundred songs by five poets. These five hundred songs were collected by the scholar, Kutalur kizbar, on the orders of the Cera King, Ceralirurnpozhai. Patittippattu is a collection of songs composed by ten poets in praise of the Cera Kings. But, only eight of these from two to nine 'are available yet. Pattuppattu comprised of the follow-


ing works like Tirumurukattuppatai, etc. Tirukkural, Nalatiyar etc. are among the eighteen works under the group, Patinenkizhkkanakku. Cilappadikaram, Manimekhalai, Jivakacintamani, Kundalakesi and Valaiyapati are the five greet kavyas and Nilakesi, Cudamani, Yasodakavyam, Nagakumara-Kavyam and Udayakumarakavyam (Udayanankatai) are the five short (laghu) kavyas. Amongst the above kavyas Manimekhalai and Kundalakesi are Buddhist kavyas and Cintamani and the five short kavyas are Jain works. The last seven books might have been written after the Safigham period. Tiruttakkatevar, author of Cintamani, lived in eighth century A.D. Some of the songs in Purananuru are the oldest among the works of the Sangham period. References to Cera Kings are found in many of these works.


SAIVIGRAHA. One of the two attendants, given to Subrahmanya by the sea,, the other being Vikrama. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45; Verse 37) .


SAMGRAMAJIT. One of the ten sons of Sri Krsna by his wife Bhadra. (Virata Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 18) .


SAIVIHANA. A King of the Puru dynasty, grandson of Puru and son of Manasyu. Sarhhana was the son of Manasyu by his wife called Sauviri. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 5 ).


SAMHATA. Second wife of Dhrtarastra. She was the niece of Gandhari.


SAMHATAPA. A naga born in the Airavata dynasty. It was burnt to ashes at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 11) .


SAMHITA. Collection of hymns addressed to various Devatas in nature. These songs are in the form of mantras. (See under Veda).


SANIHITAKALPA. A section of sarimhitas of Atharva Veda. The five sections of Atharva Veda composed by Munjikesa arid called Naksatrakalpa, Vedakalpa Sarnhitakalpa, Angirasakalpa and Santikalpa are held in great respect. (See under Veda).


SAMHITASVA. A king of the Bhrgu dynasty, grandson of Haryasva and son of Nikumbha. Renuka, granddaughter of Sarhhitdsva and daughter of Prasenajit was married by maharsi jamadagni. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 1 ).


SAMHLADA (SAMHRADA) 1. A son of Hiranyakas ipu. Two sons called Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu and a daughter called Sirnhika were born to Kasyapaprajapati by his wife called Diti, and Hiranyakas ipu .had four sons called Anuhrada, Hrada, Prahlada and Sarnhrada. Samhrada had three sons named Ayusman. Sibi, and Baskala. (Agni Purina, Chapter 19 ). According to verse 17, Chapter 65 of Adi Parva, Prahlada, Samhlada, Anuhlada, Sibi and Baskala were the sons of Hiranyakasipu. This Sariihlada, in his next life; was born as Salya, the Balhika king.


SAMHLADA II. A Raksasa, son of Sumali by Ketumati, both of them Raksasas. Sumali had ten sons called Prahasta, Akampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, DhZimraksa, Danda, Suparsva, Samhlada, Prakvata and Bhasakarna. (Uttara Ramayana ).


SAMI. A king, son of-Usinara. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


SAMICI. A celestial maid. She was the companion of the celestial maid Varga. (For further details see under VarUa ).




1) General. A muni. He remained with herds of cattle and performed tapas feeding himself on the foam from the mouth of calves drinking their mother's milk. He was the father of Swig!, who-cursed king Pariksit, who once threw a dead snake on the neck of Samika. The curse was that he wonld die within seven days of the incident by snake-bite. For details see under Pariksit, Para 3).


2) Other information.


i) Samlka worships Indra in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 16).


ii) Samika too was present on the occasion when Vyasa called up and showed janamejaya the souls of dead kings. (Mvamedhika Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 8) .


SAMIKA 11. (SAMIKA). A great wary.*or of the Vrsni dynasty and one of the seven maharathis in Dvaraka. He was present at the wedding of Draupadi. (Adi Parva. Chapter 14, Verse 58).


SAMITINJAYA. One of the seven great heroes, who fought in chariot, in the clan'of the Yadavas. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 58) .


SAMITRA. A particular rite performed during a yajfia. (Adi Parva, Chapter 196, Verse 1).


SAMIVRKSA (SAMI TREE). (For .the connection between this tree and fire see under Agni, Para 12) .


SAIVIJNA. Wife of Sun (Surya ).


1) Birth. Sarhjfia was the daughter of Visvakarman according to the Visnu Purina (Part 3, Chapter 2) and of Tvasta according to Mahabharata, Adi Parva (Chapter 66, Verse 35) . Most of the Puranas refer to Sarhjfia as the daughter of Visvakarman.


2) Separation from husband. Sarhjfia lacked the power to put up with the heat of Surya. She once went into the forest to perform Tapas after deputing her companion, Chaya, to serve her husband. Sarhjfia left her three sons Manu, Yama, and Yam! also in the charge of Chaya, who in the guise of Sarhjfia served Surya. He took her to be his wife and begot three children, Sanai;;cara, (another) Munu and Tapat! of her. Chaya once got angry and cursed Yama, son of Sarhjfia. Then it was that Surya realised that she was not his wife. Surya felt very sad at this separation from his wife and went to the forest in search of her. He knew, by the power of his meditation, that Sarirjfii was doing tapas in the guise of a mare. Then he assumed the form of a horse and begot of the mare the ASvinikum,,-iras and Revanta. The Asvinikumaras named Nasatya and Dasra, were born through the mare's (Sarhjfia) nose. (Anusa.sana Parva, Chanter 150, V.°.rse 17).


3) Reunion. Surya brought Sarhjfia back with him. She complained to her father Visvakarman, that life with Surya was impossible on account of his excessive hat, and so Visvakarman ground Surya on his drilling machine and reduced his heat. But, only 1 /8 of the heat (effulgence) could be so reduced, and it was with that fraction of effulgence that Visnu's disc (cakra), Siva's trisula (trident), Kubera's puspakavimana and Subrahmanya's weapon called Sakti were made. (Visnu Purina Part 3, Chapter 2; Harivarhsa; Chapter 41 and Bhavisya Purina For details see under Tapati.


SANIKHYA. In ancient India digits up to 19 were in vogue. Bhaskaracar°ya the great mathematician, has in his work, "Lilavat!", given the following names to the nineteen digits.


1 Ekam 10 Dasam 100 Satam 1000 Sahasram 10000 Ayutam 100000 Laksam 1000000 Prayutam 10000000 Koti 100000000 Arbudam 1000000000 Abjam 10000000000 Kharvam 10000000000000 Trikharvam 1000000000000 Mahapadmam 1000000000000 Sariku 1000000000 Jaladhi 100000000000000 Antyam 1000000000000000 Madhyam 100000000000000000 Parardham 1000000000000000000 Dag aparardham.


SAIVIKHAYA. An acarya, who worked in the Rgveda branch of the Vedas.


SAMKRAMA (SA&KRAMA) One of the three attendants given to Subrahmanya by Visnu, the other two being Cakra and Vikrama. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 37)


SATMKRAMA II. One of the followers given to Skanda by Mahavisnu. (Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 23).


SAIVIKRTI. A king of the Bharata dynasty. He was the son of king Naraka and father of Rantideva. (Bhagavata

9th Skandha ).


SAMMARDANA. One of the sons of Vasudeva by Devaki. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


SAMMITEYU. A king of the Pizru dynasty, being one of ten sons of Bhadrasva (Agni Purina, Chapter 28).


SAMPAKA. A very pious brahmin, whose slogan in life was that renunciation was the greatest asset iii life. (Sand Parva, Chapter 176, Verse 4) .


SAMPATI I. A bird. The elder brother of jatayu.


1) Birth. Aruna and Garuda were the sons born to Prajapati Kasyapa by his wife Vinata. Two sons named Sampati and'JatAyu were born to Aruna. (For further details see under jatayu, para 1) .


2) Sampati in the Ramayana. Once ,Sampati and his younger brother jatayu flew to the Sun. To protect his younger brother jatayu who had neared the Sun,Sampati opened his wings which were burnt and he fell on the shore of the salt sea. At this time an army of the monkeys, with Hanuman at their head came there, in search of Sita. Sampati gave them directiong of the path they were to follow. (Detailed story is given under Rarna and Mali


SAMPATI II. A Raksasa (giant). The son of Kurnbhinad! the sister of Kaikasi. (See under Kaikas!).


SAMPATI III. A warrior who fought against the Pandavas on the Kaurava side. He took his place at the `hrdaya' (centre) of the Garudavyuha set up by Drona. (Drona Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 12).


SAMPRIYA. A princess of the Madhu dynasty. King Vidura married her, and a son called Anasva was born to the couple. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 40) .


SAMRAJ. Son of Citraratha by >0rna. He married Utkala and the couple had a son called Marici, who became very famous in after years. (Bhagavata, Skandha 5) .


SAMRAT. The grand-daughter of Manu Svayambhuva and the daughter of Priyavrata, who had married the daughter of Kardama. Ten sons and two daughters named Samrat and Kuksi were born to Priyavrata. (Visnu Purina, Arhfa 2, Chapter 1).


SAMRDDHA. A naga (serpent) born in the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death in the sacrificial fire of the serpent sacrifice of janamejaya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 18).


SAMSARA. One in the line of Gurus. (See under Gurupararhpara ).


SAMgAPTAKAVADHAPARVA. A sub-Parva of Drona Parva comprising Chapters 17-32.


SAM8ATI. Wife of the Agni called Pavamana. The couple had two sons called Sabhya and Avasathya. (Matsya Purana, Chapter 51, Verse 12).


SAMSRUTYA. 'One of the Vedantist sons of Visvamitra. (Anu:'asana Parva, Chapter 4., Verse 55).


SAMSTHANA. A region in India mentioned in the Puranas. Armies from this region protected Bhisma during the great war. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 51).


SAMUDRAKATIRTHA. A holy place near Arundhativata. He who bathes here and fasts for three days will derive the same benefits as those of performing the a„'.vamedha yajna and gifting away of thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 81) .


SAMUDRANISKUTA. An urban area in India famous in the Puranas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 49) .


SAMUDRASENA. A Ksatriya king. He was a wise man, well-versed in Economics. He was the rebirth of Kaleya, an asura. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 54) . Bhimasena defeated this Samudrasena, during his regional conquest of the east. Samudrasena was killed by the Pandavas in the Bharata battle. (M. B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 30; Karna Parva, Chapter 67 ).


SAMUDRAVEGA A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. $alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 63) .


SAMUDRONMADA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. $alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 68).


SAMf0HA. An eternal Vi,'vadeva (god concerned with offerings to the manes). (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 30).


SAMVAHA. A wind which moves the aerial chariots of the Devas; According to Vyasa there are seven winds. While once he was teaching his son Suka' Vedas, a storm blew and the teaching had to be stopped for some time. Then 8uka asked his father about winds, and Vyasa answered as follows


There are seven vayus (winds). The first one called Pravaha moves the clouds. The second one, Avaha, causes thunder while the third vayu, Udvaha, converts sea-water into vapour and causes rain. The fourth one Sarhvaha moves clouds in the sky. The c1ouds are the aeroplanes of the Devas. The fifth is Vivaha, which gives form and shape to the clouds. The sixth Vayu, Parivaha, keeps Akasaganga motionless while due to the action of the seventh Vayu, Paravaha, the souls travel. (anti Parva, Chapter 329) .


SAMVARANA. A king of the lunar dynasty.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus : Brahma-Atri-Candra - Budha - Purfiravas - Ayus - Nahusa -Yayati - Puru - Janamejaya - Pracinvan - Manasyu -Vitabhaya - $undu - Bahuvidha - Sarhyati --Rahovadi -Bhadr5gva - Matinara - Santurodha - 2)usyanta -Bharata - Brhatksatra - Hasti - Ajamidha - Rksa - -Sarhvarana.


2) Marriage. Sarhvarana married Tapati, daughter of Surya. (For details see under Tapati).


3) Other information.


(i) King Pancala once attacked and subjugated him. (Adi Parva, Chapter 93, Verse 37).


(ii) He gave up the throne in fear of the enemy and went and lived on the banks of the river Sindhu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 39).


(iii) Toregain his kingdom he appointed Vasistha as his priest. fAdi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 42).


(iv) He got back the kingdom by Vasistha's help and then he performed a Yajna with the latter as high priest. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 45) .


(v) A son called Kuru was born to him by Tapati daughter of Surya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 48). (vi) He was a devotee of Surya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 170, Verse 12) .


(vii) No other king more handsome than he had yet been born. (Adi Parva, Chapter 170, Verse 15).


(viii) Once there was no rainfall for twelve years in his kingdom. (Adi Parva, Chapter 172, Verse 38) .


(ix) He is one of the kings to be remembered at dawn and at dusk. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 54) . (x) Words like Ajamidha, Arksa, Paurava, Pauravanandana and Rksaputra have been used. in Mahabharata as synonyms of Sariivarana.


SAMVARTA. Son of Arigiras.


1) General. Angiras had eight sons called Brhaspati,


Utathya, Sarhvarta, Payasya, Sand, Ghora, Virupa and Sudhanva. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 30) . Sarhvarta was the third among the sons and he lived on inimical terms with his e1dest brother Brhaspati. When once Brhaspati forsook king Marutta it was Sarhvarta, who managed for the king his yajna. (Santi Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 20) .


2) Other information.


(i) Sarhvarta is a member of Indra's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 19 ).


(ii) He lives in Brahma's court and worships him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 12).


(iii) He once got conducted at Plaksavatarana tirtha for King Marutta a yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 13 ).


(iv) Sariivarta and Brhaspati disliked each other. (Drona Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 38; Sand Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 29) .


(v) He was one of those who visited Bhi sma on his bed of arrows. ($anti Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 9) .


(vi) It was he, who recited the praises of Siva to king Marutta so that the latter got gold. (M.B. Southern text, Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 8 ).


(vii) Once he paralysed Indra's Vajrayudha. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 17 ).


(viii) It was he, who invited and got down Indra to the yajna conducted by Marutta. (A-vamedha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 25) .


SAMVARTAKA I. A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of his wife Kadru. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 10).


SAMVARTAKA II. An agni, which is burning always on mount Malyavan. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 27 ).


SAMVAt>,TAVAPI. A holy place (tank). Those, who bathe there will become handsome (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 31 ).


SAMVEDYA. A holy place. He who bathes here will master learning. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 1).


SAMVRTTA. A naga born in the Kasyapa dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 13) .


SAMVRTTI. A Devi, who worships Brahma in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 43) .


SAMYAMA. A son of the Raksasa called Satasrfiga. He was killed by Sudeva, chief of the army of Ambarisa.

(Mahabharata, Southern Text, Santi Parvaa Chapter 98).


SAMYAMANA I. Another name of King Somadatta. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 33) .


SAMYAMANA I I . A king of Kas i. By nature non-attached to worldly things and very righteous, he studied Sankhya and Yoga from Pancasikha and went into the forest renouncing everything. ( Santi Parva, Chapter 1) .


SAMYAMANI. Another name of gala, son of Somadatta. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6 1, Verse 11)


SAMYAMANI. The name of Yama's Capital city. (See under Amaravati) .


SAMYANIPATA. A particular measure of distance. If a strong man throws a thing the distance between the man and the spot where the thing thrown by him falls is called Samyanipata. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 9) ,


SAMYAPRASA. A sacred place on the banks of river Sarasvad. Here Vyasa once built an asrama and lived there. (Devi Bhagavata, 6th Skandha).


SAIVIYATI I. Third son of Nahusa, his other sons being Yati, Yayati, Ayati and Dhruva. (Adi Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 30)


SAMYATI II. A king, who was the great-grandson of emperor Puru and son of Pracinvan. Asmaki, born of the Yadu dynasty was his mother. He married Vararigi daughter of Drsadvan and a son called Ahamyati was born to the couple. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 14).


SAMYODHAKANTAKA. A Yaksa, an attendant of Kubera. (Valmiki Ramayana, Uttara Kanda, Chapter 14, Verse 21).


JAMYU I. The e1dest son of Brhaspati. This agni (Sarhyu ) is worshipped in Caturmasya and asvamedha yajnas. Satya, daughter of Dharmadeva was gariryu's wife, and to the couple were born a son and three daughters. (Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 2 ).


SAMYU II. An acarya. He is believed to have a special method of performing yajfias. (Satapathabrahmana).


SANAKADI (S). Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanatkumara, the four Sages.


The Sanakadis are the mental sons of Brahma. When they stood in the form of infants they were asked to create subjects. But they were the incarnation of `Sattva', (the attribute of purity), and so were not prepared to undertake creation. Even at the age of four or five the four of them learned the Vedas, and travelled together. They were celibates for ever. While the Sanakadis were travelling thus one day they reached Vaikuntha, and cursed Jaya and Vijaya who showed disrespect towards them. (See under Jayavijayas ).


It is mentioned in some places that the Sanakadis were the incarnations of portions of Mahavisnu. Once Brahma praised the incarnations of Visnu.


It is clear that the Kumaras (Sanakadis) had taken incarnation before the present Brahma began the work of creation. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 1; Skandha 7; Bhagavata; Skandha 7, Bhavisya Purana).


SANANDANA I. A hermit who was one of the Sanakadis.


SANANDANA II. A disciple of ~afikaracarya. (For further details see under Safrkaracarya, Para 6).


SANATANA I.A hermit. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 16, that this hermit shone in the court of Yudhisthira.


SANATANA II. One of the Sanakadis.


SANATKUMARA. One of the Sanakadis.


SANATSUJATA. Another name of Sanatkumara, who is one of the four Sanakadis. (See under Sanatkumara).


SANATSUJATA PARVA. A sub -section of Udyoga Parva in Mahabharata, Chapters 42 to 46.


SAIRCARAKA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 74).


SANDAMSA. A hell. (See. under Kala).


SANDHAMARKA. The two rsis called 8andha and Marka, who were priests of the asuras and whose presence made them invincible. The Devas enticed the two priests to their side by offering them Soma and thus rendered the asuras powerless. When the Devas after some time, began a yajna, Sandha and Marka approached them for the promised Soma, but the Devas did not keep their word, and the disillusioned ~andhamarkas were driven out of the yajnic hall. (Taittiriyasamhita, 6, 4, 10) .


SANDHANAKARANI. (See under Mrtasanjivani).


SANDHYA I. The previous birth of Arundhatf; wife of Vasistha. (For more details see under Vasistha Para 1, Sub-Section 1) .


SANDHYA II. Mother of the giantess Salakatairka. It is stated in Uttara Ramayana that this Salakatarika. the daughter of Sandhya was married by the giant Vidyutkes a.


SANDHYA III. Time of union or conjunction. There are three Sandhyas in a day. These are morning sandhya (Pratahsandhya), noon sandhya (Madhyahna sandhya) and evening sandhya (Sayarii Sandhya). The meeting time of night and day, is morning Sandhya, the joining time of the first half and the second half of the day, is noon (Madhyahna Sandhya), and the joining time of day and night, is evening Sandhya (Sayam sandhya). Brahmins should keep the three Sandhyas properly. The morning sandhya is of three kinds. Good, Medium and Bad. When the morning stars are seen and the sunrise is approaching it is good morning; when the stars are not seen and the sun is not risen it is medium sandhy5 and the morning time after the sunrise is bad Sandhya. In sayariisandhya also there is this difference of time, as good, medium and bad. The time till the sunset is good; the time after the sunset and before the rising of the stars is medium and the evening after the rising of the stars is bad. In the Vedas it is metaphorically mentioned that Brahmins are trees, and the three sandhyas are their roots, the Vedas, their branches and the rites and rituals ordained in the Vedas their leaves. From this it is clear that Brahmins should on no account leave unobserved, worships at these three sandhyas. The Brahmin who does not observe these three sandhyas carefully will, in his life time, become a sudra and after the death, will be born again as a dog. Moreover the Brahmin who does not do the three evening, morning and noon worships, will have no right to conduct any other Vedic rites.


After the sun-rise and sun-set, within three nazhikas (a nazhika-24 minutes) the morning arid evening worship should be finished. There is atonement ordered for morning and evening prayers conducted after the stipulated time. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 11 ).


SANDHYA IV. A holy river who worships Varuna in his assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9,. Verse 23).


SANDHYA V. The presiding DevatA of dusk. She is called Praticyadevi as well. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 16 ).


SANDHYAKARANANDT. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 12th century A. D. A poetic work of this author

is "Rdmapalacarita" This book is about the king Ramapala, who ruled over Bengal at the end of 11th century A. D.


SANDHYARAGA. The red colour seen in the sky in the evening is Sandhyaraga. Ragini the daughter of Himavan did penance to obtain Paramasiva as husband. The Devas took her before Brahma, who said that she was not able to bear the radiance of Siva. Hearing this opinion Ragini got angry and Brahma cursed her and chan ged her into Sandhyaraga. (See under Parvati ).


SANDHYAVALI. Sandhyavali was the wife of King hRukmangada. (See under Dharmangada ).


SANDILI 1. A daughter of Daksa. She was married by Dharmadeva and a Vasu called Anala was born to the couple. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 17).


SANDILI II. A yogini famed in the Puranas. She once cursed Garuda as a result of which he lost his feathers. (For details see under Garuda).


SANDILI 111. A very chaste Devi living in Devaloka. She once taught Sumanas, the Kekaya princess the duties of a chaste woman. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 123, Verse 8) .


SANDILYA I. A great maharsi. Some details about him are given hereunder.


(1) King Satanika and his wife Visnumati, who had no issues approached the maharsi in great sorrow. As a result of eating rice given by the maharsi Visnumati became the mother of a son, who became in later years famous as emperor Sahasranika. (Kathasaritsagara, Kathamukhalambaka, Taranga 1) .


(2) A member of Yudhisthira's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 17).


(3) He had an ascetic daughter. (Salya Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 5) .


(4) He once opined that the gift of a mere ox-cart was equal to the gift of water in a golden pot. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 19) .


(5) He visited Bhisma on his bed of arrows. (Sand Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 6).


(6) King Sumanyu once gave the maharsi plenty of food materials. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 173, Verse 22).


SAl`?DILYA II. A maharsi born in the dynasty of Kasyapa, son of Marici. As Agni was born in the family of the maharsi it came to be called `Sandilyagotriya' (born in the family of Sandilya). King Sumanyu once gave him food and other edible things. (Anu'asana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 22) .


SAYDILYA 111. A King, a great devotee of Siva. As a youth he became a philanderer with the result that `he honour of women was in jeopardy. The King being a devotee of Siva even Yama could not punish him. At last, when Siva came to know of the immorality of his devotee he cursed the King to be turned into a tortoise for thousand years.


SAl:DILYA 1V. A maharsi, who desired to worship Visnu not in the Vedic method for which purpose he even wrote a book to propagate non-vedic principles. For the above sinful action he had to live in hell and at last he was born as Jamadagni of the Bhrgu dynasty. (Vrddhaharitasmrti, 180, 193) .


SANDILYA V. A maharsi whose Bhaktisutras (Aphorisms on devotion) are as famous as those of Narada. He taught bhakti in a scientific way (by Sandilya science).


SANDIPANI. Preceptor of Sri Krsna and Balabhadra Rama from whom they learned all the Vedas, art of drawing, astronomy, gandharva Veda, medicine, training elephants and horses and archery. (For details see under Krsna, Para 12).




1) General. Sani is the son of Surya by Chay5, the maid-servant of Sarhjfia. Surya had three sons by Chaya, Manu, Tapati and Sani. (See under Chaya).


2) Other information.


(i) Sani worships Brahma in Brahmasabha. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 29) .


(ii) Sani is very effulgent and intense in his form and character. When Sani threatens the star Rohini, great disasters occur on earth. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 143, Verse 8) .


(iii) Sani will incarnate as Manu in the coming Yuga. (Sand Parva, Chapter 349, Verse 55).


(iv) Sani is one of the planets to be daily worshipped. (Anu;: asana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 17) .


(v) In the battle between Siva and Tripura, Sani mounted in a chariot clashed with Narakasura. (Bhagavata, 6th Skandha).


SANIYA. A country in south India famous in the Puranas. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 63.


SANJAYA I. Minister of Dhrtarastra.


1) Birth. Safijaya, who was equal to a hermit, was born as the son of Suta from a portion of Gavalgana. (Adi Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 93) .


2) The boon of Sanjaya. Sanjaya who was born within the circle of the friends of the Kauravas, became the minister of Dhrtarastra. The great work that Safijaya did in Mahabharata was, telling Dhrtarastra every thing that was taking place in the battle-field without leaving even the smallest events in the order of their occurrence. Safijaya was able to do this because of the boon granted by Vyasa.


When the armies of the Kauravas and the Pandavas pitched their camps on either side of the battlefield, Vedavyasa came to Hastinapura and saw Dhrtarastra. Dhrtarastra heard about the preparations on either side for the battle. He did not like to go to the battle-field and see for himself the events of the battle. He said so to Vyasa. Then Vyasa called Sanjaya to him and said "Safijaya shall see all the events of the battle directly. He shall have such a divin -- inward eye." Vyasa continued. "O king! Safijaya has inward eyes. He will tell you everything about the battle. He will be knowing all. Whenever he thinks of it he will see everything that takes place in the day and in the night in open, and in secret. No weapon will cut him and no weariness will affect him. He is the son of Gavalgana and will come away unhurt from the battle."


Because of this blessing Safijaya used to inform Dhrtarastra of all the events in the battle at the time of the occurrence. Safijaya informed Dhrtarastra of the news up to the death of Duryodhana. When Duryodhana was killed the cry of Asvatthama grew louder. Safijaya who heard this cry early in the morning, ran to the battlefield with a broken heart. With the death of Duryodhana the boon of inward eye given to Safijaya by Vyasa was lost. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 2; Sauptika Parva, Chapter 9).


3) Other details.


(i) Safijaya stood as the host in the Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira, and received the guests and showed them hospitality. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 6).


(ii) When the Pandavas were defeated in the game of dice and were sent to the forest Safijaya came to Dhrtarastra and reviled him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 81, Verse 5) .


(iii) Vidura got angry because the Pandavas were sent to live in the forest, and leaving the kauravas he also went to the forest. Knowing that Vidura was in the Kamyaka forest, Dhrtarastra sent Sanjaya and brought Vidura back. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 5 ).


(iv) Sri Krsna and the others vowed at the Kamyakavana to kill ~Duryodliana. Safijaya gave Dhrtarastra a detailed description of that Vow. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 15).


(v) Dhrtarastra sent Sanjaya to learn about the welfare of the Pandavas who had returned after completing the forest life and Pseudonymity. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 1) .


(vi) Safijaya went to the court of the Pandavas and gave the message of Dhrtarastra to them. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 25) .


(vii) Safijaya who had returned from the court of the Pandavas, informed Dhrtarastra of the news and reproached him much. (M.B. Lldyoga Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 11).


(viii) Safijaya repeated the message of Arjuna in the court of the Kauravas. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 48).


(ix) Safijaya told Dhrtarastra, who the prominent helpers of Yudhisthira, were. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 50).


(x) Safijaya advised Dhrtaxastra to put Duryodhana under control. (M.B. Ujyoga larva, Chapter 54).


(xi) Safijaya gave Duryodhana a description of the horses and the chariots of the Pandavas. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 7) .


(xii) Sanjaya repeated the message of Arjuna to Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 66) .


(xiii) Sanjaya described to Dhrtarastra the greatness of Sri Krsna. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapters 68-70) .


(xiv) Safijaya told Dhrtarastra the fact that the Pandavas and the Kauravas had pitched their tents in the battlefield of Kuruksetra. (M.B. Udyoga- Parva, Chapter 159, Verse 8) .


(xv) At this time Vyasa came there and gave Satijaya the boon that he would see directly every thing that took place in the battlefield and would inform Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 10) .


(xvi) Safijaya informed Dhrtarastra of the good qualities of the earth, the island of Sudarsana, the death of Bhisma, and so, on. (M.B. Bhisma Parva; Drona Parva).


(xvii) Safijaya gave the names of every one who was kil1ed on the side of the Kauravas. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 5) .


(xviii) Safijaya reported to Dhrtarastra about those who died on the side of the Pandavas also. (Karna., Parva, Chapter 6) .


(xix) Safijaya told Dhrtarastra about those who. were alive on the side of the Kauravas. (Karna Parva, Chapter 7) .


(xx) Satyaki took Safijaya as a captive. (Salya Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 57).


(xxi) Due to the blessings of Vyasa Safijaya escaped from the captivity of Satyaki. (Salya Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 39) .


(xxii) Sanjaya consoled Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Stri Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 23).


(xxiii) Yudhisthira entrusted San -


rya with the duty of post-war-reconstructions. (M.B. anti Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 11).


(xxiv) Towards the close of his life Sanjaya went with Dhrtarastra and Gandhari to theforest. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 15, Verse 8) .


(xxv) On the first day of this journey to the forest, they reached the basin of the river Ganges. On that day Safijaya made the bed for Dhrtarastra. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 19) .


(xxvi) Sanjaya introduced the wives of the Pandavas to the hermits. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 25).


(xxvii) On reaching the forest Sanjaya observed complete fast for two days. (Agramavasika Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 13).


(xxviii) Safijaya always walked close behind Dhrtarastra and in places of ups and downs he led the King by the hand. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 16).


4). The End. While Dhrtarastra and the others were walking along the forest a jungle-fire was seen. Instantly it encircled them. Dhrtarastra cried out to Safijaya to run for his life. But Safijaya did not like to forsake them in that danger. Dhrtarastra said that since they had left home and country there was no wrong in dying by jungle fire. At last yielding to the compulsion of Dhrtarastra, Sanjaya ran away from the jungle-fire. Dhrtarastra, Gandhari and Kunti died in the wild-fire. Safijaya reached the basin of the Ganges and informed the hermits of the death of Dhrtarastra and the others, and then went to the Himalayas. -(M.B. Asramavasika, Chapter 37, Verse 19 ).


SANJAYA II. A prince of the country called Sauvira. It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 265, Verse 10, that it was this prince Safijaya who carried the flag and walked in front. of Jayadratha, on his journey to carry away Paficali. In the fight which ensued Arjuna killed this Safijaya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 271, Verse 27) .


SANJAYA III. Another prince of the country of Sauvira. Vidula was the mother of this prince. This prince once ran away from the battle-field and by the instigation of his mother went to the battlefield again. This story occurs in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 1 6.


SANJAYANTI. An ancient city of South India. Sahadeva, during his regional conquest of the south sent his messengers to this country and conquered it easily. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 70, that Sahadeva got tribute from this country.


SANJAYAYANAPARVA. A sub-section of Udyoga Parva in Mahabharata. This comprises Chapters 30 to 32 of Udyoga Parva.


SANJIVA. A character in the Paficatantra. (See under Paficatantra) -


SARJIVANAMANI. The jewel in the head of serpents. There is a tradition among the poets that this jewel is the basis of the serpent's life. There is a story in Maha bharata, Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 42, stating how Babhruvahana brought Arjuna to life by Sanjivanamani. (For details see under Babhruvahana).


SAAIKALPA. One of the sons born to Dharmadeva by his wife Sankalpa. (Bhagavata, Skandha 6 ).


SAIRKALPA. A daughter of Daksa. Dharmadeva married the following ten daughters of Daksa, i.e. Arundhati, Vasu, Yam!, Lamba, Bhanu, Marutvati, Sankalpa, Muhurta, Sadhya and Visva.


JASIKARA I. A synonym of Siva.


gAfIKARA II. A simpleton, who was killed by his wife. This brahmin had a very mean wife called Kalipriya. After killing her husband she left the place with her paramour. But, wild animals killed him on their way in the forest. In all repentance Kalipriya returned home and after worshipping the corpse of her -husband she observed Karttika vrata at the instance' of certain women. Thereby she got absolution from sin and attained heaven. (Padma Purana, Brahmakhanda, Chapter I0).




1) General. The spiritual and philosophical preceptor of India. Sri 9ankara was born in the village of Kalati on the banks of the holy river Periyar, also called Cixrna and Purna. According to certain scholars he was born in 509 B.C. while certain others contend that he saw the light of day in 84 A.D. Yet others place his date of birth in various periods between 509 B.C. and 84 A. D. Whatever that may be, the great acarya is believed to have lived only for 32 years.


2) Birth. The name of Sankara's father was givaguru and that of his mother Aryamba. This nambudiri couple had no issues for a long time,. So they went to T rAsiv4perfir (Trichur) to worship Siva in the f.mous Siva temple there. The idol in that temple is known as Vrsacalefivara and Vatakkunnatha also. Ere long Lord 9iva blessed them with a son. The belief is still held that, pleased with the prayer of givaguru and Aryamba Siva himself was born as their son. The child began exhibiting extraordinary intellectual powers. At the age of five the boy Sankara was invested with the sacred thread. By the time he was eight years old he had earned deep erudition in the Vedas, 9astras, Puranas, epics (itihasas) etc. His father was no more by then and on the mother devolved the duty of bringing the child up.


3) Crocodile-attack. The boy showed no taste for or interest in childish .plays, but evinced a tendency towards a life of renunciation. This attitude of the son pained the mother much and she wanted her son to get married. But, the boy did not like the idea. As fate would have it, an incident which proved to be a turning point in the boy's life occurred soon. One day the mother and her son were bathing in the Periyar, when a crocodile caught hold of the boy. He cried aloud, and the mother got greatly alarmed. There was a custom for one to take to sannyasa, irrespective of circumstances, when danger or death threatened one, and that is called apatsannyasa. gankara prayed to his mother for permission to take to sannyasa at that momentwhen his end was near, and willynilly the mother granted permission. All at once the crocodile, which had so unex-


pectedly attacked him, disappeared equally unexpectedly. The boy came out of the river absolutely unhurt. The decision to take to sannyasa was taken once for all. Sapkara assured his mother, before he started on a tour of the country, that he would be present at her bedside during her last days and also that he would duly perform her obsequies.


4) In the presence of the preceptor. Sankara, who then was not even seven years old, started for the north in quest of a preceptor, and on the banks of the Narmada he saw Govinda - bhagavatpada, the disciple of Sri Gaudapada. The Bhagavatpada was sitting in a cave surrounded by many wise people. Sankara approached and requested him to admit him as a disciple and grant him sannyasa. Sankara's prayer was granted.


5) Controlled flood. A wonderfu1 thing happened . while Sankara was living at the asrama. The Narmada was in spate and the huts on its banks were about to be submerged in water. People got alarmed. Then Sankara put his kamandalu (vessel which sannyasins keep with them for water) and chanted the Jalakarsana Mantra. (hymn to attract water). At once the water which had flooded the banks flowed back into the river. People and their huts were saved. Afterwards his Guru asked Sankara to go to and live in Ka~i and write Bhasyas (commentaries) on the Prasthanatrayam, i.e. the Brahmasutras, the Upanisads and the Gita.


6) Padmapada. Accordingly gankara went to Kas!. It was there that he took as his first disciple Vi snusarman, a young man from the Cola region of the country. Sankara called him Sanandana. Afterwards other disciples also came in. But, gradually jealousies cropped up in the ranks of the disciples. The other disciples of Sankara thought that the latter was partial towards Sanandana and showed special affection and regards to him. Sankara then decided to prove to the others that Sanandana was a disciple of exceptional talents and merits. One day Sankara was bathing with his other disciples in the Ganga, and he called Sanandana who was on the other side of the river to go to him. Sanandana walked on the surface of the water to his Guru, and as he took each step a lotus flower appeared beneath and held him up from sinking into the water. From that day onwards he came to be called Padmapada, and his colleagues also realised his greatness.


7) Hastamalaka. Hastamalaka was one of the best disciples of Sankara. There is a story about his becoming gankara's disciple. He was born dumb. His father, Divakara took Hastamalaka to Sapkara believing that due to the blessing of the great Guru his son would gain powers of speech. Sankara asked the dumb boy, `who are you?' and the boy answered, `I am the soul, which has no relationship with the parts and attributes of body and mind and which is also entirely different from them'. There were certain verses, which the boy recited as answer to Sapkara's question and each verse ended with `nityopalabdhisvarupohamatma' (I am the atman and eternal knowledge, consciousess, is its characteristic). The boy's answer pleased Sankara, who took him as a disciple of his. The boy was given sannyasa under the name Hastamalaka the meaning of which word is he who is in possession of knowledge like the gooseberry in one's palm:


8) Totakdcdrya. Totakacarya was a disciple, who came soon after Hastdmalaka. The name Totakacarya has a story behind it. This disciple approached Sankara with his request for discipleship in verse praising the latter. The verses were composed in the difficult totaka metre. The verses attracted Sa-Akara very much and he took the applicant as disciple. His real name was Kalanatha, but the' Guru named h'm Totakacarya in view of his verses in that metre.


9) The Candalaguru. There is a story about Siva going to Sankara at Kasi in the guise of a Candala and Sahkara receiving him. One morning Sarikara, after bathing in the Ganga, was returning to the Visvanatha temple. A Candala with his hunting dogs and a pot of liquor was advancing from the opposite direction of Sankara, who asked the former to move away from his path. Immediately the Candala asked, which, the body or soul, is to remove itself from the path? The body of everybody is composed of blood, flesh, bones etc; the constitution of it also is the same. But, the Atman is universal and omnipresent. Whom-which of the two-are you asking to move away from your path?


SaAkara realised from the above answer that the Candala was an extraordinary person. In fact, it was Siva, who had disguised himself as a Candala. Sarikara prostrated before him. Sankara thought about God saying that he who -had attained Brahman and the consciousness of oneness with all, was his Guru, whether he be a Brahmin or a Candala.


10) Derisive of the .grammarian. Sahkara has composed a hymn named Mohamudgara, in which he ridicules a grammarian. One day walking along a street in KMi Sahkara saw a grammarian learning by rote rules of grammar, and then he composed the very sweet and beautiful poem-Bhaja Govindam-to reveal the foolishness of the grammarian repeating the useless rules of grammar. By the very first verse of the poem Sahkara revealed the following truth : "Oh ! fool ! worship Govinda (Bhaja Govindam) meditate upon Him. You meditate upon Govinda realising the truth that when death approaches, the grammatical sutra "DukrfiKarane"will not come to your aid."


1 1) Saw Vydsa. Siva, when he appeared in the guise of a Candala to Sankara, had asked him to visit Badarika9rama, and accordingly he went there and visited Vyasa. It was there that SaAkara met his supreme preceptor, Govindapada. He returned to Kasi with the blessings of Vyasa and Govindapada and engaged himself in the writing of books.


12) gankara's age. There is a legend about Sahkara's life. Brahma had allotted to him only eight years' life. Before SaAkara left his house at Kalati, a batch of sannyasins including Agastya and Narada came to the house. The sannyasins, who were pleased with the reception accorded to them blessed Sarikara to live for sixteen years instead of the eight Brahma had permitted him.


While Sahkara was writing books at Muktimandapa at Manikarnika Ghat in Kasi Vyasa came there one day in the guise of an old man, and there ensued a- lengthy discussion between the two. Padmapada recognised Vyasa in the old man and told him and SaAkara thus: "How would there be peace and happiness in the world, if Saxikara, the incarnation of Siva and Vedavyasa, the incarnation of Visnu quarrelled with each other?" As soon as his identity was revealed thus, Vyasa admitted that Sahkara's Bhasya on the Brahmasutras was correct and blessed him' to live for thirtytwo, instead of sixteen years.


13) Controversy between gankara and Mandanamisra.


Pardits (scholars) view the controversy or discussion between Sankara and Mandanamisra as the most important event in San.kara's life. Three incidents, Sankara's meeting Kumarilabhatta, his defeating Mandanamisra and his entering the dead body of another person-may be found in connection with the above controversy.


A: Meeting with Kumdrilabhatta. Sankara's object was to expose the defects and draw-backs in Purvamimadrsa (the ritual part of the Vedas). Kumarilabhatta was the most competent person for a discussion on the subject. Sarikara, for this purpose, went to Prayaga from Kasi. But, Kumarilabhatta was not in a condition fit for discussion. He was slowly burning himself to death in a heap of paddy husk set on fire. He courted this P'unishment voluntarily to atone for a wrong he had committed. Years back he had put on Buddhistic attire and studied the secrets of Buddhistic religion from its preceptors with the object of refuting that religion. Kumarilabhatta had great faith in Karmakanda, and he therefore, decided that it was his duty to make atonement for the wrong he had purposely done according to injunctions laid down in Karmakanda. Sahkara was very sorry to find Kumarilabhatta in this condition in which discussion could not be held with him on the defects of Purvamimarhsa. Kumarilabhatta directed Sahkara to the great scholar, Mandanamisra at Mahismati for a discussion on Purvamimamsa.


B. Mandanamisra defeated. When Safikara reached Mandanamisra's house a ceremony connected with obsequies was being conducted there. The door for entry to the house was closed. Sankara, ~by his yogic power entered the home and revealed the object of his visit to Mandanamisra, who agreed to the proposal of Sankara. Accordingly a debate began between the two. Bharatidevi, wife of Mandanamisra and an erudite scholar in her own title acted as the arbiter in the discussion. Before the debate started she put a garland of flowers on the neck of both the contenders and announced that he would be considered as defeated in the debate the garland on whose neck began fading first. The debate continued for a number of days and the garland on Mandanamisra's neck began showing signs of fading. According to the terms and conditions of the debate XIandanami•~ra acknowledged defeat. He accepted Sankara's discipleship.


C. Parakayapravesa (Entering the dead body of another person) . But, Bharatidevi argued that it was not enough that Sarikara had defeated her husband in debate. She challenged him to defeat her as well, and Sankara accepted the challenge. Many topics dealt with in the various Sastras were debated upon and Sahkara won all those debates. Ultimately Bharatidevi raised certain points connected with the science of sexual love in the course of her arguments. Sankara admitted that he did not possess sufficient mastery over the subject as he had taken himself to sannyasa even from infancy. But, he told her that if he was allowed necessary time for it he would debate on that topic also.


Bharatidevi granted him time for it and the debate was adjourned.


Jafikara prepared himself for the study of the science of sexual love. Just at that time a King called Amaruka died. After asking his disciples to take especial care of his body Sarikara entered by yogic power the dead body of Amaruka. The dead King came back to life and his people felt very happy about the mysterious happening. Sankara, who had thus entered the body of King Amaruka, lived in the palace enjoying all royal pleasures. He gained practical experience in the matter of sexual love from the queens in the palace. People found the resurrected King Amaruka to be better and more intelligent. The ministers suspected that the soul which dwelt in the body of the king was of some one else. Under the impression that it might be that of some yogin the ministers deputed agents to various parts of the country to find out if there was anywhere the dead body of a yogi, and they found out Safikara's body. It was about to be burnt on the pyre when the disciples of Sarikara met King Amaruka at the palace and informed him about these developments. Immediately SaAkara quitted his royal body and entered his own body now lying on the funeral pyre. He prayed to 8rilaksminarasirhha and came out from the burning pyre.


Sarikara returned immediately to Mandanamisra's house and the debate was started again. Bharatidevi realised that Safikara could not be defeated in topics related to the science of sex. Thus 8afikara gained absolute victory in his debate with Mandanamisra, who then requested the former to grant him sannyasa and accept him as a disciple. Safikara did so. Bharatidevi too followed her husband in accepting sannyasa.


14) Mother's death. Safikara now knew that it was time for his mother's death. According to his promise to her that he would be by her side at the time of her death Safikara returned to Kalati. His mother expired, and he made arrangments for cremation. But his relations did not cooperate with him and argued that itwas against the injunctions in f he Sastras for a son, who had taken to sannyasa, to perform the cremation etc. of his mother. At last, Sankara had to cremate h:s mother by himself without others' help. He made a pyre with plantain sterns in the compound of his house, and cut his mother's corpse into pieces,, carried the pieces to the funeral pyre and thus cremated the body.


15) Triumphal tour. After the cremation of his mother Sankara set out on his triumphal tour of the country. He is believed to have travelled throughout India three times. Wherever he went he gained friends and also made enemies. It was during these tours that he established the four mathas (centres) in the four regions of the country. Srfigeri in the south, Jaganatha in the east, Dvaraka in the west and Badarinatha in the north were the four chief mathas established by Sahkara and they continue to function even to this day.


The Siva, Visnu and Devi temples and other Hindu religious institutions to be found in India today very eloquently proclaim the achievements and unique reputation of Safikara. It is traditionally believed that Sahkara brought five li:tgas from Kailasa and installed them in the five great temples. Muktilifiga in Kedara, Paralifiga in the Nilakantha temple in Nepal, Moksa lifiga at Cidambaram, Bhogalinga in Srngeri and


Yogaliriga in Kafici are the five lifigas installed by Saf;kara. The `five-in-one' method of worship was also propounded by him. According to this system Aditya, Ambika, Visnu, Gananatha and Mahesvara are conjointly worshipped, special importance being given by the worshipper to his special deity. Safikara appointed one disciple of his each in each of the mathas as its head and these mathas play the most important role in the maintenance and propagation of the Advaita philosophy. The heads of these mathas during various periods have been reputed Vedantists and noble souls. Jyotirmatha in Badarikasrama, Govardhana pitha in Jagannathapuri, Sarada pitha in Srrigeri and Kamakotipitha in Ka11Ci are the most important of the Sri Sap kara pithas. Having thus completed his philsophic mission or object in life arikara entered mahasamadhi at the age of thirtytwo. Some scholars believe that he disappeared in a cave at Kedara while certain others hold the view that he ascended the Sarvajnapitha (the omniscient state) at Kanci and spent his closing days there.


16) His works. The literary compositions of Sa fikara may be classified into four divisions, vii, Bhasyas (commentaries), original works, hymns to various deities, and mantras.


SA1~fKARASVAML Father of Upavarsa. (See underc~ Upavarsa ).


SAAIKARL Wife of Varatanu, the brahmin. (See under Varatanu for the reason why the couple had no children in their next life).


SA&KARSANA. Balabhadra Rama. (To know about the derivation of the name see under Balabhadra Rama).


SA &KASYA. A King of ancient days, who lived in Yama's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 10) .


SA&KASYAPURA. A Kingdom in ancient India. The King of this country Sudhanva once attacked the kingdom of Mithila. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 75) .


SANKHA 1. Considered to be a great, sublime treasure, found in Kubera's court. Brahmadatta, King of Pancala attained heaven as he used to give Safikha to good brahmins. (Santi Parva, Chapter 234 and Anusasana Parva, Chapter 137). Sankha appeared on earth, according to one belief, from the bones of h Sarikhactzda. (For details see under Tulasi, Para 2) .


JA1&KHA II. A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of Kadru. The following information about it is from the Mahabharata.


(i) Narada once introduced Safikha to Matali, charioteer of Indra (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 12 ),


(ii) Safikha was one of the chief nagas which came to lead the soul of Balabhadra to Patala at the time of his death. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 7).


SAi~IKHA III. Son of the Virata King.


(i) He was present at the wedding of Draupadi in the company of his brother Uttara and sister Uttara. (Adi Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 16) .


(ii) He also came out to fight Duryodhana and others when they lifted the cows of the Virata King. (Virata Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 16) .


(iii) On the first day of the great war he clashed with Bhurisravas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 26).


(iv) He was killed in fighting with Drona at kuruksetra. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 17).

(v) After death he got absorbed in the Visvadevas.


(Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 17 ).


SAZKHA IV. A maharsi, who was the elder brother of Likhitamaharsi. Likhita once punished Sankha for 277).

plucking fruits from his garden without his permission. SA&KRTI I. A King, who lives in the court of Yama


For details see under Likhita .


SAi~LKHA V . A Kekaya prince. He and his four brothers were maharathas on the side of the Pandavas.

h (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 171, Verse 15 ).


,A&KHA VI. The asura called Hayagriva. (See under Hayagriva).


SA&KHACIJDA I. An Asura. Sudama became this asura as the result of a curse. (For details see under

~Tulasi, Para 5) .


'7A&KHACUDA II. A slave of Kubera. While Krsna and Balabhadra were enjoying pleasures with naked Gopastris at Vrndavana Sankhacuda, attracted by the Gopi women, went there. He abducted the women and in the fight that ensued was killed by Krsna, who gave to Balabhadra the precious stone taken from his (SallkhaCLlda's) head. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).


8A~ZKHALIKA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 15 ).


9A&KHAMEKHALA. A maharsi. Once he went to the asrama of sage Sthulakesa to see Pramadvara who was lying there, bitten by a snake. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 24) .


SA&KHANAKHA. A naga that lives in the court of Varuna worshipping the latter. (Sabha Parva, Southern text, Chapter 9).


S`A&KHAPADA. Son of Svarocisa Manu, who once taught him Satvatadharma and garnkhapada imparted the dharma to his son Suvarnabha. (Santi Parva, Chapter 348, Verse 37) .


h8A&KHAPARVATA (MOUNTAIN). A mountain near Mount Meru. (See under Kuranga Parvata).


3A&KHAPINIJA. A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of Kadrhu. (M.B. Adi Parvah, Chapter 35, Verse 23) .


9A&KHASIRAS (SAI\IKHASIRSA). A naga born to Kagyapaprajapati of Kadru. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35,Verse 12l.


hSAIZKHASRAVAS. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (galya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 26) .


SAI~IKHATIRTHA. A sacred place on the banks of the river Sarasvati. (9alya Parva, Chapter 37` .


SANKHYAYANA. An acarya (preceptor) who was a prominent disciple of Sanatkumara, Brhaspati being. another equally prominent disciple. (Bhagavata, Skandha 8).


SA1~fKHYAYOGA~ASTRA: See under Kapila.


9A&KHINT I. A sacred spot at Kuruksetra. A bath in the Devitirtha there will add to one's beauty. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 51).


9ARKHINT II. Wife of Mahasankha, a crocodile. (For details see under Mahasankha).


SAAIKOCA. One of the RAksasas, who, in ancient days ruled the earth and ultimately died. The story of Sankoca was told by Bhisma to Yudhisthira to prove the truth that even the greatest and most powerful has, one day or other, to quit life and die. Among such great ones are included Prthu, Aila, Maya, Bhauma, Naraka, gambara, Hayagriva, Puloma, Svarbhanu, Prahlada, Namuci, Daksa, Vipracitti, Virocana, Suhotra, Vrsa, Vrsabha, Kapila'sva, Virupa, Bana, Kartasvara, and Vi6vadamstra. Though all of them


were once emperors they had to give room to the next generation. Bhisma, on his bed of arrows, was thus describing the transience of life. (S`anti Parva, Chapter worshipping him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 10). SAivIKRTI II. A muni born in the Atri dynasty. After giving his disciples lessons on impersonal (attributeless) God he went and lived in Devaloka. (Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 22)


~Ai*ZKU I. A son of Hiranyaksa. Sambara, gakuni, Dvimixrdha, Sanku and Arya were the sons of Hiranyaksa. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19) .


SA1qKU II. A Yadava King who was present at the wedding of Draupadi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 19).


He was a member of the company of Yadavas, who carried Subhadra's dowry at her wedding with Arjuna. He was a maharathi also. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14 and Adi Parva, Chapter 220 ).


SAi~IKUKARNA I. A muni, who lived at the sacred Kapardisvara tirtha in Varanasi. There lived a Brahmin in the temple there performing tapas. One day a lean and bony ghost, hungry and panting came to the Brahmin. To the Brahmin's question the ghost replied thus ; "In my previous life I auras a rich ~brahmin. I looked after my family well, but did not worship Devas, guests or cows. Nor did I do any pious deed. But, one day I happened to worship Lord Visvanatha and touch his idol. Within a short period after that I died. You will please tell me the means, if any, for me to attain heaven."


Sankukarna answered the ghost as follows :-"There lives no man on earth, who is more fortunate than your good self, who could touch and prostrate before Lord Visvanatha. That good fortune has led you to me. You bathe in this holy tirtha and you will lose your ghosthood. The ghost, accordingly dived in the water and immediately rose up to heaven. ( Padma Purana, Adi Khanda, Chapter 34).


$AhLKUKARNA II. A naga born in the Dhrtarastra dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yaji'ia conducted by Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 15) .


SAivIKUKARNA III. An attendant of diva. He lives in the court of Kubera. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 34).


SALVLKUKARNA IV. One of the two attendants presented by Parvati to Subrahmanya, the other being

h Puspadanta. ( galya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 51).


~AI~IKUKARNA V. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 56) .


SA&KUKARNESVARA. A murti ( aspect) of diva whose worship is ten times more productive of good than the asvamedha Yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 70) .


9AALKUROMA. A nags with thousand heads, one of the sons of Kasyapa by Kadriz. ( Matsya Purana Chapter 6, Verse 4).


SANNATEYU. A son born to Raudrasva, the third son of emperor Puru, by Misrake.'i, the apsara woman. He, a great archer, had nine sons called Itceyu, Vaneyu, Jaleyu, Pakseyu, Krpaneyu, Sthandileyu; Tejeyu, S~tyeyu and Dharmeyu. (AdiParva, Chapter 94, Verse 8.



SANNATI I. The wife of Kratu, the grandson of Hermit Pulaha. To Pulaha the sons Kardama, Sahisnu and others were born. The extremely bright Balakhilyas were born to Kratu by his wife Sannati. (Agni Purana, Chapter 20) .


SANNATI II. The wife of King Brahmadatta. She was a hermitess. Both the husband and the wife did penance at Manasasaras. (Padma Purana, Srsti Khanda, Chapter 10).


SANNIHATITIRTHA. An ancient holy place. The devas such as Brahma and others visit this place monthly. Those who bathe in this place, at the time of the solar eclipse will obtain the fruits of conducting six horse-sacrifices. It is believed that giving offerings to the manes at this place is of great importance. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 190) .


SANNIHITA. An Agni (fire). This agni creates the power of activity inside the living things. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Stanza 19, that this'fire was the third son of Mann.


SANNIVESA. One of the sons born to Tvasta by his wife Racana. (Bhagavata, Skandha 6).


SANTA. Son of Satya who was born of the family of King Vitahavya. He had a son called Sravas. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 62) .


SANTA I. Son of Apa, one of the eight Vasus. He had four sons called Vaitanda, Srama, Santa and Dhvani.

In Verse 18, Chapter 66 of Adi Parva, it is stated that this Santa was the son of Ahar, the Astavasu, and that h he had ,three brothers called Sama, Jyotis and Muni.


SANTA II. A King, the son of Priyavrata. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


SANTA. Daughter of Dasaratha. She was brought up by King Lomapada of Afiga and was married by muni RsyaArfiga. (For details see Para 9, under Dasaratha).


SANTANAGOPALA. The story of how Arjuna tried to save a Brahmin's son who was dead. (For the detailed story see under Arjuna Para 17, sub-scctiond ).


SANTAMAYA. A King of ancient India. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 236 ).


SANTANAVA. A grammarian, anterior to Panini. He has written a book called `Phitsfitra' about the svaras (Accents) in the Vedas. This book of 87 sutras is divided into four Chapters called antodattam, adyudattam, dvitiyodattam and Paryayodattam.


SANTANIKA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 9).


SANTANU (SANTANU). King Santanu, on a par with the Devas, was a great physician (Mahabhisak).


SANTANU (,ANTANU). Son of King Pratipa of the lunar dynasty.


(i) For previous life and birth as Santanu see under Bhisma, Para II.


(ii) Married life. (See under Bhisma, Paras 2, 3) . 3) Other information.


(i) He was the second son of Pratipa. His elder brother was called Devapi, younger one Balhika and his mother Sunanda. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 61; Chapter 95, Verse 45) .


(ii) He was called Santanu as things touched by both his hands used to become youthful.


(iii) gantanu became King as his elder brother Devdpi had, as an infant, renounced the throne and left for the


forest. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 62; Chapter 95, Verse 45 ).


(iv) It was he, who brought to the palace and brought up Krpa and Krpi, who were found in the forest as orphans. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 46) .


(v) Santanu worships Yama in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 25 ).


(vi) He attained heaven by doing tapas on Mount Arcika. (Vana Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 19).


(vii) He is one of the Kings to be remembered both at dawn and dusk. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 58) .

(viii) He was absolutely wedded to truth and he possessed great prowess. (Adi Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 1 ).


(ix) He conducted thousand asvamedhas and hundred rajasuyas. (Adi Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 2).


(x) Synonyms used of him in the Mahabharata :Bharata, Bharatagopta, Bharatasattama, Kauravya, Kurusattama, Pratipa etc.


SANTARAJAS. A King of Kasi. He was the son of King Trikakalpava and father of King Raji. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


SANTARDANA. The son of Dhrstaketu who was the King of Kekaya. He was present at the Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


SANTARJANA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya ~ Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 58) .


SANTI I. Daugbter of Daksa by his wife Prasuti. Prasuti delivered including S'anti twentyfour children.

h (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 7) .


JANTI II. A 'king born in the dynasty of Bharata, son of Dusyanta. He was the son of Nila, grandson of Ajamidha and father of Susanti. (Bhagavata, 9th


SANTI JANTI III. Name of the Indra of the foul th Manvantara S ANTI Parva, Chapter 196, Verse ?9) .


SANTI IV. A maharsi. Son of Angiras, he was called Atmeyu also. He had participated in the Yajfia conducted by Uparicaravasu. (anti Parva, Chapter 336, Verse 8; Adi Parva, Chapter 196, Verse 20; Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 130).


SANTI V. A maharsi who was a disciple of the Rsi called Bhuti, who did once go to participate in a yajna conducted by his brother Suvarecas, leaving matters connected with his asrama with Santi, who discharged his duties quite well in the absence of his master. One day when agni became very scarce in the asrama he praised Agnideva, and noticing that the Deva was pleased Sand requested him to bestow a son on the maharsi. Accordingly a son was born to Bhfiti, who later on became famous as `Bhautyamanu.' BMW, who was pleased with the devout life of his disciple (anti) taught him Sangaveda. (Markandeya Purana).


SANTIDEVA (SANTIDEV I ). Daughter of King Devaka. She was.married by Vasudeva. (Vayu Purana, Chapter 96, Verse 130).


SANTTIKALPA. One of the five samhita sections of the Atharvaveda composed by muni Mufijikega, the other four sections being naksatrakalparn, vedakalpam, samhitakalpam and angirasakalpam. Naksatrakalpam contains rules for the worship of the stars; .Vedakalpam contains the rites regarding Brahman, the Rtvik; sarizhitakalpam contains the rules about mantras, and the Angirsakalpain deals with black magic- and gantikalparn contains rules about propitiating deities by offerings of horse, elephant etc.


SANTPARVA. An important Parva of the Mahabharata (See under Mahabharata).


SANTURODHA. A king of the Puru dynasty. He was the son of Matinara. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278).


SAND. A country of ancient India. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva Chapter 9, Verse 43).


SANYASA (SANTNYASA) One of the four stages of Brahminical life. The four stages are Brahmacarya (Religious student), Garhasthya (householder), Vanaprastha (Forest-dweller)and Sannyasa (hermit or sage). (For further details see under Asrama).


Duties of a hermit. Manu has ordained that one should perform sannyasa (renunciation) at the fourth stage of life renouncing every tie with the world. After becoming a hermit he should travel daily alone. He should enter villages only for food. He should have renounced wealth. He should not acquire any wealth. He should be a sage filled with knowledge. He should have a skull as the pot for taking alms. He should sleep under trees. He should wear poor cloth and should be solitary. He should consider everybody as equal. Having become a hermit he should not delight in death or life.


A hermit should put every step looking straight down to the earth. He should drink water filtered by cloth. Words and deeds should be pure and true. The shells of water-gourd (pumpkin), wooden pots and earthen pots are the Vaisnava sign ofhermits. A hermit should beg for food daily from houses where no smoke comes out, where pestle is placed and where there is no charcoal, and after all have taken food and the pot for preparing food is placed upside down.


It is said that the food got by hermits by begging is of five types. They are Madhukara (collected alms), asarizklpta (unlimited), Prakpranita (prepared much earlier), Ayacitam (got by not begging) and tatkalika (for the time being). In whichever stage of life he may be, he should be staunch in that stage and should perform the duties with honesty.


If by ignorance a hermit engaged himself in killing animals by day or night, to remove the impurity and get purity, he should bathe and perform six pranayamas (restraints of the breath) daily. The hermit should discard his body mad., of five elements.


The signs of duty are, resolution, forbearance, selfres-


traint, not robbing, cleansing, control of sense-organs, modesty, knowledge, truth, not resorting to anger, and so on. Hermits are of four grades, such as Kuticaka, Bahudaka, Harhsa and Paramahariisa, the last-mentioned being the noblest grade. The hermit who wears one or three da~iclas (rod) will be freed from ties of birth and death.


The five Yamas or restraints are not killing (Ahiriisa), truth, not stealing, celibacy and not receiving. The five Niyamas or religious duties are cleansing, joy or contentedness, penance, self-study and meditation on God. The sitting postures suitable for hermits are Padmasana etc. (Agni Purana, Chapter 161) .


SANYASTAPADA. A famous Puranic region in India. The king of this kingdom, fearing Jarasandha, ran away


to the south with his son. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 28) .


SAPTACARU. A holy place. The reason for giving this place the name Saptacaru is given in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82 as follows:


The word `Care' means sacrifice. Once devas (gods) and men together put the fat parts of sacrificial animals, as burnt offerings in the sacrificial fire, each singing seven verses from the Rgveda. By this sacrifice they obtained more prosperity than the fruits of giving one lakh of cows as alms or performing hundred Rajasuya sacrifices or thousand horse-sacrifices.


"The wise said that it was an endless gift to the manes. The gods, the manes, the Gandharvas, the celestial maids, the ganas, the yaksas, Kinnaras, the siddhas, the Vidyadharas, the people of the earth, the Raksasas, the daityas, the Rudras, Brahma, all these joined together with vow and fast taken for a thousand years and performed a sacrifice each exalting Visnu by singing seven verses from Rgveda. Kesava was much pleased at the caru and gave them Astaisvaryasiddhi (the eight miraculous attainments) and everything they wished. Thus giving them all kinds of prosperities, the god Mukunda disappeared in this place as lightning in the clouds. Therefore this place became famous everywhere by the name Saptacaru."


SAPTADVIJA (S). The seven Brahmins who killed and ate on the way the cow brought for the teacher. These seven Brahmins were the disciples of a teacher in Kundinapura. Once owing to a severe famine people were in a very difficult situation. The teacher sent these seven disciples to beg for a cow from his son-in-law who had a very large number of cows. They did accordingly. The son in-law gave them a cow for his father-in-law. The disciples began the return journey with the cow. When they reached half-way they became so weary and tired of hunger and walking that they could not proceed a step further. When they reached the stage of death, those celibates killed the cow according to the Vedic rites, and ate the flesh. Carrying the remaining flesh they reached the house of the teacher and told him all the truth. As they had tried to be righteous as far as possible, the teacher only felt proud of his disciples. (Kathasaritsagara, Madanamaficukalambaka, Taranga 1).




1) General information. The seven islands are Jambudvipa, Plaksadvipa, Salmalidvipa, Kusadvipa, Krauficadvipa, Sakadvipa and Puskaradvipa. Each of these islands is surrounded by sea. The sea that surrounds Jambudvipa is the Lavana sea (salt sea), the Plaksa dvipa is surrounded by the sea of Sugarcane juice, Salmalidvipa by the sea of liquor, Kusadvipa by the sea of ghee, Krauficadvipa by the sea of curd Sakadvipa by the sea of milk and the Puskaradvipa by the sea of pure water. In the centre of all, lies the jambudvipa and in the centre of this island, stands the golden mountain meru. (Visnu Purana, Ariasa 2, Chapter 2) .


2) Origin. There is a story about the origin of these seven islands and the surrounding seas, in Devi Bhagavata Skandha 8.


Two famous sons named Priyavrata and Uttanapada were born to Svayambhuva Mann. Priyavrata and his children ruled the country for a period of eleven arbudas,-that is a hundred million years. Though he was aged so much the power of his mind and body did


not show any sign of weakness. At this time he saw once the sun travelling on the first side of the earth, and began to think. "When the sun is walking on one side of the earth, the other side must naturally be dark. Will it happen so in our time? In all places at all times it should be bright anal there should be no darkness." Thinking thus he got into a chariot as bright as the sun and travelled round the earth seven times. During these travels the wheels of the chariot made seven furrows on the earth. These furrows became the seven seas and the beds between the furrows became seven islands.


3) Sovereign powers. Priyavrata made his seven sons sovereigns of the seven islands. These seven sovereign rulers were Agnidhra, Idhmajihva, Yajnabahu, Hiranyaretas, Ghrtaprstha, Medhatithi and Vitihotra.


SAPTAGAiUGA. An ancient holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Ann' ' asana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 16, that if one goes to this place and gives offerings to gods and the manes and worships them, one would attain heaven and become a deva (god).


SAPTAGODAVARA. A holy place near the temp1e of Surparaka. Those who bathe in this would attain heaven. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 44).


SAPTAJANASRAMA. A holy place where seven hermits called the Saptajanas, went to heaven by standing head downwards in water. This was the place through which Sri Ram a and Sugriva went to Kiskindha. Sugriva told Sri Rama about the hermitage of aptajanas as follows


"Oh ! Raghava !This vast area is the hermitage where rest could be taken, as sweet fruits and pure water could be obtained and the forest looks like a garden. Here the seven hermits called Saptajanas, who did penance and took vow and fast by standing in water always, with heads downwards, did live in days of old." (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Sarga 13).


SAPT/1JIT. One of the daughters born to Kasyapa by his wife Dan u. (Matsya Purana 6:19 ).


SAPTAKIZT. An eternal god concerned in Sraddha (offerings to the manes). (M.B. Anr;sasana Parva, Chapter 91, Stanza 36).




1) General information. Saptamatrs are the seven goddesses named Brahmani, Vaisnavi, Mahesvari, Kaumari, Varahi, Indrani and Camundi.


2) Origin. Some are of opinion that the Saptamatrs are connected with Siva. Their names reveal that they were born from the bodies of Brahma, Visnu and such other gods. There is another story that when diva and Visnu joined together and tried to kill the asura named Andhaka and failed, they created the seven mothers to kill the asura. From each drop of blood of Andhakasura that fell on the ground an asura arose. These seven matrs joined with Yogesvari, the creation of diva, drank the blood of the asura without allowing it to fall on the ground and so it became easy for diva to kill the asura.


There is a stony in Vamana Purana, Chapter. 56, ahout the birth of the Saptamatrs, as follows : In olden days a fierce war broke out between the devas and the asuras. When the fierce asuras Canda and Munda were killed the famous asura named Raktabija entered the battlefield with an aksauhini of army (21870 chariots, so many elephants, 65610 horses and 109350 infantry). Seeing this immense army of the asuras drawing near, Kausiki, Mahesvari and Kalimade a loud roaring sound. Then from the mouth of Mahesvari, Brahmani came out seated on a swan and wearing rosary and water pot. From her eyes Mahesvari with three eyes came out seated on a bull and wearing great snakes as bangles and ear-rings and holding a trident. From the loins came out Kaumari, seated on a peacock and holding a lance. The beautiful Vaisnavi came out from her and, seated on Garuda, holding a conch, discus, club, sword, the bow :,arziga and arrow. From her posterior came out the horrible Varahi (Boar) with a great pestle, seated on the Naga (serpent) Mesa, and furrowing the ground with her fierce tusks. From her heart came out the awful Narasimhi (woman-lion) with fierce claws, who at the shaking of her mane displaced the planets and the stars, and from her foot Camundi came out. (See under Palala ) .


SAPTANAGA ( S) . (Seven serpents). The Saptanagas are Ananta, Taksaka, Karka, Padma, Mahapadma, Sankhaka and Gulika. All of them should be consecrated in temples as wearing Brahma-string and having the face with the expanded hood of a serpent. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51 ).


SAPTARAVA (SAPTAVARA). One of the famous children of Garuda. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 11) .


SAPTARSIS. (The seven hermits). A group of hermits. There are seven hermits in this group The Saptarsis in each Manvantara (age of Manu) are different. As there are fourteen Manvantaras before a great deluge, by that time ninetyeight Saptarsis will be born and dead. The father of the Saptarsis in each Manu's age will be different. The Saptarsis of the present Manu's age; Marici, Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Vasistha, Pulaha and Kratu are the mental sons of Brahma. (For further details see under the word Manvantara).


SAPTARSIKU>\TDA. A holy bath- ( tirtha ) situated within Kuruksetra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 73 that those who bathe in this tirtha will obtain the merit of good actions.


SAPTASALA (S) . The cursed forms of the King Manibhadra's seven sons who were sorcerers. Due to the curse of Agastya they became seven palm trees (salas). They obtained liberation from the curse during the incarnation of Visnu as Sri Rama. (For detailed story see under Manibhadra II).


SAPTASAMUDRAS. (The seven seas). See under Saptadvipa(s).




1 ) General information. A holy place situated within Kuruksetra. This is a holy bath dedicated to Sarasvati. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 61, that during his pilgrimage Balabhadrarama visited this holy bath.


2) Origin. A story occurs in Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 38 about the origin of this tirt_ha. It is given below:-


Once Brahma performed a sacrifice on the island of Puskara. All the devas (gods and goddesses) attended the sacrifice. Among the rivers, Sarasvati alone did not come at first. Then Brahma remembered Sarasvati and she appeared under the name Suprabha. Thus she appeared before the hermits who were doing penance in that place assuming seven different figures. From that day onwards the place became famous under Saptasarasvata. (See under Sarasvati).


SAPTASVAS. The seven horses of the Sun. The chariot of the Sun is nine thousand yojanas long and its shaft is eighteen-thousand yojanas long. The length of the axle is fifteen million seven lakhs yojanas. The wheel is secured to this axle. The entire wheel of 'Time' (Kalacakra) stuck fast in the undiminishing figure of `year' with three naves of the wheel, five spokes and sixty rings. The chariot is drawn by seven horses. They are the seven Vedic metres with their theory. They are Gayatri, Brhati, Usnik, Jagati, Tristup, Anustup and Pankti. (Visnu Purana, Atnsa 2, Chapter $.


SAPTOPAYAS. (The seven expedients). See under Caturupayas.


SARABHA I. A naga born in the Taksaka dynasty. It was burnt to death at Janamejaya's serpent yajfia. (Atli

~5 Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 8) .


SARABHA II. A naga born in the Airavata dynasty. It was burnt to death at janamejaya's serpent yajfia. (Atli Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 11) .


SARABHA III. A notorious Danava, son of Ka~yapaprajapati by his wife Danu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65,

~5 Verse 26) .


SARABHA IV. A maharsi, who worships Yama in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 14).


SARABHA V. Brother of Dhrstaketu, King of Cedi. He was a friend and supporter of the Pandavas. During the a4vamedha he helped Arjuna to lead the yajfiic horse. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 3) .


SARABHA VI. A brother of ~akuni. lie was killed in the great war by Bbima. (Drona Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 24).


SARABHA VII. Virabhadra incarnated himself as Sarabha to defeat Narasimhamfirti. (Siva Purana, Satarudrasarhhita) .


SARABHA&GA. A Maharsi, who lived in the Dandaka forest during the `forest-life' of Sri Rama. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranvakanda, Canto IV). When Sri Rama visited Sarabha:dga's asrama, Indra too came there, but went away saying that he would meet the maharsi after the great mission of Rama was over. The maharsi told Rama that he was waiting to see him and did not accompany Indra to Devaloka as lie wanted to go there only after seeing Rama. Rama answered the Maharsi that he would take upon himself all the spiritual assets and good results of the actions of the Maharsi, and wanted him to point out a place for them (Rama and others) to live. Sarabha:iga directed them to the asrama of Sutiksna, and after that ended his life by leaping into the fire and attained Brahmaloka.


SARABHAIZGASRAMA. A holy place. Those who visit the place purify their families. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 42) .


SARADANDAYANI. A Kekaya King. His wife, Srutasena was the younger sister of Kunti. As the couple did not get a child even very long after their marriage, the King got performed, with Srutasena's permission, the `Puriisavana' yajtia with the result that three sons (Durjaya and others) were born to them. (Adi Parva, Chapter 111) .


SARADVAN. A muni, the son of Gautama. From his


very infancy he preferred learning the dhanurveda  (science of archery) to the other Vedas. While a  brahmacarin (Religious student) he performed tapas  and secured divine arrows. Afterwards, having been  overcome by the charms and appeals of an apsara  woman named janapati, Saradvan had seminal  emission from which were born Krpa and Krpi. (For  details s, -e under Krpa).


SARADVATI. An apsara woman. She attended the birthday celebrations of Arjuna.


SARAGULMA. A monkey in Rama's army. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, 41, 3).


SARAKATIRTHA. A famous sacred place in Kuruksetra. He who takes his bath here on Caturdagi day of the dark half and worships Siva will have all his desires fulfilled and will attain heaven. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83) . Within this tirtha there are a crore of other tirthas called Rudrakoti, Kfipakunda etc. The sacred place to the east of it is said to belong to Narada.


SARALOMA. A maharsi, the father of Dasfira. Vasistha once told Sri Rama the story of Dasfira to prove that the world is all an illusion.


Dasfira was the only son of Saraloma, a muni, who performed tapas in the plains of the mountain in Magadha. Dasfira too did tapas in another part of the mountain. While the father and the son were living happily the father entered samadhi and the son wept over the loss of his father. Then a forest-nymph comforted him with celestial advice.


Dasura performed his father's obsequies. He began thinking that the earth was impure and that the top of trees was pure and decided to do tapas in such a manner that he got power to sit on the branches and leaves of trees. Accordingly he made a big pit of fire and began making offerings of flesh cut from his body into the fire. Agnibhagavan (Fire-deity) appeared and asked him to choose the boons he wanted. Dagura told Agni as follows: "Oh Lord; I do not find any pure spot on this earth, which is full of created living beings. You should therefore, grant me the power to live on the tops of trees." Agni granted him the boon.


Dasfira then climbed a big tree in the forest -and occupied, without the 1east fear, a tender leaf at the top of the topmost branch of the tree. He there assumed the Padmasana (the lotus seat for meditation). His mind was functioning actively as it had not been turned inwards into true knowledge. With his mind in such a state he performed yajfia. He continued performing yajfias like gomedha, a vamedha etc. mentally for ten years. Then self-illuminating knowledge arose in his mind. and he saW a beautiful forest-nymph seated beautifully attired at the end of the tender leaf on which he was sitting. She was looking very sad, her head bent down. Dasfira asked her, who she was so much beautiful and attractive as to evoke love even in Kama (the God of love). She answered him in a sweet voice as follows: "Very rare desires in life may be got if great men are requested for. I am the forest-nymph of this forest beautified by the tree you sit on and by trees and creepers e-jually beautiful. An assembly of the forest-nymphs has been celebrate a festival for the worship of Kamadeva on trayodasi in the suklapaksa of the month of Caitra. I too went there, and I, who am childless, felt sorry in mind to see the others petting their children on their laps. But, why should I be sad when you, who can give supplicants anything they wish for, are here? You should, therefore, bless me with a child or else I will end my life in fire."


Da9ura blessed her to have a son within a month. He told her also that it would be difficult for the son to acquire knowledge as he was got on the insistence that she would die in fire unless she got him. He did not grant her request for permission to live with him; he went into the forests leaving her behind him.


The son of the forest-nymph became twelve years old. Then, one day, she took the child to the muni; left it with him and went away. One day the father began telling the son a story, on the top of the tree, and Vasistha, who was going by the sky in invisible form to bathe in Kailasaganga, heard the story. Vasistha hid himself on the tree and listened to the story.


It was the story of king Svottha that the muni was telling his son as follows.-"He was famous for his noble qualities and unique prowess. He possessed three bodies, which possessed capacity to rule the country. One of the three bodies was the best, the other midway between good and bad and the third bad. The very origin of the King was in the wide and extensive sky; like birds he lived in the sky. He built a city in the sky with fourteen streets and three divisions or sectors. There were also forests, woods and mountains for games in the city; seven big tanks, wavy-white with creepers of pearl and two lamps, spreading heat and coolness, burning always. The King, who went about all his time in this vast city, built in it many movable inner dwellings, and they were divided between the upper and lower parts of the city. They were thatched with a kind of black grass. Each inner house had nine doors, some of them windows, which admitted air always. In each house five lamps burned, the 1amps resting on three pillars and a white piece of wood. Each house was glitteringly plastered and had courtyards. A particular sect of bhutas, who ever feared light, guarded the houses. When the houses created thus by magic moved from one place to another, King Svottha enjoyed, like birds in nests, playing various games therein. The king, who possessed three bodies, used to go out after playing for some time with the guards, and run about like one possessed of a desire to occupy houses, newly built, and then reach the city, which was like a Gandharva city., Frail and unsettled in mind, the king, off and on, developed a will to die, and accordingly he died. Just as waves come up in the sea, the king used to be born again from the sky and to attend to worldly affairs. At times he used to repent about and weep over his actions asking himself what he, the fool, was doing and why he should be sad like that. At other times he used - to feel elated and enthusiastic. Briefly put, he used to be, by turns drinking, walking, jumping, expanding, contracting, feeling, drowsy and then exuberant. The great and handsome king was actually, like the sea, rendered restless by wind, possessed by various moods.


The father was describing a philosophy of life figuratively to his son, but the boy understood nothing. Then, as

requested by the son, the father explained to him the meaning of the story as follows:


Svottha was concretised conception born out of the ultimate sky. Conceptions originate and die automatically. The whole visible world is imaginary. The world is there only when there is conception and in its absence no world exists. Brahma, Visnu, Siva and Ipdra are only parts of that conception. It is conception itself, which creates the world of three cities in nothingness or vacuum. On account of the blessing (will) of that fundamental Caitanya (awareness, life) the formless conception attains Brahmanhood (the universal self) and engages itself in the process of creation. The glittering city said to have been created in the sky is the fourteen worlds, the gardena in it are forests and woods, the play hills therein are mountains like the Himalayas, Meru etc. The two eternal lamps of heat and cold of the, story refer to the Sun and Moon. The creepers or garlands of pearl refer to rivers. Special gems have been described as tendrils of lotus and fire in the ocean and the seven seas are described respectively as lotus and the seven tanks. The statement that in this three-tiered city the king of conception built play-houses referred to the creation of individual bodies. The houses were connected as those in the upper, middle and lower parts to denote living beings in the three worlds, Devaloka, Manusyaloka and Patala. Movement is the journey of bodies due to the flow of Prana (breath).


Pieces of wood refer to bones and the plastering is skin. Black grass said to have been used for thatching is hair on the head. The nine doors are the nine openings in the body. Windows refer to the ear, nose etc. The hand arms etc. are roads and the five sense organs, lamps. The guards, who shun and quit light, are the egoes which run away from knowledge and discretion. The king of conception or imagination born from nonmaterials finds enjoyment in the house of the body, but the enjoyment is only ephemeral. Imagination develops a moment and is extinguished, like the lamp, the next moment. The place or status of conceptions in the body may be compared to that of waves in the ocean. When desire takes place for things conceived it returns to the `body-house', which is to be born, and it ends or perishes on achievement. Rebirth due to desire (will-power) is never for happiness, but is for unending sorrow and pain. T7fe wide world causes sorrow because it is felt to be real. Absence of this feeling ends the sorrow as night swallows clouds. Lamentation is the appeal or expression of the mind remembering forbidden practices in life and ananda happiness, is the proud state of mind remembering noble practices. The three bodies of the king according to the three states-the best or highest, the middle one and the low= denote the three attributes (Sattva rajas-tamo gunas) Causative of the existence of the world. The lowest of the attributes (tamoguna) or conceptions according to them, getting more and more pain-giving on account of uncultured action lead one to lower forms of life like the worm, tree, grass etc. Conception of real knowledge and truth is realisation of duty, righteousness and wisdom. It is next to the state of salvation called Devesvara state. Rajasa (the middle attribute) guna functions as material activities in the form of attachment to wife, son, wealth etc. When one has rejected the forms of gunas (conceptions) and the very conception is thus annihilated, one attains the supreme state. Therefore, Oh ! son ! you reject all external perceptions, control the mind by itself and completely annihilate all internal and external conceptions. Whether you live in heaven, on earth or in patala and do intense tapas for thousands of years, unless conception is eliminated you will not attain salvation.


After hearing the above explanation about the illusions in life, from his hiding place Vasistha went away. (Jnanavasistha, Canto 17) .




1) General. Bitch of the Devas. 8yama and 8abala, sons of Sarama, were two prominent messengers of Yama and they possessed four eyes each. The offsprings of these dogs are called Sarameyas. The Rgveda and Mahabharata contain a story about Sararna cursing Janamejaya. (For details see under Srutasravas III) . 2) Other information.


(i) Sarama worships Brahma in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 40) .


(ii) Sarama is a graha (Evil spirit) of Subrahmanya which enters the womb of pregnant women and steals the babies. (Vana Parva, Chapter 230, Verse 34).


(iii) Sarama after having once drunk milk from dasyus lied about it to Indra, and he punished her. (Varaha Purana).


(iv) Indra once deputed Sarama to find out the place where the Panis had hidden the cows on condition that he would feed her children. Sarama found out the place and informed Indra about it thus earning for her children their livelihood. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Chapter 5 ).


SARAMA II. Wife of Vibhisana and daughter of the Gandharva called Sailusa. Sarama consoled Sita weeping under the Asoka tree in Lazika. (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddhakanda, Canto 33, Verse 1).


SARAMA III. Daughter of Daksaprajapati by his wife Asikni. She was married by Kasyapa maharsi and from her were born the ferocious animals on earth. (Bhaga.vata, Skandha 6) .


SARAMEYA I. A King of the dynasty of Bharata. It is stated in Bhdgavata, Skandha 9, that Sarameya was the son of Svavalka. (Svaphalka).


SARAMEYA II. The son of the dog Sarama. (See under Sarama II).


SARAMEYASANA. A hell. (See the section Naraka under Kala).


JARANA. A serpent born in Vasuki's dynasty. It was burnt to death at Janame aya's serpent yajna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse) .




1) General information. A Ksatriya of the Yadu clan. It is stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 17, that he was the son of Vasudeva by Devaki and the brother of Sri Krsna and Subhadra.


2) Other details.


(i) This Sarana was one of those who took the dowry to Hastinapura at the marriage of Arjuna and Subhadra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 32) .


(ii) Sarana shone in the court of Yudhisthira: (M.B. Sabha Parva; Chapter 4, Verse 30).


(iii) Sarana participated in the Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 15). (iv) When Sri Krsna went to Hastinapura from DVaraka to take part in the horse-sacrifice of Yudhi-


sthira, Sarana also accompanied him. (M.B. Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 4) .


(v) Sarana was the foremost of those who disguised Samba the son of Jambavati as a woman, and abused the hermits. ( M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 15) .


SARANA II. A minister of Ravana. (For details see the word Sukasaranas) .


SARAI\%YA. A wife of Surya. (Rgveda, 10, 17, 2) .


SARARL A monkey, who accompanied Hanuman to the southern regions in search of Sita. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Canto 44) .


SARASA I. A child of Garuda. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 11).


SARASA II. A son of Yadu. He founded the city Krauncapura on the banks of the river Vena in South India. (Harivamsa, 2, 38, 27) .


SARASANA. Sec under Citrasarasana.


SARASTAIMBA. A sacred place in ancient times. He who bathes here will attain the state where he is -served by apsaras. (Anu.>asana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 28) .


SARASVATA I. See under Apantaratamas.


SARASVATA II. An ancient hermit. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 7, that Sarasvata was the son of Dadhica. Dadhica once happened to see the celestial maid Alambusa and became excited, and seminal discharge occurred to him. The semen fell in the river Sarasvati. The river became pregnant and delivered a child. This child grew up and became the famous hermit named Sarasvata.


After the death of the hermit Dadhici, due to scarcity of rain a great famine occurred which lasted for twelve years. When the famine became unbearable all the hermits on the basin and banks of the river Sarasvati began to migrate to other places leaving all their possessions behind, to save their lives. But Sarasvata alone remained on the banks of Sarasvati, living on fish obtained from the river, engaged in meditation and study of Vedas.


After twelve years the famine ended and the country became prosperous as before. The hermits who had gone to other places began to come back to their hermitages. The desire to study Vedas grew up in their minds. But there was not a single person, well-versed in the Vedas, except Sarasvata. So all the hermits accepted him as their teacher. Thus Sarasvata taught the Vedas to Sixtythousand hermits, who had returned to their hermitages. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 50).


In course of time the place where the hermitage of Sarasvata stood, became famous under the name Sarasvata tirtha. Tungakaranya is another name of this place. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verses 43-50) .


In ancient days there were two schemes of study known as `Kandanukramapatha' and `Sarasvatapatha' for the Taittiriya-collection (Sarizhita). But today the Kandanukramaputha has become quite extinct. The following is a description, given in Sariislc:annratnamala stating how the `Sarasvatapatha' attained 5o vigorous a vogue.


Once owing to the curse of the hermit Durvasas, the river Sarasvati took birth as a woman in the house of a Brahmin, who belonged to the Gotra of Atreya. Later from that same Brahmin she conceived and gave birth to a son named Sarasvata. The river Sarasvati herself, taught her son the Vedas completely, and then sent him to Kuruksetra to do penance. As a result of the penance Sarasva!a got an original Kramapatha (serial lessons) of the Taittiriya sariihita. He taught those serial lessons to his disciples. In course of time these serial lessons got the name Sarasvatapatha. which earned metaphysical and philosophical importance.


SARASVATA 111. A hermit who lived in the western regions. It is stated in Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 201, Verse 30, that this Sarasvata was the son of the hermit Atri.


SARASVATA IV. Mention is made in Padma Purana, Svargakhanda, about another hermit Sarasvata, who taught the Vedas to several disciples in Tufigakaranya.


SARASVATA V. The people who lived in a particular region of Western Bharata. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


SARASVATI I. Goddess of learning.


1) Birth. Sarasvati is the daughter of Brahma. Kamadeva was born from Brahma's heart; Krodha (anger) was born from his eyebrows; Lobha, from his lower lip, Sarasvati, from his face; the Sindhus from his genitals, and Nirrti, from his anus.


The following story about the birth of Sarasvati is from Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 43 :-


Brahma got ready for creation, and while in meditation sattvaguna (sublime quality) began swelling up in his mind wlherefrom a girl was born. Brahma asked her who she was. She answered : "I am born from you. You fix for me a seat and duties." Then Brahma told her that her name was Sarasvati and ordained that she should stay on the tip of everybody's tongue. You dance especially on the tongues of learned .people. You should also exist on earth in the form of a river, and assuming a third form you should live in me too." Sarasvati agreed to this.


2) Curse of Sarasvati. See under Ganga.


3) Misled Kumbhakarna. When Kumbhakarna requested Brahma for a boon, Sarasvati, at the .instance of the latter, lodged herself in the tongue of Kumbhakarna and made him ask for Nidrd vatva (Sleep), something different from what he really desired to get Viz. Nirdevatva (absence of Devas).


4) Received Badavagni. (all-consuming fire). Badavagni was born at the quarrel between the Bhargavas and Hehayas. Badavagni is flames of Aurva, .the Bhargava.


(See under Aurva) . It was Sarasvati who took the Agni to the ocean. As a result of this, Sarasvati, became a river in India. The story is told in the Srstikhanda of Padma Purana as follows:-


The world was about to be burnt in Badavagni, which


originated from Aurva, when Indra requested Sarasvati thus: "Oh ! Devi ! you should deposit this agni in the western ocean; or else the world will be consumed in its flames." To this Sarasvati told Visnu as follows:


"I am not a free person. I will do nothing without the permission of my father. Therefore, please think of some other means."


The Devas, who understood Sarasvati's nature, went to Brahma with their case. Immediately he called Sarasvati to him and asked her to deposit Badavagni in the western ocean for the safety of himself and the Devas. Unable to disobey her father, Sarasvati, with


tears in her eyes, agreed to do so. Then Gahga followed her and she told the former that she (Ganga) would


see her flowing northwards when she reached the eastern region surrounded by Devas.


Sarasvati sent back her companions like Ganga, Yamuna Manorama, Gayatri and Savitri who followed her. Then she appeared at the asrama of Uttanka under the Plaksa tree in the presence of the Devas. Just as Siva carried Ganga, the Plaksa tree bore Sarasvati and immediately did Siva give to her Badavagni in a pot. Because of his blessing the agni did not burn her hands. She went towards the north with the pot and came to Puskarini, and she stopped there to redeem the sins of people. It is believed to this very day that those who drink water from the Puskara will attain Brahmaloka.


From Puskara Sarasvati flowed towards the west and reaching a date-garden not far off from Puskara it rose up again where Sarasvati is known as Nanda as well. There is also another reason for the name Nanda. Once upon a time there was a King called Prabhanjana. While hunting in the forest he saw a deer inside a cluster of shrubs and he shot an arrow at it. Then the deer told the King: "What a crime is this ! You have wounded me, who am feeding my child. I have heard that the King shall not kill a deer while it is engaged in drinking, sleeping or mating. May you, who have done this cruel act, be transformed into a tiger and roam about this thorny forest." Saying again and again that he did not notice that the deer was feeding its child, the King begged for absolution from the curse. Taking pity on the weeping king the deer told him that he would be redeemed from the curse when he had talked with the cow called Nanda, which would go there after a hundred years.


According to the above curse the king got transformed into a tiger and spent hundred years eating wild animals. After hundred years were over a herd of cows came there grazing under the leadership of a cow called Nanda. Beautiful Nanda used to walk ahead of the other cows and graze alone at a secret place in the forest. There was a mountain called Rohita there, on the banks of the river. The northern side of the mountain was a dense forest infested by cruel animals. There lived there a very cruel and terrible tiger as big as a mountain. A generous person called Nanda was feeding the cows with grass etc. Nanda, the cow, got separated from the herd and came to the river when the tiger ran after it asking it to stop. Crying aloud the cow said: Oh tiger; I have a child, which has not begun even tasting grass and it is awaiting the return of its mother to the cow-shed at dusk. I shall go and take leave of the child and return so that you may eat me."


Taking pity on the cow the tiger granted its prayer. It returned duly to the tiger at dusk. The tiger, takers by surprise, by the honesty of the cow enquired of it its name, and the cow answered that it was named Nanda by its master, Nanda. As soon as the name was uttered Prabhanjana was released from his old curse and he became the former king. Dharmadeva then appeared there and asked her to choose the boon she liked and she replied as follows:- "I, with my child, must attain the ultimate place and position, and let this place become a sacred place for munis. Also, let this river Sarasvati, come to be known as Nanda, by my name."


Nanda immediately ascended to heaven and Prabhanjana returned to his palace. River Sarasvati came to lie called Nandi from that day: After flowing through the above-mentioned date-garden towards the south for some distance Sarasvati (Nanda) flowed again towards the north. She reached the ocean and deposited therein the pot of Badavagni. (Padma Purana, Srstikhanda).


5) Sarasvati as Brahmd's wife. The Puranas mention three wives of Brahma, Sarasvati, Savitri and Gayatri. But, the three are, according to Matsya Purana, one and the same person. The Matsya Purana mentions:Brahma created, from his own effulgence, a woman, who became famous under the names gatarupa, Savitri, Gayatri and Brahmarai. Brahma fell in love with his daughter and noticing the fact she turned away to the right side of her father. Then did a face appear on his right side. To avoid the amorous looks of the father, she slided off to both his sides, and faces appeared on those sides of Brahma. Then Sarasvati jumped up to the sky and a fifth face appeared on his head, turned upwards. Finding escape impossible she yielded to the desire of Brahma and they enjoyed honey-moon for a hundred years. To them was born a son called Svayambhuva or Virdt.


At one place in Skanda Purana, Savitri and Gayatri are referred to as different individuals. (See under Savitri).


6) Idol of Sarasvati. Sarasvati, clad in white clothes, sits on a white lotus. She holds in her hands a string of beads, book and Vina. She is depicted in sitting, standing and dancing postures. She is conceived as Sakti related td Visnu as also to Siva. In certain old works in Bengal, Sarasvati, instead of Bhumidevi, is to be seen along with Visnu. Agni Purana, Chapter 50, enjoins that idols of Sarasvati in temple should hold in its hands book, string of beads and Vina.


7) Other information.


(i) It was on the banks of Sarasvati that Vydsa performed tapas and Suka was born. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 1) .


(ii) There are various references to Sarasvati in the Rgveda.


(iii) Sarasvati shines forth in Indra's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 19).


(iv) Once Sarasvati advised the muni called Tarksya (Vana Parva, Chapter 185 ).


(v) During Tripuradahana (burning of the city of the Tripuras) Sarasvati served as a passage for the chariot of Siva to advance. (Karna Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 34) .


(vi) Muni Yajnavalkya once thought of Sarasvati and she appeared before him wearing ornaments of vowels and consonants and sounding `Om'. (Santi Parva, Chapter 318, Verse 14) .


SARASVATI II. River Sarasvati, flowing through north India is, according to Puranic conception, Sarasvati devi who has assumed the form of : river. (See under Sarasvati I) . The following information about river Sarasvati famed in the Puranas is from the Mahabharata.


(i) King Matinara once performed a yajna on the banks of river Sarasvati. At the close of the yajna Sarasvatidevi appeared and chose the King as her husband, arid a son called Tarnsu was born to the couple. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 26).


(ii) River Sarasvati is one of the seven tributaries of river Ganga and its source is under the Plaksa tree. One who drinks its water will become free from sin. (Adi Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 19) .


(iii) Sarasvati worships Varuna in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 19).


(iv) The Pandavas, while travelling in the forest, crosses' the river. (Vana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 2) .


(v) Sri Krsna conducted a yajfia in the plains of river Sarasvati. (Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 14) .


(vi) Kamyaka forest is on the banks of Sarasvati. (Vana Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 41) .


(vii) It is a holy river. If one bathes in it and worships one's ancestors one will attain Sarasvataloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 66)


(viii) Dadhica had his asrama on the banks of the river. (Vana Parva, Chapter 100, Verse 13 ).


(ix) Muni L,omasa once extolled the greatness of river Sarasvati. (Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 20).


(x) The river disappears in Vinaganatirtha and reappears at Camasodbheda. (Vana Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 3 ).


(xi) It is the source of Agni. (Vans Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 22) .


(xii) There are many holy places on the plains of the river. They are described in Chapters 35-54 of Salya Parva.


(xiii) River Sarasvati once carried Vasistha in its flow. (See under Vasistha) .


(xiv) Vi9vamitra cursed Sarasvati. (See under Vasistha).


(xv) Sarasvati returned to Dadhici maharsi the son born to her by him and he blessed her. (Saiya Parva, Chapter 51) .


(xvi) Balabhadrarama once extolled the greatness of Sarasvati. (Salya Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 33).


(xvii) Arjuna appointed the son of Satyaki as the master of a particular region on the banks of the river. (Mausala Parva; Chapter 8, Verse 71,).


(xviii) Following the death of Sri Krsna his 16008 wives drowned themselves to death in Sarasvati. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5; Verse 25 ).


SARASVATI- III. Wife of Manu. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 14) .


SARASVATI IV. Wife of Dadhici maharsi. The couple had a son called Sarasvata. (Brahmanda Purana, 101, Verse 9) .


SARASVATISAGARASAIIGAMA. The point where Sarasvati joins the ocean. It is considered to be a holy place. Candra regained his brilliance once dimmed by the curse of Daksa by bathing at this holy place. (For details see under dandra IV, Para 6) .


SARASVATISAIZGAMA. A sacred place. Brahma and the maharsis once worshipped Visnu here. He who bathes here will attain Brahmaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 151).


SARASVATYARNL'AS A1,IGAMA. A sacred place in Kuruksetra. One who bathes here and fasts for three nights will be freed- from the sin of Brahmahatya (killing of a brahmin). (Vana Parva, Chapter 83).


SARAVANA. The place where Subrahmanya was born. (See under Subrahmanya).


SARAVINDU (8ASABINDU). A famous King born in the dynasty of Bharata, son of Dusyanta. His father's name was Citraratha. He was a great ascetic and a powerfu1 emperor. (Bhagavata? 9th Skandha). He had no less than ten thousand wives and lakhs of children by each wife.


SARAYCI. A river very famous in the Puranas. The most important things associated with the river are given below


(i) Seven tributaries of Gafaga originate from the golden peaks of the Himalayas and Sarayu is one of them. Those who bathe in the river will be absolved from sins. (Adi Parva, Chapter 169, Verse 20)


(ii) The river exists in Varuna's court worshipping him. (Adi Parva, Chapter 8) .


(iii) Sri Krsna, Arjuna and Bhima, on their way to Girivraja from Indraprastha crossed this river. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 28) .


~iv) It was at Gotara (or Gopratara) in this river that r! Rama drowned himself to death and attained Visnupada. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 70).


(v) This river is the source of Agni (fire). (Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 22) .


(vi) Vasistha once blocked the course of Ganga on its way to Kailasa at Manasasarovara. But, Ganga broke the obstruction and flowed on, and Sarayu is the stream that started from there. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 155, Verse 23).


(vii) It is one of the rivers to be remembered both at dawn and dusk. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 21).


(viii) The city of Ayodhya is situated on the banks of Sarayu. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 5, Verse 5) .


SARAYU II. Wife of the Agni Vira. The couple had a son called Siddhi. (Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 11).


SARDCLA. A spy of Ravana. It was he, who informed Ravana about the arrival of Rama. (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddhakanda, Canto 30 ).


SARDULI. Daughter of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Krodhavasa, who had ten daughters including Sarduli. Tiger, leopard etc. were born from Sarduli. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakanda, Canto 14) .


SARGA (CREATION) . Agni Purana, Chapter 20 refers to various sargas as follows.


The first creation is that of greatness (Mahatva) i e. Brahma. The second creation is that of tanmatras called bhutasarga. The third is Vaikarikasarga also called Aindriyikasarga. These three kinds of creation are called Prakrta srsti (natural creation) and that is conscious and intelligent creation. The fourth is mukhyasarga. Mukhyas mean immovables. The fifth is tiryagyonisrsti. Since it functions side-long it is called tiryaksrotas. The sixth is the creation of LTrdhvasrotas, called devasarga. The seventh is the creation of arvaksrotas, called manusasarga. The eighth, amtgrahasarga, is both sattvic and tamasic. Thus, vaikrtasargas are five in number and prakrtasargas three. The ninth sarga is the Kaumara sarga, which is both vaikrta and Prakrta. The fundamental or root cause of the universe is the above nine creations of Brahma. Prakrtasarga is of three types, nitya (eternal), naimittika, (casual) and dainandina (daily). Nityasarga is the creation after interim deluges.


SARIDDVIPA. One of the prominent sons of Garuda. (Udyqga Parva, Chaprer 101).


SARIKA. A hermit who was a prominent member of the council of Yudhisthira. Mention. is made about

him in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 13.


SARIMEJAYA. A King in ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 19, that this King was present at the Svayamvara (marriage) of Draupadl.


SARTRA. (BODY). Body is constituted of the five elements, earth, water, fire, air and sky (ether). What is solid or hard in the body is earth; liquid, is water; hot or burning, fire; what gives motion to the body is air and what are pores in the body is sky.


Body is that which exists and functions with the five organs of knowledge eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin, and the five organs of action like Upastha (sex organ), Pani (hand), Pada (leg) and Van! (speech). The body depends on the six tastes, sweet, sour, saltish, bitter, hot and astringent. (Katu, amla, madhura, lavana, tikta and kasaya). The body is composed of seven internal e1emerits (dhatus) of seven colours, white, red, dark (black), black and white, yellow, brassy and faint-white (Pandura). Vatapittakaphas (wind, bile and phlegm) are intertwined in the body. Since the body is formed of vital fluids from the sex organs of the father and the mother it is dviyon: (males with ma1c and females with female organs of reproduction). The body exists by four kinds of foods, bhojya, bhaksya, khadya and lehya. After coitus, within one night, the male and female semen and blood combine into one body in the womb (Kalala). Within seven days it becomes foamy (budbuda). After a fortnight it becomes solid (pinda ) and after one month hard (kathina). During the second month the head of the child is formed; in the third month its feet: in the fourth its ankles, stomach and waist are formed. In the fifth month is formed the back (Prstha) and face, nose, eyes and cars are formed in the sixth month. During the seventh month life enters the child's body. By the eighth month all the signs of the human being are completed in the child. If the vitality and effulgence of the mother are more than those of the father the off-spring will be female and vice versa; if both are in exactly equal proportions the child will be a eunuch, neither male nor female. If the parents were sad and worried during the time of the mother's conception, the child born would be either blind, lame or a pigmy. If the semen is cleft into two by wind (in the womb) the mother would give birth to twins. In the ninth month the child will be gifted with knowledge and it will remember to what caste it belonged and what all good and evil actions it did in its previous life.


SARISRKKA. Son of the bird Mandapala. (See under Khandavadaha, Para 8).


SARNJAYA. A Srnjaya King. Mention is made about this King who had been the support of the Bharadvajas, in Rgveda, Mandala 6, Anuvaka 47, Sukta 25.


JARKA. A son of King Kusamba. parka had a brother called Gani. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 57) .


SARMAKA. A famous rural region in the northeast of India. Bhlmasena conquered the region during his triumphal tour. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 13) .


SARMI. A brahmin scholar. (See under Parnasala).


SARMISTHA. Daughter of Vrsaparvan, King of the asuras. (For details see under I3evayan!) -


SARSIGA. Sri Krsna's bow. The following facts about the beware gathered from the Mahabharata.


(i) When Krsna exhibited his Visvarupa (cosmic form) in the assembly of the Kauravas he had held in one hand this bow. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 131, Verse 10 ). 'ii) aKrsna's Sariiga is on a par with Indra's bow called Vijaya. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 4) .


(iii) S5riiga is one of the three divine bows. (Udyoga Parva. Chapter 158, Verse 5) .


(iv) Sarnga was made by Brahma and presented to Krsna. (M.B. Southern text, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 141).


SARINIGAKOPAKHYANA. The story of the Sarfigaka bird. (See under Khandavadaha).


SARfIGARAVA. A maharsi. He was one of the officiating priests at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 6 ).


SARPA. A son of Tvasta. According to Agni Purana the sons of Tvasta were called Ekadasarudras; But according to Mahabharata, Sarpa, one of the Ekadasarudras is the son of Sthanu and the great-grandson of Brahma. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 2) .


SARPABALL An offering made by Hindus in South India to propitiate serpents. Serpents are pleased by songs by Pulluvan and Pulluvatti (Male and female members of a Hindu sub-caste). To draw Kalams (drawings on floor conveying certain esoteric meanings), to make offerings and for the Pulluvars to sing-these form important elements of Sarpabali. The bali has a connection with the story of Khandavadaha. The legend behind the bali is that a Pulluva woman saved Taksaka, who escaped to the ocean after the Khandava forest was burnt down. Songs by Pulluvan and Pulluvatti are unavoidable items in Sarpabali.


Drawing the Kalam is a very important item in Sarpabali. It is drawn on a platform made of puttumannu (small heaps of earth thrown up by earthworms and termites), the platform being demarcated by four pieces of arecanut wood. The platform is covered with silk and tender coconut leaves are hung all around it. The Kalam is drawn with rice powder, and other coloured powders. The husk of paddy burnt into charcoal is powdered and with it serpents are sketched first on the mandapa (platform). The naga drawings are tinted with colours. The (colour) powders are collected in coconut shells and sprinkled on the drawings through holes in shells. Pulluvas exhibit wonderful artistic talents in making the drawings.


When the kalam is drawn worship of naga is begun compulsorily by a male member of the house, and he is technically called `Kalattil Kaimal'. He has been observing `vrata' during two days previous to the pujd (worship). Having taken his bath and wearing an additional cloth across his shoulders (Uttariya) he comes with water in a jar. Four lamps should be burning on four sides of the kalam. Also, paddy, rice, tender coconut, mi1k, fruit etc. should be placed on its four sides. As directed by the Pulluvan the `Kaimal' conducts the worship by offering flower, water etc. The Kaimal is to sit on each of the four sides of the kalam and do the puja. Then wicks (made of cloth) should be lighted, water sprinkled on it and with that the Kaimal should go around the kalam thrice. With the wicks placed on a leaf with paddy underneath it and also with burning camphor he should go round the


kalam. Then the Pulluvan playing on the Vina in front and a male member of the house with a vessel containing milk, a female member holding a lamp, two girls holding brass plates and the Kaimal and all of them following the Pulluvan go round the Kalam thrice and proceed to the serpents' temple in the compound, pray and return. After all these persons are seated, the Kaimat washes the feet of and puts flowers on the heads of the two girls, who had held the brass plates; seats them on two pieces of round wood in the kalam. The girls will have mirror etc. in their hands. They should concentrate their eyes on the heads of the serpents. Now begins the Pulluvan pattu (song by Pulluvan ). At the time of the worship they will be beating tunes on a brass pot, music being made on the Vina.


`Pulluvan pattu' is the most important item in the whole programme. The songs relate to the burning of the khandava forest, Kaliyamardana (suppression of the naga king) etc. One Pulluvan sings songs and a second one repeats them. A minimum of two Pulluva males and two females are required for the purpose. As the songs acquire momentum the girls begin to shake their heads and to wipe off the kalam. Then the girls are asked questions and they answer. Within a short time the girls will swoon and fall on the ground. They are brought back to consciousness by water being sprinkled on them and by fanning. This is in general the nature of a Sarpabali.


SARPADEV1. Sarpadevi, also called nagatirtha, is a sacred place in Kuruk setra. A bath here is as beneficial as the performance of an agnistoma yajfia. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83) .


SARPAMALI. A maharsi gifted with divine powers. He had a talk with Sri Krsna on the latter's way to Has a. (Udyoga larva, Chapter 83) .


SARPANTA. A bird born in the line of Garuda's children. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12) .


SARPASATRA. See under Janamejaya, Part 5.


SARPASYA. A R5ksasa. He was the commander-in-chief of the army of Khara and Dusana, who had clashed with Rama and Laksmana at ~ar:cavati. Khara and Dusana had twelve reputed army-chiefs, including Sarpasya. (Valmiki Ramayana, Canto 27) .


SARPIRMALI. A maharsi, who flourished in the court of Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4. Verse 10).


SARU. A Devagandharva. He participated in the birthday' celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 58) .


SARVA. One of the eleven Rudras. (Bhagavata, 6th Skandha).


SARVA. Another name of Sri Krsna. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 12) .


SARVA. A Puranic river. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 89, Verse 36) ,


SARVABHAUMA I. A king of the Bharata dynasty. He was the son of Viduratha and the father of Jayatsena. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


SARVABHAUMA II. A son born to King Ahamyati of the Lunar dynasty, by Bh5numati, daughter of Krtavirya. This Sarvabhauma married Sunanda, daughter of the King of Kekaya. (M.B Adi Parva, Chapter 95) .


SARVABHAUMA III. An elephant born in the family of the Diggajas (Eight elephants supporting the globe). Mention is made about this elephant in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 26.


SARVABHAUMA IV. An incarnation in the Manvantara (Manu's age) of Savarni Manu. Sarvabhauma was begotten by Devaguhya and was born of Sarasvati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 8 ).


SARVADAMANA. Bharata, the heroic son of Sakuntala. (For details see under Bharata I).


SARVADEVATIRTHA. A sacred place in Kuruksetra. He who bathes there will derive benefit equal to that of gifting away thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 88) .


SARVAGA. Son of Bhimasena by his wife Balandhara. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 7 7 )


SARVAKAMA. Son of King Rtuparna. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


SARVAKAMADUGHA. A daughter of Surabhi. She holds up the northern region. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, Verse 10 ).


SARVAKARMA. Son of King Saudasa. When Parasurama killed the Ksatriyas it was Paragaramuni, who saved Sarvakarma from death. (Santi Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 76).


SARVAPAPAPRAMOCANAKUPA. A Kupa (well) which drives away all sins. It is a tirtha. He who bathes in its waters will never have to face evil fate. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 126).


SARVARTUKA. A beautiful forest near mount Raivataka. (M.B. Southern text, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38 )


SARVASARAiUGA. A n5ga born in Dhrtarastra dynasty. It was burnt to death at janamejaya's serpent yajna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 18).


SAhVASENA. A king of Kasi whose daughter Sunanda was married by emperor Bharata. The couple had a son called Bhumanyu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 32).


SARVATEJAS. A King born in Dhruva's dynasty. Vyu:sta was his father. (Bhagavata, Skandha 4) .


SARVATOBHADRA. Varuna's home. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 98, Verse 10) .


1) General. Iksvaku, Nabhaga, Dhrsta, S`aryati, Narisyanta, Praihsu, Nrga, Dista, Karusa and Prsadhra were sons of Vaivasvata Manu. Saryati had a son called Anarta and a daughter called Sukanya, who was married by the aged and blind Cyavana, and a son named Pramati was born to the couple. (See under Cyavana).


2) Other information.


(i) Saryati lives in Yama's court worshipping him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 14):


(ii) Cyavana performed for garyati his yajna at which the A,~vinikum,;,ras, in disobedience of Indra, drank Somarasa. (Vana Parva, Chapter 124).


(iii) Two famous Kings, Haihaya and Talajangha were born in Sarydti's dynasty. (Anugasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 6).


SARYATI II. A King of the Puru dynasty. He was the son of Pracinvan and father of Ahamyati. (Asramav5sika Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 14) .


SARYATIVANA. A sacred forest. Arjuna, in the course of his `dream-trip' to Kailasa in the company of Sri Krsna crossed this forest also. (Drona Parva, Chapter 80, Verse 82).


SASABINDU. See under Saravindu.


JASADA I. Son of Vikuksi, the King of Ayodhya.

Puranjaya was 8asada's son. (Brahmanda Purana. Chapter 1).


SASADA II. A son of Iksvaku. His real name was Vikuksi. (For the detailed story as to how `Vikuksi' became

h `Sasada' see under Vikuksi).


JASAKA. A caste. Karna, during his triumphal tour, defeated the King of the Sasakas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Verse 21 ).


h9ASALOMA. A King very much reputed in the Puranas. He did tapas at Kuruksetra and attained


,~ heaven. (Asramavdsika Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 14).


JAhSAYANA. A sacred place. In the waters of river Sarasvati at this place the full moon reflects in the form of a gaga (hare). A bath here will make a man as bright and lustrous as the moon. (Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 114) .


SAhSIKA. A rural area in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 46) .


SASIKALA. Daughter of Subahu,. King of Ka~i. She was married by a prince Sudarsana who had been driven out of his kingdom by Yudhajit.


As she became a young woman Sagikala heard about Sudarsana, who lived in the forest with his mother and fell in love with him. One night Devi appeared in dream to her and told her that marriage with Sudarsana would take place, and at those words of Devi she awoke from sleep and began laughing. Though her mother asked ~asikala about the reason for her laughing thus, she answered not, but continued laughing. One day while she was picnicking in the Campaka forest, an old brahmin came there and described to her about the great personality and beauty of Sudarsana, who then was staying with his mother at Bharadvajasrama. Sa,:ikala's heart yearned to be with Sudar4 ana.


Sudarsana, after the death of his fath_r Dhruvasandhi, lived with his mother Manorama and her father. But, Yudhajit killed Manorama's mother also. It was after this that Sudarsana and his mother took refuge in the asrama of Bharadvajamuni. One of those days, Nisada, King of Srngiverapura and a friend of Sudarsana's father (Dhruvasandhi) came to Bharadvajagrama and presented a chariot, which possessed mysterious powers, to Sudars ana. The munis were pleased at this and imparted to Sudarsana the Kamar5jamantra, which gave one who practised it all that one desired, and after the above incident Sudargana began slowly to come out of the asrama. He went about the forests in the chariot presented by Nisada, and he was astonished to find many an armed soldier surround him wherever he went. This happened because of the mysterious powers of the chariot.


It was at this time that King Subahu decided to conduct the Svayarhvara of his daughter Sa:'ikala. Kings from all lands came. Sa~ikala told her mother in secret about her desire to marry Sudarsana, and the mother in turn told about this to the father. But, he was not for it. Then Sasikala sent a messenger secretly to Sudar ana to request him to be present at the Svayamvara, and Sudarsana and his mother started for the palace of the King of Kasi and when they reached it, kings like Yudhajit had already come there. A rumour was spread that Subahu, insultingly ignoring all the crowned heads, was going to marry his daughter to Sudarsana, a mere beggar. The assembled Kings, therefore, got themselves ready to pick a row with Sub:lhu, but, he pacified them with the assurance that the Svayaiiivara of 8asikala would formally be conducted and her husband could then be selected by herself. That night Sasikala's parents tried their best to divert her heart away from Sudar:"ana, to no purpose and the same night she was duly married to him. By the next morning news about the marriage became public and all the Kings, who had come for the Svayamvara decided in conference to kill Sudarsana on his way back home with his wife, and abduct gagikala. Accordingly on the fourth day after the wedding when Sudarsana and Sagikala were returning to Ayodhya escorted by the army allotted to them by Subahu, King Yudhajit and his followers attacked them from their hiding place. In the battle that ensued Devi appeared and helped Sudar ana, who defeated the enemies. People of Ayodhya received with enthusiasm the victorious Sudarsana and he was crowned their King. In later years he became famous as emperor Sudarsana.


SASTA. The presiding deity (idol installed) in the Sabarimala temple.


1) Birth. Siva fell in love with Mahavisu in his assumed form as Mohini and Sasta was the* result of their union. (Kambaramayana, Balakanda). This story occurs in the 8th Skandha of Bhagavata and the Asura kanda of Skanda Purina, but only the Skanda Purana refers to the child by name Sasta.


2) Other iyfornaation.


(i) In the battle between Indra and the asura called Surapadma the former deputed Sasta for the protection of Sacidevi. (Skanda Purina, Asura Kanda).


(ii) Sasta is supposed to have two wives called Purina and Puskala and a son called Satyaka. (Astottarasatakam about SdstA; also see under Sabarimala).




1~ * General. A Devi born out of 1/6 part of original nature (Mulaprakrti). Since she was born out of 1 6 part, she is called Sasthidevi. Also called Devasend, Sasthidevi is the patron-devi of children. She grants them life. She protects them as the real mother and always remains by their side. She has earned Siddhis by the practice of yoga, is the best among the astamatrs (eight mothers) and is the wife of Subrahmanya.


2) Blessings of the Deua. She is foremost among the devis, who bless children. There is a story in the ninth canto of Devi Bhagavata revealing the importance off Sasthidevi.


Though 1'riyavrata, son of Svayambhuva Manu was at first averse to marriage he, at last, married, on the insistence of Brahma, a woman called Malin!. For long he had no issues and sad at heart he got a putrakamesti yajfia performed by Kasyapaprajapati as a result of which Malin! got pregnant, and delivered in the twelfth year. But, the child was still-born and Priyavrata set out with the corpse for the burning gnat, But, he could not make up his mind to give it up and so decided himself also to court death. Then he saw a divine plane stop there with a woman in it, who spoke to him as follows: "I am Devasenadevi, the mental daughter of Brahma and wife of Skandadeva. It is I, who grant son to the sonless, wife to the wifeless, husband to the husbandless, wealth to the poor and the results of their


actions to all." So saying the Devi took from Priyavrata the corpse of his child and brought it back to life.


SASTHIHRADA. A sacred place. Bathing here is more beneficial than gifting away food. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 36).


SASOLUKAMUKHI. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 22 ).


SASVA. An ancient King in Bharata. It is said in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter I, Verse 17, that this King remains in the palace of Yama and glorifies him.


SATA. A great yaksa friend of Vaisravana. (See under Dipakarni for the story about how data became a cursed Vaksa).


SATABALA. A peepal tree on the peak of mount Kumuda. From the branches of the tree milk, butter-milk, glhee, juice of Sugar-cane etc. descend carrying with them divine rice, clothes, ornaments etc. to the Kumuda mountain and flow in rivers towards the north. The people in those places get their rice, clothes ornaments etc. from the river. Minaksidevi praised by Devas has her abode here. Those who drink milk etc. flowing in the river will not be affected by hunger, thirst and signs of old age. Nor will any danger overtake them. They will live long. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha).


SATABALL A great monkey under the leadership of Sugriva. He was the leader of the monkeys deputed to the northern regions to look fox Sita. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda Canto 43) .




He who gives gifts of fragrant materials like sandalwood on the day of this star will, after death, live with the apsaras and enjoy fragrant smell. (Anus asana Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 30) .


SATACANDRA. A brother of Sakuni. In the battle of Kuruksetra he fought on the side of the Kauravas and got defeated by Bhima. (Drona Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 23 ).


SATADHANUS (hSATADHANVA). A Yadava king. (For details see under Krtavarmd Para 2) .


SATADRU. The Puranic name of the Indian river now called Sutlej. Grief-stricken over the death of his son, Vasistha once jumped into this river, which, realising that the maharsi was as powerful as fire, divided itself into many branches and flowed in various directions, and hence the river came to be known as Satadru. (Adi Parva, Chapter 176, Verse 81. Once in talking about sublime rivers to Siva, Parvatf mentioned this river also. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 146, Verse 18) . $atadrf is also one of the ten rivers referred to in the Rgveda.


JATADYUMNA. A King in ancient India, son of Caksusa Manu by his wife Nadvala. (Visnu Purina, Part 1, Chapter 13 ). Nadvala had ten brilliant sons including Satadyumna. gatadyumna once gifted away a house of gold to the brahmin called Mudgala and thereby attained heaven. (anti Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 32) .


SATAGHANTA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya.

E~ (9alya P,arva, Chapter 46, Verse 11) .


SATAHRADA. Mother of the Raksasa called Viradha. His father's name was Jaya. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakanda).


JATAJIT I. A King of the Yadava dynasty. Satajit, son of Sahasrajit, had three sons called Mahahaya, Venuhaya and Hehaya. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


SATAJIT II. Son of Sri KMrsla by Jambavati. Satajit met with his death in the quarrels among the Yadavas at Prabhasatirtha. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


SATAJYOTI. Son of King Subhrat. The King had one lakh sons. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 44).


SATAKARN1 1. See under Mandakarni.


SATAKARNI II. Son of King Purnotsaiiga. He ruled the country for fiftysix years. (Matsya Purana).


SATAKSI. Another form of Devi. (For details see under burgama).


SATAKUMBHA. A sacred river, considered to be the source of agni. (Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 22 ).


SATALOCANA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 60) .


SATAMUKHA 1. (SATAMUKHA RAVANA). Father of Indumukhi, the wife of Sahasramukha Ravana. Satamukha had defeated Patala Ravana in battle. He gave the eternal weapon called Kathorakuthara as dowry for his daughter's wedding. (See under Sahasramukha Ravana).


SATAMUKHA II. An asura, a great devotee of Siva. He did very intense tapas for hundred years making offerings of his flesh in the fire. Siva, who was pleased with his tapas, granted him many boons. (Anugasana

~5 Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 58).


SATANANDA I. Priest of King Janaka. He was the son of Gautama by Ahalya. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha and Agni Purana, Chapter 278 ). Satananda felt elated that Sri Rama restored to Ahalya her old sanctity and also that his father Gautama received back his mother and lived with her. It was Satananda, who acted as high-priest at the wedding of Sita with Rama.


SATANANDA II. A maharsi, who possessed divine gifts. He once paid a visit to Bhisma. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 8) .


SATANANDA. A female attendant of Subrahrnanya.

h (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 11).


SATANIKA I. A King born in the dynasty of Yayati. He was the son of Brhadratha and father of Durdama. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


SATANIKA II. Son of Nakula. The Mahabharata contains the following information ,about this Satanika.


(i) To Nakula was born of Draupadi a son called Satanika. (Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 123) .


(ii) This Satanika was born from an aspect of Vi'svadeva. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 127)".


(iii) Once upon a time there was in the Kaurava dynasty a Rajarsi called gatanika and it was to perpetuate that name that Nakula named his son `Satanika'. (Ad i Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 84) .


(iv) This Satanika defeated in the great war jayatsena,


Duskarna and Citrasena. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 42; Chapter 79, Verse 46 and Drona Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 12).


(v) Satanika fought with Vrsasena, Srutakarma, the son of Dhrtarastra and Mvatthama. (Drona Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 7; Karna Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 13 and Chapter 85, Verse 14) .


(vi) He killed Bhutakarman and the prince of Kalinga in the great war. (Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 23; Karna Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 21).