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R. This letter means "sound". (Agni Purina, Chapter 348).


RA. The letter ra means fire, strength, Indra. (Agni Purdzia, Chapter 348) .


RABHASA I. A monkey in Sri Rama's army. (Vilmiki RSmayana Yuddhakarda, Canto 4) .


RABHASA II. A Raksasa on Ravana's side. (VAlmiki Rimayana, Yuddha Kanda, Canto 9) .


RABHYA. An ancient king wedded to justice and fairplay in ruling the kingdom. (For details see under Ekavira).


RADHA I. Sri. Krsna's dearest consort. Radha is considered to be one of the, two forms of Laksmidevi. When Krsna lived in Gokula as a man with two hands Ridha was Iris dearest consort. But when. he lives in Vaikuntha as four-handed Visnu, Laksmi is his dearest consort. (Devi Bhagavata 9, 1; Brahmavaivarta Purina, 2, 49 and 56-57 and Adi Parva Chapter 11) .


Different versions about the birth of Radhi are given in the Pur5nas, as follows :-


(i) She was born in Gokula as daughter of Vrsabhinu and Kalavati. (Brahmavaivarta Purina, 2, 49; 35-42 ; NArada Purana, 2. 81) .


(ii) She was got as Bhumi-kanya (earth-girl) when King Vrsabhinu was preparing the ground to conduct a Yajna. (Padma Purina; Brahma Purina 7).


(iii) She was born from the left side of Krsna. (Brahmavaivarta Purina).


(iv) At the tune of Krsna's birth asked his attendants to be born on earth. Accordingly Radlra, dear consort of Kr•sna, took her birth in Gokula under the starjyestha in the morning of Suklastami day in Bhadrapada month.. (Adi Parva 11 ),


(v) Krsna once went with Viraja, the Cop! woman, to the hall of enjoyment (rasamarrdalam). Knowing about it Ridh5 followed them to the hall, but both of them were not to be seen. On another occasion Nvhen Radha found Viraja in the company of Krsna and Suddma she, in. great anger, insulted Krsna whereupon Sudirria cursed her to be born in human womb and experience the pangs of separation from Krsna. (N5rada Purina 2. 8; Brahmavaivarta Purina.. 2. 49) and R.dlr5. cursed him in turn to be born in the d<nava dyhasty. It was on account of this curse of R5.dhi that Sudama was born as the asura called Sankhacuda. (Brahma Vaivarta Purina, 2. 4. 9. 34) .


(vi) Radha is considered to be one of the five forces which help Visnu in the process of creation. (Devi Bhagavata 9. 1 ; Narada Purina 2. 81) .


(vii) Ridha is the mental power of Sri Krsna. (For details see under Pancapranas).


RADHA II. Wife of Adhiratha, the foster-father of Karna and the foster-mother of Karna. (See under Karna).


RAGA. One, of the seven daughters of Brhaspati-Arigiras. As she was loved by all beings she came to be called Raga. (Vana Parva, Chapter 203).


RAGAKHANI)AVA. A cake.-like thing formed in a Yajna performed by King Dilipa. (Drona Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 8).




1) General. A famous king of the Solar dynasty. The great king Dilipa was his father. (For Genealogy, birth etc., see under Da.'aratha and Dilipa).


2) Other information.


(i) Raghu also occupies a place in the list of famous kings of ancient days. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 232 ).


(ii) In the fight between the king of Virata and the Kauravas (over the lifting of cows) Raghu was present along with Indra to see Arjuna fight. (Virata Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 10) .


( iii) Raghu got from King Yuvanasva a sword, which he presented to Harinasva. (Sand Parva Chapter 166, Verse 78 ).


(iv) He did not eat flesh. (Anusisana Parva, Chapter 150. Verse 81 ).


(v) Ksatriyas who praise Raghu will not be defeated in war. (AnL9asana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 51).


(vi) In the list of kings to be remembered at dawn arid at dusk. Raghu too is included. (Anu'Ssana Marva, Chapter 165, Verse 51) .


RAGINI. A celestial woman, daughter of Himavan and elder sister of Parvati.. (For details see under Parvati ).


RAHASYAVEDA. A Veda composed by mni Arvavasu. This Veda is about Surya. (Bharata, Chapter 137, Verse 19).


RAHODARA (RAHODARA). A muni of ancient days. There is a story in Chapter 39 of the Vamana Purina about a skull falling on the muni's neck and the place where the skull was removed from his neck coming to be known as Kapalamocana.


Sri Rama killed the Raksasas who lived in Dandaka forest. The head of one of the Raksasas cut by a very sharp knife was thrown off at a distance in the forest and it fell on the neck of Rahodara, who happened to be walking at the time in the forest. It (the head) cut deep into the bones of the Sage and that made it difficult for him to ;hove about. Yet, he visited all the holy places on the earth with the skull of the Raksasa around his neck. At last he told the noble Rsis about his misfortune and they directed him to visit `Au4anasatirtha', and the moment he touched the water in the tirtha the skull fell into the water. Having been told about the incident, the Rsis named the tirtha `Kapalamocana'.


RAHOVADI. A king of the Puru dynasty. He was the son of Samyati and the father of Bhadrasva. (Agni Purina, Chapter 278.).


RAHU. An Asura.


1) Birth. Son of Ka'syapaprajapati by his wife Siriihika. (Adi Parva. Chapter 65, Verse 31).


2) Rdhu and the Solar eclipse. The oldest story aboutRahu is that about the solar eclipse. (See under Candra IV, Para 4).


3) Other information.


(i) Rahu is a member of Brahma's court. (Sabha Parva Chapter 11, Verse 29).


(ii) Safijaya once spoke to Dhrtarastra about Rahn. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 40).


(iii) Rahu exists 10,000 yojanas below the Sun. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


(iv) Rahu is installed in temples as wearing a half-moon on his head. (Agni Purina, Chapter 51).


RAIBHYA I. A hermit who was famous in the Palace of Yudhisthira. Information about this hermit, found in the Mahabharata is given helow


(1) Raibhya who was a friend of Bharadvaja had two sons named Arvavasu and Paravasu. They were great scholars. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 135, Stanza 12).


(2) Bharadvaja once forbade his son Yavakrita from going to the hermitage of Raibhya. Getting angry at this, Raibhya struck his matted hair on the ground and created a wicked fairy and ordered her to kill Yavakrita. Knowing this Bharadvaja ran to that place and cursed Raibhya that his eldest son would kill him.


Once Paravasu, mistaking his father for x cruel animal killed him. By the effort of his second son Arvavasu, Raibhya was brought to life again. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 138, Stanza 137) .


(3) Raibhya was the son of Angiras. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 26).


(4) Raibhya was once an assistant at the sacrifice of Uparicaravasu. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 33, Stanza 7 ).


(5) Raibhya was one of the hermits who visited Bhisma in his bed of arrows. (M.B. Anu:` asana Parva; Chapter 26, Stanza 26) .


RAIBHYA Il. An ancient hermit. This hermit learned the Satvatadharma from Virana. After that he taught his son Dikpala, this dharma. (M.B. Santi Parva. Chapter 343, Stanza 42) .


RAIBHYA III. The father of Dusyanta, the husband of Sakuntala. This Raibhya was the son of Sumati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


RAIBHYA IV. One of the sons of Brahma. Once Raibhya went with Vasu and Angiras to Brhaspati and asked him several questions, about the attainment of Supernal bliss. Brhaspati replied that attainment of heaven could be had, not by action but only by devotion. Raibhya immediately started to Gaya to do penance. There he met with the Sanatkumaras. (Varaha Purina).


Urva;,i made an earnest effort to hinder the severe vow and penance of Raibhya. But it was of no use, and by his curse, that celestial woman became ugly. She entreated him for liberation from the curse. Raibhya blessed her and said that she could obtain her original form by bathing in Yodhinikunda. (Yogini Kunda). Urvasi bathed in Yodhinikunda and from that day onwards that tirtha (holy bath) came to be known as Urvag iyoginikunda.


RAIKVA. There was a noble King in ancient India named Jinasruti. The following is a story about the fame of this King.


One night while this King was sleeping, some hermits took the form of swans and were flying through the air. One of them saw the radiance of the fame of Janasruti shining brightly. The other swans said that the fame of Raikva was far greater than this. Jana.:ruti heard this. He found out Raikva and placed all his wealth at the foot of Raikva and gave him his daughter in marriage.


RAIVATA I. Information about this King found in the Mahabharata is given below :-


(1) An ancient King in Bharata. Once he heard the Gandharvas singing songs from Sdmaveda in the arbours of Mandara mountain in the south and so much immersed in it, he desired to renounce his country, city, wife and everything and go to the forest. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 109, Stanza 9 ).


(2) He got a sword from Marutta. He gave that sword to Yuvanasva. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 166, Stanza 77).


(3) Raivata never ate meat. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 115, Stanza 63 ).


(4) He is one of the Kings who should be praised in the mornings and evenings. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 165, Stanza 53 ).


RAIVATA II. One of the eleven Rudras. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 19 ).


RAIVATAKA I. A mountain in Gujarat. It stands near the present Junagadh. The present name of Raivataka mountain is Girnar. In Mahabharata it is spoken of as Uhjjayantagiri. It is stated in Mahdbhaxata that while Sri and Arjuna were travelling through Prabhasaksetra once, they got to the top of this mountain. (Adi' Parva, Chapter 217, Verse 8) .


The Yadavas once celebrated a great festival on the Raivataka mountain. It was during this festival that Arjuna carried away Subhadra, the sister of Sri Krsna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 219; Bhagavata, Skandha 10) .


RAIVATAKA 11. A mountain in Saka Island. Mention is made about this mountain in Mahabha~ata, Bhi gma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 18.


RAIVATAKA (RAIVATA). Son of Priyavrata, the brother of UttInapada. Priyavrata had two wives Surupa and Barhismati. Surup,_1 gave birth to ten sons beginning with Agnidhra. Three sons Uttama, Tamasa and Raivata were born to Barhismati. These three sons became Lords of Manvantara, in course of time. (See under Manvantara).


RAJA I. A warrior of Subrahinanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 78) .


RAJA II. A Sage. He was one of the sons born to Vasistha of OrP.


RAJA. One of- the two gate-keepers of Suryadeva. (~BIiavisya, Brahmakanda).


RAJA (N) . All the important Puranas have laid special emphasis on the importance of rule by Kings. All living beings will have Kings of their own. It was Brahma who first assigned or ordained Kingship. After the creation of the Prajapatis, Brahma made Candra the King of' the stars and medicines; Varuna was appointed King of waters like sea, river etc; Vaiaravana was appointed King of Kings; Visnu, King of Devas; Agni, King of Vasus; Indra King of Maruts; Daksa King of the Prajapatis; Prahhida King of the danavas; Himavan, King of mountains; Citraratha, King of Gandharvas; V: Sukl, King of nagas; Gar uda, King of birds; Air5.vata, King of elephants; Ox, King of cattle, Tiger, King of animals. Peepa.l tree, King of trees and Uccaissravas that of horses. (Agni Purina).


As to what type the King of man-kind should be and what should form his duties it is ordained as follows. The R~-Ja should appoint either a Ksatriya or a brahmin as his Co»nmand; r - in - chief. The Commander-in-chief should be of noble birth and well-versed in law. Only a strong man who can speak boldly and openly should be appointed emissary or ambassador. Either a male or a female may bu, appointed to carry chewing tnaterials. But, that person should be loyal, friendly and capable of putting up with hardships. The body-guard of the King should be a good swords-man. Ministers should be conversant with dharmas~_istras (moral and ethical codes).


Also, the King should be surrounded by the royal physician, chief of the elephant division of the army, the mahout, chief of tyre cavalry force, master of the forts, the architect, preceptor in archery and the chief of the internal administration of the palace.


When it is yet three hours for the dawn, the King should Nvake up from sleep. Music, praises by courtiers etc. should herald his waking up. As soon as 'he has woken up, the King should hold talks with his spies. Then he should examine accounts uid only after this should he begin the ablutions. z'ifter his puja (worship) is over, cows with gold shout:. 're gifted to brahmins. With their blessings he must look fir,t into the mirror and then in ghee along with gold. Then he must look up the almanac for the day's sr.:: etc. An-l after having taken the medicine prescribed b; the physician and


also the blessings of the preceptor the King should attend court. (Agni Purina. Chapter 235).


According to Chapter 8 of the Manusmrti " a great authority on law and ethics) Kings are born from the shoulders of Indra, Vayu, Yama, Surya, Agni, Varuna, Candra and Kubera.


RAJA (S). One of the seven sons of Vasistha by Urja, the other six being qotra, Urdhvabahu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapas, and Sukra. Holy souls, these seven were Saptarsis in the third Manvantara. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 10).


RAJAIDHARMA. A stork, which was a friend of Brahma and a son of Kasyapaprajapati. This stork was known as Nadijangha also. (See under Nadijarigha).


RAJADHARMANUSASANA PARVA. A sub-Parva of Santi Parva, Chapters 1-130).


RAJADHIDEV I. The youngest of the five daughters of the solar King aura by Marisa. King jayasena of Avant! married Rajadhidevi. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


RAJAGRHA (GIRIVRAJA). An ancient: city in India, capital of Magadha. Dirgha King of Girivraja was killed by King Pandu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 112, Verse 27) Another King, Ambuvica, had for a tithe ruled over the city. (Adi Parva, Chapter 203, Verse 17). Afterwards Jarasandha became its King. Girivraja is a holy place as well. He who bathes here will become as pleasantlooking as King Kaksivan. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 104) .


RAJAMUKHI. A celestial woman. (Skanda Purina ) .


RAJANI. A holy river in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 21 ).


RAJANITI. (Politics and administration).


Politics and administration or administrative politics in ancient India is dealt with in Manusmrti arid Agni Purina. A very brief summary of it is given below


The King should organise six kinds of army formations, worship the Devas duly and then set out for war. Mulabala, Bhutabala, Srenibala, Suhrdbala, Satrubala and ktavikabala are the six kinds of army formations. The list is given in order of the corriparative importance of the bala. The army has six parts i.e. Mantra (advisers;, Kosa (treasury), Pa&.ti (infantry). Turaga (Cavalry), Gaja (elephant) and Ratha (chariot).


If an attack is feared either against the forts or across rivers or trenches, the army should be marched for their protection. The Army Chieftains surrounded by mighty warriors should lead the divisions. The King and his wife should be at the centre of the army-division along with the treasury and first class soldiers. On both sides of the King should march the cavalry and the chariots should form the farther wings. Elephants should proceed on the two sides of the chariot and soldiers recruited from forests must march on the sides of the elephants. The supreme commander will march behind all the others guiding the army.


If there is cause for fear in front of the army during the march, three Vyuhas (Phalanxes) Makara, Syena or Sac! should be put in the Vanguard. The 1~akata Vyuha is more suited to meet an attack from behind. ff attack is feared from the flanks then also the Sakatavyuha is advisable. When attack from all the sides is feared sarvatobhadravyuha is indicated. It is the duty of the Supreme Commander to safe-guard his arm-v and suppress reactionary forces whenever the army gets weakened, when it marches through caves, mountains or rocks or other difficult terrain or weakened by the persistent attacks of the enemy.


When the time, place and the people's attitude are favourable, the King should engage himself in open war with the enemy, and if they are unfavourable he shall not go in for war. If confrontation with the enemy occurs under circumstances in which the King is visible to the enemy, powerful divisions of the army consisting of warriors of great calibre should be stationed either at the front or in the rear.


In the formation of vyuhas (phalanx) there are seven factors called Uras (breast), Kaksas (arm-pits) , two Paksas (sides), two Madhyas (centre) and Prstha (rear). The commanders should be surrounded by bold soldiers. The leader is the very life of the war. At the Uras of the vyuha powerful elephants, at the Kaksas chariots and at the Paksas cavalry should be stationed. This is called paksabhedivyu.ha. If at the centre cavalry and at Kaksas and Paksas elephants are stationed, it is called antarbhedivyuha. If there are no chariots, cavalry or .infantry may be put in their place. Certain authorities maintain that in every vyuha elephants may be stationed in the place of chariots, if chariots are not available. (Agni Purina, Chapter 242) .


RAJAPURA I. An ancient and famous city in Kamboja.

Here Kan' ta defeated the Kambojas. (Drona Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 5).


RAJAPURA II. Capital city of King Citrangada of Kalinga. Innumerable kings gathered together in the city in connection with the Svayamvara of the princesses. (anti Parva, Chapter 4 Verse 3).


RAJAKSKHARA. A Sanskrit dramatist who lived in India in 7tb century A.D, Balabharata or Prakandapandava, Balaramayana, Viddhasalabhanjika and karpuramanjari are his more famous dramatic works. Karpuramanjari refers to him as the preceptor of a king of Kanauj. Rajasekhara was known by the name Kaviraja also.


Balaramayana, called also Mahanataka, is a drama in ten Acts. Baiabharata contains only two Acts. Its theme is the wedding of Draupadi and the ruin caused by the game of dice. Viddhasilabhanjika is a drama in four Acts. He has a further work to his credit, Kavyamimdtiisa in eighteen chapters.


Some scholars hold the view tLat Rajasekhara lived in the 10th century A.D.


RXTASLJYA. A great yajna. Haris eandra and also Dharmaputra performed it. (Sabhi Parva, Chapters 33, 35, 84) .


RAJASIJYAPARVA. A sub-Parva of Sabha Par va. (Chapters 33-35) . ,


RAJASUYARAMBHA PARVA. A sub-parva of Sabha. Parva, Chapters 13-19.


RAJATANABHA. A Yaksa. He married Manivara, daughter of Anuhrida and two sons, Manivara and Manibhadra were born to them.


RA;JAVAN. A muni born .in the Bhrgu dynasty. To 1~hrgu were born of his wife Khyati, Laksmi, the wife of Visnu and also two sons called Dhata and Vidhata. They married Ayati and Niyati daughters of Meru. Two sons, Prana and 1L/Ikandu were born to the couples. From Mr.kandu was" born M;drkandeya and from him Veda•:iras. Prana had a son called Dyutiman and he a son called Rajavin. It was from Rajavan that the


Bhcgu dynasty multiplied. (Visnu Purina, Part 1, Chapter 10) .


RAJAYOGA. See under Yoga .


RAJI (RAJI). A prominent king of the Puru dynasty. He was one of the five sons of Ayus by SvarbliInu the other four being Nahusa, Ksatravrddha, (Vrddhasarman) Rambha and Anenas. (Asratna Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 23 .


Purinas contain stories that Indra destroyed people born in Raji's dynasty as they hated the former. That side in which the powerful Raji fought used to win. In a fight between the asuras and the Devas, when Indra felt that his side was losing, h,~ secured the participation of Raji in the fight on condition that the latter would be given Indra-hood. The asuras were defeated and Raji was made king of svarga.


Raji had thousands of children and they were known under the common name Rijeyaksatriyas. But they were a foolish lot and lacked the capacity to distinguish themselves in Indra's place. Therefore, at the instance of Brhaspati, preceptor of the Devas, Indra destroyed them all and resumed his former position and status. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha ; Vayu Purina, Chapter 92, Verse 76 ; Brahmanda Purina 11 ; Harivamsa 1, 28; Matsya Purina. Chapter 24, Verses 34-49).


RAJJUKA_~?THA. A grammarian. In Panini'sastadhypayi he is depicted as a maharsi possessing great knowledge of the Vedas.


RAJNL Second of the three wives of Vivasvin. The couple had a son called Revata.


RAJYAVARDDHANA. A king of Vaisali. Rajyavarddhana was a great ascetic, who could comprehend the past, the present and the future. Knowing that his death was near, he told his subjects about it and went into the forests for tapas.


Sorry over the departure of their king, his subjects as well as ministers began worshipping Surya, who appeared and blessed them saying that their king would live for ten thousand years in perfect health, victory and with all wealth and prosperity and other resources and with unimpaired youthfulness.


The ministers and subjects greatly elated over the boon informed their king in the forest about it, but he only felt sorry about it. He told them that during his life for ten thousands years he would have to witness the death of his sons, grandsons and subjects and would thus have to be sad throughout life.


The king consoled and made them return. Then h.• did rigorous tapas to Surya and secured from him the boon that during his life-time none would die. (Markandeya Purana).


RAKA I. The presiding Devi of the full moon. She too was present at the birth of Subrahmanya. (8alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 14).


Rakadevi was the daughter of Atigiras, who had by his wife Smrti four daughters called Sinivali, Kuhu, RAU and Anumati. (Visnu Purina. Part 1, Chapter 1).


RAKA 11. A girl. She served, at the instance of Kubera, Maharsi Viravas, and a son called Khara and a daughter, Surpanakha, wcre born to her by the maharsi. (Vana Parva, Chapter 275, Verse 3) .


RAKSAS. A particular sect of asuras. Yaksas and Raksas were ofsprings born to Kasyapa prajapati of his. wife Muni, (Agni Purina, Chapter 19).


RAKSASA I. A particular sect of asuras. The ancients had ordained that Raksasas should not be killed at dusk. Valmiki Ramayara, Balakanda, Canto 22, Verse 22).


Uttararamayana, contains the following story about the origin of Ralksasas. When Brahma was reciting the Vedas at the beginning of Krtayuga he felt very hungry and certain forms emanated from his face. Those who were born from his anger assumed the form of Raksasas and those from his hunger that of Yaksas. The Raksasas turned out to be evil folk killing and eating cows and brahmins. Praheti and Heti were the first born Raksasas, the latter of whom wedded Bhaya, daughter of Kala, and to them was born a son called Vidyutkesa. He married Salakatanka, daughter of Sandhyd. Though a child was born to them they forsook it in the Him5layan slopes and went their own way.


At that time Siva and Parvati. came that way and after blessing the child returned to Kailasa. The child was named Sukea. He married Devavati, daughter of the Gandharva called Mai iimaya and three children were born to the couple, viz. Malyavan, Sumali and Mali. They did tapas to propitiate Brahma and when he appeared requested him thus : "We must defeat Yaksas Kinnaras, Gandharvas, Siddhas, Vidyadharas, Yama, Kubera, Vasava, Naga kings and daityas and danavas and we must not be defeated by any one. We must kill all enemies and they shall not kill us. We three shall never quarrel among ourselves."


Brahma granted all their prayers. The three, proud and haughty due to these boons, began roaming about consuming cows and brahmins. They asked Visvakarma to build a city for them and he built for them Lanka on Mount Trikuta in the south sea. The three brothers took their abode in Lanka Malyavan, Sumali and Mali married respectively Sundari. Ketumati, and Vasudha, daughters of the Gandharva woman Narmada Malyavan begot of Sundari seven sons called Vajramusti Virupaksa, Durmukha, Suptaghna, Yajfiakosa, Matta, and Unmatta, and also a daughter called Nala.


To Sumali were born of Ketumati ten sons and also four daughters.


Four sons were born to Mali of his wife Vasudha, and they became the ministers of Vibhisana.


Then thousands of Raksasas were born as sons, grandsons, brothers, nephews, etc. to the above and they lived in Lanka, a terror to the whole world.


While the daughters of Sumali, Veka, Pus potkata, Kaikasi and Kumbhinasi were once walking in the forest they saw Kubera on a visit to Brahma in all pomp and glory. They understood that Kubera owed his pomp and glory to his being the son of Visravas and therefore, the next day one of the four, Kaikas i, went to Visravas's asrama and prayed for children by him. Three sons called Ravana, Vibhisana and Kumbhakarna and a daughter called Surpanakha were born to her by Vigravas. They secured boons by performing tapas and Ravana lived in Lanka as king of the Raksasas.


RAKSASA II. An approved system of marriage. (See under Vivaha).


RAKSASAGRAHA. An evil spirit connected with the Raksasas. Affected by this spirit man will immediately become mad. (Vans Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 50 ).


RAKSASAYAJNA (RAKSASASATRA). Parasara Muni once conducted a yajna to annihilate the Raksasas altogether. (Adi Parva, Chapter 180). The provocation for Parasara to conduct the yajfia was that a Raksasa called Kalmasapada ate Sakti, the father of the muni and the son of Vasistha. When the yajfia had reached its climax Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu went to.Parasara and held conciliatory talks with him, and Parasara, ended the yajfia. The Agni that he had made to devour the Raksasas was discarded on the slopes of the Himalayas. According to the Puranas that fire, even to this day, continues consuming the Raksasas, trees and rocks. (For details see under Kalmasapada and Parasara) .


RAKSITA. A celestial woman, daughter of Kasyapap.rajapati by Pradhadevi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 50).


RAKSOBHAKSA. A hell. (For details see under Kala.)


RAKSOVAHA. A kingdom in ancient India. The Ksatriyas there were annihilated by Paras urama. (Drona Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 12).


RAKTA. A son of Mahisasura. He had two sons called Bala and Atibala. He had also a number of mighty army generals like Dhumraksa and thousand aksauhinis under each general. (Skanda Purana, 7.1.119).




1 ) General. Rebirth of Rambhasura, father of Mahisasura. Stories of Raktabija and Rambhasura are inextricably intertwined.


2) Origin of Raktabaja. Once upon a time there lived an asura king called Danu. His two sons, Rambha and Karambha who had no children, did tapas at Paficanada for the blessing of having issues. Rambha and Karamblia meditated upon M.lavata Yaksa, the former seated at the centre of the five fires and the latter standing in the water. Indra in the guise of a crocodile dragged Karambha away by the feet and killed him. Angry at the death of his brother, Rambha decided to cut off his head and offer it in fire. When he was about to do so, Agni appeared and told him that suicide was worse than killing others, and promised to grant him whatever he desired. Accordingly Rambha requested Agni for a son more effulgent than the latter, who would conquer the three worlds and would not be defeated even by the Devas and the Asuras. Rambha further wanted that son to be as powerful as Vayu, exceptionally handsome and skilled in archery.


Agni blessed Rambha that he would have, as desired, a son by the woman whom he coveted. On his way back home he saw a beautiful she-buffalo, which he married. He took the buffalo which got pregnant by him, to Patala to protect it from the attack by other buffaloes. One day another buffalo felt a passion for Rambha's wife and in the fight that ensued Rambha was killed by it. Rambha's wife died in his funeral pyre. It was from the centre of the fire that the very powerful Mahisasura was born. Rambhasura also rose from the fire under the name Raktabija. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 17; Devi Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


3) Boon to Raktabija. Raktabija secured from Siva a boon according to which if one drop of blood from his body fell on the battlefield, many Raktabijas would arise from the blood and fight the enemies. Each of these Raktabijas would also be like the others in the matter of strength, form and weapons. (Devi Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


4) His death. War between Devas and Asuras broke out and in the fight between Devi and Raktabija blood from his body flowed. When Devi found it impossible to kill the laklrs of'Raktasuras who arose from the blood, she resorted to a trick. She asked Camundi to lick off the blood flowing from Raktabijabefore it fell on the ground. Accordingly Des; began killing the asuras and Camundi consuming their blood and flesh. When the artificial Raktabijas were all killed thus, the original Raktabija alone remained and in the fight between them, Devi cut off his head with her sword. Camundi did not permit even a drop of blood to fall on the ground. (Devi Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


RAKTAJA. A form assumed by Arjuna in his previous birth. The following story is told in Padma Purana

(Chapter 14) about Arjuna being reborn as such at the meeting of Kali and Dvapara yugas and Svedaja being

born as Karr ia during the same period.

Once during a quarrel between Siva, and Brahma tire former nipped off Brahma's head. (For details see under Brahma:). Some drops of sweat appeared on the forehead of the angry Brahma, and from the sweat which Brahma wiped with his hand arose a person wearing a thousand shields, bow and quiver. That person was Svedaja. He asked Brahma what he should, do and the former granted him permission to destroy iva. He then approached Siva with bow drawn and the frightened Siva ran to Visnu and sought refuge. Svedaja followed Siva and when Vimu, seeing him, raised a loud noise `Hum'. Siva prostrated at Visnu's feet. Siva extended the skull in his hand towards Visnti requesting something to be ,given to him. Mahavisiiu, who had nothing else to give Siva, put his right hand into the skull as alms, Siva wounded the hand with his Sala (three-pronged weapon) and pure red blood began flowing from the hand into the skull. The blood continued flowing for a thousand years in a length of fifty yojanas and thickness of ten yojanas. At the end of the period Visrm asked whether the skull was not filled yet, and looking into the skull with his three eyes Siva answered that it was full. Then Visnu stopped the flow of blood, and Siva, in the presence of Visnu, looked into the blood for a thousand years and stirred it with his hand. The blood gradually turned into a bubble, and a person possessing thousand hands and as glowing as fire appeared in the skull. He had a crown on his head and he held in his hands a bow and quiver. He wore gloves on his hands. And, that was Raktaja, an incarnatiord of Nararsi.


Looking at Raktaja, Siva told Visnu thus : "This master in archery is Nara. You spoke Nara, and let his name, therefore be Nara. Oh Narayana, you both will be called Naranarayarras. This Nara will be of help to you on behalf of the Dev as and also in the sustenance and protection of the world. He will further help you to kill the asuras. Nara, the great intellectual that he is, will become a muni, of surpassing wisdom. Brahma's divine fifth head possesses so much of effulgence. Nara is created from that effulgence and also from the blood from your hands and my look at it. He will annihilate all enemies in war. He will be a terror to those persons who cannot be conquered by you, Indra and the other Devas.


While Visnu stood there amazed Raktaja praised him and Siva with folded hands and asked from the skull


what he should do. Then Siva ordered him- thus You kill this asura (Svedaja) created by Brahma with his own effulgcnce." And Siva led Raktaja out of the skull by his hands and told him again :-"Look, here lies the terrible person I spoke about made -unconscious by the cry of "Hum' by Visnu. Awake him immediately." After having said this Siva disappeared. Nara, in the presence of Nardyana, kicked the unconscious Svedaja with leis left foot, and he came out of his unconscious state.


The fierce fight that ensued between Raktaja and Svedaja continued for two years. By then Svedaja had lost everything but one of his shields and Raktaja had only his two arms to fight with. At this stage Vasudeva (Vrsnu) in great alarm went and asked Brahma whether Raktaja might not kill Svedaja. Brahma answered `In the next birth Nara may defeat Svedaja'. Saying `Right, let that be so', Visnu returned to the battlefield and withdrew them from fighting with the assurance that they would be given an opportunity to fight again during the p°riod of the Kali and the Dvapara yugas.


Afterwards Visrru directed Aditya (Sun) and Akhandala ( Indra) to look after Raktaja and Svedaja. He told ;Utya further : ---`- At the end of the Dvapara yuga you should see that Svedaja is reborn, in the interests of the Devas, as your son. In the Yadu dynasty will be born a very powerful fellow called Sura and lie will have a very beautiful daughter named Prthd. Durvasas will advise her some mantras as a boon and she will have some sons from the Devas whom she will invoke with the mantras. With that object in view, while in her periods, she would, at the time of dawn gaze at you with love. Then he (Svedaja ) will be born as the son called Vasusena of Kunti, the virgin."


The Sun-God agreed to obey the above instructions of Visrru and told him further :-"I shall procreate in the virgin a very powerful and valiant son, who will become well-known in the world as Karna. He will gift away all wealth to brahmins." After saying this Surya disappeared.


After this Visnu told Indra as follows :-"You should, at the end of the Dvapara yuga see that this Nara, born from blood, is reborn as an aspect of yours on earth. King Par rclu will one day go into the forest with his wives, Kum! and Madri, and 'he will then become the object of an animal's curse. He will therefore, in a spirit of renunciation, go to mount Sata~:rnga where he would ask Kunti to become a mother by another man. Unwilling to 'do so Kunti will desire to have sons by Devas, and when she prays to you, you should favour her with this Nara as son.


Devendra raised a legal objection to the above injunction of Visnu as follows :-"You, who incarnated yourself as Rama in the twentyseventh yuga of the last Manvantara for the purpose of killing Ravana, killed my son Bali. Therefore I do not wish to procreate Nara as my son." To this objection of Indra Visnu assured him that as a penalty for the.mistake of killing Bali, he would be a companion of Nara (Arjuna) who would be born as lndra's son.


According to the above terms and conditions fighting between Raktaja and Svedaja ended. In the next birth Raktaja was born as Arjuna and Svedaja as Karna. Mahavisnu incarnated himself as Sri Krsna. The meeting of the three in the battle-field is wellknown.


RAKTAIUGA. A naga born in Dhrtarastra's dynasty. It was burnt to death at the yajfia of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 18).


RAMA. A synonym for Mahalaksmi. There is a story in the eighth Skandha of Devi Bhagavata as to how the name Rams came to be attached to Laksmi.


Revauta, the very handsome son of Surya one day came to Vaikuntha mounted on his horse Uccaissravas to pay his respects to Mahavisnu. Even Laksmidevi stood aghast speechless for a very short time at the charm of Revanta changing her looks between him and his horse. Mahavisnu did not at all like this and cursed that since Laksmi's eyes enjoyed the sight of some one she would come to be called Rama also and that she would be born as a mare on earth.


RAMA (SRI RAMA). The seventh incarnation of Mahavisnu, a very powerful king of the solar dynasty.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus: Brahma -Marici - Ka~yapa-Vivasvan - Vaivasvata Manu-Mahabahu - Prasandhi - Ksupa-Iksv:1ku - Vikuksi - SasadaKakutstha (Puranjaya) -Anenas-Prthul<isva-PrasenajitYuvanasva-Mazidhat~;.-Purukutsa-Trasadasyu-AnaranyaHryasva-Vasumanas-Sutanva - Traiyyaruna-Satyavrata (Trisanku)-Haris candra - Rohita va - Harita - CuficuSudeva - Bharuka - Bahuka - Sagara - AsamafijasaAriis uman-Bhagiratha-Srutanabha- Sindhudvipa-Ayutayus-Rtuparna - Sarvakarna - Suda_s - Mitrasakha (Kalmasapada) - Asmaka - Mulaka - Khatvanga - Dilipa (Dirghabahu) -Raghu-Aja-Das aratha-Rama.


2) Reason for his birth. When Ravana was ruling over Lafika as a terror to the world, evils and cruelties like matricide, patricide, fratricide, killing of cows, hatred for good people, children's death, abduction of women, killing of munis, thefts etc. became rampant. When the world became grief-stricken Bhumidevi (Goddess of earth) assumed the form of a cow and took refuge with Indra in Svarga. She told him about the atrocities committed by Ravana and the other Raksasas. Then Indra took Bhumidevi (cow) to Brahma, who took them to Siva at Kailasa as killing Ravana was beyond his (Brahma's) power. Siva thought it improper on his part to kill Ravana and", so he took Brahma and others to Visnu and submitted their grievance to him. Visnu consoled them by saying as follows:---"f have decided to incarnate myself as the son of Dasaratha, king of Ayodhya. You Devas also should take birth on earth to help me to kill Ravana and other evil Rdksasas and to protect Bhumidevi and the good people on the earth." (Kamba Ramayana, Purva Kanda).


3) Birth King Dasaratha, of the solar dynasty -ruled Kosala with Ayodhya as his capital. Maharsi Vasistha was his family preceptor. With the cooperation of eight ministers such as Sumantra and-others he ruled the country in the path of supreme welfare and prosperity. A daughter, Santa, was born to him of his wife Kausalya. Years passed by, yet he had no son. O;le of those days King Lomapada, close friend of Dasaratha visited Ayodhya. Lomapada, who was childless requested Dasaratha for Santa and she was given as his adopted daughter by Dasaratha. Lomapada gave her in marriage to Rsyasrfiga, who had once caused rain-fall in Anga. (fer details see under Rsyasrnga ).


To have a son, Da: aratha took as his second wife Kaikeyi, daughter of the King of Kekaya and younger sister of Yudhajit. But she turned out to be barren. Then he married Sumitra, daughter of the King of Kasi. Even after many years none of the three wives of Da° aratha presented him with a son.


One of those days Da aratha went deep into the forest, hunting. While resting on the banks of river Sarayu he heard a sound like that of an elephant drinking water in the river. Without realising the fact that the voice was that of the son of a muni filling water in a pot for his aged parents, the King released an arrow against him. When Da aratha walked to the spot, he realised his mistake. He had hit unknowingly a brahminboy, a muni's son. The boy lay wounded about to die. The boy explained to Dasaratha who he was and how he had come to the river to carry water to his aged parents. After telling the King details about him he breathed his last. Sobbing at his misadventure, Da'saratha went to the aged parents of the dead boy with the pot filled with water. The parents, who were blind thought that it was their son who was approaching them when Dasaratha revealed the sad story to them. After cursing Daaratha that he too would die of separation from his son, the aged muni expired; his wife also died in his funeral pyre. The grief-stricken King returned to Ayodhya.


Only Vasistha and Sumantra were told about the curse, which, though a cause for great sorrow, implied that Dasaratha would have sons. Vasi ,tha, therefore, advised Da aratha to get the yajfia, called put.~aa~amesti performed by Rsya rnga. Accordingly the King invited his daughter Santa and his son-in-law, Rsyasrnga to Ayodhya, and the yajfia began. IZsyawrnga made offerings in the sacred fire chanting the putrakama hymn. Then a divine person arose from the fire with a golden vessel full of pudding (nectar of the Devas) and disappeared again in the fi:°e after giving the vessel to Rsyasriiga. Rsyasrfiga handed it over to Dasaratha, who as advised by the maharsi divided the pudding between Kausalya and Kaikeyi. They gave a part of their shares of the pudding to Sumitra also. The three queens conceived, and in due course of time Kausalya and Kaikeyi delivered a son each and Sumitra two sons. The son of Kausalya was named Rama, the son of Kaikeyi, Bharata, and sons of Sumitra were named Laksmana and Satrughna. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakdnda) .


4) Boons granted to Kcaikeyi. Before the sons were born to Dasaratha, the mighty asura called Sambara once attacked Devaloka. Dasaratlia was at that time known as Nemi, and he was a great friend of Indra, and or. his invitation Nemi, along with Kaikeyi, went to Devaloka in a chariot. Nemi killed the asura army within half an hour. Then Sambara -assumed the form of ten Sambaras and attacked Nemi from ten points. In this context Nemi turned and twisted his chariot in all the ten directions at the same time and killed all the ten Sambaras and recaptured Svarga. It was from that day onwards that Nemi came to be known as Daearatha.


In the fight with the Sambaras on all points Dasaratha's chariot was so violently sliakcn that the key of its axle N% as about to slip off and fall down. Noticing the threatened danger Kaikeyi applied her finger to the proper place of the axle and thus averted the mishap. When Dasaratlra knew about this timely action of Kaikeyi he was so very pleased that he asked her to choose any two boons she desired, and she asked him to keep the boons with him to be granted whenever she requested for them. Dasaratha and Kaikeyi took leave of Indra and returned to Ayodhya. (Kamba Ramayana, Baiakanda).


5) In the company of Visvdmitra. The four sons of Dasaratha grew up in Ayodhya. Though they were equally friendly to one another, intimacy between Rama and Laksmana and also between Bharata and Satrughna came to be thicker. Once Visvamitra decided to conduct a yajfia for the happiness and contentment of all people. At the very commencement of the yajfia,Raksasas, in batches, tried to spoil it, and Marica and Subahu, sons of Tataka were the leaders of the obstructionists. Visvamitra knew that Rama was the most effective weapon against the Raksasas and requested Dasaratha to lend him Rama's help. Dasaratha felt sad about it and Visvamitra was getting excited over the former's attitude when Vasistha advised Dasaratha to send Rama along with Visvamitra. Accordingly Dasaratha sent Rama to the forest in the company of Visvamitra. Laksmwia too followed his brother.


While walking in the forest Visvamitra related many old stories to Rama and Laksmana. Thev crossed river Sarayu, passed by many asramas of rnunis and reached the Pales forest. Here Visvamitra imparted to Rama and Laksrrrana, who felt too weak on account of hunger and thirst the two mantras Bart and Atibala, which would ward off hunger and thirst. He also taught them the use of certain rare arrows. Sri Rama was specially taught the use of a divine arrow called Jrmbhakastra.


6) Tdtaka killed. While Visvamitra was relating to them the story of Tataka, who dwelt in the forest, they saw the fierce Raksasi coming fast with a long spear in her hand. She threw a big rock at Visvamitra. Rama shattered the rock with an arrow. Next, Tataka dashed forward against Rama roaring furiously, and Rama, with another arrow killed her. The soul of the dead Tataka assumed the form of a Gandharva woman and ascended to heaven.


7) Salvation to Ahayj. Raksasas like Subahu lined up to obstruct the yajria, which Vitvamitra began after the killing of Tdtaka. Rama killed Subahu ; Marica ran away in fright and hid himseh in the sea. Rama drove away the other Raksasas.


Next, Visvamitra, hearing about the Svayarhvara of Sita, daughter of King Janaka started for his palace with Rama and Laksmana, and on the way he told the boys many Puranic stories. They bathed in the river Ganges and a short walk took them to the vacant°ama of Gautama. The great muni called Gau tames had once lived in this asrama with his dutiful wife Ahalya and their son Satananda, an erudite scholar in ail sciences. Indra, who lost his head over the great beauty of Ahalya went to the asrania one midnight in the form of a cock and crew. Thinking it was already dawn Gautama went to the river for bath when Indra assumed the form of the muni, entered his bed room arid slept with Ahalya. When Gautama understood the fraud thus played upon him, he cursed her into a stone. She was to resume her old form when, during Tretayuga, Sri


Rama trod upon the stone. Accordingly, as soon as Rama trod on the stone Ahalyacast off her form as stone and resumed her old form as Ahalya. Immediately Gautama and FSatananda also appeared on the scene. Ahalya ascended to the sky as a devi.


8) Marriage. Vlsvamitra came to king Janaka's palace with Rama and Laksmana. Janaka's daughter Sites and his younger brothers' daughters Mandavl, Urmila and Srutakirti were living in the palace as sisters and very good friends. One day the princesses who were playing in the garden could not pluck jasmine flowers from a height. Sites then brought the Saivacdpa (Siva's bow) from the weapon-room and shot down jasmine flowers with it. As Janaka watched Sita's action of~shooting with the Saivacapa an idea came into his head. He announced that the hero, who succeeded in shooting with Saivacapa, would be given Sites in marriage.


Just as Rama and Laksmana were inseparable companions Sites and Ormila were always to be found together and Mandavi and ~rutakirti were particular friends. Sri Rama shot an arrow from Siva's bow and lie was selected as Sita's husband. Janaka informed Dasaratha of the marriage and he came with his attendants. Bharata married Mandavi, Laksmana, Urmila and Satrughna, Srutak:rti. After- living in Mithila for sometime Dasaratha and otla~rs returned to Ayodhya. Vi9vamitra went to the Himalayas for rest.


9) Parasurama's threat. Das aratha and others on their way back to Ayodhya passed the Videha kingdom and reached the suburbs of Bhargavas rama. All of a sudden a shining form of a brahmin with Ksatriya effulgence appeared in front of the procession. Vasistha understood that it was Parasurama and Dasaratha and others were alarmed. Parasuramaapproached Sri Rama who was viewing the former with quiet serenity. Parasurama was very angry that Rama broke the bow of Siva who was his (Parasunima's) preceptor. All Rama's conciliatory talk failed to pacify Parasurama, who spoke thus to Rama : "You, impudent fellow ! you insulted me and my preceptor. All right, let me see your power. Take this my bow, and shoot with it."


Sri Rama took hold of the bow and bent it easily and fixing an arrow on. it asked Parasurama to point out the target for it. As Parasurama feared that if the arrow was sent, it might crush the whole univese, he asked Rama so choose the result of his (Parasurama's) tapas as target for the arrow. Both the bow and the arrow were of Visnu's power. That power as well as his own Vaisnava power, Parasurama transferred to Sri Rama and having thus fulfilled the object of' his incarnation Parasurama went to Punyasrama for permanent tapas.


10) Ruin of the country. Dasaratha decided to install Sri Rama as crown prince. The people whole -heartedly welcomed it. During the night previous to the coronation, while the wives of Dasaratha were ,gladly discussing the happy incident, Mantlrara, the tale-bearing maid of Kaikeyi advised her mistress to prevail upon Da'saratha to exile Rama into the forest and install Bharata as crown prince. Manthara also reminded Kaikeyi about the boons, which had been promised to her by Da,' ; aratha during the devasura war. Kaikeyi fell into the trap thus set by Manthara. Kaikeyi put on a wrathful face and shut herself up in a room. When Dasaratha enquired of her the reason for her anger she asked him to make her son Bharata, the crown prince and exile Rama for fourteen years' life in forest. The king fainted when he heard the demand But, Sri Rama, on hearing about it, put on an anchorite's apparel and got ready to start for the forest. Sites and Laksmaria also got ready to follow Rama into the forest. While the entire population of Ayodhya stood there weeping, Rama, Laksmana and Sitawearing the forest-dwellers' garb started for the forest.


11 ) Death of Dasaratha and Bharata's decision. As soon as Sumantra, who had accompanied Rama and others returned to Ayodhya, Dasaratha expired on account of unbearable grief caused by Rama's exile. Messengers brought to Ayodhya Bharata and Satrughna from Kekaya where they were put up with their uncle Yudhajit at the time of their father's death. But, they were kept in the dark of all that had happened in their absence till their arrival at the palace. Bharata, who heard of everything from his mother was greatly upset and got ready to go to Rama in the forest. Satrughna too got ready to accompanyhim. Arundhati and Vasistha in a chariot in the fore-front, Kausalya and Sumitra in another chariot just behind the first one, Bharata and Satrughna behind them-in this manner the great journey into the forest started. Leaving all others behind him, Bharata went forward and prostrated before F,ma and Laksmana at Citrakuta. Sri Rama broke intk, tears on hearing about the death of their father. But in spite of Bharata's pressing request Rama refused to return to Ayodhya. At last Bharata yielded to Rama's injunction and returned to,Ayodhya with the latter's sandals. But he did not enter the palace ; instead he built an asrarrma at Nandigrama and worshipping Rama's sandals lived there.


12) Trip to Pancaaati. From Mount Citrakuta Sri Rama and others started towards the forest. When they continued their journey after visiting the Sage Atri's asrama a Raksasa called Viradha ran away carrying off Sita. Rama killed Viradha and regained Sites. Then they visited the 1'rama of sage Sarabhanga in the Kumuda forest. Therefrom they went to the Mrkandu forest where they visited maharsi Agastya, and there Rama took the vow to kill Ravana and other evil Raksasas and thus render the land safe for sages to perform tapas. Agastya presented to Rama a Vaisnava bow, a Brahma arrow and a Saiva quiver. Rama kept them with Agastya himself to be given to him when required. Then Agastya gave Rama a divine ornament such as was not available in all the three worlds. Rama tied it round Sita's neck. Taking leave of Agastya, Rama and others went to the Dandaka forest. It was on a high peak of Mount Mahakraunca in the forest that ,jatayu, brother of Sampati and a very close friend of Rama lived. Rama and Jatayu renewed their old frindship and decided to be of mutual service in future. After that Rama and others rested themselves on the banks of the near-by Godavari.


13) Stay at Pancaaati. Pancavati was on the southern bank of the Godavari. Five vatas (peepal trees) of the same size stood there in a circle,. and so the place was called Pancavati. (See under Pancavati). Sri Rama decided to build his asrama at the centre of those trees. Laksmana cut down an ebony tree there to put up a parktasala (hut) At once the log disappeared and the dead body of a Raksasa youth was found there. It was the corpse of Sambhukumata, son of Surpanakha. He was performing tapas there to propitiate Siva when he was overcome by the beauty of Sites and to look at her from a hidden spot he had assumed the form of the ebony tree. .It was him that Laksmana had cut down. Sri Rama understood the situation and explained to his wife and brother about the trickeries of the Raksasas. Then the parnasala was constructed and they lived there. Hearing about the coming of Rama all the sages of the Dandaka forest visited them. They lived in Pancavati for thirteen years.


14) Test by Paramesaara (Siva) and Parvati. Paramesvara and Parvati, who knew that many tricky changes would occur in the thirteenth year of the life of Rama and Sites there, decided to submit them to a test. The object of the test was to see whether Rama and Sites would recognise each other under all circumstances. When Sita one day entered the river Godavari to fetch water, she saw two swans enjoying themselves in a lotus pool in the middle of a sand-shoal in the river. When Sites went near the pool she saw Rama bathing in it. But on a closer look she recognised that it was not Rama, but Siva, in the guise of Rama, who was bathing there. To befool Sites Siva, who was disguised as Rama, told her :-Dear one ! Please come to me quickly. Why were you so late ?


Sites :-Oh, Deva ! salutations. Why did you alone come to the bath ?


Rama :-I had to come alone as Devi did not come with me at once and was late in coming.


Sites :-Why did not the Devi come ? You two are unique. Devi might be alone at Kailasa just now. It was not good that you did not bring her also with you.


Siva : Oh great Devi ! salutations to your divine greatness. Let me return to Kailasa after saluting Sri Rama. Hail unto thee.


Meanwhile Sri Rama vas waiting impatiently for Sites to return. Then Sites approached hire looking into a lotus flower she held in her hand and also throwing, off and on, amorous glances at him. (She was in fact Parvati in the guise of Sites). And she told Rama :-My Lord ! you would excuse my delay in returning. The delay was due to my tarrying there to look at the play of two swans. Sri Rama looked closely and recognised that it was not Sites and replied as follows :-Oh Devi! my salutations. Did you come alone ? Where is Deva ? How is it that you are separated from him ? Mahadeva and Mahadevi are one and inseparable. Then how this separation ? Sites (Parvati) :-Salutations. Thou art omniscient and omnipotent. I return to ~ae presence of Siva.


15) The incident of giirpanakhd. Surpanakha was the wife of a Raksasa called Vidyujjihva. Once in a war which Ravana, Vidyujjihva and other Raksasas fought at Devaloka Vidyujjihva was killed by mistake. Ravana, therefore, permitted Surpanakha to choose whomsoever she liked as her husband, and she went about the world in search of a suitable husband. She liked some persons, but they did not like her, and vice versa. Thus she was roaming about discontented. She was also on the look-out for an opportunity to take vengeance on Laksmana for killing her son, Sambhukumara.


Stzrpanakha, who heard about the beauty of Rama and Laksmana came to Pancavati disguised as Lalita. Sri Rama alone was there in the asrama at the time and she told him that she was love-sick. Sri Rama rejected her prayer on the plea that he was already married,  Then she approached Laksmana with the same request. He too refused to oblige her. Then she saw Sites there and decided to shatter her married life and also to make a present of her to Ravana. She also thought that if Sites were got rid of she would have Rama for husband. Maddened by such thoughts she rushed into the a~rama. But, Laksmana drove her out. Then, carrying Laksmana with her she rose into the sky and he cut away both her ears, breasts and nose. Thus disfigured she resumed her form of Raksasi. She flew away in the sky roaring loudly.


16) rhara killed. Having heard about the disfigurement of Surpanakha Khara sent fourteen RAksasas to Rama's asrama. Laksmana killed them very easily. Next, Khara, his brothers Dusana and Trisiras with fourteen thousand Raksasa soldiers came to fight Rama. Rama and Laksmana killed them also. This saddened Surpanakha very much and she reported the entire affair to Ravana at Lanka. She told him that Rama and Laksmana were very courageous warriors and he was not to enter into direct fighting with them, but was to abduct Sits Whose loss would cause Rama's death. She also assured Ravana that if Rama died, Laksmana would himself end his life.


17) Sites abducted. Next day a spotted deer was found playing near the asrama. Sites desired to have the deer and Sri Rama, after asking his brother to take care of Sites, followed the deer, Which enticed him to a great distance in the forest. A6last, finding it difficult to catch the deer alive, Rama shot an arrow at it. Hit by the arrow the deer transformed itself into a gigantic Raksasa and fell down dead crying. "Oh ! Sites O ! Laksmana, a Raksasa is killing me. Come and save me."


The Raksasa, who thus fell a prey to Rama's arrow was really Marica, uncle of Ravana. Mdrica had gone in the form of a deer to Rama's asrama at the instance of his nephew to cheat Rama. Sita heard the false cry of Marica and asked Laksmana to hurry up to the spot for Rama's protection. Laksmana at first did not want to leave Sita there alone and go after Rama. But, when she used hard and cruel words against him Laksmana quitted the asrama and went into the forest. When Rama and Laksmana were thus absent at the asrama an old Sannyasin came for alms at the courtyard. Sites, who came out to offer alms was forcibly carried away by Ravana (the sarinyasin was Ravana in disguise) in his puspaka aerial chariot to Lanka. On the way jatayu saw Ravana and put up a fight with him to get Sites released. But, Jatayu had to fall down wounded by the sword of Ravaria and he lay there awaiting Rama's arrival.


Rama and Laksmana returned to the asrama only to find Sites missing. While they advanced some distance lamenting over the loss of Sit! they saw jatayu lying in the forest, his wings cut, but happy in expectation of salvation and repeating the name of Rama. Jatayu gave Rama all details about Sites and then gave up his body and ascended to Vaikuntha.


18) Salvation to Kabandha. Rama and Laksmana moved towards the south in quest of Sites. An asura woman called Ayomukhi, sister of Surapadma tried to entice Laksmana, who went alone to a pool- .to fetch water. When Laksmana resisted and kept away from her allurements, she tried to carry him away into the sky.


But, he drove her away disfigured. When the brothers continued their search for Sites they were caught in the arms stretched out in semi-circular form. It was a Raksasa called Kabandha, and they cut away one arm each: At once the fierce Kabandha (headless body) form disappeared and a Gandharva youth appeared in his place. After offering xrioksa to Kabandha Rama and Laksmana continued their search for Sites. (See under Kabandha).


19) Salvation to 9abari. Rama and Laksmana reached Sabaryasrama andwere duly received by the female hermit Sabari. She presented them with fruits. Not only that, she personally tasted each fruit for its quality and then gave the best to the guests. Rama was so very pleased with her pure devotion that he offered her salvation. (For details see under 8abari).


20) Rama-Sugriva alliance. Rama and Laksmana bathed in the Pampa river and thus refreshed they travelled upto the height of Mount Rsyamuka where Sugriva lived with Hanuman as his Prime Minister. Sugriva, who saw Rama and Laksmana coming, deputed Hanuman to find out whether they were friends or foes. Hanuman, in the guise of a brahmin boy talked with them, who related their story from the abduction of Sites. Having understood the matters Hanuman resumed his actual form and carried Rama and Laksmana on his shoulders into the presence of Sugriva.


Sugriva related to Rama the story of .his expulsion from Kiskindha by Bali, his elder brother. Sugriva wanted a powerful ally to recapture the country. Similarly Sri Rama too wanted a powerful ally to regain Sita. So both the parties entered into an alliance, Rama undertaking to kill Bali and restore his kingdom and his wife to Sugriva and Sugriva undertaking to search for and find out Sites fer Rama.


Though the above pact was made, Sugriva was doubtful about Rama's capacity to honour his part of the contract, and 1~ama, knowing this suspicion of Sugriva, wanted to dispel it. The mountain-like body of Dundubhi, the Raksasa killed by Bali, lay there in a big heap of bones and at the instance of Rama, Laksmana threw it into the distant southern sea with the big toe of his left foot. Sugriva was wonder-struck at this feat of Laksmana and praised him. Yet Sugriva was not quite cured of his doubt and Rama wanted to further convince him of their prowess.


There were seven big trees there known as Saptasalas. Bali used to wrestle with the trees due to his overflowing vitality and power. (See under Saptasala). Sri Rama went near the trees and suddenly fixed an arrow on his bow-string and shot it by drawing the bow, with the big toe of his right foot pressed against a rock. The arrow cut down the seven trees at one and the same time and then automatically returned to its quiver. Sugriva was taken aback by this marvellous show of power.


21) Exhibition of ornaments. They came again to Rsyamukacala and Sugriva placed before Rama a bundle of ornaments and said that it was dropped down by a weeping woman from an aerial chariot, which had, a few days back, passed above the mountain. Rama recognised them as Sita's ornaments, shed tears and sat there motionless for some time. At last Sugriva and Laksmana consoled him and he handed over the bundle of ornaments to Laksmana.


22) Kingdom restored to Sugrfva. The very next day Sugriva took Rama to Kiskindha, and the former challen,ed Bali for a combat. Rama, from a distance, viewed the fierce fight between the brothers, but he could not do anything as it was impossible to distinguish between Bali and Sugriva on account of their very close resemblance. Sugriva, who was defeated in the first round and retired from fight felt angry towards Rama, but was soon satisfied with Rama's explanation for his inaction. To distinguish Sugriva from Bali Sri Rama, the next day, put a garland on the former's neck and wearing the garland Sugriva challenged Bali a second time to a duel. Though Bali's wife, Tara, this time prevented him from accepting the challenge Bali paid no heed to her protests and rushed forth for the duel.


Bali and Sugriva fought again, and this time Rama from his concealment behind a tree shot an arrow at the chest of Bali. The arrow felled him. Rama and Laksmana then came into the open and Bali spoke disparagingly to Rama about shooting the arrow from concealment. Rama answered him saying that if he had seen him (Rama) face to face he would have become his devotee and he had to shoot Bali from his hiding place a- it was not proper to kill one's devotees. At last, after handing over charge of his wife and son Angada, to Sugriva, Bali breathed his last. Sri Rama decided to crown Sugriva as King and install Angada as crown prince and returned to Rsyamukacala for rest after entrusting, under the supervision of Laksmana; Hanuman and jambavan with the duty of making preparations for the coronation. Though Sugriva invited Sri Rama to Kiskindha when preparations for coronation were over, the latter declined the invitation gracefully and deputed Laksmana to represent him at the ceremony. Laksmana installed Sugriva as the Maharaja, Angada as crown prince, Ruma as queen and Tara as queen-mother. Also, Hanuman was appointed as Sugriva's minister. Those things over, Laksmana returned to Rama at Rsyamukacala.


23) Laksmana's wrath. The next four months were rainy period. Even after that Sugriva did not make necessary arrangements to search for Sita. At Rama's instance Laksmanawent to Kiskindha to enquire about the reason for the delay, The monkeys were alarmed by the grave appearance of Laksmana and Tara came out and apologised to him. Arrangements were soon finalised for the quest of Sita. Armies of many lakhs of monkeys were deputed to the eight regions to search for Sita. Susena was appointed chief of the army for the west, Satabali for the north, Vinata for the east and Angada for the south. As the south was the chief place for the search, m3akeyslike Hanumin,Jambavan, Vivida, Nala, Nila, Kumula, each of them an exert in various ways, were appointed chiefs of different matters. Every chief and his assistant was given suitable instructions by Laksmana and Sugriva, and accordingly the army of monkeys began its march under the leadership of Hanuman.


24) Words of recognition. To convince Sita that it was really the emissary of Rama who went to her the latter imparted to Hanumin the follo,ving three sentences for timely use.


(i) "When I took leave of you for life in exile in the forest you (Sita) who were then in the inner apartment


dressed in ordinary fashion came out in the same dress prepared to follow me saying `I too...' feigning anger'.


(ii) When, for our life in the forest, we had left the city and approached a shrubbery, Sita in her childish ignorance and goodness of heart told me "This place will do for our forest life."


(iii) While she was one day massaging my leg in our bedroom she threw away from her finger the ring studded with stones. When I asked her the reason for it she answered me as follows :-This ring studded with stones may prove to be of danger to me. When your feet touched the hard granite rock it turned out into a world beauty (Ahalya). Under the circumstances how much more beautiful would be the woman, who would be created by the touch of your foot on the beautiful stone of the ring ? And, because of that beauty you may then...". We two-I and Sita-alone knew about the above incident.


Carrying thus Sri Rama's signet ring and words of recognition Hanuman went along with the army, which started for the south. Sugriva gave one month's time to the searching parties to find out Sita and warned them that their throats would be cut if they failed in their mission.


25) Saw Saayamfirabhd. Angada, Hanuman, Jambavan and others during their search came to an extensive forest. They were dead tired with hunger and thirst. The leader of the party looked about for something to eat and drink when he saw small birds flying up from a distant pit. From drops of water falling from the wings of the birds it was inferred that the pit contained water. When Hanuman and others entered the pit (cave) and walked a great distance they came to a spacious garden. They were astonished to find a solitary beauty there, and she related to them her autobiography as follows:--


I am the faithful maid of Rambha. The powerful asura called Caturasya wanted me to procure Rambha for him and he got this garden city built by Mayacarya, the architect of the Daityas, for me as reward for my service to him in the matter of Rambha. Various kinds of gems light this place and creepers and trees supply food materials. Catuarsya, I and Rambha alone were living here. But, Tndra came to know of it, came here, killed Caturasya and took away Rambha with him. He cursed me to lead a solitary life here as punishment for having helped Caturasya. I prayed for redemption from the curse and Indra told me, that after thousands of years a company of monkeys would come here in search of Sita and that after entertaining them with food I must see Rama and then return to Svarga. I have thus been awaiting your arrival and now I am leaving the place, which will vanish as soon as I quit it. All of you, please stand there with eyes closed and I shall send you back to the place where you were before coming here.


Accordingly the monkeys stood there with eyes closed and when they opened their eyes there was neither the garden city nor Svayamprabha there but they were standing in the old plain. Svayamprabha appeared bet"ore Rama, praised him and then went to Svarga.


26) Met Sampati. The monkeys again went southward, reached Mahendragiri and descending on its southern side came to the shores of the southern sea. They could advance no further to the south. They were suffering from great hunger and thirst and if they returned with no tangible information about Sita, Sugriva would kill them. They preferred death by fasting on the seashore to death by the sword of Sugriva.


Having decided thus the monkeys spread darbha grass on the extensive plain of Mahendra mountain and lay on the grass to die. In a large cave in the mountain was living Sampati. The huge bird Sampati was starving without food and was not able to fly as it had lost its wings. But it dragged itself to the mouth of the cave and saw the monkeys lying there awaiting death, and it thought of eating the monkeys one by one. The monkeys, who understood this idea of Sampati cursed their fate and sang the praise of jatayu.


Hearing the word `Jatayu' Sampati approached the monkeys, who related to him the object of their journey. Being told about the death of Jatayu. Sampati shed tears and told the monkeys as follows:-


Jatayu was my younger brother. Our mother was Mahasveta and father Suryadeva. On account of the boon of our parents I was King of all the birds and jatayu the crown Prince. As our brotherliness grew thicker our haughtiness due to our power and speed also increased. Once we flew up towards the orbit of the Sun to see him, our father. In his youthful enthusiasm my younger brother, Jatayu, climbed higher up in the sky leaving me behind. Due to the heat of the Sun his wings lost their power and energy. Then, to save him, I flew up above him and shaded him. Therefore he could descend to the earth without his wings being burned and thus killed. But, my wings got burned and I fell down on the Mahendra mountain and got my legs broken. Thus I lost the power either to fly or to walk.


I stayed here as the attendant of Nisdkara Maharsi, who could divine the future also. He told me the story He told me further that Sita would come here when I Sita was and that then I would about Rama's incarnation. monkeys in search of should tell them where regain my health."


After telling the monkeys the above facts Sampati, with their cooperation, performed the obsequies of Jatayu. Then the King of birds (Sampan) raised its head and surveyed the ocean and he saw the following: Mountain Subela in the heart of the southern sea; the plain at the heights of the mountain constituting the -base of Lanka; in the centre of Lanka there was Ravana's capital; nearby the ladies' quarters; near the quarters the asoka garden; at the centre of the garden the sim' apa tree and under the tree Sitadevi.


As soon as Sampa ti had finished telling the monkeys the above details he regained his health.


Sampan told the monkeys another story also as follows:Ravana once abducted a Yaksa beauty from Alakapuri and carried her away in his Puspaka Vimana. Sampati clashed with Ravana on his way and destroyed his plane. But the plane, which was self-generating came again into existence. Sampati threw away by its beak the Candrahasa (Ravana's sword) and kicked his crown down. At last, at the request of Ravana, he and Sampatv signed a non-aggression pact. That was the reason why Sampan could not fight Rayana in person.


27) Hanumdn saw Situ. Angada said that for the search for Sita in Lanka as told by Sampan, some one should jump across the ocean. Though many a monkey tried to


do so it was Hanuman, who succeeded in crossing the sea. At one jump he reached the heights of Mahendragiri whence he took another jump forward. But, midway Surasa, mother of the nagas, swallowed him, and he came out through her ear and continued his journey towards Lanka. When he had advanced some more distance an evil spirit called Chayagrahini obstructed his way by a mysterious attack on his shadow. Hanuman quickly understood what had happened and killed the evil spirit with one kick of his left foot. He again continued his flight. But, he very soon became weak and exhausted. Then Mount Mainaka emerged from the ocean and fed Hanuman with fruits and roots. He reached Lanka at dusk. He defeated Lankalaksmi, who tried to prevent his entry into the city. In fact Lankalaksmi was Vijayalaksmi, who had been cursed by Brahma. ( For details see under Vijayalaksmi). After defeating her, who was thus absolved from the curse, Hanuman saw Sita seated under the a~'oka tree. But, none saw him as he was perched on a tree.


28) Hanuman's return. That night Ravana dressed in all splendour visited Sita and tried to secure her favour by soft words and cajolery, all to no purpose. Then he threatened her with punishments, which too proved to be of no avail. After instructing the Raksasa women that Sita should be somehow brought round within a month's time, Ravana returned to his palace.


Raksasis surrounded Sita and described to her the greatness and various merits of Ravana. Sita continued to sob. Then came there Trijata, daughter of Vibhisana, the great devotee of Visnu, and Sarama, to console Sita. Trijata had boundless devotion towards Rama and great love for Sita. She repeated to Sita certain dreams she had had.


Left to herself Sita began saying to herself various things regarding her past. She referred to her infancy, beginning of youth, wedding, stay at Ayodhya, forestlife and life in Pancavati and wept over her recurring thoughts about them. Hanuman, who heard Sita's soliloquy completed Sita's story by relating, from his place on the tree, about Jatayu's salvation, salvation given to Kabandha and Sabari, alliance with SugrSva, killing of Bali, expedition of the monkeys in search of Sita, meeting with Sampati, himself ( Hanuman ) crossing the sea and his finding out Sita. Hearing the words of Hanuman, Sita looked up in astonishment. Immediately Hanuman came down the tree and presented the signet ring at Sita's feet. When she examined the ring her hands shook and tears dimmed her eyes. Hanuman talked to her in detail and told her that he would, if only Sita permitted him, carry her on his shoulders to Rama. He told her further that if she did not welcome the idea of thus returning to Rama, he would return with Sri Rama and others, defeat Ravana in war and take her back. Sita was not convinced about the power and prowess of Hanuman. He then increased his ~ody in size so that his limbs grew into the size of a mountain, hands into that of trees, head into that of a mountain peak, tail into that of a river etc. His breathing became akin to a storm. Then he roared in such a manner that even the very ends of the world shook and the people of Lanka were awakened by it.


Sita was now absolutely convinced of Hanuman's bona fides and faithfulness. She handed over to him her Cudamani ( ornament worn on the head) to be given to Rama and also told him the following three words of recognition so that Rama might be all the more convinced.


(i) When Rama first came to the garden near the palace in Mithila I (S~ta) saw his reflection in the blue mirror in the veranda of my palace and the beauty of the reflection attracted me. 1 looked towards the garden to see the original of the reflection. Then he (Rama) was looking down into the waters of the glass pond. He also saw my face reflected in the water and suddenly he looked at me. Our eyes met and in all shyness I hurried to and hid myself in the ladies' quarters.


(2) Before our wedding I sent him through a faithful maid, a love letter to which he gave me a suitable reply.


(3) After our wedding while we were living in Ayodhya when one day I returned to our bedroom after a long chitchat with my younger sisters, my lord (Rama) was lying on the cot in feigned sleep. Quietly I went up to him and kissed him on the lips. Because of the pressure on his lips and as my breast then touched his chest he pretended to have suddenly woken up and embraced me.


Having received thus from Sita the Cudamani and these words of recognition Hanuman took leave of Sita and with her implied sanction went about to have a look at Lanka. At one place he heard Vibhisana reciting Visnu's names. After wishing that this house of the devotee should turn into a royal abode he passed Vibhisana's house. Then he came to Ravana's palace and gathered information about the Raksasa power. "Now I must see Ravana in person, let him know personally the fact of my visit and I would give him righteous advice"--with this object in view Hanuman began destroying the garden. He drove away the Raksasas, who came to punish him and some of them were killed. At last Meghanada (Indrajit) attacked Hanuman. Hiding in the sky he shot the Brahmastra against Hanfiman, who yielded to it. The Raksasas took Hanuman captive to Ravana. He freed himself of the cords that bound him, extended his tail which he shaped into circles, one over the other so that the last one rose more in height than Ravana's throne and seated himself on its top. Ravana and Hanuman then began a conversation. Ravana, who got angry at the disrespect shown to him by Hanaman, ordered the latter to be killed, but Vibhisana opposed it saying that to kill emissaries and messengers was worse than killing one's own mother. Finally Ravana ordered that Harum5.n's tail be set fire to and he be insulted and humiliated.


Immediately RakSasas began to cover Hanuman's tail with clothes. But, the tail began growing longer and longer with the result that no quantity of clothings sufficed to completely cover the ever-extending tail. At last the Raksasas poured oil over the tail and set fire to it. Then Hanuman broke loose from captivity and jumped up into the air causing universal disaster by fire in Latika. The fire did not affect the palace of Vibhisana and also the platform around the ~iritsapa tree where Sita sat. After thus burning down Lafika Hanuman extinguished the fire on his tail by dipping it in the ocean. Taking leave once again of SitA, Hanfzman crossed the sea and reached Mahendragiri.


29) Rama-Raaana war. Sri Rama and Sugriva, who: received Hanuman's report about his visit to Lanka started for it with an army of monkeys. They camped on the shores of the south sea. Ravana held a meeting of his war council attended by his brothers and others He expelled Vibhisana, who opposed war and advisec his brother to return Sita to Rama and to apologise to him. Vibhisana quitted Lanka and took refuge with Rama.


Rama and others, who had assembled on the sea-shore decided to build a bund to Lanka. The first thing Ram, did, for the successful conclusion of the expedition, wa to instal1 a Sivalifiga at Rames vara. (See under Rameg vara). Then he prayed to Varunadeva for a passage across the sea. But, Varuna did not present himsel and Sri Rama, angry with him, shot the Jttgneya (fiery) arrow into the heart of the sea when Varuna appeared, saluted him and advised him to build r bund across the sea. As a reward for Varuna Sri Rama as requested by the former, killed with one arrow al the Raksasas, who lived in Gandhara island on the north-western shore of the ocean. Varuna returned tc his abode. The construction of the bung was begun under the leadership of Sugriva with Nala as chic planner and Nila as his co-planner. Jambavdn an( Hanuman functioned as supervisors and other monkey; as workers. Mountains, hills, rocks etc. were brought fron various quarters and the construction of the bund wa begun.


Meanwhile, Ravana sent a great magician caller Marutta disguised as King Janaka to Sita to conver her to the side of Ravana. But, the attempt failed Ravana then sent his two expert spies, Suka an( Sarana disguised as monkeys to Rama's camp. Jamba van and Hanuman captured and brought them befor Sugriva. Weepingly they both sought refuge in Rama who set them free. They returned to Lanka any reported matters to Ravana, who felt a desire to hay a look at Rama forwhich purpose he, with his attend ants, climbed to the top of the northern tower. Rama who knew about it by his spies climbed the heights c Subela mountain whence he stared at Ravana. Thei eyes met in anger seeing which Sugriva by one lea reached Ravana and kicked off to Rama the crow from the central head of Ravana. After performin something like a destructive dance on Ravana's hea Sugriva by another leap returned to Rama.


Full of disappointment Ravana returned to his palac< His father-in-law, Malyavan, tried his best to dissuad Ravana from war, all to no purpose. Rama sent a emissary to him to ask him to send Sita back. Ravan declined to oblige, and immediately war began. Durin the first day of the war, the majority of the Raksasz including their great leaders like Mahabahu, Mah" parsva, Mahodara, Mahakaya etc were killed. On th second day the Raksasa army under the command c Atikaya, son of Ravana, set out from the norther tower to fight. Laksmana killed Atikaya with Brahma stra. The other two Raksasa-commanders wet TriSiras and Meghanada. Laksmana encountered then When the latter` failed to win by righteous fighting h resorted to cunningness. That too did not bring victor to him, and then he hid himself in the sky and shs the nagastra given to him by Siva against the enem, That arrow rendered Laksmana, Sugriva and all tL


monkeys unconscious. At that time Vibhisana was away to arrange for food.


When Vibhisana returned with food he was taken aback to find Laksmana and others lying in an unconscious condition. Rama was informed about the matter and when he came to the battle-ground and saw Laksmana, Sugriva, Hanuman and all the others lying there unconscious he lost self-confidence for a short while and remarked that it was all the result of his having put faith in Vibhisana, Ravana's brother whom he had put in charge of the battlefield. This comment of Rama pained Vibhisana much; but Sri Rama soon treated him kindly.


Even the Devas who witnessed the scene were alarmed. But Rama sat there for sometime immersed in meditation and then a light emerged from his right eye, shot towards the north and disappeared in the horizon. At once Garuda appeared on the scene from the west and removed with his beak the nagastra from Laksmana's body. Laksmana jumped up from his unconscious state; Sugriva and others also regained consciousness. In the fighting that followed all the Raksasa leaders were killed. It was Hanaman, who killed Kumbhakarna. At the time of his death Kumbhakarna made alas t request to Rama, i.e. his head should be cut off and thrown into the sea as otherwise the Raksasas would laugh at him to see the head from which the ears have been bitten off by monkeys. Accordingly Rama got Hanuman to throw Kumbhakarna's head into the sea.


Then Sri Rama told Laksmana thus : Today I shall fight Indrajit. The war shall not continue yet further. Today Indrajit and tomorrow Ravana should be killed and the next day we will return to Ayodhya. Laksmana answered:-"I shall fight Indrajit. I have told Vibhisana that I will kill Indrajit within three days."


With Sri Rama's blessings Laksmana began fighting again. Indrajit shot Narayanastra which attracted by the `seven-letter-Mantra' (Namo Narayanaya) of Laksmana circled him thrice and entered his quiver. The Ralksasa minister called Mahodara converted his elephant into Airavata and himself changed into Devendra and encountered Laksmana. Saying that he had no quarrel with Indra and would not fight him Laksmana put down his bow, and Indrajit, exploiting the situation shot Brahmastra against Laksmana under cover of the clouds. Laksmana, Sugriva and others fainted. Then Sri Rama was in the army-camp, worshipping weapons to render them more powerful. Rama returned to the battle-ground to find Laksmana and others in life-less condition and crying like a mere ignorant fellow he lay by the side of Laksmana. Vibhi sang, who returned with food prayed for the grace of Devas. Indra appeared, gave to Vibhi sana Ganga water in a golden vessel and asked it to be given to Hanuman and Jambavan, who, though unconscious were not dead.


Vibhisana did so and both Hanuman and Jambavan regained consciousness. Jambavan told Hanuman that if mrtasafijivini (herbal medicine which will put life back into the dead) were brought from the distant Himalayas before dawn the next day all the dead ones like Laksmana and Sugriva could be brought back to life. (See under Mrtasaiijivini). Accordingly Hanuman started for the Himalayas. Meanwhile Indrajit had told Ravana about his victory, and as suggested by the latter Raksasa women took Situ. to the battlefield in the Puspaka Vimana, showed her Rama, Laksmana and others lying there in a life-less condition and told herthat all of them were dead. Sita wept aloud, but Trijata consoled her by saying that the Puspaka Vimana would not carry widows and therefore Rama was not dead.


Hanuman returned before dawn the next day. As he could not distinguish mrtasafijivini he had brought with him a mountain peak where the four medicinal plants, galyaharani, Visalyakarani, Sandhanakarani and Mrtasaiijivini grew. Jambavan distinguished mrtasafijivini from the others and carried the four herbs into the battlefield. Contact with the air, which carried the smell of mrtasafiJivini brought the dead back to life. Visalyakarani removed all the arrows from their bodies and Sandhanakarani healed the wounds.


Laksmana again went out to fight Indrajit. Reluctant to fight with the former, Indrajit resorted to a new magical trick. He created an artificial or illusory Sita and with her seated in a chariot he rose up in the sky and said as follows: "Ravana has abandoned Sita who brings about humiliation to the Raksasas and ruin to Lanka. So, I cut her to pieces." So saying he cut into two, by one stroke of his sword, Sita, who cried Oh ! my lord ! oh! brother." Blood fell on the battlefield and Indrajit disappeared. Though Rama and others were alarmed by all these, Vibhisana explained that it was all the magic of the Raksasas, and in the fierce fighting that followed Laksmana killed Indrajit.


By now all the important and prominent Raksasas were killed. At last Ravana himself entered the battlefield. His first encounter was with Laksmana. Then the fighting turned into one between Rama and Ravana. The former broke the bow of Ravana and did not want to fight with the weaponless Raksasa King. Next day Ravana brought Patala Ravana and Kumbhodara to Larika. Both of them entered Rama's camp during night, but Patala Ravana, who realised that nothing could be achieved there returned to Patala with Kumbhodara. He built a tunnel from Patala upwards to earth, where in the fort created by Hanuman's tai1 twisted in a circle lay Sri Rama and others. The tunnet opened into this `fort', and Patala Ravana and his brother made Rama and Laksmana unconscious by making them inhale sammohana medicine and carried them off into Patala. Rama and Laksmana were laid in the court-yard of a Kali temple to be sacrificed to Mahakali the very same night. Arrangements for the sacrifice were completed.


Hanuman had been frequently looking inside the fort. As soon as the absence of Rama and Laksmana was noticed, Sugriva and others, under the leadership of Vibhisana reached the Ka1i temple through the tunnel. In the fighting that followed Hanuman killed Patala Ravana and Aiigada killed Mahodara. The only son of Patala Ravana, Sumali, was crowned King of Patala. Ravana entered the field again against Rama. Rama shot the Mahendra arrow against Ravana. The arrow, which represented in itself the effulgence of Mahendra, the hardness of diamonds, the intensity of fire and Visnu's glow cut off the ten heads of Ravana. His physical body fell on earth and his spirit ascended to heaven.


30). Return. Rama and others, who were pleased with the turn of events, crowned Vibhi sans King of Lanka. Trijata was put in charge of dressing Sita in new clothes. Apsaras appeared on the scene. Sacidevi presented to Sita a chain, Urvasi an ornament for the head, Menaka,two bangles, Rambha a waist-let, Tilottama a set of chains for the feet,and An Anasiryd, wife of Atri, a Cudamani. When she wore all these ornaments Sita appeared to be equal to Laksmidevi in grandeur and charm. She was brought in a palanquin to Sri Rama by Vibhisana and others. Rama was taken aback by the glamorous dress, ornaments etc. of vita, and immediately a suspicion arose in his mind, and he, kept mum after asking Laksmana to do whatever Sita wanted. As soon as she heard those words of Rama, Sita asked Laksmana to light a funeral pyre saying that the woman suspected by her husband should not live and so she (Sit a) would quit her life in the very presence of Rama.


Laksmana cast a pathetic look at Rama; but his face exhibited no change of feeling. He granted Sita's request by his silence. Those present there awaited developments with bated breath. Laksmana, with the help of the monkeys got a pyre ready. After going round Rama with folded hands Sita leapt into the glowing fire. Within a very short time three divine forms emerged from the fire, Svahadevi, Sitadevi and God Agni.


His suspicions having thus vanished Rama welcomed Sita back and the next day they left for Aybdhya in' the Puspaka Vimana. Vibhisana, Sugriva, Hanuman and others followed them. After reaching Ayodhya Rama returned the Puspaka to Kubera. Bharata came back from Nandigrama. In the presence of all relations and others concerned the coronation of Rama as king took place. Bharata was appointed crown Prince, Laksmana Commander-in-chief of armies and S`atrughna, Finance minister.


31) S£ta abandoned. Under Rama's rule the country overflowed with milk and honey. Nobody had to fear anything from enemies. He made SitakiilSahasramukha Ravana. (For details see under Sahasramukharavana).


Sri Rama used to go about the country in disguise to enquire about the welfare of his subjects. On a particular dawn he happened to be standing outside the house of a washerman. The washerman scolded his wife, who had gone out of the house that night for something. He suspected that she had gone to meet her paramour. He bluntly told his wife that he was not prepared to act like Rama, who had accepted Sita, though she had lived with another person. Sri Rama, who heard the above talk, returned to his palace very sad. After thinking about for a long time he decided that it was his duty to abandon Sita in the interests of his subjects. Then Sita was in the seventh month of her pregnancy. She had on the previous day, expressed a desire to go to the forest areas once again. Rama considered this as the most suitable opportunity to abandon Sita in the forest and Laksmana was entrusted with the matter. That day at Sun-rise Laksniana took Sita in a chariot to the suburbs of Valmiki's asrama,abandoned her there and returned to the palace. (According to the Ramayana written by Kamba, a Tamil author, it is said that Sita was left in the suburbs of Gautama's nut. There, Sita who was pregnant was lcoked after by Ahalya,the wife of Gautama.)Weeping aloud Sita fell down. Young mums-Valmiki's disciples-saw her and took her to the asrama. At the asrama she delivered two sons, Kusa and Lava.


32 ) Akamedha. After abandoning Sita in the forests Rama led a sad life for five years. Yet, -he decided to perform an Asvamedha yajna. As soon as Rama thought of him, Hanuman appeared and he was deputed to invite Vibhisana, Sugriva and others from Lanka and Kiskindha and the feudatory princes and armies from other countries.


Sugriva was put in charge of the armies, Vibhisana in charge of finance, and central authority was vested in Laksmana. Then the yajnic horse, accompanied by the army, was let loose to travel all over the country. Accompanied by cavalry; the elephant division, infantry and the chariot-force the horse went about the various kingdoms. The army, on its way back to Ayodhya with presents collected from many kingdoms, encamped for rest near Valmiki's asrama when Kusa and Lava tied the yajnic horse, which was strolling there unfettered. Consequent upon this action of Kusa and Lava a fight broke out between them and the king's army in which the latter got defeated. Even the arrows of Laksmana failed to have any effect on the boys. The boys having not returned even though it had become very late in the evening, the asramites went in search of them and it was only when they came to the scene of fighting did Laksmana and others know who the boys really Were.


During this period of time infants' death was very much on the increase in Ayodhya. It was believed that sue;; deaths increased when Sudras did tapas, and to find out if any Sudra was engaged in tapas Rama flew over the Dandaka forest where he found a Sudra called Sambuka performing tapas hanging down from the branch of a tree with his head down. Rama killed him and his spirit got salvation. Afterwards, appreciating the beauties of the forest Rama came near Valmiki's a9rama where he and Sita met face to face. KW a and Lava also came there and they noticed with surprise the change in appearance brought about in their mother and Rama on their meeting each other. When they heard from Hanuman the real facts about Rama they withdrew their arrows and prostrated at the feet of Rama.


Sri Rama then, with the consent of all and in accordance with his own desire, took back Sita and returned with her to Ayodhya. Laksmana and others followed him. Kausalya and others received Sita most heartily. Sri Rama, who till then was having no wife, had made a golden image of Sita for the purposes of the a vamedha. Now, since the real Sita was with him the idol was an unnecessary thing. The Asvamedhayajna went off very well.


33 ) The end. Sri Rama's reign became all the more prosperous. It was during, this period that Rama, as desired by the mums m the Yamuna plain, killed Lavanasura, son of Madhu in the great city called Durga in the centre of the Madhu forest. ( For details see under Lavana) After Lavana's death, a sect of Gandharvas called Sailusas, who lived on the shores of the eastern sea, proved to be enemies of Ayodhya. Sri Rama annihilated them also. Kaikeyi began getting jealous of the prosperity and happiness of Sita. One day when Rama had gone to hunt in the forest, Kaikeyi closely questioned Sita over particulars in Lanka and prevailed upon her' overruling her unwillingness, to draw a picture of Ravana. Sita drew on a piece of `sitting-plank' Ravana's figure with the ten heads. Kaikeyi took away the picture on the pretext of exhibiting it in the ladies' quarters, and gave it to Rama, when he returned from hunting, to sit on at the time of Puja (worship). Rama got angry to find Ravana's picture drawn on the `sitting plank'. Kaikeyi then told him that it was Sita, who had drawn the picture and also that she usually praised Lanka and Ravana. Rama pronounced the death penalty on Sita for having drawn Ravana's picture. The inmates of the palace shuddered to hear the judgement. When Laksmana seated Sita on the floor to kill her, Bhumidevi (earth) refit itself open into two and carried her off through the opening.


Sri Rama grew sadder and sadder following the disappearance of Sita. Ill omens began to appear in Ayodhya in increasing measure. One day a divine Rsi whom the people of Ayodhya had not seen till then, came to Rama's palace. He told Rama that he had to impart certain secrets to the latter and after making Rama vow that no one would enter the room while they were conversing and that if any one did come when they were talking, he should either be killed or forsaken for ever, he began to talk with Rama in a secluded spot. Rama posted Laksmana at the entrance with the strict injunctions that nobody should come into their presence. Within a short time great munis like Sanaka came there and told Laksmana that they wanted to see Rama. They were not prepared to wait even for a short time as requested by Laksmana, but threatened ruin to the royal family. Laksmana then, was prepared to suffer the consequence, and went to Rama and told him about the arrival of Sanaka and others. Rama, in keeping with his vow, banished Laksmana immediately. But, when Rama came out and looked for Sanaka and others no one was to be found anywhere there. When he returned to the inner apartment the Rsi also was not to be seen. In fact they were Kala and his emissaries deputed by Brahma to recall Rama as the object of his incarnation was already achieved.


Rama, who had already been suffering mental agony on account of Sita's departure, lost all peace of mind as Laksmana's banishment followed Sita.'s departure. He decided to put an end to his life for which purpose he went to the river Sarayu. All the dependants followed him. While the great mass of people who thronged both the banks of the river burst out into weeping Sri Rama and his followers drowned themselves in the waters of the Sarayra, and their spirits attained Vaikuntha. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kamba Ramayana and Tulasidasa Ramayana ).


RAMAHRADA. A holy place on the boundary of Kuruksetra. Amba, daughter of a King of Kasi once bathed here. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 186, Verse 28).


RAMAKA. A mountain. Sahadeva, during his triumphal tour of the south, conquered this mountain. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 68) .


RAMANA.I. A son born to the Vasu known as Soma of his wife Manohara. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 22).


RAMANACINA. A particular region in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 66) .


RAMANA (M). (RAMAII'AKAM). An island near Dvaraka where, according to Chapter 38 of the Southern Text of Bharata, there was a forest. It was in this island that Vinata, mother of Garuda and Kadrd, mother of the nagas lived. Garuda, after freeing his mother from her slavery evicted the nagas from this island. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 17). Following the eviction, many of the prominent nagas lived in Patala. But, Kaliya, in fear of Garuda, lived in Kalindi. After his suppression by Sri Krsna Kaliya, with his family, as advised by Krsna returned to Ramarrakam. (Bhagavata, 10 th Skandha).


RAMANAKA. The third son of Yajnabahu, son of Priyavrata. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


RAMANIYAKA. The island called Ramanakam where the nagas live. (See under Ramanaka).


RAMATHA (S). I. A mleccha tribe who lived in the kingdom of Mandhata. (anti Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 14).


RAMATHA (S). II. People of a low caste (mlecchas) who lived in South India during Puranic times. Nakula, subjugated this caste, and from that day onwards they became devoted to the Pandavas. They were invited to the Rajasuya conducted by Yudhisthira. (Vana Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 25) .


RAMATIRTHA I. A holy place in the river GOmatl. He who bathes in this tirtha will derive the resu1ts of performing the Asvamedha yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 34. Verse 73) .


RAMA'TIRTHA II. A holy spot on the top of the Mahendra mountain where Parasurama lived. A bath here brings the benefits of performing the asvamcdha yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85; Verse 17).


RAMATIRTHA III. A holy place in the plains of river Sarasvati, (Salya Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 7) .




1) General. Ramayana is considered to be the first poetic composition in the world or at least in India, and hence it is called the Adi Kavya (First Epic). It is an epic as it contains. descriptions and references to ancient themes. Valmiki is its author, and hence Valmiki is known as the `Adi kavi" also. Valmiki and Sri Rama were contemporaries. During his life in exile in the forest Rama visited Valmiki's asrama. It was in this agrama that Sita lived after being abandoned by Rama. The connection in many ways of the life of Valmiki with the 'Rama story' was an incentive for him to write the Ramayana.


2) Composing of RBmdyana. Once while returning from the river Tamasa Valmiki witnessed a hunter shooting down one of a Kraunca (a kind of bird) couple. The intense emotion created by the incident burst out as follows in verse form.


Ma nisAda pratistharit tvamagamah sasvatih samah / Yat krauncamithunadekamavadlaih kamamohitam..//


Immediately Brahma appeared on the scene and advised Valmiki to write the story of Rama in the same pattern as that verse. Brahma, taught him about the past and the future of the history of Rama. As Sita, Ku4a, and Lava were living in his asrama Valmiki was well in the know about the present. In the above background Valmiki completed writing the Ramayana Story in 24,000 verses. The epic is divided into seven kandas (sections) of five hundred chapters. The seven sections are the Balakanda, the Ayodhyakanda, the Aranya kanda, the Kiskindha Kanda, the ~undara Kanda, the Yuddha Kanda and the ettarakdnda.


Vafmiki taught the poem to Lava and Kusa and when they went with Valmiki to Ayodhya during the asvamedhayajfia of Sri Rama, they sang the poem in the open assembly there.


3) Diferent views about the author. Tradition ascribes the authorship of the Ramayana to Valmiki. But, western scholars hold the view that a part of Balakanda and the whole of Uttarakdnda are interpolations of a future date. The following are the reasons for this view. (i) Two different texts are found for cantos one and three of Balakanda. In one of them many of the stories mentioned in the other are missing. It may, therefore, be surmised that the two texts were composed during different periods.


(ii) In the early texts of Ramayana stories like Gangavataranam are not to be found. So they must be interpolations of a later period.


(iii) Only in Kandas one and seven is Sri Rama treated as an incarnation. In the other Kandas he is considered in the capacity of a Hero only.


(iv) Uttarakanda is not to be found among the early translations of Ramayana into other languages.


(v) In the Balakanda it is stated that Valmiki composed the Ramayana, taught it to Kusa and Lava, and that they recited the whole poem before Sri Rama at Ayodhya. Many of the things mentioned in this Kanda are repeated in Uttarakanda, which, therefore, must have been written by someone else.


4) 7-he period of~Rdmdyana. According to Indian belief Sri Rama lived at the end of Tretayuga, which came to its close in 8,67,100 B.C. As per Ramayana Sri Rama ruled the country for 11,000 years. He was forty years old when he ascended the throne. Valmiki began writing the Rarnayana after . Lavakusas were born. In the light of the above facts. certain scholars opine that the Ramayana was written near about 878000 B.C. But, western critics and some eastern critics do not accept this view. Professor Jacobi holds the view that the original of Mahabharata is anterior to Ramayana. Most scholars sio not agree with this view.


A great majority of critics are of oph;ion that Ramayana is anterior to Mahabharata. They argue as follows :-


(i) The traditional belief in India is that Ramayana was written much earlier than Mahabharata.


(ii) Ramayana makes no reference to any of the characters of Mahabharata.


(iii) The Sri Rama story is referred to in many a Jataka story of the Buddhists.


(iv) Valmiki has made no mention about the city of Pdta1lputra established near about 380 B.C. It is an irrefutable fact that Sri Rama had passed by the city.


(v) During the reign of emperor As oka the Prakrta language was spoken ir. the areas where the incidents mentioned in Ramayana took place. But, Ramayana was written much anterior to the emergence of Prakrta language.


According to Professor Keith Ramayana was written in 300 B.C.


5). Different readings of Rdmdyana. In various parts of India three original texts or readings are found of the original Ramdyana. In each of the three texts nearly 113 of the portions differ from one another. The Bombay text is popular in northern and southern India. The second is the Bengal text. The third, the Kashmir text, is popular in the north-western parts of India. The inference to be made from the existence of these three different texts is that the original epic was composed in a Prakrta language, which was most popular at the time and that it was later translated into Sanskrit by different persons at different times. This theory will explain the existence of the different texts. For many years it continued to be handed down from mouth to month till it assumed written form in Sanskrit.


6). Other Rdmdyanas. The Ramayana story in other forms and garbs, is also prevalent in India. One of them is Vasisthardmayana or Jfianavasistha. The authorship of it also is ascribed to Valmiki. Most of the Ramayanas like Vasisthottararamayana, Sitdvijaya, Adbhutardmayana, Adbhutottararamayana etc. found in different parts of India are believed to have been written by Valmiki. Adbhutaramayana is composd of twentyseven cantos. According to this Ramayana, it was Sita, who killed Ravana of ten heads. There is another Ramayana in Sanskrit called Adhyd tma-Ramayana. It is a poem separated from Brahmandapurana. It is written in the form of a conversation between Uma (Parvati) and Siva. Ananda-Ramayana and MfilaRamayana extol the greatness of Hanuman.


RAMBHA. An asura. (For details see under Karambha). RAMBHA I. 1) General. One of the most beautiful of the apsara women. Urvasi, Tilottam5 and Rambha are really reputed for their beauty.


2) Birth. All the famous Celestial women were daughters of Kasyapaprajapati 1}y his wife Pradha. Devarsi (Kasyapa) begot the following daughters of his wife Pradha i.e. Alambusa, Misrakesi, Vidyutparna,Tilottama, Arurza, Raksita, Rambha, Manorama, Subahu, Kesini, Surata and Suraia. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65).


3) Rdvana cursed. Ravana raped Rambha and Nalakubara cursed him. (See under Nalakubara)


4) Pururavas and Rambhd. ?ndra once killed an asura chief named May5dhara and held a festival in honour of the victory. At the festival Rambha danced before her preceptor Tumburu. Pururavas too was present on the occasion and he ridiculed Rambha for her mistakes in dancing. Moreover he claimed that he was a greater master of dance than Tumburu preceptor of Rambha. Enraged by this claim Tumburu cursed that Pururavas would be separated from his wife Urvasi. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka, Taranga 3 ).


5) Rambhd and Susena. There was a King called Susena on mount Citrakuta. This handsome bachelor prince used to sit a1one in the lotus pond near his palace. When once Rambha passed through the sky above the pond her eyes met those of Susena and she alighted on the spot and the long talk between the two ended in their marriage. Susena enjoyed life there for a, long time with Rambba without knowing that she was an apsara woman. He had attempted many a time to know the real facts about her, to no purpose. Rarnbha did not even think about her, native Svarga. Her co:r.panion, a Yaksi, showered gold all over Susena's kingdom. In due course Rambha delivered a beautiful female child and then she told the King that she was Rambha and that she had continued as his wife till then as she felt love towards him. She further told him that now she had begot a daughter, she was leaving him and that she had a curse upon her which had been redeemed now. She also assured him that they would meet in Svarga in case the daughter was duly wedded. Rambha departed to Svarga. Susena named the child Sulocana and when she came of age he married her to Vatsamaharsi and then went to Devaloka where he lived happily with Rambha for a long time. (Kathasaritsagara, Madanamaficukalambaka, Tarafiga 2).


6) Other information.


(1) The powerful asura called Caturasya once felt a great yearning for Rambha and her maid Svayamprabha managed things for him. He built a garden-city and presented it to Svayamprabha in return for her service stated above. (Kamba Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda) .


(ii) The Sage Gautama alias Saradvan experienced seminal emission on seeing Rambha and from the semen was born Krpi whom in due course of time Dronacarya married. (Kathasaritsagara, Madanamancukalambaka, Taranga 6) .


(iii) Indra once deputed Rambha to break the vigorous tapas Visvamitra was observing. She approached him in the guise of a nightingale and with her song disturbed his meditation. The muni cursed her as follows and turned her into a rock. "Oh! evil woman Rambha, you have cheated me, who have mastered desire and anger and so you be turned into a rock for a thousand years. The great brahmin ascetic, Bhuritejas will absolve you from my curse and you will then resume your own form." (Valmlki Ramayana. Balakanda, Canto 64 ). (iv) Rambha gave a dance performance on the occasion of the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 62) .


(v) She had lived for sometime in the court of Kubera serving him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 10) .


(vi) When Arjuna lived in Svarga as Indra's guest Rambha danced in honour of the former. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 29 ).


(vii) On another occasion she danced in Kubera's court in honour of Astavakra muni. (Anugasana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 44) .


RAMBHA II. Wife of Mayasura. The couple had the following seven children i.e. Mayavi, Dundubhi, Mahisa Kalaka, Ajakarna, and Mandodari. (Brahmanda Purana, 3.6. 28-29).


RAMEWARA. There is in South India a very famous holy place called Rames vara and a Siva temple there. Rama and others encamped on the sea shore to cross over to Lanka to release Sita from Ravana's custody. This temple, according to Kamba, was built by Rama at that time. The following story is from the Yuddha Kanda of Kamba Ramayana.


To make the passage over to Lanka easy, Rama decided to build a great temple at Ramesvara and install a Sivalinga in the temple. Under the expert supervision of the great architects, Nala and Nila, all the monkeys cooperated to build the temple. As ordered by Rama, Hanuman went to Kailasa to fetch Sivalinga. Hanuman did not return with the lihga though the auspicious time for the installation was very near, How could the installation be made without the idol and the installation had to be made at the appointed time.


Sri Rama stood ready near the installation platform. It was the exact time for the installation of the idol. A divine effulgence was seen to emerge from Rama and immediately a Sivalinga automatically appeared at the spot where rituals were conducted for installation. Everyone was wonder-struck by this mysterious happening.


Hanuman by now, returned with the linga and he felt sorry that the installation of the idol had already been made. Sri Rama told him: "Please remove the idol already installed, we shall install a new one."


Happy at the words of Rama, Hanuman entwined the idol with his tail and jumped directly upwards. But, his tail was cut, head clashed against the roof which ,vas broken and Hanuman fell down unconscious. Sri Rama held him up and patted him on the head and Hanfiman was more pleased than ever. Afterwards, to fulfil Hanuman's desire and for the prosperity of the temple Hanuman was made to install the new Sivalinga in front of the eastern tower of the temple. Sri Rama laid down the following rule also. Only after worshipping the idol at the tower, should the God inside the temple be worshipped.


The, rule was also recorded there.


RAMOPAKHYANAPARVA. A sub-parva of Mahabharata comprising chapters 273 to 292 of Vana Parva.


RAMYAGRAMA. Capital of a State. Sahadeva, during his triumphal tour, conquered Ramyagrama. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 14).


RAMYAKA I. A son of Agnidhra, who had nine sons by his wife Purvacitti. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha). Ramyaka ruled the Kingdom called Ramyaka Varsa near Nilagiri. Arjuna,during his triumphal tour conquered Ramyaka and levied taxes from the people there (Sabha Parva, Chapter 28).


RAMYAKA II. A particular region in Ilavrta, one of the seven Continents. On the eastern part of Ilavrta there exist three mountains called Nilagiri, Svetagiri and Srngavan. These mountains jut into the sea, and are separated from one another by a distance of two thousand miles each and are the source of many rivers. In between the three mountains are three regions of land called Ramyaka, Hiranmaya and Kuru. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha).


RANA. A Raksasa. He was killed by Vayu deva in the war between Hiranyaksa and the Devas. (Padma Purana, Srsti Khanda) .


RANAYANI. A Preceptor in the line of the Sama (Veda) disciples of Vyasa. (Jaiminiya Grhyasutra 1, 14) .


RASIGAVIDYADHARA. A Gandharva. (See under Sudeva III.


RANOTKATA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva Chapter 45, verse 68).


RANTIDEVA. The Kindest and the most liberal of the Kings in ancient India.


1) . Genealogy. Descended from Vi snu thus: Atri-Candra Budha - Pururavas - Ayus - Nahusa - Yayati-PuruJanamejaya-Pracinvan - Pravira - Namasyu-Vitabhaya Sundu - Bahuvidha - Sarhyati - Rahovadi - Raudra9vaMatinara- Santurodha - Dusyanta - Bharata - Suhotra- Suhota-Gala-Garda-Suketu-Brhatksatra-Nara - Sankrti




2) . His importance. Rantideva's unique kindness is very famous in history. After the great war was over, Narada once narrated the stories of sixteen kings to Dharmaputra. There are a number of stories relating to Rantideva's kindness, hospitality etc. He had engaged 20,000 people to cook food for guests who came to the palace everyday. He was very vigilant about treating guests day and night alike. He gifted away all wealth which had been righteously earned, to brahmins. He learned Vedas and subdued enemies by Dharma (righteousness). The very blood that flowed from the skin of cattle killed to entertain his guests formed itself into a river called Carmanvati. (anti Parva, Chapter 29. 21,000 cows were daily killed for the guest. (Drona Parva, Chapter 67).


3. Other information.


(i) Rantideva entered Svarga by giving Vasistha warm water. (anti Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 17) .


(ii) He once worshipped maharsis with fruits and vegetables and achieved his desire. (Santi Parva, Chapter 292, Verse 7).


(iii) He never ate flesh. (Anus asana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 67 ).


(iv) He entered heaven once by making oblations to Vasistha._ (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 6).


(v) He is recognised as one of the Maharajas who are to be remembered both at dawn and at dusk. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 51) .


RAN-`f U (The Malayalam word for `two').


1. Ayanas two.


A. Uttarayana, from July-August to December January (Dhanu). B. Daksinayana, from January-February (Makaram) to June July (Mithunam). For the Devas Uttarayana is day and Daksinayana night. Religiousminded Hindus believe that Uttarayana is an auspicious period for death.


2. Arthadusanas 2. (Misuse of wealth)


(i) Spending money for bad purposes and not spending money for good purposes.


(ii) Stealing money or wealth and not giving money to poor deserving people.


3. Alankaros 2. (Figures of speech.). Arthalankara and Sabdalankara.


4. Ausadhas 2. (Medicines). Curatives like medicated oils and ghees, honey etc. and purgatives like vasti (enema), recanam (purgation) and vamanam (vomiting).


5. Aids for health 2. Cleanliness and sexual continence. 6. Gurus 2. (Preceptors). Actual preceptor or preceptor in effect and casual preceptor) .


7. Yatudvayam. Pippali (long pepper) and Marica ( Pepper)


8. Yalahakdranam 2. (Causes for quarrel). Gold and woman (Kanaka and Kamini).


9. Kayadvayam (Two bodies). Mind and body.


10. Karanadvayam (Two causes). Upddanam (ultimate cause) and Nimittam (immediate cause).


11. Ksaradvayam (Two salts). Alkaline salt (Saltpetre) , Sodium Carbonate.


12. Capaladvayam (Fickle ones 2). Women and fools.


13. _7ndnadvayam (Knowledges.2 ). Superficial knowledge and deep knowledge. (Mandajfiana and Drdhajnana).


14. Dharmadvayam (Duties 2 ). Action and renunciation. (Pravrtti and Nivrtti).


15. ,Nisddvayam. Turmeric and Amonum Xanthorrhizon 16. Nisthadvayam. Sadhya (knowledge) and Sadhana (action).


17. Paksadvayam. Krsnapaksa (dark fortnight) and Suklapaksa moon-lit fortnight.


18. Padyakavyadvayam (Poetry 2) . Lyric and Mahakavyam (epic).


19. Papadvayam (Sins 2) . Original sin and acquired. (Janmapapa and Karmapapa).


20. Moksakdranadvayam. Causes for salvation, 2) . Yoga and death in war.


21. Togadvayam. Karma (action) and Jnana (knowledge) .


22. Ragadvayam (colour). Purnam (unmixed) and Janyam (mixed).


23. Rogadvayam (Diseases 2) . (a) Physical and mental (Kayika and Manasika). (b) Congenital and acquired. (Sabaja and Agantuka).


24. hiryadvayam. Heat and cold.


25. $rrigdradvayam. Love or the erotic sentiment 2) . Love in union and that in separation. (Sambhoga and Vipralambha).


26. o6ruddharmadvayam (Musical cadence 2). High pitch and low pitch (Ucca and nica).


27. Samadlzdnakdranadvayam (Two causes for peace) . Patience or forbearance and generosity. (Ksama and danasila).


RAPHENAKA. A naga born in Taksaka's dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 8).


RASATALA. A particular part of Patina where, according to the Iuranas, the Nivdtakavacas live. The Mahabharata contains the following information regarding Rasatala.


(1) During the deluge the Agni called Samvarta rent the earth and reached up to Rasatala. (Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 69) .


(2) The Raksasi called Krtya created by the asuras once carried away Duryodhana to Patala. (Vana Parva, Chapter 251, Verse 29) .


(3) Rasatala is the seventh stratum of the earth. Surabhi the mother of cows born from nectar lives there. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, Verse 1 ).


(4) It is more comfortable and happy to live in Rasatala than to live either in Nagaloka or Svarga. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, Verse 14).


(5) It was in Rasatala that Mahavisnu incarnated as Boar and killed the asuras with his tusk. (anti Parva, Chapter 206, Verse 26) .


(6) Mahavi snu, who assumed the form of Hayagriva went to Rasatala, killed Madhu and Kaitabha and resurrected the Vedas. ( Santi Parva, Chapter 347, Verse 54).


(7) King Vasu went to Rasatala because he uttered one lie. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 34).


(8) Rasatala is Ananta's abode. Balabhadrarama who was an incarnation of Ananta, gave up his material body at Prabhasa tirtha and attained Rasatala. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 28) .


RASMIKETU. A Raksasa who fought on the side of Ravana against Rama. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sundara Kancla; Sarga 9).


RASMIVAN. An eterna1, universal Deva (Visvadeva). (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 36).


RASTRAVARDHANA. A minister of Dasaratha. (Agni Purana, Chapter 6).


RATA. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. Dharma married her and the Vasu called Ahar was born to the coup1e. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 17).


RATHACITRA. A river famous in the Puranas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 26).


RATHADHVAJA. Father ofking Kusadhvaja of Videha. -Vedavati was his grand-daughter. (See under Vedavati) .


RATHADHVANA. Another name of Viragni, son of Sarhyu. (Vana Parva., Chapter 219, Verse 9) .


RATHAGRAi0. A warrior. He had accompanied Satrughna who led the Asvamedhic horse of Rama. (Padma Purana, Patdlakhanda).


RATHAKRTA. A Yaksa who rotates in the month of Caitra along with the Aditya called Dhata. (Bhagavata 12th Skandha).


RATHAKSA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 63).


RATHANTARA I. A Saman, which, having assumed form, worships Brahma in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 30). This Rathantars. saman possesses the power to cure fainting fits. Once Vasistha restored Indra to consciousness with this Saman. (Sarrti Parva, Chapter 281, Verse 21).


RATHANTARYA (RATHANTAR I) . Mother of King Dusyanta. She was the daughter of King Ilina and had five sons, i.e. Dusyanta, Sfira., Bhima, Pravasu and Vasu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94) .


RATHAPRABHU. A synonym of Vzragni, son of Samyu. (Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 9).


PATHASENA. A valiant warrior who fought on the Pandava side against the Kauravas. His horses were very magnificent ones. (Drorra Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 62 ).


RATHASTHA. A Yaksa who rotates in the month of Jyestha in the company of 6'-Ac Aditya called Mitra. (Bhagavata, 12th Skandha).


RATHAVAHANA. Brother of tire Virata King. He fought against the Pandavas. (Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 42 ).


RATHAVARTA. A holy place. ccx°.isdered to be o_, the right side of Sakambharidevi. He who visits this place will, due to the grace of Siva, attain salvation. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 23).


RATHA'°,' TTT, A maharsi. He lived. in a hilly region very far away from the Himalayas. Once tire maharsi called Syavdsva invited Rathaviti to perform a homa at the yajna conducted by King Taranta, and vibe n he came for the homa with his dangbter the father of Sy«vasva asked him to marry his daughter to Syava•:va. Ra.thaviti not only refused, bat also dismissed I',y5..vd"Na from. the yajnic platform. At last ;-athaviti married his daughter to Sydvasva at the request of King Taranta. (Rgveda, Sayanabhasya).


RATHITARA. A king of the solar dynasty. He was the son of Prsatdsva. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


RATI 1. Wife of Kamadeva and some Puranas hold the view that Kama was the son of Dhar`ma whose father was Brahma. But, the story of Kama and Rati is described in the Kalikapuranaas- follows.


Brahma created ten prajapatis. A beautiful lady called Sandhya was his next creation. As soon as she was born, seeing her exquisite beauty Brahma and the prajapatis jumped to their feet. All of them thought in the same way. While the court of Brahma was in such a perplexed confusion, an extremly handsome person emerged from his mind. Fish was the symbol on his flag , and he aked Brahma thus: "Oh father, what should I do? Give me a suitable name and you should also decide upon a place and position and also a wife for me." Brahma told him as follows:"You be moving about everywhere in this world (full of men andwomen) engaged in the eternal function of creation with the five arrows of flower in your hands and thus multiply the population. Your arrows will go everywhere and no one, not even the Devas will dare to obstruct your arrows. Everyone will yield to your behests. Visnu, Siva and I also will yield before your arrows. You will enter the hearts of living beings in invisible form and giving them happiness engage yourself in eternal creation. The chief aim and object of your arrows of flower will be the hearts of living beings. You will be given a suitable name just now." .


The prajapatis, who understood the wish of Brahma, after mutual consultation said: "You emerged churning our minds. Therefore, you will become famous under the name Manmatha (he who churns the mind). You will lay low Siva's haughtiness and conceit. Oh ! best among men, Daksa, chief among the prajapatis, will give you a wife."


Happily pleased at the above words of Brahma Kama held up in his hands the bow and arrows of flowers and decided to shoot five arrows, i.e. harsanam (pleasing or gladdening), Rocanam (attracting or tempting), mohanam (deluding or infatuating), sosanam (weakening) and maranam (killing). He decided to use the arrows first against Brahrna and then against the prajapatis. Accordingly the arrows shot forth and Brahma and all the prajapatis overwhelmed by sexual passion stared at Sandhyadevi. Sandhya also got excited and from her body sprouted up 49 parts; 64 kolas (arts' also were born from her. She used incessantly against the leaders of the world (Brahma and others) who were downed by the arrows of sexual passion, arrows dear to Manmatha. The expressions of Brahma made Sandhya sick with love.


Siva, who was just then travelling along the sky, seeing the boisterous exhibitions of passion by Brahma and others alighted there. He ridiculed Brahma for his display of passion towards his own daughter Sandhya and spoke further like this: "This Kama too is a fool. He tested his arrows here itself, he has no sense of propriety and discretion."


Brahma was thoroughly ashamed at the words of Siva. He perspired and swept with his hands the drops of sweat that oozed from his body. With great difficulty he controlled his passion and gave up Sandhya. From the drops of sweat falling on the ground from the body of Brahma were born the pitrs called Agaisvattas and the Barhisadas, the former 64,000 in number and the latter 4,80,000. Drops of sweat from the bodies of the prajapatis also fell on the ground and from them were born the Devas. The pitrs called Somapas are the sons of Kratu; those called Svakalikas are the sons of Vasistha; sons of Pulastya are called Ajyapds and Havirbhuks are the sons of Afigiras.


Brahma, who was angry that Kama shot his arrows against him in the presence of Siva cursed the former that he would be burnt to ashes in the fire of Siva's eyes, and Kama trembling with fear at the curse prostrated at the feet of~Brahma. and wept Then Brahma said that though he would die in the fire of Siva's eyes, he would be born again.


From the drops of perspiration that fell on the ground from Daksa's body arose a beautiful woman, and Daksa told Kama that the woman, his daughter would become famous as Rati devi. Daksa gave Rati Devi to Kama to be his wife. Thus did Rati become Kama's wife. (For the second birth of Rati see under Pradyumna and for other details see under Kama.)


RATI II. An apsara woman of Alak--pure. She danced on the occasion of Kubera welcoming Ast_-wakramuni. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 45).


RATI III. Wife of Vibhu born in the dynasty of King Rsabhadeva of. Ajanabhavarsa. Prthuseni was her daughter. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


RATIGUNA. A Devagandharva whose father was K&< yapaprajapati and mother Pradha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 47).


RATIVIDAGDHA. A courtesan of Hastinapura. As she performed the pious deed of feeding brahmins she attained Vaikuntha after her death. (Padma .Purina, Kriyakhanda) .


RATNAGRIVA. AkingofKaficananagari who was a great devotee of Visnu. He performed tapas and attained Vaikw-itha. (Padma Purina, Patala Khanda).


RATNAKARA. A V aisya. He was killed by an ox, but he attained Vaikwitha as a brahmin called Dharmasva sprinkled Ganges water on him. (Padma Purina, Kriyakhanda).


RATNAKUTA. One of the wives of Atrimaharsi. (Padma Purina, Patala Khanda).


RATRIDEV I. The presiding deity of night. Indrani once worshipped Ratridevi for the fulfilment of her desires. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 25 ).


RAUBHYA. A hermit. It is seen in Uttara Ramayana that this hermit called on Sri Rama on his return from Lanka.


RAUDRA. A class of giants who lived on Kailasa and Mandara mountains. The hermit Lomasa gave warn-


ing to the P5ndavas, when they went to the north during their forest life, to be careful of the Raudras, (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 139, Stanza 10) .


RAUDRAKARMA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 127, Stanza, 62, that Raudrakarma was killed in the battle of Bharata by Bhimasena.


RAUDRASVA I. A son born to the emperor Puru of his wife Pausti. Raudrasva had two brothers Pravira and 1svara.


Once Raudrasva fell in love with the celestial maid Misrakesi. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 94, that as a result of the married life of these two, ten archers beginning with Anvagbhanu, were born.


RAUDRASVA 11. A hermit who was the disciple of the hermit Katyayana. Once Mahisasura came in the guise of a beautiful woman to the hermitage of Raudrltsva to hinder his penance. The hermit cursed Mahisdsura, "You will die because of' a woman". (Kalika Purina, Chapter 62).


RAUMYA (S) . A group of ganas (warriors of Siva). It is rrientioned in Mahabliarata, Santa Parva,Chapter 284, that these Raurnyas were born from the hairpores of V irabhadra, the chief of the guards of Siva.


RE°UPYA. A Puranically famous river of Ancient India. The holy bath Prasarpana of the hermit Jamadagni is situated on the banks of this river. (M.B. Vanes Parva, Chapter 129, Stanza. 7) .


RAURAVA. One of the twentyeight hells. For details see the part Naraka under the word Kala.


RAVANA. The Raksasa King of Lanka who had ten heads.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus :--Brahm:tPulastya-Vi~:ravas-Ravana.


2) Birth. Vi'sravas, grandson of Brahma and son of Pulastya married Kaikasi, daughter of Sumali. While Visravas and Kaikasi were living in the forest Slesmataka, Kaikasi became pregnant. She delivered four children in four Yamas, with an interval of one yama between them. The elder three were the famous Raksasas, Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhisana; the fourth one, a girl, was named Surpanakha. (Kamba Ramayana, Balakanda).


Kubera was another son of Viravas born of another wife called Devavarni alias Ilabil.i. As soon as he came of age Kubera Captured the Pu sp aka chariot and began ruling the kingdom with Lanka as capital. (Uttara Ramayana).


3) Previous lives of Rdva•aa. See under Jaya XI.


4) Ravana secured boons. Kaikasi (Ravana's mother) who became envious of the pomp and prowess of Kubera advised her son to secure boons from Brahma by tapas and become equal to Kubera. Accordingly he went to Gokarna with his brothers and began tapas. Kumbhakarna did tapas for 10,000 years; Vibhisana also did tapas for 10,000 years standing on one foot. Ravana, standing in the middle of the five fires, meditated upon Brahma. Though 10,000 years passed thus, Brahma did not appear yet. Ravat"a then cut one of his ten heads and made an offering of it to Brahma in the fire. Thus, within 9000 years he cut nine of his heads and offered them to Brahma in the fire. Lastly when he was about to cut ofd his tenth head, Brahma appeared and asked him to choose whatever boon he wanted. Ravana chose the boon that from none but men should he meet with his death. Kumbhakarna desired to secure the boon of `nirdevatva' (Absence of the devas) but secured by a slip of the tongue `nidravatvam' (sleep). Vibhisana chose devotion to Visnu. On his return after securing the boons, R5vana occupied Lanka, drove away Kubera and took his puspaka chariot. Ravana further declared Mahavisnu to be his eternal enemy. Hearing about Ravana's victory the RSksasas from Patala came to live in La.fiU_ 5) Family life . Ravana married Mandodari, fosterdaughter of Mayasura and three sons, Meghanada, Atikaya and Aksakumara were born to the couple. He then conquered the whole world with the cooperation of his sons and other Raksasas. The Astadikpalakas (protectors of the eight regions) were subjugated. He attacked Devaloka, but was defeated and imprisoned. Meghanada by magical trickery captured Indra and released Ravaria from custody. Meghanada came to be called Indrajit from that day onwards.


6) Kdrtaoirydrjuna and Rdvana. See under Kartaviryarjuna, Para 6.


7) Curses heated on Rdaana. As a result of ruling the land, as a terror to the whole world, for many years and of his triumphal journey Ravana had invited on his head eighteen sapas (curses) as follows.


(i) Nalakubara sdpa. Ravana once insulted Rambha, the betrothed wife of Nalakubara during her tour at a place near Alaka. On hearing about the insult Nalakubara cursed that Ravana should die with his ten heads broken.


(ii) Tredaaatisdpa. While Vedavati, the only daughter of sage Kusadhvaja, was doing tapas to secure Sri Madhava as her husband. Ravana committed rape on her and she cursed him thus : -"You and your family will be ruined by Lord Narayana on account of me."


(iii) Brdhmanasdpa. He invited a Vedic brahmin to install the idol of Tripurasundari given to him by giva. As the brahmin happened to be a bit late to come, Ravana imprisoned him for seven days, and the old brahmin cursed that Ravana would be imprisoned seven months by a man.


(iv) Nandikesaarasapa. For calling him `monkey' at Kailasa, Nandikesvara cursed that Ravana and his kingdom would be destroyed by monkeys.


(v) Tlasisthasdpa. As Vasistha refused Ravana's invitation to teach the Vedas etc. he took the former captive. When he was released from captivity by the solar King Kuvalayasva, Vasistha cursed that Ravaria and his family would be destroyed by those born in the solar dynasty.


(vi) Astdaakrasdpa. Ravana once saw sage Astavakra at Slesmataka and gave him a kick saying, `Oh ! handsome fellow ! I shall cure your eight hunches", and the sage cursed Ravana as follows :--For kicking me, a poor innocent sage, you will be kicked from head to foot and foot to head by monkeys."


(vii) Dattdtreyasdfa. Ravana once poured on his own head water kept purified by mantras by Dattatreya to bathe the head of his Guru, and the latter cursed that Rdvana's head would be polluted by the feet ofmonkeys. (viii) Dvaipdyanasdfia. When Ravana molested and wounded the lips of Dvaipayana's sister in his own presence he cursed that Ravana's sister would be mutilated by a man and he would be humiliated by monkeys.


(ix) Mdndaayasdpa. During a pleasure trip of his with Mandodari Ravana cruelly manhandled Mandavyamaharsi, when the latter cursed that Ravana too would be roughly handled by a monkey.


(x) Atrisdpa. Ravana once dragged by hair, the wife of Atri in his very presence, and Atri cursed that Ravana will have to witness his wife being denuded of her dress and dragged .by the hair by monkeys.


(xi) Ndradasapa. Narada refused to explain the meaning of `Om' to Ravana and the latter threatened to cut the tongue of Narada. Narada then cursed that all the ten heads of Ravana would be cut by a man.


(xii) Rtuvarmasaia. Rdvana once raped Madanamanjari, wife of Rtuvarman, who lived as an anchorite in the marutta forest, and the latter cursed that Ravana would be killed by a man.


(xiii) Maudgalyasdpa. Once maharsi Maudgalya was sitting in the svastika pose resting his neck on the yogadanda (a short stick-like piece of wood with a handle) Ravana happened to come there and he cut into two the yogadanda with his Candrahasa (sword) with the result that the maharsi fell down with face upwards and broke his back-bone. The maharsi then cursed that Ravana's Candrahasa would prove ineffective in future.


(xiv) Brdhmanajananisdpa. Certain young brahmin girls who had gone for sea-bath were humili4ted by Ravana in the presence of their mothers when they cursed that the wife of Ravana would be insulted in his very presence bymonkeys.


(xv) Agnisdpa. Ravana once humiliated Svzuhadevi, wife of Agni in his very presence and Agni cursed that Rava~a's wife would be humiliated by monkeys in his presence.


(xvi) Anaranyasdpa. Ravana killed by one blow on his chest King Anaranya of the solar dynasty who sought refuge with him, and the King cursed that Ravana would die with all his ten heads cut by the arrows of a prince of the solar dynasty.


(xvii) Brhaspati sdfia. When Ravana was about to .return after conquering Devaloka and taking the devas captives, Sulekhadevi, daughter of Brhaspati tried to take shelter somewhere when Ravana attempted to catch her by force. Then Brhaspati cursed that Ravana would die hit by the arrows of Rama.


(xviii) Brahmadevasafia. Ravana tried to humiliate Punjikadevi, daughter of Brahma, and the latter cursed that Ravana would die with all his ten heads broken if he touched unwilling women.


8) Rdvaaaa got Candrahdsa. See under Candrahasa.


9) He threatened Devas. Ravana, during his triumphal march with the armies, once came to the Usiravira mountain. Then the King called Marutta teas performing Mahesvara yajna on the plains of the mountain. Indra and the other devas came to receive their portion of the offerings. But they ran away in fear on the arrival of Ravana. Indra assumed the form of a peacock, Yama that of a crow, Kubera that of a chameleon and Varuna that of a swan, and the devas, thus assuming various forms went away in different directions. Marutta got angry and got ready to fight Ravana. But, as the maharsis prevented him from it no fighting took place. Ravana returned with the glories of victory.


10) He defeatedKtdla. Once Narada felt the urge to witness a quarrel. He went to Lanka and told Ravana tales about Kala, that Kala was more powerful than Ravana, that Kala would soon be causing Ravana's death etc. These stories awakened the anger in Ravana against Kala, and the former, with a strong armv challenged Kala, and war between the two started.


Brahma was in a fix, for he had given Ravana the boon that the latter would be killed only by a man. At the same time he had given the boon to Kala that anybody thrashed with his (Kala's) club would die. Brahma, therefore, decided to end the fighting between Kala and Ravana somehow, and he approached Kala and requested him to withdraw from fighting. Accordingly Kala acknowledged defeat and thus the fighting ended.


11) Ravana attacked Pdtala. Afterwards Ravana marched with his army to Patala where he defeated Taksaka, the naga King and exacted tributes from him. Then he attacked Nivatakavacas. When the fighting became very fierce Brahma intervened and brought about a compromise between the two. Next, Ravana attacked Surabhi in Varuna's palace, but the Raksasas who emerged from the pores on Surabhi's body drove away R avana .


12) liaped Rambhd. See under Nalakubara.


13) His death. Ravana's sister, Surpanakha met Sri Rama and Laksmana at Pancavati and wanted first Rama and then Laksmana to marry her. But, Laksmana cut away her nose, breasts etc. Enraged by this Ravana abducted Sita. Sri Rama, with the help of the monkey-army, killed Ravana in war. (See under Rama.


14) Synonyms of Ravana. Dasakandhara, Dasanana, Dasasya, Paulastya, Pulastyatanaya, Raksahpati, Raksasadhipa, Raksasamaher:vara. (Valmiki Ramayana and kamba Ramayana).


RAVI I. A -prince of Sauvira. It was this prince who stood with the flag behind the chariot of Jayadratha; who had come to carry away Draupadi. He was killed by Arjuna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 27) .


RAVI II. A son of Dhrtarastra. He was killed by Bhima in the great war. (Safya Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 14) .


RAYA. A King of the lunar dynasty and son of Pururavas. Urvasi, who had many sons like Ayus, Srutayus, Satyayus, Raya, Vijaya and Jaya. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


RAYANA. Brother of Yasoda, mother of Sri Krsna. (Brahmavaivarta Purana, 2.39, 37-39) .


RBHU I. An ancient sage. He was the son of Brahma. He was an extraordinary scholar who became the preceptor of Nidagha who was the son of Pulastya and the grandson of Brahma. Rbhu conveyed all knowledge to Nidagha. But he saw that although he taught Nidagha all branches of knowledge, the latter did not take any interest in "Advaita". So he left him in disappointment but later got him interested in Advaita. (Visnu Purana, Ariia 2. Chapters 15-16).




1) General information. Rbhus are a group of divine beings who attained divinity by performing tapas. Mahabh5rata, Anugasana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 25 says that even other gods worship the Rbhus.


2) Who were R, bhus? Angiras, the son of Brahma had a son named Sudhanva. Sudhanva had three children, Rbbuksan, Vibhvan and Vaja. These three persons form the Rbhus as mentioned in Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 16th Anuvaka, III th Sukta.


3) R, bhus and Miracles.


(i) Long ago, a cow belonging to a Rsi died. Its calf began to cry. The Rsi took pity on it and prayed to the


Rbhus. They made a cow and covered it with the skin of the dead cow and placed it in front of the calf. Because of its likeness to its mother, the calf believed it to be its mother.


(ii) Rbhus restored their parents who had become old, to youth. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 16th Anuvaka. 11th Sukta).


(iii) Rgveda says that it was the Rbhus who made Indra's horses, the chariot of the Asvinis and Brhaspati's




RCEYU. A king of the Puru Dynasty.


1) Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in the following order: -Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas.AyusNahusa. Yayati-Puru janamejaya - Pracinvan - PraviraNamasyu-Vitabhava-Sundu-Bahuvidha-Sarhydti- Rahovadi-Raudrasva and Rceyu.


( 2 Other details.


(i) His mother, Mis rakesi was a goddess. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 10).


(ii) He had two other names; Anvagbhanu and Anavrsti. Matinara was the son of Rceyu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 11-13).


RCIKA I (AJIGARTA). A famous sage.


1) Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in the following order-Brahma-Bhrgu-Cyavana-fTrva-Rcika. Rcika was the father of Jamadagni and grandfather of Parasurama.


2) Rcika's marriage. Gadhi, a king of the Lunar dynasty had a daughter, Satyavati. Rcika wished to marry this beautiful princess. Gadhi agreed to give his daughter in marriage to the sage if he gave 1,000 horses with black ears. Rcika offered worship to Varuna to help him in the matter. Varuna was pleased and a thousand horses rose up from the river Ganga. Rcika married Satyavati after giving the horses. Afterwards both of them went and settled down in the forest.


3) Birth of Yamadagni. One day Satyavatimade a request to Rcika that she should have a son. Besides, she requested him that her mother should be blessed with a son, so that she might have a brother. Rcika performed a. "homa" and after that he made two balls of rice and gave them to Satyavati. He advised her to eat one of them and to give the other to her mother. Rcika had put "Brahmatejas" (brilliance of Brahmins) in the first ricebali and "Ksatratejas" (brilliance of Ksatriyas) in the other. When Satyavati and her mother ate the riceballs, it so happened that the -ice-ball intended for her mother was eaten by Satyavati and the one intended for Satyavati was eaten by the mother. Later Rcika came to know of this mistake. In due course, Satyavati and her mother gave birth to sons, Satyavati's son was named VEvamitra. (Brahmdnda Purana, Chapter 57 ).


4) Other sons of Rcika. After this tlZree more sons were born to Rcika. The eldest of them was named Sunahpuccha, the second was named Sunassepha and the third, Sunolangula.


5) Thesale of gunassepha. Once king Ambarisa started a yaga. Indra who was jealous of him, stole the sacrificial cow. Since it was an evil omen, the priest, advised Ambarisa that either the lost cow or a human being in its place must be obtained to complete the yaga. In spite of searches made in many places, the cow could not be traced. At last Ambari sa's men met Rcika who was doing tapas on Bhrgutunga. Rcika sold his second son, Sunassepha to Ambarisa in exchange for the price of 100,000 cows,  The king took Sunassepha with him and came to Puskara tirtha. There they happened to meet Visvamitra. Sunassepha complained to Visvamitra and lamented over his ill-fate. Visvamitra wished to save him and to send one of his own sons in his place with Ambarisa. But none of his sons was willing to oblige. Visvamitra cursed them and turned them into eaters of human flesh. Then he turned to gunaAepha and said :-


"When you stand ready to be sacrificed near the altar, offer your prayers to Agni. If you do so, you will attain siddhi." (salvation or moksa). He also taught him two songs of praise to Agni.


While standing at the altar ready to be sacrificed Suna$ epha recited the two songs of praise. Indra and the other gods appeared and after saving Sunassepha rewarded Ambarlsa for his yaga. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, 62nd Sarga).


6) licika and the Vaisnaaa bow. Once Visvakarmamade two mighty bows. One of them was taken by Siva to burn the Tripuras. That bow is known as "Saivacapa". The other bow was given to Visnu. It is called "Vaisnavacapa" The Devas wished to see a trial of strength between Siva and Visnu. They prompted Brahma to bring about such a conflict. Brahma succeeded in causing a quarrel between Siva and Visnu. A fight began between Siva and Visnu. Both the Saivacapa and Vaisnavacapa went into action. But Siva was defeated. After that, Siva gave his bow to Devarata, king of Videha. By inheritance it came into the hands of king janaka, the father of Sita. It was this bow which was broken by Sri Rama at the time of Sita's Svayarirvara.


After the battle with Siva, Visnu gave his bow to Rcika who, in turn gave it to jamadagni. Jamadagni presented it to his son Parasurama. It was with this V aisnavacapa that Parasurama confronted Sri Rama who was returning after Sita's Svayarirvara. (Ramayana, Balakanda, 75th Sarga).


7) Other details.


(i) Rclka was given 1,000 white horses with black ears which could run fast, by Gadhi as dowry. Varuna presented these horses on the bank of the river Gariga. The place in Gairga where the horses rose up, came to


be called "Asvatirtha". Gadhi gave Satyavati to Rcika at the place called `Kanyakubja'. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 115).


(ii) Mahabharata, Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 23 says that Rcika once tried to stop Paragurama from killing Ksatriyas.


(iii) Once Dyutiman, King of Salva, presented a tract of land to Rcika. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 28) .


(iv) Rcika attained Vaikuntha and his wife Satyavati accompanied him in her earthly body. It is said that after it, Satyavat! transformed herself into a river under the name "Kausik!" and began to flow in north India. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bal-akanda, 34th Sarga).


RCIKA 11. One of the twelve Adityas. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 42).


RCIKA 111. A King who was the grandson of emperor Bharata and son of Dyumanyu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 24) .


RDDHI. Varuna's wife. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117. Verse 9 ).


RDDHIMAN. A great serpent. In Mah5bharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 15, there is a reference to the killing of this serpent by Garuda.


REND 1. A teacher-priest, who was the Vigvamitra and the author of a Sukta in (Aitareya-Brahmana 7. 17. 7; Rgveda 9. 70).


REND 11. King of the dynasty of Iksvaku. Renuka the wife of the hermit jamadagni, and the mother of Parasurama was the daughter of this King. Renu had other names such as Prasenajit, Prasena and Suvenu. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 116; Verse 2).


RENUKA I. The wife of the hermit jamadagni. (For further details see under the word jamadagni).


RE~JUKA II. A holy place frequented by Sages. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82. Stanza 82 that thosewho bathe in this holy bath would become as pure as Candra (Moon). It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, that this holy place lies within the boundary of kuruksr_tra.


REIjUKA. A powerful Naga (serpent). This serpent who was a dweller of Patala, (nether world) once went to the Diggajas (Eight elephants supporting the globe), in accordance with the instruction of the gods, and asked them questions pertaining to duty and righteousness. (M.B. Anusasana Parva. Chapter 132, Stanza 2)


REPHA. A hermit of the period of Rgveda. Once thasuras threw this hermit into water. This was the punishment for the sins committed by him in his previous life. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 17, Sukta 116).


REVANTA. A son of the sun.


1) Birth. The sun married the daughter of Visvakarmanamed Sariijfia. She gave birth to three children named Manu, Yama and Yam!. Once, being unable to bear the radiance of her husband, Sarinjfia went to the forest to do penance. During this period Chaya the maid of Sarirjfia attended on the sun. Three children, Sanaiscara, Manu and Tapat! were born to the Sun of Chaya. Once Chaya cursed Yama. Then only did the Sun remember about Sariljfia. At that time Sarhjfia had been doing penance in the forest in the form of a mare. The Sun took the form of a horse and lived with her in the forest. From this union Asvinikumaras and also the last son Revanta were born. (Visnu Purana, Adasa 3, Chapter 2).


2) Laksmi astounded at the sight of Reaanta. For the story of how Laksnri was astounded at the sight of Revanta's handsome figure and how Mahavisnu cursed Laksm! consequently, see under Ekavira.


REVATA. The father of Revati, the wife of Balabhadrarama. Revata was the son of Anartta and the grandson of king Saryati. It is mentioned in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7, that Revata was the first king who erected his capital in the Island Kusasthali and began to rule over it-


REVATI 1. Wife of Balabhadrarama. Revata the son of Anartta and the grandson of King Saryati was ruling over the island KW asthali. Hundred sons beginning with Kukudmi; were born to him. As the youngest of all a daughter named Revat! was born. At the instruction of Brahma the beautful Revat! was given in marriage to Balabhadrarama. (Bbagavata, Skandha 10; Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7) .


REVATI II. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 230, Stanza 29, the name `Revati' is used as a synonym of Aditi Devi, son of hermit Rgveda.


REVATI III. One of the twentyseven stars. The following statements occur in the Mahabharata about the importance of this star.


(i) Sri Krsna started on his journey at the auspicious moment of Maitra on the star Revati in the month of Karttika. (M.B. Udyoga Parva. Chapter 83, Stanza 6 ). (ii) If a cow is given as alms on the day of this star that cow will go to heaven and make preparations for the comforts and convenience of the giver. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 64, Stanza 33).


(iii) He who gives offerings to the manes on Revati day would become wealthy. (M.B. Anugasana Parva, Chapter 89, Stanza 14).


REVATI IV. The mother of Raivata, the lord of the fifth Manvantara (age of a Manu). There is a story in the Markandeya Purana about the birth of Revati.


A son was born to the hermit Rtavak on Revati day. By apd by he became wicked. Having learned from the hermit Garga that his son became wicked because he was born under the star Revati, Rtavak cursed the star Revati and kicked it down from its place. The spot on which the star fell became a lake. After a time a beautiful damsel was born from the lake. The hermit Pramuca took the girl home and brought her up. She was called Revati. When she came of age, she was given in marriage to Durgama, the son of king Vikramasila. At the request of Revati her marriage was conducted at an auspicious moment on the day of the star Revati. The hermit blessed the couple "Let a son, who would become the Lord of the Manvantara, be born to you." As a result of this blessing the bright and valiant son Raivata was born to them. This Raivata was the Lord of the fifth Manvantara.


RGVEDA. The Rgveda is the oldest recorded work of the human race. The Egyptians claim that another book entitled "Book of the Dead" was also written during the period of the Rgveda. The Babylonians have an ancient work called `Gilgamish', which according to scholars, is not as old as the R.gveda. Rgveda is the work that forms the basis of Hindu religion. Of the four Vedas, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda were composed after Rgveda." The Rgveda suktas were, interpreted for the first time in Yaska's "Nirukta" and Sayana's "Vedarth apr akas a".


The most important of the four Vedas is Rgveda. It is divided into ten "Mandalas". There are 1017 suktas and 10472 Rks in it. Although there are I1 more Sauktas called "khilas," they are not usually included in the Rgveda.


Mandalas two to seven of the Rgveda were composed in different Rsikulas. The second Mandala was of Bhargava kola, the third of Visvamitrakula, the fourth of Vamadeva, the fifth of Atri, the sixth of Bharadvaja and the seventh of Vasistha. The eighth Mandala and the first 50 Suktas of the first Mandala were composed by Kanvakula. The general view is that the tenth Mandala was written by someone at a later period.


Most of the Rgveda suktas are praises. But some of the Suktas in the tenth Mandala are of a different type. We can see in many suktas the joy and wonder experienced by the Aryas when they entered the beautiful land of India for the first time. Most scholars believe that the Rgveda was composed during the period between 2, 500 and 2,000 B. C.


Ancient Belief about Rgaeda. The four Vedas-Rgveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda emerged from the four faces of Brahma. In Krtayuga, Brahma gave these Vedas to his sons. In Dvaparayuga, the Rsis got these Vedas. Mahavisnu incarnated on earth for the preservation of Dharma, in the person of Veda Vyasa. Vyasa distributed the Vedas among his son Sakalya and his disciples. Sakalya received Rgveda. He communicated it to his disciples. (Bliagavata, 12th Skandha. See under the word Veda).


RIPU. Grandson of Dhruva. Two sons called Sisti and Bhavya were born to Dhruva by his wife Sambhu. Sisti's wife Succhaya deliverd five sons, i.e. Ripu, Ripunjaya, Vipra, Vrkala and Vrkatejas. Caksusa Manu was born as the son of Ripu by his wife Brhati. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 13 ).


RIPUIVJAYA. I Son of Suratha, lord of Kundala city. When Suratha captured Sri Rama's yajiiic horse there ensued a fierce war between hire and Satrughna. , Ripurijaya too was present at the fighting. (Padma Purana ).


RIPUNJAYA. II A brahmin, who was born as Divodasa, king of Kasi in his rebirth. When once fire ceased to be in Kay, i, he took upon himself the .function of fire. (Skanda purana, 4.2, 39-48) .


RIPUNJAYA III. See under Ripu.


RISTA. A king. He worships Yama in his assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8 ).


RJISVA. A king mentioned in the Rgveda. Once he besieged the city of another King, Vaihgrda, with the help of Indra. (Rgveda, Ist Mandala, 10th Anuvaka, 53rd Sukta).


RJRASVA. A muni (,sage) celebrated in the Rgveda.


Some details.( 1) Rjra$va was made blind by his father (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 16 th Anuvaka, 112th Sukta) (2) Rjrdsva was the son of the royal sage, Vrsagir. Once the donkey which is the vehicle of the Asvinidevas assumed the shape of a she-wolf and went to gjrasva. Rjrasva gave it 100 sheep belonging to, the people of the country and cut them to pieces and offered the same as food to the she-wolf. This plunder of the people's wealth enraged Vrsagir. He cursed R.jragva and made him lose his eye-sight.


Rjrasva who thus became blind offered prayers to A.gni, who restored his eyesight. (Rgveda, Ist Mandala, 17th Anuvaka, 116th Sukta).


RK. A small section of the Veda. The Veda which issued from the face of God at the time of creation, consisted of 1,00,000 books in four sections, beginning with Rk. (Visnu Purana, Part III, Chapter 4) . The root -RC" means "to praise". It got the name "RK" meaning, "to praise gods".


RKSA I. A king of the Puru dynasty. He was the father of Sarhvarana. For genealogy see under the word Sariivarana (M. B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94).


RKSA II. King Hariha had a son named Rksa born to him by his wife Sudeva. Mahabharata, A:di Parva, Chapter 95 says that this Rksa had a son named Matinara, by his wife Jvala.


,RKSA. Wife of Ajamidha, who was a king of the lunar dynasty. (M.B. Adi larva, Chapter 95, Verse 37).


RKSADEVA. Son of Sikhandi. Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 23 refers to his horse with white arty( fired eqlpur,


RKSAMBIKA. A woman fo1lower of Lord Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 12) .


RKSARAJAS. A monkey who was the foster-father of Bali and Sugriva. He was the king of Kiskindha. He had no issue for a long time. Bali and Sugriva were brought up by Ahalya at Gautama's 5srama. Rksarajas, with the permission of Indra, went to the 5srama and took Bali and Sugriva with him to Kiskindha. From that time, Bali and Sugriva remained with him as his foster-sons. (Uttara Ramayana ).


There is a story in Valmiki Ramayana, Praksipta Sarga, about the origin of this monkey.


Once when Brahma was in a state of meditation on the Meru mountain, tears rolled down from his eyes and he gathered the tears in his own hands. From those tears, a monkey came into being. Rksarajas was that monkey.


One day, Rksarajas went to a lake to quench his thirst. Seeing his own image reflected in the water, he thought it was some enemy and jumped into the lake, to attack him. But he soon realized his mistake and returned to the shore. As soon as he came out of the water,, he felt that he had become a woman. Seeing her fascinating beauty, Indra and Surya were filled with lustful passion. Both of them had involuntary emission of semen. Bali was born from Indra's semen which fell on the head and Sugriva was born from Surya's semen which fell on the neck of Rksarajas. Towards the end of the night, Rksarajas lost his female form and regained his former shape as a male. At once he took the two children with him to Brahma and told him the whole story. Brahma sent a messenger with Rksarajas and had him anointed king of Kiskindha. After the time of Rksarajas, Bali became king of Kiskindha.


RKSA~Ri*[GA. The younger son of Dirghatapas who was performing tapas in Mandaravana on the northern part of K5si. Since he was killed by Citrasena, all others committed suicide. But Dirghatapas who was left behind collected their bones, and deposited them in the sacred Sulabhedatirtha. Skanda Purana says that consequently they attained Heaven.


RKSAVAN. One of the seven mountains in India. (M.B. Bhf sma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 11) .


ROCAMANA. An attendant of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 28).


ROCAMANA I. A Ksatriya King. The following information is available from Mahabharata about him.


(i) Rocamana was born from a portion of an asura named Ar'vagriva. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 18) .


(ii) Rocamana also was present at the Svayamvara (marriage) of Draupadi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza l0).


(iii) Rocamana was the King of the country Asvamedha. Bhimasena, at the time of his regional conquest, defeated this King. (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter ?9, Stanza 8) .


(iv) At the beginning of the battle of Kuruksetra, the Pandavas sent an invitation to this King to join the battle. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 12 ).


(v) Rocamana was a mighty warrior on the side of the Pandavas in the battle of Kuruksetra. (M.B. Drone Parva, Chapter 70, Stanza 47) .


(vi) Rocamana was killed by Karna in a combat. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Stanza 49) .


ROCAMANA II. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Stanza 19, mentions another Rocamana who had been defeated by Arjuna in his regional conquest.


ROCAMANA III. Mention is made in the Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Stanza 20, that teacher Drone had killed two brothers with the name Rocamana in the Bharata-battle.


ROCANA I. The daughter of the King Devaka. Vasudeva married Rocana. Two sons Hema and Hemangada were born to her. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


ROCANA II. Grand-daughter of Rukmi, the King of Vidarbha. Aniruddha the grandson of Sri Krsna married her at Bhojakata, (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).


ROCANAMUKHA. An asura. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 105, Stanza 12 that Garuda killed this Asura.


RODHA. A hell. See the part Naraka under the word Kale.


ROHINI I. The mother of all the cows. The following is a story about the origin of Rohini, given in Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 14.


Prajapati Kasyapa married Surabhi the seventh daughter of Daksa. Two daughters Rohini and Gandharvi, were born to Surabhi. In later years cows and oxen were born in the world from Rohini and horses from Gandharvi. In the Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 66, it is mentioned that two daughters Vimala and Anala were born to Rohini and that from these two, in later years cattle were born.




1) General information. One of the wives of Candra ( Moon) . The twentyseven staffs are the wives of Candra. Of these twentyseven wives, Rohini was loved most by Candra. (See under Candra).


2 ) Rohina and Dasaratha. ( See under Dasaratha, Para 10).


ROHINI III. The mother of Balabhadrarama.


1) General information. Vasudeva had two wives Devaki and Rohini. Sri Krsna was born from Devaki and Balabhadrarama from Rohini.


2) Precious Birth ofRohini. Vasudeva was the rebirth of Prajapati Kasyapa. When KaSyapa took birth as Vasudeva, his two wives Aditi and Surasa took birth as Devaki and Rohini respectively. (They took birth thus, because of the curse of Varuna. For details of the curse see under Kasyapa, pare 6 ).


3 ) The birth of Balabhadra. The seventh child of Devaki was placed in the womb of Rohini and Balabhadrarama was born. (For this story see under Krsna, pare 6, Kamsa, pare 6 and Sadarbhaka).


4) Death. As soon as a messenger named Daruka brought the news that the entire race of the Yadavas had perished in Dvaraka,


"because of grief, Vasudeva, Devaki and Rohini forsook their bodies." ( Bhagavata, Skandha 11) .


ROHINI IV. Nina the third wife of the .Agni (fire) called Manu or Bhanu gave birth to a daughter named Rohini. Because she had done some misdeeds, she became the wife of Hiranyakasipu. ( M.B. Vane Parva, Chapter 221) .


ROHINI V. The mother of Utatthya, a famous hermit. (For details see under Satyatapas).


ROHITA (ROHITASVA). The son of Hariscandra.


This son, who was born by the blessing of Varuna, was wanted to be sacrificed by Varuna himself. In connection with this Hariscandra had to bear much sorrow and misery. (For details see under Hariscandra).


ROHITAKA (ROHITAKAR.ANYA). A mountain famous in the Puranas. Places surrounding this mountain also were known by the name Rohitaka. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Stanza 4, that during the regional conquest of Nakula, he passed through this country. The present name of this country is Rohtak (Haryana).


ROMAHARSAI\TA. A famous disciple of Vyasa. The great Vyasa gave the collection of Puranas to Romaharsana. Sumati, Agnivarcas, Mitrayus, Sarissapayana, Akrtavrana and Savarni were the six disciples of Romaharsana. (See under Guruparampara).


ROMAKA. A country in ancient India. The inhabitants of this country were called the Romakas. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Stanza 17, that the Romakas came with presents to the horse-sacrifice performed by Yudhisthira.


ROMAPADA. See under Lomapada.


ROMASA. A daughter of Brhaspati. The reply given by Romasa to her husband when he teased her, is given in Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 19, Sfikta 126.


RSABHA I. A King of the Lunar dynasty. He was the great grandson of Uparicaravasu. Mahabharata, Diona Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 12 says that he fought within the Garudavyfiha formed by Drona.


RSABHA II. A muni (sage) who was the grandson of King Agnidhra.


1 ) General information.


Rsabha was the son of King Nabhi by his wife Merudevi. One. hundred sons were born to Rsabha by his wife Jayanti. After entrusting his kingdom to Bharata, the eldest of his sons, Rsabha went to the forest and did tapas in Pulaha's asrama.


2) Rsabha and Rsabhakagta Rsabha did tapas in the forest for many years. The mountain peak on which he performed his tapas got the name "Rsabhakfita". The sage who wished to observe strict silence did not like the presence of strangers and visitors in the vicinity. So he pronounced a curse that the mountain should drop boulders on anyone who ventured to come there. Once he ordered the wind to blow without noise as it passed by the side of the mountain. He declared that anyone who made noise in Rsabhakfita would be struck with thunder. A place of holy waters came into existence there. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 11).


3) The ,bower of &abha's Tiga. Rsabha became a devotee of Siva by worshipping him.


Once a Brahmana named Mandara had an illicit alliance with Pingala, a prostitute. Both of them died together. Mandara was re-born as Bhadrayu, the grandson of Nala and Pirigala as Sumati, the wife of King Vajrabahu (Arhsuman). Sumatibecame pregnant. Her co-wives who were jealous of her poisoned her. As a result of it, she and the child born to her fell victims to diseases. Dasarna abandoned them in the fore~t. Sumati lived in the house of a Vaisya with her child. While living there, the child died of disease. Rsabha went to the grief-stricken Surrmati and comforted her. (Siva Purana).


4) Rsabha's End. Rsabha performed tapas according to the rules of Vanaprastha dsrama and conducted yagas as ordained by Sastras. On account of his austerity he became so lean and thin that all the veins in the body could be seen. Putting a pebble in his mouth, he went about in the forest, dettrmined to renounce his body. (Visnu Purana, Chapter 1, Section 1 ).


In the course of his wanderings in the forest a wild fire broke out in which his body was burnt up. Siva Purana says that the soul of Rsabha who died in the wild fire, attained Siva Loka.


RSABHA 111. A Naga born in the Dhrtarastra family. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 11, we read that this naga was burnt to ashes at Janamejaya's Sarpasatra. (Snake sacrifice).


RSABHA IV. An Asura. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 227, Verse 51) .


RSABHADVIPA. A holy place on the banks of the river Sarasvati. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84 says that by bathing in this place, one would obtain Devavimana.


RSABHAKL0TA. See under Rsabha II and Rsabhaparvata.


RSABHAPARVATA. There are twenty mountains on the four sides of Mahameru. Rsabha is one of them. (Devi Bhagavata, Astama Skandha).


There is a reference to Rsabha Parvata when Sugriva gave instructions about the way to the army of monkeys going out in search of Sita. Sugriva speaks about the Rsabha mountain as situated in the middle of the ocean of milk. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, 4th Sarga, Verse 44) .


RSABHATIRTHA. An ancient place of holy waters in Ayodhya. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84 says that an observance of fast at this tirtha is equivalent to the gift of 1,000 cows and a Vajapeyayajna.


RSI. Agni Purana, Chapter 348 states that the letter "R" means "sound". The word "Rsi" is derived from this root. During the period when the art of writing was not known, Vedas, Sastras and other sacred lore were communicated through the mouth of the Rsis. The voice of Arsa Bharata itself is the voice of the Rsis. Hindus believe that the Vedas are the outcome of the inspiration, introspection and spiritual vision of the Rsis. There is a Sarhskrta stanza defining a Rsi, which is given below


TJrdhvaretastapasyagah NiyatdS i ca safyami /


Sapanugrahayohsaktah Satyasandho bhavedrsih//


India has given birth to numerous Rsis. The word "Rsi" maybe found throughout the Vedas. Rsis born i '~11 classes of people bad lived in India


n . The general belief is that the number of Rsis may come to about 48,000. It is not possible to know the names of all of them. In the Ramayana we find that when Sri Rama returned to Ayodhya after his life in the forest and took up the reign, many Rsis carne to Ayodhya from all parts of the country. Among them, Visvamitra, Yavakrita, Raibhya, Kanva and Garga came with their party of disciples from the east; Dattatreya, Namuci, Pramuci, Valmiki, Soma, Kundu and Agastya came with their disciples from the south; Vrsangu, Kavisa, Kaumya,  Raudreya, Narada, Vamadeva, Saubhari, Astavakra, guka, Bhrgu, Lomasa, Maudgalya and others with their disciples came from the west and Kasyapa, Vasistha, Atri, Gautama, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja, Sanaka and party, garabhanga, Durvasas, Matanga, Vibhandaka, Tumburu, the Saptarsis and others with their party of disciples arrived from the north, according to Uttara Ramayana. There are three classes of Rsis-Brahmarsi, Rajarsi and Devarsi. Vasistha was a Brahmarsi, Visvamitra, a Rajarsi and Kasyapa, a Devarsi.


RSIGIRL A mountain situated near Girivraja, the capital of Magadha kingdom. This mountain is also known as "Matanga" (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 21, Verses 2 and 3) .


RSIKA I. A Rajarsi. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verses 32 and 33 state that he was the rebirth of Arka, the Asura leader.


RSIKA II. A town in North India. A terrible battle took place here between Arjuna and Rsika, the Rajarsi. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 25) .


RSIKULYA. A sacred river in ancient India. Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chanter 9, Verse 47 mentions that those who bathe in this river will attain Moksa (salvation).


RSYAMUKA. A mountain. Mahabharata, :Vans Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 9 states that Rama and Laksmana visited the sage Markandev_ a on the top of this mountain. It was here that Rama and Laksmana met Sugriva. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 279, Verse 44 states that the river Pamper runs round the R syamuka mountain.


RSYA$R&GA. Son of the sage Vibhandaka.


1) Birth. Vibhandaka, son of Kasyapa was the father of Rsyasrnga. There is a strange story about him in the Mahabharata. .


impossible. One of them, however, agreed to try. As desired by her, the King sent her with several other damsels.


The young women went to the forest and made a floating asrama in a boat in which they sailed in the river by the side of Vibhandaka's as rams. They stopped the boat close to the asrama and one of the girls entered the asrama when Vibhandaka was not there. She had a talk with Rsyasrnga in the course of which she used all the amorous enchantments of her sex to captivate the young Muni. She told him that she , was the daughter of a Muni, living ~in an asrama, three yojanas away. Rsyasrnga felt a peculiar fascination for her and tried to please her by offering fruits etc. When she left him, he felt deeply distressed and unhappy. He was in that depressed and gloomy state of mind when Vibhandaka returned to the asrama. Finding him unusually restless and dejected, the father asked him whether anyone had come there. Rsyasrnga who was an entire stranger to the feminine world told his father that a handsome youth of irresistible charm had visited him during Vibhandaka's absence. But from Rsyasrnga's description of the "youth" Vibhandaka understood that the visitor must have been a woman. But he could not ,guess who ;t was.


On another occasion, the same woman came again to the asrama in the absence of Vibhandaka. At her sight Rsyasrnga was enraptured and before his father's return, they left the asrama. They entered the floating asrama in the boat and the woman set the boat sailing in the river. It glided slowly down the river and at last reached near the palace of Lomapada. They landed there and the King married his daughter Sa.nta. to Rsyas raga.


Once sage Vibhandaka happened to see Urvasi at Mahahrada. At the very sight of her, the sage had an involuntary emission of semen. The semen fell in the water and just then a female deer came there to drink water. It swallowed the semen with water and in due course became pregnant and gave birth to a human child. But the child had the horns of a deer. Consequently Vibhandaka named the boy "Rsyasrnga". Vibhandaka. and Rsyasrnga lived together in the asrama. Rsyasrnga grew up into a youth, but he had never seen anyone except his father Vibhandaka.


2 ) Rainfall in the kingdom of Anger. At that time, the kingdom of Anger was ruled by Lomapada, a friend of Dasaratha. Once he ;,heated a Brahmans. Consequently all the Brahmanas in that country left the place and . emigrated to other lands. From that time there was 'no rain in the land of Anger. A severe drought and famine followed. Lomapada invited devout Brahmanas and consulted them how they could bring rain to the land. They told him that if he could get a Muni (sage) who had never seen women to perform a yaga, there 'would be rainfall in the land. The King sent his men far and wide to find a Muni who had never set eyes on a woman At last. he got news that Rsyas,rrlga, son of Vibhandaka was the sage who had never seen women. He then began to plan how Rsyasrnga could be brought over to Anger.


Lomapada called together some prostitutes and asked them whether they could bring Rsyasrnga to his country. All except one of them said it was quite


To appease Vidhandaka, Lomapada sent him rich presents and much wealth. When Vibhandaka returned to his asrama he was met by the King's servants who had brought the presents and wealth. Ignoring them


and their rich presets, the furious Maharsi set out to the city of Camipa, the capital of the Anger Kingdom. At the royal command, Vibhandaka was welcomed by the people with honour. When the sage found that the whole kingdom belonged to his son, his anger was allayed. After ordering his son to return to his asrama after the birth of a son, Vibhandaka left the palace. As..a result of Rsyasrnga's yaga there was rainfall in


Anger and famine ended. After the birth of his child he returned to the forest as ordered by his father. ( M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapters I 10- 112).


3) R, sya.f rnga in Ayodhya. King Dasaratha of Ayodhya had no children for a long time. His Minister Sumantra advised him to invite Rsyasrnga to perform a yaga for the purpose. Lomapada sent Rsya;rnga to Ayodhya at the invitation of Dasaratha. He arrived at Ayodhya and performed a yaga called Putrakamesti. From the sacrificial fire there arose a dark monstrous figure, with a pot of pudding in his hand. Dasaratha received it from him and gave one half of it to Kausalya and the other half to Kaikeyi. Both of them gave half of their shares to Sumitra. Thus Sumitra got two shares while the other two wives of Dasaratha got only one share each. As a result Kausalya and Kaikeyi gave birth to a son each, while Sumitra had two sons. Kausalya's son was named Rama, Kaikeyi's son was Bharata and Sumitra's sons were Laksmana and Satrughna. (Valmiki Ramayaiia, Bala Kanda, Chapters 14-16).


RTA 1. One of the 11 Rudras. (M.B. Anugasana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 12) .


RTA 11. See under the word Pramrta.


RTA 111. This word has a general meaning "truth". Besides, in Agni Purana, Chapter 152, we see that it also means "Something obtained by begging".


RTADHAMA. Another name of Sri Krsna. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 62).


RTADHVAJA I. (KU VALASVA-DHUNDHUMARA) a A famous King of the Iksvaku dynasty.


1) Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in the following order-Brahma-Marici-Kasyapa-Vivasv5n -Vaivasvata Mann -Iksvaku - Vikuksi - Sag ada -Kakutstha-Anenas-Prthula;:va-Visvaga-va-- AdriKuvalasva (Dhundhumara).


2) How he got the name Dhundhumdra. The most heroic exploit of Kuvalasva or Kuvalayasva was his killing of the Asura Dhundhu.


Madhu and Kaitabha were two Asuras born from the ears of Mahavisnu. The Asura Dhundhu was their son. After his 'birth, Mahavisiiu killed Madhu and Kaitabha. Dhundhu was furious over the death of his fathers. He worshipped Brahma who granted him unconquerable strength. After defeating the gods he went to the desert called Ujjalaka and lay beneath the sands,. Whenever he heaved a sigh clouds of dust rose up to the sky and the earth shook for seven days. It caused great damage to life and property in the world, like a storm. Uttanka, a sage who lived in the neighbourhood of Ujjalaka was the person who suffered most from Dhundhu's misdeeds.


Brhadasva, of Iksvaku dynasty and father of Kuvalasva in his old age entrusted the rule of the country to his son and prepared to go to the forest. At that time, sage Uttanka came there and advised the King to go to the forest only after killing Dhundhu. Brhadasva called his son Kuvalasva and after giving him the task of killing Dhundhu, proceeded to the forest.


Kuvalasva had 21,000 sons. Leading them, he went to the desert Ujjalaka to kill Dhundhu. Uttanka declared that anyone who killed Dhundhu would get part of Mahavisnu's strength. Kuvalasva's sans surrounded Dhundhu. 'Fhe Asura awoke with anger. In the fire from his eyes, all the 21,000 sons of Kuvalasva were burnt to ashes. Next Kuvalasva came into conflict with Dhundhu. In that fight Dhundhu was killed. The gods gave Kuvala'va many boons. From that day, got the name, "Dhundhumara" (one who killed Dhundhu). (M.B. Vana Parva, 4 Chapters from 201).


3) His sons. Kuvalasva had three more sons named Drdhasva, Kapilasva and Candrasva, or Bhadrasva besides the 21,000 sons. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 204, Verse 40) .


4) Vamana Purana, Chapter 59 gives the following account of how Kuvalasva won the favour of sage Galava.


Long ago while sage Galava was performing tapas in his asrama, an Asura called Patalaketu used to disturb his meditations regularly. One day, the sage looked up to Heaven and heaved a sigh. At once a horse dropped down from the sky. A mysterious voice was heard saying-"This mighty horse will travel thousands of


yojanas in a day." The sage received that horse and presented it to Rtadhvaja, King of the lunar dynasty. Rtadhvaja mounted the horse and killed Patalaketu.


It was Vigvavasu who dropped this horse from Heaven. Patalaketu had once fallen in love with Visvavasu's daughter, Madalasa. It was in revenge that Visvavasu had done like this.


RTADHVAJA II. A Maharsi (sage). The sage jabali was his son. (For further details, see Para 2 under the word Visvakarma).


RTAMBHARA. An ancient King. He worshipped Kamadhenu and obtained a son who was a devotee of Visnu. The son's name was Satyavan. In connection. with Sri Rama's Asvamedhayaga, Satrughna who was leading the horse, arrived in Satyavan's city during his tour of the eastern lands. (Padma Purana, Pdtd1a Khanda, Chapter 30) .


RTASTUBH A Muni (sage) celebrated in the Rgveda. (Rgveda. Ist Mandala, 16th Anuv.",ka, 112th Sukta).


RTEYU II. A Maharsi (sage) of the western country. He was a rtvik (priest officiating at a yaga) of Varuna. (M.B. Anug asana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 36) .


RTUKALA. The time that is most auspicious for sexual intercourse for a woman with her husband. In ancient India certain days were prescribed as the best period for women to become pregnant. This period is called Rtukala. (Rtu-Menstruation. Kala-time, period.)


The sixteen days following menstruation are supposed to be good; but the first three days are not very good and it is advisable not to have sexual intercourse during those days. The next even days beginning with the fourth day (4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 14th and 16th) are the best days for coitus if a male issue (a son) is desired. The odd days (5th, 7th, 9th, I lth 13th, 15th) are to be preferred if a female issue (daughter) is desired. (Agni Purana, Chapter 151 ).


RTUPARNA. A king of the lksvaku dynasty.


1. Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in the following order-Brahma-Kasyapa-Vivasvan-Vaivasvata ManuIksvaku-Vikuksi-gasada-Puranjaya-Kakutstha - AnenasPrthuldgva-Prasenajit-Yuvan'dSva-Mdndhdtd- PurukutsaTrasadasyu-Anaranya-Aryasva - Vasumanas - SutaAvaTrayyaruna - Satyavrata ('rrisanku) - Hari9candraRohita9va-Harita - Cuncu - Sudeva - Bharuka - SagaraAsamanjasa-Arnsuman -Bhagiratha-Srutanabha-Sindhudvipa-Ayutayus-Rtuparna.


2) Other Details.


i) Nala's incognito life. While Nala was wandering in the dense forest after leaving Damayanti, he was bitten by the serpent, Karkotaka. His complexion turned blue owing to the effect of the poison. Karkotaka gave him a garment by wearing which Nala could regain his form. As advised by Karkotaka, Nala went to the palace of Rtuparna, king of Ayodhya, assuming the name. Bahuka. He lived there as the chief charioteer of the king. He had mastered the art "Asvahrdaya" by which he could drive the chariot-horses with astonishing speed. Rtuparna appointed him as his chief charioteer and gave him two assistants, Varsneya and jivala. (M.B., Aranya Parva, Chapter 67).


(ii) Rtuparna and the second marriage of Damayanh.


Damayanti came to know that Nala was living in Rtuparna's palace, through the messenger Parnada. She sent a secret mesage to Ayodhya through a Brahmana named Sudeva that her second marriage was fixed for the next day and that Rtuparna should attend the ceremony. Rtuparna started at once with Bdhuka as his charioteer. On the way, IZtuparna's cloak happened to fall down from the chariot. At once he asked Nala to stop the chariot. But he told him that within a moment, the chariot had covered a distance of one yojana from the place where the cloak fell.


They saw a tree in the forest which was heavily laden with fruit. Rtuparna was able to tell at a glance, the exact number of leaves and fruits on that tree. He told Nala that he was able to do so with the help of the art "Aksahrdaya" and he taught it to Nala. In return for it, Nala taught the king the art of Asvahrdaya. At last they reached the city of Vidarbha. Damayanti managed to recognize Nala even in his disguise. Rtuparna who was happy over the reunion of Nala and Damayanti returned to Ayodhya on the next day. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 77).


RTUSTHALA. A Celestial damsel. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 122, we find that she attended the birth festival of Arjuna.


RTVA. A Deva Gandharva. Mahabharata,Adi Parva, Chapter 122 states that he had taken part in Arjuna's birth-festival.


RTV1K. A Priest who officiates at a yaga.


Those who perform yagas like Agnisandhana, Agnistoma, Pdkayafia etc. are called Rtviks. Manusmrti, Chapter2, Verse 143).


RUCAKAPARVATA. (The mountain Rucaka) A mountain standing near the mountain Mahameru. It is mentioned in Devi Bhagavata, Skandlia &, that there are twenty mountains including Rucaka on the four sides of Mahameru.


RUCI I. A celestial maid of Alakapuri. This celestial maid danced in the Palace of Kubera on the occasion of the visit of Astavakra. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 19, Stanza 44) .


RUCI II. A son of Brahma and a Prajapati. This prajapati married Akuti the daughter of Manu Svayambhuva. A son and a daughter were born to Ruci of Akuti. The son was the incarnation of Visnu. He was named Yajfia. The daughter who was incarnation of Mahalaksmi was named Daksina. Yajfia was brought up in the hermitage of Svayambhuva and Daksina grew up in the hermitage of Ruci. When they grew up Yajna married Daksina. Twelve sons, named Tosa, Santosa, Pratosa, Bhadra, Sand, Idaspati, Idhma, Kavi, V.ibhu, Vahni, Sudeva and Rocana, were born to the couple. In the time of Manu Sva.yambliuva these twelve were called the Tusitas, a group of devas (gods).


RUCI III. The wife of the hermit named Devasarma. (For detailed story see under Vipula).


RUCI PARVA. Son of the king Akrti. In the Bharata battle, to save Bhimasena, Ruciparva confronted the elephant of Bhagadatta and was killed by Bhagadatta. (M.B. Droaa Parva, Chapter 26, Stanza 51) .


RUCIRASVA. A king of the Lunar dynasty. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


RUDHIRAMBHAS. A hell. (See under the word Kala).


RUDHIRASANA. A giant-cbief who came to fight with Sri Rama, under the leadership of the giant Khara. In that fight the captains of the army of the giants were Rudhirasana etc. All of them were killed by the arrow of Sri Rama. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya, Kanda Sarga 26).


RUDRA. A form of Siva.


1) General information. The birth of Rudra is from Brahma. Even before the creation of the Prajapatis, Brahma had created Sanandana, Sanaka, Sanatana and Sanatkumara. These four were not desirous of mundane pleasures and were not prepared to beget children. They were great sages and scholars, of abstinence and without any discord and animosity. When these four showed no interest at all in the creation of the world, Brahma became angry to such an extent that he was prepared to destroy the three worlds. At that time the whole of the three worlds shone in the radiance that emanated from the fire of the fury of Brahma. Then from his shining eyebrows which were curved with fury, a .figure of unbearable radiance like the mid-day sun came out. That figure was Rudra. Half of the fierce body of that Rudra who was very furious, was a woman and the other half was a man. Brahma, saying, "Divide body", disappeared. Instantly Rudra split himself into the figure of a man and the figure of a woman. He again divided the body of the man into eleven parts. These eleven figures are the eleven Rudras.


The names of the eleven Rudras are given differently in different Puranas. In a text it is said that the eleven Rudras are, Manyu, Manu, Mahinasa, Mahan, Siva, Rtudhvaja, Ugraretas, Bhava, Kama, VAmadeva and Dhrtavrata. According to some other Puranas, the eleven Rudras are Aja, Ekapada (Ekapat) ,Ahirbudhnya, Tvasta, Rudra, Hara, Sambhu, Tryambaka, Aparajita, 1s.ana and Tribhuvana. Brahma apportioned to the eleven Rudras the eleven positions of the heart, the five organs of senses and the organs of action and to Rudra the eight positions of life, ether, air, fire, water, earth, the sun and the moon. It was said before that Rudra was divided into man and woman. From the womanportion eleven Rudranis came into being. They were Dhi, Vrtti, Usana, Uma; Niyuta, Sarpis, Ila, Ambika, Iravati, Sudha and Diksa. The eleven Rudranis became the wives of the eleven Rudras. (Visnu Purana, Ariisa i. Chapter 7) .


2) Other information regarding Rudra. Details about the orgin, life, character etc. of Rudra which occur in other Puranas are given below.


(i) Thirtythree children were born to Prajapati Ka,'yapa, by his wife Aditi, as Adityas, Vasus, Rudras and Asvins. (Valmiki Ramayana, AranYa Kanda, Sarga 14) . (ii) From the fury of Brahma, Rudra was born; from the lap of Brahma, Narada was born; from the right thumb, Daksa; from the mind, Sanaka and the others; and from the left thumb, a daughter named Virani was born. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7) .


(iii) In the beginning of Kalpa (Age of Brahma)


Brahma meditated upon getting a child like himself and a child of blue complexion appeared on his lap. He ran here and there crying aloud. Brahma asked him "Why are you crying?" He replied: "I must be named." Because he was crying (doing rodana) Brahma named him Rudra(He who cries). He cried seven times more. Brahma gave him seven more names. They were Bhava, Sarva, Lana, Pasupati, Bhima, Ugra and Mahadeva. Thus there were eight Rudras. To each of them, Brahma gave a position and wives and children.


The Sun, water, earth, air, fire, ether, Brahmin who has taken vow and the moon were allotted to them as their positions and figures. Their wives were Suvarcala,


- Usa, Vikes! Siva, Svaha, D!Sd, Diksa and Roh:ni. This world is filled by the sons and grandsons and so on of these wives. Their sons respectively were Sanaiscara Sukra, Lohitanga, Manojava, Skanda, Sarga, Santana and Budha. This Rudra who is described above, married Sat! the daughter of Prajapati Daksa. (Visnu Purina, Arirsa 1, Chapter 8). (For further information see under SIVA also).


RUDRAKETU. An asura. Two sons named Devantaka and Narantaka were born to this asura by his wife 8arada. The hermit Ndrada was greatly pleased at the valour of these two sons, and taught them "Panedksarimahavidya." Devantaka and Narantaka, who became haughty and arrogant by their prowess were killed by Ganapati.


(Ganesa Purina, Kriya Kanda 2).


RUDRAKOTI. A holy place in North India. Once a large number of hermits gathered in this place to worship Siva. Greatly pleased at this Siva appeared before them in the form of many phalluses. From that day onwards the place Rudrakoti became a holy place. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 118).


RUDRAKSA. (Elaco Carpus seeds) Beads for rosaries. 1) General information. A holy thing worn by devotees. In the Puranas much importance is attached to Rudraksa. In Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 11, there is a story stating how Rudraksa came to be honoured in this way.


Once there lived an asura chief who was mighty and valiant. His name was Tripura. He defeated Devas and deva chiefs and became emperor of the asuras. The Devas were much grieved because of him. They went to Siva and represented their grievances. Siva thought for a while, how to kill Tripura, and sat with open epes. This sitting continued for a thousand divine years. After this prolonged time Siva winked his eyes and tears fell down from them. The Rudraksa tree originated from these tears. From the Sun-eye of Siva twelve types of Rudraksas came into being; from the moon-eye sixteen kinds of Rudraksas and from the fire-eye ten kinds of Rudraksas originated. Those which originated from the Sun-eye are bloodcoloured, those from the moon-eye white Rudraksas and from the fire-eye black rudraksas. Boiled Rudraksa is considered a Brahmin caste, red rudraksa a Ksatriya caste, white one a Vaisya caste and the black rudraksa a Sudra caste.


2) Division of rudraksa based on quality. The division of rudraksa according to the number of faces, and qualities thereof are given below:


With one face: Rudraksa with only one face is the figure of Siva. By wearing this remission from the sin of Brahmahatya could be procured.


With two faces: Rudraksa with two faces is the figure of Devideva. This is known by the name "Gaurisankara". By wearingthis remission from all sins committed knowingly and unknowingly, would be obtained.


With threefaces: This is the :figure of Agni (fire). By wearing this the sin incurred by Strlhatya (killing a woman) would be washed away.


With fourfaces: Rudraksa with four faces is the figure of Brahma. By wearing this, the sin incurred by Narahatya (killing a man) could be got rid of.


With favefaces: This is the figure of Kalagni (Fire of Kala the God of death). By wearing this, remission of


sins incurred by eating food which ought not to have been eaten and enjoying woman who ought not to have been enjoyed, could be obtained. All sorts of sins would be absolved by five-faced rudraksa.


With six faces; Six-faced rudraksa is the six-faced god Karttikeya. By wearing it on the right hand, remission from all sins, beginning with Brahmahatya could be obtained.


With seven faces: Rudraksa with seven faces is the figure of Kamadeva (Cupid). If this is worn, sins such as theft of gold etc. could be removed.


Eight faces; Rudraksa with eight faces is the figure of Vinayaka, the general of the great army. By wearing this, sins incurred by deceit such as selling rice of low quality as good quality, keeping false weights and measures, giving gold of lower carat as good carat gold, by enjoying woman of wicked families, touching the wife of teacher, and so many other kinds of sins would be absolved, and impediments would be avoided and finally one can attain supernal bliss.


With nine faces:-This rudraksa is the figure of Bhairava. This should be worn on the left hand. By doing so one would become as mighty as god and would become devoted to god and would attain salvation. The sins incurred by killing the child in the womb a thousand times and killing Brahmins a hundred times would be got rid of by wcaring this rudraksa.


With ten faces :-This is the figure of the real Janardana. If one wears this, the devils, wicked planets, Ghosts, goblins, spirits haunting funeral places, Brahmaraksasas (a kind of demon) etc. will not come near him. Moreover, snake-bite would not affect him.


With elevenfaces :-Rudraksa with eleven faces is the figure of the Eleven Rudras. This should be worn on the head. By doing so one could obtain the fruits of performing a thousand horse-sacrifices and a hundred Vajapeyayagas (A kind of sacrifice).


With twelve faces :-Rudraksa with twelve faces is the dwelling place of the twelve Adityas. This should be worn on the ear. If it is done so, the sun-god will be pleased. Thewearer will obtain the fruits of performing horse-sacrifice, cow-sacrifice etc. He will not be wounded by animals with horns, or quills or teeth. He need not fear disease or worry. He need not fear to go anywhere. Wherever he goes he will be honoured as God. All the sins incurred by slaughter of elephant, man, snake, rat, frog etc. will instantly be absolved.


With thirteen faces :- He who wears rudrdksa with thirteen faces will be equal to Karttikeya. All his wishes will be realized. He will get rasa (mercury) and rasayana (sweetened medicine) and all the pleasures and luxuries of the world. The great sins of killing parents, brothers etc. will be removed.


With fourteen faces :-He who wears rudraksa with fourteen faces will be. exactly like the real Paramasiva.


3) The mode of wearing Rudrdksa. He who wears thirtytwo rudraksas on, the neck, forty on the head, six on each ear, twelve on each hand, sixteen on each of the upper arms, one on each eye, one on the lock of hair, and one hundred and eight on the chest is really Sri Nilakantha Paramasiva Himself.


RUDRAMARGA. A holy place. If a day and a night's fast is taken in this place, one will attain the world of Indra. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 83,, Stanza 181),


RUDRANI. Another name of Parvati. (For further details see under Pdrvati).


RUDRANIRUDRA. A holy place in India. It is mentioned in MalrabhArata, Aunsasana Parva, Chapter 19, Stanza 31, that the great hermit Astavakra visited this holy place. on his journey to the northern countries.


RUDRAPADA. A holy place in India. It is mentioned in Mah Ibharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 100, that if Siva is worshipped in this holy place, one will obtain the fruits of performing the horse sacrifice.


RUDRAROMA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 7) .


RUDRASAVARNI. A Manu. (See under Manvantara).


RUDRASENA. A King who was the Helper of Yudhisthira. Mention is made about this King in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Stanza 39).


RUDRATA. A Sanskrit: ,critic who lived in the 9th century A.D. The famous Book of criticism known as "Kavyi7dankara", was written by this scholar who belonged to Kashmir.


RUDRAVARTTA. A holy place. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 37, that by taking a bath in this holy place, one could attain heaven.


RUHA. Daughter of Surasa, the mother of Nagas. She had two sisters called Anala and Virudha. (M.B. Atli Parva, Daksinatya Patha, Chapter 66) .


RUKMAKESA. The youngest of the five sons of Bhismaka, King of Vidarbha. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha) .


RUKMA~IGADA I. A son of SSalya the King of Madra. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 14, that this Rukmarigada, the brother of Rukmaratha, attended the Svayarirvara (marriage) of Draupadi.


RUKMAfIGADA II. Father of a Vaisnavite named Dharmangada. This Rukmangada was the son of Rtadhvaja, the King of the city of Vidisa. (See under Dharmafrgada).


RUKMARATHA I. Son of Salya, King of Madra.


(i) He attended the wedding of Draupadi in the company of his father and brothers. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 14) .


(ii) In the great war he fell unconscious shot by the arrows of Sveta. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 48) . (iii) He was killed by Abhimanyu in the great war. (Drona Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 9) .


RUKMARATHA II. A synonym of Dronacarya. As he rode in a golden chariot Drona came to be known by this name. (Virata Parva, Chapter 58-, Verse 2 ).


RUKMARATHA III. A particular sect of Trigartta Kings, who fought on the side of the Kauravas in the great war. (Drona Pa,rva, Chapter 112, Verse 19 ). This sect of Kings attacked Arjuna.


RUKMAREKHA. The wife of King Raibhya. She was the mother of Ekavali. (See under Ekavali).


RUKMASUKRA. A son of Priyavrata the brother of Uttanapada. Prajapati Vi6vakarma gave in marriage to Priyavrata, his two daughters Surupa and Barhismati, who were exceedingly beautiful and good-natured. By the first wife, ten sons were born to him. Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8 ).


RUKMAVATI The daughter of Rukmi. Pradyumna married this lady. Aniruddha was the son born to Pradyumna of Rukmavati (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).




1) General information. King of the Province Bhojakata in the country of Vidarbha. It is stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 62, that this Rukmi was born from a portion of the Asura named Krodhavas a.


2) Birth. Father of Rukmi was the king Bhismaka. Two children were born to Bhi smaka, named Rukmi and Rukmini. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Stanza 62).


3) Getting a born. Sri Krsna took Rukmi's sister Rukmini by force and married her. Rukmi did not like this and so he confronted Sri Krsna. In the contest Sri Krsna reviled him. Rukmi got angry at this and went to


K' :fdsa and did penance before Siva. Siva appeared


ai before him after three years, and gave him a bow for destroying the enemies. Siva told him that it would be broken, only if it was used against Mahavisnu. After getting this bow he returned to Bhojakata and 1ived there.


4) The details regarding Rukma, given in the Mahjbharata. (i) Rukmi accepted the suzerainty of Sahadeva at the time of his regional conquest. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 62) .


(ii) Rukmi paid tribute to Karna at the time of his regional conquest. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Stanza 14).


(iii) The Pandavas had sent invitation to Rukmi for the Bharata-battle. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 16).


(iv) Bhismaka, the father of Rukmi, was known by the name `HiranyaromV also. Rukmi became famous throughout all the countries. He accepted Druma, a famous Kimpurusa (Kinnara) as his teacher in archery. Druma presented him with a bow called Vijaya. This Vijaya was on a par with the Gandiva. Rukmi fought with Sri Krsna and was defeated. The place at which he was defeated by Sri Krsna is known as Bhojakata.


After having been defeated by Sri Krsna, a thought arose in the mind of Rukmi to keep amity and concord with Sri Krsna. Knowing this, the Parzdavas invited Rukmi to their palace. He promised his help if ever Arjuna feared to do battle. At this Arjuna laughed and said that he was not in need of any help. After this Rukmi went to Duryodhana and promised to help him. But Duryodhana also rejected his help. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158).


5) Deaih ofRukmf. Discontented with everybody, Rukmi lived in Bhojakata, having no contact with any body. During this period the king of Kalifrga once approached Rukmi and advised him to challenge Balabhadrarama for a game of dice. The challenge was made knowing that Balabhadra was not a good player. Knowing that to reject a challenge was not honourable, Balabhadra went to play the game. Rukmi won the first round of game. Staking everything, the second round of the game began and Balabhadra won the game. But Rukmi and the king of Kalinga did not accept the victory. All the kings who witnessed the game sided with Rukmi. Instantly an ethereal voice said "Balabhadrarama has won the game." The friends of Rukmi did not accept the ethereal voice. They began to create a tumult in the hall. Balabhadrarama who became furious at this ridicule took a pestle of iron and killed Rukmi with one blow. The rest of the kings fled from the place. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).


RUKMINI. The chief queen of Sri Krsna.


1) Birth. From the following Puranic statements; it could be understood that Rukmini was the incarnation of goddess Laksmi.


(i) "Sri Devi (Lak~mi) by her portions, took birth in the earth as Rukmini in the family of Bhismaka". (M.B, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 156) .


(ii) Formerly Laksmi Devi took birth as the daughter of Bhrgu by his wife Khyati. Next she took birth from


the sea of Milk at the time of the churning of it by the combined efforts of the devas and the asuras, to take Amrta (ambrosia). When Visnu took birth as Aditya,Laksmi took birth from lotus. When Visnu incarnated as Parasurama Laksml Devi became the , earth-goddess. In the incarnation of Sri Rama she became Sita and in that of Sri Krsna she was Rukmini. (Visnu Purana, Arnsa 1, Chapter 9 ).


It was in the.kingdom of Vidarbha that Laksm! Devi took birth as Rukmini during the incarnation of Sri Krsna. To Bhismaka, the King of Vidarbha, five sons beginning with Rukmi, were born. The sixth was a


daughter who was named Rukmini. She grew up into a beautiful damsel. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).


2) Marriage. Rukmini fell in love with Sri Krsna. Her parents agreed to her choice. But her brother Rukmi was an enemy of Sri Krsna. Rukm! desired to give his sister to Sisupala. The date of the marriage was fixed and the heart was burning within Rukmini. She sent a Brahmin as messenger to Krsna.


The time of marriage drew near. The kings of Anga, Kalifiga, Ma1ava, Kekaya, Variga, Magadha, Kosala, Salva, Cola, Pandya, Kerala and so on took their seats in. the nuptial hall. Sri Krsna and Balabhadra came with their army. The army under the leadership of Balabhadra remained behind and Sri Krsna went alone to the nuptial hall. While preparations were being made to give Rukmin! to gisupala, Sri Krsna took her in his chariot and quickly left the place. All the other kings who ran after Sri Krsna to fight had to confront with the mighty army of Balabhadra, who defeated the kings and returned to Dvaraka. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).


3) Sons, It is mentioned ix; Bliagavata. Skandha 10, that ten sons were born to bra s~rsna by Rukmini. They were Pradyumna, Carudesna, Sudesna, Carudelha, Sucaru, Carusupta, Bhadracaru, Carucandra, Carubhad.ra and Cdru. But a slight difference is observed in the description of the sons of Rukmini given in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Stanzas 33 and 34.


4) Yoked to the chariot by Durvasas. See under Durvasas, Para 3.


5) Consoled Arjuna. After the death of Sri Krsna, Arjuna visited Dvaraka. Seeing the dilapidated city without rulers and the women without husbands, he cried aloud. Rukmini Devi ran to him and consoled him and seated him on a golden chair. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 12 ).


6) Death. After the death of Sri Krsna, Rukmini, with the other wives of Sri Krsna jumped into a burning pyre anti died. "gaibya, Rukmini, Gandliarl, Haimavati and Jamba-


vat! jumped into the fire." (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 73 ).


7) The Palace of Rukmini. There is a statement in the Mahabharata, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 28, about the palace of Rukmini. "Visvakarma built a palace for $r! Krsna at the instance of Indra. The highest dome of it is covered with gold. So this dome dazzled as the peak of Mahameru. It was this dome that was set apart for his beloved wife Rukmin! by Sri Krsna".


RUMA I. A noble woman obtained from the sea of Milk at the time of its churning by the devas and the asuras to get Amrta (Celestial honey of immortality). At the time of the churning, many beautiful and noble things were obtained from the sea of Milk. Jyestha-, Airavata, Uecaissravas, Kalpa tree, Cintamani, Kaustubha, Candra (Moon), Celestial maids, nymphs of heaven, Mahalaksmi, Tara; Rumor and so on were some of them. (Kamba Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda).


RUMA II. The wife of Sugriva. She was the daughter of the famous monkey called Panasa. (Brahman-.Purana, 3:7:221). After driving Sugriva away from Kiskindha, Bali took Rumor by force. After the death of Bali, Rumor returned to Sugriva. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Chapter, 20, 21; Padma Purana 4 : 112:161).


There was.Ruma also, among the women who came to see Sri Rama on his return to Kiskindlia after visiting Vibhisana. (Padma Purana, Sr sti Khanda).


RUMANVAN. Son of Supratipa, a captain of the army of Udayana. (See under Udayana).


RUMANVAN II. The eldest of the five sons born to Jamadagni by his wife Renuka. The sons of Jamadagni were, Rumanvan, Susena, Vasu, Visvavasu and Parasurama. It was Rumarrvan that Jamadagni ordered to kill Renuka who was late in fetching water from the river. But Rumanvan did not obey his father. The angry hermit cursed Rumanvan. According to the curse Rumanvan became dull-witted like birds and beasts. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 116, Stanza 10).


RUPAKA. See under Pattu (Ten)


RUPAVAHIKA. A country in ancient India. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, `Bhisma fP~arva, Chapter 50, Stanza 43.


RIJPAVATl. A harlot who lived in Tretayuga. It is mentioned in Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, that Rupavat! and her lover Devadasa attained salvation by adopting the life of a house-holder in the forest.


RCPAVIDYA. The figure of Devi. The figure of Devi, shown as sitting with twelve hands, is called Rapavidya. (Agni Purana, Chapter 50) .


RCPINA. A son born to the emperor Ajamidha by his wife Kesini. He had two brothers' named jahnu and Vraja. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 32) .


RURU I. A hermit famous in the Puranas.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visr.u in the following order: Brahma-Blargu -Cyavana - Pramati - Ruru.


2) Birth. The beautiful Puloma was the wife of Bhrgu. Bhrgu got the son Cyavana by Puloma. Cyavana married Sukanya the daughter of Sarydti. A son named Pramati was born to them. The hermit Prarnati married the beautiful damsel Pratapi. Ruru is their son. He grew up to be a famous hermit. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 2) .


3) Marriage. Ruru happened to see the exceedingly beautiful Pramadvara the daughter of Visvavasu by Menakd. The moment he saw her he fell in love with her. The father of Pramadvara came to know of this and he decided to give her in marriage to Ruru. Preparations for the marriage were being made. One day during that time Pramadvara who had been running here and there joyfully, was bitten by a snake and she fell down dead. Ruru instantly reached the spot.


Ruru who was greatly sad and disappointed, got down to the Ganges and bathed. Then rinsing his mouth he took some water in his hand and said "By the favour of God I have acquired by my devotion and worship of gods, devotion and service to my teacher, by my scripture-study, my worship with Gayatri, my prayer, and meditation, my penance, my offerings- to the holy fire, and my oblations, let her come to life. If she does not come to life, I will die in this Ganges water." Making this prayer, making the gods witnesses he poured the water down.


Immediately a messenger from heaven appeared in the sky and said that she wou1d come to life again provided Ruru was prepared to give half of his life to her. Ruru agreed to it. Thus Pramadvara came to life again and Ruru married her. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 2) .


4) Hatred towards Serpents. A relentless hatred grew up in the heart of Ruru against serpents, because a serpent had ki1led his wife. He wandered about destroying every serpent he came across. Finally when he confronted Dundubha he was given exhortations and good advices regarding righteousness by pundubhla. (M.B. Adi Parva Chapter 9, Stanza 19 ) . Moreover it is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 12, that Ruru had taken a lively interest in the sacrifice of janamejaya meant for the extermination of serpents.


RURU II. A mighty and valiant Asura. After procuring a boon from Brahma, Ruru became arrogant and attacked the realm of gods. The Devas who were defeated by Ruru ran to the Blue mountain and prostrated before the goddess Sakti, who had been doing penance there. This goddess Sakti had been born from the matted hair of Siva.


Ruru followed the Devas and reached the Blue mountain. When Devi saw Ruru and his mighty army a loud laugh burst out from her. From that laugh thousands of devilish figures came into existence. They completely annihilated the army of Ruru. After this Devi killed Ruru with the nail of her toe. (Padma Purana, Srsti Khanda).


RURUKA. A King of the Iksvaku dynasty. This King was a scholar in economics and administration. (Harivamsa, 1 ; 13 ; 29) .


RUSABHANU. Wife of Hiranyaksa, an asura. (Bhagavata, Skandha 7 ).


RUSADRATHA. A King of the Ariga family. He was tlae son of Titiksu and the father of Paila, a member of the line of Vyasa's disciples. (Agni Purana, Chapter 277).


RUSADRU. A King in ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 13, that this King stays in the palace of Yama.


RUSAMA. A Priest who had studied the Vedas well. A story occurs in the `Pancavirfs4brdhmana', about this Priest.


Once Indra and Rusama bet on going round the world. Both got ready and started. But Rusama walked round Kuruksetra and returned, while Indra travelled the whole of the way round the world and kept the conditions. The question arose as to who won the bet. The devas gave the decision, "Kuruksetra is the dais of Brahma, and so Kuruksetra contains the entire world. Therefore both Indra and Rusamd were declared to have won the bet."


RUSA.~LGU. An ancient hermit. Once the great hermit Arstisena came to the hermitage of Rusangu and did severe penance. Visvamitra obtained Brahinanatva (Brahminhood) by doing penance in this place. Towards the end of his life Rusangu and his sons came to Prthudakatirtha and sang laudatory songs about Prthudakatirtha. Rusangu said that those who did penance and died in this holy bath would not have to undergo miseries after death. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 39, Stanza 24).


RUSARDDHIKA. A wicked King of the Saurdstra dynasty. Mention is made about this King in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Stanza 14.


RUYYAKA (RUCIKA). A Sanskrit playwright who lived in the 12th century. He has another name `Rucika' also. The book of criticism called "AlaAkarasarvasva" is written by him. He was the teacher of Mankha, the author of Srikanthacarita'. Some are of opinion that Ruyyaka had written only the Sutras in the book `Alankarasarvasva' and that the gloss or commentary was given by Mankha. Some of the other works of Rucika are Sahrdayalila; Alankaranusarani etc.