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PA. A garden. (Agni Purina, Chapter 348) .


PADAPATHA. An ancient system of studying the Vedas. (See under Ghanapatha).


PADARTHA. See under Paficabhuta.


PADATI. One of the eight sons ofjanamejaya, a King of Kuruvariis a. The others are Dhrtard stra, Pandu, Balhika, Nisadha, Jambunada, Kundodara and Vasati. (The Pandu and Dhrtarastra mentioned here are not the fathers of Kauravapandavas.).


PADMA I. A serpent born to sage Kasyapa of his wife Kadru. (Sloka 10, Chapter 35, Adi Parva) .


PADMA II. A King. This King shines in the court of Yama. (~loka 39, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva).


PADMA III. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (Chapter 45, $alya Parva ).


PADMA IV. A nidhi (treasure). This nidhi belongs to Kubera. (~loka 39, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva). 8ahkhanidhi, Padmanidhi and a were presented to Kubera by Brahma. (Uttara Ramayana).


PADMAKARA. A Character in the story in Siva Purana describing the greatness of a Sivayogin. (See Rsabha ).


PADMAKETANA. One of the children of Garuda. (Chapter 101, Udyoga Parva).


PADMAKETA. The palace where Suprabha wife of "ri Krsna used to reside. (Daksinatya Patha, Chapter 38, Sabha Parva).


PADMANABHA I. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. (See under Kauravas).


PADMANABHA II. A serpent. This serpent resides on the shores of the river Gomati which flows through Naimisaranya. This serpent once went to Bhisma and talked to him about Dharma. (Chapter 355, Santi Parva ).


PADMAPURANA. One of the eighteen Puranas. (See under Puranas) .


PADMARAGA. See under Navaratna,


 PADMASARAS. A lotus pond of Uttara Bharata. The Pandavas on their way from Khardavaprastha to Girivraja met Sri Krsna at this place and talked with him for a long time. (Chapter 20, Sabha Parva).


PADMASAUGANDHIKA. A lotus pond situated near Cedidesa. During the period of the Mahabharata a company of merchants were attacked by wild elephants at this place. This is very nicely described in Chapter 66 of Vana Parva of Mahabharata.


PADMASEKHARA. A Gandharva King. Padmavati of whom many stories are told in Kathasaritsagara was the daughter of Padmwekhara. Padmavatilambaka of the said book is entirely devoted to stories about Padmavati.


PADMAVATI I. A river which is the incarnation of Mahalaksmi. (See under Ganga).


PADMAVATI 11. Wife of Emperor Udayana. (See under Udayana ).


PADMAVATI 111. Wife of Candragupta son of Sahasramukharavana. (See under Sahasramukharavana).


PADMAVATI IV. A female follower of Subrahmanya. (Chapter 46, Salya Parva).


PADMAVATI V. Daughter of Satyaketu, King of Vidarbha. Ugrasena married her. After marriage she went and stayed once in her father's house for a short period. During that time through illegal intimacy with a messenger from Kubera named Gobhila she became pregnant. She started to destroy the foetus when from inside a voice said "I am being born to wreak vengeance on Mahavisnu for killing Kalanemi." The son born thus was Kariisa. (Srstikhanda, Padma Purana).


PADMAVATI VI. Wife of a Vaisya named Pranidhi. Once Pranidhi went to a neighbouring village for trade. Padmavati and her companions were one day bathing in a river nearby when a Sudra passed that way. Attracted by her dazzling beauty he remained there talking to her. The Sudra named Dharmadhvaja was greatly enamoured of her and the companions of Padmdvati, noticing that, just to make fun of him said "If you abandon your life at the point where the rivers Gafiga and Yamuna meet you can attain Padmavati." Without any hesitation, thinking that what they said was true, he went and ended his life at the place suggested. Immediately he became a replica of Pranidhi and stood before Padmavati. The real Pranidhi also came there then. Padmavati was in a fix to choose the real husband. Mahavisnu appeared before them then and asked Padmavati to accept both of them as her husbands Padmavati pleaded it was forbidden for women of her community to accept more than one husband and then Mahavisnu took all the three along with him to Vaikuntha. (Kriya Khanda, Padma Purana, Chapter 4).


PAHLAVA. A place of human habitation of ancient India. This is situated in the western zone. (Sloka 68, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


PAIJAVANA. A sudra. This sradra conducted a grand Yajfia similar to Aindragnayajfia and gave as fees to priests a lakh of gold vessels. (Chapter 6, Sand Parva).


PAILA. A disciple of Vyasa. It was the five disciples of Vyasa named Sumantu, Jaimini, Paila, Suka and Vaisampayana who gave publicity to the original Mahabharata. (See under Guruparampara).


He was the son of a person named Vasu and attended the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 35, Chapter 33, Sabha Parva). Paila was also one among those who visited Bhisma while he was lying on his bed of arrows. (Sloka 6, Chapter 17, Santi Parva).


PAILAGARGA An ancient sage. Amba, daughter of the King of Kasi, once practised austerities in the a9rama of this sage. (See under Amba).


PAISACA. A kind of marriage. (See under Vivaha).


PAITHAKA. An asura. This asura was killed by Sri Krsna. (Chapter 38, Sabha Parva).


PAKA. A mighty asura. Once this asura gathered a big army and went to fight against Indra. A grim battle which lasted for several days took place in which the asura army was destroyed and Paka killed. Indra got thenceforth the name Pakasasana. (Chapter 70, Vayu Purana).


PAKAL. Malayalam word meaning Day. A story about the origin of day, night, dawn and dusk is contained in Visnu Purana. At the time of the great Deluge everything from gods down to the rocks lay submerged in Parabrahman (Supreme Being). Brahma sat in meditation to initiate what he termed as jagatsrsti, the four species of living beings like the devas, asuras, pitrs and men. When the meditation proceeded, the Tamoguna in Brahma became prominent and so first and foremost of all, the asuras were born from his waist. Then Brahma discarded his Tamoguna and the manifestation of the discarded Tamoguna became Night. Brahma sat again in meditation and from his face sprang out the devas, who were embodiments of sattvaguna. Brahma discarded the sattvaguna and it then became Day.That is why asuras are powerful at night and devas by day. Then another manifestation with sattvagunapredominating sprang out from Brahma and it was called Pitrs. Brahma discarded that also and it became Dusk. Brahma sat again in meditation and then were born men who were a manifestation of Rajoguna. Brahma discarded that also and it then became Dawn. That is why men are strong at dawn and the pitrs strong at dusk. It is because of these that it is said that day, night, dawn and dusk are bodies of Brahma. All the above four are an asylum of the three gunas.


Night is called Usa and day, Vyusti. Sandhya (dusk) is the time between Usa and Vyusti. When the fierce and terrible Sandhya commences, a set of ferocious demons called Mandehas desire to eat the Sun. A fight ensues then between the Sun and the demons and by a curse of Prajapati the demons die daily though their bodies never perish. At that time the best of Brahmins with the sound of `OM' vibrating recite the gayatri and throw water upwards. That water transforms itself into Vajrayudha and burns to death the wicked demons. The first oblation to the sacrificial fire is performed reciting the mantra which begins with "Suryojyotih". `OM' is but Bhagavan Visnu, lord of the Vedas with the lustre of Rk, Yaj us and Sama. The very utterance of the word `OM' therefore, destroys the demons Mandehas. (Chapter 8, Arhga 2, Chapter 5, Arirsa 1, Visnu Purana).


PAKHANDA. An ancient place of habitation in Daksina Bharata. Sahadeva one of the Pandavas sent his messengers and subdued the country. (Sloka 70, Chapter 31 Sabha Parva).


PAKKANAR. Vararuci, the celebrated astronomer, got of a Candali wife twelve sons. They were called "Paracci petta pantirkulam (The twelve sons born of a Candali).


They were


1. Agnihotri. 2. Rajakan 3. Uliyanur Taccan. 4. Vallon 5. Vayillakkunnilappan. 6. Karakkalmata. 7. Vatutala Nayar. 8. Uppukuttan. 9. Pananar. 10. Narayanabhrantan 11. Akavur Cattan 12. Pakkanar.


Pakkanar's wife was a very chaste woman devoted to her husband. There are two stories demonstrating the devotion she showed to her husband.


(i) It was usual for all the sons of Vararuci excepting Vayillakkunnila pan to assemble at the house of Agnihotri for the Traddha of their father annually once. Once after the Sraddha, all of them sat together for their meals and the antarjanam (wife) of Agnihotri refused to serve an assembly consisting of Pakkanar, a Candala. When Agnihotri compelled her to do it she came to the place hiding her face with an umbrella. Pakkanar enquired about the purpose of the umbrella and Agnihotri replied that it was the duty of chaste and devoted wives to hide their faces from other men. Then Pakkanar argued that still the brahmin wives who hid their faces were lacking in devotion and chastity and the Candala women were the only class of women who were chaste and devoted to their husbands. Everybody present there joined sides with Agnihotri and opposed the argument of Pakkanar. To demonstrate the devotion of Candali wives Pakkanar took Agnihotri to his house. On reaching there Pakkanar called his wife and asked "How much paddy do you have here?" "Five measures", she replied. "Pound half of it and bring it to me", Pakkanar instructed. The dutiful wife pounded the paddy, cooked the rice and brought it to Pakkanar. Pakkanar asked her to throw the rice into the drain. She did it without the least hesitation. Pakka nar then asked his wife to pound the remaining paddy and bring the rice cooked as before.She did so and when she brought it before Pakkanar he asked her to throw that also away into the drain. She instantly obeyed. That day both of them went without meals. They were so poor.


The next day Pakkanar along with Agnihotri went to the illam (house) of Agnihotri. Pakkanar then asked Agnihotri to make his wife do exactly like what Pakkanar's wife was made to do. Agnihotri immediately called his wife and asked her to take two and a half measures of paddy, pound it, cook it and bring it to him. "There is rice here ready in stock and so why should we pound paddy now?" Agnihotri's wife questioned. But Agnihotri insisted and so surrendering to the compulsion she did as she was instructed. When she brought the rice before him cooked, Agnihotri asked her to throw it away into the drain. She hesitated first but when Agnihotri insisted she did so very reluctantly. Then Agnihotri asked her to take another two and a half measures of paddy, pound it and bring the cooked rice once again. The antarjanam (wife) flew into fury and showered on her husband a heap of abuses. She went and hid inside and despite repeated requests from Agnihotri she never showed her face out again. Agnihotri admitted defeat and accepted Pakkanar's view that a Candali woman was mare chaste than a brahmin woman.


(2) Once Agnihotri came to the but of Pakkanar. Pakkanar called his wife to bring a `palaka' (a wooden plank used for sitting) for Agnihotri to sit on. She was at that time drawing water from a well and the bucket was midway in the well with water. The instant she heard her husband call her she left the grip on the rope and rushed to the side of her husband. She did what was asked of her to do and then returned to the well. Pakkanar followed her taking Agnihotri along with him. When they reached the well Agnihotri was dumbfounded. The bucket with water was staying in mid-air in the well exactly at the position at which Pakkanar's wife had left it. The power of the chastity of the woman. (See under Vararuci).


PAKSA. See under Kalamana.


PAKSALIKA. A female follower of Subrahmanya.


PAKSIVAMSA. The Puranic version of the origin birds is given below:


Descending in order from Visnu came Brahma-Marici -Kasyapapraj~pati. The latter got of his wife 'ramra (daughter of Daksa) five daughters named Kraunci, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastri and ~uki. From Kraunci were born the Ulukas, Bhasi gave birth to Bhasas, Syeni to vultures and Dhrtarastri to swans and geese. From these originated the entire bird family of the world. (Chapter 4, Aranya Karda, Valmiki Ramayana).


PAKTHA. A King of Vedic times who was a protege of the Asvins. Indra was kind to this King. In the Dasaraina battle Paktha fought against Sudas on the side of Trasadasyu. (Mandala 7, Rgveda).


PALA. A measure of ancient times. (See under Trasarenu).


PALA. A serpent born of the race of Vasuki. This serpent committed suicide at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 51, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).


PALAKA. A son born to the King Candamahasena of his wife Angaxa~vati. Angaravati got two sons. The other son was named Gopalaka. (Kathaznukhalambaka, Kathasaritsagara).


PALAKAVYA. The author of the famous book `Hastyayurvedasariihita'. This book contains 160 chapters dealing with Maharogasthana, (great diseases), Ksudrarogasthana (minor diseases), Salyasthana (extraction of extraneous matter from the body) and Uttarasthana (diseases of the head). Palakavya taught this Ayurvedasarizhita to Ramapada, King of Angadesa. (Agni Purana).


PALALA. One of the seven mothers of Subrahmanya. The other six are : Kaki, Halima, Brahmika, Malini, Arya and Mitra. (Sloka 10, Chapter 228, Vana Parva).


PALASAVANA. A sacred forest. Once the sage Jamadagni performed a sacrifice in this forest. On that occasion all the rivers in the world were present there carrying their water. The sage at this Yaga gave wine to all the other sages to their heart's content. (Sloka 16, Chapter 94, Vana Parva).


PALLA corrupt form of Sanskrit.


PALITA. A rat, a character in `Bidalopakhyana'. This rat held a conversation with Lomasa, a cat. (See under Bidalopakhyana).


PALITA. A female follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 3, Chapter 46, Salya Parva).


PALLANTU. The name of the devotional songs sung by the Tamil devotional poet, Visnucittar,


PAMKTI. A horse which draws the chariot of Surya. There are seven horses to draw the chariot. The others are Gayatri, Brhati, Usnik, Jagati, Tristubh and Anustubh. (Chapter 8, Ariisa 2, Visnu Purana).


PAMPA. A pond near Rsyamukacala. Sugriva used to stay near this pond. (Chapter 279, Vana Parva).


PANASA. A soldier of the army of monkeys of Sri Rama. This soldier was the commander-in-chief of an army of fiftyone crores of monkey, who fought against Ravana. His chief object of attack was the army of a demon named Patusa. (Chapter 283, Vana Parva).


PANCABHLJTA. Prthvi (earth), Ap (water), Tejas (fire), Vayu (air) and Akasa (ether) are the Paficabhutas (five elements). The whole visible world is composed of one or more of these five elements. This is called the Paficabhautikasiddhanta (doctrine of five elements). Besides these five dravyas (elementary substance), people in Bharata have reckoned Time, space, soul and mind also as Padarthas or categories. Dravya, one of the seven categories according to Nyaya Vaisesikasutras, has nine svabhavas (inherent properties) . The seven Padarthas,of Vaisesika are Dravya, Guna, Karman Samanya, Visesa, Samavaya and Abhava.*


The word `Padartha' has got a very wide meaning. The word `matter' in English cannot indicate the full significance of the word Padartha. Kanada in his Vaisesika sutras has given the name `Artha' combining in it the three svabhavas, bravya, Guna and Karman. Of the above seven padarthas Prasastapada, the famous logician, has included only the first six in his book `Padarthadharma Samgraha'. The Vaisesikas of a later period included `abhava' also and raised the number of ar thas to seven. Gautama, the Nyayasutrakara and Vatsyayana, the Nyayabhasyakara, and all their followers accepted the number of arthas as seven.


All that can be perceived by the senses are included in the seven Padarthas according to the systems of Nyaya and Vaisesika. Excepting abhAva all the other six are bhavas. Kanada has dealt with `abhava' but has not treated it as a category. Pra: astapada has not mentioned about'abhavw' at all. Gautama deals with sixteen Padarthas. The Mimamsakas take into account only five Padarthas and the Sankhyas count only two Padarthas viz., Prakrti and Purusa. Advaitavadins reckon -only two Padarthas and to them they are Cit and Jada 'Atma and Anatman). Vi,'istadvaitins add god also to the above and make the number of Padarthas three.


According to Nyaya Vaisesikasutras there are seven Padarthas and they comprise nine kinds of Dravyaw which are the Paficabhutas (five elements), Kala (time), Dik (space), Atma (soul), and Manas (mind). They are described below:


1) P,rthai. (earth). The characteristic of this padartha is smell. Prthvi is of two kinds, Nitya (eternal) and Anitya (perishable). Nitya is in the form of atom (paramanu) and anitya in the form of Karya. They are classified into body, sense organs and objects.


2) Jala (water). Jala has a cold touch. It is of two kinds Nitya and Anitya. Nitya is in the form of paramanu (atom); Anitya in the form of Karya.


3) Agni (fire) . It generates heat. It is of two kinds, Nitya and Anitya. Nitya is in the form of paramanu and Anitya, in the form of Karya. There are four kinds of Agnis : Fire of the earth, fire of the sky, fire of the stomach (digestive power) and the fire commonly used.


4) Vayu (air). It is without form but with the sense of touch. It is also of two kinds. Nitya in the form of paramanu and Anitya in the form of Karya.


5) AVa (ether). This is the carrier of sound. It is single and eternal.


6) Kala (time). It is general cause for all actions embracing the elements. It is also single and eternal.


7) Dik. Places like north, south, east and west which are eternal.


8) Atmd (soul). It is related to knowledge and is of two kinds, Jivatma and Paramatma.


9) Manas (mind). It is the sense-organ to enjoy pleasures. It is in the form of paramanu and eternal.


To know the views of Manu on the origin of the Paficabbutas see under Srsti.


PAIVCABRAHMASANA. This is a divine cot with Brahma, Visnu, Rudra and Isvara as its four legs and Sadasiva as the couch. Devi rests on this cot always. (7th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata)


PANCACUDA. A nymph. Once ,,~uka, son of Vyasa by his yogic powers entered the Akasa. Then a host of celestial maidens led by Pancacuda stood watching him in admiration. (See under 8uka)


Bhisma once told DHarmaputra that women were fickle-


minded and the cause of evils. To explain his _ statement he pointed out to the conversation between Narada and Paficacuda. Narada once conducted a world tour during the course of which he met Paficacada and asked her the characteristics of women. She replied thus


"Even beautiful, venerable and noble ladies would stoop to folly. It is not the habit of women to leave away charming men of wealth if they get them conveniently. Any woman can be tamed if you please her in the proper way. If women remain faithful to their husbands


*t. Yaisesika. One of the six principal dar'sanas or systems of Philosophy founded by Kanada. Padcirdaa. Anything which can be named; a category. Draaya. An elementary substance, the substratum of properties. Gttna A characteristic or property of all substances. Karman. Motion, action. Sirnanya. General characteristic. Visesa. A peculiar attribute, the eternal distinguishing factor of each of the nine dravyas. Samaaiya. Intimate union, inseparable inherence or existence of one thing in another.




3~ 4• 5• 6, 7. 8. g. Abhaaa. Nullity or negation. Sankhyas followers ofthe Saixkhya philosophy. Adaaitins followers of the Advaita philosophy. Mimarizsakas followers of the Mimamsa system of philosophy. Paramdtrna The supreme being.

They will enjoy men without looking into their age or figure. The desire for men in women can be compared to that of Antaka (god of Death) for the lives of men. This is the secret of womanhood." (Chapter 38, Anusasana Parva).


PANCADEVIS. Durga, Radha, Laksmi, Sarasvati and Savitri are the Pancadevis. They are different forms of nature. (See under Devi and Prakrti).


PANCADHANUS. A King of the race of Puru. He was the son of Srnjaya and the father of Somadatta. (Agni Purina, Chapter 278).


PANCAGANA. An ancient kingdom of Uttara Bharata. During the time of the Pandavas this country was prospering and Arjuna once conquered the ruler of this country. (Sloka 12, Chapter 27, Sabha Parva).


PANCAGAfLGA. A sacred place of Uttara Bharata. The god of Death once sat at this place and practised penance. From then onwards the place was considered holy. (Sloka 23, Chapter 54, Drona Parva).


PAIVCAGNI. Rohini, a daughter and Soma, a son, were born to Nisa the third wife of Manu, an Agni. Besides these they got five sons in the form of Agni (fire) and these five are called Paficagnis. They are Vaisvanara, Visvapati, Sannihita, Kapila and Agrani.


PAIVCAJA I. (PANCAJANA). A mighty asura. This asura lived inside a conch. Sri Krsna killed this asura.


Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama were having their education in the asrama of the sage Sandipani. On the eve of their completing their education an asura named Paficaja carried away the son of the sage while the child was bathing in the Prabhasatirtha and kept him inside a conch where the asura lived. The sage, greatly griefstricken asked his disciples to get him back his son as his Gurudaksina (fees for the preceptor). Accordingly Sri Krsna and Balarama went to the banks of the river and prayed to Varuna. Varuna appeared before them and then they told him about the mishap. With the help of Varuna they killed tile asura Paficaja and got back the son of their guru. The conch in which the asura lived was taken by Krsna. Because the conch belonged to Paficaja the conch got the name Paficajanya. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PANCAJA 11. Sagara of the solar race got a son named Asamanjasa of his wife Kesini. He became famous as Paficaja. He was the father of Amsuman and grandfather of Dilipa. (Chapter 15, Harivariisa).


PANCAJANA. A Prajapati. He gave his daughter Paficajani (Asikni) in marriage to the great sage and law-giver Daksa. (6th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PANCAJANAS. Brahmins, Ksatriyas, Vaigyas and Sudras are the four castes. Nisadas form the fifth caste. All these five are collectively called Paficajanas. (Sukta 89, Anuvaka 14, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


PANCAJANI. A beautiful daughter of Visvarilpa. King Rsabha of the lunar race married this girl and they got five sons named Sumati, Rastrabhrt, Sudarsana, Avarana and Dhumraketu. (5th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


PANCAJANYA I. The conch of Sri Krsna. (See under Paficaja).


PANCAJANYA II. A forest near the mountain of Raivataka. (Daksinatya Pdtha; Chapter 38, Sabha Parva ),


PAIVCAJANYA III. An agni (fire). It was so called because it was born of the parts of five sages. It was called Tapa also. (Chapter 220, Vana Parva).


PANCAKA. One of the two soldiers presented to Subrahmanya by Indra for the battle between the devas and asuras. The other was named Utkrosa. (Sloka 35, Chapter 45, Salya Parva ).


PANCAKARNAVATSYAYANA. A Vedic preceptor. Because Paficakarna was born in the family of Vatsya he got the name Vatsyayana.


In the language of Yogic treatises the seven life-winds in the human head are called the `Saptasuryas' (seven suns). Paficakarnavatsyayana had a clear knowledge of these Saptasuryas and has given a vivid description of them. (Taattiriya Aranyaka).


PANCAKARPATA. An ancient country of western Bharata. Nakula, one of the Pandavas, conquered this country. (Chapter 32, Sabha Parva).


PAIVCAKSARAMAHATMYA. Namassivaya composed oh five letters (Na-mah-si- va- ya) is called the mantra of Paficaksara. There is a story in Siva Purana about the powers one can acquire by uttering this mantra. (See under Kalavati ).


PANCALA I. An ancient village of Bharata. (Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


PANCALA II. A sage. He worshipped God according to the doctrines laid down by Vamadeva and by the blessing of God attained the Kramavibhaga in the Vedas. (Sloka 102, Chapter 342, Santi Parva).


PANCALA III. An ancient country of Bharata. Draupadi, wife of the Pandavas, was the daughter of Drupada, King of Paficala. (See under Drupada).


PANCALI. Draupadi, wife of the Pandavas.


i). Previous births. Paficali had many previous births. During all these births many gods blessed her saying that she would have five husbands when she was born as the daughter of Drupada. Stories about her previous births lying scattered in the Puranas are given below:1) Maydsita. When Rama and Laksmana were in exile in the forest with Sita, Agni came to Rama once and told him in private thus : "Oh Rama, you have incarnated on earth to kill Ravana. The time for that is drawing nigh and ere long Ravana would carry away Sita. It is not proper that Sita, the incarnation of Laksmi, should be touched by Ravana. Therefore I shall keep Sita safe with me and I am giving you a phantom Sita to be with you in her stead." Sri Rama took the Mayasita from Agni without even Laksmana knowing it and handed over the original Sita to the custody of Agni.


While thus Sri Rama, Laksmana and Mayasita were living together in their hermitage a golden deer was seen one day in the precincts of their asrama. Sita was enamoured of the beautiful deer and wanted it. So Rama keeping Laksmana to watch over Sita went in search of the deer. Sri kama tried his best to capture the deer alive. But all his efforts failed and by that time he had come far from the de rama following the deer. So he discharged an arrow and killed it. While falling dead the deer raised a cry imitating that of Rama's and called Laksmana for help. The deer was none other than Marica, the uncle of Ravana. On hearing the call for help Laksmana rushed to the spot from where the sound came and Sita was left alone for some time. Ravana came to the asrama at that time and took the Mayasita away to Lanka.


Rama and Laksmana went to Lanka with an armv of monkeys and after killing Ravana took back Sita to Ayodhya. Then Rama in deference to public opinion put Sita into the fire to test her purity. At that time god Agni taking back Mayasita gave the real Sita to Rama, unscathed by the fire. Then, when Mayasita was thus abandoned lay Rama she bowed down before Sri Rama and Agni and asked them thus "What am I to do now ? Where should I go ?" They advised her to go to Puskara, and do penance there and blessed her saying that at the successful end of her penance she would become Svargalaksmi. Paramasiva was pleased by her penance and appearing before her asked her what boon she wanted. Mayasita who had become Svargalaksmf by then requested Siva to give her a husband. She repeated the request `Patim dchi' (Give me a husband) five times and Siva said that she would have five husbands in her next life as the daughter of the King of Paficdla with the name Kr3na. (9th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


ii) Ndldyana (Indrasend). Once there was an aged sage named Maudgalya. Nalayani alias Indrasena was the wife of Maudgalya. Even though the wife was young and the husband old, NdIayani was very chaste. The sage became very old, grey-haired and rugous, skeletonlike with a foul smell emanating from his body. He was always in an angry mood. Still Nalayani stuck to him as a chaste, loving and dutiful wife. As time passed on Maudgalya became a leper. One day while the sage was eating, a finger of his broke and fell into the rice. With great calmness and devotion Nalayani removed the finger from the rice and ate the rice. Greatly pleased at this act of hers the sage asked her what boon she wanted an she replied she desired to have an amorous life with him as PaficaSarira. Maudgalya granted her the boon and they both travelled the whole world enjoying an amorous life. When the sage took the form of a mountain Nalayani became a river and when the sage took the shape of a flowering tree she became a creeper on it. They spent thousands of years like that and then Maudgalya became tired of a sexual life and returned to the ascetic life. Even after such a long period of erotic life Nalayani was still lustful and she resented the decision of her husband to go back to the life of a hermit. She begged her husband to continue the same life for some more time. Maudgalya got cross when she thus caused hindrance to his penance and cursed her saying that she would in her next life be born as the daughter of the King of Paficala when she would have five husbands to satisfy her lust. Greatly grieved at this curse she practised severe austerities standing in the midst of Paficagni. Pleased with her penance Siva appeared before her and blessed her saying that she would be born in her next birth in a very noble family and she would then have five husbands, good-natured, doing godly work and equal in valour to Indra. She then pleaded that she should be granted the boon to remain a virgin during the coitus with each of her husbands. Siva granted that wish. Then Siva sent her to the river Ganga, and asked her to fetch a beautiful young man whom she would be seeing there. Accordingly she went to the rivtr to do as she was directed.


At that time all the devas joined together arid performed a Yaga at Naimisaranya. Kala, the god of Death, was one of the chief priests for the function. The Yaga lasted for a long time and since Kala was consecrated for the Yaga he did not attend to his duties as the god of Death. Death came to a dead stop and then increased in alarming numbers and the devas were perplexed. They went to Brahma and acquainted him with the frightening situation. Brahma sent them to Naimisaranya. They went there and were talking to Kala when they saw a few golden flowers coming down the river. Getting curious Indra walked up the river to locate the origin of these flowers. When he reached the place of origin of Ganga he saw Nalayani there. Nalayani took the beautiful young man to Siva. Siva was at that time engaged in a game of dice with Parvati and Indra did not then recognise Siva. Indra in his arrogance argued that the whole universe belonged to him. Siva jumped up enraged and ran after Indra who ran to the mouth of a cave. Siva caught him and said that he would show him four Indras inside that cave. Both of them entered the cave and to the amazement of Indra he saw four other Indras sitting inside the cave. They were all the creation of Siva and with the original Indra the number of Indras came to five. Then addressing Nalayani who had followed them Siva said, `Oh beautiful girl, do not be. worried. All these five are your husbands. You will be born as the daughter of the King of Paficala. Then all these five will be born in the lunar race and will marry you."


The Indras agreed to be born on earth and do the work of God. After that they all went to Mahavisnu and requested him to give them mighty accomplices to fulfil their mission. Then Mahavi snu plucked two hairs from his body, one white and the other black, and dropped them on the ground. The black hair was born as Sri Krsna and the white hair was born as Balarama, to help the Pandavas later.


Paficali's two previous births can be explained thus: Agnideva created Mayasita who in turn became Svargalaksmi to be born as Paficali. Mayasita was a part of Mahalaksmi and so also Nalayani who became Paficali was a part of Laksmi. Pandavas are known to be the sons of five gods and they used for the procreation of the Paridavas Indrams a (Fart of Indra) thus making them all Indras. (Chapters 197 and 198, Adi Parva).


2) Birth of POlcdli. pancali was born in the pa1ace of Drupada, King of PUCala. She had a brother named Dhrstadyumna. There is a story about their birth in the Puranas:


Drupada'insulted Drona his classmate in the Gurukula and Drona kept in mind the insult to wreak vengeance on Drupada. Drupada, therefore, wanted a son to be born who would defeat Drona in a battle. Brahmins advised him to conduct a Yaga for that purpose. He decided to conduct one on a large scale and went about in search of a Yajva (one who performs sacrifices according to Vedic rites) and reached Kalmasapuri on the banks of the river Ganga. There he saw a brahmin's house where lived two sages named Yaja and Upayaja. They were in figure and nature alike. At first Drupada went to the younger of the two, Upayaja. He went near him and after massaging his feet and legs requested him to officiate in a Yaga aimed at getting for him a son to conquer Drona in a battle. He promised to give him ten crores of cattle for that and also anything else the sage wanted. These promises did not make the sage consent to conduct the Yaga and so the King sta,.ed at the asrama serving the sage. A year went by and one day the sage appeared cheerful and told Drupada thus: "Oh King, my brother who was walking one day in a storm saw a fruit lying on his way and ate it without first ascertaining whether the fruit was pure or not. Again, I have seen him taking food from others freely and eating it. I think he is wishful about wealth and, perhaps, if you approach him he may help you."


Drupada went to Yaja and after serving him to please him made his request promising him much wealth. Yaja was ready to perform the Yajfia. Upayaja came to them at that time and Yaja consulted his brother before going to perform the Yajna. The Yaga was successfully conducted and at the end the priest Yaja called the wife of Drupada and gave her havya (clarified butter). Because the havya was prepared by Yaja and was offered by Upayaja the sages said that the queen would get two children. While Yaja was offering oblations to the sacrificial fire a boy with a crown on his head and bearing a sword and a bow in his hands rose from the fire. The rsis present there then said that, that boy would kill Drona. He was named Dhrstadyumna. Then from the dais of the Yaga-fire emerged a beautiful lady of dazzling brilliance. Immediately a voice from heaven was heard to say thus: "This Sumadhyama (a girl in her blossoming youth) would work on the side of God and will cause terror to the Kauravas."


Yaja blessed the wife of Drupada saying that the two children would thenceforth call her mother. Yaja himself named the boy Dhrstadyumna and the girl according to the ethereal voice, Krsna,. Krsna was dark in complexion. Krsna was called Parsati because she was the grand-daughter of Prsata and Draupadi because she was the daughter of Drupada and Paficali because she was the daughter of the king of Paficala. Paficali grew up in the palace of Drupada. (Chapter 167, Adi Parva ).


3) Marriage. After escaping from the lac palace the Pandavas reached a village named Ekacakra after walking a long time through the forests. There they stayed in a brahmin's house. Every morning they would go in disguise for begging and return with the alms in the evening. This was their daily routine and one day while they were in their daily round they saw a group of brahmins and they said they were going to the Svayariivara of the daughter of the King of Paficala. The brahmins invited them also to come along with them describing in detail the beauty of the girl and the elaborate and festive arrangements made for the marriage. The Pandavas went to Paficala along with the brahmins. On the way they met Vedavyasa and receiving blessings from him they went to the capital city of Paficala and took their abode in the house of a potter. Nobody knew who they were.


Drupada had placed a mighty steel bow in the marriage hall. When all the distinguished guests were seated in the marriage hall, the King announced that his daughter would be given in marriage to him who bent the steel bow and with it shot a steel arrow,


through the central aperture of a revolving disc, at a target placed above. Many valiant princes from all parts of Bharata including the Kauravas had gathered there. When it was time for the ceremonies to begin Paficali clad in beautiful robes with a bewitching charm which excited the royal assemblage entered the hall with a garland in her hands. Then Dhrstadyumna brother of Paficali said "Hear ye, oh princes, seated in state in this assembly, here is the bow and arrow. He who sends five arrows in succession through the hole in the wheel and unerringly hits the target shall win my sister."


Many noted princes rose one after another and tried in vain to string the bow. It was too heavy and stiff for them. Then Arjuna rose and meditating on Nardyana, the Supreme God, strung the bow with ease and hit at the target. Paficali then put the garland on Arjuna's neck and accepting him as her husband went with him and stayed that night at the house of the potter. Drupada that night went to the house of the potter to make enquiries about his daughter and son-in-law. His joy knew no bounds when he knew that his son-in-law was none other than the celebrated Arjuna. The Pandavas then took Panca1i to their home in Ekacakra and as soon as Kuntidevi heard the footsteps of her sons outside she said from inside asking them to share that day's alms among themselves little knowing that it was a bride that had been brought by them. Thus Paficali became the common consort of the five Pandavas. Then the marriage of Paficali was ceremoniously conducted after inviting friends and relatives. The Pandavas then built a new palace at Indraprastha and lived there. (Chapters 190 to 220, Adi Parva).


Sri Krsna was present there along with the leading members of the clan of Vrsni. He could recognise the Pandavas in spite of their disguise. Sri Krsna went to the potter's house and visited them. He gave them valuable presents on the occasion of their marriage.


4) Making Draupadi naked. Once Duryodhana challenged Dharmaputra to a game of dice. Dharmaputra lost all and in the end in despair pledged Draupadi and lost her. Immediately Duryodhana asked Vidura to bring Draupadi to his palace and make her serve as a servant-maid. Vidura did not consent to that. Then Duryodhana asked Pratikami to bring her. While entering the palace of Draupadi, Pratikami was as timid as a dog about to enter the cage of a lion. He informed Draupadi of his mission. Draupadi sent him back and then Duryodhana sent another messenger. Draupadi went with him to the court of the Kauravas. As soon as Dussasana saw Draupadi he jumped at her and caught hold of her hair and dragged her to the centre of the assembly. When Dussasana dragged her thus she said in piteous tones "I am in my monthly period and I have only the upper garment on me. Please do not take me to the assembly." Duggasana was not moved by these pleadings and he dragged her still.


Bhima could not hold himself calm against this atrocity any longer and in a roar ofwrath he abused Dharmaputra for pledging Paficali thus and losing, her. Arjuna however remonstrated gently with Bhima. Then to the consternation of all, Dussasana started his shameful work of pulling at Paficali's robes to strip her of all the clothes. All earthly aid having failed Draupadi in utter helplessness implored divine mercy and succour. Then a miracle occurred. In vain did Dussasana toil to pull the garments completely and make her naked. As he pulled off each, fresh garments were seen to come from somewhere and cover her nudity. Dus'sasana retired from his work exhausted and disappointed. Then Karna ordered that Draupadi should be sent to the palace of Duryodhana as a servant-maid. Hearing this Dussasana once again started dragging her. Draupadi wept. Bhima roared in fury and said that if his brother, Dharmaputra, gave him permission he would at that instant smash to death the Kauravas just like a lion killing the animals. Bhisma and Drona interfered and pacified him. Duryodhana stood up and striking his right thigh with his right hand challenged Bhima to a fight. BhTmasena did not like Duryodhana exhibiting his naked thigh in front of Draupadi and an angered Bhima declared that he would in a battle break Duryodhana's thigh with his mace. Dhrtarastra came to the scene and pacified both of them and turning to Paficali asked her to name any boon she wanted from him. Paficali said : "In order that my son, Prativindhya, should not be called a `dasaputra' (son of a servant) his father Dharmaputra should be released from his servitude." The boon was granted. Then she requested that all the other Pandavas should be set free. That was also allowed. Dhrtarastra then asked her to name a third boon. Paficali then said that all Ksatriya women were entitled only to two boons and so there was no need for a third one. Then Draupadi took a vow that her hair which was let lose by the wicked Du ss asana would be tied properly only by a hand tainted by the blood of Dusgasana. After that in strict obedience to the conditions of the wager the Pandavas started for the forests with Draupadi to spend twelve years in the forests and one year inc)gnito. (Ten Chapters from Chapter 68, Sabha Parva).


5) Vanavasa of Pdncalf. (Life in the forests). During the exile of the Pandavas in the forests Paficali was involved in many events of which a few important ones are given below


(i) YLirmira's attack. When the Pandavas were in the Kamyakavana, Kirmira, the brother of Baka, came to the asrama where Paficali was taking rest. The demon was such a fierce-looking giant that Paficali was forced to shut her eyes by fright and she became wearied like a river in the midst of five hillocks. Bhimasena immediately ran to her rescue and killed Kirmira. (Chapter 11, Vana Parva ).


(ii) Pancali consoled Dharmaputra by her soothing words. (Chapter 27, Vana Parva).


(iii) Once when her woes became unbearable she condemned the devas. (Chapter ?, Vana Parva ).


(iv) While the Pandavas were on the mountain Gandhamadana, Pancali persuaded Bhima to bring for her the Saugandhika flower. (See under Bhima).


(v) While the Pandavas were living in the Badarikasrama waiting for the return of Arjuna who had gone on a year's pilgrimage, Paficali was carried away by Jatasura. (See under Jatasura).


(vi) After she was rescued from Jatasura, Paficali along with her husbands dwelt in the hermitage of Arstisena. (See under Arstisena).


vii) e instructions on the duties of a wife to Satyabhama who came to the forests along with Sri Krsna. (Chapters 233 and 234, Vana Parva).


(viii) Once Durvasas with his disciples came to the forest as the guests of the Pandavas. They came late and P<Ificali had taken her food already. The Aksayapatra (the never-empty pot) could not be invoked to produce anything that day and Paficali was greatly agitated and worried. She prayed to Sri Krsna for succour and Sri Krsna also coming hungry searched in the pot for something to eat and finding a bit of spinach sticking to the sides of the pot grabbed it with avidity and ate it. The guests felt as if they had enjoyed a sumptuous feast and left the place well pleased. (See para XII under Duryodhana).


(ix) Jayadratha carried away Paficali from the forests once. The Pandavas rescued her. (Para 4 under Jayadratha).


6) Life incognito. After their twelve years of exile in the forests the time for living in disguise for a year came and Dharmaputra and his brothers with Paficali spent that period in the palace of the King Virata. Each assumed a new name and accepted different types of service under the King. Paficali took the name of Sairandhri and served as a companion and attendant to the princess. One day Kicaka, the mighty brother-in-law of the King, tried to molest Paficali and Bhimasena killed him. (See under Kicaka). It was at the time when the incognito life was coming to an end that the Kaurava army headed by Duryodhana carried away the cattle of the King Virata. The King was absent from the palace at that time and the prince, Uttara, had not the guts to go and attack the Kaurava army. It was Paficali who then suggested sending of Brhannala of the palace (Arjuna) to serve as charioteer of Uttara. (See under Arjuna, Para 24) .


7 } Subsequent events. The thirteen years of life in exile and incognito came to an end. But the Kauravas were not prepared to give half of the kingdom to the Pa~idavas. The differences between them increased and it led to a great war. Sri Krsna agreed to go as a messenger to the court of Dhrtarastra and ask for the share of the Pandavas. Before leaving the asked each o. the Pandavas what he should say at the court of Dhrtarastra. Paficali then approached Krsna in private and said she desired for a war to defeat the Kauravas. She then reminded Krsna of a vow taken by Bhimasena that he would tie her hair with his hands smeared with the blood from the thigh of Duss asana.


The peace-mission of Krsna failed and the famous Kuruksetra battle started. - Many valiant warriors on both the sides were killed. When Abhimanyu was killed Subhadra wept bitterly and Paficali who went to console her fainted. Sri Krsna revived her. Paficali asked Bhimasena to bring to her the inborn jewel on the head of A9vatthama, son of Drona. She wanted to take revenge on him for killing her brother Dhrstadyumna.


After a fierce battle for eighteen days the Kauravas were defeated and their tribe annihilated. Pandavas tools hold of Hastinapura and Paficali was one among those who persuaded Dharmaputra to take charge of the administration of the state as its ruler. Dharmaputra performed an Asvamedhayajfia and Paficali gave presents to Citrangada and Ulupi who were present for the function then. After the Asvamedha Draupad! lived in Hastinapura serving Kund and Gandhari alike for a long time. It was at that time that Dhrtarastra, Gandhari and Kunti went to the forests and Draupadi expressed her desire to go along with them to be of help to them. But they did not allow her to do so. While the Pandavas were living in Hastinapura as the rulers of the country eminent rsis from different parts of the country visited them and some of the Siddhas (realised souls) among them saw Paficali as the goddess Mahalaksm! herself. (Sloka 9, Chapter 25, Asramavasika Parva ).


8) Dc-alh of Pancali. At the fag end of their life the Pandavas crowned Pariksit as the King of Hastinapura and started on their Mahaprasthana. They travelled for long through the .Himalayas and reached Mahameru. At that time Paficali fell down dead. Then Bhlmasena asked Yudhisthira why without any particular ailment Pafical! died. Yudhisthira replied that it was because she showed special interest in Arjuna The Pandavas walked on and all of them excepting Dharmaputra died on the way one by one. Even before Dharmaputra entered svarga Paficali and the four brothers had reached there. (Chapters 1 to 4, Mahaprasthanika Parva).


9). Sons of Pancalf. Paficali had five sons one each from each of the five husbands. She got .Pr ativindhya of Yudhisthira, Srutasoma of Bhimasena, Srutakirti of Arjuna, ~atanlka of Nakula and Srutakarma of Sahadeva. (Sloka 73, Chapter 95, Adi Parva).


PAIVCALIKA (PAIRCALIKESA). A Yaksa who was a son of Kubera. In some parts of Bharata this Yaksa is worshipped as a deity. It is believed that Siva had given Paficalika a boon that he who worships him whether he be man or woman, young or old, would become intoxicated with vigour. There is a story behind Paficalika obtaining this boon :--


When Sat! who was insulted at the Daksayaga was cousumed by fire a bereaved Siva sat inactive and moody at a lonely place. When this continued for a long time Kamadeva (god of love) at the request of the other devas sent arrows against him and made him lustful. Siva then started running passionately calling the name of his wife and finding her nowhere jumped into the river Kalind! to commit suicide. (The waters of Kalind! became black from that time onwards). Kalindi was unable to bear the burden of the soul of Siva and so he had to get out to the shore and run again. At this time Kamadeva sent another arrow, unmadastra (arrow of intoxication) also against Siva. Siva could not bear the impact of the two arrows together and he laboured under great strain. Just then he saw Paficalika son of Kubera coming that way. Siva then made him understand his difficulties and requested him to take charge of the force of the arrows from him. Paficalika did so and saved Siva from his toil. Pleased at this Siva blessed him. He said that Paficalika will be worshipped by people in


the month of Caitra and all those who do so will be invigorated. He added that henceforth he would be known as Paficalikesa also.


PANCALYA. An asrama of ancient Bharata. This was the place where Nyagrodha, King of Paficala, performed penance for a long time. (Sloka 11, Chapter 90, Vana Parva). _


PANCAMAHAYAJNA. For a Grhastha,~rami (householder) the following five apparatuses are unavoidable


A sifter, a grinding stone, a broom, a wooden mortar and a water-pot. It is believed that a sin is committed when each of these is used and to remove the sins thus committed the ancient sages have prescribed five yajfias and these five yajfias are called the Paficamahayajfias. They are the Brahmayajfia, Pitryajfia, Devayajfia, Bhutayajfia and the Manusayajfia. Reciting of Vedas is Brahmayajfia. Pleasing the manes by offering rice or libations of water is called Pitryajfia. Giving offerings to the demi-gods in the sacrificial fire is called Devayajfia and religious offerings of rice to the crows is called Bhutayajfia. Giving food for the guests is Manusayajfia. One whodoes not do the Paficamahayajfias is no better than dead. Some scholars have classified the Paficamahayajfias as Huta, Prahuta, Brahmyahuta, Prasita and Ahuta.


Japo huto huto homah Prahuto bhautiko balih


Brahmyarh hutarh dvijagnyarcca Pras. itam pitrtarpanam. //


Ahuta is Brahmayajfia, huta is devayajfia, prahuta is bhutayajfia, brahmyahuta is manusikayajfia and prasita is pitryajfia. Even if at times one finds it not possible to do manusikayajfia one must perform daily brahmayajfia and daivayajfia. The offerings given to gods in the sacrificial fire go to the Sun. The Sun sends rains to the earth which in turn make the plants flourish. Vedas say that thus living beings increase. Just as all animals and objects depend on life-breath for living, a Brahmacari, a Vanaprastha and a Sannyasi depend upon a grhastha for sustenance. Therefore, the Grhasthagrama is the best of all asramas. (Chapter 3, Manusmrti).


PANCAMI, An ancient river of Uttara Bharata. People used to drink water from this river. Chapter 9, Bhlsma Parva).


PAIRCANADA I. A land of the north-western side of Bharata. This is at present called the Punjab. When Nakula conquered the western states he conquered Paficanada also. (Sloka 11, Chapter 32, Mahabharata). Five rivers of names Vipasa (Vyasa), Satadru (Sutlej ), Iravat! (Ravi ), Cndrabhaga (Chenab) and Vitasta (Jhelum) run through this place and that is why the place is called Paficanada.


PANCANADA II. A. sacred place in Kuruksetra. If one bathes in the holy pond of Kotitirtha there, one would get the benefit of performing an A9vamedha. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva).


PAIRCAPRANAS. The five pranas (life breaths) of any living being are Praiia, Apana, Vyana, Samana and Udana. There is a story in 'Devi Bhagavata' regarding the origin of the Paficapranas.


Once Sri Krsna met Radhadevi at Rasamandala and in seclusion they spent in sexual sport the period of one day of Brahma. Then Krsna selecting an auspicious time dropped his vital fluid into her womb at the end of the sexual sport. Tired by the prolonged carnal sport and shaken by the impact of the hot semen Radhadevi perspired profusely and the exhaustion produced deep and long breaths. The whole universe was covered with her sweat and her sighs became the goddess of the life-giving breaths of all created animals. From the left side of goddess was born Vayupatni and to her were born the Paficapranas. Besides these, another five younger pranas were also born. From the sweat of the Devi was born Varuna and from the left side of Varuna was born Varundni. (9th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


Mandukyopanisad gives the following details regarding the working of the Pranas .in the body :-Prana was first used in the -sense of breath. Later it got the meaning of life. Life is in fact breath to all living beings. Only when a man is awake, his mind and sense organs are active. But Prana is active always both in the state of wakefulness and sleep. Therefore Prana is the vigour of life. It may be said that when a man is asleep his senses merge with his mind and his mind with the prana. The five factors of Prana are the Paficapranas. The first of the five is called Prana itself. It is called Mukhyaprana or chief Prana. Just as a King appoints his ministers at different places to do specified jobs the chief Prana posts the other prams at different parts in the body with specific purposes of their own. Prana is seated in the heart and does the work of breathing. Apana is seated in anus and directs the organs of excretion of the body. Vyana is spread throughout the body and it is this life-wind which keeps one alive even when breathing is stopped for some time. When an archer stands in deep concentration with his bent bow without breathing he lives with the help of Vyana. Samana controls the breathing-in and breathing-out to a specified rhythm. Samana (equaliser) is so called because it balances the force of the in-coming and outgoing breaths. There is a school of thought that Prana is not seated in the heart but spread over the ears, eyes nose and face. Samana is seated at the navel midway between the seats of Prana and Apana. This is also a reason why life-wind got that name. This breath does the work of prompting digestion. The four prams, Prana, Apana, Samana and Vyana sustain life. The fifth one, Udana, takes the soul of the being out of the body when it dies.


PAIVCAPSARAS. A lake of distinction. During the exile of Sri Rama in the forests, Agastya showed Sri Rama this lake and described its origin thus : "In times of old a sage named Mandakarni built this lake. This sage living~on air alone stood in the waters of this lake and practised severe austerities for ten thousand years. Devas were frightened by the rigorous penance of Mandakarni and they sent five devakanyakas (celestial damsels) to the earth to entice the sage and stop his penance. Tke sage was attracted by the divine beauty of the girls and he lived with them in a grand building constructed within the lake itself. Even after the passing away of the sage and the damsels people used to hear dance and music from inside the lake. Because five apsaras lived in that lake it became known as Pancapsaras.


(Apsaras=celestial damsels who are servants of Indra). (Sarga 1 Aranya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


PANCARATRA. An agama (a system of philosophy). (Chapter 218, Santi Parva;.


PANCARATRA. A book of spiritual doctrines. He who learns this will attain the position. of Uparicaravasu. Sloka 25, Chapter 325, Santi Parva).


PANCASIKHA. A sage of ancient times. The Puranas give the following details about him.


He was a disciple of Asuri. He was brought up breastfed by Kapila, wife of Asuri and so he was known as Kapila also. He dwelt in Paficasrotas and performed a Yaga for a thousand years and got his name Pancasikha. He went to the assembly of the learned king Janaka and entered into a polemic contest with him and defeated him. The defeated King gave Paficasikha great respect and he lived in the court of Janaka as his Guru for a number of years. (Chapter 218, Santi Parva ).


PANCASVA. A King of the Puru race. (See under Puruvarhs a).




A.General information. An ancient book of distinction written by the scholar Visnusarma in the form of stories for the use of children to give them an idea of the different aspects of life.


1) Origin. There is a statement in the preface itself regarding the composition of this book : "Three sons were born to an emperor named Amarasakti. All . the three were dull-witted. The emperor was very sorry for them but found no way to improve them. Greatly disappointed the King called the royal council and told them about his sons. Then one of the members of the council, a man named Sumati, stood up and said "Oh best of Kings, let us not try to teach your children the : astras one by one. It will not only be unpleasant study but would also take a long time to complete. If we can mix all the sastras cleverly and make it palatable like sweetmeats the children would take it easily. There is a suitable man also for this work in our state. He is Visnu, arma, a kind-hearted scholar who is not only well-versed in all the s astras but also an adept in the art of the up-bringing of children. I am sure he would make your children wise and learned."


When the emperor heard this he sent for Visnusarma and told him everything. After understanding well the nature of his would-be disciples and the ambition of their father, Visnusarma took charge of his wards and within six months he taught the sons of the emperor the science of government. The stories which he used to teach them the science of administration were all compiled into a volume called Paficatantra."


2) A general idea of the book. The book contains five divisions each division illustrating one tantra ( tact, diplomacy) by several stories. It contains prose and verse. The first tantra is called Mitrabheda. Stories under this head explain the philosophy of "Divide and ru1e" in politics. The main characters in these stories are two foxes named Karataka and Damanaka. Stories under Mitrabheda relate to how these sly foxes enjoy themselves in breaking the intimacy between a lion and an ox using slander against each other. `Mitralabha' is the theme of the next tantra. It is an advice that you should select your friends with care selecting them only after studying them in- detail properly, The author has selected as characters in his stories for this purpose a tortoise a deer, a crow and a rat. The third tantra is called Kakobukiya. This deals with the evils behind an irtimacy between 'born enemies. The main characters in the stories relating to this are a crow and an owl. The fourth tantra is called Labdhapranasa. It describes how aman loses what has come into his possession by his foolishness. A monkey and a crocodi1e are the characters in this story. The fifth tantra is Apariksitakaraka. It deals with the bad side of not looking into all the possible aspects of what you hear. Several stories are there to illustrate this point.


3) Popularity of the book. Though no correct records are there in history in support of the belief, it is believed that Amaragakti was the ruler of Mahilaropya in Deccan and that Paficatantra must have originated from there. But Paficatantra received a global publicity and popularity and was translated from Sanskrit into many other languages. Directed by King Kosru Anusirva, a Persian poet named Buryoe translated, it into the Persian language during the period 531-575 A.D. That translation is not available at present. In the year 570 A.D. it was translated into the Syrian language by a poet named Bud. A scho1ar named Abdulla Ibaal Mogaffa in the year 750 A.D. translated it into the Arabic language. It was from this Arabic translation that it was translated into many European languages. The Greek translation appeared in the year 1080 A.D., Hebrew in 1100 A.D., Latin in 1270 A.D., German in 1480 A.D., Italian in 1582 A.D. and French in 1678 A.D. Next to the Bible this is the book which has received the greatest publicity and popularity. The great linguist Hertel says that Paficatantra has appeared in about 200 translations in fifty different languages. 4) Period of composition. Because the translation into the Syrian language appeared in the year 570 A.D it must have been composed earlier than that date. Again, since it takes at least two centuries for a work to get popular enough to be translated into a foreign language, the composition must have been done early in the fourth century A.D. Some believe that the work was done in Kashmir. While others assert that it was written in Magadha. The original title of the book is believed to be `Karataka and Damanaka' by a few.


5) Two editions. Two different editions of the book are now found. One edition popular in Kashmir is known as Tantrakhyayika. The other is in the form found in Kathasafitsagara and Brhatkathamafijari. The original Sanskrit work is very rarely found. There are several editions of this in Daksina Bharata. Changes in the stories according to the change of times are also noted. (History of Classical Sanskrit Literature).


B. Contents (Stories).


1:) Mitrabheda. There was once a very good merchant in the land of Mahilaropya called Vardhamana. He was once travelling in a bullock-cart. One of the bullocks drawing the cart was. named Safijivaka. The leg of Safijivaka broke on he way striking against a stone. Leaving the bu1lock to the charge of four of his attendants Vardhamana continued his journey. When night came the attendants were frightened by the surrounding forests and so, leaving the bullock to its fate the attendants left the place. The bullock got well and it roamed about in the forests bellowing loudly. The King of the forests, Piiigalaka the lion, was frightened by the bellowing of the bullock.


The lion remained in the, forest without stirring out from its cave. The minister of the lion was a fox. That fox had two sons 1 amed Karataka arid Damanaka,


Damanaka wanted to know what made the lion worried and told his brother about it. Karataka advised him not to interfere unnecessarily with the affairs of others and told his brother Damanaka a story to stress his point.


A group of sawers were sawing wood near a. temple for its construction. At lunch time one of the sawers placed a wedge on a half-sawn timber and went for his midday meal. One of the monkeys sitting on the branch of a tree near the temple jumped on to the halfsawn timber and pulled out the wedge. His tail had fallen without his knowing into the space between the sawn planks and when. the monkey later jumped out from the timber his tail was wedged between the planks and the tail got crushed. If you poke your .nose into the affairs of others without any purpose such dangers are sure to happen.


Hearing that, Damanaka said, "Brother, are we serving the lion, our mastery just for our food ? If we want only our food what difference is there between ourselves and the dog? Have you not seen the uproar the dogs make when they see food. A dog has no modesty, humility or self-confidence. Some men are also like that. But some others are not like that. Look at the elephant. It never makes an exhibition of its happiness when it gets its food. Its majestic stand, look and gestures are worth noticing. The best of men are also like this. Everybody should keep this in mind. He who earns his livelihood without depending on others but does it by his own wits and efforts is the most revered of men. But food is not enough, we must earn fame also. So even though we are children we must try to remove the worry that hangs over our lord, the lion."


The brother was not moved by this philosophy of Damanaka and so he said again, "Anywhere and in any venture success is difficult to achieve and failure is very easy. It is difficult to rise up but it is easy to fall down. It is a very hard labour to roll a stone up a mountain but to push it down from the top is very easy. He is blessed who can read correctly the thoughts of other people. I have, looking at the face of our King, understood that something big is worrying him."


Karataka said, "Admitting what you say to be correct how are we to know the thing that worries the King? It is a dangerous task." Damanaka said "Regarding the achievement of success, there are three kinds of people namely the Uttama (best), the madhyama (mediocre) and the adhama (worst). The adhama type will never start a venture fearing failure. The madhyama type would start his endeavour but would turn back at the sight of obstacles. But the Uttama type would never turn back without achieving success. They are the adorable type of men in this world. The Uttama would act according to the circumstances of the situation. If he wants to talk to another and obtain a favour from him he would not go to him at random without looking into the time, place and opportunity to do so. Even Brhaspati has his moods. In fact, there is nothing impossible in this world. Disappointment and failures are flue to want of experience and lack of endeavour. The great ocean .with its huge rolling waves gives one a fright at first sight. But if he starts bathing in it for a long time he finds it not so unapproachable or ghastly."


When Karataka heard these moral preachings of his brother he allowed him to do what he wanted to do. Damanaka went to the cave of the lion. Far from the cave itself Damanaka started walking humbly with his head bent down. The lion saw Damanaka walking thus to him and was immensely pleased. The King of the beasts asked him thus "Damanaka, it is a long time since I saw you and your brother. Why is it that you both, sons of my minister, do not come and see me as often as your father ?"


Damanaka replied very humbly "Oh mighty King, of what use can we insignificant creatures be to you ? Yet, if one thinks over it, even little things can also be of use at times to great people." Damanaka then recited to the King a poem which in substance was thus: "Even grass over which we trample while walking, is of use as fodder to the cattle. Some, are used for cleaning the teeth and still some, dry and brittle, to tickle the ear when it itches badly. Great men retain their greatness even when they fall. A burning torch would send its flame only upwards even when you keep it upside down. Similarly all things will shine only in their proper places. An ornamental waistbelt would not shine round a neck nor would bangles shine on one's ears. Anyhow let me ask your highness one question. Is it true that when your highness went to drink water something happened to make your highness worry ?"


Pingalaka the lion said: "What you say is correct. When I went today to drink water in the river I heard the horrifying bellow of a fierce animal and was frightened. I am thinking of leaving this forest and going to some other one."


Damanaka said "Oh Lord, be not frightened. Appearances are often deceptive and cannot be believed. I shall tell you the story of a fox who mistook an ordinary drum for an animal with good flesh. Once a fox saw a drum lying in a battlefield. It was making a sound when the wind blew over it. The fox mistook it for an animal with plenty of flesh and blood. Rejoicing at the prospect of having a hearty meal the fox mustered courage and went near it. It tore the leather open. Only then could it understand its blunder."


The King liked the story very much. So he sent Damanaka to enquire where the bellow came from. Damanaka found out Safijivaka, the ox and told him everything and added that he bad been sent by the King to fetch him to his presence. Safijivaka was at first afraid to go but the consoling words of Damanaka gave him courage and it went to the lion. The lion and the ox became great friends and gradually the intimacv developed to such an extent that the King of the beasts started becoming indifferent to the welfare of the other beasts in the forest. The subjects of the King PiAgalaka were in trouble.


Feeling sorry for his own actions Damanaka went to his brother and said, "-All this happened because of our own fault. I shall tell you a story about a self-made calamity. Once an ascetic named Devasarma was afraid of robbers. So he stitched into his robes all the money he possessed. Somehow a robber named Asadhabhuti came to know of it and he made friends with the ascetic and acted as his servant pretending to be very faithful. Devasarma got confidence in him and one day he went to bathe handing over all his guarded wealth into the hands of Asadhabhuti. On his way back from the river after his bath Devasarma saw two goats fighting against


each other. Blood was flowing from the heads of both the goats and still the fight continued. A fox came there to drink the fresh blood flowing from their heads and he went and started licking the blood that had dropped between the two fighting goats. The goats came again and hit against each other with force and the fox that was standing between the two and licking the blood greedily was crushed to death. When he returned after witnessing the fight the ascetic found that his servant had gone away with his cash."


Karataka liked the story very much. They th( n discussed ways and means of getting out of this calamity. Damanaka said that any object can be achieved by cleverness and told his brother a story to illustrate his point.He said "Once a crow made his abode on a tree with his wife and children. After some time his wife began to lay eggs but all of them disappeared one by one. They made enquiries and found that the culprit was a big cobra living beneath the same tree. They were no match to the cobra and so they sought the advice of their friend, a fox.


The fox said, "I shall suggest a way to get out of the danger. Have you not heard the story of an old stork who got his food by his cleverness? The stork went to the banks of a pond feeling hungry. There were plenty of fishes in the pond. The stork stood still on the banks pretending to be sad. A crab seeing the sad-looking stork came and enquired the cause of his grief. The stork said `You well know that we storks live on flesh. and fish. I now understand that a fisherman has planned to catch all the fish in this pond. This is the cause of my worry." The fishes who overheard this conversation between the crab and the stork came before the stork frightened and requested him to save them from the fisherman somehow. The stork said `I am not strong to fight the fisherman. But I can do what little help I can give you. I shall every day remove you one by one from this pond to another one without the knowledge of the fisherman."


The poor fishes agreed to the proposal and the stork carried away one fish everyday from the pond and ate it at a place hidden from the view of the others. This went on for one or two months without break and somehow the crab got suspicious and he requested the stork to take him also to the other pond. The stork carrying the crab reached its usual place and the crab was horrified at the sight of the bones of the fishes eaten before by the stork. The crab knew its death was sure even if it did not fight with the stork and so started a fight and in the end killed the stork by crushing the neck of the stork."


The crows crew hilariously when they heard the story of the fox. The fox then told them a plan. "When any of those who come to bathe in a pond nearby removes the necklace and places it on the shore you are to pick it up and hang it on a branch of the tree." The crows did like that and pedestrians going that way saw the necklace hanging from the branch and took it after killing the cobra in the hole beneath the tree."


On hearing the story told by Damanaka the idea of putting the lion against the ox gained strength in Karataka's mind. To confirm the idea in his brother's mind Damanaka told another story. Damanaka said, "Once there was a lion named Madotkata. He lived in a forest harassing all the beasts that lived there.


-Ill the subjects of King Madotkata joined together, went to him and represented to him that they would go to his cave one by one' every day to be killed and eaten by him. The lion agreed to that and the beasts one by one went to his cave each day. One day it was the turn of a clever hare. The hare walked slowly and reached the lion's den late. The King was very cross at this and asked him to explain why he was late. The hare said "Oh lord, on my way another lion accosted me and I had to take a rouxid-about route to get away from that lion." The lion got angry and asked the hare to take him to the other lion who dared to come to that forest and question his authority. The hare took the lion to a well and asked his lord to peep in. When Madotkata did so he saw his own reflection in the still waters of the well and mistook it for another lion. It jumped into the well and was killed."


Karataka had implicit confidence in Damanaka after hearing all these stories and he sent his brother to the King to create a rupture between the lion and the ox. Damanaka went to the King Pingalaka and apologised for the mistake he had committed. Then the King enquired what the mistake was. Damanaka said that the ox Safijivaka was not such a simpleton as he took him to be. He was ambitious and wanted to snatch away the kingdom from Pingalaka. It was unwise to keep one single minister always. "After all what can an ox do ? He can plough the fields. I have come to inform you all these out of my regard for you." Damanaka said.


Even after hearing all these, Pingalaka did not have the heart to abandon the ox. Pingalaka asked what a poor bullock could do against a lion. Damanaka then said that one would come into grief if one believed too much in anybody. "Have you not heard the story of the louse which believed the bug?" Damanaka asked. Then he narrated a story. "Mandavisarpini was a louse which was living happily on the silken bed of a King. A bug went there and made friends with the louse. The poor louse believed the bug to be harmless and allowed it to stay that night with him. The bug said that it was very greedy to suck the blood of the King. At night the bug bit the King. The King woke up and ordered his servants to search for the thing that bit him. When lights were brought the clever bug s1ipped away. The royal servants conducting the search found out the louse and killed it."


The lion liked the tale very much and yet was reluctant to dismiss the ox. The lion wanted proof that the ox was at fault. So Damanaka went straight to the ox in his house and said "We are all small people. What does the master do for our welfare ? If small people seek the friendship of big people the small ones will always suffer." The ox endorsed the view and told a story to illustrate the truth. "A lion named Madotkata had a tiger, a fox and a crow as his ministers. When the ministers were once walking in the forest they saw a camel. They had never seen a camel before and so they were wonderstruck by the animal. They went and ta1ked with it and gathered that the curious animal was a camel which had been carrying loads for a merchant. It had now escaped from the merchant because of the heavy work it had to do. The camel wanted to remain in hiding. The ministers took the new animal to the lion. The lion liked the camel very


much and soon they became good and intimate friends. The intimacy increased and soon the King lost all interest in his other subjects. At this stage the ministers found out a plan. They advised the King to kill and eat the camel but the King refused to do so. Then the crow went before the King and requested the lion to kill and eat it. But the crow was so small a food for the lion and so it refused to kill the crow. Then the fox made a similar offer but the lion refused to kill the fox also: Then came the tiger with the offer and the lion refused to kill the tiger also. Seeing all this the camel also made a similar offer and the moment his consent was out from his mouth the fox and the tiger together killed the poor camel and ate it. So one should be careful in believing others. In my case I am sure some wicked persons must have advised him against me and that is the reason why the lion is angry with me. But. I will always work true to my conscience. There is no harm in fighting either for selfprotection or for destroying one's enemies. So if it is necessary I will fight the lion."


Hearing this Damanaka said "To go to war without knowing the strength of the enemy is wrong. Once upon a time a water-fowl quarrelled with the ocean. The water-fowl was living happily on the shores of an ocean with his mate. They ate the worms that lived on the shores. The she-fowl got pregnant and when it was time to lay her eggs she asked her mate to show her a safe place to lay the eggs. The male mate asked her to lay the eggs on the shore itself. But the she-fowl said that the waves would carry away the eggs and so it was not wise to do so. The male fowl assured her that the ocean was not bold enough to do anything against his interests. But the she-fowl still hesitated.


Then the male fowl said "I am the nearest relative responsible for your protection and welfare. If one does not heed the words of a relative one will fall into danger. I shall tell you the story of a tortoise which came to grief by not obeying the instructions of its friends. In olden times there lived on the banks of a pond a tortoise who had two swan-friends in the lake named Sankata and Vikata. Once the lake became empty of water and the swans decided to go to another lake with water. They never wanted to part with their friend the tortoise and so decided to take the tortoise also along with them. But the tortoise could not fly and so they found a plan to carry the tortoise to the other lake. They brought a stick-and the tortoise was asked to hang at the middle of the stick clutching the stick tightly with its teeth. The swans then took the stick by its two ends each holding one end in its beak. The swans gave strict instructions that the tortoise should not open its mouth and then rose up into the air and flew towards the other lake. On the way some children saw the funny sight in the air and so hooted and howled. The tortoise got angry and abused the children. The moment it opened its mouth it lost hold .on the stick and fell down to the ground This happened because the tortoise did not heed the words of its friends." The water fowl continued `It is cowardice and foolishness to remain sad expecting dangers in future. Just hear this story' he said `Once m a pond there were three fishes named Anzgata, Utpannamati and Yadbhavisya. Hearing that fishermen were coming to fish in that pond Anagata warned them and suggested going to another


pond to escape from the fishermen. But Utpannamati and Yadbhavisya did not care. They said that some plan could be found out when the danger came. But Anagata felt diffident and so he went away to another pond. Soon the fishermen came and spread their nets. Utpannamati lay still pretending to be dead. The fishermen took it and deposited it on the shore and started to fish again. The moment the fishermen turned their heads Utpannamati slipped into a mud pit nearby and remained there till.the departure of the fishermen. But poor Yadbhavisya could not think of any plan and so was caught and carried away by the fishermen. So just like Utpannamati I will also come across some plan when the danger comes and so you do lay your eggs on the shore of the ocean itself."


Hearing the assuring words of her husband the shefowl laid her eggs on the shore. But very soon waves came and carried them away. She complained to her husband. The water fowl called a conference of all the birds living there and explained to them his mishap and all of them went on a deputation to Garuda, the best of the birds and requested him to find out a remedy. Garuda represented the matter to Mahavisnu who in turn called Varuna to his side and ordered him to give back the eggs to the fowl.


After telling this story Damanaka went to the lion and told him many misleading lies about the ox. Gradually the lion and the ox became enemies. Damanaka then triumphantly went and informed his brother Karataka of his achievement. But Karataka said "Brother, you have done a very unjust thing. There are four methods to achieve your object namely, Sama, Dana, Bheda and Danda. Of these Bheda is to be used only last of all. I shall tell you a story


Once a chetty (Merchant) had two sons named Dharmabuddhi and Dustabuddhi. Once they were both travelling through a forest when Dharmabuddhi got a treasure from a hole at the base of a big tree. Dustabuddhi advised his brother not to take the treasure to the city as it was dangerous to do so and made him bury it at a place beneath the same tree. That night itself Dustabuddhi went and dug out the treasure and got it buried in his own room. After some days both of them went together to see the treasure and found the place empty of the treasure. They accused each other of stealing the treasure. Both of them complained to the King. The King asked them whether they had any witnesses and they replied that only the tree was there as a witness. The King decided that both of them should go beneath the same tree and dip their hands in burning oil to prove their innocence. Dustabuddhi went to his father and requested him that he should hide in the hollow of that tree and say that it was Dharmabuddhi who had stolen the treasure. Hearing this the father said "Child, when you think of a trick you must also think of the danger involved in it. Once there lived a stork with his wife on a tree. A serpent living in the same tree began to eat the young ones of the stork and the stork complained to his friend fox about it. The clever fox suggested to him a plan. There was a mongoose living near the tree. The stork was to drop fishes in front of the hole of the mongoose and continue dropping fishes in a line leading to the abode of the serpent. The mongoose would thus be led to the hole of the serpent. The stork did so and when the mongoose


reached the hole of the serpent it saw it and killed it I cannot do such cruel things." But when Dustabuddh insisted, the father half-heartedly agreed to it and wen and sat in the hollow of the tree. Next day the servant of the King came to the foot of the tree with burninj oil. They asked the tree to tell the truth regardinj the theft. Then there came a voice from the tree denounc ing Dharmabuddhi as the culprit. Dharmabuddhi thei said there was no truth in the bodiless voice and request ed them to fumigate the tree from beneath. The roya servants did so and then the father came out and con. fessed everything. The servants of the King nailed Dustabuddhi on a spike and killed him.


After having told the story Karataka tried to dissuadf his brother from his deceitful intentions. Karattaka said:- "Pingala and Sanjivaka are kind-hearted anc simple people. There need be no treachery with them, Treachery is allowed against wicked people. I shall tell you the story of a merchant:-


This merchant had as his entire wealth a thousand pounds of iron and one day he went on a pilgrimage after entrusting his entire wealth to a friend and neighbour of his on the understanding that the latter should return it on his return after the pilgrimage. After ten months the merchant returned but the friend did not give back the iron. He regretted that all the iron was eaten by rats in which his house abounded. The merchant knew that his neighbour was speaking falsehood but kept silent over the matter. After a few days the merchant somehow enticed the only son of his neighbour to his house and locked the young boy in a room. The friend went in search of his son to the merchant's house and asked him whether he had seen his son anywhere. The merchant replied that he saw the boy being carried away by a kite. The friend could not believe the story and suspecting some foul play on the part of the merchant went to the king and reported the matter to him. The king sent for the merchant and asked him about the missing boy. The merchant gave the king the same reply he gave his friend. The king was surprised and asked the merchant whether it was believable that a boy aged eighteen would be carried away by a kite. The merchant very coolly replied that such things could happen in a country where rats could eat a thousand pounds of iron. The king asked the merchant to explain and he then told him everything that had happened. The king ordered the friend to return the iron and the merchant got back his wealth.


Karataka after telling this story added that deceit in return for deceit was no sin. Damanaka stuck on to his plan and made the lion and ox fight each other. The poor ox was killed and the lion became his old self again.


2) Suhrllabha. (Gaining friends). Once there lived on a tree a crow named Laghupatanaka. The crow saw a hunter coming and spreading a net beneath the tree. A flock of doves coming that way was caught in the net. But the doves flew up in a body and the net was carried from the ground freed of the pegs that held it. The crow fol1owed them and when they were safely landed at another place Citragriva the leader of the doves, told the crow thus "I shall now show you the benefit of gaining friends." Citragriva and his doves flew again with the net and landed before the hole of a rat named Hiranyaka. The rat was a friend of Citragriva.


On hearing the voice of Citragriva outside, Hiranyaka came out and felt sorry for the plight of the doves. The rat pointed out that nobody could oppose fate and proved it with illustrations. He added :-"Though elephants and cobras are mightier and fiercer than men, it is because of fate that they are being controlled by smaller people than they themselves. Hiranyaka cut to pieces the threads of the net and set the doves free. Next day the doves flew away to their places. Seeing the generosity shown by the rat, the crow wanted to be friendly with the rat. The crow mentioned this to the rat. But the rat refused to be friendly thinking that it was a ruse to get him killed for his food. But the crow prom_sed to be grateful for ever to the rat for saving the doves which belonged to the community of birds to which the crow also belonged. But the rat retorted that gratitude was a quality which was absent in any living being and generally harm was the reward for any favour done. The crow was greatly grieved to hear the words of Hiranyaka and told him that he (crow) would commit suicide if the rat did not take him as his friend. At last the rat took pity on the crow and they became friends. Time passed on and then there broke out a famine in the land. The crow decided to shift his abode and told the rat about it. He said he was going to a lake on the banks of which lived a friend of his, a tortoise. The tortoise, he added, would fetch for him from the lake plenty of fish to eat. The rat was also affected by the famine and so he also decided to accompany the crow. The crow took the rat in its beak and they both reached the lake where lived the tortoise named Manthara. The crow introduced Hiranyaka to the tortoise and the tortoise asked him the reason why he left his previous abode.


The rat said:-"There was a bbiksu (one who lives on alms) named Ciadakarna living in a house in my place. He used to eat only what was required to maintain life in him. He would cook his own food and keep the remains everyday in his kitchen. I used to eat that food and live. Then one day another Sannyasin named Brhatsphik (Vinakarna) came to this house. Every night Vinakarna used to read the Puranas to Cudakarna. Cudakarna would sit and make a sound on the bow kept nearby to drive me away. The first time he did so Vinakarna who was reading resented the interrupting sound and asked Cudakarna why he made it. He then explained that it was intended to drive away the rat coming to steal the food. I was forced to starve and I became lean and weak. Even rivers would go dry if there are no rains. Only those with wealth would have friends. Begging is a nuisance to others. Everywhere it is important to acquire good and faithful friends. When a good man is in danger only good men rush to help him. When an elephant falls into a pit it is always another elephant which comes to its rescue. Therefore I desire to make friends with you."


All the three, the crow, the rat and the tortoise lived together happily. Then one day a deer named Citrangada escaping from a hunter came frightened to their midst and started living with them. One day the deer which went in search of food did not return even after dusk and so the crow went in search of the deer and found it trapped in a hunter's net. The crow informed the rat about it and the rat immediately came and started gnawing at the strings of the net. In the mean-


time the tortoise desirous of knowing the plight of Citrangada crawled to the place of accident. The rat had already torn to pieces the net and the crow and the rat said that it was unwise of Manthara to have come so far crawling as there was danger from the hunter coming to the place soon. Before the deer could endorse the views of his friends the hunter came to the scene. The deer, the crow and the rat escaped. The hunter saw the crawling tortoise and caught it. Binding it with a string the hunter placed it on the ground. In the meantime the friends of Manthara who had escaped hit upon a plan to rescue the tortoise. The deer lay down pretending tc be dead at a place far away from the place but within the sight of the hunter. The crow sat perched on its body as if pecking at its flesh. The hunter saw it and went to take the dead body of the deer. The moment the hunter turned away from the tortoise the rat went and cut the string binding the tortoise and set it free. Before the hunter reached the deer it ran away. So all were saved. This is the benefit of having good friends.


3) Sandhiaigraha (Peace and war). We must make friends with people only after knowing them well There was once a big banyan tree in a forest which was inhabited by many crows. Their leader was a crow named Meghavarna About three kilometres away from this tree was another banyan tree on which lived a number of owls. Their leader was an owl named Amardana. The crows and the owls were great enemies.


One day Amardana king of the owls with a large army of a lakh of his subjects attacked the crows at night. The crows could not see at night and so all the crows excepting a few of the top ones were killed. Meghavarna, the king, and his ministers, Uddipaka, Sandipaka, Anudipaka and Ciranjivi and a few other subjects were the only ones who escaped from there somehow. They sat in council at a place and thought of the ways and means to wreak vengeance on the owls. Uddipaka said that when the strength of the enemy was great it was advisable to move away to another place, or to seek the aid of mighty people or to surrender to the enemy. It was the nature of dogs to leave one's place and go to another place, Sandipaka said. Others also were of the same opinion. Ciranjivi alone did not express any opinion and so the king asked him why he was sitting silent.


Ciranjivi said:- "Oh King, we became enemies of the owls because of our bad tongue. I shall tell you the story of an ass which met with its death because of its bad words. Once a washerman had a donkey to carry his load of clothes to and ,fro. The poor washerman did not have sufficient earnings to feed the donkey well and so he let it loose to go and eat of its own accord to appease its hunger. The donkey started going to the fields of other people and eating their grains. People started hurting the donkey and so the washerman did a clever thing. He covered the donkey with the hide of a tiger and let it loose. People mistook it for a tiger and did not dare to go near and hurt it. Then one day a farmer keeping watch over the fields at night felt suspicious of the fake tiger and covering himself with a blanket and with a bow and arrow in his hand stealthily approached the donkey. The poor donkey mistook the farmer for a she-donkey and brayed and approached him with amorous movements of its body. The farmer knew from its voice that it was a donkey and so removed his disguise and stood before the donkey. The be-fooled donkey got angry and abused the farmer using very vulgar language. The farmer got angry and killed him with an arrow.


Cirafijivi continued:-Once upon a time a few birds joined together and decided to elect their leader. The owl was the bird selected to lead them. An aged crow condemned it. The crow said; "Are you making this ugly bird which is blind all day your leader? If only you make a worthy creature your leader you will be respected. I shall tell you a story to illustrate my point." He then narrated the following story:


Once upon a time there came a period of twelve continuous years without any rain at all on the earth. Wells, ponds, lakes and rivers were all empty. A huge herd of elephants walking in the forests represented to its leader the grave situation and the leader sent messengers to all sides to find out watering places with water. One of the messengers came back and reported that he had found out a beautiful lake full of water and that on its banks lived a number of hares. The elephants immediately went to that place and started enjoying swimming and bathing in the waters of the lake. Many rabbits on the bank of the lake died when trodden upon by the elephants. The aggrieved rabbits sat in a council to consider the steps to be taken to stop this deadly nuisance of the elephants. One of the hires, Vijaya by name, promised to handle the matter by himself. He knew it would be unwise to go anywhere near the elephants. So Vijaya climbed on to the top of a hill near the lake and when he saw the elephants coming to the lake as usual hailed them from the top of the hillock. When the elephants turned their heads to the place from where the sound came they saw a hare speaking to them. The hare bawled out thus: "We are all servants of Candra, the moon-god. This lake has been given to us by him. Candra Bhagavan has deputed me to verify a report which has reached him that some elephants are making the water of the lake muddy. He will surely be cross with you if you again enter the lake. So it is better for you to go away from this place." The elephants were frightened and they a1l left the place. Cirafijivi added that this happened to the elephants because of the lack of a wise and proper leader.


The aged Cirafijivi continued: "It is unwise to place confidence in small people. I had an experience. Near my abode on a tree there lived a bird called Kapifijala. We became friends. One day Kapifijala did not come home as usual. Taking advantage of it a rabbit came to Kapifijala's abode and started living there. I did not like it and I told the rabbit about it. But the rabbit did not mind it. After four or five days Kapifijala returned home and on finding a rabbit in his nest got angry and asked him to leave the place. The rabbit refused to go and an argument ensued. The rabbit said that lakes, rivers and trees were for all and did not belong to any particular individual. "He who is in possession of it is its owner," the rabbit argued. So they decided to take the case for arbitration and for that purpose approached a cat named Dadhikarna doing penance on the hanks of the river Yarnuna, I followed


them curious to know the decision of the ascetic cat. They did not see me. Both of them on approaching him started presenting their case before the cat. The cat pretended to be deaf andeasked both of them to come nearer and talk into his ears. They moved nearer and the cat caught hold of them both and ate them. Those poor beings lost their lives by placing too much confidence in the aged cat.. That is why I say that we should not select a small being like an owl as our leader.


On hearing the story of the crow the birds withdrew from their first decision of selecting an owl as their leader. The owl was offended and felt insulted and roared that his community would one day wreak vengeance on the crows. A wound made by an arrow would heal in due course and a tree would ;row even if its branches are cut but any wound on the pride of` an individual is never healed.


Cirafijivi continued:-"This is how the crows and owls became enemies. We have to fight the owls. It is impossible to serve mean people. I shall tell you a story of what would happen if one believes in mean people:Once a Brahmin decided to perform a Yaga to increase the prosperity of the land.


He wanted a goat for the same and some wicked young people knew that he was going to buy one. They worked out a plan to deceive the poor brahmin. They sat hiding at different paces on the way the brahmin was returning with the goat. As he came near the first of the wicked young men accosted the brahmin and asked him where he was taking the dog. The brahmin was surprised that the young man mistook his goat for dog and went his way. When he walked some distance more the second of the group came to him and put the same question. This time the brahmin was a bit perplexed that two people should have put the same question which he thought was absurd. When a third man put this question again he became worried and when this same question was repeated two more times the Brahmin got mad and left the goat on the road and went his way. The wicked youngsters took the goat cooked it and ate it.


After narrating several such stories and maxims Cirafijivi said he would lead the owls into a trap and come back. Cirafijivi then went to the owls and their friends on the top of Rsyasrnga.


Cirafijivi shaved his head and smearing the blood of the dead crows on his body went and sat alone on a branch of their former abode, the banyan tree. When night came the owls came and surrounded the tree. Cirafijivi made some pitiable groans and the owls took him before their king. The king questioned Cirafijivi and he said thus:-


"I am Cirafijivi the minister of Meghavarna. Once I praised your greatness before my king and he shaved my head and dismissed me from his service. "The king of the owls asked his ministers what should be done with Cirafijivi. The minister of the king of owls,Baka, immediately jumped from his seat and said


"Once a fox went to steal the cow of a brahmin. On his way he met a Brahmaraksasa and they became friends. The Brahmaraksasa was going to kill and eat the Brahmin. Both exchanged their ideas and when they reached the gate of the house of the brahmin the fox said he would go first and eat the goat. But the Brahnxaraksasa said he would enter first and eat the brahmin. The quarrel developed into a noisy one and hearing the sound outside the brahmin came out. The lox accused the Brahmaraksasa of having come to eat the brahmin while the Brahmaraksasa accused the fox of having come to eat the goat. The brahmin was glad that he escaped from a danger and pardoning them sent them both with presents. This is the benefit of a split among the enemies.


The king of the owls gave refuge to Ciranjivi and the latter expressing gratitude for the favour done took a vow that he would wreak vengeance on the crows after getting himself born as an owl in his next birth. At once the king said "Oh Ciranjivi, it is not wise to change one's clan. Once a kite picked up a girl rat and flew up. On the way the young rat slipped from the beak of the kite and fell down into the open palm of a sage doing his sandhyavandana. The sage by his yogic powers made it into a beautiful girl and presented her to his wife. The girl attained womanhood and the sage was anxious to get her married to a suitable person. He first approached the Sun and the Sun replied "You are in search of a powerful husband. Megha (cloud) is more powerful than myself since at any time it can cast a shadow over my brilliance. So go and ask Megha about this." The sage went to Megha and Megha said that wind which could carry him away at his will was more powerful than himself and so directed him to the wind. The sage approached the wind and it said that the mountain which could obstruct its path was more powerful and so the sage went to the mountain. The mountain said that the rat which could make holes in him was more powerful and so finally the sage went to the rat. The rat agreed to marry her but asked how it could keep her in the hole which was his abode. The sage said that it was easy and changed her into a rat. This is how a girl rat became a girl rat again. So do not change your clan, be a crow and live with me."


Ciranjivi from that day onwards started living with the owls. During day time when the owls slept, the old crow would fly hither and thither and collect such easily combustible materials as hay, dry grass and cotton and stock them beneath the tree covered with dry leaves. Two months went by like this and one day when the owls were sleeping Ciranjivi set fire to the stock of dry materials beneath the tree. The owls were all burnt to death. Meghavarna and his friends congratulated. CiranjIvi on his success. Ciranjivi said: To obtain difficult positions great men pass through difficult situations. If one is prepared to suffer hardships any object can be achieved. Once a cobra began to starve for want of food. It went to the land of frogs and told the king of frogs thus: "Friend, I am in difficulties. I happened to bite a brahmin boy and that boy died. The boy's father cursed me. I asked for forgiveness and then he said:-"You must carry your enemies, the frogs, on your back from one pond to another pond and live on the food they give you." The king of the frogs believed him and allowed his subjects to be carried away to another pond from the one in which they were then staying. The cobra ate all the frogs on the way and at last the king also was eaten. Thus to destroy the enemies one will have to carry them on one's backs sometimes. The crows were happy their enemies the owls were destroyed and


they lived more happily and peacefu1ly than before. 4) Labdhandsa.. (Losing what you got). Once a monkey named Balimukha separated himself from his group and came to a fig tree on the banks of a river. When he jumped from branch to branch on the tree a great many ripe figs fell into the river. Seeing this a crocodile named S`imsumdra came to the foot of the tree and started eating the fruits. This went on for a few days and then the crocodile and the monkey became good friends. One day the crocodile sat chatting with the monkey and eating fruits and did not go home. The wife of the crocodile got worried on not seeing her husband back at home and sent a maid of hers to go and enquire what happened to her husband. The maid came and reported that the crocodile was spending his time with a she-monkey. The wife of the crocodile was very sad and angry to hear this and she sent word through her maid that she was seriously ill and if he wanted to see her alive he must return to her immediately. The crocodile returned home immediately and he called a doctor to examine her. The doctor who had been previously bribed by the crocodile's wife said that she should be given the heart of a monkey if she were to be saved from her present ailment. The crocodile was in a fix. He weighed in his mind the lives of his wife and friend and then decided to take the life of his friend to save the life of his wife. The crocodile went to its place near the fig tree as usual and the monkey made enquiries about his family. Then Sifsumara said that his wife wanted to see the monkey-friend and had asked him to take him home that day. The monkey believed the story and started for the house of Simgumara on its back. When they reached half way in the river girhsumara told Balimukha thus : "My wife is seriously ill. The doctor has prescribed the heart of a monkey as the only medicine for it." The monkey went pale-white with fright but instantly he hit upon a plan. Balimukha said "Siriisumara, what a fool you are. Why did you not tell me this at least at the time of our departure ? I kept my heart on the tree before starting, for I never knew you were in need of it. Let us go back and take it." The poor crocodile believed the story and went back with the monkey to the fig tree. As soon as they reached the shore the monkey jumped from the back of the crocodile and ran to the tree. The crocodile asked the monkey to bring his heart soon but the monkey laughed from the top of the fig tree and said thus:-"Dull-witted crocodile, I am not an ass like you. Have you not heard the story of the foolish ass?" The monkey then narrated the story of the ass thus :"Once a lion calling his minister, the fox, to his side said that he wanted to eat the flesh of an ass as a remedy for the stomach trouble he was having by drinking too much of elephant's blood. The minister started in search of an ass and found one in the house of a washerman. The fox said that he was surprised that the ass was doing~such heavy work daily with a washerman when a happy life in the palace of the lion was easily available. The ass was tempted and it went to the den of the lion. When it reached there it got frightened and taking the opportunity of the absence of the lion for his evening worship left the place in a hurry. The lion sent the fox again to fetch the ass. The fox came and laughed at the timidity of the ass. He said that the lion was of a loving nature and last time when it approached the ass to embrace him out of affection he ran away like a fool. The lion knew that the asses were as a class good musicians and the lion himself a great lover of music was anxious to hear the ass sing. The poor ass believed the story and went to the lion along with the fox When the ass reached the lion's den the lion was waiting for him and the ass in all simplicity bowed before the lion. The lion with ogre stroke killed the poor beast and leaving the carcass to the care of the fox went for his Sandhyavandana. When the lion returned the fox had already eaten the heart of the ass. The King of the beasts not finding the heart in its place questioned the fox and the fox replied that the asses do not possess either a heart or neck


When the monkey concluded his story by adding that never again would he be trapped like this, 8irirsumara, the crocodile, went its way. Labdhanasa is the act of losing what came into your possession once.


5) Asampreksyakarita. This is a tale which explains the danger behind doing things adventurously without properly studying the pros and cons of an issue.


Once upon a time there lived in Gaudadesa a brahmin named Devasarma. His wife Yajnasena became pregnant. The father started saying that the son to be born would be a very fortunate boy. One' day the wife of the brahmin told him thus :- "It is not good to build castes in the air. Once a brahmacari walked home carrying the fried grain he got as his daksina in a pot on his head. He started thinking thus"i will sell this fried grain and with the money will buy, a lamb. The lamb will grow and give birth to two kids. I will then sell the goat and the kids arid buy a cow. The cow will give birth to calves in a short time. I will buy some land to raise paddy. After selling the paddy I will renovate my old house and then I will marry. She will deliver a beautiful son. I will name the child Somasarma. At times leaving the child alone my wife will go to milk the cow and then I will hit her like this." So saying the brahmacari hit with his stick the mud pot on his head containing the fried grain. The pot broke and the whole thing inside fell on the road.


Devasarma on hearing the story of Yajnasena became pensive. After five or six days Yajnasena delivered a son. Days went by and one morning Yajnasena went for her bath in the river nearby entrusting the child to the care of her husband. Some moments later a messenger came from the palace asking him to go over there: The brahmin was in a fix. There was nobody around to whose care he could leave the child. He had a mongoose. The brahmin asked the mongoose to look after the child and went to the palace. Some time later a big cobra came creeping towards the child. The mongoose jumped at it and killed it. The mongoose was smeared with blood after that. The brahmin returned hurriedly from the palace only to see the blood-smeared mongoose waiting at the doorstep. Thinking that the mongoose must have killed his son the brahmin thrashed the poor mongoose to death. But on entering the room the brahmin found out his mistake, for there near the child was the dead body of a deadly cobra. The brahmin regretted his foolish act of doing a deed before knowing things well, when. Yaifiasena came back after her bath and was


greatly disturbed by the foolish deed of her husband, She said :-"Once there was in a place a very poor brahmin boy. He was an orphan with nobody to help him and he suffored from hunger daily. One night the boy had a dream. He was told that at midday next day three beggars would come to his place and if he slew them they would turn themselves into treasure jars and that the boy could become rich by using the wealth so received. Next day the Brahmin boy was having his head shaved when as predicted in the dream three beggars entered his house. The brahmin boy ran away from the barber and taking a stick thrashed the three to death. All the three turned into treasure jars. The barber was astonished. The brahmin boy gave the barber a sovereign taken from the jar as his wages. The barber thought that beggars would turn themselves into treasure jars if they were thrashed to death. So he waited daily in his house for beggars to enter his house. One day after a long waiting three beggars entered his house and the barber with a hard stick which he had kept ready started thrashing the beggars. The beggars shrieked and shouted and ran away abusing the barber. Servants of the King came on hearing this and took the barber away and by the command of the King killed him nailing him on to a spike. Yaj>zasena concluded by saying that even death would be the result if one does anything without properly understanding things,


PANCATIRTHA. A holy place. There is a pond at this place. Once a nymph called Varga with her four companions lived in this pond as crocodiles as a result of a curse. Arjuna came to that pond and rescued them from their curse. From that day onwards the pond came to be known as Pancatirtha or Saubhadrakatirtha (For details see under Varga and Saubhadraka tirtha).


PANCAVAKTRA. A soldier who fought bravely against the asuras on the side of Subrahmanya.


PANCAVATT. The sacred place where Sri Rama built an Wrama and lived for some time with Sita and Laksmana during their exile in the forests. There is a story about Pancavati in the Kamba Ramayana.


Pafrcavati is on the southern bank of the Godavari. Five Vatavrksas (banyan trees) stand here in a circle and therefore, the place got the name Pancavati. There is a legend about these banyan trees. Once five Gandharva youths encircled the sage Agastya in the forest as a sport and prevented him from moving towards any direction. The enraged sage cursed them to stand in the same position as banyan trees. Thus by obstructing the movements of a divine man they were forced to remain without movement as trees. Before they took the form of trees they begged the sage for deliverance from the curse. Agastya said, "One day Sri Rama with his wife and brother will come and stay in an asrama built in your midst. Their holy presence will give you salvation from my curse."


Sri Rama and Laksmana when they came to that forest decided to build an asrama in the centre of the circle formed by the five banyan trees. Laksmana started to build the hermitage. At first he cut down one of the trees standing tall and straight and to the surprise and astonishment of all the fallen trunk of the tree disappeared and there in its place lay the dead body of a demon youth. It was the body of 8ambhukumara, son of 8urpanakha. He was doing penance there when Sri Rama came there with Sita and becoming lustful at the sight of Sita he stood there as a tree. It was he who was cut down by Laksmana.


Sri Rama understood the thing that happened. He then explained to Sita and Laksmana many things about the frauds and deceits of the demons. After that they built their hermitage there and dwelt there for a long time. (Aranya Kanda, Kamba Ramayana).


PANCAVIRA. A Sanatana Visvadeva (one of the ten deities supposed to be the sons of Viva) . (Chapter 91, Anusasana Parva).


PANCAYAJNA. A sacred place of Bharata. He who visits this place would get moksa. (Chapter 84, Vana Parva).


PANCAYATANA. An idol of Siva in Kasi. This idol is called Orhkara also. Bhagavan Paramesvara who gives moksa to men dwells in this idol in the form of Pancayatana. The five souls of Siva are the five ayatanas. They are Santi (tranquillity), Atitasanti (passed beyond tranquillity), Paraparavidya (Greater and smaller knowledge), Pratistha (celebrity) and Nivrtti (Recession). Because these five ayatanas dwell in the idol of Siva at Kasi it got the name Pancayatana. (Chapter 34, Padma Purana).


PANDA. One of the sons born to Kanva of his wife Aryavati. He married Sarasvatiputri and begot seventeen sons. They all became in the future originators of races. (Pratisargasarhhita, Bhavisya Purana).


PANDARA. A serpent born of the race of Airavata. This serpent was burnt to death at the sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 11, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).




1) Origin. Santanu, a celebrated King of Candravarfiia (lunar dynasty) had two wives, Gariga and Satyavati. Bhisma was the son of Gafrga. After the birth of Bhisma Gariga his mother went to heaven. After that Santanu married Satyavati, mother of Vyasa. Satyavati got two sons, Citrangada and Vicitravirya. Even while a bachelor, Citrarigada was killed by a Gandharva of the same name. So Vicitravlirya became King on Santanu's death. Bhisma forcibly brought the three daughters of the King of K59I named Amba, Ambika and Ambalika for Vicitravirya to marry. But knowing that Amba was in love with the Kipg of Salva, Bhisma let her off on the way. Ambika and Ambalika became the wives of Vicitravirya. But for a long time they had no sons.


At that time Satyavati, mother of Vicitravirya, sent for Vyasa her eldest son and asked him to beget sons of Ambika and Ambalika. Ambika got Dhrtarastra of Vyasa and Ambalika, Pandu, father of the Pandavas. Dhrtarastra was born blind and he married Gandhari. Pandu was born pale-white in colour and he married Kunti mother of the Pandavas.


Kunti was the sister of Vasudeva, father of Sri Kr sna. The real name of Kunti was Prtha. Surasena, King of the Yadavas, was the father of Kunti and Vasudeva. Because Kuntibhoja son of Surasena's sister, had no issues Kunti was sent to the palace of Kuntibhoja and she grew up there. Prtha got the name of Kunti because of that. Besides Kunti, Pandu had another wife named Madr!,


While she was living in the palace of Kuntibhoja the sage Durvasas came and stayed in the palace as the king's guest. Kunti was a little girl then and yet she served the sage with such care, patience and devotion that the sage was greatly pleased with her and gave her a divine mantra. He said : "If you call upon any god repeating this mantra he will manifest himself to you and bless you with a son equal to him in glory and valour. You can use this only five times." The impatient curiosity of youth made Kunti give a test to the power of the mantra and though unmarried she invoked the Sun. The Sun immediately presented himself before her and by his grace she conceived and got a son whom she secretly set afloat in a river. A childless charioteer named Adhiratha happened to see the child and he took it home and brought it up. When he grew up he was sent to Hastinapura and the sons of Dhrtarastra took him in their service. He was Karna, the celebrated warrior of the Kauravas. Kunti married Pandu after the birth of Karna.


Dhrtarastra got of Gandhari a hundred sons and a daughter named Dussala. The children of Dhrtarastra were known as Kauravas or Dhartarastras. Pandu had a curse that he would die the moment he entered into sexual sport with his wives. (See under Kindama ). So under instructions from her husband Kunti invoked Dharma, Vayu and Indra and got the sons Yudhisthira, Bhimasena and Arjuna. She gave the remaining one chance to Madri and Madri invoked the two Asvinidevas, Nasatya and Dasra and got two sons named. Nakula and Sahadeva. All these five were accepted as the sons of Pan du and so they got the name of Pandavas. (Upto Chapter 123, Adi Parva).


2) Life in Hastinapura and the lac ,balace incident. After the birth of the Pandavas, Pandu with his wife and children spent a very long time in the forest of Satasrnga. Kasyapa, the royal priest of Vasudeva, performed the Upanayana (investiture with the sacred thread) and such other religious ceremonies ordained for boyhood. They were educated under the sage Suka. One day in the Spring season Pandu's resolution broke down under the exhilarating influence of the season and he caught hold of Madri and embraced her despite earnest and repeated protests from Madri. At once the curse of the sage took effect and Pandu fell dead. It was the custom then that the wife should end her life irk the funeral pyre of her husband and so Kunti and Madri came forward to do so. But Madri said that one of them should live to take care of the children and so entrusting her children also to the care of Kunti, Madri jumped into the funeral pyre and ended her life. The sages of the Satasrnga forest took the children and Kunt! to Hastinapura and handing them over to the charge of Dhrtarastra came back.


The Pandavas grew up in Hastinapura along with the Kauravas. But there was no real affection or intimacy between them. The naturally strong Bhima found it a sport to tease and torment the Kauravas whenever he


got an opportunity. Gradually as the teasings of Bhima became unbearable a wicked thought of somehow putting an end to Bhima's life found place in the minds of the Kauravas. They once poisoned Bhima and binding him tight with ropes threw him into the ocean. But Bhima went to the world of the Nagas and came back unscathed with added siddhis (acquired power). This annoyed the Kauravas.


It was at this time that Drona a renowned preceptor in archery, came to Hastinapura. Bhisma enrolled the Pandavas and the Kauravas as disciples of Drona. Arjuna became an extraordinarily brilliant bow-man. This came off as another reason for the Kauravas to drift away from the Pandavas. After the end of their course of education a contest was held in which Arjuna ranked first. The time came for Gurudaksin (fees paid in bulk at the end of the studies to a preceptor). Drona asked his disciples to bring king Drupada bound hand and foot before him. The Kauravas failed in that mission and the Pandavas under the leadership of Arjuna fulfilled the demand of their Guru.


When the training and Gurudaksina were over, Dhrtarastra crowned Yudhisthira as the heir-apparent and this increased the power and status of the Pandavas in Hastinapura. The jealousy of Duryodhana knew no bounds when he found the Pandavas in the pinnacle of power and popularity. He decided to kill there. He therefore, built a new palace in a place called Varanavata and with the permission of Dhrtarastra made them change their residence to the new building. The new building was cunningly built of lac and other combustible material. The wise and intelligent Vidura knew this deceit beforehand and so he had warned the Pandavas of the danger through a messenger named Khanaka. The Pandavas had, therefore, made ready a secret passage by underground to escape from the building when an emergency arose. The passage was to lead them from the palace to the forest nearby. One night Purocana, a minister of Duryodhana, came stealthily and set fire to the palace. The Pandavas with their mother Kund escaped from the palace to the forest nearby. That night a huntress and her five sons were sleeping in a part of the building and they were burnt to death. They were all sleeping fully drunk and so could not escape from the building. Purocana also was burnt to death. Thus the Pandavas had to go away from Hastinapura for a brief period.


3) The Exile and its end. The Kauravas thought that Pandavas died in the fire and in that belief conducted the funeral rites of their brothers. The Pandavas after their escape from the fire walked a long distance through the forests and came to the banks of the river Gafrga. On their way a demon named Hidimba attacked them and Bhima killed him but at the request of Dharmaputra married his sister Hidimbi. After .that while they were continuing their journey crossing the river a Gandharva of name Citraratha attacked them. Citraratha was defeated in a battle and he later became friendly with the Pandavas. He gave them many valuable presents and also narrated to them the story of Tapatisarirvarana. Then they went and stayed in the house of a brahmin in the village of Ekacakra. It was at that time that the Svayarhvara of Paficali was held. The Pandavas went for the Svayarhvara and married Pancali. The news then spread that Pandavas were not dead but still alive. Dhrtardstra then sent for them and the Pandavas returned to their palace in Hastinapura. Yudhisthira was crowned as King of half of the country and he built his palace in a place known as Khandavaprastha. The palace was designed and built by a demon named Maya with beautiful Crystals and costly diamonds.


When the Pandavas were living there Narada went to them once. He suggested that Paficali should remain as wife to the Pandavas in turn, one year each to one of them. They accepted the suggestion and started living like that. Yudhisthira married Devika, daughter of king Sibi, also. (Sloka 70, Chapter 95, Adi Parva ). Bhimasena and Arjuna with the help of Sri Krsna slew Jarasandha. After that they conducted a victory march over the country and established their overlordship by conducting successfully a Rajasuya yajna. Duryodhana and his brothers once visited Indraprastha, the palace of the Pandavas. They were fooled at the palace and this enraged them. Duryodhana invited Dharmaputra for a game of dice and the latter lost everything. Yet Dhrtarastra gave them back everything and sent them to Indraprastha again. Before Dharmaputra reached the palace Duryodhana once again challenged him for a game of dice. Despite protests from all sides Dharmaputra went and played and lost again everything. To fulfil the conditions of the game Yudhisthira went to the forests with his brothers acrd wife to spend twelve years in exile and a year incognito. At that time Kunti lived with Vidura.


It was during this period of exile that the Pandavas got the Aksayapatra (never-empty pot) from the Sun. They dwelt first in Dvaitavana and then in Kamyakavana. Then they went to the mountain of Gandhamadana and from there to Badarikasrama. From there they came back again to Kamyakavana and while they were living there Duryodhana and his men went to that forest to see the sufferings of the Pandavas and gloat on their sad plight. But Citrasena, a bandharva, captured Duryodhana and Arjuna got him released. Duryodhana sent Durvasas to tease Dharmaputra but the sage was sent back after being received duly and well-attended to earn his blessings. During their stay in that forest Jayadratha kidnapped Paficali but the Pandavas rescued her immediately. They went from there again to Dvaitavana. Dharmadeva tested them once while they were there. The twelve years of exile came to an end and as per directions from Dharmadeva they spent their incognito period of one year in the court of the King of Virata. After the end of their incognito life the King of Virata gave in marriage his daughter Uttara to Abhimanyu son of Arjuna.


Even after the return of the Pandavas from the forests after successfully fulfilling the conditions of the game, Duryodhana showed obstinate reluctance to part with even five pin-points of land in favour of the Pandavas. A peace mission of Sri Krsna from the Pandavas to avoid a war and settle matters amicably to Dhrtarastra failed and the stage was set for a grea battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas.


4) Ascension to Heaven. A great and . grim battle was fought at Kuruksetra between the Pandavas and the Kauravas lasting for eighteen days. Sri Krsna neither fought nor took arms even once against the Kauravas but acted as the charioteer of Arjuna. When the war came to an end the Kauravas were completely annihilated.


Yudhisthira became King. He performed an Asvamedha Yaga. After a few years of reign the Pandavas crowned Pariksit, son of Abhimanyu, as the King and started for their Mahaprasthana (departing this life). They walked in a line in the order of their age, Dharmaputra leading and Paficali following last. At first Paficali fell dead, but nobody turned back. Then Sahadeva fell and nobody worried. This continued thus till Dharmaputra was left alone. A dog which followed them from their very start also remained alive with Dharmaputra. The dog was none other than Dharmadeva, father of Dharmaputra. When Dharma,putra reached the top of the Himalayas I ndra was there ready with the divine car to take him to heaven. But Dharmaputra said that he would not come to heaven leaving his brothers and wife elsewhere. Then Indra informed him that they were already in heaven and so Dharmaputra went to heaven with Indra. (Only a general and succinct history of the Pandavas is given under this head. For details see under the heads of each of the Pandavas as well as Paficali, Kunti, Bhisma and Vyasa).


RIANDAVAPRAVE~ADARVA. A sub-divisional Parva of Virata Parva. This includes chapters two to eighteen of Virata Parva.


PANDITAKA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtaraslra. He was killed in the great battle by Bhimasena.

(Chapter 88, Bhisma Parva).


PANDU I. Father of the Pandavas.


1) Genealogy. Refer to the genealogy of Arjuna..


2) Birth. Santanu, a King of Candravarhsa, had two wives, Gaiiga and Satyavati. Even while Satyavati was a maiden she got of the sage Paragara a son named Vyasa. But because of the blessing of the sage Satyavati did not lose her maidenhood. She got of Santanu two sons, Citrangada and Vicitravirya. Citrangada died young. Vicitravirya married the two daughters; Ambika and Ambalika,'of the King of Kasi. Vicitravirya died before any progeny was born to him. To save the dynasty from extinction Satyavati asked her first son Vyasa to beget children of Ambika and Ambalika. Accordingly Dhrtarastra was born to Ambika of Vyasa and Pandu to Ambalika. (Chapters 63 and 105, Adi Parva)


3) How Pdndu got his name. Vyasa came to Hastinapura by the command of his mother to beget sons of Ambika and Ambalika. Vyasa was an ugly sage with matted hair and he was dressed in garments of deerskin. Satyavati that night called Ambika to her side and in secret commanded her to go and lie with Vyasa. She was reluctant to have a sexual union with that old and ugly sage. Yet obeying the orders of her mother-in=lave she did so shutting her eyes during the whole period. The result was she got a child born blind who became known. later as Dhrtarastra. The next day Satyavati ordered Ambalika to go and lie with Vyasa. Ambalika ,on entering the bed chamber went pale on seeing the ugly Vyasa and the result was she got a child that was pale white in colour. That child became known as Pandu. The third day Satyavati asked her servant-maid to go and lie with Vyasa; She did it with pleasure and she remained happy and cheerful during the whole period. The result was she got a beautiful child who became an intelligent scholar of great wisdom. He was known later as Viduia. (Chapters 1, 63, and 105, Adi Parva).


4) Boyhood and kingship. Bhisma took care of Dhrtarastra, Pandu and Vidura as his own sons. Bhisma taught them all the Vedas including Dhanurveda, and


all warfare like mace-fight. They were trained in the use of elephants also. Bhisma taught them law and acquainted them with all the Itihasas and Puranas. Pdndu became second to none in archery. The people were all happy. When :he boyhood was over Pandu was crowned as Yuvaraja. Pandu was the most eligible of the three to kecome King, for Dhrtarastra was a born blind man and Vidura was the son of a servantmaid. (Chapter IOS, Adi Parva).


5) Married life. Obeying the behest of Bhisma, Pandu married Prtha, daughter of the Yadava King 8urasena. She was tlae sister of Vasudeva, father of Krsna. She got the name Kunti because she grew up in the palace of King Kuntibhoja. While Kunti was staving in the palace of Kuntibhoja Durvasas came and stayed in the the palace as a guest of the King. Kunti then served the sage with such devotion and patience that Durvasas at the time of his departure gave Kunti a divine mantra for begetting children. The mantra was to be used only five times. If she called upon any god repeating that mantra, that god would manifest himself before her anc bless her with a son equal to him in glory, Out of impatient curiosity of youth Kunti tried it before getting married. One morning, seeing the beautiful and brilliant sun in the sky she invoked him by the mantra and instantly the Sun stood in all bewitching brilliance before her and she got of him a son who was known as Karna later. Unmarried as she was, Kunt i sent the child afloat in the river nearby.


Even after a child-birth Kunti remained a virgin by the blessing of the Sun and so got married as a virgin. Many Kings were present for the Svayamvara of Kunti and she put the wedding garland round the neck of Pandu.


Once *Bhisma went to the country of Madra. The King of Madra received Bhisma with respect and Bhisma took Madri daughter of Madra as a bride for Pandu. He brought her to Hastinapura and married her to Pandu. Pandu lived with his two wives happily and ruled the country well. Once Pandu attacked Dasarna with a huge army and defeated him. Later he defeated Dirgha, King of Magadha. Then he conducted a victory march capturing many kingdoms like Kasi, Mithila, Suhma and Pundra. Thus many of the Kings of Uttara Bharata became feudatory princes of Pandu. In consultation with his brother Dhrtarastra, Pandu gave all the wealth he got by his might to Satyavati and Bhisma. He gave enough riches to Vidura also. Then Pandu went and stayed with his wives .in a forest to the south of the Himalayas. (Chapters 110 to 1,14, Adi Parva).


6) Curse of a sage. While Pandu was once walking with his wives in the forest he saw a couple of deer playfully running about and the hunting nature in him made him send an arrow against one of them. The deer was none other than the sage Kindama who in the guise of a deer was having sport with his mate. While falling dead Kindama cursed Pandu thus "Oh wretched King, you will fall dead the moment you touch your wife in amorous sport." From that day onwards Pandu could not touch his wives. (For details see under Kindama).


7) Sannydsa and death. With the death of the innocent sage' Kindama there occurred a great change in the life of Pandu. At first he thought of committing suicide.


But he changed that decision and started for the Himalayas to perform penance there. Kunti and Madri accompanied him. They gave away all their jewels and ornaments as gifts to brahmins. People followed them to the border of the forests and returned to the country weeping. Pdndu and his wives visited such holy places as Nagagatddri, Caitraratha, Kalakuta, Himalayas, Gandhamadana and the lake Indraclyumna. Then they went to Satasriiga and started performing penance. Once Pandu and wives along with a few sages went to Brahmaloka to attend a Yaga there. The long travel toiled them much and on the way Pandu wept thinking of his pitiable state of having no issue. Then Pandu told them of his helplessness in the matter because of the curse of the sage Kindama hanging over him. Then Kunti confided in him the secret of the divine mantras in her possession. Pandu was extremely pleased and with his permission Kund got three sons, Yudhisthira, Bhimasena and Arjuna. She gave one chance to Madri and she got two sons out of it named Nakula and Sahadeva.


Pandu was living happily with his children in Satasrnga when spring time arrived in the forest with all its blossoming brilliance and fragrance conducive to amorous thoughts in all living beings. Pandu one day walked alone with Madri enjoying the sight of the flowering plants and trees. Bees and Beetles hummed around the flowers and on the branches sat the Cuckoos singing. There was a seductive fragrance all around and Pan du was excited beyond controllable limits. Pandu's resolution broke down under the exhilarating influence of the season and despite repeated protests from Madri, Pandu caught hold of her and embraced her. The curse of the sage took effect instantaneously and Pandu fell down dead.


The inhabitants of Satasrnga assembled there weeping. In the presence of a huge crowd including the relatives who had come down from Hastinapura the dead body of Pandu was cremated according to religious rites. Both the wives came forward to end their lives in the funeral pyre of Pandu. But Kunti was asked to remain to take care of the children and Madri leaving her children to the care of Kunti jumped into the funeral pyre and ended her life. It was the sage Kasyapa who performed the funeral rites of Pandu.' ( Chapters 115 to 126, Adi Parva).


8) After the demise. Pandu's soul is shining in the court of Yama. (Sloka 25, Chapter 7, Sabha Parva ). Pandu sent a message to Yudhisthira from Devaloka that Yudhisthira should conduct a Rd jasuya Yajna. The message was carried by , Ndrada. (Sloka 24, Chapter 12,' Sabha Parva ). He lives in Indraloka with Madri and Kunti. (Sloka 15, Chapter 5, Svargdrohana Parva).


9) Synonvms of Pardu. Pan du is known under the following names. Bharata, Bharatarsabha, Bharatasattama, Kaurava, Kauravanandina, Kauravarsabha, Kauravya, Kauravyadayada, Kausalyanandavardhana, Kurudvaha, Kurukulodvaha, Kurunandana, Kurupati, Kurupi-avira, Nagapuradhipa and Nagapurasiritha.


PANDU 11. The second son of, Janamejaya. (Chapter 94,*Adi Parva).


PANDURA. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 73, Chapter 45, Salya Parva ).


PANDURASTRA. A place of habitation in ancient Bharata. (9loka 44, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


PAN DYA. I. A King of Vidarbha who was a great devotee of ~iva. One day while he was performing Sivapuja at dusk he heard a loud noise outside the city and before completing the worship he went out and faced the enemies who were attempting to enter the city and killed its leader. He returned after the fight and without completing the worship took his meals. It was a sin to do so and the King was therefore born in his next birth as Satyaratha, a King, and was killed by his enemies. (gatarudrasarimhita, Siva Purana).


PANDYA. II. (A Tamilian dynasty of Kings.) A place of Puranic fame in Daksina Bharata. The three states Cera, Cola and Pandya were from early times renowned states of Daksina Bharata. Historically and Puranically Pandya was a state of eminence.


(A.) llistorically. The Pandya dynasty of Kings is very ancient, The exact period of its beginning is still unknown. Megasthanes who lived in the fourth century B.C. has made mention of the Pandya dynasty in his diary. Julian, an emperor of Italy, who lived in 361 A.D. is stated to have received vis tors from Pandya -d6sa. The Pandya dynasty was revived and- elevated under the leadership of Katunka in the 7th century A.D. From that time till the 16th century Madura was the capital of Pandyadesa. The Uccangi dynasty which was ruling the places to the south of Tungabhadra during the period from 9th century to 13th century A.D. is believed to be a part of the PandyaVamsa which had gone from Madura. A continuous history of the Pandya line of Kings is not available. Many Kings bear names like Jatavarma or Maravarma. The Pandya Kings were devotees of Siva even from the, period of - the Jainas. At times they have ruled over the combined kingdoms of Cera and Cola. During the period from the 12th to the 14th century A.D. Pandya was ruled by five of the most valiant rulers and at that time the Pandyadesa included all the places in south India up to Nellore. But the power of the Pandyas waned when the power of the Sultans who ruled Delhi spread to the south. After 1370 A.D only on rare occasions has the power of the Pandyas spread to , the north of river Kaveri. In 1312 A.D. Kerala got herself free from the hold of the Tamilian Kings. (Pandyarajya).


(B) Purdric fame. The statements fbund in Mahabharata about Pandyadesa are given below :-


(i) Sri Krsna once slew a Pandya King who was the father of Malayadhvaja. Malayadhvaja who was a very valiant archer started for Dvaraka to loll Krsna to avenge the death of his father. Friends dissuaded him from his attempt and so he dropped the idea. During the time of Mahabharata Malayadhvaja was the King of Pandya. (Chapter 23, Drona Parva ).


(ii) Malayadhvaja, King o Pandya, was a visitor to the court of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 24, 4, Sabha Parva).


. (iii) The King of Pandya presented gifts at the Rajasflya of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 35, Chapter 52, Sabha Parva).


(iv) In the Kuruksetra battle the Pandya King fought on the side of the Pandavas with a large army.


($loka 9, Chapter 19, Udyoga Parva).


(v) On the chariot of the Pandya King flags bearing frequent Chapter the insignia of ocean flew. The Pandya King wounded Drona. (Sloka 72, Chapter 23, Drona Parva ). (vi) The King of Pandya fought against Vrsasena and Asvatthama. (Sloka 46, Chapter 20, Karna Parva).


PANI (S ). A tribe which opposed the Aryans during the time of Rgveda. Yaska's Nirukta states that their profession was trade and commerce.


PAKHATA A holy place on the border of Kuruksetra. If one bathes in the sacred pond there and performs worship of the Manes one will get the benefit of conducting the three yajfias, Agnistoma, Atiratra and Rajasuya. (Sloka 89, Chapter 13, Vana Parva).


PANIKURCCA. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 76, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


PANIMAN. A serpent. hThis serpent is a member of the court of Varuna. (JIOka 10, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva).


PANINI. The author of the Sanskrit Grammar, Panin1ya.


1) General information. There is nowhere else in this world a grammar so scientific and so complete as Paniniya. The book contains about four thousand aphorisms. Panim was an inspired sage and he got his knowledge from Siva. It has not been possible to gather much information about the life of such a celebrated grammarian. Patafijali believes that he was the son of Daksi. He addresses Panini as Acarya, Bhagavan and Maharsi. The Chinese traveller Huen Tsang says that the grammar of all the languages in this world has its origin from Paniniya. Ramabhadradiksita says that Panini was the son of the sage Pani.


2) Life period. There is difference of opinion regarding the period during which Panini lived.Dr. Goldstucker and Bhandarkar believe that Panini lived before 500 B.C. while Vincent Smith and helvelkar fix the period in 700 B.C. Patafijali, the author of the celebrated °Mahabhasya' (commentary on Paniniya) lived in 200 B. C. Patafijali has contradicted many of the unjust criticisms made by Katyayana about Paniniya. So Panini must have lived before Katyayana. Panini has made no reference to Buddha and so he must have lived before Buddha. Panini has shown great grasp over the laws of Smrti and so he must have lived after Manu. Considering all these facts together it will be proper to fix the period of the end of the sixth century or the beginning of the seventh century B.C.


3) Place of birth. Evidences are lacking to correctly fix the birth-place of Panini. Many andits believe that Panini was born in the village of 4latura in the city of Attock in the state of Gandhara. But Panini has spent the major portion of his life in Pataliputra. So some pandits are of opinion that only the ancestors of Panini belonged to the village of Salatura and Panini was born and brought up in Pataliputra. Jaimini and Bhartrhari have stated that Panini was a gista. Sistas were Brahmins well-versed in the Sastras and devoid of earthly pleasures who inhabited the area surrounded by the Himalayas in the north, Kalakavana (Bengal) in the east, Vindhya mountains in the south and the Adarsa (Aravalli mountains) in the west.


4) A legend. There was a preceptor named Varsa in Pataliputra and Panini had his education under him. Varsa gradually acquired a large number of disciples and Panini was the most dull-witted among them. But he was greatly devoted to his Guru and this pleased


the wife of the Guru and she took great interest in Panini. One day she called Panini to her side and advised him to go to the Himalayas and do penance to propitiate Siva to get knowledge from him. Panini obeying instructions went and performed penance. Siva was pleased and he 'aranted him knowledge about a new grammar. By the time Panini came back from the Himalayas with his grammar another disciple of Varsa, Vararuci by name, had come down with a grammar from Indra. Panini challenged Vararuci for a polemical contest. It took eight days and on the eighth day Vararuci defeated Panini. At once there was a great humming sound from the sky and the grammar book of Vararuci was destroyed. After that Panini defeated all his co-disciples in polemics and emerged as the greatest grammarian of the world. (Kathapithalambaka, Kathasaritsagara, Taranga 4).


5) The birth of Paniniya. When Panini was doing penance to propitiate Siva the latter appeared before him and started dancing. He sounded his musical instrument dhakka (a large double drum) fourteen times. Each of it produced a different sound as follows (1) Aiun (2) Rlk (3) Eon (4) Aiauc (5) Hayavarat (6) Ian (7) fiamafiananam (8) .Jhabhan (9) Ghadhadhas ( 10) Jabagadadas (11) Khaphachathathacatatav (12) Kapay (13)'Sasasar (14) Hal. Panini accepted these fourteen sounds as fourteen sutras (aphorisms). They are called Pratyaharasutras. (The comprehension of several letters or affixes into one syllable effected by combining the first letter of a Sutra with its final indicatory letter.) These Sutras are now known as Mahesvarasutras.


Panini's grammar contains eight chapters and each chapter has got four padas and each pada contains many sutras. He has taken examples from worldly and spiritual texts in literature. He has dealt with the origin of sounds, connection between two words and all such etymological details. Panini's grammar is not a mere grammar book. It is a science of language in itself.


PANITAKA. _ One of the two parsadas presented to Subrahmartya by a deva named Pusa. The name of the other parsada was Kalika. (Sloka 43, Chapter 45, Salya Parva)


PAPASODHANA. A sacred place of Bharata. Indradatta, King of Cedi, once constructed a temple near this place. (Taranga 8, Kathasaritsagara).


PARA I. An ancient King of Bharata. (Sloka 234, Chapter 1, Adi Parva).


PARA II. A Brahmavadi son of Visvamitra. (Sloka55, Chapter 4, AnuSdsana Parva).


PARA. Another name for Kaugiki river. (Sloka 32, Chapter 71, Adi Parva).


PARABRAHMAN: The Supreme Spirit.


1) General information. Brahman is the root cause of this universe. From Brahman originated Akasa (sky). From sky came air, from air came Agni and from Agni carne water and from water was born this earth. (Chapter 377, Agni Purana).


2) General characteristics. Brahman is such that he who says he knows it does not know it and he who says he does not know it, knows it. It is beyond the experiences of time and space. The chief attributes of Brahman are Sat, Cit and Ananda. Sat means existence, the really existent truth. The one and undivided existence. There are pandits who say that it was undivided, Nastitva (nonexistence) that was at the beginning of the Universe. Since nothing can be born from `nothing' the world should have started from astitva (existence). Theie is a, saying in Rgveda explaining the position thus :-"There was neither Astitva nor Nastitva (existence or non-existence) at thebeginning." It is a matter to ponder how strongly conscious was the Rsi who made the above statement about the Parabrahman's Nirguuatva (devoid of attributes) and how clearly he tries to make it understandable to those who have not experienced the idea.


Cit means knowledge, splendour, consciousness. Ananda means bliss. Paul Deussen writes that the ancient Upanisads do not include in the definition of Brahman the term `ananda'.


3) The two forms of Brahman. Brahman has two formsParabrahman and Aparabrahman. Parabrahman is Amnrta (formless, incorporeal) and Aparabrahman is Mfirta (embodied, corporeal). The Amurta Brahman is known by such names as Parabrahman, Paramatma and Nirgunabrahman. The corporeal or material Brahman is Aparabrahman and thus this whole world is Aparabrahman.


4) The Upanisads about Brahman. As abdamasparsamarupamavyayam


Tathasrasarb. nityamagandhavacca yat /


Anadyanantam mahatah param dhruvarii


Vicarya tanmrtyumukhat pramucyate l/


(Kathopani sad ) (With no sound, touch, form, taste or smell, with neither beginning nor end Brahman is imperishable).


Na tatra caksurgacchati na vak gacchati no mano Na vidmo na vijanimo yathaitadanusisyate / Anyadeva tadviditadatho aviditadadhi Iti susruma purvesam ye nastadvyacacaksire.


(Mundakopanisad ) (No eye goes there, no word goes there, no mind, no intelligence-we do not see it, we cannot describe ityou cannot imagine it nor can you understand it-It is distinct from the known and above the unknown. WC have heard it spoken thus).


Yasyamatam tasya matam matam yasya na veda sah. / Avijnatam vijanatam vijnatam avijanatam. //


(Kenopanisad) (He understands It who comprehends It not; and he understands It not who feels he has understood. It is the unknown to those who have acquired real knowledge while it is the known to those who are ignorant of true knowledge).


Yat caksusa na pasyati


Yena caksumsi. pasyati


Tadeva Brahma tvam viddhi


Nedarh yadidamupasate.



(That which is not seen by the-eye but that by which


Yato vaco nivartante Aprapya manasa saha. (Taittiriya Upanisad). Avijnatam Vijanatam vijnatam avijanatam.


( Kenopani sad ) ( It is unknown to people who think they know but known to those who did not profess to know it).


Naiva vaca na manasa praptum sakyo na caksusa / Astiti bruvatoS nyatra katham tadupalaksyate. //

( Kathopanisad)


(It is not possible to reach it by speech, mind or the eyes. How is it to be identified; or described?) -


Digdesagunadiphalabhedasunyarii hi paramartha-


Sat tad advayam Brahma mandabuddhinam asadiva pratib.hati.



The sublime Truth (Brahman) is beyond time, place and attributes-.Brahman is one ( not two) and it is Sat (existent) but for the dull-witted, ignorant people it is Asat (non-existent) .


Satyamevopasate, tadetat tryaksaram satyamiti; Sa ityekamaksaram, tya ityeka-


maksaram, prathamottame aksare satyam madhyato Anrtam tadetatamrtamubhayatah satyena pari-


grhitam satyabhuyameva bhavati. (Brhadaranyaka). Kohamasmiti satyamiti bruyat kim tad yat Satyamiti yadanyad devebhyasca pranebhyasca/ Tatsadatha yaddevGsca pranasca tad utadeTayapicabhivyahriyate satyamitye 'Fadapatitam sarvamidam


( Kausitaki Brahmana) . Math sarvam khalu brahma iti santaupasita Antarhrdaye esa me atma manomayah , Pranasarirah bharupah satyasankalpah akas atma sarvakarma sarvakamah sarvagandhah sarvamidamabhvatti.


( Chandogya ) .


PARADA. An ancient place of Bharata. Those who resided there were called Paradas. The descendants of these people live in north Baluchistan. Paradas gave Dharmaputra many valuable presents. (Chapter 51, Sabha Parva). They followed Bhisma. ( Chapter 87, Bhisma Parva).


PARAHAN. A king of ancient Bharata. (Sloka 238, Chapter 1, Adi Parva, Mahabharata).


PARAMAKAMBOJA A place of habitation situated on the northwestern side of Bharata. Arjuna conquered this land. ( Sloka 25, Chapter 27, Sabha Parva).


PARAMAKRODHI. One of the Visvadevas who are worthy of accepting a share of the obsequial oblations. The others are : Balandhrti, Vipapma, Punyakrt, Pavana, Parsniksema, Samuha,. Divyasanu, Vivasvan, Viryavan, Hriman, Kirtiman, Krta, Jttatma, Munivirya, Diptaroma, Anukarman, Pratita, Pradata, Amsuman, Sallabha, Dhirosni, Bhupati, Sraja, Vajrivari, Vidyudvarcas; Somavarcas, Suryasri, Somapa, Suryasamitra, Dattatma, Pundariyaka, Usninabha, Nakoda, Visvayus, Dipti, Camuhara, Suresa, Vyomari, Sankara, Bhava, isa, Karta, Krti, Daksa, Bhuvana, Divyakarmakrt, Ganita, Pancavirya, Aditya, Rasmiman, Saptakrt, Somavarcas, Visvakrt, Kavi, Anugopta, Sugopta, Napta and 1svara. (Chapter 91, AnusasanaParva).


PARAMANU. See under Trasarenu.the eyes are able to see-That alone is Brahman and PARAMATMA. The Supreme Spirit. The vitality behind


not that which people do worship here, do know that. jivatma (soul).(See under Jivatma and Brahman.


PARAMESTH 1 I. A king of Candravariis a (Lunar race). He was the son of Indradyumna and the father of Pratihara. (Chapter I, Arhsa 1, VisnuPurana).


PARAMESTHI II. A Vaidikasuktadrasta. He was a disciple of Brahma. (Brhaddranyaka Upanisad). According to jaimini Brahmana Paramesthi was the disciple of Prajapati.


PARAMESTHI III. A king of Pancaladesa. He was born to Ajamidha of Nih. Paramesthi and the sons of Dusyanta, his brother, are known as Paficalas. (Adi Parva, Mahabharata).


PARANTA. A place of habitation of ancient Bharata. (Sloka 47, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


PARAPURANJAYA. A prince of the Hehaya race. He once sent an arrow against a sage mistaking him to be a wild animal. (See under Aristanemi).




1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu--Brahma -Vasistha-Sakti-Parasara.


2) Birth. Sakti, son of Vasistha begot of his wife Adrsyanti the son named Parasara. Even at the time of his birth he was a scholar. (For details regarding birth see under Adrsyanti).


3) Rdk~asayaga. Even before the birth of Parasara, Kalmasapada in his demoniacal form ate his father, Sakti. Therefore Parasara nurtured an obstinatehatred against the Raksasas. So he performed a Yaga to kill all the raksasas. Thousands of raksasas were burnt to death at this yaga and Vasistha, grandfather of Para6ara felt sorry for the innocent raksasas. He approached PardSara and said "Son, do not give way to such anger. Abandon this wrath. What harm have these poor raksasas done? Death was in the destiny of your father. Every one has to suffer the result of his own deeds. Anger destroys the fame and austerity which one has attained by years of toil. Therefore abandon your anger and wind up your Yaga."


Parasara accepted the abvice of his grandfather. Vasistha was pleased with his grandson and at that time Pulastyamaharsi son of Brahma also came there. Vasistha gave arghya (water and flowers) and received him. Then Vasistha and Pulastya jointly blessed him and said he would be the author of Puranasariihita. Thus Pard9ara became the best of the Guruparampara (traditional line of preceptors). (Chapter 1, Amsa 1, Visnu Purana).


4) Birth of L'ydsa. Paragara begot a son of a fisherwoman named Satyavati and the boy became later the celebrated Vyasa.


5) Other details.


(i) He got the name Par~Sara because even from the womb of his mother he consoled Vasistha when his son Sakti, father of Pard9ara was eaten by the demoniac form of Kalmasapada.


(ii) See under Guruparampara the status of Parasara in that traditional line of Gurus.


(iii) Among the Suktas, Sukta 65, Anuvaka 12, Mandala 1 of Rgveda was sung by Paras ara.


(iv) Pard9ara was one among the several sages who visited Bhisma lying on his bed of arrows. (Chapter 47, Sand Parva).


(v) Once Parasara visited king janaka and talked with him on Adhyatmika topics (spiritual matters). (Chapter 290, Santi Parva).


(vi) Chapter 150 of Anusasana Parva mentions Parasara as describing the power of Savitrimantra to an audience.


PARARARA II. A serpent born of the family of Dhrtarastra. This was burnt to death at thesarpasatra of janamejaya. (Sloka 19, Chapter 57, Adi Parva ).


PARASARYA I. Vyasa, son of sage Parasara. (See under Vyasa 1.


PARASARYA II. This sage is different from Vyasa. This Parasarya was a member of the court of Yudhisthira. (aloka 13, Chapter 7, Sabha Parva). He was a member of the court of Indra also. Sri Krsna once met him while he Was going to Hastinapura from Dvaraka. (Sloka 64, Chapter 83, Udyoga Parva ).


PARASAVA. A child born to a brahmin of a sudra woman. Vidura was a son born to Vyasa of a sudra woman and was therefore called Paras ava. (Sloka 25, Chapter 101, Adi Parva).


PARASIKA. A place of human habitation in ancient Bharata. (Sloka 25, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva ).


PARASURAMA. An incarnation of Mahavisnu, as man. 1 ) Genealogy. Descending in order from 1VlahavisnuBrahma - Bhrgu-Cyavana - Urva - Rcika - TamadagniParas urama.


2 )Cause for incarnation. Once god Agni went to Kartaviryarjuna and begged for food. The king allowed him to take from his vast territory as much food as he wanted from anywhere he liked. Agni started burning forests and mountains and consuming them. Deep inside one of the forests a sage named Apava was performing penance and the fire burnt the asrama of Apava also. Enraged at this the sage cursed thus : "Kartaviryarjuna is at the root of this havoc. The arrogance of Ksatriyas has increased beyond limits. Mahavisnu would therefore be born on earth as Parasurama to destroy this arrogance of the Ksatriyas." Accordingly Mahavisnu was born as Parasurama in the Bhargava race. (Chapter 40, Harivarhsa).


Brahmanda Purana gives another version: Visnu promised Bhumidevi (mother earth) that he would be born on earth as Parasur5ma when Bhumidevi went tohim in the form of a cow and complained -to him about the atrocities of the wicked Ksatriya kings.


3) Birth. Parasurama . was born as the son of sage Jamadagni of his wife Renuka. Their asrama was on the shores of the Narmada river. Renuk5, mother of Para'surama, was the daughter of King Prasenajit. She had four sons even before the birth of Paragurarrra (Chapter 58, Brahmanda Purana ).


4) Boyhood and education. Parasurama spent his boyhood with his parents in the Mrama. An important event in his 1ife then was his slaying his mother at the behest of his father. (See under jamadagni, Para 6). Though Parasurama was a brahmin there is nothing on record to show that he did study the Vedas. Perhaps he might have had the Vedic instructions from his father during his life with him. He had even from the beginning shown an interest in learning Dhanurvidya (archery). For obtaining proficiency in archery he went to the Himalayas and did penance to please Siva for many years. Fleased at his penance Siva on several occasions extolled the virtues of Parasurama. At that time the asuras (demons) acquired strength and attacked the devas. `a'he devas complained tc. Siva. Siva called Para~urawa and asked him to fight pith and deftat the semdon. Parasurama was without weapons and he asked Siva how he could go and fight the demons without weapons. Siva said : "Go with my blessings t,nd you will kill your foes." Para urama did not wait for a moment. When Siva thus assured him of success, on he went straight to fight with the demons. He defeated the asuras and came back to Siva when the latter gave him many boons and divine weapons.


Till that time his name was only Rama and he became ParaWrama because among the weapons given to him by Siva was a weapon named Para, a (axe). There is a story behind this weapon Parasu. Once Siva was not invited for a Yaga conducted by Daksa. An angered Siva threw his spike into the Yagas5la (sacrificial hal1). The spike spoiled the Yaga and smashed the hall and after that roamed about aimlessly for sometime and then turned towards Badaryagrama where at that time Naranarayanas were engaged in penance. The spike went straight to the heart of sage Narayana. Nardyana made the defiant sound `hum' (hurhkara) and the spike turned away. Siva felt angry for thus showing disrespect to his spike and he attacked the sage. At once Nararsi plucked a grass and reciting a mantra threw it at Siva. The grass became a Paras a (axe) and it attacked Siva. Siva broke it into two. Then NaraNarayanas bowed before him and worshipped him. Thereafter the two pieces of the Parasu remained with Siva. It was one of these that Siva gave to Parasurama. When Paragurama was returning happy and glorious with boons and weapons he got on his way a disciple named Akrtavrana. (See under Akrtavrana). Guru and disciple lived in an asrama and Parasurama became a noted Guru in dhanurveda (archery). (Chapter 34, Karna Parva; Chapter 49, Santi Parva and Chapter 18, Anusasana Parva).


5) Instruction in archery. According to Puranas Parasurama did not spend his life as an instructor in archery. There are statements, however, mentioning that Karna and Drona took instructions from him.


Pretending to be a brahmin Karna commenced taking instructions in archery from Parasurama. When his education was complete Parasurama taught him Brahmastra. One day tired after a long walk in the forests Parasurama took rest placing his head on the lap of Xarna and soon fell asleep. At that time a beetle came and started sucking blood from the thigh of Karna. Karna remained still, bearing the pain, lest any movement of his body should disturb the sleep of his Guru. Blood was oozing from his thighs and it slowly made the body of the Guru also wet. Parasurama woke up And the sight of the bleeding thigh and the calm demeanour of Karna raised doubts in him. He questioned Karna saying that no brahmin could ever bear such a pain with such calmness and Karna had to tell the truth. Then Para<urama cursed him for deceit against his Guru saying that he would never be able to remember the Brahmastra when the time to use it came.


There is a story behind Alarka, the beetle that bit Karna. This beetle was in his previous birth a demon named Darhsa. Darhsa once tried to molest the wife of the sage Bhrgu. The Maharsi cursed him and made him into a beetle. On his request for mercy he said he would get release from the curse by ParaSurdma. So the beetle


became the Raksasa again and left the place. Karna took leave of Parasurama and went to Hastinapura. (anti Parva, Chapter 3 ).


Another famous disciple of Parasurama was Drona. There is a story behind Drona getting Dhanurveda from Parasurama. After travelling throughout the world exterminating the Ksatriya race Parasurama gave all his wealth to Kasyapa. On hearing that Parasurama was giving away all his riches as gifts to brahmins Drona rushed to Mahendraparvata to see Parasurama. By then Parasurama had distributed all his wealth excepting Dhanurveda. Parasurama called Drona to his side and said that only two things remained with him, his body and Dhanurveda. Drona, he added, could take anyone of the two and then Drona took Dhanurveda from him. After that Parasurama went to Maharanya for the sake of penance. (Chapter 130, Adi Parva).


There are some apparent inconsistencies in the above stories: It is said Drona taught Dhanurveda to Karna. Drona was the last person to receive Dhanurveda from ParaAurama because the latter, surrendering his Dhanurveda in entire, left for the forests for doing penance. Then, when did Karna learn Dhanurveda from Parasurama? Could it be before Drona went to Parasurama? Then it must be accepted that brona had not studied under Parasurama when he was teaching the the Pandavas and Kauravas. He learnt it from somewhere before he became the preceptor of the Pandavas. Karna after studying under Drona for some time went to Parasurama for higher studies and Drona approached Parasurama after Karna had left him.


6) The destruction of the Ksatriyas. The most important event of his life was the total extermination of the Ksatriya race. The Puranic belief is that he went round the world eighteen times to massacre the Ksatriyas.


InmanyplacesinthePuranas it is stated that Parasurama fought against the Ksatriyas eighteen times. But in chapter 29 of Asvamedha Parva it is stated that Parasurama fought against the Ksatriyas times So it is to be surmised that Paras'urama fought eighteen big battles and three minor ones.


There are some old stories to explain this revengeful enmity of Parasurama towards the Ksatriyas.


(1) Family enmity. The Hehaya dynasty was the most powerful kingly race then. Parasurama was a descendant of Bhrgu, a brahmin sage. That is why he gets the name Bhargava also. The Bhargavas were for generations the family preceptors of the Hehaya kings. Taking advantage of their supreme position in the royal palace the Bhargavas accumulated great wealth at the cost of the royal riches. Gradually the Bhargavas rose in prosperity in inverse proportion to the decline of the Hehaya wealth. It was at the time of Rcika, grandfather of Parasurama that they touched the rock-bottom of their wealth and they found funds lacking even for the day to day administration of the state. In despair they went and requested the Rcikas to lend them some money. But they hid their money and refused to give them anything. The Ksatriya kings got angry and killed the brahmim. What stock was left of them went to the base of the Himalayas. The wife of Rcika who was pregnant then kept the child in her womb for twelve years afraid to bring forth the child. After that the child came out breaking open the thigh (uru) and so the child was called Aurva. Even at the time of his birth Aurva shone like a brilliant torch and not only that; the child cried aloud "Oh, wicked Ksatriyas, I will kill every one of you. I heard from my mother's womb the din of the swords you raised to kill my ancestors. I will never wait for another moment to wreak vengeance on you."


The fire that emanated from the face of Aurva burnt even Devaloka. Ksatriyas as a class came and prostrated before him. The devas came and requested him to abandon his anger' and Aurva agreed. The devas picked up the fire sparks from Aurva's face and .deposited them in the ocean. From those sparks put in the ocean was born Badavagni alias Aurva.


(ii) Curse of the sage. From Aurva was born Jamadagni and from Jamadagni was born Paragurama. In the race of the Hehayas was born at that time a very valorous king named Kartaviryarjuna. Once Kartaviryarjuna gave a dinner to Agnibhagavan. Agni began to devour all the mountains and forests in the world. The burning was so indiscriminate that it burnt the asrama of a sage named Apava also. The sage cursed Kartaviryarjuna saying that the thousand hands of the latter would be cut off by Pasag urama born in the family of Bhargavas. From that day onwards the 1atent feud in him against the Bhargavas was roused into action.


(iii) haruna's ridicule. Kartaviryarjuna who got a thousand hands by a boon from a sage named Dattatreya subdued all enemies of his status and not satisfied with that he went to the shores of the ocean and cha11enged Varuiia for a fight. Varuna came before him and very modestly admitted that he was incapable of meeting the challenge thrown and suggested that perhaps Jamadagni's son, Paragurama might accept the challenge and give him a fight. Hearing this Kartaviryarjuna turned towards the asrama of Jamadagni on the shores of the Narmada river.


(iv) Causes of the war (immediate). Kartavixyarjuna went for hunting in the forests and feeling exhausted after some time went to the asrama of Jamadagni with his retinue. Jamadagni received them well and with the help of the Kamadhenu (wish-yielding cow) named Susila, Jamadagni gave a sumptuous feast to the King and his followers. When after the meals were over they started to take leave of the sage, Candragupta, a minister of Kartaviryarjuna brought to the notice of the king the superior powers of the Kamadhenu, Susila. The king wanted to get the cow and asked Candragupta to tell the sage about it. Though the minister told Jamadagni about the royal desire the sage refused to part with the cow. Then the minister with the help of the other royal servants took the cow by force and the sage followed the cow weeping. On the way Candragupta beat Jamadagni to death and brought the cow to the presence of the king. The king was pleased and the royal hunting party returned to the palace happy.


Jamadagni's wife Renuka went in search of her husband and to her grief found him lying dead. Renuka wept beating her breast twentyone times and by that time her son Para urama came there and he declared that he would travel round the world twentyone times, the number of times his mother beat her breast, to kill and exterminate the Ksatriyas from this world. Then the dead body of Jamadagni was placed on a pyre and


they were singing Visnugita before placing fire on the pyre when: Sukramuni appeared there and brought Jamadagni to life by invoking the art of Mrtasafijivani. By that time Su'sila somehow escaped from the custody of the King and came there without the calf. Then Parasurama vowed that he would bring the calf scon and taking with him his disciple Akrtavrana he left for the city of Mahismati the abode of Kartaviryarjuna. There they fought a grim battle and after killing Kartaviryarjuna and many of his followers brought back the calf. To atone for the sin of this massacre Jamadagni advised his son to go and perform penance in Mahendragiri. Taking advantage of the absence of Parafiuraxrta from the asrama, Surasena son of Kartaviryarjuna, with his followers went to the asrama of Jamadagni and chopped off his head. Parasurama returned from Mahendragiri at once and cremated the dead body of his father. Renuka, his mother, jumped into the funeral pyre and abandoned her life. From that moment onwards started Parasurama's fierce programme of mass. massacre of the Ksatriyas.


(v) Victory march. Para•' urama''s world-tour was confined to an all-Bharata tour. The wars of Parasurama are not described in detail in the Puranas. They mention that Parasurama killed the Kings of Cola, Cera and Patxndra. To stop the birth of Ksatriyas in future Paragurama destroyed even the embryo in the wombs of Ksata,riya women. Then the Bhargava ancestors like Rcika and others came to the sky and requested Paras urama to stop this slaughter. They said: "Oh son, Rama, stop this slaughter. What good do you get by killing innocent Ksatriyas ?" By that time Parasurama had made twentyone rounds around Bharata killing the Ksatriyas. (Chapter 64, Adi Parva; Chapter 38, Sabha Parva; Chapter 116, Vana Parva; Chapter 49, anti Parva and 10 chapters from chapter 83 of Brahmanda Purana ) .


7) Samantapancakanirmana. Samantapancaka is Kuruksetra itself where the great battle was conducted. This is a holy place and it was Parasurama who constructed it. He stored the blood of the Ksatriyas he killed in the twentyone rounds of killing in five lakes in Samantapancaka. He offered blood to the Manes in those lakes. The Manes led by Rcika appeared before him and asked him to name any boon he wanted. Then Paragurama said, "Revered Manes, if you are pleased with me you must absolve me from the sin of this mass massacre of the Ksatriyas and declare the five lakes where I have stored their blood as holy." The Manes declared, "Let it be so." From then onwards the place became holy under the name Samantapancaka. At the end of the Dvaparayuga and the beginning of Kaliyuga a great battle lasting for eighteen days took place at this holy place between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. (Chapter 2, Adi Parva).


8 ) Atonement. To atone for the sin of slaughtering even innocent Ksatriyas, Parasurama gave away all his riches as gifts to brahmins. He invited all the Brahmins to Samantapancaka and conducted a great Yaga there. The chief Rtvik ( officiating priest) of the Yaga was the sage Kasyapa and Parasurama gave all the lands he conquered till that time to Ka<yapa. Then a platform of gold ten yards long and nine yards wide was made and Kasyapa was installed there and worshipped. After the worship was over according to the instructions from Kasyapa the gold platform was cut into pieces and the gold pieces were offered to brahmins.


When Kas yapa got all the lands from Parasurama he have given me all your for you to live in my soil. You can go to the south and live somewhere on the shores of the ocean there." Parasurama walked south and requested the ocean to give him some land to live. Varuna then asked him to throw a winnow into the ocean. There is a legend saying that it was a Parasu that Parasurama threw. Parasurama threw the sieve (s urpa) and the ocean gave way to land for a distance where the winnow fell from where he stood. This is the place Surparaka now known as Kerala. (Surpa=Winnowing basket). After giving this land also to the Brahmins, Parasurama went and started doing penance at Mahendragiri. (Chapter 130, Adi Parva; Chapter 117, Vana Parva and Chapter 49, Santi Parva).


9) Other exploits of Parasuramcr.


(i) Meets Sri Rima. Sri Rama and Laksmana were returning to Ayodhya from Mithilapuri after the marriage along with the sage Vasistha through a deep forest when Parasurama blocked their way and addressing Sri Rama said thus ,`Oh Rama, son of Dasaratha, I heard that you broke during the marriage of Sita the great Saiva bow of the palace of Janaka. It was a Saiva bow and I have now come here to test your prowess. I am giving you a Vaisnava bow now. Can you string this bow ?"


Vasistha tried his best to pacify Parasurama. But Parasurama without heeding it started describing the story and greatness of the Saiva bow and the Vaisnava bow. (See under Vaisnava bow). Then Sri Rama took the bow from Parasurama and started to string it. The brilliance of Sri Rama dazzled him and he stood dumbfounded at his skill. Parasurama was immensely pleased and he blessed Sri Rama. After that he went again to Mahendragiri to perform penance.


This same story is told in Kamba Ramayana with some slight changes :-Paras urama did not like Sri Rama breaking the bow of his Guru Siva. So an angered Parasurama blocked the way of Sri Rama and challenged him to string and take aim with the mighty Vaisava bow he (Parasurama) was carrying with him then.* Sri Rama with perfect ease took the bow, strung it, and taking the missile asked Parasurama to show the target. Parasurama was astonished and was in a fix. The missile could destroy even the entire Universe. So Parasurama asked Rama to aim at the accumulated tapobala (power accrued by penance) of his self and Rama did so. Then Parasurama surrendered 'to Sri Rama the Vaisnava bow and arrow and the Vaisnava tejas (divine brilliance) in him. Parasurama after having carried out the purpose of his incarnation gave instructions to Sri Rama to continue the purpose of his incarnation and then after blessing Sri Rama went again to do penance at his holy 5srama.


This same story is told by the sage Lomasa to the Pandavas during their exile in the forests. This story is much different from the previous ones: "When the fame that Sri Rama was the best of Kings spread far and wide Parasurama once went to see Sri Rama. Giving him the bow and arrow with which he had done the mass massacre of the Ksatriyas he challenged


said thus:-"(r)h Rama, you land and it is not now proper him to string it and take aim. With a smile Sri Rama did so and then Parasurama said Rama should draw the string up to his ears. Sri Rama got angry and then on the face, which became fierce, by his anger, ParaAurama saw besides himself, Aditya-Vasu-Rudras, Sadhyas, Balakhilyas, Devarsis, oceans, mountains,. the Vedas and all such things of this universe. Sri Rama sent out his missile from the bow. The whole universe was thrown into chaos. Thunder and lightning rocked the world. Heavy rains flooded the whole 1and space. Burning stars and meteors fell to the ground. Parasurama then knew that Sri Rama was the incarnation of Mahavisnu and he stood bowing before him. Ashamed of his defeat he took leave of Sri Rama and went to Mahendragiri. When he reached there he found he had lost all his brilliance. Then the manes appeased and advised him to go and bathe in the river Vadhusara. Accordingly Parasurama went and bathed in the river and regained his lost brilliance. ( Chapter 99, Vana Parva).


( ii ) Parasurama and Sri h;rsna. The Puranas describe two important occasions when Parasurama met Sri Krsna.


The first meeting was at the mountain of Gomanta. Once Sri Krsna and Balarama with a view to enjoying the abundance of Nature went to the beautiful mountain of Gomanta and ascended to its top. On their way they met Parasurama engaged in penance there. They exchanged greetings and talked to each other for some time. Then Parasurama requested Sri Krsna to kill Srgalavasudeva, King of Karavira an the base of that mountain. Sri Krsna promised to do so and left the place carrying with him the blessings of the sage.


The second meeting was when Krsna was going to the court of the Kauravas as a messenger of the Pandavas. On his way Sri Krsna saw a company of sages coming and, alighting from his chariot Krsna talked with them. Parasurama who was in that company then embraced Krsna and said that he should give a true picture of the situation to the Kauravas when he was conducting his mission. The sages blessed Krsna and wished Krsna all success in his mission. (Chapter 83, Udyoga Parva; 10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


10) Other details.


( i ) Parasurama along with a few other sages was present at the Sabhapravesa of Dharmaputra. (Sloka 11, Chapter 53, Sabha Parva).


(ii) Paragurama was present at the court of the Kauravas when Sri Krsna was speaking to Dhrtarastra on behalf of the Pandavas. When the Kauravas did not reply the questions put by Sri Krsna, Parasurama rose up to tell a story to illustrate the evils resulting from the arrogance of man. There was once a King called Dambhodbhava who was very arroga,ut because of his great strength. He wanted to diffuse his energy by fighting and laboured much to get good opponents and roamed about in search of fighters. One day the Brahmins directed him to Naranarayanas and accordingly Dambhodbhava went to their a'srama at Badarika and challenged them for a fight. They refused to fight and yet the King showered arrows on them. Then the sages took a few blades of the isika grass and threw them at him. They filled the sky as greet missiles and the King begged to be pardoned and prostrated before the sages. They sent back the be fooled King to his palace. (Chapter 96, Udyoga Parva).


(iii) Once a grim battle was waged between Paras urama and Bhisma. (See under Amba).


(iv) Parasurama sits in the court of Yama. (Sloka 19, Chapter 8, Sabhd Parva).


PARASURAMAKU-`; DA. Another name for Parasuramahrada. Parasuramakunda comprises of five pools of blood called Samantapancaka constructed by Parasurama on the borders of Kuruksetra. (See under Parasurama).


PARASUVANA. A forest in hell. The sinners after climbing out of Vaitarani, a river in hell in which hot blood flows, reach Asipatravana. There the bodies of the sinners are cut by the leaves of asipatra which are as sharp as a sword's edge. Leaving that they reach Parasuvana. (Sloka 32, Chapter 322, Sand Parva).


PARAVAHA. One of the seven forms of Vayu. Pranavayu has got seven forms :-


1) Pravaha. This vayu makes lightning in the sky.


2) Avaha. It is by this vayu that the stars shine and waters of the ocean go up as water-vapour and down as. rains.


3) Udvaha. This vayu makes movements among the clouds and produces thunder.


4) Sarhvaha. This vayu beats the mountains. Sarflvaha is also engaged in shaping the clouds and producing thunder.


5) Pyavaha. Preparing holy water in the sky and making Aka'saganga stay there static is the work of this vayu.


6) Parivaha. This vayu gives strength to one who sits in meditation.


7) Pardvaha. It is this vayu that fans the devas to make them cool. (Chapter 329, Bhisma Parva).


PARAVARTANAKA. One of the twentyeight hells. (See under Kala).


PARAVASU. Son of a sage called Raibhya. He was the brother of Arvavasu. (See under Arvavasu).


PARAVATA. A serpent born in the family of Airavata. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of janamejaya. (Sloka 11, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).


PARAVIDYA. See under Aparavidya.


PARIBARHA. One of the children of Garuda. (Chapter 101; Udyoga Parva).


PARIBHADRIKAS. The inhabitants of the place called Paribhadra The soldiers from Paribhadra fought on the side of Duryodhana during the great battle. (Sloka 9, Chapter 51, Bhisma Parva).


PARIGHA I. One of the five parsadas presented to Subrahmanya by the deva, Arh-a. The other four are:--Vata, Bhima, Dahati and Dahana. (Chapter 138, Santi Parva).


PARIGHA II. A forester. (See under Bidalopakhyana).


PARIHARA. A King of the country of Kalafijara situated near Citrakuta. Parihara who was an Atharvaparayana (devoted to the Atharvaveda) ruled the country for twelve years and during his reign he gave a strong opposition to the spread of Buddhism. (Pratisarga Parva, Bhavisya Purina).


PARIJATA I. The sage who came to the court of Maya along with Narada. (Chapter 5, Sabhd Parva).


PARIJATA Il. See under Kalpavrksa.


PARIJATA 111. A serpent born in the family of Airavata. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of janamejaya. (Sloka 11, Chapter 51, AdiParva).


PARIJATAKA. A sage who was a brilliant member of the court of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 14, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva) .


PARIKSIT 1. A brilliant King of Candravamsa. He was the grandson of Arjuna and son of Abhimanyu. (For genealogy see under Abhimanyu).


1) Birth. Pariksit was the son born to Abhimanyu of Uttara. This was a still-born child and it was Sri Krsna who gave it life. There is a story in Mahabharata about this


Uttara, wife of Abhimanyu, was pregnant when the war between the PAndavas and Kauravas started at Kuruksetra. Asvatthama, son of Drona, entered the camp of the Pandavas at night and slew Dhrstadytttnna. He then sent the most fierce Bralimasirastra (missile of Brahma ira) to exterminate the Pandavas. To face it and oppose it Arjuna also sent an equally fierce Brahmas irastra. The sight of two such powerful weapons opposing each other made all the sages anxious and they led by Vyasa entered the field and requested them to withdraw their missiles. It was in vain. The missile of Mvattharna went and struck the womb of Uttara.


Once when the Pandavas after their exile were staying in the village of Upaplavya a brahmin had predicted to Uttara that at the fag end of the life of the Pandavas Uttara would bear a son who would be tested even while in her womb and that the child should be named Pariksit. (Pariksa = test).


The child in the womb died when the missile struck it. Sri Krsna was greatly agitated by this wicked act of Asvatthama and he said thus : "Oh A'svatthama, the child now dead in its womb would surely come to life again. You will be called a sinner because of this infanticide. Because of this you will roam about on earth for three thousand years and during that time nobody would mingle with you. You will not get a seat anywhere. All diseases will find an abode in your body. But this infant would grow up into a king and rule the country for sixty years. He would become celebrated as the next Kururaja." (Sauptika Parva, Mahabharata) When the Bharatayuddha came to an end Dharmaputra performed an asvamedhayaga. Many prominent persons including Sri Krsna assembled at Hastinapura for this purpose. Vidura received them all. At that time they were informed that Uttara had delivered a stillborn child. Pariksit was born when the embryo was only six months old (Sloka 82, Chapter 85, Adi Parva). Everybody assembled there was sad and depressed when he heard this news. Sri Krsna went in and saw the dead infant. Uttara wept bitterly and everybody asked Sri Krsna to give life to the infant somehow. Sri Krsna did so and the child was named Pariksit remembering the prophetic words of the brahmana.


2) . Marriage. Pariksit married a princess named Madravati and got of her four sons named janamejaya, Srutasena, Ugrasena and Bhimasena. Chapters 3, 4, 5, Adi Parva).


3) . Curse of a sage. Pariksit was greatly interested in hunting. Once he went to a big forest with his large retinue to hunt. While hunting he fol1owed a deer which the king had struck with his arrow and he separated from the rest and went a long way deep into the forest. It was midday and the king was tired. Then he saw a sage sitting there and the king went in and asked him about the deer. The sage engrossed in his meditation did not hear that. The king mistook his silence to be arrogance- and taking the dead body of a cobra lying nearby with the tip of his bow threw it round the neck of the sage and went his way. The sage did not know even that. The king returned to the palace after the hunting.


The sage had a son named Gavijata (In many places the name Srrigi is used for Gavijata). He was playing with the sons of other sages. One munikumara (son of a sage) said, "Oh Gavijata, yourfather is equal to diva. Both have a serpent round their necks. But there is only one difference. The serpent round your f'ather's neck is a dead one." Gavijata was greatly disturbed by this jeer and he immediately went to the as rama to make enquiries. When he knew that an unknown person had done that foul deed he took water in his hand and said "Whoever be the person who put this dead snake round the neck of my father will die being bitten by the fierce cobra Taksaka within seven days." Only after pronouncing this horrible curse did he find out that the perpetrator of that crime was none other than the most noble and charitable king, Pariksit. Gavijata repented greatly and immediately sent word to the king about his curse through Gauramukha, a munikumara. The king was a bit frightened first but then he started thinking about the way to escape from the curse. (Chapter 40, Adi Parva, and 2nd Skandha, Bhagavata) .


4.) Tak.,raka gets ready. As soon as the messenger Gauramukha departed from the palace Pariksit called the ministers to his side and conferred with them to find a way to escape from the cobra Taksaka. They built a building on a huge pillar and gave all protections to the building. Brahmins well-versed in all the mantras and Visavaidyas (physicians in the treatment of snakepoisoning) of fame were asked to sit around the pillar and the place was well-guarded. The King sat in a room tightly closed. Six days went by. On the seventh day the celebrated Visavaidya Ka yapamaharsi was on his way to the palace at the summons of the king. Taksaka was also on his way to the palace in the guise of a brahmin. They met on the way and though Kasyapa did not know him first Taksaka introduced himself when he knew that KaSyapa was going, to the palace to treat the king if anything happened. He said "Oh Kasyapa, I am Taksaka and none of your wits would be able to fight against the effects of my poison. If you want to know it we shall make a trial." Saying so Taksaka went and bit a big banyan tree standing nearby, and to ! the whole tree was burnt to ashes by the strength of the poison. Kasyapa smilingly recited the Visahari mantra and sprinkled some water on the ashes and lo! the tree stood in its place again with not a single mutilation anywhere. Taksaka was astounded. He then bribed Kasyapa. He said he would give him more than what could be expected of the king and requested him to return home. Kasyapa returned and Taksaka went to the palace.


5) Death of Parik,rit. Taksaka went and inspected the palace of Pariksit. There was no way to step in and raksaka was astonished at the perfect protection given to the king. Taksaka called all his relatives to his side and asked them to go to the King in the guise of brahmins carrying several kinds of fruits as presents. Taksaka crept inside a beautiful fruit in the shape of a worm and was carried along with the fruits taken to the king. The servants of the king took the fruits brought by the brahmins to the king and the king struck by the size and beauty of~a fruit among them took it and cut it open. He saw a worm inside red in colour with two black spots as eyes. The king took it in his hand and at that instant it changed into Taksaka and bit the king. After that it rose up into the air and disappeared. (Chapters 42 to 49, Adi Parva and 2nd Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


6) Par;kft as a king. Many researches have been made to fix the period of the reign of Pariksit.


"Saptarsayo maghayuktah Kale Pdriksite sbhavan J/


(Chapter 271, Matsya Purana), "Te to Pariksite kale Maghasvasan dvijottamah"


(Chapter 24, Arnsa 4, Visnu Purana) Following these statements in the Puranas, astronomers and astrologers searched for the year or years in which the Saptarsi mandala (the constellation of a group of seven stars) and the month of magha came into the same zodiac. It came in B.C. 3077 and then in B.C.477. This would again occur in 2223 A.D. Pariksit, according to other facts, also must have lived in B.C. 3077.


Pandavas went for their mahaprasthana after entrusting the administration to the care of Pariksit. The Mahabharata battle was fought in the year 3138 B.C. Dharmaputra ruled for 36 years and so Pariksit must have taken charge of the administration in 3102 B. C. Pariksit ruled for 60 years and his son Janamejaya became king in 3042 B.C. It was this Janamejaya who conducted the famous Sarpasatra.


7) Pariksit attained Saarga. Pariksit did not enter heaven as soon as he died. So Janamejaya at the advice of Narada conducted a yaga called Ambayaga for the salvation of the spirit of his father. It was during the navaratri period that this was done. Many eminent sages took part in the ceremony. All were received well and given gifts in plenty. He made pure brahmins read the Devibhagavata with devotion in the presence of the deity to please Jagadambika (mother goddess), queen of all queens (Rajaraje vari). When it was over, a divine brilliance like burning fire was visible in the sky and Narada appeared before Janamejaya and said "Oh Janamejaya, King of Kings, your father was lying bound by the shackles of his life on earth. But today he acquired a divine form and wearing divine apparels and ornaments went to the divine seat of Devi in a sacred Vimana from Indrapura while Indra, devas and the celestial maidens stood praising him (Skandha 12, Devi Bhagavata).


$) Other details.


(i) Pariksit ruled the country for sixty years, with all virtues and goodness. (Chapter 49, Adi Parva).


(ii) After the great battle, one day at the request of a few, Vyasa by his yogic powers arrayed all the dead great ones of the Pandava-Kaurava company. Pariksit was also called then to the Ganga where it was arranged and Janamejaya who was present to witness the show then gave an Avabhrtasriana (ablution after a sacrifice) to his father. Pariksit disappeared after that. (Chapter 35, Asramavasika Parva).


(iii) The synonyms of Pariksit are (1) Abhimanyusuta (2) Bharatasrestha (3) Kirititanayatmaja (4) Kurus restha (5) Kurunandana (6) Kururaja (7) Kuruvardhana (8) Pandaveya.


PARIKSIT II. There is a story about another Pariksit belonging to the Iksvaku dynasty of kings in chapter 192

of Vana Parva:


Once this Pariksit went after a deer while hunting in a forest and he traversed a long distance following it. On the way he felt tired by hunger and thirst. He saw a green grove and a river running still by its side, then. The king entered the waters of the river with his horse and after quenching the thirst of the horse and drinking some water to quench his own thirst, he bound the horse to a nearby tree and lay on the shores to take rest. Then he heard from somewhere a melodious song. The king raised his head and enjoying the music, waited to see the origin of it. Then a beautiful damsel appeared before him and the king talked with her and their conversation ended in the king requesting her to be his wife. . The beautiful maiden consented on one condition that she should not be made to touch water. The king agreed and by that time the king's followers came and the king took her to his palace in a decorated palanquin followed by his retinue. The king took her to a secret chamber and stayed with her allowing nobody to enter the room. The chief minister came to the palace and enqired what was happening there and the maidens attending on the queen said that it was strange that no water was allowed inside the room. Then the minister arranged a ,garden with beautiful flowers and fruits with no water anywhere and a pond in the middle in which water was not visible from outside. He then went to the king and told him of his arrangement and the king took his wife into the garden and started having amorous sport with her there. After some time they reached the pond; water was not visible and so they entered the pond. The moment they entered the pond they touched water and the queen disappeared in the water. The King asked the water of the pond to be emptied and then he saw a frog sitting at the bottom. The king accused the frog of having eaten the maiden and he started killing all the frogs of his state. The frogs became frightened and they went to their king and complained. The frogking in the garb of a maharsi went and requested the king to stop this massacre of frogs but the king refused to yield saying that a frog had eaten his wife. Hearing that, the sage was shocked and revealing his identity said "Oh King, be pleased with me; I am Ayus, the king of the frogs. Your wife was my daughter. She is called Susobhana and she is an obstinate bad-natured girl. Even from times of old she has cheated many kings like this."


Hearing this the king pleaded to the frog-king to give him back Sugobhana. He gave Susobhana to Pariksit.


But he cursed his daughter that she would bear misbehaving children because of her cheating many kings before. Ayus disappeared then. Pariksit begot of Susobhana three princes named Sala, Bala and Dala. When Sala grew up Pariksit crowned him as king and left for the forests for doing penance.( Chapter 192, VanaParva ).


PARIKSIT III. He was the son of Aviksit, a king of the Kuru line of kings. Pariksit was the eldest son and he got six sons named Kaksasena, Ugrasena, Citrasena, Indrasena, Susena and Bhirnasena. They were all virtuous scholars and Jnanins. (Chapter 94, Adi Parva).


PARIKSIT IV. Son of Anasva, a king of the Kuru line of kings. His mother was Amrta. This Pariksit begot of his wife Suyasa a son named Bhimasena. (Sloka 41, Chapter 95, Adi Parva).


PARIKSIT V. A king of the Kuru line of kings. (Chapter 150, anti Parva).


PARIPLAVA I. A king of the race of Bharata. He was the son of Nrcaksus and the grandson of Nala. Pariplava got a son named Medhavi. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PARIPLAVA II. A holy place situated on the border of Kuruksetra. If anyone visits this holy place. he would get the benefit of conducting an Agnistoma Yajna and an Atiratra yajna. ($loka 12, Chapter 83, Vana Parva).


PARISRUTA. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


PARIVAHA. A Vayu (wind). (See under Paravaha).


PARIVYADHA. One of the nine sages who lived in the western regions of Bharata. The others were : Usanga, Kurusa Dhaumya, Suviryavan, Ekata, Dvita, Trita and Sarasvata (Chapter 208, Santi Parva)


PARIYATRA. A mountain of Puranic fame. The deity of this mountain Pariyatra was a member of the court of Kubera. The asrama of the celebrated sage Gautama, was on this mountain. The sage Markandeya once saw this mountain in the belly of Balamukunda. This mountain is situated on the western side of Mahameru. (Sloka 115, Chapter 188, Vana Par va).


PARJANYA. A deva. See under Devavati III.


PARJADA I. An ancient sage of Bhdrata. He was a member of the court of Yudhisthira ($1oka 18, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


PARNADA II. A brahmin of the country of Vidarbha. It was Parnada who was sent out to know whether Nala was alive and he found out Nala living in disguise under the name of Bahuka and after collecting all information about him returned to Vidarbha. (See under Damayanti).


PARIADA III. A sage who acted as priest for a yaga conducted by a brahmin named Satya who lived in the country of Vidarbha. (Sloka 8, Chapter 273, Santi Parva)


PARNASA. A river of western Bharata. This river sits in the court of Varuna iri the form of a nymph. (Sloka 9, Chapter 1, Sabha Parva). Srutayudha, a valiant soldier who fought against Arjuna in the great Kuruksetra battle was the son of Parnasa. Varuna was the father of Srutayudha and at the'time of the birth of a son for her she requested Varuna to grant her a boon that her son would not be killed by anybody. Varuna while granting her the boon gave the son a mace. That mace had a peculiarity. If the mace was used against anybody who was not fighting, the mace would turn back and kill the user. With the help of that mace Srutayudha gave Arjuna a fierce fight and in the midst of the heat he forgot the condition stipulated by Varuna and used it against Sri Krsna who was standing nearby watching their fight. The mace turned back and killed Srutayizdha. (Chapter 92, Drona Parva).


ARNASALA. A Village situated in the valley of the mountain Yamuna. This mountain stands between the rivers Ganga and YamunA. During the period of Mahabharata this village was the abode of a great number of eminent scholars. Once there lived in that village a brahmin of Agastyagotra, well-learned, named Sarmi. One day the messengers of Kala (god of death) came to that village and by mistake took Sarmi to Yamaloka. It was only when they reached there that they understood their folly and Kala then asked his men to carry him back to earth. Then Sarmi. said he would spend the balance of life due to him in Yamaloka itself. But Yama did not allow that. Kala then told Sarmi the greatness in giving as gifts Til rind Vastra (Gingelly and clothes) and sent him back to earth. (Chapter 68, Anusasana Parva).


PARNAYA. A demon of Rgvedic times. He had two friends named Karanjaya and Vangrda. They attacked the two Kings belonging to the group of Aryas named Atithisva and Rjisva. The asuras were defeated because of the help sent to the kings by Indra. (Sukta 54, Anuvaka 10, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


PAROKSA. A King of Candravariisa. (9th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PAROPAKARI. See under Kanakarekha.


PARSNIKSEMA. A Visvadeva. (Sloka 30, Chapter 91, Anusasana Parva). (Vis vadevas are a particular group of deities, ten in number, supposed to be the sons of Visva).


PARSVAMAULL Another name for the demon named Manicara. There is a story behind this demon getting the name of Manicara. (See under Manicara).


PARSVAROMA. A place of human habitation of ancient Bharata. (Sloka 56, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


PARTHA. Son of ~rtha (Kunti). (See under Kunti).


PARUCCHEPA. A sage of Vedic times who was a Suktadrasta. He used some sounds too often in his talks.


Nrmedhas and Parucchepa vied with each other in their mantric skill. One day Nrmedhas in great pride produced smoke from wet firewood without igniting it and then Parucchepa produced fire without firewood. Nrmedhas admitted defeat. (Taittiriya Sarnhita).


PARUNITHA (PURUNITHA). A King extolled in the Rgveda. (Mandala 1, Rgveda).


PARUSA. A Raksasa (demon). He was one among the twelve demons who supported Khara when the latter fought against Sri Rama. (Sarga 26, Aranya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


PARVANA (S) . A company of raksasas and devils. Parvanas, Patanas, Jambhas, Kharas, Krodhavagas, Haris, Prarujas, Arujas and Praghasas belonged to a group of invisible demons and they fought against Sri Rama on the side of Ravana. (Chapter 285, Valmiki Ramayana).


PARVASA GRAHAPARVA. A subsidiary Parva of A.di Parva Chapter twenty is included in this Parva,


PARVATA I. A sage who was the nephew of Narada.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from VisnuBrahma-Marici-Paurnamasa-Parvata.


Prajapati Marici got of his wife Sambhuti a son named Paurnamasa. Paurnamasa got two sons Virajas and Parvata. Parvata's mother was the sister of Narada. (Chapter 10, Amsa 1, Visnu Purana).


2) Ndrada and Parvata. These two sages lived for a long time as inseparable friends. Once they travelled on earth in the form of human beings. They decided that each should speak out what, he felt without reserve and if anybody broke the arrangement the other had the right to curse him.


During their travels they reached the palace of a King called Srnjaya (Sanjaya) and they stayed there as his


uests for a long time. Damayanti (Madayanti) daughter of the King served them both and Ndrada fell in love with her. Ndrada hid this fact from Parvata and within a few days Parvata came to know it and he according to the agreement cursed Ndrada to take the form of a monkey. Ndrada gave a counter curse disabling Parvata from attaining Svarga. Both separated from there and after some time both lost their bitterness against each other. Parvata met Ndrada in his monkey form in a forest. Both were sorry for their curses then and each withdrew his curse and Ndrada got his original form. He married Damayanti and started living together and Parvata went to Svarga. (Chapter 30, Santi Parva).


3) 0 ther details.


(i) Parvatamuni was a member of the assembly of sages at the Sarpasatra of janamejaya. (Sloka 8, Chapter 53, Adi Parva).


(ii) Narada and Parvata were present for the Draupadisvayamvara ( marriage of Draupadi ). (Sloka 7, Chapter 156, Adi Parva).


(iii) Parvata and Ndrada were members of the court of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 15, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


(iv) This uncle-nephew combination was present in Indrasabha also. (Sloka 10, Chapter 7, Sabha Parva).


(v) They were members of Kuberasabha also. (Sloka 26, Chapter 10, Sablia Parva).


(vi) When the Pandavas were living in Kamyakavana, Parvata went there and advised them to conduct a pilgrimage. (Sloka 18, Chapter 93, Vana Parva).


(vii) Parvata showed the Pandavas daylight at night one day when the great battle was going on. (Sloka 15, Chapter 163, Drona Parva ).


(viii) Parvata swore that he was not a party to the theft of the lotus of Agastya. (Sloka 34, Chapter 94 Anus asana Parva).


PARVATA II. It is believed that in Krtayuga all mountains had wings. They flew all over the world with the swiftness of Garuda or Vayu. All beings including rsis and devas lived in a state of suspense since at any moment any mountain might fly and land down on their heads. They complained to Indra and Indra asked the mountains to remain at one place which they flatly refused. Indra got angry and started cutting down the wings of the mountains with his Vajrayudha. No mountain was able to escape from this punishment; but Vayubhagavan carried away his bosom friend, the mountain Mainaka, and put it in the ocean without anybody noticing it. So Mainaka alone did not lose its wings. It was this Mainaka which rose from the ocean and gave a resting point to Hanuman, son of Vayu, when he took a leap from the shores of Bharata to Lanka. This was but an expression of gratitude to Vayu whose son Hanuman was, for the help he had given when Indra was cutting off the wings of all mountains. (Sarga 1, Sundara Kanda, Valmlki Ramayana).


PARVATESVARA. A King of Vindhyadesa. He tortured his people because of his greed for money and Yama sent him to hell when he died. In his next birth he was born as a monkey. At that time a priest of the King had taken life as a Sarasa bird. One day the monkey tried to catch the bird and then the bird (priest) reminded him of his previous birth and told him that in their next birth both of them would be swans and in the birth after that they would become men again. (Uttara Khanda, Padma Purana).


PARVATEYA. A rajarsi (A King who is also a rsi). He was born of the species of a demon named Kapata. (Sloka 30, Chapter 67, Adi Parva).


PARVATI. Wife of Siva.


Parvat! is known under different names and worshipped in different forms. Amarakoca (Sanskrit lexicon) gives the following synonyms for Parvati


Uma, Katyayani, Gaurl, Kali, Haimavati, 19varl, Siva, Bhavani, Rudrani, Sarvanl, Sarvamafigala, Aparna, Durga, Mrdani, Candika, Ambika, Arya, Daksayan!, Girija, Menakatmaja, Camunda, Karnamot!, Carccika, Bhairavi.


Some of these names refer to the various dispositions of Parvati, while a few are the names in the various incarnations of Parvati. The origin of Parvati and her other prominent births are given below :-


1) Incarnation of Satz. Siva was born from Brahma. To make Siva active, Sat!, an aspect of Mahamaya, was born as the daughter of Daksa, one of the Prajapatis. The 9th Skandha of Devi Bhagavata gives the following story about the incarnation of Sat!


While Brahma was engaged in creation a few daityas named Halahalas were born. They were very valiant and ferocious and they did penance to propitiate Brahma and after obtaining boons from him conquered the three worlds and asserted their supremacy in all the three worlds. They defied the Trimurtis(trio of Brahma. Visnu and Siva). Siva and Visnu in despair went to war against them. The war continued for sixty thousand years and both the daityas and Devas were exhausted. Visnu and Siva refused to attend to their duties. Brahma understood the situation and taking into his hands the work of Siva and Visnu also and calling his sons, Sanaka and others to his side said "Oh sons, Siva and Visnu are incapable of doing their work now; I have therefore, taken on myself the charge of their duties also and hence I do not find time to do penance. You must therefore, do penance to propitiate Mahamaya. Let her be pleased and when she incarnates in this universe the world will be happy."


As soon as they heard this the Prajapatis headed by Daksa went to the forests on the side of the Himalayas. They started doing penance reciting the mantra of Mayabiia. The penance fasted for a hundred thousand years and then the goddess was pleased. She graciously


appeared before them with three eyes and four hands


bearing pasa, ankuga, vara and abhiti. Daksa and others praised her and she granted them boons. She did also promise to be born as the daughter of Daksa. Daksa and others returned happy.


Mahamaya incarnated as Sat! in the house of Daksa. Sat! blossomed into a beautiful maiden and all the Prajapatis joined together and made Siva marry her. The bride and bridegroom lived in the bride's house.


At that time the sage Durvasas worshipped Jagadambika seated at Jambunada meditating on her and reciting the mayabija mantra. The devi was immensely pleased and appearing before him gave him the divine garland lying round her neck. The garland was highly perfumed. Honey flowed from it always. Wearing that garland the sage travelled through air and reached the palace of Daksa, father of Satl, and gave that garland to him. Daksa received it with great delight and took it to his bed-room and placed it there. That night Daksa inhaled the perfume of the divine garland and enjoyed an amorous sport with his wife. This act made the garland impure and the latent curse in it made Daksa hate his daughter Sat! and her husband Siva. After that Daksa conducted a Yaga and insulted Siva by not inviting either him or his wife. Sad, however, attended the Yaga uninvited and she was insulted. Unable to bear the insult Bat! leapt into the fire and committed suicide. From that day onwards Siva roamed about in the world crying "Sate, Sat!."


2) Sati, Paraati (Kdlf). During that time a son named Vajratiga was born to Kasyapa of his wife Diti. This virtuous asura practised austerities for a thousand years and when he opened his eyes after his long penance he did not see his wife. Vajranga started in search of her collecting fruits and roots for his food on the way. Then he came across her standing underneath a tree weeping and she said : "All the time you were doing penance, Indra was teasing me. I was living without food on the banks of the river keeping a vow of silence. Indra came there in the form of a monkey and threw away all my articles used for worship. Then he came in the form of a lion and frightened me. Then again he came in the form of a serpent and bit me. Oh lord, am I, your wife, an orphan ?" Vajrahga got angry and decided to do penance again to find a remedy for this unjust act of Indra. Then Brahma coming to know of the fierce decision of Vajrafiga appeared before him and said "Why do you go in for a penance again? Ask me what you want and I shall grant you." Vajranga said "Oh Lord, I did penance all these thousand years to get rid of the demoniac disposition of mine. But when I was engaged in meditation Indra tormented my virtuous wife very much without any reason. If you will bless me I must get a son named Taraka to kill all the devas including Indra." Brahma granted the boon.


Varahg! became pregnant and after twelve months was born a son to her named Tarakasura. Taraka did severe penance sitting in the midst of Paficagni (five fires) for a long time and Brahma was pleased and appeared before him. Taraka then said : "If I were to die I must die at the hands of a seven-day-old babe. You must grant me a boon like that." Brahma granted the boon. Taraka became arrogant with that boon and joined hands with such fierce demons as Prasena, Jambha and Ka1anemi to create havoc in the three worlds of Svarga,  Bhumi and Patala. They blessed. the wicked and killed the virtuous. It was the time when Siva was sadly roaming about in search of his lost wife Sat!,


All the devas headed by Indra went and complained to Brahma. Brahma said:-"After all, this calamity is not without remedy. There is an escape from the boon I have given him. Tarakasura himself has allowed him to be killed by a sevendav-old babe. If there should be such a babe it should be from the virility of Siva. Tarakasura thinks that since Siva is observing brahmacarya after the death of Sat! there is no chance of. a babe being born to him. That was why he was prepared to allow that clause in that boon. I shall therefore suggest a plan. Sat! herself should be born as the daughter of Himavan and Mend in the name of Kali. Kali should do great penance and break the vow of celibacy of Siva. If. Siva accepts her as his wife and a child is born to them we are saved."


Siva was all this time spending his time thinking of Sat!. Once during this time Siva bathed in the river Kalindi and then the waters of the river Kalind! became black and the waters remained black ever since that.


Indra and others on their return from Brahma went to Brhaspati to think about further procedure in the matter. Brhaspatisaid:-"No obstacle would ever come to any act of the devas. Himavan was doing penance for a long time to obtain a child and by the grace of Siva, Sat! has already been born as the daughter of Himavan. (Skanda Purana in its Sambhava Kanda states thus about the birth of Sat! as Parvati. "Sat! before jumping into the fire meditated on Siva and prayed that she should be born in her next birth as his wife. Siva granted that request. It was at that time that Himavan along with his wife Mend went to the vicinity of Amrtasaras and started doing penance to get a child. One day when Himavan and his wife were bathing in the saras they saw a gem of a girl in the waters and they took it. Then they found the child with four hands and all other emblems of goddess on her. They praised her with verses from Vedas and soon the divine emblems faded away and Himavan gave the child to his wife.") Brahma never wanted Taraka to know that the child was an incarnation of Devi and so he made the babe black by sending Nisa to do so. Nisa entered the womb of the pregnant Mend while she was sleeping with her mouth open one day. The child was like a sapphire idol. Himavan was surprised to see the child. The child will do severe penance and obtain Siva as her husband. Siva and Sat! will never be separated in any of their births. Oh Indra now go and try to get Siva interested in a married life."


Himavan and Mena had three daughters and a son. The devas were watching who among the three-Ragini, Kutila and K511-would become the consort of Siva. All the three were interested in penance. The devas took Ragin! to Brahmaloka and showed her to Brahma and the latter declared that Ragini was incapable of bearing the virility of Siva. Rdgin! got angry and Brahma cursed her and made her into Sandhyaraga and she took her place in the sky. Then the devas took Kutila to Brahma and the latter said that she was also incapable of being a mate of Siva. Kutild also got angry and Brahma made her into a river and kept her in Brahmaloka. Mend was greatly distressed at the loss of her two daughters and so she advised Kali, her third daughter to go home, discontinuing the penance. She at first said Uma (Md = do not) and so she got the name of Uma She was the daughter of a Parvata (Himavan is a parvata (mountain) and so she got the name Parvati (mountain-girl) also. Kali later went home. But after some time the natural inclination in her 1ed her to start a severe penance again.


The young Kali,, who was only a small girl then, accompanied by two of her girl companions went to the shores of a river deep in the forests and 'started practising austerities. In summer she would sit in the midst of Pancagni (five fires) and in the rainy season she would sit in water and do penance. The penance lasted for a thousand years.


Siva who was roaming about in search of Sat! went once to the palace of Himavdn. Siva agreed to stay there for some time at the persistent request of Himavan. During his stay there Siva understood that one of the daughters of his host was doing penance meditating on SaAkara, Curious to know more about her, Siva one day went to the asrama of Kali. Kal.! saw Siva and she stood up bowing before him. Siva was pleased with her. But before Kali could have another look at Siva, he vanished from there.


Kali was disappointed and continued her penance again. Years went by and one day there came to her a9rama a Vatu(a Brahmin brahrnacari ).Kali and her companions stood up and worshipped the Vatu who looked brilliant with ashes on his body and wearing rudraksa and aksamald (berry of a tree and rosary made of it) and carrying in his hand a danda (stick) and a Kamandalu (water pot). After formal introduction the Vatu asked Kali the purpose of her penance and Kali told him all about it. Then the Vatu asked her in tones of surprise why such a beautiful girl like herself born to be the wife of a king, should go after a crudely dressed aged man like Siva who goes on the back of a bullock always. Parvati resented the statement of the Vatu and got angry with him. Then Siva appeared before her in his real formand married Parvati (Kali alias Uma) in the presence of devas and maharsis.


3) Parvati changes into Gauri. Siva and Parvati spent their honeymoon travelling throughout the world: Years went by like that. One day Siva in a spirit of sport called Parvat! 'Kali, Kal!'. Kali meant black one and Parvati was as- black as sapphire. Parvati misunderstood Siva addressing her thus two times and thought, perhaps, Siva did not like her black body and trembling with grief said "If a wound is made by an arrow it will heal in due course; if the top of a tree is chopped off it will again blossom when the season comes; but the wound in the minds of others by harsh words is never healed. It was not my fault that I was born black and I would never again come near you with this black body. I am going." Saying thus with a firm determination, she rose up into the air and travelling for some time reached a big forest. She created by her reciting the smaranamantra four attendants for her named Somaprabhd, Jayd, Vijaya and Jayand and started doing penance there. She practised severe austerities standing on one foot for a hundred years and then Brahma appeared before her and sought the reason why Parvati, wife of Paramesvara should do such severe penance and then she narrated to him all that had happened. Brahma after hearing her story told her thus:- "Virtuous woman, from today onwards, your black complexion would change into one of the hue of a lotus petal. Because of that `gaura' hue you would be called `Gauri'." By the time Brahma finished blessing her the colour changed into the one described by Brahma.


4) GaurF changes into KatyayanF, hindhyavdsini, CQndika and CdmnndikQ. When. Devi became Gauri her superficial skin peeled off and dropped down, it is said.


At that time there were two great demons called Rambha and Karambha. They had no sons and they started severe penance. Karambha was doing penance standing in deep waters and a crocodile swallowed him. The crocodile was none other than Indra. Rambha did penance standing in the midst of fire and finding no result even after a long time decided to sacrifice himself into the fire. Agnideva then appeared before him and blessed him thus: "Oh Rambha, you will get a mighty son of the woman you love." Rambha stopped his penance and returned home with the boon. On the way he saw a beautlful she-buffalo and passion rose in him and he made contacts with the buffalo. The buffalo became pregnant and in due course delivered a child which later on became the notorious Mahisasura. In the meantime a buffalo loved Mahisasura's mother and it attacked Rambha and gored him to death. The Yaksas burnt his dead body in a funeral pyre and the she-buffalo jumped into the pyre and abandoned her life. From that pyre there arose then another demon and he was the notorious Raktabija. Mahisasura became the king of demons and Raktabija, Canda and Munda became his ministers. They attacked the devas and drove them to exhaustion. The devas took refuge in Brahma to think of a plan to kill those asuras. Visnu, and Siva took part in the conference. Visnu the eternal, got angry along with Siva and became fierce like the fire of death. Brahma and the devas also became angry and from the face of everyone a brilliance emanated and all these brilliances joined together and reached the holy asrama of Katyayana maharsi and that eminent sage also sent out a brilliance. The ascetic brilliance joined with the divine brilliance and the combined brilliance shone like a thousand suns. Then this superior brilliance entered the peeled-off skin of Kali to produce the fierce and divine form of a goddess named Katyayani.


Each limb of the new form was made up of the brilliance from a particular god as follows : From the brilliance of Mahendra was formed the face; from Agni, the eyes; from Yama, the hair; from Visnu, the eighteen hands; from Indra, the central parts; from Varuna, the hip and the thighs ; from Brahma, the feet ; from Surya, the toes ; from Prajapati, the teeth; from Vasus, the fingers of the hands ; from Yaksa, the nose; from Vayu the ears and from the ascetic brilliance, the erotic eyebrows. Thus Katyayani shone in the world with a figure formed with distinctive perfection.


All the gods and devas presented Katyayani with gifts: -Siva gave her a trident (trisula); Visnu a Discus ; Varuna, a conch; Agni, a javelin; Vayu, a bow; Surya, a never-empty quiver ; Indra, Vajraghanta ; Yama, a danda (stick); Vaisravana, a mace ; Brahma, a rosary garland ; Kala, a sword and shield ; Candra, Camara (white brush-like fan) and a pearl necklace ; Ocean a garland ; Himavan, a lion ; Visvakarma, a moondisced Cudamani, earrings and a dagger; the King of Gandharvas, a silver-plated drinking cup ; the King of nagas, a nagahara ; and the Rtus (seasons), never fading flowers. The three-eyed Katyayani on getting all these was highly pleased and made a roaring sound. Devi, thus worshipped and adored by all, mounted on the lion and went to the topmost peak of the Vindhyas. Indra and Agni went and served Katydyani thus living there. Vindhya called Devi, Kausiki and Agastya ca1led her Durga.


Mahisasura once went to the Vindhyas after conquering all the three worlds. He was accompanied by his ministers, Raktabija, Canda, Munda, Ciksura and Naraka. They met there the goddess Katyayani. Mahisasura fell in love with the beautiful and wellfigured Katyayani and he sent Dundubhi as messenger to the goddess to make her know his desire. Dundubhi approached Katyayani and told her to become the wife of Mahisa, the emperor of all the three worlds. Devi replied that she would accept as her husband one who defeated her and that was the custom also in her caste. Mahisasura with a huge army and heavy equipments went to war with her. But Katyayani entered the field alone mounted on her lion and the devas watching her enter the battlefield without wearing even an armour were shocked. Devi went forward reciting the mantra of Visnupancaksara given to her by Siva and lakhs and lakhs of demons were killed by the adroit sword-swinging and the dinning roar of Katyayani. Mahisa and his ministers surrounded her and Devi stepping down from the lion started to dance wielding her sword. Swinging her sword to- the rhythm of her dance-steps Devi picked up the leading demons one by one and killed them. Seeing that, Mahisasura approached her, burning with rage like the pralayagni. All the attendants of Devi fled. Those who remained were trampled to death by Mahisasura. Devi at first killed the ministers and then faced Mahisasura. Mahisa became an elephant and Devi cut off its trunk. The elephant became a buffalo then. Devi sent a spike and it broke. Even Devi's Discus, granted to her by Visnu was blunted when it hit the rock-like body of Mahisasura. Varunapasa, Yamadanda and Indravajra were all alike fruitless against the mighty Mahisasura. Angered Devi jumped on the buffalo form of the demon and drove it to exhaustion and when at last its power of resistance had failed, Devi plunged her spear into the ears of the buffalo and the demon fell dead.


Many years went by. Kasyapa begot of his wife Danu three great sons named Sumbha, Nissumbha and Namuci. All were fierce demons. Namuci attacked Indra but they soon came to a compromise. But Indra hid in the foam of the ocean which entered the ears, nose and mouth of Namuci while he was playing in the ocean. Indra used his Vajrayudha from inside and killed him. 8umbha and Nisumbha were angry and they entered svarga and defeating everyone there, carried all the riches from there to the earth. They met Raktabija and he said "Oh Lords, I am Raktabija, minister of Mahisasura. Katyayani Devi killed virtuous Mahisasura. His two ministers Canda and Munda are hiding inside the ocean afraid of Katyayani devi."Whilehe was speaking thus Canda and Munda also came there. When they all exchanged ideas Sumbha called one of his men and said "Bho: Sugrivasura, go and tell Katyayani to be my wife." Sugriva went to Katyayani and returned disappointed and said "Lords $umbha and Nisumbha,

I told Devi your message and she only laughed. She said that Sumbha and Nisumha might be mighty lords but only those who defeated her could marry her."


Enraged at this arrogance of Katyayani, Sumbha sent Dhumraksa to drag Katyayani down to him. Dhumraksa with six Aksauhinis of soldiers went to the seat of Katyayan! and challenged her to a fight. Devi stepped down from her seat and stood before Dhumraksa and the latter leaped forward to catch hold of her. But Dhumraksa was burnt to death by the humkara fire of the goddess.. Not only that, the humkara sound reached the ears of Sumbha. Sumbha felt small by this prowess of the Devi but his rage increased. Sumbha then sent Canda, Munda and the great demon Ruru also with an army of a hundred crores of demons to face Devi Kausiki. When the enemies reached Vindhya the bhutas of Devi made loud and shrill noises. The lion of Katyayani roared and she leaped into the midst of the army sword in hand. Lakhs and lakhs of asuras fell dead by the sword of the goddess. Devi once opened her mouth and lakhs of asuras entered it and then she shut her mouth keeping in her stomach the asuras till they all died. Devi beat the demon Ruru to death. Devi plucked her matted hair and struck it on the ground and from there arose the fierce form of Camundi. Canda and Munda fled but Camundi followed them to Patala and catching hold of them chopped off their heads and presented them to Katyayani. Then Devi, Camundi and the bhutas together tore to pieces all the remaining asuras and stored them all in their stomachs. Hearing this gumbha's rage knew no bounds and he started with an army of thirty crores of men. The army swept on like an ocean and finding it moving forward Camundi roared. Katyayani made a sound like a lion's roar. Brahmaniholdinghigh the dagger jumped down to fight. Mahesvari with snakes and the spike, with the three eyes open got down in fits of anger: Kaumari with the javelin hanging round her waist and bright eyes entered the field. Vaisnavi swinging her sword and whirling the mace with many weapons rushed to the field. Varahi breaking open the earth with its tusk and bearing a large wooden pestle came to fight. Indrani with diamond on her sides came to fight. Narasifhi brushing the manes on her breast, shaking the stars and whirling the planets and making a fierce appearance came to the field. (Camundi, Brahmani, Mahesvari, Vaisnavi,-Varahi and Narasimhi are the different forms of katyayani. They are called Saptamatrs (seven mothers). These saptamatrs were born when~Katyayani in her wrath beat the earth with her matted hair). Camundi roared. The world became dark. Hearing the roar Siva descended to the field. The Asuras surrounded the Devi again. But they all fell dead with blood flowing in a stream. The dead bodies of the asuras became heaped up and in despair gumbha and Nisumbha wept. Seeing that, Raktabija got angry and rushed at Devi. The Saptamatrs shouted and Camundi opened her mouth. The lower jaw of Camundi touched Patala when she opened her mouth from the sky. Raktabija, wounded and bleeding by a dagger stroke of Cimundi, fell into the mouth of Camundi and disappeared. Then Nis umbha interfered and the fight became one between Nisumbha and Devi. The fat and sturdy hands of Nis umbha and the mace he was carrying fell by an arrow sent by Devi. Then Devi struck him with


her spike and Nisumbha was killed. Both 8umbha and Nis umbha who came to wreak vengeance on her were thus killed. (See under Lankalaksmi to know how Parvati became Lan.kalaksmi).


5) Pdrvati takes theforms of Elephant and monkey. Siva and Parvati went about enjoying amorous sports in the forests. Siva turned himself into a tusker and Parvati became a she-elephant then. Ganapati was born as a result of that sport. Siva became a monkey and Parvati became his mate and Hanuman was born as a result of that sport. (See under Ganapati and Hanurnan ).


6) Parvati became Sitd. This happened when Rama and Laksmana along with Sita were in the forests. One day Sita went to the Godavari river nearby to bring water to the asrama and she stayed for some time watching two swans playing in the midst of lotuses in the lake there. Hearing a sound she looked into the river and saw Sri Rama bathing there. She was surprised. When she left the asrama Rama was sitting there. At the same time another thing happened in the a~rama. Sri Rama found Sita coming to him and when he arose to receive her the figure disappeared. Then Sri Ra:ma found bathing by Sitadevi also disappeared. When an astonished Sita reached the asrama she found an equally astonished Sri Rama sitting there. They then told each other their experiences and Sri Rama on meditation understood that in the guise of Rama -and Sita Siva and Parvati had come from Kailasa to know about the welfare of the princes in exile.


7) Pdrvati, hihunda and Jalandhara. See under those names.


8) Other details.


(i) Parvati shines in the court of Brahma. (Sloka 41, Chapter 11, Sabha Parva ).


(ii) When the Pandavas were in exile Parvati guarded Arjuna always. (Vana Parva, Chapter 37, Sloka 38).


(iii) Once Parvati appeared in person and blessed Dharmaputra. (Chapter 6, Virala Parva).


(iv) Once Sri Krsna pleased Parvati and she granted Krsna boons. The first was that he would have sixteen thousand wives. The next was a beautiful form for Krsna and the next was 1ove of his relatives. Another boon was that Krsna would have the prosperity to be able to give food for seven thousand travellers daily. (Sloka 7, Chapter 15, Anusasana Parva ).


(v) It was because of a curse of Parvati that devas do not.get sons by their own wives. There is the following story behind that.


Siva and Parvati went to the Himalayas after their marriage and started living there. Siva and Parvati were so much engrossed in their amorous sport that they were oblivious of the happenings outside. After a long time when their sport continued without a break the devas went in and informed Siva that the whole universe was trembling by their sport and if Siva produced a son the world would be incapable of bearing it and so he should withdraw from the act of producing a child. Siva agreed and drew his virile strength upwards. Parvati did not like that and she cursed the devas that they would never have sons of their own wives. (Chapter 84, Anu: asana Parva ).


(vi) Parvati once taught Gangadevi the duties of women. (Sloka 33, Chapter 146, Anusasana Parva).


(vii) Parvati resides in the mount of Munjavan in Kailasa with Paramagiva. There is a mount called Mufijavan in the Himalayas. Bhagavan Umapati (Siva) shines there on treetops, underneath the trees, on the mounts and in caves. (Chapter 8, Mvamedha Parva).


(viii) The Mahabharata uses the fol1owing synonyms for Parvati : Ambika, Arya, Uma, Bhlma, Sailaputri, Sailarajasuta, gakambhari, Sarvani, Deve'.i, Devi, Durga, Gauri, Girisuta, Girirajatmaja, Kali, MahabhIma, Mahadevi, Mahakali, Mah6vari, Parvatarajakanya, Rudrani, Rudrapatni and Tribhuvane'vari.


9) Pdrvata pratistha. The installation of the goddess Parvati in temples is done with the following sacred rites.


An inner temple should be constructed and the idol of Devi should be installed there. Before that, on the bed of the platform bearing the idol, amulets with spiritual inscriptions on them should be deposited there just as in the case of the installation of Mahe' vara. Then Parasakti should be consecrated there with recitals of mantras followed by the deposition of Paficaratnas meditating on Pindika. Then the ido1 of Devi should be fixed on the platform. After that Kriy5g-akti should be consecrated on the platform and Jfianasakti on the idol. Finally Ambika named Siva should be invoked with the mantras as ordained in the scriptures.


The different zones like the east and the west and the guards of the Universe like Indra should also be worshipped. (Chapter 98, Agni Purana; Sarga 36, Bala Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana; Chapters 51 and 53, Varnana Purana; 7th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata; 4th Skandha, Bhagavata; Chapter 43, Brahmanda Purana; Aranya Kanda, Uttara Ramayana, Kamba Ramayana; Chapter 121, Padma Purana; Chapter 186, Adi Parva; Chapter 37, Vana Parva, Chapter 6, Virata Parva; Chapter 23, Bhisma Parva; Chapter 202, Drona Parva; Chapter 283, Sand Parva; Chapters 15, 84, 140 and 146, Anusasana Parva; and Chapter 8, A9vamedha Parva).


PARVATIYA I. (PARVATIYA). A king who lived during the period of Mahabharata. He was born of the species of the danava called Kuksi. (Sloka 56, Chapter 67, Adi Parva).


PARVATIYA II (PARVATIYA). Those who resided in the country called Parvatiya in ancient Bharata were called Parvatiyas. Parvatiyas were also present for the Rajasuya of Dharmaputra. When the PanavaS had to fight against Jayadratha during their exile* in the forests these parvatiyas fought on the side of Jayadratha. Arjuna killed them all. In the Kuruksetra battle the Parvatiyas fought on the side of the Kauravas. Parvatiya was a very important country of ancient Bharata. Once the Parvatiyas fought against Krsna and Krsna conquered them. In the great battle the parvatiyas fought against the Pandavas under the banners of Sakuni and Uluka. The Pandavas destroyed them all. (Chapter 52, Sabha parva; Chapter 271, Vana Parva; Chapter 30, Udyoga Parva; Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva; Chapter 11, Drona Parva; Chapter 46, Karna Parva and Chapter 1, $alya Parva).


PAPA. A divine weapon of Varuna. There is nothing, to excel this in swiftness. (Sloka 29, Chapter 41, Vana Parva).


PASANATIRTHA. A sacred place.This is located in the Jamadagnivedi in the temple of Surparaka. (Sloka 12, Chapter 38, Vana Parva).


PASASINI. An ancient river of Bharata. (Sloka 22, Chapter 9, Bhi sma Parva).


PAST. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Bhima killed him in the great battle-. (Sloka 5, Chapter 84, Karna Parva).


PASIVATA. A place of habitation in ancient India. (M. B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 64)


PASUBHUMI. The country of Nepal. The place got the name of Pasubhumi because it is located near the birth place of Pasupati (Siva). (Chapter 30, Sloka 9, Sabha Parva). .


PASUDA. A female follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 28, Chapter 46, Salya Parva).


PASUPATA I. An aged brahmin. (See under Virupaksa). PASUPATA. II. The missile of Siva. Arjuna during his exile in the forests performed penance to propitiate Siva and got this missile from him.


Siva has a bow named Pinaka. Pasupata is the arrow that is used on that bow: Pinaka is a serpent with the colours of a rainbow. It has seven heads and has -fierce canine teeth. Poison flows from them always. The string of the bow is wound round the neck of Siva. The arrow, bright like the sun and' equal to the fire of death, is the Pasupata. It will burn all that it touches. Neither Narayanastra, Brahmastra, Agneyastra nor Varunastra can stand against this. In times of old Siva burnt the Tripuras (three cities of the notorious three demons) by this arrow. Even Brahma and Visnu could be killed by Pasupata. (Chapter 14, Anus asana Parva ). Devotees worship Pasupata as a deity. If the Pasupata mantra is recited once it will remove all obstacles from the way and if recited a hundred times it will end all your s calamities and bring success in any war for you.


PAJUPATA (S). The bhutaganas (Spirits and devils attending on him) of Siva as a class are called Pa9upatas. (Chapter 67, Vamana Purana).


PASUSAKHA. Husband of Ganda, servant-maid of the saptar sis. (See under Saptarsis ).


PATACCARA. A place of habitation in ancient Bharata. During Puranic times the people of this place migrated to south India because, they were afraid of Jarasandha. (Chapter 14, Sabha Parva ). Sahadeva, one of the Pandavas during his victory tour of the south, subdued the people of this place. The pataccaras fought against the Kauravas on the side of the Pandavas. (Chapter 31, Sabha Parva). It was the pataccaras who stood at the back of the Kraufica Vyuha constructed by the Pandavas. (Chapter 50, Bhisma Parva).


PATAKI. A soldier of the Kaurava army. Duryodhana gave instructions to Sakuni to attack Arjuna taking Pataki along with him for help. (Chapter 156, Drona Parva).


PATALA. A monkey. This monkey met Sri Rama at Kiskindha when the latter was going to Lanka to meet Vibhisana. . (Chapter 88, Srsti Khanda, Padma Purana).


PATALA. The last of the seven regions or worlds under the earth said to be peopled by Nagas. The seven regions one below the other are (1) Atala (2) Vitala (3) Sutala (4) Talatala (5) Rasatala (6) Mahatala and (7) Patala. In all these regions there are beautiful cities and buildings built by Maya, the great architect. The daityas, danavas and nagas live in these regions.


Patala is seventy thousand yojanas high each division being ten thousand, yojanas high. The earth in these regions is of different hue like white, black, red and yellow. It is filled with rubbles, black granite and gold. Once Ndrada on his return to Svarga from Patala said that Patala was more beautiful than Svarga. The ornaments worn by nagas are profusely studded with shining diamonds. Daytime is lighted by the Sun and the night by the Moon. There is neither heat nor cold there and the happy nagas living contentedly do not feel the passage of time.


Under the Patala is Adisesa, a t5masic form of Mahavisnu, known to the Siddhas as Ananta. He has a thousand h~s and Svastika as his badge. Holding in one hand ea a plough and in the other a wooden pestle he sits worshipped by ~ridevi and Varunidevi. At the time of the end of the world the Sankarsanamfirti, Rudra, is born from the face of Adisesa shining brightly like poisonous fire and it consumes all the three worlds. Adisesa worshipped by all gods bears this earth on his head like a crown and sits in Patala. When Ananta yawns this wor1d begins to quake along with its oceans, rivers and forests. Nobody has seen an end of his qualities and that is why he is known as Ananta (no end). It was by worshipping this Ananta that the ancient sage Garga learned the truth about the results of Nimitta'sastra (predictions by omens) a division of Jyotisas astra.


The distinguishing characteristics of each of the seven divisions of Patala are given below :-


1) Atala. The first region of Patala. Here lives Bala, the celebrated son of Maya. He has created ninetysix kinds of magical arts capable of giving everything one desires. Those interested in magic are even now using some of these. When Bala yawns three kinds of women will come out of his mouth. Pumscalis (harlots), Svairinis (adulteresses) and Kaminis (lustful maidens). These women have a charm called Hataka to tempt all who enter Atala. This hataka is a rasayana which will excite sexual passion in men so that the Women can enjoy a sexua1 life with them for a prolonged period. These women after enticing ,the men would live with them enjoying= a life of bliss produced by bewitching side glances, charming smiles, erotic embraces and exciting amorous talks. The men who live with them will be in such a state of bliss that they would say with pride "I am perfect, I am god. I am one with the might of ten thousand elephants."


2) Vitala. This is the abode of Hatakesvara who is none other than Paramasiva. This god accompanied by Bhavanidevi and surrounded by pramathaganas


(prominent demigods who attend on him) and worshipped by devas, presides over this place increasing the prajas created by Brahma. The semen virile of Parvati-Paramesvaras flows there as the river Hataki. The gold named Hataka is what is vomited by the wind-blown Agni after drinking the rasa of that river. The wives of daityas wear ornaments made of this gold.


3) , Sutala. This is the abode of Mahabali. Here lives Mahabali meditating on Mahavisnu with more glory and grandeur than Indra. To please lndra, Mahavisnu once went to Mahabali on earth and by deceit took all his possessions and binding him with Varunapa~a pushed him to Sutala through a hole made


on earth. Later Mahavisnu felt he did a wrong in thus sending away Mahabali from earth by deceit and to remedy the sin committed he even now acts as a gatekeeper to Mahabali in Sutala. Once Ravana went to Sutala to attack Mahabali and then Mahavisnu keeping watch over the palace-gate in the form of Vamana gave Ravana a kick and sent him back.


4) Taldtala. This is the place where Maya lives. This Maya is a mighty magician among demons. After the Tripuradahana (burning the three demons to death) Siva blessed Maya and , the latter is living as Tripuradhipati (chief of Tripura) in Talatala. Maya is the preceptor of all demon-magicians and many fiercelooking demons worship him always.


5) Mahdtala. This is the abode of Kadraveyas. They got the name because they are all children of Kadrfi, the cobra. All these cobras are fierce-looking multiheaded ill-tempered ones. The prominent ones among them are Kuhaka, Taksaka, Susena and Kaliya. All these are long lean serpents possessing big hoods and great strength. These bad-tempered cobras live with their family terribly afraid of Garuda.


6) Rasatala. This is the residence of the notorious Nivatakavaca-Ka.lakeyas. They were enemies of the devas and they tormented them in matey ways. The majestic authority of Mahavisnu decreased their virility. They are now living in kasatala frightened by the threats and beatings with a magic wand of Sarama, a mantrarfipini (a sacred chant incarnate) deputed by Indra.


7) Patala. This is the abode of serpents. The nagaiokadhhipatis (chiefs of the serpent world) like Vasuki, SaIlkha, Gulika, Sveta, Dhananjaya Mahasikha, Dhrtarastra, Sankhacfida, Kambala, Asvadhara and Devadatta live here. These are all strong, longbodied, greatly poisonous snakes with very bad tempers. They all possess hoods varying in numbers from five to hundred and the lustre of the diamonds on their hoods keeps the region of Patala always illuminated. At the base of this Patala-world is a place, separated from the rest, thirty thousand yojanas in area. It is here that the tamasic Visnukala resides under the name Ananta. Adisesa or Ananta is the manifestation of this Visnukala. Sri Ananta has got a name Sankarsana meaning one who proudly and arrogantly pulls at every thing that is seen and unseen.


It is well-known that all the worlds are being borne on his head by the thousand-hooded Ad isesa. When, while bearing the worlds like this, he feels that he should destroy the animate and inanimate objects of the worlds, he brings forth from his forehead Rudra named Sankarsana with eleven demigods and weapons like tris fila (trident). Ananta is very beautiful with divine brilliance. Other serpent chiefs prostrate before him and at that time they see their reflection on the diamond-mirror-like nails on the toes of Ananta and for some time the serpent chiefs lie there pleasantly looking at the reflection of thier own faces in the nails. The earrings of dazzling brilliance worn by these serpent chiefs reflect on their cheeks and the serpents feel extremely happy when they see the reflection of their faces on the nails.


The daughters of the serpent kings are all beautiful damsels with fair, spotless and lustrous bodies. They smear their bodies with fragrant pastes made from Aloe, Sandal and Saffron. They then stand around Adisesa with their bewitching smiles and amorous movements of their bodies accompanied by erotic side glances expressing their carnal desire. The mighty, virtuous, celebrated Adisesa sits there surrounded by serpents for the welfare of the world. He sits there worshipped by Devas, Siddhas, Gandharvas, Vidyadharas and Maharsis, bearing the divine garland `Vaijayanti', and wearing fragrant flower garlands, blue apparels and ornaments in ears and neck and holding in his hand the Halayudha. Suppressing his anger and keeping calm and serene he pleases all around with his pathetic look. (9th Skandha Devi Bhagavata).


PATALAKETU. A demon. This demon once carried away Madalasa, daughter of Visvavasu to Patala. Rtadhvajaraja defeated Patalaketu and rescued Madalasa from Patala. (See under Rtadh-,aja).


PATALARAVANA. A leader among the demons. Ravana, the lord of Lanka., and Patalaravana are different. PatS.laravana was the son of the sister of Malyavan. Heti, son of Brahma, begot of his wife Bhaya a son named Vidyutkega. Vidyutkesa married Salakatanka and got of her Sukesa. Suke.'a married Devavati and got of her three sons, Malyavan, Sumali and Of these Sumali got Prahasta and others who were the ministers of was the son of Malyavan's sister.


A set of demons afraid of Mahavisnu, the destroyer of demons, fled to Patala. Their leader was Patalaravana. On reaching Pdtdla he became their leader and emperor and he got the name of Patalaravana from then onwards.


Patalaravana performed severe austerities to propitiate Brahma and got from him three extraordinary boons:(1 ) To travel freely in all the worlds without the use of any vehicle (2) To be well-versed in all magical arts (3) To be alive till the beetle-shaped blue diamond in his possession is broken into two.


Patalar5vana used all these boons for the welfare and emancipation of his own people. He was interested in teasing his enemies by the power of his boons. Ravana, king of Lanka, had an alliance with Patalaravana.


Patalaravana had a cruel and huge brother named Kumbhodara who was an adept in magic. This brother always helped Patala-Ravana in all his activities.


The Rama-Ravana Yuddha was going on and Ravana began to suffer defeat after defeat in quick succession. Ravana then sent for Patalaravana and his brother Kurnbhodara. Patalaravana felt sorry at the pitiable plight of Lanka and both the Ravanas sat together to discuss future plans. Though they had lost a major portion of their army, Ra.Vana suggested they should fight with the rest of the army and kill Rama. Patalaravana was to kill Rama and Lanka-Ravana was to marry Sita. Patalaravana said that it was unwise to continue the fight with a small army but promised he would make a trial by using his magic powers.


Patalaravana and Kumbhodara on leaving Lanka made themselves invisible and travelled above the camp of Sri Rama to investigate the strength and manoeuvres of the Rama-army. It was night and the whole place was lit by moonlight. The monkey soldiers were taking rest in different places. Vibhisana and Sugriva were talkingin secret about grave matters. Sri Rama was lying resting his head on the lap of Laksmana and Laksmana was mildly massaging the divine body of his brother. Hanuman was sitting on a big dais created by his tail and keeping watch over the whole camp.


Patalaravana knew from what he saw that any attempt to carry away Rama from the surface of the ground was impossible and so he returned to Patdla. From there they made a tunnel up to the base of the seat of Hanuman and from there to where Rama lay. Then they carried Rama and Laksmana to Patala before anybody could find it out by making them smell a sammohanadivvausadha (divine medicine causing unconscious ness). They brought them to a temple of Mahakali with the intention of offering them in a sacrifice to the deity the next day morning. They made all preparations for the same. Hanaman used to inspect the camp often and yet when after midnight he looked at the place where Rama and Laksmana were sleeping he could not find them. He immediately woke up all and made a search and they then found the big hole of a tunnel near the place where Rama and Laksmana were sleeping. All the leaders including Sugriva and Vibhisana assembled there and then Vibhisana told them what had happened. He then took ~ugriva, Hanurnan, Jambavan and Angada and a big army to Pdtdla and went straight to the Mahakali temple. There Patalardvaraa had already started the ceremonies for the sacrifice.


Vibhisana then asked Hanfiman to go and get the beetle-shaped diamond of Patalaravana from a secret place in his bed chamber. Hanuman took it and kept it in his mouth and attacked Patalaravana who came running to slay hire. faced Hanuman in a very indifferent manner and a fight ensued. After sometime Hanuman lost patience and cracked the diamond within his mouth and the moment it cracked Patala-Ravana fell down dead. (Yuddha Kanda, Karnba Ramayana )


PATALAVATI. A holy river of Uttara Bharata. (Sloka 11, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva)


PATALIPUTRA. An ancient city of Puranic fame in Uttara Bharata. The former name of this city was Pataliputraka. There is a story behind the city getting this name :-


There was once a sacred pond named Kanakhala on the banks of river Ganga. A brahmin from Daksinabharata along with his wife came to this pond and started practising severe austerities there. He got three sons while. living there. After some time the parents died. The three sons went to a place named Rajagrha and studied there. The three were very poor and they went from there to perform penance to propitiate Subrahmanya (Kumarasvami). On their way they entered the house of a brahmin named Bhojdka livtng on the sea-coast. Bhojika had three daughters and the brahmin after knowing all details about them ,gave his daughters in rnarriage to them along with all his wealth. The brahmin went to perform penance and the three brahmin boys with their wives lived in that house.


Once there occurred a famine and the three brahmins left their home leaving their wives alone. The second girl was pregnant at that time and she and her sisters went to the house of a friend of their father named Yajnadatta. In due course she delivered a son and all the three women looked after the child as their common son.


giva and Parvati were travelling by air once and seeing this child Siva said thus :--"I am blessing this boy. This boy in his previous birth jointly with his wife worshipped me with great devotion. They are now born again to enjoy life. His wife in his previous birth was born as the daughter of King Mahendra. Her name was Patali and she would again be the wife of this boy in this life:"


That night Paramasiva appeared before the mother of the boy in a dream and said "You must name this boy Putraka. Everyday morning when he rises up a lakh of small gold coins will fall to the ground from his head."


They therefore, named the boy Putraka and every morning they would collect and store the gold coins falling from his head. When Futraka grew up he was immensely rich and started giving away his riches to brahmins as gifts. The news of this spread far and wide and Brahmins from all sides began to flock to his house.


One day among the Brahmins who flocked to his house were his father and his two brdthers. The fathers felt envious of the extraordinary progress in wealth and fame of their son and they cleverly took the son to a lonely place in a temple in the heart of the Vindhya mountains to kill him. After engaging some murderers to kill him they left the place. Putraka bribed the murderers with his costly dresses and ornaments and escaped from there. There was a great storm then and Putraka walked through it. On his way he met the two sons of Mayasura quarrelling for the three things left over to them by their father. The paternal property consisted of a stick, a pair of sandals and a pot all of which had some strange powers. If you draw on the ground with the stick you will have at that spot anything you desire. If you wear the sandals you can travel in the air. If you dip your hands into the pot you will get plenty of food.


Putraka immediately hit upon a plan and addressed the quarrelling brothers thus :"Why do you fight like this ? It is better you decide it by a competitive race. He who wins the race should have the right to get the things." The two brothers agreed to it and leaving the things with Putraka started running. When they had gone a long distance away from the spot, Putraka put on the sandals and taking the stick and pot with hire rose into the air. He landed at a city far away from the spot and started living at the house of an old woman. The King of that country had a daughter named Patali. When the old lady described to him the beauty and good qualities of Patali, Putraka wanted to marry her. So at night when everybody in the palace was asleep Putraka put on his sandals and entered the room of Patali through the windows. Patali woke up; she liked Putraka and they were married according to Gandharva rites. Then they both went out of the palace by air with the help of the sandals and landed at a place on the shores of the Gaiiga. Then at the request of Patali Putraka made a city there with the help of the stick and they named it Pataliputraka. (Kathapithalambaka, Kathasarits5gara).


PATANJALI A celebrated commentator in Sanskrit. Patafijali is one of the best commentators of Panini's Vyakarnasutras. Pandits are ofopinion that he got his name Patafijali to mean that people should worship (anjali) at his foot (pada). He was such an adorable person. Pandas believe that Pataiijali is the author of Yogasutra and Carakasatithita. A few believe that Patafijali was the incarnation of Adisesa. But modern scholars are of opinion that Patanjali, the commentator and Patafijali the author of Yogasutras are two different persons.


In his book on Patatijalicarita, Ramabhadradiksita writes about the birth of Patat3jali:-"Once Gonika, daughter of a sage, prayed to the Sun-god for a son At once Ananta, King of the serpents, fell on her palm in the form of a sage. The ascetic girl brought up that sage as her son. After some years the sage ,vent to Cidambara and prayed to giva to bless him with enough knowledge and wisdom to write a commentary on Katyayana's Vyakaranavarttika (explanatory rules on Panini's sutras ). diva blessed him and the sage wrote the commentary. Many disciples went to him to learn the commentary and the sage accepted them all as disciples and promised to teach them provided they would abide by a condition, namely, that nobody should remove a curtain he would place between him and the disciples while teaching. The teaching went on for some time. He would reply to their doubts but the replies were peculiar and ambiguous and the disciples, getting disappointed, removed the curtain one day. The sage cursed them all. One of the disciples was away from the place then and the sage cursed him for leaving the place without permission during the course of study. He begged for relief and the sage was pleased. The Guru said if he could teach his commentary to one who would say logically that the Bhutakarmavacyakrdanta (past participle of a verb) of the root `Pac' was °Pakva' he would be released from the curse. Candragupta who came from Ujjayini gave the correct answer and he was taught the Mahabhasya. Bhartrhari was the son born to Candragupta of a Stidra woman.


Patanjali, according to Professor Goldstucker, was a courtier of King Pusyamitra and was alive when Menander attacked Saketa. This would mean that Patanjali lived before B.C. 150.


PATANA (S) . A company of devils. (Chapter 285, Vana Parva).


PATATRI. A valiant warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas in the great battle. He lost his chariot in a fight with Bhimasena. (Chapter 48, Karna Parva).


PATAVASAKA. A serpent belonging to the race of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death at the sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Chapter 57, Adi Parva) .


PATHARVAN. A rajarsi well-praised in Rgveda. (Sitkta 112, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


PATHYA. A great preceptor in the tradition of ancient Gurus. (See under Guruparampara).


PATHIKRTA. An agni. If a Yaga comes to a stop during its course this Agni is to be worshipped. (Chapter 221, Vana Parva).


PATINETTARAKKAVI (S) . (Eighteen and a half wise men).


Mdnavikrama, the zamorin who ruled the old state of Kozhikkotu in the beginning of the seventh century (Malayalam Era) was a talented man well-versed in all arts. He kept in his court a company of nineteen wise men whom he called by the well-known name Patinettarakkavis meaning eighteen and a half kavis. The kavis of the zamorin were the nine Patteris of` Payyur, the five Nambfitiris of Tiruvegappura, Mullappilly Nambfitiri, Uddandasastri, KdkkaS~eri Bhattatiri, Cerinas Nambfitirippadu and Punam LNambfitiri. Of these eighteen were scholars in Sanskrit and the nineteenth., Punam Nambfitiri was a vernacular poet and so the then zamorin gave only half a unit value to the vernacular member and thus named the assemby as a company of eighteen and a half members. There is another explanation given to the word `arakkavi'. `Ana' means `half; but modern-pandits say that `ara' was,a prefix to show a sign of royalty as is found in the words `aramana' meaning royal mana or palace of the King. So `arakkavi' would mean a Kavi attached to a King. Then the question comes, which of the nineteen was not included in the original company to reduce the number to eighteen. We can leave the matter for further research.


Payyfir Accan Bhattatirippadu, the top-most of Kerala pandits, was the president of the council of Patinettarakkavis. The illam (house) of this Bhattatirippadu belonged to the Kunnamkulam taluk near Guruvayfir of Cochin state. He was known as Maharsi also Uddandasastrikal in his Mallikamaruta states that one of the *Patteris was Payyfir Mahabhattatirippadu named Paramesvara. Uddandasastri belonged to I~ancipura. Kakkasgeri Bhattatiri was born to defeat the invincible Uddandaiastri. Cennas Nambfitiri was the author of Tantrasamuccaya. Many poets and pandits were born in the family of these Kavis after their death.


PATIVRATAMAHATMYAPARVA. A subsidiary Parva of Vana Parva of Mahabharata. This comprises six chapters commencing from Chapter 293 of Vana Parva.


PATRESVARA. A sacred place. This is situated on the northern shore of river Narnrada. If one bathes .itt the tirtha (pond) there, one will be able to enjoy the company of celestial maidens for five thousand years. (Chapter 17, Padma Purana)


PATTATTANA. This was a custom which was in force in the ancient temples of Kerala frorp the 9th century A.D. Patta means a `Sanskrit pandit' `Pattas' is used as its plural. To give instructions in sastras and upanisads to the three upper classes and to read in public at fixed times the Puranas, to make people more and more religious minded, it was the custom to , appoint Pattas in temples in ancient Kerala. This position which was the loftiest that could be attained by a pandit of those times was called by the name Pattattana. From the 9th century A.D. references are found about Pattattana in official records. In all important temples a mavaratapatta used to be appointed. His duty was to read and explain Mahdbharata to people.


IJralars who conducted the day to day administration of the temples and the Koiladhikari who represented the supreme authority, and the King, jointly granted the Pattattana to deserving people. Pandits used to come to temples and engage themselves in religions


polemics to make themselves worthy of the grant of Pattattana. The Pattas were entitled to some profits from the temples. Records of the 3rd century Malayalam Era regarding the routine expenditure in the Tiruvalla temple mention about 'five nazhis of rice to be given to each of the Pattas within the temple'. Pattas also ~ were given many lands free of tax as were given to ~JralarS. In the Manalikkara order of 1236 A.D. and the Padmanabhapura order of 1237 A.D. mention is made about these grants. Pattasthana and Craymasthana became hereditary after some time and began to decline in importance.


Even the meaning of the word Pattattana underwent a change. In Cochin it meant the ceremony of giving feasts followed by money-bags to invited brahmins by the Kings to obtain punya for the dead members of the royal family. The zamorins of Calicut meant by Pattattana the act of giving fifty-one bags each containing fiftyone rupees to the successful candidates in sastrartha contests held at the Tali temple during the period between Revati and Tiruvatira (Ardra) in the month of Tulam. There is a difference of opinion regarding the number of money-bags and the amount in each. Ullfir S. Parame9vara Iyer in his Vijnanad1pika (page 148) states that the number of bags were 46 and the money in each was two hundred rupees. Of these, twelve bags each were sanctioned for Prabh4kara Mimarnsa and Bhattamimamsa, nine for Vyakarana, and thirteen for Vedanta. According to certain records 48 bags were given in the year 1679 A.D. Contests in Prabhakara Mimarfrsa were held on the southern temple-tower gate of the Tali temple and in Vyakarana on the southern platform of the northern temple tower gate of the same temple. The custom of giving hundred and one rupees each to one hundred and eight scholars in Sri Padmanabhasvamitemple ofTrivandrum is also called Pattattana.


PATTI. A division of the army. (See under Aksauhini).


PATTORNA. A Ksatriya King. He brought gifts for the Rajasfiya of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 18, Chapter 52, Sabha_ Parva).


PATTU (TEN). A) The ten books on rhetorics. (Alafikaragranthas).


(1) The Sahityadarpana of Visvanatha (2) The Kavyadarsa of Dandi (3) Kavyaprakasa of Mammata (4) Dasarfipaka of Dhananjaya '(5) KavyaIankArasfitravrtti of Vamana (6) Sarasvatikanthablrarana of Bhojadeva (7) Alafikarasarvasva of Bhamaha (8)


AlaAkarakaustubha of Kavikarnapfiraka (9) KuvalAyananda of Appaya Diksita (10) Candraloka of Jayadeva.


B. Ten Indriyas. (organs of sense). There are ten organs of sense comprising five driyas.


C. Ten Commandments. The commandments of Christ are ten in number.( 1 )There is no other God but Yehova. (2) Do not instal. idols and worship them. (3) Do not use God's name vainly. (4) Do not do work on the Sabbath day but observe that day as sacred. (5) Respect your parents. (6) Do not kill. (7) Do not commit adultery. (8) Do not steal. (9) Do not give false evidence. (10) Do not desire for others' possessions.


D. The ten Keamdvasthas. (1) Abhilasa (desire). (2) Cintana (Reflection). (3) Smrti (remembrance). (4) Gunakathana ( Talking about the good qualities).


Jfianendriyas and five Karmen.


(5) Udyoga (effort) (6) Pralapa (gabble) (7) Unmada madness) (8) Vyadhi (disease) (9) Jadata (slothfulness)


(10) Marana (deathl.


E. The ten gunas. The good qualities are ten in number. (1)' Satya (truth) (2) Vinaya (modesty) (3) Devatdt ddhana (worship of God) (4) Adhyayana (study) (5 ) Kulasuddhi (purity of family) (6) Susila (good conduct) ( 7) Sakti (strength) (8) Dhana (wealth) (9) Surata (valour) ( 10) Yuktiyukta Sambhasana (intelligent and rational talk).


F. Rsi gotras: There are ten Rsi Gotras (families of sages)


(1) Bharadvaja gotra (2) Kausika gotra (3) Vatsya gotra (4) Kaundinya gotra (5) Ka9yapa gotra (6 ). Vasistha gotra (7) ,Jamadagnya gotra (8) Viwvamitra gotra (9 ) Gautama gotra (10) Atreya gotra. (All these ten gotras were brought down to Daksinabharata by Paraiurama).


G. Camatkdras. There are ten kinds of Camatkara (poetical charm) according to the poet Ksemendra. (1•) Avicarita ramaniya (2) Vicaryamanaramaniya (3) Samastasuktavyapi (4) Suktaikades avyapi (5) Sabdagata (6) Arthagata (7) Ubhayagata (8) Alankaragata (9) Vrttigata (10) Rasagata.


H. Cittdaasthas. There are ten states of mind. (1) Kama (lust) (2) Sankalpa (imagination) (3) Vicikitsa (doubt) (4) Sraddha (attention) (5) Asraddha (negligence) (6) Dhrti (resolution) (7) Adhrti (wavering) (8) Lajja (shame) (9) Dhi (devotion) (10) Bhid (fear).


I. Nddas. There are ten nadas (sounds) according to Hamsopanisad. ( 1) Ciniti (2) Cincini (3) Kanthanada (4) Sankhanada (5) Tantrinada (6) Talanada (7 ) Venunada (8) Mrdanganada (9) Bherinada (10) Meghanada.


J. Sins (papas). There are ten papas (sins). (1) Murder (2) Theft (3) Adultery (4) Calumny (5) Harshness (6) Deceit (7) Nonsensical utterances (8) Inflicting pain on others (9) Desire for another's property (10 ) Atheism.


K. Dafapusbas. There are ten holy flowers.


(1) Puvankuruntal (2) Muyalcceviyan (Suta.:'reni-Anthericum Tuberosum) (3) Karuka (Ananta-Bent grass) (4) Nilappana (Talamulika-Curculigo Orchioides) (5) Kayyanya (Bhrngaraja-Trailing Eclipta) (6) Visnukranti (Krsnakranti-Clikoria Ternatea) (7) Cherupula (Illecobrum lanatum) (8) Tirutali (Srihastini-Asparagus Racemosus) (9) Ulifija (The smoothleaved heart-pea "Cardiopermum Halicacabum" ) (10) Mukkutti (Gandakali-Sensitive plant).


L. Prajapatis. The prajapatis are ten in number : ( 1) Marici (2) Angiras (3) Atri. (4) Pulaha (5) Pulastya (6) Kratu (7) Vasistha (8) Daksa (9) Bhrgu (10) Narada.


M. Prdnas. There are ten Pranas (life-winds). (1) Prana (2) Apana (3) Vyana (4) Samana (5) Udana (6) Naga (7) Kurma (8) Krkara (9) Devadatta (10) Dhanafijaya.


N. Strength. There are ten items of strength. I. (1) ,Jfiana (knowledge) (2) Prajna (wisdom) (3) Virya (heroism) (4) Ksama (,patience) (5) Sila (uprightness) (6) Dana (charity) (7) Bala (might) (8) Upaya (resourcefulness) (9) Dhyana (intuition) (10) Pr anidhi (power of observation).


II. (1) Buddhi (intelligence) (2) Ksama (patience) (3) Virya (heroism) (4) Dhyana (divine intuition) (5)


Jfiana (knowledge) (6) Krpa (grace) (7) Sila (upright. ness) (8) Bala (9) Dana (10) Upeksa (inattention).


III. Then there are the following ten balas : (1) Mulabala (strength inherent) (2) Bandhubala (Strength of relatives) (3) Rajasainyabala (strength of the royal army) (4) Sva=kiya Senabala (strength of own army) (5) Bahya senabala (strength of reinforcement from outside) (6) Kattalabala (strength of foresters) (7) Gajaba1a (strength of the elephants) (8) Turagabala (strength of horses) (9) Bandhusainyabala (strength of the army of relatives) (10) Padatibala (strength of footsoldie,rs).


O. Datamula. There are ten important medicinal roots: (1) Kumbil (Cayaphal). (2) Kuvala (Sriphala-Aegle Marmelos) (3) Mufija (Sriparna-Permna Spinosa ) (4) Patiri (Krsnavrnda Trumpet Flower Tree) (5) Palakappayyani (Sonaka-Bignonia Indica) (6) Orila (Padmacarini-Hibiscus Mutabilies) (7) Muvila (Kalasi -Hedysarum Lagopodioides) (8) Karuttacunta (Pracodani-small_egg-plant) (9) Veluttacunta (white pracodani) (10) Nerifijil (Gokantaka-Barieria longifolia).


P. Limbs of the king (Arigas). The ten afigas of a king are (1) Nadu (country) (2) Mala (mountain) (3) Nadi (river) (4) lJru (village) (5) Kottara (palace) (6 ) Kutira (horse) (7) Ana (elephant) (8) Murasu (War drum) (9) Koji (flag) (10) Cenkol (sceptre).


Q,. Rupakas. (dramatic compositions). There are ten classes of rupakas


1. Ndtaka. (drama). The chief sentiment in a drama should be one of the three following rasas : (1) Virarasa (sentiment of heroism) (2) Srfigararasa (sentiment of love) (3) Karunarasa (pathos). There should be five to ten acts. The singer should be a famous one. It must have Paficasandhis (five junctures). Sakuntala and Uttararamacarita are perfect Natakas.


2) Prakarana. In this kind of drama the plot is invented or fictitious and deals with the social life of the day. The hero of the play can be either a hero or a meek person. The heroine can be a noble lady or a harlot. The main sentiment should be Srngara (love). Malatimadhava, Mrcchakatika are examples of Prakaranas.


3) Bhana. There is only one character and one Act in this species. The plot is fictitious and the hero is an expert humorous libertine. Lilamadhura and Mahisamangala Bhana are examples.


4) Prahasana. This is a farce. The plot is fictitious and is in the nature of a low comedy. Satire is the chief sentiment of this species.


5) Lima. This has got four Acts. The plot will be famous and the chief sentiment will be one of wrath and fierceness. There will be no Viskambha (interlude between Acts to give connection to the story between Acts) or Pravesaka (introducer explaining portions of the plot which may not be put on stage but an understanding of which is necessary to follow the story). There must be sixteen haughty and excited characters like a Deva, Gandharva, Yaksa and Raksasa. Tripuradahana is an example.


6) TVyayoga. Female characters will be rare in this kind of dramas. There will be only one Act: The sentiments of satire or love or calmness should not be predominant. The hero should be a famous divine sage. Saugandhikaharana is an examp1e.


7) Samavakara. The plot should be based on a story of the devas and asuras. There will be three Acts. There must be twelve brave heroes in it. The chief sentiment will be heroism. The seizure of a city, declaration of war or a big fire should be part of the play. Sumudramathana is an example.


8) TTithi. This will have one Act and one actor. Any of the sentiments can be portrayed. The story must be completed by Akasabhasita (speech to which reply is given on the stage as if spoken from the sky) Candrika is an example.


9) Anka. This has only one Act. The heroes should be people of the prakrta type. Pathos is the chief sentiment. This should contain the pathetic wail of many women. This is called Utsrstikanka also. ~armistha-Yayati is an example.


10. Ihamrga. This will contain four Acts. The heroes of the play should be valiant. There must be ten PatakaNayakas (producers of different kinds of episodical incidents in the drama). They will be Uddhatas (haughty and excited persons).


R. Metals. There are ten chief metals : (1) Gold ( 2) Silver (3) Copper (4) Tin (5) Lead (6) Zinc ( 7) Iron (8) Steel (9) Brass (10) Mercury.


S. Avataras.The incarnations of Visnu are ten. See under Avatars.


T. Upacaras. There are ten articles of worship : (1 ) Arghya ( oblation of valuables) ( 2 ) Padya ( water for washing feet) (3 ) Acamana ( water for mouth) ( 4 ) Madhuparka ( a mixture of honey with four other sweet articles) ( 5 ) Punaracamana ( water for cleansing mouth again) ( 6) Gandha ( Sandal paste) ( 7 ) Puspa ( flowers ) ( 8) Dhupa ( frankincense ) ( 9) Dipa (light) (10) Nivedya (articles of food offerings).


U. Upanisads. There are many Upanisads of which only 108 ones are in print; of these the most important are ten in number and they are the following : (1) Isavasya ( 2 ) Kena ( 3) Katha (4 ) Prasna ( 5 ) Munda ( 6 ) Mandukya ( 7 ) Chandogya ( 8) Taittiriya ( 9) Aitareya (10 ) Brhadaranyaka.


PATUSA. A demon. During the Rama-Ravana battle this demon fought against Panasa a monkey warrior on the side of Rarna. ( Chapter 285, Varra Parva ).


PAUDANYA. An ancient city of Bharata. The founder of this city was Asmaka son of King Saudasa. Pandits believe that the present city of 1?aithan on the northern banks of river Godavari was the Ad Paudanya.


PAULASTYA. The demons born in the race of Pulastya are called Paulastyas. They were born like the brothers of Duryodhana. Ravana born in the family of Pulastya is also called Paulastya. ( Chapter 67, Adi Parva).


PAULOMA. A tirtha (holy p1ace). Another name. of Pancatirtha. (See under Paneatirtha).


PAULOMAS. The sons of the demon named Puloma.


PAULOMAPARVA. A subsidiary Parva of the Adi Parva of Mahabharata. (See under Bharata).


PAULOMI. aacidevi, wife of Indra. ( See under S`aci).


PAUNAR.BHAVA. See under Bar:dhudayada.


PAUNDRA II. A resident of the state of Paundra. This state was in existence during the Mahabharata period. The king of the state was also called Paundxa. Paundra was present fbr the marriage of Pancali. ( Chapter 186, Adi Parva). Pauridras were also present for the Raja-


says conducted by Dharmaputra. During the big battle the PaLrn~ras fought against the Kauravas constructing a Krauncavyuha ( a battle array in the shape of a stork). (Chapter 50, Bhisma Parva). Krsna and Karna on two different occasions conquer :d this country. (anti Parva,. M. B.) The Paundras were Ksatriyas once. But the Brahmins cursed them and changed them into Sudras. (Chapter 85, Anugasana Parva).


PAUhTIORA III. The conch of Bhimasena. He blew his conch at the beginning of the Mahabharata battle and also at the time when Duryodhana fell down dead. (Chapter 61, Salya Parva).


PAUNDRAKA I. A son of Nikumbha. When during the Rams-Ravana battle Nikumbha died, his son Paundraka took up the fight against Rama and was killed. ( Ananda Ramayarra).


PAUNI~RAKA II. (Paundrakavasudeva). A king of ancient ~Karusa. Once he sent a messenger to Dvaraka and told Krsna thus : "Oh Krsna, I am the real Vasudeva. Therefore put down ail yaur royal emblems and robes and come and worship at my feet." As soon as Krsna heard it he got angry and moved to Karusa with a large army and killed Paundrakavasudeva. 10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PAUNIJRAKA III. The name of the buffalo which is the vehicle of Yama (Chapter 9, Vamana Purana).


PAUR.AVA I. An ancient Rajarsi. He became Parvataraja when he grew up after being born of the species of the daitya, Sarabha. Once Arjuna defeated this king. The Pandavas invited him for the Mahabharata battle. But he slid not accept it but joined sides with the Kauravas against the Pandavas. Paurava was considered a prominent commander in the Kaurava army. In the Kuru. ksetra battle he at first fought against Dhrstaketu and then was wounded when he fought against Abhimanyu. It was Arjuna who killed him in the end. (Chapter 67, Adi Parva; Chapter 27, Sabha Parva; Chapters 4, 128, Udyoga Parva; Chapter 116, Bhisma Parva; Chapter 14, Drona Parva; Chapter 5, Karna Parva).


PAURAVA II. Those born in the Puru line of kings are as a class called Pauravas. Both Kauravas and Pandavas have been mentioned as Pauravas in the Puranas. (Chapter 172, Adi Parva ) .


PAURAVA III. An ancient king of the kingdom -of Anga. This Pa>xrava was also one among the kings who gave money to king Srnjaya when he conducted an Asvamedha (Chapter 57, Drona Parva).


PAURAVA IV. One of the Brahmavadi sons of Visvamitra. (8loka 55, Chapter 4, Anu'sasana Parva).


PAURAVAKA. A Ksatriya tribe. These people fought against the Kauravas joining the Krauncavyuha constructed by Dharmaputra in the great battle. ( Chapter 50, Bhisma Parva).


PAURAVI I. Wife of Vasudeva, father of S`ri Krsna. He lead many other wives. (9th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PAURAVI II. Wife of Yudhisthira. Yudhisthira begot a son named Devaka of Pauravi. (9th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


PAURUSEYA. A demon who travels along with the sun in the month of Jyes#ia. (June), (11 th Skandha, Bhagavata>.


PAURIKA. A king of the ancient country Purikanagari. He was such a sinner that he was reborn as a jackal in his next birth. (Chapter 111, anti Parva) .


PAURNAMASA. Son of Marici. His mother was called Sambhuti. Paurnamasa had two sons named Virajas and Parvata. (Chapter 10, Afsa 1, Visnu Purina).


PAUSAJIT. One of the sages belonging to the tradition of the disciples of Vyasa. (See under Guruparampara).


PAUSAMASA. The month of Pausa (January). During this month, on the full moon day the constellation Pusya and the moon join in a zodiac. He who takes food only once a day during this month will get beauty, fame and prosperity. (Chapter 106, Anusasana Parva).


PAUSPINJI. A sage belonging to the tradition of disciples of Vyasa. (See under Guruparampara)


PAUSTI. Wife of king Puru. Puru begot of Pausti three sons named Pravira, gsvara, and Raudrasva. Pausti is called Kausalya also. (~loka 11, Chapter 9, Adi Parva).


PAUSYA I. A Ksatriya king. The queen of this king gave her earrings as a gift to a sage called Uttanka. (See under Uttanka).


PAUSYA II. Son of Pfisa, king of Karavira. Pausya had three wives and yet was not fortunate enough to get a son. At last by the grace of giva, he got a son named Candrasekhara. The palace of Candra4ekhara was in Karaviranagari situated near Brahm5varta on the banks of the river Drsadvati. (Kalika Purina, Chapter 49) .


PAUSYAPARVA. A subsidiary Parva of Adi Parva. Chapter three is included in this.


PAUSYANJI. A preceptor of the tradition of disciples of Vyasa. (See under Vyasa).


PAVAKA. A son of Agni. Agni got of his wife Svaha three sons, Pavaka, Pavamana and guci. These three brilliant sons got together 45 sons and they were also called Agnis. Thus. there were 49 Agnis made up of the father, his three sons and their 45 sons. Pavaka had another name also-Mahan (Chapter 219, Vana Parva).


PAVAMANA I. An Agni (fire). The eldest son of Brahma, Agni, got of his wife Svaha three sons, Pavaka, Pavamana and $uci. These three got fortyfive children' and they are called Agnis. Thus, father, three sons and their fortyfive sons constitute the 49 Agnis. (Chapter 10, Ams a 1, Visnu Purina).


PAVAMANA II. A mountain. This mountain is situated near Meru. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


PAVAMANA III. One of the three sons of 'VijitUva. He was in his previous birth an Agni but was cursed by Vasistha to be born on earth as a man. (4th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PAVANA I A Visvadeva (one of the ten sons of Vi,,,' va). (81oka 3'0, Chapter 91, AnusasanaParva).


PAVANA II. A son born to Krsna of Mitravinda. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PAVANA III. A sacred place situated on the border of Kuruksetra. If one worships the Devas and Manes at this place one would get the benefit of conducting an Asvamedha. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva ).


PAVANAHRADA. A marudgana tirtha (a sacred pond) situated on the border of Kuruksetra. If one bathes in this one would attain Visnuloka.


PAVITRAROPANA. A Pujavidhi (a mode of worship). If you perform a Pavitraropana worship you


will get the benefit of worshipping Visnu for a year. This worship is to be conducted in the months of Asadha (July), 8ravana (August) Prausthapada (September), As vina (October) and Karttika (November) A sacred Pavitra (sacred thread or ring of Kusa grass) is to be prepared either in gold, silver, copper, cotton or silk. A specially purified cotton thread is also enough The Pavitra is to be made of three threads woven together. The Pavitra is to be made holy by reciting 108 times the Gavatri mantra or even half of that number is enough. Reciting 108 times or more is considered to be Uttama (best); half of it is considered Madhyama (tolerable) and less than it is considered adhama (worst). The Pavitra should then be tied to mandalas and the mantra tobe recited at the time of tying it, is this


Om Narayanaya vidmahe Va,sudevaya Dhimabi tanno Visnuh pracodayat.

(Chapter 34, Agni Purana).


PAVITRAVANI. A sage who shone in the courts of both Indra and Yudhisthira. (Sloka 15, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


PAYASYA. Son of the sage Afigiras. He had eight sons named Varunas. They were :-Brhaspati, Utathya, Payasya, Sand, Ghora, Virfipa, Sariivartta and Sudhanva. (Sloka 130, Chapter 85, Anusasana Parva).


PAYODA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 28, Chapter 46, galya Parva).


PAYOSN1. A holy river. This river starts from the Vindhya mountains and flows to the west. Nala and Damayanti walked through the banks of this river. (Chapter 61, Vana Parva). Those who bathe in this river will get the benefit of doing a thousand godanas (gifts of cows). There is a sacred place on the shores of this river called Varahatirtha. King Nrga performed a Yaga at this place at which Indra came and had Somapana and the. brahmins received daksina (fees) and got drunk. (Chapters 88 and 121, Vana Parva). Even the mere contact of water-drops of Payosni river would absolve one of all sins. The musical instrument Srnga of 8iva is in this river. Dharmaputra once came to this river and stayed there for some time drinking its water. (Chapter 120, Vana Parva). On another occasion Gaya son of King Amurtarayas conducted seven asvamedhas at this plac( and pleased Indra. (Chapter 21, Anusasana Parva) .


PAYYANN10R PATTU. This is a work in Malayalam written during a very ancient period of Malayalam literature. A complete edition of the same has not yet been received. The plot as could be gathered from records available is the following


Nilake;.i, a woman born in a very noble family in TrisSivaperfir did not have any sons though she accepted many husbands for the sake of progeny. At last she decided to perform penance. She left her place alone on a pilgrimage and reached Kaccil, a famous trading centre near Ezhimala. There lived a merchant named Nambucetty alias Combucetty who was the chief man of the place. He talked with Nilakesi and accepted her as his wife. She got a son of him named Nambu"ari Aran. Pleased at the birth of a son the parents gave a grand feast at the big Payyannfir plains. At that time the brothers of Nilakesi reached the place in a ship. They climbed the fort-walls and tried to




enter the grounds. Some people objected to it and at that time Nambucetty came there and beat them to death. On hearing about this Makes! left everything behind including her son and went again on a pilgrimage. When the son grew up the father taught his son everything about trade and ships. The father gave him a new ship for trading and the son taking along with him Pandyas, Jonakas, Coliyas, .Pappavas and a Yavana and a huge stock of goods put the ship into the sea and fearlessly went for trading. After passing through many ports and crossing another ocean he reached Ponmala (the mountain of gold) and bartered his goods for a heap of gold. He came back to his own land and was one day playing chess with his father when a Sannyasini (female ascetic) came there. When she was given alms she requested to be allowed to ta1k to the young merchant. The Sannyasini was none other than Make-, i the mother of Nambusari Aran, the young merchant. She requested him to come to Payyannur for a feast conducted by a woman there and he agreed to that. But the father objected to it. But when the son persisted in going, the father sent him with the sons of a cetty, a few people from Manigrdma and a huge stock of goods for trade. The poem ends there thus with 104 verses.


There are different opinions about the story among literary critics and historians. Gundert writes about it thus:-"This is apiece of Malayalam work most ancient of all that I have seen. This is a creation in Malayalam before that language became diluted with meaningless indeclinable Sanskrit words." According to Gundert this poem was written before the poem Ramacarita was written and thus in the 3rd century M.E.


PEDU. A Rajarsi otherwise named Afikasva. (Marrdala 1, Rgveda).


PERIYALVAR. Visnucittar, father of Andal. (See under Visnucittar).


PERUKA. A King of Vedic times. He was the asrayadata (one who gives rrfuge) of Bharadvaja. (Anuvaka 63, Mandala 6, Rgveda).


PHA. This letter means Jhanjhavata. Phu is phutkara, a sound resembling hissing and means `useless' also. (Chapter 348, Agni Purina)


PHALAKAKSA. A Yaksa. This Yaksa was a member of the court of Kubera. (Sloka 16, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva)


PHALAKIVANA. A sacred place. Once the devatas started practising severe austerities at this place and it lasted for a long time extending to thousands of years. From then onwards this became a holy place. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva, Sloka 86).


PHALAUDAKA. A Yaksa. This Yaksa lives in the court of Kubera. (Chapter 10, Sabha Parva).


PHALGO. A holy river. If one visits this place one would get the benefit of doing an Asvamedha. (Sloka 98, Chapter 84, Vana Parva ).


PHALGUNA. Another name of Arjuna. Arjuna was born in the Uttaraphalguni constellation in a mount of the Himalyas. So he was called Pbalguna and also Phalguna. (Sloka 9, Chapter 44, Virata Parva).


PHALGUNA. A month (March). It is so called because the phalguninakgatra yoga occurs in that month. He who gives away as gift his meal for a time of the day will become more loved by his wife.


Not only that, the Puranas declare that such a man would attain Candraloka. (Chapter 109, Anusisana Parva).


PHALGUTANTRA. The father of Sagara. During the old age of Phalgutantra the Haihayas led by Talajanghas attacked Ayodhya and drove out the royal family from the palace. Phalgutantra fled from the palace with his wife and stayed in the.ASrama of Aurva. The King died before long. The queen who was pregnant then delivered a son in due course and he became the celebrated Sagara. (Chapter 3, Brahmanda Purina).


PHALODAKA. A Yaksa of the court of Kubera. (Sloka 16, Chapter 10, Sabhia Parva).


PHENA. A King of the race of Usinara. His son was Sutapas and his grandson Ausinara. (Harivaih'a, 1, ..1, 32) .


PHENTAPA. A gotra-maker of the Bhrgu family. Phenapa is mentioned in the context of describing to Yudhisthira the greatness of cows. Phenapa's original name was Sumitra. He lived on the shores of the river Kulaja in the mountain of TriSikhara drinking the foam of cow's milk alone and thus getting for him the narnePhenapa. (Pheaa=foam; Pa=drink). (Anusasana Parva; M.B. )


PICCHALA. A serpent born in the family of Vasuki. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 6, Chapter 57, l~di Parva).


PICCHILA. A river of Pura-zic fame which runs through Uttara Blzarata. (Sloka 29, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


PINAKA. The bow of Siva. Pinaka was formerly the three-forked spike of Siva. Once it fell down from the hands of Siva and on falling down took the shape of a bow. From then onwards it was used as a bow. See under Pasupata. (Chapter 38. Sabha Parva Chapter 141, Anusasana Parva; Chapter 289. Santi Parva).


PINAKI I. One of the eleven Rudras. He. was the grandson of Brahma and the son of Stlianu. Pinaki attended the Janmotsava of Arjuna. (Chapter 66, Adi Parva; Chapter 208, Santi Parva; Chapter 122, Adi Parva).


PINAKA I. Siva got this name because he wields the bow named Pinaka.


PINDARAKA I. A serpent born in the family of Kasyapa. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 17, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).


PINIJARAKA 11. A sacred place situated near Dvaraka in Saurastra. He who bathes in a holy river there would get immense gold. The place is worshipped by the sages. He who stays there for one clay bathing in that river would get the benefit of conducting an Agnistomayajna. (Chapter 82, Sloka 62, Vana Parva; Sloka 21, Chapter 88, Vana Parva; Sloka 57, Chapter <5, Anugasana Parva).


PINDASEKTA. A serpent of the race of Taksaka. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 8, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).


PINDIKA. A stool to install idols. The length of this stool should be equal to that of the idol. The breadth should be its half and the thickness equal to that is the breadth. The exact place where the idol is fixed of called Mekhala and the hole 3n the mekhali should slightly slant towards the north. The pipe (exithole for the water to flow out) called Pranala should be as wide as a fourth part of the area of the pltha. For a pranala of a Siva temple the length of the same should be half of that of the Pindika.


The sanctum sanctorum of the temple should be divided into seven divisions and the Pindika should be fixed by a learned priest in the Brahmabhiga of the garbhagrha (sanctum sanctorum). (Chapters 50 and 60, Agni Purina).


PINGALA I. A deva who is an attendant of the Sungod. Surya (Sun-god) rides in a one-wheeled chariot drawn by seven horses and he bears in his hands two lotuses. On his right side stands the attendant Dand! with an ink-pot and a writing stick and on his left side stands the attendant Pingala with a stick. Both these are demi god attendants of Surya. (Chapter 51, Agni Purina).


PINGALA II. A prominent serpent born to the sage Kasyapa of his wife Kadru. (Sloka 9, Chapter 35, Adi Parva).


PINGALA IV. A King of the Yaksas. He is a friend of Siva. He acts as body-guard to Siva who spends his time in cremation grounds. This Yaksa gives happiness to all in the world. (Sloka 51, Chapter 23, Vana Parva ).


PINGALA VI. A brahrnin of very bad manners. This Brahmin was killed by his own wife who was a prostitute. In their next birth Pingala became a vulture and the prostitute, a parrot. Both had memories of their previous birth and the vulture (Piiigala) with vengeance killed the parrot. After that Pingala was eaten one day by a tiger A brahmin residing on the shores of Ganges read to their souls the fifth chapter of Giti and they got salvation and entered Pitrloka (world of the Manes). (Chapter 40, Srsti Khanda, Padma Purina).


PINGALA VII. A raksasa (demon). Once when this demon was going through a forest he met a forester. The latter got afraid and climbed up a Sam! tree. Then a branch broke and it fell on the head of Ganesa sitting beneath that tree. It was an act of worship and because of that both the forester and the demon were elevated. (Ganesa Purina).


PINGALA II. A prostitute of the country of Avanti. Pingala was born as the daughter of King Candriugada in her next birth because of the virtuous act she did in doing service to the sage Rsabha. The King named the girl Kirtimalin! and Bhadriyu married her. (See under Bhadrayu).


PINGALA III. A woman of the city of Ayodhyi. Once this woman approached Sri Rimes with amorous intentions and Sri Rimes who was strictly observing a vow of one-wife refused to satisfy her desire and said :"During the incarnation of Krsna you will be born as a servant maid of Kamsa and then I will in my form as Krsra accept you."


Sites on hearing this cursed Pingala. She said "Oh beautiful woman who has approached my husband with amorous intentions, you will have three bends in your body when you are born next as the servant maid of Kariasa." Pixigali weeping bitterly craved for pardon and then Sites said that Krsna would make her perfect. (Vilisa Kai da, Ananda Ramiyana).


PIALGATIRTHA. An ancient holy place. (Chapter 82, Vanes Parva.)


PINJALA. A river of Purinic fame. The greatness of this river is described in Sloka 27, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva) .


PINJARAKA. A son born to the sage Kasyapa of his wife Kadru. Sloka 6, Chapter 35, Adi Parva) .


PIPPALA I. The youngest of the three sons born to the daitya named Mitres of his wife Revati. (Bhavisya Purina ) .


PIPPALA II. A Brahmin born of the race of Kasyapa. Pippala did severe penance and became arrogant of the power acquired by it. Once he happened to see the eminent sage Sukarmd serving with devotion his own mother and father and that made his arrogance fade a bit. ( Bhumi Khanda, Padma Purina, Chapter


PIPPALADA. An ancient sage belonging to the tradition of preceptors. (See under Guruparampara) . It is said that this sage got that name because he was in the habit of eating Pippali in large quantities daily. Prasnopanisad tells a story of how the sages Sukesa, Saibya, Satyakima (Kasyapa), Kausalya, Bhargava and Kabandh! went to Pippalada seeking Atmajfiina (spiritual knowledge) and how he gave them instructions on the same.


Padma Purina gives the following information regarding Pippalida:-"Once Kundala, a Brahmin residing in Kuruksetra, got a sin named Sukarmi. Sukarmi's parents were old and Sukarmd spent most of his time looking after his sickly aged parents. Kundala taught his son all the Vedas and Sistras. At that time in the gotra of Kasyapa was born a Brahmin named Pippalida. Controlling his senses and abandoning all passions he did severe penance in a forest called Da9iranya. The greatness of his penance made the animals of the forest leave their mutual enmity and live in perfect peace. Even the devas were astonished at the power of his penance.


Pippalada did penance sitting as majestic and motionless as a mountain for a thousand years. Ants made a sand-heap over him like a mole-hill. The sage sat inside without any motion; poisonous black cobras circled round him and yet the sage made no movement. Three thousand years went by like that and then the devas showered flowers on him. Brahma appeared and gave him the boon `Sarvakimasiddhi' (getting all that is desired) and by the blessing of Brahma he became a very learned person also.


Pippalida became arrogant with the boon of `Sarvakimasiddhi' in his possession. One day while he was sitting on a river-bank a swan appeared before him and in clear tones said: -"Pippalida, why are you so proud of your greatness? I do not believe you have tha: power of universal attraction. This art is arvacina (modern) ; you do not know Pracina because you are illiterate. You take pride unnecessarily for having done penance for three thousand years. Do you know Sukarma, the wise son of Kundala ? He is the man who has acquired this power of attraction. There is no mahajnani (one possessing spiritual knowledge) like him anywhere else in this world. Sukarma has given no gifts, he has not practised meditation, he has not performed yagas or yajnas nor has he ever done a pilgrimage. He has not done any of these virtuous deeds and yet he is well-versed in all the gastras and Vedas. Even though he is a child you do not possess enough knowledge to equal his. Why? Because he is always engaged in the care and welfare of his parents. You take pride in your achievements without reason."


Hearing that Pippalada went and met Sukarma. Pippalada knew that the bird was none other than Brahma himself. They talked to each other for a long time and then Pippalada admitted that Sukarma was a greater man than himself. (Chapters 60-62, Padma Purana).


PIPPALASTHANA. A division of land included in the Jambudvipa. (Sloka 37, Chapter 6 , Bhisma Parva).


PIPPALAYA. One of the nine sons born to Rsabhadeva of his wife Jayanti. Pippillaya was a very pious king.

((4th Skandha, Bhagavata) PISACA I. (Devil, Satan)


1) Origin. A malevolent being which is the very manifestation of evil. Everybody, everywhere in the world, from the very birth of this universe believed in the presence of such a wicked soul. According to Hindu Puranas, Pisaca is a creation of Brahma. In the beginning Brahma created the eighteen prajapatis headed by Daksa, the Yaksas, the Gandharvas and the Pisacas. (Chapter 1, Adi larva). This wicked being is called in English a `Devil'. This word is derived from the Greek word `diabolos'. People of the West and East equally believe that Pi9dca (Satan) is an enemy of men and gods alike.


2) Bible and the Pisaca. It is not clearly stated in Bible how Satan was born but it is being referred to at several places as a wicked soul which leads men to evil.


3) The Bharatiya Sankalpa. Pis aca, the creation of Brahma, has taken important roles in the Puranic stories. Though Pi9dca is the instigator of all evils its manifestation appears in many contexts in the Puranas:(i) Pi9dca lives in the court of Kubera and worships him. (Sloka 16, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva).


(ii) Pi:' aca lives in the court of Brahma and worships him. (Sloka 49, Chapter 11, Sabha Parva).


(iii) Pis aca lives in the Gokarnatirtha and worships Siva. (Sloka 25, Chapter 85. Vana Parva).


(iv) Pi;' aca is the head of all evil spirits. Marici and sages like him have created many evil spirits. (Sloka 46, Chapter 272, Vana Parva).


(v) The bhutas (evil spirits) made Ravana their king. (Sloka 88, Chapter 275, Vana Parva).


(vi) The food of Pis aca is flesh and its drink, blood. (Sloka 9, Chapter 50, Drona Parva).


(vii) In the battle of Bharata, the horses attached to the chariot of Alambu sa were Pis acas. (Sloka 38, Chapter 167, Drona Parva).


(viii) The Pi' acas fought Karna acting as helpers to Ghatotkaca. (Sloka 109, Chapter 175, Drona Parva).


(ix) Arjuna conquered the Pisacas at the time of


Khandavadaha. (S1oka 37, Chapter, 37; Karna Parva). (x) The Pisacas were present during the fight of Arjuna with Karna (Sloka 50, Chapter 87, Karna Parva) .


(xi) The Pi9acas worship Parvati and Paramesvara doing penance on the top of the mountain Munjavan. (Sloka 5, Chapter 8, Asvamedhika Parva).


(xii) During the time of Mahabharata many Pi: acas incarnated as kings. (Sloka 6, Chapter 31, Asramvasika Parva).


PISACA II. A Yaksa. (Sloka 16, Chapter 10, Santi Parva).


PISACA III. An inhabitant of the country of Pisaca in ancient Bharata. These PiSBcas fought against the Kauravas on the side of the Pandavas during the great battle. It was these pisacas that stood on the southern side of the Krauficavyuha of Yudhisthira in the great battle. (Sloka 50, Chapter 50, Bhisma Parva). A few of these Pisacas were with Bhagadatta in the army of Duryodhana. (Chapter 87, Bhisma Parva). Sri Krsna cursed the pig acas. Chapter 11, Drona Parva).


PISAAIGA. A serpent born of the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 17, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).


PISTAKANAVAMI. See under Navamivrata.


PITAMAHASARAS. A sacred place in the base of the Himalayas. If one bathes in the holy pond there one would get the benefit of doing an Agnistoma. (Sloka 148, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).


PITHA. A demon. He was killed by Sri Krsna. (Sloka 5, Chapter 11, Drona Parva).


PITHARA. A daitya who was a member of the court of Varuna. (Sloka 13, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva ).


PITHARAKA (PITHARAKA). A prominent serpent born in the family of Kas yaps. This was burnt to death in the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 15, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).


PITR (S) . Pitrs are a set of demigods. From Manuprajapati; son of Brahma, were born the Saptarsis :•ke Marici and they in turn created the Pitrs. Besides Marici and his set many others like Virat Purusa and Brahma have created Pitrs. Some Puranas state that Pitrs are of daily creation. Brahma in the beginning created three sets of Pitrs with form and four with brightness making thus seven sets. The three sets of bodied pitrs are Agnisvattas, Barhisadas and Somapas and the four bright ones are Yama, Anala, Soma and Aryaman (10th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


"Manor hairanyagarbhasya ye maricyadayah sutah Tesamrsinarii sarvesam putrah pitrganah smrtah" j/


(Sloka 194, Chapter 8, Manusmrti).


Pitrs (manes) are classified into two types : The Agnisvattas and Barhisadas. Of these the Agnisvattas do not perform Yagas and the Barhisadas are those who perform yagas. Besides these two major divisions they are classified into many other groups as follows


1. Somasaddsya (s). Virat Purusa is the creator of these Pitrs. Somasadasyas are the Pitrs of Sadhyadevas.


2. ~ Agniyvatta (s) . They are the pitrs of devas.


3. Barhiyadas. These Pitrs are the creation of the sage Atri. They are the manes of daityas, danavas, yaksas, gandharvas, uragas (serpents), raksasas (demons), suvarnas and kinnaras.


4. Somapd (s). They are the sons of the sage Bhrgu and Are the manes of brahmins.


5. Haairbhuk (s). The sage Angiras is the father of these Pitrs who are the manes of Ksatriyas.


6. Ajyapa (s) . These are the sons of the sage Pulastya and are the manes of Vaisyas.


7. Sukdlika (s). Sons of the sage Vasistha, these Pitxs are the manes of the Sudras.


To the seven sages like Marici were born the pitrs and to the pitrs were born the devasuras (devas and asuras ) and to the devasuras were born everything else in this universe, animate and inanimate. (Chapter 3, Manusmrti).


Performing a 9raddha (offering obsequial oblations to the departed) is just like a yajfia. The oblations should be offered in either silver or silver cum copper pots. Visvadevas are the guardians of the pitrs. Therefore the oblations should be offered after worshipping the Visvadevas first and then the pitrs and then Visnu. (See under Sraddha).


PITRTIRTHA. The Kumbhipakanaraka (the hell of Kumbhipaka) in the land of the manes is called Pitrtirtha. There is a story about this in Devi Bhagavata


Once the sage Durvasas with his body smeared with ashes and wearing sacred berries went to Pitrloka muttering "Sivagankara sarvatman srimatarbhuvanesvari". The lord of the Pitr1oka received him with respect and worshipped him. While they were talking, Durvasas heard cries of agony from somewhere and the sage then asked Pitrnatha thus : "Oh lord of the Pitrs, I have heard you described as a very virtuous man. How can then such painful cries of distress be heard from here? "Oh, I am dying beaten", "Oh, I am being killed" "Oh, I am dying" and "Oh, I am being burnt" are some of the woeful shrieks I hear. What is the reason for this ?"


Hearing this Dharmaraja said : "Great sage, this is in fact a land of virtue. Nothing but righteous things are done here. I can tell you from where you hear that wail. The Yamapuri named Saihyamani is nearby. There Yama sits to punish the sinners. Yama is a dispenser of Justice and he has got several cruel and mighty servants to carry out his orders. There are eighty-six hells to punish the sinners and of these Kumbh1paka is the most horrible. Great sinners like those who insult the gods, fornicators and those who insult their parents are put in this hell and punished. You are now hearing the cries of such sinners from that hell."


Durvasas was curious to see the hell and the lord of the Manes gave permission and asked his servants to show Durvasas the Kumbhipakanaraka. The hell was found to change into a heaven The residents were laughing, singing dancing and doing such acts of happiness.


The servants of Yama were astonished and they went and reported to Yamaraja this sudden change. Yamaraja was also amazed to hear the news. He immediately rode on his vehicle, the buffalo, to the hell to learn the details personally. He could not find out the cause !or the change. The place looked like the Svargaloka of Indra. King Yama sent a messenger to Indra with the news and Indra at first thought that it must be due to


some maya and so came to the place swiftly on his Airavata. The news spread and one by one Brahma, Visnu, the Astadikpalakas (the eight guardians of the quarters) and all such people came to Kumbhipakanaraka. Nobody could find an explanation for this change and so Mahavisnu accompanied by a few devas went to Kailasa and reported the matter to Siva and Siva said smilingly "Oh Visnu, all this happened because of the greatness of the holy ashes. When the sage Durvasas bent down to have a good look at the hell, particles of ashes from his body fell into the hell. From that moment onwards Kumbhipakanaraka became a holy place for the Manes. This hell will henceforth be known as Pitrtirtha and those pitrs who bathe in the holy pond there will become virtuous people. Do install on the shore of this pond an idol of mine, a Sivalinga, and by my side the idol of Uma, which is my power in an embodied form." The devas returzied and did as they were directed.


PIVARI. Wife of Sukabrahmarsi, son of Vyasa. Suka got of Pivari four sons named Krsna, Gauraprabha, Bhuri and Devasruta and a daughter named Kirti. (See under Suka).


PLAKSADVIPA. One of the seven dvipas (islands).,(See under Saptadvipa. )


PLAKSAJATA. A tributary of river Gangs. It is believed that this river is an incarnation of Sarasvati and that the sins of those who drink the water of this river will vanish. (Ch-pter 169, Adi Parva ).


PLAKSAPRASRAVANATTRTHA. The place of origin of the river Sarasvati. This is a very holy place. (Sloka 11, Chapter 54, $alya Parva).


PLAKSAVATARANA. A sacred spot at the place of origin of Yamuna. The ancient people of Bharata used to worship this place as a gate of Heaven. (Sloka 4, Chapter 90, Vana Parva).


PLAKSAVATI. A river. This is referred to as a holy river in the Puranas. (Sloka 25, Chapter 165, Anusasana Parva).


PLAKSAYANA. A Vaiyakarana (grammarian). His opinion on Visargasandhi (a point in grammar) is described in Taittiriyapratisakhya.


POTAKA. A serpent born of the family of Kasyapa. (Sloka 13, Chapter 103, Udyoga Parva).


PRABAHU. A brave soldier who fought against the Pandavas on the side of the Kauravas in the great battle of Kuruksetra. He showered arrows on Abhimanyu. (Chapter 37, Drona Parva).


PRABALAKA. A Yaksa. This Yaksa sat in the court of Kubera and worshipped him. (Sioka 17, Chapter 10, ganti Parva).


PRABHA I. A devi. This devi sits in the court of Brahma worshipping him. (Chapter 11, ganti Parva ).


PRABHA II. A celestial maiden of Alakapuri. Once when the sage Astavakra went to Alakapuri this maiden gave a dance performance in his honour. (Sloka 45, Chapter 19, Anu asana Parva).


PRABHA III. Daughter of a danava called Svarbhanu. She was married to king Ayus and Ayus begot of her sons like Nahusa and others (Brahmanda Purana. 3-6-26) .


PRABHA IV. One of the two wives of King Pusparna. (4th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PRABHADRA. Wife of the son of Karna, King of Afiga. She is called Bhadravati also. (Jaimini Bharata, Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 63).


PRABHADRAKA. A special division of the army of Pancalaraja. This division comprises of Ksatriyas only. Dhrstadyumna and Sikhandi were its leaders. During the Kuruksetra battle Salya slew many of the Prabhadrakas. The rest of the Prabhadrakas were killed by Asvatthama while they were sleeping. (Chapter 8, Sauptika Parva; Chapter 57. Udyoga Parva; Chapter 19, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Salya Parva).


PRABHAKARA I. A serpent born of the race of Kasyapa. Sloka 15, Chapter 35, Adi Parva).


PRABHAKARA II. A great sage born of the race of Atri. This sage married the ten daughters of Ghrtaci born of Raudra-. va (Bhadragva) of the. family of guru. The names of the daughters are Rudra, Sudra, Malada, Bhadra, Malaha, Khalada, Nalada, Surasa, Gocapala and Striratnakuta.


Once when the Sun was in distress while he was being devoured by Rahu, Sage Prabhakara said `Svasti' to give salvation for the Sun and instantly the Sun came out from Rahu's hold and shone brightly as before. It was as a result of this virtuous deed that the sage got the name Prabhakara. By his great knowledge and eminence he kept glowing the fame of Atrikula earned by generations.


Sage Prabhakara conducted a Yaga and on the occasion the devas presented him with great wealth and ten sons (Harivarhsa, 1. 81-8.17) .


PRABHAKARA III. The sixth division of the land of Kusadvipa. (Sloka 13, Chapter 12, Bhisma Parva).


PRABHANJANA I. The first son of Citravahana, king of Manipura. Citrav5hana who was without a son for a long time did penance for obtaining a son. Siva was pleased with his penance and he blessed him and assured him of a son soon. (Sloka 29, Chapter 214, Adi Parva).


PRABHANJANA II. A king. He performed Siva-worship for ten thousand years and attained Dikpalakatva. The name of his son was Putatma. (Skanda Purana, 41, 13).


PRABHANJANA III. A Ksatriya king. Once this king killed a deer while it was breast-feeding its child and by a curse of the mother-deer Prabhafijana had to live as a tiger for a hundred years. When the period of the curse was coming to an end, the tiger heard the advice of a cow called Nandi and got himself transformed into his original form of the king. (Chapter 18, Srsti Khanda, Padma Purana).


PRABHANU. A son born to Seri Krsna of his wife Satyabhama. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PRABHASA I. A son born to Dharmadeva of his wife Prabhata. This Prabhasa is considered to be one of the astavasus. Prabhasa's wife was the sister of Brhaspati, a widely travelled virtuous woman of renowned chastity and great yogic attainments. (Sloka 17, Chapter 66, Adi Parva; Chapter 15, Aril a 1, Visnu Purana).


PRABHASA II The sacred place called Prabhasatirtha. This place of Pur5nic importance is situated in Saurastra on the west coast. This is called Somatirtha also. Some facts about this tirtha from the Puranas are given below


(i) During the pilgrimage of Arjuna he did penance for a thousand divine years standing on one foot at Prabhasa, Sloka 15, Chapter 12, Vana Parva).


(ii) Agnideva resides in this place. One who bathes in the holy pond there would get the benefit of doing Agnistomayajna. (Sloka 58, Chapter 82, Vana Parva).


(iii) ance Yudhisthira along with his brothers came and did penance here. (Sloka 15, Chapter 118, Vana Parva).


(iv) Prabhasatirtha is dear to Indra. (Sloka 7, Chapter 130, Vana Parva).


(v) Those who bathe in the holy pond in Prabhasa are taken to heaven in Vimanas and they then by songs of praise wake up the celestial maidens there. ($loka 9, Chapter 25, Anusasana Parva).


(vi) It was at this Prabhasatirtha that the Yadavas fought against one another and destroyed themselves. (Sloka 10, Chapter 3, Mausala Parva).


(vii) Sri Krsna and Balar5ma merged with the Supreme spirit at this place. (Chapter 4, Mausala Parva).


(viii) The son of sage Sind ipani was kidnapped by Pancajana while the former was bathing at this tirtha. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


(ix) It was while standing on the shore of the Prabhasa pond that Arjuna first heard about Subhadra. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


PRABHATA. See under Srsti.


PRABHATA. Wife of Dharmadeva. Dharmadeva begot of her two sons named Pratyusa and Prabhasa. Both were Vasus. (Sloka 17, Chapter 66, Adi Parva).


PRABHAVATI I. A woman who was engaged in penance at the abode of Mayasura. One of the batches of monkeys that went to different places in search of Sita met Prabhavati. '(Sloka 4, Chapter 282, Vana Parva).


PRABHAVATp I II. The wife of Suryadeva, (Sloka 8,

Chapter 117, Udyoga Parva).


PRABHAVATI III. A female follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 3, Chapter 46, Sal a Parva).


PRABHAVATI IV. Wife of Citraratha, king of Atiga. This Prabhavati was the eldest sister of Ruci, wife of Devazarma. (S`loka8, Chapter 42, Anusasana Parva).


PRABHAVATI V. Daughter of the demon Vajranabha. She was married to Pradyumna, son of Sri Krsna.


There was once a very valiant demon called Vajranabha. He went into the valley of Meru and performed penance to propitiate Brahma. Brahma appeared before him and he got from him boons such as strength to conquer and subdue all kings, the secret of leaving the body and entering that of others etc. Empowered with these boons he made Vajranabhapura his capital. He got a daughter named Prabhavati. His brother Sunabha had two daughters named Candramati and Gunavati.


While he was thus living there, he set out on a campaign of victory. He conquered the whole world and then turned his eyes towards Svarga. Going to Indraloka he told thus : "Hi, son of Kasyapa, I am also born of Kasyapa. Your mother Aditi and my mother Diti are both wives of Kasyapaprajapati. You ruled over Svarga till this time. Now, let me rule over it for some time." Indra was embarrassed by this logical challenge and could not give any reply to him. Ka,`:yapaprajapati was then performing a long Yaga and Indra replied he would find a solution to his demand when their father returned after the Yaga. From that moment onwards Indra started thinking of plans to destroy Vajranabha. He went and sought help from Sri Krsna residing in Dvaraka. Krsna promised to help him when the Owe came,  After returning to Devaloka, Indra started planning to kill Vajranabha. Vajranabliapuri was surrounded by skyscraping fortresses and admission inside was restricted. He, therefore, called the gaily loitering swans of Devaloka to his side and told them thus : "Look here, swanladies. You should go to Vajranabhapuri and see Prabhavati and then describe to her the beauty and goodness of Pradyumna. Your description should be such that Prabhavati should fall in love with Pradyumna. After that you should go to Pradyumna and tell him about Prabhavati in a similar way. On completing your mission you should come and report to me."


Obeying the orders of Indra the swans flew to Vajranabhapux-i. They saw Prabhavati in a secluded spot and told her just what they were asked to tell her. Thenthey flew to the side of Pradyumna and told him about Prabhavati. After successfully completing their mission they flew to Devaloka. The marriage day of Prabhavati drew near. The swans went to Prabhavati again and made her request her father to include the performances of a dramatic troupe also in the programme of marriage festivities. Vajranabha agreed and a troupe was invited. The dramatic troupe comprised among others many Yadava soldiers, Sri Krsna, Pradyumna and his brothers, all in disguise. Their drama was Ramayana. The performance was superb and even Vajranabha stood amazed at their ski1l. The troupe was encamped in another palace and treated as royal guests. The companion maid of Prabhavati, Sucimukhi, united her with Pradyumna during the dark hours of the night and they spent the nights in amorous sports. The daughters of Vajranabha's brother, Candravati and Gunavati came to know of these secret meetings and they requested Prabhavati to find out suitable persons among the Yadavas for them also to enjoy with. Prabhavati introduced them to Gada and Samba both sons of Krsna. The amorous sports of all of them continued freely during the nights.


When things progressed so far, Indra and Krsna persuaded Pradyumna to kill Vajranabha. Pradyumna started a war with Vajranabha and in the great battle that ensued Pradyumna killed Vajranabha. Pradyumna and his brothers then took the demon girls to Dvaraka. Pradyumna, Gada and Samba married Prabhavati, Candravati and Gunavati respectively. By this time Kasyapaprajapati returned to Devaloka after his long yaga. (Visnu Purana, Chapters 91 to 95).


PRABHU. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (S1oka 69, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


PRABUDDHA. A king born of the line of Priyavrata, son of Mann. (4th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PRACANDA. A demon. Pracanda fought against Karttikeya in the fight between Paramasiva and the Tripuras. (Chapter 1, Ganda Purana).


PRACETAS. The emperor Prthu, had two virtuous sons named Antardhana and Vadi. Antardhana got a son named Havirdhana of his wife ~ikhandini. Dhisana of the race of Agni became the wife of Havirdhana She got of Havirdhana six sons named Pracinabarhis, Sukra, Gaya, Krsna Vraja and Ajina. (Chapter 14, Axizfa 1, Visnu Purana). Praciriabarhis bad ten sons named Pracetas. They were Prajapatis. Daksa was born of the ten Prajapatis to Varksi alias Marisa. Therefore he got the name Pracetas. (Sloka 5, Chapter 75, Adi Parva).


PRACINAVITA. Wearing of an upper apparel or sacred on the left shoulder and through called Upavita and vice versa is If it is warn as a necklace it is called thread by brahmins the right arm-pit is called Pracinavita. Nivita. (Chapter 2,

Prthu got two sons named Antardhana and Vadi who were very virtuous. A son named Havix-dhana was born to Antardhana of his wife Sikhandini. Dhisana born of the family of Agni became the wife of Havirdhana and they got six sons named Pracinabarhis, Sukra, Gaya, Krsna, Vraja and Ajina. Of these Pracinabarhis became a great Prajapati. He carpetted the world with darbha grass with its head turned towards the east and thus got the name (Praci=east i barhis=bed of Ku.>a grass) Pracinabarhis. He performed great penance and married Savarna, daughter of the oceans. They got ten sons who were called Pracetases and who were all masters of dhanurveda (archery). They all performed penance for ten thousand years lying submerged in water. Brahma persuaded Pracinabarhis to request his sons to refrain from remaining unmarried. Pracinabarhis informed his sons about Brahma's wish. They sat in meditation in the ocean for ten thousand years as per directions from their father and sang songs in praise of Visnu. Mahayisnu was pleased and he gave darsana (vision of god) to them on the surface of the ocean itself with the brilliance of blue lotus. Pracetases went into ecstasy when they saw Bhagavan coming to them riding on the back of Garuda and they bowed down in great devotion before him. Mahavisnu asked them what they wanted and they reported they wanted a boon for the progress and prosperity of the prajas. Granting them the boon Mahavisnu disappeared and the Pracetases went back to their father. ( Chapter 14, Ariasa 1, Visnu Purana).


PRACINVAN. A king who was the son of Janamejaya and grandson of Puru. His mother's name was Ananta. This king conquered in one day all the countries in the east (praci) and got his name Pracinvan. He got of his wife Asmaki a son named Sarixyati. (Sloka 12, Chapter 95, Adi Parva ) . Praeinvan got a son named Manasyu. ( Chapter 278, Agni Purana).


PRACYA. A place of habitation of Puranic fame. (Sloka 58, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


PRADATA. Visvadeva. (Sloka 32, Chapter 91, Anusasana Parva).


PRADTPAKA. A character in Pancatantra. (See under Pancatantra).


PRADHANA. An ancient Rajarsi. A learned woman named Sulabha was born in his family and king Janaka conducted scholarly discussions with her. (Sloka 184, Chapter 320, Santi Parva).


PRADOSA. The grandson of Dhruva. Pusparna, son of Dhruva, begot of his wife Prabha three sons named Pradosa, Nisitlra and Vyusta. (Bhagavata, 4th Skandha).


PRADVESt. Wife of Dirghatamas. (See under Dirghatamas ).


PRADYOTA of Kubera.


PRADYOTA II. The first king of the dynasty of Pra.• dyuta. He was the son of a king called Sunaka. Pradyota is referred to as Sunakaputra in Vayu Purana, Sloka 63, Manusmrti).


A prajapati. ( For genealogy see A Yaksa. He was a member of the court Sloka 15, Chapter 10, Santi Parva).


Ksemaka alias Sunaka father of Pradyota was killed by Mlecchas (a barbarous tribe). To avenge the death of his father Pradyota under the advice of Narada decided to conduct a Mleccha Yajfia and for that purpose dug a Yajnakunda seventeen miles long and seventeen miles wide. The Yajna started and in that Yajna different kinds of Mlecchas were burnt to death. From then onwards Pradyumna got the name `Mlecchahanta' (killer of Mlecchas). (Bhavisya Purana).




1) General information. A son born to Sri Krsna of his wife Rukmini, Pradyumna was the rebirth of Kamadeva. (For genealogy see under Krsna).


2) Birth. It was at the time when Kamadeva and Ratidevi were living together that Parvati, daughter of Himavan, started her penance to get Siva as her husband. It was a need of the devas to get a son of Siva to kill the fierce demon Tarakasura. The devas employed Kamadeva to create feelings of love in the ascetic Siva and make him marry Parvati. Taking instructions from Indra, Kamadeva took aim at Siva with his bow and arrow. Siva was then in deep meditation and Kamadeva broke his concentration and Siva got angry. He opened his third eye and burnt Kamadeva to death.


Griefstricken by the death of her husband Ratidevi performed penance near the Himalayas to propitiate Mahadevi. Mahadevi appeared before her and consoled her thus: "Little girl, Kamadeva would be reborn as the son of Sri Krsna of Rukmini. He would then be named Pradyumna. The devas have cursed Sambara the leader of the asuras, during the battle between the demons and the demi-gods that he (Sambara) would be killed by Pradyumna. So Sambara is now searching for the infant which is a rebirth of Kam~deva. So you abandon your present body and be born again as Mayavati to be the wife of gambara. Pradyumna, the reborn Kamadeva, would kill gambara and accept you as his wife." Devi disappeared after saying this.


Obeying the instructions of Mahadevi, Rati abandoned her life and was born in the world of asuras. She grew up under the name Mayavati and became the wife of Sambara.


While Sri Krsna was living as the chief of Dvaraka his first wife Rukmini was yearning for a child. Kr sna was deeply moved by the grief of Rukmini and he flew on the back of Garuda to Kailasa to obtain a boon for the birth of a child for her. On the way he alighted in the asrama of Naranarayanas and after obtaining the blessings of the sages there, went to Kailasa and bowed before Siva and explained to him the purpose of his visit. Siva blessed. him and said that Kamadeva who was burnt to death by the fire of his third eye would take birth again as the son of Rukmini. Krsna returned to Dvaraka well-pleased. Rukmini became pregnant and gave birth to Pradyumna, a rebirth of Karriadeva. The demon Sambara knew of this birth and coming to Dvaraka in an invisible form carried away the infant when it was seven days old.


The demon threw the child into the ocean and'a great fish swallowed it. The fishermen of the country of Sambara caught this fish and following the custom prevalent there presented the king with the fish. Sambara called his wife Mayavati-and asked her to take the fsh


and get it cooked. When Mayavati cut open the fish for cooking she found to her surprise a beautiful child inside it. Even from the first sight of the child Mayavati had a great liking for it and so she took the child and brought it up-as her own child.


When Pradyumna grew into a youth all the charm and beauty of Kamadeva were found in him. Mayavati was excited to find a resemblance in him of her lost husband Kamadeva. One day the great sage Narada came that way and calling Mayavati to his side secretly revealed to her that Pradyumna was the incarnation of Kamadeva and was thus her lost husband. From that day onwards Mayavati's affection for him changed into one of love. She taught him all the magic and witchcraft of Sambara. When Pradyumna found that Mayavati's affection for him was gradually changing into one of passionate love he questioned her about it. Mayavati then told him everything that happened and Pradyumna decided to kill Sambara and take Mayavati away.


3) War with o6ambara. Pradyumna waited for an opportunity to kill Sambara. One day Pradyumna went under the flagstaff of 8ambara which flew the royal flag of the king with an emblem of the figure of a lion embossed on it. He dropped it down by one stroke of his arrow. Hearing of this gambara ordered his sons to kill Pradyumna. The eleven sons of Sambara, viz., Atisena, Citrasena, Visvaksena, Srutasena, Susena, Somasena, Akkala, Vikala, Kumbhaketu, Sudatfistra and Keg!, attacked Pradyumna. The devas came in their vimanas and joined sides with Pradyumna. The army of the demons teased him with various kinds of weapons like javelins, arrows, spears and battle axes. But Pradyumna cut them all by his arrows and cut to pieces all the sons of gambara. Then gamlaara sent an army against him. They were also made to flee by the arrows of Pradyumna. Then Sambara himself came on the scene. The fight became horrible. The continuous flow of arrows made it impossible for even Sun's rays to reach the earth. Then Sambara started his magical war. But Pradyumna faced that also. Sambara sent phantom lions; but Pradyumna made them immobile. Sambara then in turn created storms, rains, wild animals, serpents and vultures. All of them were killed by Pradyumna. Then with a well-aimed arrow Pradyumna killed Sambara. Then he rushed to Dvaraka carrying Mayavati with him. The people of Dvarakd were astounded to see them. Pradyumna went to Sri Krsna and Rukmini and told them the whole story. They were overjoyed to find them and blessed them.


Aniruddha who married Usa the daughter of Bana was


the son of Pradyumna. (Chapters 103 to 108, 10th Skandha, Bhagavata) . 4 ) Prabhaaatiparinga. Marriage (See under Prabhavati). 5) Other details.


(i ) Pradyumna was born of a part of Sanatkumara. (Moka 152, Chapter 67, Adi Parva). (ii) Pradyumna was one among those who came to Arjuna from Dvaraka with dowry for his marriage with Subhadra. (Sloka 31, Chapter 220, Adi Parva). (iii) Pradyumna was present for the Rajasuya Yajna of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 16, Chapter 34, Sabha Parva). (iv) Pradyumna consoled and encouraged the Yadav with Prabhavati.


(v) Pradyumna fainted during a fierce fight between himself and King Salva. (Chapter 1-7, Sloka 22, Vana Parva ).


(vi) Pradyumna slew King Salva in the end. (Chapter 19, Vana Parva).


(vii) Pradyumna means the merging of Bhutajala during Pralaya. (Sloka 37, Chapter 340, Santi Parva ).


(viii) Pradyumna fel1 dead by the beatings of the Bhojas during the Mausala fight. (9loka 33, Chapter 3, Mausala Parva) .


(ix) After his death Pradyumna took the form of Sanatkumara. (Sloka 13, Chapter 5, Svargarohana Parva).


PRAGHASA I. A raksasi (demoness). She was one among the several leading demonesses who sat around Sita in Lanka to coax her into accepting Ravana as her husband. An ill-tempered woman, this demoness tried several methods to win Sita to the side of Ravana. (Sarga 23 Sundara Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


PRAGHASA II. A female follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 16, Chapter 46, Salya Parva)


PRAGHASA(S). A tribe of raksasas (demons). (Chapter 285, Vana Parva).


PRAGHOSA. A son of Sri Krsna. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


PRAGJYOTISA. The palace of Narakasura. Narakasura was known as Bhaumasura also. After the death of this asura Bhagadatta became King there. After Bhagadatta Vairadatta became ruler there. Pragjyotisa teas an invincible fortress of the asuras. (Chapter 23, Verse 28, Sabha Parva; Chapter 48, Udyoga Parva and Chapter 75, Asvamedha Parva).


PRAHASA I. A serpent born of the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sar,pasatra of janamejaya. (Sloka 16, Chapter 57, Ad! Parva).


PRAHASA I I. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 68, Chapter 45, galya Parva).


PRAHASTA. A minister of Ravana.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from VisnuBrahma.- Heti - Vidyutkesa - Sukesa - Sum-ail -Prahasta.


The demon Sukesa got of his wife Devavati three sons named Malyavan, Sumali and Mali. Of these Sumali got of his wife Ketumati ten sons named Prahasta, Akampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumraksa, Danda, Suparsva, Saxirhrada, Prakvata and Bhasakarna and four daughters named Veka, Puspotkata, Kaikasi and Kumbhinasi. Most of the sons were the ministers of Ravana.


2) Other details.


(i) Prahasta was the chief minister of Ravana. (Uttara Ramayana).


(ii) In the Rama-Ravana battle Prahasta fought against Vibhisana and was killed by the latter. (Sloka 4, Chapter 286, Vana Parva).


PRAHETI I. A demon. Once Brahma, the creator, became hungry and in his anger he produced some sounds which became Raksasas and Yaksas. When one said "Raksamahe" the raksasas (demons) came into being and when the other said `Yaksamahe' the Yaksas came into being. It was Praheti who became the father of the raksasas and Heti, the father of the Yaksas. Both of them became mighty and powerful like Madhu and Kaitabha. Of these Praheti knew that only by virtuous life could one attain happiness in the next world and so remaining unmarried went to the valley of the Himalayas and doing penance there attained moksa. Heti when he came of age married Bhaya, sister of Kala, and got a son named Vidyutkesa. Vidyutkesa married Salakatahka, daughter of Sandhya. The raksasa race born of them lived in Patala and -Lanka. In the Rama-Ravana battle all were killed.


PRAHETI II. A demon. This demon travels along with a Surya named Aryaman during the month of Vai'akha (May). (12th Skandha, Bhagavata).




1) General information. Son of a raksasa King who saw Mahavisnu by means of his devotion in the form of Narasiriiha (man-lion). His father was Hiranyakasipu and mother Kayadhu.


2) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu.Brahma - Marici - Kasyapa - HiranyakaAipu •Prahlada.


3) Birth. Kasyapaprajapati got of his wife Diti two sons named Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu and a daughter named Simhika. Of these two, Hiranyaksa got boons from Brahma and roamed about as a very valiant hero destroying everything on earth and finally pulling down the earth to the depths of the ocean. Mahavisnu then incarnated as Varaha and after killing Hiranyaksa lifted the earth from the ocean and put it in its original position.


Hiranyakasipu became very angry at Mahavisnu for killing his brother and with a view to wreaking vengeance on him performed penance to propitiate Brahma. When the emperor of the demons, Hiranyakasipu, thus went to the forests for performing penance the Devas attacked the land of the demons. A great fight ensued in which the devas were defeated. While fleeing away thus Indra took away Kayadhu wife of Hiranyakasipu by force. Narada who heard the moanings of the poor woman under the clutches of Indra got her released from Indra's hold. For some time she stayed in the asrama of Narada worshipping him. Kayadhu was pregnant-then. Narada taught the child in Kayadhu's womb lessons in Vedas, moral philosophy, duty and spiritual knowledge. When Hiranyaka:'ipu returned after his penance Kayadhu joined him and very soon gave birth to .a son. Thatboy was Prahlada.


Hiranyaka'ipu begot of Kayadhu five sons, Prahlada, Samhlada, Anuhlada, Sibi and Baskala. Prahlada got three sons named Virocana, Kumbha and Nikumbha. The celebrated emperor Mahabali was the son of Virocana. Bana was the son of Mahabali. Usa, daughter of Bana, was married to Aniruddha, son of Pradyumna and grandson of Sri Krsna. (Chapter 65, Adi Parva; Chapter 19, Agni Purana; Chapter 15., Arha 1, Visnu Purana and 7th Skandha, Bhagavata).


4) Boyhood and education. Hiranyakasipu decided to make Prahlada an instrument to wreak vengeance on Mahavisnu. Entrusting the education of his son to able preceptors he instructed that the boy should never mutter `Narayanaya namah' but should on the other hand mutter `Hiranyaya namah' only. Not only that, he wiped out the name of Narayana from the land altogether. Prahlada stayed in the house of the preceptor and studied his lessons. One day Prahlada went to see his fatheralong with his preceptor. Hiranyakasipu was drunk then. Prahlada went and prostrated before his father and Hiranyakasipu lifting the boy up frown the ground asked him with affection to repeat to him all the good things he had learned so far and Prahlada quickly repeated thus :-"I bow down to Mahavisnu, the root cause of all things seen and unseen, the protector of this visible universe, who is without beginning, centre and end and who is without origin, growth and decay."


The words of Prahlada struck his father like a thunderbolt. With his lips trembling with anger Hiranyakaipu stared with his blood-red eyes at the preceptor. The frightened Guru again and again submitted that he had never taught him any of the kind the boy had repeated before his father. Then who must have taught him those things ? the emperor enquired. Then Prahlada said that all those things were put into his mind by Mahavisnu himself. A hot discussion then took place between Prahlada and his father and in the end Hiranyakasipu ordered the preceptor to take away Prahlada and make another earnest attempt to correct him and bring him round to the emperor's liking. Prahlada stayed for another period with the Guru serving him with devotion and studying well. After a long time Prahlada was again taken before his father and the latter as before asked him to repeat what he had studied so far. To the shocking disappointment of Hiranyakasipu Prahlada again repeated verses in praise of Mahavisnu. The emperor's rage knew no bounds and he ordered his men to kill his son. (Chapter 17, Arh'sa 1, Visnu Purana).


5) Torturing Prahlida. On hearing the order of Hiranyakasipu many armed soldiers surrounded Prahlada. Prahlada addressed them thus : "Oh daityas, Mahavisnu resides in your weapons, in you all and in me also. Since that is the real truth your weapons will not injure me." The daityas struck him hard with their weapons but Prahlada did not feel pain at all.


Hiranyakasipu then sent thousands of poisonous serpents led by great ones like Taksaka. When they started thrusting their venomous fangs into his body, Prahlada stood cheerfully meditating on Mahavisnu and he did not even feel the bitings. On the other hand the fangs of the serpents dropped out from their mouths and the gems on the heads of the big ones burst out and all the snakes felt sorry for their action.


Hiranyakasipu then sent the ast_adiggajas (the eight elephants who bear the burden of this earth) to kill Prahlada. The huge animals bigger than the biggest of mountains threw the boy to the ground and struck him with their long and pointed tusks. Prahlada lay meditating on Mahavisnu and the tusks that hit the body of Prahlada were broken to bits. Prahlada was then thrown into a pit of fire. But the wind-blown ferocious fire was not able to burn him and as he lay in the firepit. meditating on Mahavisnu he felt he was lying on a bed of lotuses.


When things progressed so far the astonished priests of the palace advised the emperor to put a stop to tortur-


ing Prahlada. Their consoling words alleviated his rage and he sent Prahlada again to his Guru for another term of study. He stayed with his Guru and continued his studies. Whenever he got leisure he taught the other inmates of the asrama lessons in Visnumarga. Hiranyaka4ipuwas informed of this and obeying orders from him the asuras gave poison to Prahl.7.da. That too was of no avail. The royal priests got angry and they created a devil as ferocious as the flames of fire. The devil with mighty thumpings on earth dashed towards Prahlada and hit him on his breast with its spike. The spike broke into pieces and the devil turning back cursed the priests. Then the daityaraja took him to the top of a mountain twentyfour miles high and pushed him down from there. The boy fell down meditating on Mahavisnu and the goddess of earth received him with extended hands and prevented a painful impact with the ground. The father became furious and sent Sambarasura to kill his son. Sambara tried many magical attacks. Prahlada without any ill-feeling towards 8ambara sat meditating on Mahavisu and then Visnu sent his Sudarsana wheel against the' demon and he was forced to retreat. Then by orders from Hiranyakasipu the wind god entered the body of Prahl.ada. Prahlada knew it and he sat meditating on Visnu and the latter entering the body of Prahlada drank the wind inside him. When Hiranyakasipu was defeated in all his attempts to kill Prahlada he sent his son again to his Guru. Then the preceptor taught him everything that was needed for a king and also the science of justice written by gukracarya. When Prahlada completed his education and the Guru felt the boy had become humble he took him back to Hiranyakasipu.


Once again Hiranyaka.%ipu entered into a discussion on god with his son and dissatisfied with his continued devotion to Visnu decided again to kill his son. He was thrown into the ocean bound hand and foot. With every movement of Pralilada the ocean became turbulent and water rose on all sides. There was a deluge on earth. Hiranyakasipu called the daityas to hiz side and said : "Oh daityas, bring all the mountains on earth and create a barrier round the ocean so that my wicked son cannot get outside the ocean. Fire does not kill this boy; he is not wounded by any of the weapons; wind, poison, devils, magic, falls from heights and even the diggajas could not kill him. S3 let him remain in water for thousands of years together and then he will die."


The daityas and danavas brought mountains and dropped them over Prahlada lying inside the ocean. The mountains lay spread over thousands of miles. Lying thus in the ocean the pious boy prayed to Mahavisnu and the latter appeared before him and granted him boons. Escaping from the ocean Prahlada went to his father and prostrated before him. Hiranyakasipu was astounded to see him alive and taking him in his arms embraced him and with tears rolling down his cheeks for having: tortured him so far asked him "My son, you are still alive, are you not ?" After that he started treating him as his son. (Chapter 20, Ariisa 1, Visnu Purana).


6) The incarnation of NaraSEThha. But as days went by HiranyakaSipu got wild again. He could not bear his son's increasing devotion to Visnu. He hatel to hear Prahlada's chantings of Visnu's nam° and s.) o:re dar while Prahlada was repeating his chantings of Visnu's name Hiranyaka:'ipu umped up from his seat with sword in his hand and asked Prahlada where his Visnu was. Prahlada very calmly replied that Visnu was present everywhere even in stones, trees or the pillars of the palace. Hiranyakasipu in uncontrollable rage struck the nearest pillar with his sword. Then to the shocking surprise of Hiranyaka°,:ipu Mahavisnu in the form of a fierce man-lion (Narasirirha) jumped out from the pillar. The figure was terrifying to look at. It had fiery eyes, a dagger-like tongue with blood oozing from it, shaggy neck with trembling eyebrows, two teeth one on each side curved like the crescent moon, a black face inside a cave-like heap of manes, hairs strong and pointed like diamond needles, nails white and cup-like and a body as bright and brilliant as a thousand crores of suns. Only Prahlada could stand before the figure and look at it.


The man-lion jumped on the body of Hiranyakasipu and tearing open the belly of Hiranyakas` ipu took the bloody intestines out and wearing it round its neck performed a naked dance. Everything happened in no time and the Narasirnha changing into the form of Mahavisnu blessed Prahlida and then disappeared. (7th Skandha, Bhagavata).


7) Prahldda and Narandrayanas. When Hiranyaka'ipu was killed Prahlada was crowned as emperor of the demons in Patala. At that time, once Cyavana the best of the Bhrgus, went to Nagakulesvaratirtha to bathe in the Narmada. He saw Mahadeva there. When he entered the waters of the river a serpent Kekaralohita by name bit him and took him to Patala.' Cyavana meditated on Visnu when he was bitten by the serpent and so he was not affected by the poison of the serpent. He therefore, roamed about in Patala accepting the hospitality of the serpent maidens. Travelling thus he reached the land of the danavas. He was worshipped by the daityas there and Prahlada finding an ascetic of great saintliness honoured and worshipped by his people received him with respect and worshipped him and enquired about him. Cyavana said : "I came today to see Nzgakulesvara and bathe in the Narmada river. But as soon as I entered the river I was caught by a serpent and was brought to Patala. I was thus able to see you." Hearing the words of Cyavana the lord of the daityas said : "Oh, Bhagavan, which are all the sacred tirthas of the earth, which are in the heavens and which all in Patala ? Please do enlighten us." Cyavana replied ; "Mighty king, Naimisa is the best of all tirthas on earth, Puskara in the heavens and Cakratirtha in Patala."


The daitya emperor turned to the danavas and said "Make all preparations immediately. We must go to earth to bathe in the holy tirtha, Naimisa. We can then see Pundarikaksa (lotus-eyed) Visnu sitting there as Pitambara (robed in yellow)." Hearing this danavas with heavy equipments started from Patala with their king to the earth.


All the mighty danavas reached the forest of Naimisa and after bathing in the holy pond there went for hunting. During their wanderings they found the river Sarasvati, flowing with crystal-like water. On the shore of the same they saw a pine tree covered with arrows. The arrows were sticking to it one above another. The arrows looked like serpents and the gruesome sight roused Prahlada's anger. Near that tree sat two ascetics wear ing the hide of Krsna deer and matted hair on thei heads. By their side were two divine bows, Sarnga and Ajagava with two never-empty quivers. Prahlada mistook them for two fake sannyasins and therefore questioned them thus : "Why are you thus falsely trading on virtuousness ? What connection is there between matted hair and penance and weapons of such supreme quality ?" Then one of the rsis, Nararsi, said "King of daityas, why do you think like that ? If one is powerful whatever one does will be right. "Prahlada jeered and said "When. 1, who have fixed limits for virtue and righteousness, am here what power can you wield ? " Nara replied "Oh king, our ability is really supreme. There is nobody in the three worlds to conquer us in a fight." Prahlada got furious on hearing the boasting of the rsi and took a vow thus immediately : "I will fight and win against Naranarayanas." Then the great Prahlada keeping aside his army in the forest took his bow and made a thundering noise with it.


At once Nara took his Ajagava bow and showered arrows on Prahlada with it. But Prahlada broke them all with his gold-plated matchless arrows. Nara got angry when he found all his arrows broken to pieces so easily by Prahlada and he sent different kinds of arrows in quick succession. But the daitya king replied with astonishing rapidity. For one arrow of Nara the daitya sent two and the fight became grim. Nara covered the whole world above with arrows and the daitya emperor smashed them all to pieces by his gold-plated ones.


The fight then turned to one with divine weapons. The asura chief took the divine Brahrnastra and then Nara took the fierce N<irayanastra. They met in the air and fell down powerless. When his Brahmastra got fused Prahlada got wild with anger and taking a mace jumped out of his chariot arid rushed at Nara. When Narayana saw the daitya chief rushing towards Nara with his mace he asked Nara to step aside and faced the demon himself. Prahlada then attacked Narayana and hit him with the mace. But the mace broke into a hundred pieces and Prahlada was forced to use other weapons. The fight became ghastly and even devas assembled above to witness the fight. When Prahlada found it was getting more and more difficult for him to defeat the Narandrayanas he prayed to Mahavisnu for help. Visnu appeared before him and when Prahlada asked him the reason why he could not defeat Nara narayanas, Visnu replied that they were the sons of Dharmadeva who were invincible by weapons. They could be won over only by devotion.


Hearing that Prahlada returned to Patala and entrusting the administration of his kingdom to his cousin Andhaka, son of Hiranyaksa, Prahlada returned to Badarikagrama and erecting an asrama there started a penance to propitiate Naranarayanas. When Naranarayanas appeared before him Prahlada requested to be pardoned for fighting against them. They pardoned him and blessed him and Prahlada returned to Patala. Even after his return Prahlada did not take back the administration from Andhaka. He constructed an asrama away from the palace and lived there performing penance. He spent many years there as an advisor to the asura Kings. (Chapters 7 and 8, Vamana Purana).


8) Blessings of Sukra. Andhaka, son of Hiranyaksa, ruled over the empire only for a short time. At that time there was a fight between the asuras and the devas in which the asuras were defeated. After a truce with the devas Bali, son of Virocana, and grandson of Prahlada was crowned the emperor of the asuras. Prahlada then went to the mountain Gandhamadana and started doing penance to increase his personal power. Bali ruled as an antagonist of the devas and so very soon a grisly battle ensued between the devas and the asuras and Mahavisnu defeated them. They fled from their land and took,refuge under their preceptor gukracarya. Sukra then told them thus : "You remain here without fear. I shall protect you by my power of mantra and medicines. I shall devote my cogent brilliance to your advantage. It is enough if you remain here with full confidence in me."


The devas understood all these plans of the daityas through spies and they met in conference to consider their future plans. They knew that Sukracarya was very powerful and if the daityas attacked them with the help of Sukracarya the defeat of the devas was sure. They feared that they might even be compelled to flee from Svargaloka. How could the daityas under the shield of the mighty Sukra be destroyed ? That was the worrrying thought of the devas.


They were thus worrying about this when Sukracarya went to do penance for attaining more power. The daityas awaited the return of their acarya. In the meantime they sent Prahlada who was, though a daitya, a friend of the devas to talk peace terms with the devas. The mission was successful and the devas agreed to a no-war treaty. Prahlada returned triumphant.


Sukra did severe penance to propitiate Siva and Siva appeared before Sukracarya and when he knew that the purpose of Sukra was to defeat the devas he was a bit embarrassed. So he told him thus : "Oh sage Salim, you take a vow and do penance with your head downwards over smoky incense for a thousand years. You will then attain power and happiness as you desire." In fact Siva thought Sukra might not be able to complete the penance and so not succeed in his plan of destroying the devas. But Sukra started the penance in right earnest.


The devas were frightened when they knew the deceit of the daityas and the strategy of their preceptor. They decided to go to war with the daityas immediately. The daityas were in a fix. They knew that if they fought without the help of their guru defeat to them was sure. So they ran to the mother of gukra and sought her help. The devas rebelled against Sukra's mother and she invoked the goddess of sleep and put all the devas into deep slumber. Mahavisnu stealthily carried away Indra lying asleep. Indra persuaded Mahavisnu. to kill Sukra's mother and he cut off the head of Sukra's mother by the divine discus, Sudarsana.


Bhrgumaharsi. father of gukra, was angry at that arrogant andcruel deed of Mahavisnu and cursed him saying that he would be born on earth several times as man. After that he brought to life by sprinkling water his wife lying dead with her. head severed from her body. Knowing well the havoc that would be created when Sukra came back after his penance Indra sent his daughter Jayanti to destroy the penance of Sukra. She went in the guise of a demon girl to serve Sukracarya. In the meantime at the request of Indra Brhaspati took the form of 8ukracarya and presented himself before the daityas. The daityas believed him to be their real guru Sukra and were pleased.


Ten years went by and one day 8ukracarya remembering the old events left Jayanti and went to his court in the demon land. Brhaspati had by that time returned to devaloka fully satisfied with his mission. The devas not knowing that Sukra had returned started for a war with the daityas. Sukra when he came back went wild when he knew that his people had been worshipping Brhaspati for ten years. The angered preceptor was not to be pacified by any amount of arguments and so they sent Prahlada to Sukracarya and Prahlada pleaded for controlling his anger arid gukra did so.


Sukra then saw with his divine vision the maneuverings in mind of the devas and was convinced that a war with the devas at that juncture would be an utter failure. So he advised the daityas to desist from war and assured them that during the period of Savarni Manu to come, emperor Bali would become all-powerful and he would then fight and win the devas. Prahlada returned and told the asuras the message of Sukracarya. But the daityas were not satisfied and compelled Prahlada to go to war with the devas. At last Prahlada was forced to agree and a fierce devasura battle ensued. Prahlada met Indra in a single combat and it prolonged for a hundred years. In the end Prahlada won. Indra prayed to the goddess and fearing that she might destroy the demon world, Prahlada also prayed to her. The devi was pleased with both of them and she pacified them both and each went back to his own place. (4th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


9 1 Other details.


(i) Once there was a fight between Prahlada and Kala. (Bhavisya Parva, Chapter 59) .


(ii) Bali who was trampled down to Patala built a Visnu temple and worshipped Visnu following the advice of Prahlada. (See under Bali).


(iii) Once Prahlada taught Indra the rules of good conduct. (Sloka 28, Chapter 124 Santi Parva).


(iv) Once Usanas sang in honour of Prahlada. (Sloka 50, Chapter 139, Santi Parva).


(v) Once PrahIada learnt the importance of Ajagaravrtti from a sage. (Chapter 179, Santi Parva).


(vi) During the reign of emperor Prthu when the goddess of earth (Bhumidevi) was milked, the asuras used Prahlada as the calf to milk madya (wine) from her. (4th Skandha, Bhagavata ).


(vii) Prahlada sits in the court of Varuna and worships him. (Sloka 12, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva).


(viii) Prahlada once went to the court of Brahma to worship him. (Sloka 19, Chapter 11, Sabha Parva).


(ix) Prahlada acted as mediator in the controversy between Virocana and Sudhanva. (See under Sudhanva). (For knowing more details about Prahlada please see under Virocana and Bali.)


PRAHLADA II. A Ksatriya King born of the family of Balhika. This King belonged to the line of kings under the demon king Salabha. (Sloka 30, Chapter 67, Adi Parva).


PRAHLADA 111. A serpent. This serpent sits in the court of Varuna and worships him. (Sloka 10, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


PRAHLADA IV. A place of human habitation of Puianic fame. (Sloka 46, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


PRAHUTA. A great yajna.


Manusmrti states that respecting each of the following five is considered as a yajna in itself :-A devata, a guest, servants, parents and the self. Of these the first is called Ahuta, second, huta, third, prahuta, fourth brahmyahuta and fifth, prasita (Slokas 72. 73, Chapter 3, Manusmrti).


PRAJAGARA. A celestial lady. Once when Arjuna went to the court of Indra this celestial maiden gave performance in dance at the request of Indra. (9loka 30, Chapter 43, Vana Parva).


PRAJAGARAPARVA. A sub-division of Udyoga Parva of Mahabharata. This comprises chapters 33 to 40 of Udyoga Parva.


PRAJAIKGHA. A raksasa (demon) of the party of Ravana. This demon was killed by Afigada. (Sarga 76, Yuddha Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


PRAJAPATI (S) . Creators of the world. With a view to making creation easy Brahma at first created twentypne Prajapatis (creators). They are Brahma, Rudra, Manu, Daksa, Bhrgu, Dharma, Tapa, Yama Marici, Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasistha, Paramesthi, Surya, Candra, Kardama, Krodha and Vikrita. (Chapter 384, Santi Parva ).


PRAJAPATIVEDI. This is a holy place situated in the middle of four sacred places in Kuruksetra named Tarantuka; Arantuka. Paris uramakunda and Macakruka. This place is called the Uttara (north) vedi of Prajapati also. Besides this, four other places, Pratisthanapuri (with Prayaga), Kambala, Asvatara and Bhogavati are called Prajapativedis. The aforesaid five sacred Places are called Brahmavedi also. (Chapter 53, ~alya Parva; Chapter 85, Vana Parva ).


PRAJAPATYA. A kind of marriage.


Sahobhau caratariz dharmamiti vacanubhasya ca/ Kanyapradanamabhvarcya Prajapatyo vidhih smrtah /~ (Sloka 30, Chapter 3, Manusmrti).


Giving in marriage to a brahmacari one's daughter after inviting him to his house and worshipping him is called Praj apatya


PRAKALA. A serpent born of the family of Vasuki: This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Chapter 57, Adi Parva).


PRAKRTA. A Yaksa. He became very rich: within twelve days. (Sloka 19, Chapter 134, Vana Parva).


PRAKRTI ; PURUSA. Prakrti (matter) and Purusa (spirit) are two basic factors essential for production of the Prapafica (the visible world which is the scene of manifold action) as man and woman are for the production of progeny. From Purusa (male), Prakrti (female) originated and then they together created the Prapafica. The Vedas and Puranas make statements everywhere regarding Prakrti and Purusa and three of the most important ones are given below :


1) `Pra' means `principal' and `Krti' means `creation'. Therefore the word is meant to convey the meaning `one that is the principal factor for creation', `Pra' means


`sattvic', `Kr' means `rajasic' and `ta' means `tamasic' and the word `Prakrti' thus conveys the power of the three gunas'. `Pra' means `before' and `Krti' means creation and so Prakrti means that which existed before creation.


Before creation Prakrti lay merged with the Supreme Spirit without separate existence. But when the desire for creation was aroused, this Supreme Spirit divided itself into Prakrti and Purusa. Then the right half becomes `Purusa' and the left half `Prakrti' Even though they are thus two yogindras (kings among sages) they see themselves as merged with the eternal One like fire and heat and assert the truth Sarvam Brahmamayam (everything is Brahman, the Supreme Spirio. It was this basic Prakrti that took forms as the five goddesses, Durga, Laksmi, Sarasvati, Savitri and Radha. (9th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata ).


2) Purusa is the vital sentient Truth that sets in action the entire Prapanca. This Purusa is Supreme among the Supreme, beyond human comprehension, without form, colour, name, without origin, growth, change or end, residing in himself' and that which can only" be imagined to exist. This purusa has got two different forms, the visible and the invisible and also a third imaginary one, time. The sages call Purusa the Sfiksmaprakrti (The subtle all-pervading spirit, the supreme soul ). This Sfiksmaprakrti which cannot be measured by any unit of measure, is not attached to anyhing, as imperishable, is without decrepitude, is immovable and is without the senses of sound, touch smell or form. This Prakrti endowed with the three gunas, without beginning or end is eternal, is the root cause of this Prapanca. This Prakrti pervaded over Prapanca from the beginning of the great Deluge to the beginning of creation. Bralimajfianins who were great seers and who knew the truth of the Vedas speak about Prakrti thus : "There was no night or day then, neither the earth nor the sky, neither light nor darkness. There was no. thing but this. There was only one Brahman merged in which were Prakrti and Purusa, a brahman which could not be understood by any of' the five senses nor by intelligence. It was from the supreme being of Visnu that the two forms Prakrti and Purusa originated. These two were separated from Visnu' at the time of the great deluge and again joined together at the time of creation. The form of Visnu from which these occurred was termed Time. During the last great deluge this visible Prapanca merged with it and so, this deluge was called Prakrtapralaya. Time is eternal, having no end and so the process of Srsti, Sthiti and Sarhhara (creation, existence and destruction) continued without any interruption.


After that, during Pralaya (deluge), Prakrti and Purusa stand apart due to equality of the gunas, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas in Prakrti. Visnu in the form of Time starts the work to join them both together. Then when the time of creation came Visnu, the Supreme Being, the supreme soul, the god of all living beings, omnipresent and omnipoten-t by his will entered the emotionless Purusa and emotional Prakrti and created sensations in them. Smell is the sense which creates sensation in one by its nearness to it. Just like that Visnu by his very presence near them created disturbances in them. It is Visnu, the best of Purusas, who acts as Prakrti which can disturb and which can be disturbed, which exists in states of contraction and expansion. It is Visnu, the god of the gods, who exists in forms of Suksma and Sthal a, and as the great tattva and as the devas like Brahmd.


r111 he Mahattattva existing as emotionless due to the equalisation of the three gunas, when at the time of creation Visnu, Truth in the form of Ksetrajna (knower), merged with Pra:rti. The Mahattattva in its three forms, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas lay enveloped by Prakrti just as a seed is covered by its husk. From this Mahattattva originated the three egos, Vaikarika, Taijasa and Tamasa, the cause of the Pancabhutas. Because that ego contained :he three gums it became the cause of the origin of the bh-atas (elements) and indriyas (senses). Ego pervaded the Mahattattva just as the Mahattattva pervaded (Arilsa h, Chapter ?, Visnu Purina).


3) In the beginning during the Deluge the world was all water. Then Siva tore open his thigh and dropped a drop of blood in the waters. It became a huge egg. He broke it and from it came out Purusa and from Purusa lie made Prakrti for the creation of the Prapanca. These two, Prakrti and Purusa, created the Prajapatis and they in turn created the prajas. Purusa seeing the -vast creation going on due to him became arrogant and Siva chopped off his head. Siva became repentant of his hasty deed later. To atone for his sin he took the skull in his hand and vowed that he would ever carry a skull in his hand and thathe would live in cremation grounds. The two halves of the great egg became akasa- and bhami (earth and sky). (Taranga 2, Kathapithalambaka, Kathasarits dgara) .


RALAMBA I. A notorious danava born to Kasyapapraj5pati of his wife Danu. (Sloka 29, Chapter 65, Atli Parva).


PRALAMBA 11. An asura (demon). He attacked Sri Krsna and Balarama and was killed by Balarama. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


PRALAYA (Destruction). Pralaya is of four kinds. The first is nityapralaya. This is the destruction going on daily for all animate and inanimate objects born on earth. Thesecond is Brahmapralaya or naimittikapralaya. The third is Pr<.krtapralaya. This is the great deluge made by prakrti (nature) at the end of a thousand Caturyugas


(four yugas). The fourth is atyantikapralaya. This is the union of the soul with the Supreme Being due to Jnana. Of the above the Brahmapralaya, or naimittikapralaya happens at the end of a Kalpa or a day of Brahma or a thousand yugas. The nature of this pralaya is as follows : At the end of a thousand yugas the world will look famished. Then there will be excessive drought for a hundred years together and everything in this world would be destroyed then. Then Mahavisnu, lord of everything in this universe, would present himself in the seven big rays of the Sun and drink to emptiness all the waters of all the three worlds, earth, ocean and patala. Then by the divine power of Mahavisnu the seven rays of the Sun which had grown fat by drinking this water would become seven separate Suns. These Suns sn ould burn all the three worlds including Patala. Then the earth would look like the back of a tortoise (Karm-aprstha) At that time Rttdra, equal in brilliance to Kalagni, would from beneath burn the patala sending breaths from Adisesa. After patala Kalagnirudra would burn the originated from Prakrti, which was earth and then the heavens. Because of this a1l the worlds would look like globes of fire. Then the inhabitants of these worlds would go to Maharloka unable to bear the heat and from there to Janaloka. Thus Visnu in the form of Rudra would destroy everything.


Then from the face of Visnu would originate clouds and lightning in different forms. Those clouds would rain incessantly for a hundred years and destroy the fire prevailing everywhere. When the rains become unbearable Vayu would encroach upon the seats of the Saptarsis in the ocean and by the breath of Visnu destroy all the clouds. At that time Visnu, lord of ali, would lie on the back of Adis'esa in that one big ocean drinking vayu (air). Visnu will lie thus for a period of a Kalpa in yogic slumber meditating on Vasudeva taking the name Madhusudana and form of Brahma praised by the siddhamunis inside the ocean. After that he would take the form of Brahma and start creation.


In Prakrtapralaya this whole universe would lie in extinction for a period of two pararddhas. One pararddha is 100000000000000000 years (one followed by seventeen zeroes) and so the period of a prakrtapralaya is double the above number of years. The world would then come into the grip of a great drought; fire would break out and burn away everything in this world from Mahattattva to Vi'sesa. Then prompted by the desire of Visnu, pratisancarana (back into nature) would occur . Then Jala ( water) would absorb the gunas of bhumi like gandha (smell) and when the qualities of the earth are thus absorbed the earth would merge with pralaya. Jala is rasatmaka. Agni will absorb the rasa of Jala and Jala would be kindled. The guna of Agni is form and is in the form of Sun. Vayu would absorb it and Agni would be destroyed. Vayu would then become powerful and shake the world. The quality of Vayu is touch and the ether would absorb that guna of Vayu and Vayu would be destroyed. The quality of ether is sound and it would be absorbed by the elements. If the elements are absorbed one by one the earth would merge into water (Jala ) and Jala in Agni, and Agni in Vayu and Vayu in ether and ether in Ahankara (ego). Ahankara would merge in Mahattattva. This Mahattattva would be absorbed by Prakrti. Prakrti has got two forms:Vyakta and Avyakta ( Manifest and Un-manifest). The Vyakta would merge with Avyakta. Purusa is single, pure and without decay. But he is also part of Paramatma ( the Supreme Being). So Prakrti and Purusa would both merge into the Supreme Being. There are no distinctions, fabrications in Paramatma; the lord of all. It is only an existence. It is such a Paramatma that should be known and which itself is knowledge. The Paramatma is beyond the Atma (soul). It is in such an indescribable Paramatma that all are dissolved during a Prakrtapralaya. ( Chapter 368, Agni Purina ) .


PRAMADA. A son of Vasistha. He was one of the Saptarsis of Uttama Manvantara. (Fth Skandha, Bhagavata ) .


1) Birth. Pramadvara was the daughter of the nymph Menaka born of the Gandharva Visvavasu. As soon as the child was born, Menaka threw the child into the forest and left for Devalpka.


Sthulakesa, a sage who was engaged in penance in that forest in a hermitage heard the cry of a child and came out of his asrama. On seeing a new-born child lying unclaimed and uncared for, he took the child to his asrama and named her Pramadvara and brought her up. She grew into a charming maiden and one day Prince Ruru coming that way while hunting saw her and fell in love with her. The sage was pleased to give her in marriage to the King and so fixed the date of marriage.


The day previous to her marriage she trampled over a poisonous snake while walking in the forest with her companions and immediately she fell dead by the bite of the serpent. Ruru's grief was uncontrollable. He wept bitterly crying aloud "If I have from my very birth with great devotion taken vows, let Pramadvara rise up alive." Then a devaduta (messenger from god) appeared before h:m and said that all his wails were of no avail since it was only in the order of things that one whose ayus (period of life on earth) was over should die. Ruru then enquired of him a way of escape from this inevitable calamity and then the devaduta said that if Ruru was prepared to surrender half of his ayus in favour of Pramadvara she would come back to life. Ruru agreed ,and they went to Dharmaraja (god of Death) and told him of his wish. Dharmaraja brought back Pramadvara to life and she stood before Ruru as if just woken up from sleep. Their marriage was duly conducted. (Chapters 8 and 9, Adi Parva).


PRAMAGANDA. The King of Kikatas mentioned in Rgveda. (Sukta 14, Anuvaka 53, Mandala 3, Rgveda).


PRAMANAKOTI A sacred place on the banks of the river Ganga. There is a great banyan tree named Pramanakoti at this place. It was at this spot of the river that buryodhana poisoned Bhhnasena and threw him into the river, bound hand and foot. The Pandavas who went for their exile in the forests spent their first night at this spot. (~loka 41, Chapter 1, Vana Parva).


PRAMANDHU. A Yaksa who was the custodian of the wealth of Hariscandra. Visvamitra removed the bad smell of the body of this yaksa by pouring holy water over his body. (Chapter 2, Skanda Purana) . '


PRAMATAKA. A sage. He was one of the members of the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (9loka 7, Chapter 53, Adi Parva).


PRAMATHA I. A son of Dhrtarastra. (9loka 13, Chapter 116, Adi Parva).


PRAMATHA II. One of the two parsadas given to Subrahmanya by Yamaraja. The other one was named Unmatha. (~loka 30, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


PRAMATHA Ill. A raksasa (demon). This. raksasa was a minister of demons Khara and Dusana. (Sarga 23, Aranyakanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


PRAMATHAGANA. ~1Va'S attendants. They were well-versed in Dharmadharmas (What is virtuous and what is not). (Chapter 131, Anusasana Parva).


PRAMATHI I. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed by Bhimasena in the great battle. (Chapter 157, Drona Parva).


PRAMATHI II. Brother of Dusana who was an associate of Ravana. When Rama and Laksmana were in exile in the forests they had. to fight Kharadusanatrisirases. Then the captains of their army, Mahakapala, Sthulaksa and Pramathi attacked Rama-Laksmanas. Pramathi attacked Laksmana and then Nila an army-chief of the monkeys killed Pramdthl. (Sarga 26, Valmiki Ramayana and ~loka 22, Chapter 287, Vana Parva).


PRAMATH'I III. A raksasa who was a friend of Ghatotkaca. In the Kuruksetra battle Duryodhana killed this Pramathi. (Slolca 20, Chapter 91, Bhisma Parva).


PRAMATHIN I. A celestial woman. This woman gave a dance performance during the Janmotsava of Arjuna. (Sloka 21, Chapter 122, Adi Parva).




1,) General information. Great Sage Bhrgu, got of his wife Puloma Cyavana and Cyavana got of his wife Sukanya, Pramati. This sage Pramati married the beautiful Pratapi and their son was Ruru.


2) Other details.


(i) Pramiti visited Bhisma while he was lying on his bed of arrows. (Sloka 5, Chapter 26, Anu.' asana Parva ). (ii) Pramiti is described as the son -of Vagindra born in the family of Grtsamada son of Vitah'avya. (81oka 58, Chapter 30, Anusasana Parva). For details see under Ruru).


PRAMATI II. Son of a brahmin named aura of Prayaga. During the fag end of Krtayuga the brahmins made Pramati their army-chief and defeated the Ksatriyas. (Visnudharmottara Purana).


PRAIVIATI III. One of the four ministers of Vibhisana. (Yuddha Kanda, Chapter ?7. Verse 7, Valmiki Ramayana). '


PRAMILA. Chief of the Strir5jya (country of women) in the Himalayas. The Pandavas conducted an a9vamedhayaga after the great battle. I t was Arjuna who followed the sacrificial horse. Roaming about without anybody daring to tie it the horse reached Strirajya and Pramila tied the horse. Arjuna challenged her and in the fight that ensued Pramila defeated Arjuna. At that time there was a voice from heaven which said "Arjuna, you will never be able to take back the horse after defeating Pramila. So if you want to save the sacrificial horse, enter into a truce with her and make her your wife." Arjuna took the advice .and saved the horse after marrying Pramila. (Jaiminiya, Arvamedha Parva, 21-22).


PRAMLOCA. A nymph who enticed the sage Kandu. (Ste under Kandu).


PRAMODA I. A serpent born of the family of Airavata. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 11, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).


PRAMODA II. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (aloka 65, Chapter 45, ~alya Parva).


PRAMODA 111. One of the Manasaputras (Spiritual sons) of Brahma. Pramoda was born from the neck of Brahma. (Matsya Purana).


PRAMOHINI. A Gandharva maiden. Pramohini and four Gandharva maidens were absolved from their cursiis by a drop of water from the river Narmada. The story recounted to Yudhisthira by Narada is as follows


Five Gandharva maidens Pramohini, Su.' ila, Susvara, Candrika and Sward were friends. Pramohini was the daughter of gukasangiti, Su. ila that of Susila, Susvara of Svaravedi, Candrika that of Candraka and Sutara of Suprabha. On a day in spring all the five went about collecting flowers in a forest. As they went on walking they reached the pond named Acchoda. They bathed in that pond and after that made an idol of Ambika with clay and adorned it with golden ornaments. Putting marks on it with Kumkum (Saffron)and Candana (Sandalwood-paste) they danced around the idol with devo. tional songs. As they were doing so, the eldest son of sage Vedanidhi came to bathe in the Acchoda pond. He was very charming to look at with eyes like lotus, broad chest and round and brawny hands. He looked like another Kumadeva (Cupid). He was wearing a deer-hide and around his waist was a yellow waist-band of MuAja grass. The five girls were attracted by the ascetic youth and stopping their dancing they at first thought of making him their guest. The more the girls looked at him the more they saw a resemblance ofKamadeva in him and they decided to make him their husband. The girls started to approach him with amorous looks and perplexed by this move, the ascetic youth fled away from the place. The girls searched for him everywhere and he was not to be found. They found an emptiness on all sides. They thought that perhaps he might be a magician. They felt themselves in the plight similar to that of the gopis who searched for the missing Krsna. Somehow taking courage they reached their homes and fell down before their mothers. The mothers asked them why they were so late and they rep1ied they knew not the passage of time speaking with the Kinnaris who arrived there. Their bodies were hot and the mothers thought that it might be due to their brisk walking for such a long distance.


Telling a lie like that to hide their secret, they lay on the ground thinking about him and him a1one. They did not make the Kelimayura (peacock kept for pleasure) dance, did not teach the parrot in the cage, did not pet the mongoose nor did they converse with their pet ~arika. The night seemed to them like a yuga and as soon as it was morning they ran up to the Acchoda pond. The brahmin boy came there that morning also for bathing. The five girls encircled him and requested him to marry them. He made several excuses and -tried to get away from them. Then Pramohini breaking the circle went and caught hold of him by his legs, Susila and Susvara caught hold of his hands, Sward embraced him and Candrika kissed him on his cheeks. At 1ast in despair the brahmin boy cursed them and turned them into devils. The girls were not to be subdued like that. They also cursed him in return and made him also a devil. All the devils formed like that by curses and countercurses lived in the same place in the forest. After a long time one day the sage Lomasa came that way by chance and the burning effulgence of Lomasa due to his severe penance made him unapproachable to the devils and they stood at a great distance from him. But the brahmin devil by the strength of his penance in his previous life knew Lomaga and falling before him in prostration told him everything that had happened. Loma-,a was greatly moved by his story and he took them to the banks of the river Narmada. At that time a wind blew and drops ofwater from the river, changed them into their original forms and they stood praising Narmada. Then following the advice of Lomasa the brahmin boy married the five girls and lived on the shores of Narmada bathing in it, drinking its water and worshipping it. They lived there for long happily and then attained Visnuloka. (Chapter 22, Padma Purana)


PRAMRTA. One of the ways of earning wealth. There are five ways according to Manusmrti.


Rtamrtabhyarii jivettu


Mrtena pramrtena va .


Satyanrtabhyamapi va


Na svavrtya kadacana.//sloka 4, Chapter 4, Manusmrti).


Rtam, Amrtam, Mrtam, Pramrtam and Satyanrtam are the five ways.


Each has been described thus:


RtamunchaMarh jneyam


Amrtam syadayacitam


Mrtantu yacitarh bhaiksam


Pramrtam karsanarh smrtam //


Satyanrtantu vanijyam


tena caivapi jivyate /


Seva svavrttirakhyata


Tasmat tariff parivarjjayet I/


(Slokas 5 and 6, Chapter 4. Manusmrti ) (Rtam is the collection of grains from paddy fields with two fingers. Amrta is that which is obtained without begging and Mrta is that which is obtained by begging. Wealth that is obtained by agriculture is Pramrta and that which is obtained by trade is Satyanrta. Wealth obtained by seva (flattery and service) is to be avoided.)


PRAIVISUNRGA. A Manu. Iksvaku, Nabhaga. Dhrsta, Saryati, Narisyanta, Prarhsunrga, Dista, Karusa and Prsadhra are all Manus. (7th Skandha, IDevi Bhagavata)


PRAMUCI (PRAMUCA). A sage who lived in Daksinabharata. (Sloka 29, Chapter 208, anti Parva) .


PRANA I. Grandson of sage Bhrgu. Bhrgu got of his wife Khyati a daughter named Laksmi and two sons named Dhata and Vidhata. They married Ayati and Niyati respectively and they got two sons named Prana and Mrkandu. Markandeya was the son of Mrkandu. (Chapter 10, Amf a 1, Visnu Purana) .


PRANA II. A son born to the Vasu named Soma of his wife Manohara. This Prana was the younger brother of Varccas. These brothers had two other brothers named Sisira and Ramana. (8loka 26, Chapter 66, Adi Parva ).


PRANA III. Pranavayu. The wind of life. (See under Paravaha ).


PRANADHARA. A carpenter of Puranic fame.


There were two celebrated carpenters in the country of Kanci named Pranadhara and Rajyadhara when King Bahubala was ruling that country. They learnt many mechanical arts in carpentry and architecture from the great architect, Mayasura. Pranadhara, the elder brother, became an addict to wine; and women and gambling and lost all his wealth. Rajyadhara gave a portion of his wealth to his brother and before long both became poor. Then Pranadhara found out a plan and they both together made a mechanical bird and tying a rope to its legs sent it into the treasure-house of the King through a window. The bird picked up diamonds or ornaments which it could carry in its beak and came back to them. This continued daily for some days and then Rajyadhara advised his brother to stop it acquainting him with the dangers if it was ever found out. But Pranadhara did not heed the advice and continued the theft. When the keeper of the treasury found things missing he was worried. He mused : "Doors are not open. Can it be rats? No, there has never been a single rat here before. Then bow did it happen ?" Thinking thus he went and reported the matter to the king. The King was confident of the keeper. Soon he put guards over the treasure-house to keep watch over it at night. Little knowing that he was being watched Pranadhara put his bird into action that night also. The watchmen caught hold of the rope as soon as the bird came out with the booty from the treasure-house. Pranadhara knew that the trick had been found out and he rushed to his brother and told him what had happened. Immediately Pranadhara made a Vimana and escaped from the place with his family. Rajyadhara also made a Vimana and escaped. When he had travelled in the Vimana for four hundred Katas 'Kdta=four miles). he reached a sea-shore and then leaving the Vimana there started walking. On the way getting tired he slept inside a garden. When he woke up, a man on a peacock came to his side and said "You live here. When you are hungry and feel like taking food go to the second floor of this house and you will find there whatever you want." The visitor disappeared and he found a house in front of him. When he had finished his daily ablutions he went inside the house which was empty. But when he went up he saw ample food in gold vessels arranged there. He never heard about his brother again. (Taranga 9, Ratnaprabhalambaka, Kathasaritsagara)


PRANAK A. Son of an agni called Prana. (Sloka 1, Chapter 22, Vana Parva).


PRANARODHA. One of the twenty eight hells. (See under Kala).


PRANAYAMA. Prana means the wind in the body and ayama means restraint. Pranayama means restraining or suspending breath. Spread on the floor . a piece of cloth, or animal-skin or Kusa grass and sitting on it cross-legged, controlling all actions of the sense-organs and concentrating on one single object do pranayama for the purification of the soul. There are three different kinds of pranayamas namely Recakapranayama, Purakapranayama and Kumbhakapranayama.


Holding the nostrils with the left hand and massaging the belly with the other hand one sends out the air within the belly. It is called Recakapranayama. Doing just the reverse and getting air inside is called Purakapranayama. Then the yogi sits, with his belly full of air. Sitting thus without either letting the air out or letting it in is called Kumbhakapranayama. Here the yogi sits like a puma-kumbha (full jar). The body of man is a chariot, the sense organs its horses, mind the charioteer and pranayama the whip. (Chapter 373, Agni Purana).


PRANIDHI. Son of an Agni called Paficajanya. (9loka 9, Chapter 220, Vana Parva).


PRANITA. A Son born to one's own wife by the grace of great men. (Sloka 19, Chapter 119, Adi Parva).


PRA~fNADI. A sacred place. He who visits this place would attain Indraloka. (~loka 15, Chapter 84, Vana Parva) .


PRAPAIVCA. See under Srsti.


PRAPANCABUDDHI. A beggar with astonishing powers mentioned in Kathasaritsagara.


PRAPTI. A wife of Karnsa. Karnsa had two wives and the other was called Asti. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


PRARIJJA I. A division of raksasas (demons) and


Pisacas (devils). (~loka 1, Chapter 285, Vana Parva). PRARUJA II. A deva who once guarded the Amrta (nectar). Once there was a fight between Praruja and Garuda. (Chapter 28, Adi Parva).


PRASADA. A King of the family of Manu. (4th Skandhap, Bhagavata).


PRASANDHI. A son of Vaivasvata Manu. Ksupa is the son of Prasandhi. (8loka 2, Chapter 4, Asvamedha Parva).


PRASANTATMA. A synonym of Surya (Sun). (Sloka 27, Chapter 3, Vana Parva).


PRASASTA. A holy river. During their pilgrimage the Pandavas came to this place and bathed in this river. (9loka 2, Chapter 118, Vana Parva ).


PRASENA I. A son of Karna. He was killed in the great battle by Satyaki. (~loka 6, Chapter 82, Karna Parva).


PRASENA II. A King of Vrsnivaiii:,a.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu -Brahma Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas- Ayus -Nahusa-Yayati-Yadu- Sahasrajit-8atajit-Hehaya - Dharma - Kunti - Bhadrasena - Dhanaka -Krtavirya - Kartaviryarjuna - Madhu - Vrsni -Yudhajit-Anamitra-Snigdha (Nimna)-Prasena.


Snigdha had two sons, Prasena and Satrajit.


2) Prasena and the Syamantaka. Satrajit and Surya (Sun) were friends. Once Satrajit requested Surya to give him some gift as a token of their friendship. Then Surya gave him the Syamantaka gem. If that stone was worshipped daily with pujas by brahmanas it would yield eight loads of gold daily. When once Satrajit travelled by air with that gem round his neck the people of Dvaraka mistook him for Visnu. Sri Krsna was attracted by the beauty and power of that stone and he asked Satrajit that gem for a good price. Sri Krsna offered as much money as he wanted and still Satrajit did not part with it.


Once Prasena went hunting with that gem round his neck and he was attacked and killed by a lion. The lion while carrying the Syamantaka was killed by Jambavan and the latter carried the gem to his den and gave it to his children to play with.


When Prasena did not return from his hunting and was found later lying dead without the gem the news spread that the stone might have been stolen by Krsna after kilfing Prasena. The slander reached the ears of Krsna also and he went to the forest in search of the Syamantaka. He found the cave of Jambavan and on peeping in found the children of Jqmbavdn playing with the gem. Jambavan attacked Krsna and after a grim battle which lasted for several days Jambavan was defeated. When he knew that it was Krsna who had defeated him he gave him along with the ~yamantaka his daughter Jambavati also Krsna brought the gem and the girl to Dv~-trakd and gave back the gem to Satrajit. (Chapter 38, Harivamsa; Chapter 13, Part 8, Padma Purana).


PRASENAJIT I. Father of Suyajna, wife of Mahabhama. As a King he did godana (gift of cows) for many years and attained Punyaloka in the end. (8loka 20, Chapter 95, Adi Parva).


PRASENAJIT II. Father of Renuka, wife of the sage Jamadagni. Jamadagni abandoned the beautiful Renuka once but fearing a curse Prasenajit gave her again to Jamadagni. (Chapter 58, Brahm<tnda Purana).


PRASENAJIT III. A distant brother of Satrajit called Bhava. (Daksinatya Patha, Chapter 14,. Sabha Parva).


PRASENAJIT iV. A King who lived in the city of gravasti. Once a very virtuous brahmin came to this city. Finding him to be a man of great virtues a Vaisya took him to his house and kept him there worshipping him. Many rich men corning to know of the brahmin came and worshipped him with offerings of costly clothes and ornaments. Within a short time the poor brahmin got a huge heap of gold and silver. He collected his lot and at night without letting anybody know went and buried it in a secret place in the forest. After some days he went and looked for it and found his buried wealth missing. When the brahmin returned weeping, the host, th° Vaisya, gathered from him all that had happened. The house-holder consoled him but the miserly and greedy brahmin was not to be pacified thus and he started to commit suicide. He went to a pond nearby and was about to jump into it when Prasenajit who heard about this came to the spot and told him thus:-"Do not grieve over your loss. I shall make enquiries about it and if the stolen wealth is not recovered I shall give you compensation from my treasury."


After consolinff the brahmin thus the King went to his palace. He pretended to be ill and called the physicians of the city to his side. He asked them about their patients, their illness and the medicines prescribed for them. One of the physicians during the enquiry said thus : "Oh lord, Matrdattavanik is my patient. Yesterday I prescribed to him the root of Craka plant." The King soon dispersed the physicians and sent for Matrdattavanik and asked him who had brought for him the root. When Matrdattavanik replied that it was his servant the King sent for the servant and on questioning the servant the latter confessed having taken the hidden treasure. Thus because of the intelligence and wisdom of the King the brahmin got back his wealth. (Taranga 7, Madanamaiicukalambaka. Kathasaritsagara).


PRASITA. One of the Pancamahayajnas. The five yajnas are Ahuta, Huta, Prahuta, Brahmyahuta and Prasita. (Sloka 73, Chapter 3, Manusmrti).


PRASKANVA.I A King who was the son of Medhatithi. The Kings of Praskanva line were Ksatriyas formerly but they became brahmiris later. (9th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


PRASKANVA 11. A sage who was the son of Kanvamuni. The sukta 44 of anuvaka 9 of mandala one of Rgveda was written by this sage.


PRASRAYA. A King of the family of Manu. (4th Skandha, Bhagavata)'.


PRASRTA. A demon. This demon was killed by Garuda. (~loka 12, Chapter 105, Udyoga Parva).


PRASTHALA I. The palace of Susarmn. (See under Sus arma).


PRASTHALA II. A greatly condemned place. (Sloka 47, Chapter 44, Karna Parva).


PRASUHMA. A country which was conquered by Bhimasena during the Mahabharata times. (S`loka 16, Chapter 30, Sabha Parva).


PRASUHRUTA. A King who was a descendant of Sri. Rama. (9th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


PRASUTI. A daughter of Svayambhuva Manu. Svayarirbhuva Manu had two sons named Priyavrata and


Uttanapada and three daughters named Akuti, Devahuti and Prasuti. Akuti was married to Ruciprajapati, Devahuti to Kardamaprajapati and Prasuti to Daksaprajapati. Yajna is the son of Akuti. Kapila is the son of Devahuti. Prasuti got only a number of daughters. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata) .


PRATAPA. A prince of the country of Sauvira. He stood behind the chariot of Jayadratha holding his flag. Arjunaslew him. (~loka 10, Chapter 265, Vana Parva ).


PRATAPAMUKUTA. Father of Vajramukuta. Vajramukuta is the hero in the tale of Vetalakatha described beautifully in Kathasaritsagara. (See under Vetala).


PRATAPI. Cyavanamaharsi got of his wife Sukanya a son named Pramati. Pratapi is the beautiful wife of Pramati. Ruru is the son born to Pramati of Pratapi. (2nd Skandlia, Devi Bh<,gavata).