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LA (ff) This letter means the Creator. (Chapter 348, Agni Purana).


LABDHANASA. See under Paficatantra.


LAGHUPATANA. A crow, a character of the storybook, `Paficatantra'. (See under Paficatantra) .


LAJJA. One of the thirteen daughters of Daksaprajapati. The other daughters were, Sraddha, Laksmi, etc. (Chapter 7, Arhsa 1, Visnu Purana).


LAKSAGRHA. The house of lac (a kind of red dye) . (See for details under Arakkillam).


LAKSANA I. Daughter of Duryodhana. Wife of Samba. (See for details under Samba).


LAKSANA II. A celestial maiden. This maiden took part in the birth day celebrations of Arjuna. (Sloka 62, Chapter 122, Adi Parva, M.B.).


LAKSANA (LAKSMANA) III. One of the eight queens of sri Krsna. Laksana was the daughter of Brhatsena, King of 1Vladra. (Sr' Khanda, Padma Purana). Sri Krsna got ten sons of her some of whom are Praghosa, Gatravan, Simha and Bala. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


LAKSMANA. Son born to Dagaratha of Sumitra.


1) Short history. Since details about Laksmana are included in the story under 'Rama' only a short description is given below


Dasaratha, King of Ayodhya had three wives, Kausalya, Kaike)xy and Sumitra. To obtain children Dasaratha performed a sacrifice named Putrakamesti requesting the great sage Rsyasrnga to officiate at the ceremony. At the close of the ceremony a divine person rose up from the sacrificial fire with a pot of pudding and all the three wives became pregnant by eating the same. Kausalya gave birth to Sri Rama, Kaikeyi to Bharata and Sumitra to Laksmana and gatrughna. Laksmana was an incarnation of Ananta and so Rama and Laksmana had more attachment to each other.


Visvamitra once took Rama and Laksmana to the forests to give protection to the sages against the demons who gave them trouble. In the course of that Visvamitra took them to the Svayamvara held at the court of Janaka and Sri Rama married Sita and Laksmana married Urmila.


When the coronation of Sri Rama was about to take place, Kaikeyi demanded of Dasaratha, on the strength of the two boons granted to her on a previous occasion, to send Sri Rama to the forests for fourteen years and crown Bharata her son as King. Dasaratha was compelled to accede to her request and so Sri Rama went to the forests. Sita and Laksmana accompanied him. Laksmana during the fourteen years of their exile followed his brother Rama like a shadow. Laksmana cut off the breasts and nose of Surpanakha, the demoness who made amorous overtures to them. Laksmana acted promptly and bravely when the notorious trio, Khara, Dusana and Trisiras attacked them and he was responsible for the slaughter of the three. Ravana, coming to know of that, carried away Sita to Lanka.


Grief-stricken, Rama and Laksmana roamed about in the forests searching for Sitd. At last they came to Sugriva with whom they made an alliance. Rama and Laksmana got back for Sugriva his kingdom of' Kiskindha and Sugriva in return helped Rama and Laksmana to fight Ravana. Accompanied by an army led by Sugriva Rama and Laksmana went to Lanka and defeating Ravana took back Sita to Ayodhya. Sri Rama was crowned King and Laksmana helped his brother in his duties. When there arose a scandal about Sitd from the people, Sri Rama asked Laksmana to take Sita away to the forest and leave her there. In the Mvamedha conducted by Sri Rama, Laksmana led the sacrificial horse and the horse was blocked and captured by Lava and Kusa and Laksmana fought against them.


When the purpose of the incarnation of Rama was over, god of Death in the garb of a sage approached Sri Rama for a private talk. Rama and the sage were closeted in a room and Laksmana was asked to keep watch over the door with instructions not to allow anybody inside. After some time sage Durvasas came there and Laksmana entered the room to give his brother the information of his arrival. Rama was angry and abandoned Laksmana and, feeling repentant later, Sri Rama jumped into the river and drowned himself before a huge crowd of weeping subjects. Laksmana immediately ended his life by drowning himself at the same place where his brother did so.


2) Birth. Laksmana was born on the day of Aslesa in the lagna of Karkataka. (Sloka 15, Chapter 18, Bala Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


LAKSMAMA II. A very brave son of Duryodhana. He was a great archer. The Mahabharata gives the following information about him.


(i) In the great battle Abhimanyu defeated this Laksmana. (Sloka 32, Chapter 73, Bhisma Parva).


(ii) Laksmana fought against Ksatradeva. (Sloka 49, Chapter 14, Drona Parva).


(iii) Abhimanyu killed him in the battle-field. (Sloka 17, Chapter 46, Drona Parva).


(iv) After the great war when once, at the request of Kunti and Gandhari, Vyasa by his yogic powers arrayed the dead warriors forKunti and Gandhari to see, this Laksmana was also among them. (Sloka 11, Chapter 32, Asramavasika Parva).


LAKSMANA. One of the queens of Sri Krsna. (Chapter 33, Sabha Parva, Daksinatyapatha).


LAKSMI I. Consort of Mahavisnu.


1) Origin. Devi originated from the left side of Paramatma (Supreme Being). The beautiful Devi by a command from the Supreme Being divided herself into two enchanting damsels both equal in figure, splendour, age, majesty, adornment and love. One of these was Laksmidevi and the other Radhadevi. That born of the left was Rama and that of the right, Radha. Radha wedded herself to the two-handed Sri Krsna and Laksmi also wanted the same person and so Bhagavan himself became two, Sri Krsna from the left side as a two-handed. person and as four-handed


Visnu from the right side. (9th Skandha. Devi Bhagavata).


2) Different incarnations of Laksmf. Laksmi had many incarnations and she had been on earth in different forms at different times. They are given below:


(i) Birth from the ocean of milk. Once the Devas became aged and afflicted with rugosity and grey hairs by a curse of Durvasas. Indra lost his majesty and was ousted from Svarga. Svargalaksmi deserted Devaloka and went to Vaikuntha and merged with Mahalaksmi.


The Devas were greatly aggrieved on account of this plight of theirs and they went to Satyaloka and appealed to Brahma to find a solution to their difficulties. Brahma was helpless in the matter and so they all together went to Vaikuntha and represented their grievances before Mahavisnu. Visnu smiled and told Mahalaksmi thus : "You go and be born as Ksirasagarakanyaka using a part of your inherent power and do give relief to the Devas." Accordingly when the Devas conducted the churning of the ocean of milk (Ksirabdhimathana) Mahalaksmi, the goddess of beauty, wealth and prosperity arose from. the ocean as Ksirasagarakanyaka (Daughter of the ocean of milk) and blessed the Devas and put a Vanamala (garland of wild flowers) on Mahavisnu. The Devas got back all their lost wealth and prosperity and they, on going to Devaloka, worshipped Laksmidevi properly. (9th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


(ii) Mahalaksmi was born as a mare. (See under Ekavira, Para 2) .


(iii) Mahalaksmi was born as the Tulasi plant (Holy Basil. (See under Tulasi.)


(iv) Mahalaksmi was born as Sita and Vedavati. (See under Sita) .


(v) Other births : Mahalaksmi was born as a daughter to the sage Bhrgu of Khyati. When Mahavisnu incarnated as Surya, Laksmi rose up from the lotus. When Visnu became Parasurama, Laksmi became the earth. When Mahavisnu incarnated as Sri Rama, Laksmi became Sita and when Visnu was born as Krsna Laksmi became Radha. Thus whenever and wherever Mahavisnu changed his form, Mahalaksmi also changed hers to forrm part of the changed life. (Chapter 9, Arirsa 1, Visnu Purana).


3) Mahdlaksmf cursed Vzsnu. Once Mahalaksmi cursed Mahavisnu, her husband, that his head would drop off from his body. (See under Cital).


4) Two forms of Laksmf. Mahalaksmi has two forms, Visnu-priya Laksmi and Rajyalaksmi. The former is the embodiment of chastity and virtuousness. The latter goes about courting Kings. Rajyalaksmi is fickle and unsteady. This Laksmi enters all places where virtue and charity are found and as soon as these two vanish from any place Rajyalaksmz will also vanish from that place.


5) Laksnd in corn-dung. The people of Bharata consider cow dung as very sacred and there is a story in the 82nd Chapter of Anusasana Parva as to how cow-dung became so sacred


Once a herd of cows was grazing in a large grassy ground when Laksmi happened to pass that way. Mahalaksmi was pleased at the cows and bade them ask for any boon they wanted. The cows were prosperity incarnate and contented and they rejected the offer of Laksmi and when pressed again by her, said that they would like to have prosperity deposited in their dung also. MahalaksmT did so and so even today it is believed that the cowdung is embedded with prosperity.


6) . Other details


(i) Laksmi stays in the court of Kubera. (Sloka 19,


Chapter 10, Sabha Parva).


(ii) Mahalaksmi is installed in temples as an idol carrying a lotus in her right hand and a Bilva fruit in her left


hand. (Chapter 50, Agni Purana).


(iii) Laksmidevi stays in the court of Brahma also. (Sloka 4i, Chapter 11, Sabha Parva).


LAKSMI II. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. She was married to Dharmadeva. (Sloka 14, Chapter 66, Adi Parva).


LAKSMIDASA. A Sanskrit poet who was the author of sukasandes a.


I) . Birth. He was born in the former state of Cochin in Karifigampilly Mana. This Mana (house) was near the temple of Trpputamangala in Vellarappilly in Cochin (Kanayannur taluk). The Karifigampilly Mana was bearing the position of Talivatiri in the village of Iranikkula. It is over two hundred years since that Mana became extinct. (The houses of Namboothiri brahmins are called Manas).


2) It is believed that the famous `8ukasandesa' was written in 112 M.E. There is one set of historians who hold that it was written in 666 A.D. but the famous scholar and poet Ullur states with authority that it was written in the 10th or 11 th century A.D-.


"\ Stories about this _poet. As usual there are legends regarding this poet also. That the poet was a very dull boy in his childhood and that he became bright and bri1liant by the blessings of his guru is one legend. After writing his Sukasandesa the poet went on a pilgrimage in South India. One night he came to a brahmin's house but was not given any food or a place to sleep. He slept in an open veranda on the outside. He was lying awake when he heard his `Sukasandesa' being read inside by a few people. At a stage they were not able to follow the import of a verse when Laksmid5sa shouted the meaning from outside. A door opened and a. voice enquired in Tamil "Are you Karifigampilly ?" When he said yes they were extremely happy and took him inside and treated him with



4) Works. No major work other then 8ukasandesa has been found. Two small poems are available.


~ukasandcga has been written on the model of the famous Meghasandesa of Kalidasa. Many commentaries on this have come to light; of these the one written by


Manavedan Raja of Kozhikode Palace named Vilasini is the best. Other commentaries named Varavarnini, Cintatilaka and Vyakrti are also worth mentioning.


LALABHAKSAM. A hell. (See under Kala I).


LALAMA. A division among horses. The white patch on the forehead of a horse is also called Lalama and so horses with lalama are called Lalamas. (8loka 13, Chapter 13, Drona Parva).


LALATAKSA. A country of ancient India. The King of this country was pt esent at the yajna of Yudhisthira with very many valuable presents. (8loka 17, Chapter 51, Sabha Parva).




LALITA. A Gandharva. This Gandharva was born by a curse and by observing a vrata called Kamada Ekada,:i he obtained relief from the curse and became Gandharva again. (Uttara Khanda, Padma Purana),


LALITAKA. An ancient holy place of Bharata. If one bathes in a sacred pond there, one will be free from sins. (8loka 34, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).


LALITTHA. A country of ancient Bharata. The people of the place were called Lalitthas. They fought on the side of the Kauravas in the great battle. Lalitthas boasted that they would kill Arjuna in the big battle. The King of the Lalitthas attacked Abhimarryu. Arjuna killed them all in the battle. (8loka 47, Chapter 5, Karna Parva).


LAMBA. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. Asikni wife of Daksaprajapati got a hundred daughters and ten of them were married to Dharmadeva. Lamba was one of them. (Chapter 15, Arhsa 1, Visnu Purana).


LAMBANI. A follower of Subrahmanya. (8loka 18, Chapter 46, 8alya Parva).


LAMBAPAYODHARA. A follower of Subrahmanya (8loka 21, Chapter 46, 8alya Parva)


LAMPAKA. A place of Puranic fame. In the great epic battle the people of Lampdka fought on the side of the Kauravas. They attacked Satyaki and he destroyed the Lampakas: (8loka 42, Chapter 121, Drona Parva).


LANKA. The kingdom of Ravana.


1) Origin. It is believed that the present island of Ceylon was the Lanka of the Puranas, the city of Ravana. This city of Lanka was situated on the top of the mountain Trikuta. This Trikuta was a peak of Mahameru. Because of a fight between Vasuki and Vayubhagavan this peak broke away from Mahameru and fell into the ocean. (See Para 5 under Kubera).


2) History. Visvakarma constructed a magnificent city on the top of the mountain Trikuta for the use of Kubera. Kubera lived there adored and worshipped by all. One day Kubera travelled by air in an aeroplane of his. Kaikasi, mother of Ravana saw that and she became jealous. She called her $on to her side and said that at any cost the city of Lanka on the mount Trikuta should be captured and given to her. Ravana along with his brothers went to the Himalayas and performed penance there and obtained several boons from 8iva. Then Ravana conducted a victory march as an arc h-opponen of all living forces and drove away Kubera from Lanka and took possession of Lanka as the place of his abode. He took along with him all the demons residing in Patalaloka.


3) . The design of Larika. Vi'svakarma, the celebrated architect designed the beautiful Lanka and the supreme building ability of Maya brought into form the enchanting city. On the top of Trikuta was the all important Navaratnasrnga and on a spacious plateau on its top stood the majestic city of Lafika. In the centre was the ten-storeyed palace of Ravana and around it in eight different places stood the nine-storeyed buildings of the great ministers of Ravana. The nine edifices were like the Navagrahas (nine planets) of Lanka. Each of the nine edifices was built with one of the nine gems and the royal palace in the centre was built by using all the nine gems. Even the sun avoided passing over these buildings and changed his path either a bit to the north or to the south making what is known as the Daksinayana and Uttarayana. (Yuddha Kanda, Kamba Ramayana).


4). No sand in Larika. The ancient belief is that there is no sand in Lanka The fourth taranga of Kathamukhalambaka of Kathasaritsagara gives a story relating to the reason for this belief.


Garuda flew to Devaloka to bring Amrta (nectar) to redeem his mother from her servitude to his step-mother. On his way he took an elephant and tortoise from near the asrama of Kasyapa for his food. He sat on a huge banyan tree to eat them. On the ground below the Balakhilyas were performing penance. The branch on which Garuda sat with his food sagged and before it broke Garuda took away the elephant and tortoise and deposited them on the mountain Gandhamadana near the ocean. The branch broke and fell into the ocean and the city of Lanka was built on the branch and that was why the ancient people believed there was no sand in Lanka.


5). Other details.


(i) Sahadeva sent Ghatotkaca to collect tribute from the King of Lanka for the Rajasuyayajna of Dharmaputra. (Chapter 31, Daksinatyapatha) .


(ii) The people of Lanka attended the Rajasuyayajna of Dharmaputra and took charge of serving rice in the feast. (Sloka 23, Chapter 53, Vana Parva).


(iii) Hanuman once burnt the city of' Lanka with a fire from his tail. (See under RAMA).


(iv) It was Brahma who gave Lafika at first to Kubera. (Sloka 16, Chapter 274, Vana Parva ).


(v) After the death of Ravana, Vibhisana was crowned the King of Lanka (Sloka 5, Chapter 291, Vana Parva).


LASIKALAKSMLA Devi who was relieved of her curse by a hard stroke of his hand by Hanuman. .


1i. How she came to Lanka. Lankalaksmi was Vijayalaksmi in her previous birth. She was the watch-girl of the treasury of Brahma and one day finding her negli-


gent of her duties Brahma cursed her "Go to the earth and be the watch-girl of the palace-gate tower of Ravana". She begged for relief and Brahma said, "During the incarnation of Visnu as Rama his wife Sita will be carried away by Ravana and Hanuman will come in search of bet to Lanka. You will then block the way of that mightly monkey and he will then strike you down by a fierce blow of his hand. You will be then released from the curse and come, back to me."


Vijayalaksmi accordingly was born in Lanka and became the watch-girl of Ravana's palace.


2) Release from the curse. Hanuman coming to Lanka in search of Sita tried to find an opening through which to enter Lanka. Then he saw a huge tower-gate on the northern side of the mountain Suvelagiri. When he reached the gate he found it closed. The mighty monkey beat hard on the door and the strong door burst into two and fell on to the floor. Instantly a ferocious woman of enormous size rushed to the gate with a piercing roar and blocked it. Hanumdn found the situation dangerous and so gave her a powerful blow and felled her. She then very politely asked Hanuman who he was and Hanuman revealed his identity and told her the purpose of his visit. Lankalaksmi then took leave of Hanuman and leaving Lanka went to Sri Rama and worshipped him. * Razna blessed her and she returned to Satyaloka and started doing her duties as before. (Sundara Kanda, Kamba Ramayana).


LAPETIKA. A holy place. If a man visits this place he would get the benefit of conducting a Vajapeya yajna. (Sloka 15, Chapter 58, Vana Parva).


LAPITA. The second wife of a sage called Mandapala. (See for details under Mandapala).


LATA. A celestial maiden. She was the companion of another Devi of name Varga. Though she became a crocodile by the curse of a brahmin she was sot free by Arjuna. (See under Pancatirtha).


LATA. A particular division of the Ksatriyas. Because a set of the Ksatriyas showed jealousy towards the Brahmins they became Latas. (Sloka 17, Chapter 35, Anusasana Parva).


LATAVESTA. A mountain situated on the southern side of Dvaraka. It had five colours and so resembled the Indracapa. (Chapter 33, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva).


LAUHITYA I. A country of Puranic fame. This country of out-castes was conquered by Bhima and he took from there different kinds of diamonds. (Sloka 26, Chapter 30, Sabha Parva).


LAUHITYA II. A sacred place constructed by the powers of Sri Rama. If one bathes in,a pond there one would become golden in colour. (Sloka 2, Chapter 85, Vana Parva and Chapter 25, Anusasana Parva).


LAVA. A son of Sita. (See under Kusa II for more details).


LAVANA (M). A hell. (See under Kala 1) .


LAVANA I. A demon. He was the son of a demon called Madhu. 1Madhuvana on the banks of the river Kalindi was the abode of this demon. This demon was a great oppressor of the Devas and Satrughna had to kill him. Satrughna then constructed a beautiful city there and lived there. In recognition of the increasing prosperity of the city it was named Madhura. After the death of Satrughna his two sons lived there. (4th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata)


LAVANA II. A King who was a grandson of Hariscandra. He once conducted a Rajasuya in his imagination and became a Candala. (story in jnanavasistha). This story was narrated to Sri Rama by Vasistha to teach him the truth that man does not realise that this whole universe is an illusion only because of his ignorance.


Lavana was the King of Uttarapinlava, a country of great fame. He was the grandson of Hariscandra and wished to earn fame by performing a Rajasuya yaga as Hariscandra had done. Lavana decided to perform the yaga in his mind only. He made grand preparations for the yajfia. He invited the Rtviks and after invoking the devas inflamed the sacrificial fire. For one year he observed yaga like that and in the end gave gifts to the brahmins and the poor. It was all an imaginary performance that the King had in the course of a single day when he indulged in a reverie. In the evening as usual he continued his day to day duties.


One who performs Rajasuya will have to bear woes and sorrows for a period of twelve years and since Lavana had performed it mentally, Indra sent his agent to give Lavana worries mentally. Indra's agent appeared in the court of King Lavana in the guise of a magician. The magician bowing before the King with awe said, "Lord, I shall show you a magic. See it sitting on your throne. It will be as astounding as if seeing moon rise on the earth".


Saying this the magician took a bundle of peacockfeathers and waved it against the face of the King. That bundle was capable of producing different objects and visions. The King fixed his eyes on the several glittering spots on the feathers and soon he saw a relative of the Saindhava King approaching the court. Behind him was a beautiful horse. Holding the horse by the reins the new-comer addressed the King thus. "Lord, this horse is as good as Uccaissravas and it has been sent by the King of Sindhu to be presented to you. Best things should be given to the best people and only then the value of the thing would be correctly understood." The magician who was standing near-by supported the statement of the new-comer. He said "Lord, what he says is true. This horse has wonderful powers. Take a tour of all the worlds riding on this horse". The King sat staring at the horse and he sat thus for an hour and a half. The entire court was perplexed.


After some time the King awoke from his meditation and looking at his courtiers in wonder he said thus


"I shall tell you what happened to me during the short period I was sitting in meditation. While I was looking at the peacock feathers of the magician I felt a desire to go hunting riding on this horse. So I went to the forest alone riding on this horse. Very quickly the horse took me a long distance deviating from the main path and I soon found myself in the dark depths of a huge forest. By the time we reached that forest my mind and body were equally tired and still we went on moving till evening came. Somehow we crossed the forest and reached Jangala. There I found a cluster of lemon trees and to ease my body I caught hold of a creeper hanging from one of the lemon trees. As I did so, to my horror, I found the horse running away from me and leaving me alone. Tired by the day's travel I sat at a place and dozed. Darkness was creeping in and soon the whole place was in complete darkness. It was very cold also. Somehow I spent the night and when morning came, with hopes I walked around the place. The place was still and no living thing was in sight. As I roamed about I saw a forest-


girl coming with a pot of rice. I approached her and asked for some rice. She did not pay any attention to my request and moved on. I followed her and she said she would give me rice if I promised to marry her. In despair I agreed to her condition and she was pleased with my reply. She gave me half of the rice and curry she was carrying to her father and also some lemon juice to drink. After taking that food I rested for a while.


Her name was Harakeyuri. As soon as her father came from the fields she told him everything. The candala was immensely pleased to hear about our marriage and all of us went to their hut. The scene I saw at the but was astonishing. At one place was the flesh of boars, horses, fowl and crows in a heap and on the intestines of animals hanging from ropes sat birds pecking at them. In the hands of children there were pieces of raw meat and flies hovered round them. The but presented a disgusting atmosphere and yet I entered and sat on a leaf and my marriage with Harakeyuri was conducted there. The celebrations of the marriage lasted for seven days and all these days people danced and shouted amidst loud noises of drumming in a hilarious mood of drunkenness.


Eight months passed by very soon and Harakeyuri became pregnant. She delivered a girl first and soon we had two or three children more. I had to do many cruel and nasty deeds to feed my family and gradually 1 became old. My hair became grey.


At that time there occurred a great famine and those residing in the forests were put to great trouble. There was no water to drink as all ponds and lakes went dry. Some of us migrated to the vicinity of the Vindhya mountain where there were plenty of waterfountains. A few committed suicide. We also left the place and started walking, taking the children also along with us. After some time we sat under a palm tree completely exhausted. My wife began to weep profusely. She then kissed her children and lay down and started sleeping. Thirsty and hungry my children lay there awaiting death. Unable to witness the scene I jumped up from there deciding to commit suicide myself. Suddenly my vision faded and I was able to see this court and you all. This is the work of that magician".


The courtiers sat dumb-founded at the incredible story of the King. Suddenly the magician disappeared. The magician after making the King experience the woes of twelve years in a very short time left for the court of Indra.


Next morning King Lavana in the hope of seeing the place and people of his dream in reality near the mountain Vindhya started with his retinue on the false pretext that he was going to conduct a victory march When he entered a big forest he met with many familiar places and hunters of his dream. Then he saw the but where he had lived. The same men and women were there all around. Then I e saw an old lady lamenting thus: "Oh my dear sons, where did you go from my lap ? My dear daughter, have you forsaken me ? Oh prince, you came here abandoning all luxury and the beautiful girls of your palace and married my daughter. But God did not allow even her to be your permanent wife. The river of life has to take worthless and mean paths forced by circumstances. A very virtuous King had to come and live with a candala girl."


Hearing this the King went to her and asked her all details. When she repeated the story the king knew that the lady was the mother of his candala wife. The King and ministers were surprised to find that his vision was real and within that short period of his meditation he had lived a life of years. This perplexed the King. He then gave the old lady whatever she wanted and after consoling her started for the palace thinking about the wonderful happenings and mysteries of life.


LAVANIA 111. A demon who lived in the island of Ramaniyaka. He had come to the island long before the serpents came to that place. The serpents saw him when they went there to live. (Sloka 2, Chapter 27, Adi Parva).


LAVANA IV. Another King of the family of Hariscandra. Yogavasistha says that this King had participated in several Rajasuya yajfias.


LAVANAKA (LAVANAKA). A place of Puranic fame near the country of Magadha. There are many forests in this place suitable for hunting and so several kings used to come and stay at Lavanaka in times of old.


LAVANMVA. A sage. This sage showed very high respect to Dharmaputra. (Sloka 23, Chapter 26, Vana Parva).


LAVA. A Ki~n,g of old. He was a member of the court of Yama. (Jloka 21, Chapter 8, Sabha Parva ).


LUKHA (S). A deva-gana (set of celestial beings) of Raivata Manvantara. In this set there are eight Devas named Dhruva, Dhruvaksiti, Praghasa, Pracetas, Brhaspati, Manojava, Mahayasas and Yuvanas. (Brahmanda Purana, 2, 36, 76) .


LIKHITA I. An ancient sage. The King of that land cut off his hands on a charge of theft. But they grew into their original form by the power of the penance of his brother, (Chapter 23, Santi Parva).


It was a time when the celebrated King Sudyumna was ruling over the country. On the banks of the river Bahuda in that country there lived two sages, Sankha and Likhita, in two separate hermitages of their own. Once Likhita went to the zsrama of his elder brother ~ankha and finding none but feeling hungry took some vegetables from there and started eating them. While he was eating his brother walked in and be deemed the action of his brother taking the vegetables without his permission as an act of theft. Cutting the hands of the culprit was the punishmen~t accorded by the King at that time to the offender. .7aIlkha sent Likhita to the King. The King received the sage respecifully and gave him a seat. The sage then told him all that had happened and then Sudyumna ordered the hands of Likhita to be cut off. Blood was oozing from his hands when Likhita went and bowed before his brother. The brother congratulated him on his accepting the punishment for his crime and asked Likhita to go and take a dip in the Bahuda river. Likhita bathed in that holy river and then he found both the hands growing like lotus-buds from his body. He rushed to his brother and showed him the hands and then Sankha said that it was due to the power of his penance that Likhita got his hands. Then Likbita asked his brother why he did not purify him by his power before. Sankha replied that the power of punishing was vested in the King and the King


Sudyumna had become great by executing the law correctly.


LIKHITA 11. An evil-natured priest of Harizsadhvaja, the King of Campakapuri. ~ankha his brother also was the King's priest. Hamsadhvaja blocked the sacrificial horse of the Asvamedha yajfia of Dharmaputra and Arjuna attacked the King to get the horse released. To mobilise an army the King announced that each and every soldier should assemble at the place by day-break the next morning and added that those who disobeyed would be put in burning oil.


By early morning the next day all the soldiers excepting the son of the King arrived at the palace. Sudhanva, the King's son, was a general of the army and his absence annoyed the King. Hamsadhvaja was hesitating whether his son should be punished when Likhita advised the King to execute the punishment.


The King put Sudhanva into a big cauldron of boiling oil but Sudhanva escaped from it unscathed to the surprise of all. Likhita and Sankha said that Sudhanva escaped because the boiling of the oil was incomplete and uneven. So they boiled the oil again and threw Sudhanva into it. At this moment a huge palm tree split into two and fell on them and they were killed. (Jaimini Asvamedhaparva).


LILADHYA. A son of Visvamitra. He was a Brahmavadi (Sloka 53, Chapter 4, Anusasana Parva).


LILATILAKAM. The first book of Literary criticism in Malayalam. The author of the book is unknown. The book is divided into eight parts. Manipravala, Malayalasabdas, Alankara, Kavyagunas, Kavyadosas and Rasa are critically examined in this book.


LILAVATI 1. Wife of Dhruvasandhi, . King of Kosala. (For details see under Dhruvasandhi)


LILAVATI II. A prostitute who attained Svarga by simply observing the ~uklastamivrata in the month of Prosthapada in which was born Radhadevi. Chapter seven, Brahmakhanda of Padma Purana contains the following story.


In times of old in Krtayuga there was a beautiful prostitute of the name Lilavati. Once she went away from her own town to another in search of better prospects. There she saw a big assemblage of people in a temple. They were observing Radhastamivrata and worshipping their deity with scented flowers and incense of sweet fragrance. Some were reciting prayers, some were singing and yet others were dancing. The whole atmosphere was filled with devotion. Lilavati went to them and enquired about it. They told her that that day was the birthday of Radhadevi, the Suklastami of the month of Prosthapada, and if anyone observed Vrata on that day worshipping Radhadevi he would be absolved of all sins.


On hearing that, Lilavati decided to observe the Vrata. She joined the devotees of the temple and observed the Vrata with great devotion. Soon she died of snake-bite and the servants of Yama carne to take her soul to hell because of the sins she had committed as a prostitute. But before the Yamadutas could touch her, Parsadas of Mahavisnu wearing the insignia of ~ankha, Cakra, Gada and Padma came to her with a chariot drawn by kingly swans and took her to heaven.


LINGAPURANA. See under Puranas.




1) Origin. Lipi is the record in writing of the utterances by mouth. There are scientific and non-scientific statements about the origin of lipi. In the beginning people used figures of objects to express their ideas. They were called pictorial writings and are found even now in caves in Spain and France where the aborigines lived. Gradually the pictures vanished and letters took their place.


2) Ancient conception. Puranas give a different version. People of Java believe that the script originated from Java. The voice of Indonesia, a government organ, published once a pur5nic story relating to the origin of the script. Lipi came into being in 78 A.D. Ajasikha, a saint among the Buddhists, was the originator of the lipi. He had two disciples named Dora and Sempada. All the three went and stayed in a village in the valley of the mountains of Kontarig. The country of Menrarigkamanal was then ruled by a King called Baka. Ajasikha heard about this wicked ping who had ordered one of his subjects to go to him daily for his food. The people were worried. They tried in secret to find out someone to subdue this tyrant. One day they approached Ajasikha and requested him to find out a way to get relief from this cruel King. Ajas ikh.a sent them back promising to do something to help them..


Ajasikha sat in meditation for some time and then told his disciples thus:- "I have decided to help the people of Menranglcamanal. Dora also should come with me. Sempada should stay here keeping guard over my sword and clothes. Never give them to anybody but me. You should be prepared to give your life for it."


Ajasikha and Dora went to see Baka. People discouraged them and advised them not to go to the King. But they did not heed that and straight away went to the presence of Baka. Baka started to kill them but then Ajasikha said, "Oh King, you can eat me tomorrow. In return please give me today land as big as my headwear". Baka agreed to that and Ajasikha spread his clothes on the ground. As Baka looked with wonder that small piece of headwear began to grow big and it grew in size to cover the whole of the country. Baka got furious at this and attacked Ajasikha. But Baka was slain in the duel.


The people burst into joy and made: Ajasikha their King. Ajasikha then sent Dora to his asrama to fetch his sword and apparels, little thinking of the instructions he had given to Scmpada. Dora went and asked for the sword and apparel.. But Sempada did not give and a fight ensued in which both were killed.


Ajasikha felt very sorry when he heard about the death of his disciples. He cursed himself for giving contradictory orders to his disciples and so wrote four lines, each containing five letters, to keep alive the memory of his dutiful disciples. Those twenty letters are the first ones written not only in Java but the whole world. They were the following:


He no co ro ko - There were two disciples.


- They became enemies because they obeyed the orders of their guru.


I'o dho jo yo njo - Both of them were brave men. Mo go bo do ngo- Both of them died.


3) Bharata lids. Different kinds of lapis were prevalent in ancient Bharata. Lalitavistara mentions about sixty-


To to so vo to


four kinds of lapis in Bharata during the time of Buddha. From inscriptions on stones and ocher historical records it can be gathered that the basis of all the lapis had been two main lapis named Brahma and Kharoslri. Kharostri was used in the northwest of Bharataandbecame extinct by the 4th Century A.D. Brahma was the lipi universally used in Bharata. This lipi had different forms in the north and south. The lipi in use in the south was called Dravidi.


Kharosti lipi was written from right to left and the Brahma from left to right. Even the Brahma was written first from right to left and gradually for the convenience of writing it was changed to one from left to right.


Linguists consider Brahma lipi as the base of all the lapis of .Bharata. It underwent changes in different parts and took different names. The scholars of Europe are of opinion that the Brahrni lipi was borrowed from foreign traders in B.C. 800. Others say that the Brahma lipi was born out of the pictorial lipi of the Chinese. There are those who say that the Brahma lipi originated in Greece and Phoenicia. The great linguist Bulhar says that the Brahma lipi came from the Semitic languages. But Lassen and Cunningham refuted it.


There is a bundle of leaves in the hand of the idol of Brahma in the temple of Ba,dami. Hindus believe that the Brahma lipi found in those leaves was written by Brahma himself. The Aryans forgot that lipi and Vyasa found it out. This is a statement by the Arab traveller Albaruni who came to India in the 11 th century A.D. 4) Kerala Lip' *. The Brahma lip' came to south India by the 3rd century A.D. Many scholars on languages say that `Vettelmttu' is a changed form of the Brahma lipi. The great lipi expert L.A. Ravi Varma says that `Eluttu' has come from the word `Elu' or `Alu' meaning `to mark by cuts'. The common method of writing in South India was to use a pointed stick, long metal nail or chisel to make marks on leaves, rocks or copper plates. Writing by making marks with the pointed stick (Kol) got the name `Koleluttu'. Vetteluttu, Koleluttu and Malayanma were the three lapis in use in Kerala. Vetteluttu was in vogue in Tamilnadu also. But the Pallavas who were using Yrakrta language when they conquered the northern Tamilnad introduced Granthaksara and Granthatamil there. T.K.Krishna Menon says that Granthaksara was a false creation to write Sanskrit easily. In Pandyadesa and Malanadu Vettelrrttu was in use even then.


The influence of the Pallavas began to wane and the Tamil lipi slowly rose into prominence. Even then Vetteluttu was in vogue in the empire of Cera comprising of Malanadu, Mysore. Coimbatore, Salem and Tondamandalam. When Tamilnadu came under the emperor of Vijayanagara those kings introduced Nagar! lipi there.


Vctteluttu was called Nanam Monam also. In the south instead of using 'Hari Sri' people used to say `Namonarayanaya' and the first syllable `Na'. and the second one `Mo' were used to name the language `Nanam Monam'.


When the Malayalis started liking, the Manipravala they started using `Arya eluttu' a form of Granthalipi. This script was known as Tulu-Malayalam also. This was also born of the Brahmilipi. Gradually Vetteluttu and Koleluttu was in use in the north of Kerala among Muslims. The Alphabets now in use by the different languages of south India took shape only about two centuries ago. The lipi of Malayalam now in use came into shape by the tune of Eluttassan spreading the belief that it was Eluttas,4an who had made the alphabet. It is wise to believe that the Malayalam script came into use gradually from Arya eluttu than to give credit to one individual for its origin.


LOBHA I. One of the spiritual sons of Brahma. Matsya Purina mentions that Lobha was born from the lip of Bralund while Bhrigavata mentions that he was the son of Maya.


LOHA 1. An Asura. When the Pandavas were living incognito they kept their weapons in a secret place. Availing of this opportunity Loha made an attack on the Pandavas. At once the devas made him blind and thus helped the Pindavas. That place later became famous as Lohanapura. (Skanda Purina 1, 2, 65)


LOHA. II An ancient place of India. Arjuna conquered this place during his victory march. (Sloka 25, Chapter 27, Sabha Parva).


LOHAVAKTRA. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 75, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


LOHITA I. (ROHITA) Son of Hariscandra. (For details see under HARISCANDRA).


LOHITA II. A king of ancient India. This king was conquered by Arjuna. (Sloka 17, Chapter 27, Vana Parva).


LOHITA III. A serpent. This serpent is a member of the court of Varuna (Sloka 8, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva).


LOHITAGAiRGA. A place of Puranic fame. Sri Krsna killed five notorious demons like Paficaja and Virupaksa at this place. (Chapter 33, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva).


LOHITAKSA I. One the four Parsadas given to Subrahmanya by Brahma. The other three are Nandisena, Ghantakarna and Kumudamali. (Sloka 24, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


LOHITAKSA II. A sage who was a Rtvik in the Sarpasatra of janamejaya. It was this sage who prophesied through a brahmin that the Sarpasatra would never be complete. (Asramavasika Parva, Ch 45. Verse 15; Ch 51. Verse 6; Ch 53. Verse 12).


LOHITAKSI. A follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 22, Chapter 46, Salya Parva).


LOHITARAN1. A river of Puranic fame of ancient India (Sloka h18, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva, M.B.).


LOHITAJVA (ROHITAAVA). Son of Hari9candra. (See under HARI SCANDRA) .


LOHITAYANI. Daughter of Red Sea and one of the foster-mothers of Subrahmanya. Lohitayani was a worshipper of the Kadamba tree. (Sloka 40, Chapter 280, Vana Parva).


LOHITYA. A great river. The present name of this river is Brahmaputra. The devi of this river sits in the court of Varuna, and worships him. (Sloka 22, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva).




(1) Origin of Loka. There are several views in the Puranas regarding the origin of Loka or the world (Universe).


(i) In the beginning of the universe Mahavisnu alone


stood as the Eternal, unseen, unheard, unknown entity: Then there was neither sky nor day nor night. When the time of creation came Prakrti entered Visnu as Purusa creating emotion. From emotion arose Mahat or the Great Principle and from Mahat arose cosmic egoism (Ahankara). Ahankara divided itself into Vaikarika, Taijasa and Tamasa. From Ahafikdra arose Akasa with the quality of sound and from Ak7ga came the air having the quality of touch and from air came fire having the quality of colour and from fire came water having the quality of taste and from water came earth with the quality of smell. All these were born of tamasic egoism. From taijasic egoism came into being the organs of sense. From the Vaikarika egoism came the ten Vaikarika devas and the eleventh organ of sense, the mind. After that Mahavisnu discharged his virility into water and that virility is life. (Chapter 17, Agni Purana).


(ii) Mahavisnu with a view to creating many different kinds of living things created water first and threw his whole energy into it. That energy grew into a golden mass of an egg and Brahma was born from that egg. Mahavisnu broke that egg into two, making one half heaven and the other earth. Between the two halves he created the sky. The earth was floating on the waters and he fixed it by anchoring it at ten sides. Then he created Praiapati, Kala, Manas, Vak, Kama, Krodha and Rati. Then he created thunder, lightning, clouds, rainbows and birds. Then for yajnasiddhi he created from his face Rgveda, Yajurveda and Samaveda. He did sacrifices with them. From his hands he created the different Bhutagramas and Sanatkumaras. He created Rudra out of Krodha. From his mind were born Marici, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasistha. He made these seven Brahmarsis. These seven Brahmarsis and Rudra began to create the prajas. Then Prajapati divided his body into two. One half of it became nzan and the other woman. Brahma started creation through that woman. (Chapter 18; Agni Purina).


(iii) In the beginning Mahavisnu in the form of a child lay on a leaf of the Banyan tree. Lying there the Lord began to think like this, "Who am I ? Who created me ? Why was I created ? What should I do here ?" At once from the sky came a voice which said :-

(All these am I. There is nothing eternal except me) . The Lord was surprised by the voce and there appeared before him Mahadevi with four hands bearing the Sankha, Cakra, Gada and Padma one in each hand. She woreAivine garments and ornaments and was accompanied by Prosperity as her maid. She was surrounded by such forces as Rati Bhuti, Buddhi, Mati, Kirti, Smrti, Dhrti, Sraddha, Medha, Svadha, Svaha, Ksudha, Nidri, Daya, Gati, Tusti, Pusti, Ksama, Lajja, jrmbhd and Tandri. Devi then addressed Mahavisnu thus : "Why wonder ? You have always come into being whenever creation was started by the greatness of great powers. The Supreme Being is without quality of any kind. We are all with quality. You have predominance of Sattvaguna. From your navel will arise Brahma who will be dominated by Rajoguna and from the centre of the forehead of Brahma will be born Rudra with Tamoguna predominant in him. Brahma by the power of his penance will acquire the energy to create and he will then create the world. You will be the protector of this world which will in the end be destroyed by Rudra. I am the sattvic power to help you in your work and I am always at your service."


Accordingly Brahma and Rudra were born and Brahma started his creation. (1st Skandha, Devi Bhagavata). (iv) In times of old during the great deluge everything in this universe became extinct. It went on like that for some time and then the five elements and Brahma were born. Brahma was born in a lotus. Brahma decided there should be mud beneath the lotus. He went down through the stem of the lotus and travelled for a thousand years and yet did not find the earth. He came back and sitting inside the lotus started doing penance. After a thousand years Madhu-Kaitabhas rushed to attack Brahma (See under Kaitabha ). Fearing them Brahma went under water again. As he went deep down he saw a great man sleeping there. It was Mahavisnu and then only he knew he was sitting on the lotus originating from the navel of Mahavisnu. Mahavisnu killed Madhu Kaitabhas and gave permission to start creation and Brahma started his work of creation.


(v) Before the origin of the Universe the shapeless qualityless Pares; akti permeated everything. From it there were born three powers: Jfiana'sakti, Kriyasakti and Arthasakti. The power of Sattvaguna was jiianasakti, the power of Rajoguna was Kriyasakti and the power of Tamoguna was Artha!'akti. From the divine power of Tamasa came the five basic things, sound, colour, touch, taste and smell. The quality of the sky was sound, the quality of air was touch, the quality of fire was colour, the quality of water was taste and the quality of earth was smell.


Rajoguna was born of KriyGsakti. The five organs of senses, ear, eye, nose, tongue and skin and the five organs of work, hand, leg, speech, organ of excretion and the organ of sex and the five breaths, Prana, Apana, Vyana, Samana and Udana are the offsprings of Rajasa. These are the forms of Kriyafakti. These are controlled by the favourable activity of Cicchakti. The five gods controlling the sense-organs like Vayu, Surya, Pasi and Asvinidevas and the four gods controlling intelligence, conscience etc. like Candra, Brahma., Rudra, and Ksetrajfia and the mind are ten Tattvas (Principles) born of sdttvika empowered with jnanasakti. All the Tattvas were made into five basic elements through the process of Pancikarana and the Brahmanda originated from it.


2) The constitution of Brahmanda. The Brahmanda is made up of seven Kosas (coverings). The one in the extreme interior is very small. The second Ko9a originates from the centre of the first Kosa. The third Ko9a also has its origin from the first one. Each of them envelops the one before it. The seventh Ko9a thus originating from the first Ko9a and bursting forth through the other six Ko'sas spreads out for millions of miles around. If you cut the Brahmanda longitudinally the one in the extreme interior is the earth. Then come Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, and Satyaloka in succession. The worlds in the lower half are called Patala, Rasatala, Mahatala, Talatala Sutala, Vitala and Atala. From Satyaloka to Atala there are fourteen lokas. The Brabmanda consists of the Surya,


Candra, Stars, Sukra, Budha, Angaraka, Brhaspati, Sani, Saptarsis, Dhruva, Siriisumara and Rahu, called the jyotiscakra. Besides these there are twentyeight hells also. (Visnu Purana, Amsa 1).


Rahu is ten thousand yojanas below Surya. Ten thousand yojanas below Rahu is the loka of Siddhavidyadharas. Below that up to the path of the clouds is the loka of the demons, genu and manes. Hundred yojanas below this is the Bhuloka (earth). Ten thousand yojanas below the earth and as many yojanas below the world above each are Atala, Vitala Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala Rasatala and Patala. (5th Skandha, Bhagavata).


3) Origin of life. Brahma originated from the navel of Mahavisnu. Brahma started creation after obtaining permission from Visnu. In the beginning Brahma created from the mind Marici, Angiras, Atri, Vasistlia, Pulaha, Kratu, and Pulastya. They are therefore called the Manasaputras of Brahma. (Manas = mind, Putra, -son). From his wrath came Rudra, from his lap came Narada, from his right thumb Daksa, from his mind Sanaka and others and from, his left thumb, Virani. Daksa married Virani.


Daksa got five thousand sons of Virani. They also got sons. When the population began to increase thus Narada intervened and questioned the advisability of increasing the population before knowing the capacity of the earth. 7 he sons of Daksa realised the sense in it and started to have a survey of the earth. Daksa was disappointed that the children left him without showing any interest in the work of creation. So he produced another five thousand sons and asked them to start the work of creation. But they were also sent away as before by Narada. Daksa became angry and he created sixty daughters.


He gave thirteen daughters to Kasyapa, ten to Dharma, twentyseven to Candra, two to Bhrgu, four to Aristanemi, two to Krtas va, and two to Angiras. Of these most of the living things in the world were born to Kasyapa. (7th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


Kafyapa was the last of the Prajapatis. Kasyapa married the daughters of Daksa named Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kalika, Tamra, Krodhavasa, Manu, and Anala. Aditi got thirtythree sons and their family consists of the thirtythree crores of Devas. From Diti were born the daityas or asuras. From Dann was born the danava Hayagriva. Kalika got two sons, Naraka and Kalaka. Tamra got five daughters, Kraunci, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastri and ~uki. Kraufici gave birth to owls, Bhasi to Bhasas and Syeni to Syenas (Vultures, Kites etc.) . Dhrtarastri gave birth to Harfsas, Kalahamsas and Kokas. ~uki gave birth to Nat5, and Nata in turn to Vinata. Krodhavas a gave birth to ten daughters; Mrgi, Mrgamanda, Hari, Bhadramada, Matangi, Sarduli, Sveta, Surabhi, Surasa and Kadru. Of these Mrgi gave birth to beasts, Mrgamanda to trees and plants. Lions and monkeys are the children of Hari, Bhadramada got a daughter named Iravati. Airavata was the son of Iravati. From Mataiigi were born the elephants and from Sarduli the tigers. The Astadiggajas are the sons of Sveta. Surabhi got two daughters named Robin! and Gandharvi. Cows are the children of Rohini and horses are the children of Gandharvi. Serpents are the sons of Surasa and Kadru gave birth to snakes. From Manu were born men. Trees are the sons of Anala. Vinata got two sons named Aruna and Garuda. To Aruna were born two sons, Jatayu and Sampati.


4) The end of the World-There are different views in the Puranas regarding the end of the world. The different Puranas give different views. For knowing the views of Agni Purina on the subject see under the heading `Pralaya'. The eleventh Skandha of Bhagavata gives the following theory regarding the end of the world.


All the materi4l objects of the world will become illusory. Fire will increase. There will be no rains for hundred years together. The World will be burnt by the heat. The heat will go down to the head of Ananta who holds this world on his head. The Saptameghas (Seven Clouds) will rise up in the sunshine infested with the poisonous breath of Ananta. Then rains will start pouring down in streams as thick as the trunk of an elephant. Everything will be drowned in that water. Visnu alone will be left above the vast expanse of water. (See under Manvantara).


LOKALOKA. There is a mountain between Loka and Aloka. This is called Lokalokaparvata and the land beside it is called Lokaloka. The mountain is as long as the distance between Manasottara and Mahameru. This place is golden in colour and as smooth as glass. Not a single being lives there. God has created this as a boundary to the three worlds. All the planets like


the Sun get light from the brilliance of this mountain. Brahma has posted four diggajas named Vrsabha, Puspacuda, Vamana and Aparajita in the four, corners of this mountain. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


LOKAPALA. Indra, Agni, Yama and Varuna are called lokapalas. (81oka 35, Chapter 57, Vana Parva).


LOKAPALASABHAKHYANAPARVA. A sub-divisional Parva of Sabha Parva. The chapters five to twelve are included in this.


LOKODDHARA. A sacred place of Puranic importance in India. Lord Visnu raised all the worlds at this , place. If anyone bathes in a pond there he will be able to liberate the souls of other people from sins. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva).


LOLA. Son of a great sage called Siddhavira. Lola in his later birth was born of a queen named Utpalavati. His name then was Tamasama. (Markandeya Purina).


LOMAHARSANA. Father of Suta who told Puranic stories. (1st.Skandha, Devi Bhagavata). He was a member of the court of Yudhisthira. ($loka 12, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


LOMAPADA I. (ROMAPADA). A King of the country of Anga.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu: BrahmaAtri- Candra -Budha -Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa-

Yayati-Turvasu Vahni-Bharga- Bhinu - TribhanuKarandhama-Marutta-(Marutta adopted Dusyanta) Dusyanta - Varutha - Gandira -Gandhara-KeralaCola -Pandya --Kola -Druhyu -Babhrusetu-Purovasu-Gharma-Krta-Vidusa-Pracetas-Sabhinara-Kalanala-Srnjaya-Purafijaya janamejaya - Mahasala-Mah5manas -Usinara -Titiksu -Rusadratha- Paila -Sutapas -Bali -Anga -Dadhivahana-Draviratha-Dharmaratha-Citraxatha-Satyaratha ---Lorna-



2) Other details.


(i) He was a friend of Dag aratha. (Sloka 53, Chapter 110, Vana Parva).


(ii) Once there was no rain in the country of Lornapada. It was due to a curse from the brahmins and to remove the curse Lomapada brought Rsyagrnga to his country. 8anti, daughter of Dasaratha was living with Lomapada as his adopted daughter at that time. Lomapada gave her in marriage to Rsyasrnga and made him live in his country. The country got rains from that time onwards. (See under Rsyagrnga and Banta).


(iii) Lomapada constructed a new hermitage for Rsyasrriga. (Sloka 9, Chapter 113, Vana Parva).


LOMAPADA II. A King born of the Yadu dynasty.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from VisnuBrahma - Atri-Candra- Budha-Pururavas-Ayus-NahusaYayati-Yadu-Krosta-Vrjivan-gvahi-Ruseku- Citrarathagasabindu-Prthusravas - Gharma - Rucaka (Rukmakavaca) j yamagha-Lomapada.


2) Birth. Rukmakavaca, grandfather of Lomapada conquered many countries and gave them all as gifts to those brahmins who participated in his Asvamedhayajfa. He got five brave sons, Rukmesu, Prthurukma, Jyarnagha, Parigha and Hari. Of them he made Parigha and Hari live and rule in Videha. Rukmesu ruled his father's country and Prthurukma helped his brother. Jyamagha was sent out from his country and he lived quietly in a hermitage. One day as per the advice of a sage he left the place in a chariot with a flag flying to the shores of the river Narmada. He had neither servants nor the means for his daily food. He lived on the mountahs Rksavan eating only roots and fruits. He was very old and his wife gaibya also was getting old. They had no sons and still Jyamagha did not marry again.


Once when Jyamagha gained a victory in a fight, he brought a girl and entrusted the child to his wife saying "This child is your daughter-in-law." Saibya was surprised and enquired "How can that be when I have no son ?" Jyimagha replied, "She is to be the wife of a son who will be born to you soon." By means of the hard penance of that girl, Saibya got a handsome son named Vidarbha. Vidarbha married her and got two wise sons, Kratha and Kaisika and a third son Lomapada, who was righteous, virtuous and wise. All the three were great warriors also. Descending in order from Lomapada came Babhru-Heti-Kaisika-Cidi. From this Cidi came the Cedi dynasty of Kings. (Srsti Khanda, Padma Purina, Bhi~mapulastya Samvada).


LOMASA I (ROMASA) I. A sage, who was a great story-.teller. Many of the stories found as episodes in the Puranas were told by this sage. Mahabharata gives the following details about him.


(1) Lomasa was very virtuous and longlived. (9loka 18, Chapter 31, Vana Parva).


(2) Once Lomasa entered the court of Indra and spoke to Indra about Arjuna sitting sharing a half of his seat before him. (Sloka 1, Chapter 47, Vana Parva).


(3) Lomag a returned to Kamyakavana from the court of Indra and gave Yudhisthira the messages from Indra and Arjuna. (Sloka 33, Chapter 47; Vana Parva).


(4) He prophesied to Arjuna that he would' get divine weapons from Siva. (81oka 10, Chapter 91, Vana Parva). (5) Lorna consoled Yudhisthira when he came to the forests in exile leaving all his happy surroundings in the country. (Sloka 17, Chapter 94, Vana Parva).


(S) He told Dharmaputra the story of Agastya. (Chapter 96, Vana Parva).


(7) Lomasa told Dharmaputra the stories of Sri Rama and Parasurama. (Sloka 40, Chapter 99, Vana Parva).


(8) Asuras defeated all the Devas and the latter were perplexed. It was Lomasa who then advised them to make weapons out of the bones of the sage Dadhica. (Chapter 100, Vana Parva).


(9) Lomag a mentioned to the Devas a trick to kill Vrtrasura. (Chapter 101, Vana Parva).


(10) The story of Bhagiratha, the episode of Rsyasrnga etc. were all told by Lomasa. (Chapters 103 to 113, Vana Parva).


( 11) Lomaga told Yudhi sthira the story of the Yaga of King Gaya, the story of the river Payosni, the glory of the mountain of Vaidurya and the river Narmada, and the story of Cyavana the great sage. (Chapter 121, Vana Parva).


(12) He told the Pandavas the story of Mandhata. (Chapter 126, Vana Parva).


(13) Lomaga told Yudhisthira the story of Somaka and Jantu. (Chapter 127, Vana Parva).


(14) He praised the glory of the holy place Yamunatirtha, known as Plaksaprasravana also, near Kuruksetra. Chapter 129, Vana Parva).


(15) It was Lomas a who told the story of the emperor Sibi who gave his own flesh to protect a dove which went to him for refuge. (Chapter 130, Vana Parva).


(16) Lomasa told the story of the sage Astavakra to the Pandavas. (Chapter 133, Vana Parva).


(1 '7) He described the story of Yavakrita and Medhavi to the Pandavas. (Chapter 135, Vana Parva).


(18) Dharmaputra heard the stories of Bharadvaja, Raibhya, Arvivasu and Paravasu from Lomasa. (Chapter 137, Vana Parva).


(19) Lomasa told Dharmaputra the story of Narakasura and the incarnation of Visnu as Varaha. (Chapter 142, Vana Parva).


(20) Lomaga visited Bhisma lying on his bed of arrows. (anti Parva).


(21) Lomaga praised the glory of giving rice as charity, (Sloka 10, Chapter 67, Anusasana Parva).


(22) Lomas a was a sage from the north. (Sloka 46, Chapter 165, Vana Parva).


(23) LomaS a relieved many nymphs like Pramohinf from ~tsheir curses. (See under Pramohini).


LOMAJA II. A cat. (See under Dindika).


LOPAMUDRA. Wife of Agastya. (For details see under Agastya).


LUSA. A Rgvedic hermit. It is mentioned in Rgveda that LuSa and Kutsa were rivals to win the mercy of Indra.


Once Lug a and Kutsa invited Indra at the same time. But Indra refused Lusa and put him in prison. Even from the prison Lusa prayed to Indra to visit him. (Rgveda, Mandala 10, Anuvaka 88, Sukta 5; Jaiminiya Brahmana 1.128) .