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KA. This letter has the following meanings:


(i) Prajapati. (~loka 32, Chapter 1, Adi Parva, M.B.) (ii) A name of Daksaprajapati. ( Sloka 7, Chapter 208, Sand Parya, M.B.).


(iii) A name of Visnu. (Sloka 91, Chapter 149, Anusasana Parva, M,B. )


(iv) Brahma ( Visnu, Mahesvara). ( Chapter 348, Agni Purana, M.B.).


KABALABARHISA. A King of Vrsnivamsa. (See under VRSNIVAMSA).




1) General information. The demon who attacked Rama and Laksmana while they were wandering in Dandakaranya after the abduction of Sita by Ravana.


2) Precious history of X'abandha. There was a King of Gandharvas called Sri. He had a son named Danu. Danu was known as Vi4vavasu also. Visvavasu once performed a penance to propitiate Brahma for long life and Brahma appeared before him and blessed him with immortality. Arrogant of this acquisition he roamed about as he pleased.


One day he attacked Indra and the latter furious at his impudence used the Vajrayudha on him and the head and thighs of Visvavasu -were squeezed into his body. Visvavasu pleaded that he should be given some way to take his food. Indra then granted him two very long hands and a mouth on his belly. Then Visvavasu spent his days in a forest near the Matangasrama in Krauncaranya bearing the name Kabandha (Headless trunk). Indra added that he would attain his real form when Rama and Laksmana cut his hands.'


A favourite pastime of Kabandha was to frighten the sages. One day he attacked a sage called Sthulasiras and that sage cursed him saying that he would retain his ugly figure for ever. The demon pleaded for relief and the sage said that he would regain his original figure when Rama cut his hands and left him in the desolate forest. From that day onwards Kabandha lived there waiting for Sri Rama. (Sarga 70, Aranya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


3). h"abandha meets Rama and Laksmana. Jatayu was lying half dead by a blow from the sword of Ravana and Rama and Laksmana went- to him and talked to him. He gave them some information regarding Sita before he died. After burning the body of Jatayu in a funeral pyre Rama and Laksmana went westwards. They entered the Krauncaranya and reached Matahgavana. There they saw a great cave. A huge demoness attacked them near that cave and seeing the beautiful form of Laksmana she invited him for amorous plays. Laksmana cut off her ear, nose and breasts. Then they entered deep into the forests. Bad omens greeted them.


t. "°I am the son of S`ri named Dann" says Kabandha to Laksmana in $loka 8, Chapter y, of the Aranya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayapa. In 9loka 42, Chapter 279 of Aranya Kapda, Kabandha says, '°I am a gandbarva, Vi'svavasu and came to be born in a demonaip womb by the curse of a brahmin."


Before long they. saw Kabandha rushing towards them. He is described thus in the Mahabharata


"He was as big as a mountain, dark as a black cloud, with pointed hairs all over his body and looked fierce with a voice as loud as thunder. He had an eye on his stomach, round and yellow, emitting a glare like a fire-flame. Looking wicked he thrust his big tongue out of his huge mouth licking the sides."


The demon stretched out his big hands and caught hold of Sri Rama in his right hand and Laksmana in his left hand. Finding themselves helpless in his hands Laksmana implored Rama to flee away from the demon leaving him alone. Sri Rama cut off Kabandha's right hand and Laksmana cut off the left hand. Kabandha then asked them who they were. Kabandha told Rama and Laksmana his previous story and then fell dead. Rama and Laksinana burnt the dead body in a funeral pyre. He rose up in the air as the Gandharva King of old and advised Sri Rama to go to Sugriva for knowing more about Sita. (Sargas 70 to 72, Aranya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana) .


KACA. The first son of Brhaspati. That extremely beautiful boy was a great favourite of the devas.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu-Brahma-Angiras-Brhaspati-Kaca.


2) How he studied the secret of A~rtasan"jiaani. The Devas and Asuras always quarrelled with each other. Devas accepted Brhaspati as their guru and the asuras made Sukracarya their guru. Sukracarya knew an art which Brhaspati did not know, the secret of Mrtasanjivani. When the devas cut the Asuras to pieces, ~ukr:~carya used to bring them back to life by his knowledge of Mrtasanjivani. Mrtasanjivani is the art of reviving the dead.


Devas were at a loss to know what to do. They wanted to learn the secret of Mrtasanjivani from Sukracarya somehow. It was imperative that they should learn it. Then they found out a way. They sent Kaca, son of Brhaspati, to Sukracarya.


Kaca went to Sukracarya and told him that he was the son of Brhaspati and had come to him to be his disciple for a period of a thousand years, doing service to him. The modesty of the boy appealed to Sukracarya and he accepted Kaca as his disciple.


Devayani, daughter of Sukracarya, fell in love with Kaca. They were always together as an inseparable couple. Asuras did not like the advent of Kaca to the As rama of Sukracarya. They knew that he had come to study the secrets of the Asuras. Once Kaca went alone to look after the cows and the Asuras followed him stealthily. When Kaca entered deep into the forest the Asuras killed him and gave him to the wolves.


It became dusk. The cows returned to the Asrama without the cowherd. Devayani waited for a long time for Kaca to coxrie. Not seeing him Devayani went weeping to her father and said, "Oh, father, the sun has set. You have performed your nightly fire sacrifice. The cattle have come back by themselves and still Kaca has not returned home. I fear he is dead or has been killed. I cannot live without him."


The affectionate Sukracarya could not bear the sight of his dear daughter weeping and so he went to the forest with Devayani and employing the art of Sanjivani he invoked the dead youth to appear. At


once Kaca came back to life and stood before them. All the three then returned to the asrama happily.


The anger of the Asuras against Kaca knew no bounds. On another occasion the Asuras seized him and after killing him pounded his body into a paste and mixed it up in sea-water. This time also, at the request of Devayani, 8ukracarya brought him back to life.


The third time the Asuras burnt the body of Kaca and mixed the ashes in wine and served it to Sukracarya to drink. The disciple thus went inside the belly of the guru. Dusk came, the cattle came and still Kaca did not return and Devayani reported the matter to her father. Sukracarya sat for some time in meditation and then he knew that Kaca was in his own stomach. If he got Kaca out, he would burst his stomach and Saukra would die and if he did not get him out his daughter would burst her heart and die. 8ukracarya was in a fix. He asked Kaca how he got in and he replied that it was through the wine. Sukra imparted to Kaca the art of Mrtasanjivani and Kaca lying within the stomach repeated it. Then Sukracarya cal1ed Kaca by name and came out bursting the stomach of his guru. The preceptor lay dead and by employing the art of Mrtasanjivani he had learnt, Kaca brought his guru to life. Sukracarya eschewed wine from that day onwards and declared it as a forbidden drink to brahmins. ~ukracarya said that because Kaca was reborn from his stomach he must be deemed his son.


3) Kaca was, cursed. Kaca remained for some more time under te tutelage of 8ukracarya and when his education- became complete he took leave of his preceptor and also Devayani. Devayani followed him for a long distance from the hermitage and requested him to marry her. Kaca replied he could not do so because he had become a brother to Devayani. Devayani got angry and cursed him saying that he would not be able to use the art of Mrtasanjivani he had learnt from her father. Kaca cursed her back saying that none of the sons of sages would marry her. Kaca however felt relieved that though he would not be able to practise the art, his disciples would be able to do so. He went back to Devaloka and was heartily welcomed by all the Devas. He then imparted the art of Mrtasanjivani to the devas. (Chapters 76 and 77, Adi larva, M.B.).


4) Kaca visits Bhisma. Kaca was also one among the several people who visited Bhisma while the latter was lying on a bed of arrows awaiting death. (9loka 9, Chapter 47, Santi Parva, M.B.).


KACCHAM. An ancient place of habitation. (Sloka 19, Chapter 54, gaIya Parva).


KACCHAPAM. One of the nine treasures of Kubera.


KACCHAP. Name of the harp of Narada. (Sloka, 19, Chapter 54, Salya Parva, M.B.) .


KADALIGARBHA. Daughter of the great sage Mankanaka. There is a story about her in Kathasaritsagara.


There was once a city called Iksumati. It was on the banks of the river Iksumati. It was Visvamitra who set up that river and city. In a hermitage in the thick forest on the shores of Iksumati lived a sage, Mankanaka performing penance. One day the beautiful nymph Menaka, came there from above. As a wind blew, her upper garment was displaced. Seeing her bare body, Mankanaka had emission. The semen. Of the sage fell into a Kadali (plantain) tree and from there arose a maiden, extremely beautiful. Because she was born from Kadali she was called Kadaligarbha. Kadaligarbha grew up into a beautiful lady and one day a King named Drdhavarma came that way while hunting and seeing Kadaligarbha he fell in love with her and married her with the permission of Marikanaka. The Devas advised her to scatter mustard seeds on the way to her husband's house and in case her husband abandoned her she should be guided by the mustard plants to return home. She did so.


One day by the evil advice of a barber the King divorced her and she returned to the Asrama by following the young mustard plants. But Mahkanaka took her back to the King. (Tarahga 6, Madanamanjukalambaka, Kathasaritsagara).


KADALTVANA. This grove is situated on the banks of Kuberapuskarini which abounded in Saugandhika flowers. There were different kinds,of plantain fruits of golden hue in this grove. Hanuman resided in it. chapter 146, Vana Parva, M.B.).


KADAMBARI1. A river flowing westwards in jamb udvipa. In Bhagavata 5th Skandha it is said that this river got its name "Kadambari" because it had the hollow trunk of a Kadamba tree as its source.


KADAMBARI II. An excellent story book in prose written in Sanskrit by the great Sanskrit poet Banabhatta. Kadambari is the heroine of the story.


KADHMOR. A saintly King. He is worthy of being remembered in the morning. (Chapter 165, Anusasana Parva).


KADRU. Wife of Kasyapa and daughter of Daksaprajapati.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus:-VisnuBrahma-Daksa-KadrU.


2) Kadru-Wife or daughter of Kasyaia ? Whether Kadru was the wife or daughter of Kasyapa is a question which remains unanswered still in the Puranas. Chapter 65 of Bhasa Bharata states like this.


The six spiritual sons of Brahma are : Marici, Afigiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu. Marici got a son named Kasyapa and he married the thirteen daughters of Daksa, namely, Aditi, Did, Kala, Danayus, Danu, Sirnhika, Krodha, Pradha, Viva, Vinata, Kapila, Muni and Kadru. So according to this, Kadru was the wife of Kasyapa.


But the 14th Sarga of Aranya Kancla of Valmiki Ramayana states


Daksaprajapati got sixty illustrious daughters and of these Kasyapa married--Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kalika Tamra, Krodhavasa, Muni and Surasa. Krodhavasa gavc birth to eight daughters. They were: Mrgi, Mrgamanda., Hari, Bhadramata, Matarigi, Sarduli, gveta; Surabhi, Surasa and Kadru.


Tamra another wife of Kasyapa gave birth to five daughters, namely, Kraunci, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastri and Suki. Kraufici gave birth to owls, Bhasd to Bhasas, Syeni to eagles and vultures, Dhrtarastr-i to swans and Suki to Nata. Nata gave birth' to Vinata.


Thus, according to the Ramayana Kadru was the daughter of Kasyapa born of his wife Krodhavasa. Again Vinata who is spoken of as the elder sister of Kadru in Mahabharata is the daughter of the granddaughter of Kagyapa. This means that Kadru's mother and Vinata's grand mother's mother were sisters. But


both of them looked after Kasyapa as if they were direct sisters.


3) Kadru, mother of serpents. Kadru and Vinata lived serving Kasyapa. Kasyapa was pleased with them and asked them what boon they wanted. Kadru asked for a thousand serpents to be born of her and Vinata asked for two sons who would be braver and more brilliant than the sons of Kadru. Kasyapa granted them what they asked for and when Kadru and Vinata became pregnant he left for the forest.


After some time Kadru delivered a thousand eggs and Vinata two eggs. Both of them kept the eggs in warm jars and after five hundred years the thousand eggs of Kadru burst letting out a thousand serpents. Vinata became impatient and broke open an egg of hers. Out came from it a half developed being and that was Aruna. Aruna cursed her for being impatient and said "You let me out half developed because of your overanxiety and you will, therefore, become a servant, of Kadru. Keep the other egg for another five hundred years. Then a very powerful son will come out of it and that son will relieve you of your servitude to Kadru". So saying he rose up in the air and became the charioteer of the sun. After five hundred years the other egg of Vinata broke and Garuda came out. (Chapter 16, Adi Parva, M.B.)


4) Sons of Kadril. Names of the prominent sons of Kadru are given below:


Sesa, Purananaga, Aryaka, Vasuki, Kapinjara, Ugraka, Airavata, Elaputra, Kalasapotaka, Taksaka, Savama, Sumanas, Karkotaka, Nila, Dadhimukha, Dhananjaya; Anila, Vimala, Kaliya, Kalmasa, Pindaka, Maninaga, gabala, Apta, Sakha, Pindaraka, Hastipinda, Vali, Karavira, Pitharaka, Sikha, Puspadarirstra, Sumukha, Nisthanaka, Vilvaka, Kaunapagana, Hemaguha, Bilvapandura, Kuthara, Nahusa, Mrsnada, Kunjara, Pingala, Sarfikha, Pralbhakara, Bal~yakarna, Sirapurna, Kumuda, Hastipada, Haridraka, Kumudaksa, Mudgara, Aparajita, Tittiri, Kambala, Jyotika, Halika, Asvatara, Pannaga, Kardama, Kalikaka, 8rivaha, Bahumulaka, Vrtta, Kauravya, Karkara, Samvrtta, Dhrtarastra, Arkara, Patta, gariikhapinda, Kundodara, Sarnkhamukha, Subahu, Mahodara. Kusmandaka, Virajas, Ksemaka, Salipinda


All the serpents in the world have been born from these prominent serpents. (Chapter 35, Adi Parva, M.B.). 5) Kadru curses her sons. Once Kadru called Vinata to her side and asked her the colour of Uccai~sravas, the horse of Indra. It was purely a white horse and Vinata told so. But Kadru said its tail was black. Each stood firm in her statement and then Kadru made a bet. She who was defeated in the bet should serve the other as her slave. Vinata agreed. Kadru wanted to cheat Vinata and so asked her sons to remain suspended from the tai1 of the horse in such an artful way that the tail would look black from a distance. Some of her sons refused to be a party to this deceit and Kadru cursed them saying that they would all be burnt in the Sarpasattra of janamejaya. Kasyapa did not like the curse. But Brahma came there and said that the .serpents as a class were injurious to society and as such a curse of that nature was necessary. Brahma then taught him Visasarirharavidya (Treatment of snake-poisoning). (Chapter 2!0, Adi Parva, M.B.).


6) Kadru and children go to Rdmanryaka. Once Kadru told Vinata. "Vinata, take me to the island .of RamanIyaka in the middle of the ocean. It is a beautiful place to stay. Let your son, Garuda, take my sons to that place." Vinata took Kadru and Garuda took her children during the journey. Garuda rose high up in the air nearing the sun and the serpents began to feel the heat unbearable and began to get charred. Kadru then prayed to Indra and the latter then sent a heavy downpour of rains. This saved the serpents from being burnt to death and they reached the island of Ramaniyaka safe. (Chapters 25 and 26, Adi Parva, M.B.).


7) Other deta l' .


(i) Kadru lives in the court of Brahma worshipping him. (Chapter 11, Sabha Parva, M.B.).


(ii) Kadru taking the form of Skanda-graha in an infinitely minute size enters the wombs of women and eats the embryo. (Chapter 230, Vana Parva, M.B. ) .


KAHODA (KAHODAKA - KHAGODAKA). A sage the disciple and son-in-law of Uddalaka. He was the father of the sage Astavakra.


Uddalaka had another name "Svetaketu". He was a sage who had personally seen and talked to the &oddess Sarasvati. It was at that time that Kahodaka became his disciple. Kahodaka who was of a gentle nature served his preceptor for a long time and won his favour. He was immensely pleased and after' teaching the necessary things gave his daughter Suja.ta in marriage to Kahodaka. In due course, Sujata became pregnant. One day, the child in the womb cried out that there was a mistake in his father's recitation of the Vedas. Kahodaka was displeased at this. He cursed the child that he would be born with a body having eight bends (curves). So the boy was named "A;3tavakra" (one who has eight bends). Sujata who was poor, once sent Kahodaka to King janaka for some money. Kaho4aka who was defeated in a disputation was immersed in water. Astavakra rescued his father. (See under Astavakra).


KAHOLA. An ancient sage who flourished in Indra's assembly. (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 7) .


KAIKASL Mother of Ravana.


1) Birth. From the wrath of Brahma the giant Praheti was born and from Brahma's hunger the demigod Heti was born. The son Vidyutke~a was born to Heti, of Bhaya the sister of Kala (God of death-Time). Vidyutkesa married Salakatanka the daughter of Sandhya. A son named Sukesa was born to them. Sukesa married Devavati daughter of Manimaya, a Gandharva. Three sons Malyavan, Sumali and Mali were born to them. The; three brothers Malyavan, Sumali and Mali married Sundari, Ketumati and Vasudha respectively, the three daughters of Narmada, a gandharva woman. To Sumali, by his wife Ketumati, were born the ten sons, Prahasta, Akampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumraksa, Danda, Suparsva, Samhrada, Prakvata and Bhasakarna and four daughters Veka (Brha), Puspotkata, Kaikasi and Kumbhinasi.


2) Marriage. As Sumali was walking through forests with his wives and daughters, he saw so many Yaksas (demi-gods) going in planes to pay homagq to Vaisravana. Sumali understood that Vaisravana became worthy of homage because he was the son 'of Visravas. So he took his daughter Kaikasi and left her in the house of Vigravas. After a while, being


pleased with her services, Visravas took her as his wife. Once she requested her husband for children. Accordingly she got Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibh1sana as sons.




1) General information. One of the wives of Das a'ratha, who had three wives, Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda, Sarga 70, Stanza 28 that Kaikeyi was the sister of Yudhajit, the King of Kekaya. Kekaya was seven days' journey away from Ayodhya.


2) Getting boons. In days of old there was a battle between the devas and the asuras and Dasaratha went to the world of Devas, with Kaikeyi, in a chariot to help Indra against the Asuras. The devas were in a sorry plight due to the illusive and sorcerous mode of fighting of gambara the Asura and his men. Dagaratha faced the Asuras in ten directions at the same time and fought with them. In this fight his chariot had to be turned to every direction and up and down so swiftly that the bolt of the wheel slipped out and the wheel was about to come off when Kaikeyi inserted her thumb in the hole of the bolt and kept the chariot safe and steady. The King was not aware of this bravery on the part of his wife. At last when he came to know of this he promised to give her two boons. The queen said that she would ask for those two boons later, as she didn't want anything then. After this the King and the queen returned to their country. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sarga 9; KambaRamayana, Balakanda).


3) Request for the boons and the forest life of gri Rdma. As the celebration of anointing gri Rama as the Heir apparent in Ayodhya was going on, the humpy Manthara approached Kaikeyi and advised her on the ways of making her son Bharata King and sending gri Rama to forest. At first Kaikeyi refused to agree to this, but at last she succumbed to the repeated advice of Manthara. Dasaratha came to see Kaikeyi who was lying in grief. Making use of this opportunity Kaikeyi requested for the granting of the two boons promised earlier. One boon was that Bharata should be anointed as heir apparent making use of the preparations made for gri Rama and the other boon was that gri Rama should live in forest, wearing bark of trees and" matted hair for fourteen years. When Dasaratha heard these requests he became unconscious. But he granted her wishes.


KAIKEY1 II. Wife of Ajamidha, a King of the Puru dynasty. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Stanza 37) .


KAIKEYI III. Sudesna, the wife of the King of Virata was known by the name Kaikeyi also. She was the daughter of Kekaya, the King of Suta, born of his wife Malavi. As she was the daughter of Kekaya, she got the name Kaikeyi. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 16). Besides, it is stated in the Puranas that all the princesses of the kingdom of Kekaya were called by the name Kaikeyi.


KAILASA (KAILASAKA). A serpent belonging to the Kasyapa family. Mention is made about this serpent in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Stanza il.




1) General information. The mount Mahameru has an area of eighteen thousand nazhikas (Indian mile of i Ko6a) and a height of two thousand nazhikas. On the eastern side of this mount there are two mountains called jathara and Devakuta. Pavamana and Pariyatra are the two mountains on the western side. On the south there are the two mountains of Kailasa and Karavira. The two mountains on the north are called Trisrnga and Makaragiri. It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapters 109 and 141 that the abodes of Siva and Kubera are on the mount Kailasa. Once, to please Siva, Mahavisnu performed penance on Kailasa. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 222, Stanzas 33 to 40). It is mentioned in Maha Bharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 3 that the mountain Mainaka stands to the north of Kailasa. Once Vyasa went to Kailasa. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 43, Stanza 17) . In Vana Parva, Chapter 106, mention is made that the King Sagara, with his two queens, once went to Kailasa for penance. It was on the Kailasa that Bhagiratha performed penance to propitiate Siva to bring down Ganga. Kailasa is hundred yojanas high. The devas come to this place daily and return. It is mentioned in Sabha Parva, Chapter 141, that in the place where Kubera lives on Kailasa there live a large number of Yaksas (demi-gods ), Raksasas (giants) Kinnaras (heavenly musicians), Gar udas (hawks) Matangas (elephants)


and Gandharvas (semi-gods). The lake of lotus of Kubera which was reached by Bhimasena once, was in Kailasa. In Vana Parva, it is mentioned that the Pandavas visited Kailasa during their forest life. It cbuld be understood from Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 83 that Kamadhenu performed penance on the Kailasa, once.


KAIRATA PARVA. A sub section of Vana Parva in Mahabharata.


KAIRIKA. See under jyamagha.


KAISIKA (M) . An ancient country in Bharata. It is mentioned in Maha Bharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 14 that Bhismaka the King of Vidarbha conquered this country.




1) General information. Kaitabha was the brother of Madhu, an Asura (demon). These- two brothers are known in the Puranas as Madhu-Kaitabhas.


2) Origin. In the Puranas, two stories slightly different from each other, occur about the birth of Madhu and Kaitabha. One story occurs in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 10 and the other in Mahabharata, Sand Parva. In Devi Purana, Chapter 1, it is stated as follows :-


In the beginning there was no earth or any other planet. There was only water. Mahavisnu slept on the surface of the water. From the navel of Mahavisnu the stalk of a lotus grew up-and there was a lotus flower at the end of the stalk. Brahma was born in the lotus flower. Brahma stayed in the flower in deep meditation recitingthe Vedas. Ear-wax flowed out from both the ears of Mahavisnu. From the ear-wax two Asuras Madhu and Kaitabha were born.


The following occurs in the Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 348 about the birth of MadhuKaitabhas.


A lotus flower grew up from the navel of Mahavisnu and Brahma was born in the flower. In the flower there were two drops of water created by Mahavisnu. One drop was as sweet as honey and from that drop was born the Asura Madhu with the attributes of tamas


(darkness). The other drop was hard and from it Kaitabha was born with the attribute of Rajas ( activity) .


3) Madhu-Yiai,tabhas' acquiring boons. Madhu-Kaitabhas were born in water, grew up in water and walked on the surface of water, haughty and arrogant. They began to think about how the big flood of water came into existence. Then Devi appeared before them and taught them the mantra or incantation of Vagbija ( origin of logos). Reciting this mantra, Madhu and Kaitabha worshipped Devi for thousand years. Devi appeared and asked them what they wished. They wanted the boon that death should befall them only as they desired. Devi granted them the boon. After this they became haughtier because of the boon, and 1ived in the water playing with the creatures in water having nobody to confront them (DevS Bhagavata, Skandha I ) . 4) The theft of the Vedas. Madhu Kaitabhas saw Brahma lying in the lotus flower reciting the four Vedas which he had created. They caught hold of all the Vedas and went to Patala, (the nether world) and hid themselves there. Brahma grew sad at the loss of the Vedas and followed Madhu-Kaitabhas, who began to attack Brahma. At this Brahma became terribly afraid of the Asuras and ran to Mahavisnu who was lying in a deep sleep of contemplation. Brahma praised him. Mahavisnu woke up. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 10).


5) The death of Madhu and Yai,tabha. According to the request of Brahma, Mahavisnu confronted Madhu and Kaitabha. Madhu engaged Visnu in fighting while Kaitabha took rest and when Madhu became tired, Kaitabha engaged Visnu in fighting. Thus the fight went on for a long time and Visnu became tired of continuous fight. Visnu understood that owing to the boon given by Devi the Asuras would die only if they wished for death, and that no body could kill them. So Visnu began to meditate on Devi, who said "It would never be possible for you to kill Madhu and Kaitabha because of my boon. They could be killed only by deceit. So you may kill them deceitfully".


Hearing these words Mahavisnu approached the Asuras and said to them. "I am much pleased with you. So you may ask for any boon." Hearing this they laughed and said that they were more powerful than Visnu and that he might ask of them any boon. Taking that opportunity Mahavisnu said "Oh ! powerful persons. I ask you to grant me this boon. Give me the boon to kill you." This request shook them. They were willing to be killed at any place except water. They thought that Visnu would not be powerful enough to kill them. Mahavisnu instantly raised his thighs which were enlarged to a great extent over the water as solid earth seeing which the Asuras enlarged their bodies to the extent of a thousand yojanas. But Mahavisnu enlarged his thighs further, caught hold of Madhu and Kaitabha, laid them on his thighs and cut off their heads with his discus. All the surface of the sea was covered with the medas (fat) of these Asuras. This medas of Madhu and Kaitabha collected itself into a lump and became the earth. So the earth got the name `Medini'. As the earth was the fat of the Asuras it was not fit for food. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 1).


6) The so of Madhu-Y'aitabhas. A horrible son named Dhundhu was born to Madhu-Kaitabhas. He lived under the sand in a wilderness called Ujjalakam. A King of the Iksvaku family named Kuvalayasva killed Dhundhu. So Kuvalayasva got the name Dhundhumara.. See under Dhundhu. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 202). (Khara and Atikaya are the rebirths of Madhu and Kaitabha. See under Atikaya).


KAITAVA. Another name of Uluka, the son of Sakuni.


KAITAVA (M) . A country in ancient Bharata. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 18, Stanza 13) .


KAKA  son of Kamsa (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


KAKAM. A town in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma, Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 64, contains a reference to this).


KAKI I. Original mother of the crows. (See under CROW).


KAKI II. One of the seven mothers who suckled Subrahmanya at his birth. The seven mothers wereKaki, Halima, Brahmika, Malini, Palala, Arya and Mitres. (M.B.Aranya Parva, Chapter 228, Verse 10).




1) Origin. Kasyapa was the son of Marici, who was the son of Brahma. Kasyapa's wife Tamra had many daughters like Kaki, Sven!, Bhasi, Grdhrka, Suki and Griva. From Kaki were born the crows in the world. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19) .


2) Crows---the symbol of sin. There is a reference in Siva Purana to this. Long ago the King of Kasi had a daughter named Kalavati. Even in her youth, she received the "Saiva pancaksara mantra." After that, she was married by Dasarha, King of Mathura, who was a sinner. Whcn he touched Kalavati who was a holy woman, he experienced unbearable heat. Kalavati said that it was because of the King's sir... So she took Dasarha to the sage Garga, who purified Dasarha with his mantras (incantations) and made him stand in water. At once the King's sins came out of his body in the shape of crows. Some of them flew away. Many of them fell down with their wings burnt. Seeing this, the sage Garga said that all those crows were the volume of sins accumulated in the course of the innumerable births through which he had passed. (Siva Purana, Pancdksara Mahatmya).


3) Tire Crow and Rice-offerings. In Uttara Ramayana there is a. story about the crow's right to eat the offering of rice to Pitrs. Once a King named Marutta performed a Mahesvara sattra. Indra and other gods attended the sattra. Hearing about this, Ravana came that way. The frightened gods fled away assuming the forms of different birds. Yama escaped in the form of a crow. From that time, Yama was pleased with crows. He gave a blessing that in future, when human beings worship the pitrs by offering rice to them, the crows will have the right to eat that rice. Thus the right of the crows to eat offerings of rice, originated from that time. (Uttara Ramayana).


KAKSA. A place of habitation of ancient Bharata. (Sloka 49, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


KAKSAKA. A serpent born of the family of Vasuki. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasattra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 6, Chapter 57, Adi Parva) .




1) General information. (i) A King who was the grandson


of Aviksit and son of Pariksit. For genealogy see `Pariksi t.'.


(ii) Ugrasena, Citrasena, Indrasena, Susena and Bhimasena were his brothers. (Chapter 94, Adi Parva), 2) Other details.


(i) Kaksasena was a member of the court of Yama. (Chapter 8, Sabha Parva).


(ii) Kaksasena was considered to be one among the pious souls, like 8ibi, Pratardana, Rantideva, Ambarisa, Janamejaya, Vrsadarbhi, Parasurama, Sri Rama, Karandhama and Mitrasaha who had attained salvation by their charity and righteousness. Mahabharata states that Kaksasena the saintly king attained salvation by presenting gifts to the great Vasistha. (8loka 14, Chapter 137, Anu~asana Parva).


KAKSASENA II. There was another King called Kaksasena in,the court of Dharmaputra. (8loka 22, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


KAKSASENARAMA. An Asrama situated on the top of the mountain, Asita. Perhaps this was constructed by Kaksasena. (8loka 12, Chapter 89; Vanes Parva).


KAKSEYLJ (KRSEYU). Son of Raudrasva born of a nymph called Mistakesi. He had nine brothers, named Rkseyu, Sannateyu, Ghrteyu (Krteyu) , Citeyu. Sthandileyu, Dharmeyu, Sammiteyu, Rteyu and Matinara. For genealogy see under `PuruvariZSa'. (9loka 10, Chapter 94, Adi Parva).


KAKSIVAN I. This was a Rsi well praised in the FCgveda.


1) Birth. King Kalinga did not have children for a long time. The King, therefore requested the sage Dirghatamas (Gautama) to get a son for him by his, queen. The sage consented. But the queen did not like to sleep with the old sage. She therefore requested her servant maid, Usi, to lie with the.sage. Kaksivan was the son born to Dirghatamas of Us i. (Sukta 125, Anuvaka 18, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


2 ) Other details.


(i) He was of the family of Atigiras and he lived in a hermitage in the east. (Chapter 208, anti Parva, and Chapter 135, Anusasana Parva).


(ii) He praised Visnu by reciting the Rks with deep concentration and acquired many virtues. ( Chapter 292, anti Parva,).


(iii) Mahabharata states thatKaksivan was the preceptor of Indra and also the creator of the world with Rudiatejas (majesty equal to that of diva).Yavakrita, Raibhya, ¢lrvavasu, Paravasu, Kaksivan, Angiras and Kanva are seven Barhisads (a set of manes born of Brahma) who are also gurus of Indra living in the east. (Chapter 150, Anusasana Parva).


( iv) Kaksivan was famous, among the Yajvans. (Sukta 18, Anuvaka 5, Mandala I, Rgveda).


( v ) To test the strength of Kaksivan he was once given a hundred pitchers of liquor by the Asvins. (Sukta 116, Anuvaka 17, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


(vi) Kaksivan who was returning home from the asrama of the preceptor after completing his education spent one night at a place on the way. In the morning when he awoke he saw Svanaya son of King Bhavayavya before him. The beautiful boy had strayed to that place by accident while playing with his friends nearby. Kaksivan was attracted by the enchanting features of the boy and decided to make him the husband of his daughter. Svanaya on knowing the details regarding Kaksivan took him to his father's palace and the King received the sage with respect and gave him many presents. (Sukta 125, Anuvaka 18, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


KAKSIVAN II. A King of ancient India. He was the father of Bhadra, wife of Rsitasva. (81oka 17, Chapter 120, Adi Parva) .


KAKSIVAN. A son of Maharsi Gautama. Mababharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 3 states that at the time when Gautama was living in Girivraja, he had connection with a Sudra woman of Us inara land and as a result of it Kaksivan was born to her. This Gautama was not the husband of Ahalya.l


Kaksivan had a son named Candakausika and two daughters named Bhadra and Ghosa. Mahabhdrata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 17 states that Kaksivan flourished in Yudhisthira's assembly.


KAKSIVATASUTA. A female sage named Ghosa who was the daughter of the sage Kaksivan. As she was suffering from the disease of leprosy, no one was prepared to marry her. She composed a mantra in praise of the Asvinidevas. They cured her of her disease. After that she got married. Besides Ghosa, Kaksivan had another daughter named Bhadra. (See under Bhadra).


KAKUTSTHA. A son of 8asada, a King of the Iksvaku dynasty. He was the father of Anenas. (See under Kakutstha).


KAKUTSTHA. Sri Rama got the name Kakutstha because he was born in the dynasty of Kakutstha. (See under Kakutstha).


KALA I. A measure of time. See under Kalamana.


KALA II. Art. The sixtyfour arts are as under ;-


(1) Gita (music). (2) Vadya (instrumental music). (3) Nrtya (Dancing). (4) Natya (histrionics). (5) Citra (painting). (6) Accumrmana (making .of types). (7) Puspanirmana (flower-gardening). (8) Pumettaracana (artistic flower laying). (9) Dehalankarana (Dressing). ( 10) Grhalafikaraha (furnishing of houses) . (11) 8ayyantrmana (making of beds). (12) Jalataranga (music with water). (13) Jalavadya (music on water). (14) Vividhavesadharana (wearing different kinds Df dresses). (15) Malanirmana (making of flower garlands). (16) Keg alankara (hairdressing). (17) Vastradharana (wearing of dresses). (18) Karnabhitsananirm4ia (making of ear-ornaments). (19) Sugandhapuspasancayana (collection of sweet-smelling flowers). (20) A1arhkrtahz.ra (decorating food articles). (21) Indrajala (magic). (22) Bhangikarana (beautification). (23) Karasucikarana (cleaning of the hands). (24) Modakanirmana (making of sweet-meats). (25) Paniyanirm5na (making of drinks). (26) Tailoring. (27) monds). (39) Dhatusaxiiskarana (purification of metals).

 (40) Skill in distinguishing the colours of diamonds.  (41) Khanipariksana (finding out of mines). (42)  Understanding trees and their value (Vrksayurveda  yoga). (43) Cockfight. (44) Understanding the langu  age of birds like Maina. (45 ) Massaging. (46) Ke< a  praksalana. (47) Aksara mustika kathana. (48) Vide- a  bhasapathana (Learning of foreign languages). (49)  De,'abhasa jnana. (knowledge of thelanguage of one's  own country). (50) Bhavikalapravacana (fortune  telling). (51) Yantranirmana (making of machines).  (52) Smaranasaktiposana (increasing memory power).  (53) Sravanapatha ( studying by hearing). (54) Nimi  sakavana (Instant poetry-making). (55) Kriyavikalpa.  (56) Kapatabhava (False poses), (57) Chandojnana  (knowledge of different metres). (58) Vastragopana.  (59) Game of dice. (60 ) Another gambling game. ( 61)  Balalila (entertainment of children). (62) Vinayacara  krama (etiquette). (63) Vaitalikavidyajnana (panegy  rics). (64) Karyagrahana (comprehension of facts)  (Sabdasagara).  KALA 1.2 (YAMA). The god of Death. When the life  span of each living being allotted by Brahma is at an  end, Yama sends his agents and takes the soul to Yama  puri (the city of Yama). From there, the holy souls  are sent to Vaikuntha (Heaven, the abode of Visnu) and  the sinful souls to Hell.  1) Genealogy and birth of Tama. From Mahavisnu were  descended m the following order-Brahma, Marici,  Kasyapa, Surya ( Sun) , Yama (Kala).  Surya married Samjna, daughter of Visvakarma. They  had three children, Manu, Yama and Yam!. Of them,  Yama has the task of taking away the souls of those  whose life-span is at an end. Once Saritjna who was  unable to bear the dazzling brilliance of Surya, ordered  her maid Chhaya to attend on him and went to the  forest for performing penance. Mistaking her for his  wife Saritjna, Surya begot of her three sons namely,  Sani: cara, Manu and Tapati. Once Chhaya cursed  Yama for disobedience. Then Surya and Yama under  stood that she was not SaW jna. After that the A€vini  kumaras, Revanta and Bhaya were born to Surya and  Sarhjna. Thus Visnu Purana, Part III, Chapter 2 says  that Yama was the brother of Manu, Yam!, the  A€vini Kumaras, Tapati, S`anais cara and Bhaya. Yama's  sister Bhaya was married by the Aura, Heti. Sunitha  was the eldest daughter of Yama. Aritga married her.  The famous King Vena was her son. (Visnu Purana,  Part I, Chapter 13).  2) Yama is a DikfiaLaka. Once Kubera offered penance  to Brahma for ten thousand years in water, head down  wards and in the middle of Pancagni. Brahma who was  Jalamrmana (making of nets). (28). Riddle. (29) pleased, appeared before him andKubera prayed to him  AksaraNlolca (competition in the reciting of poems that he should be made one of the Lokapalakas. A -cord  according to certain rules). (30) Arthavisadikarana ingly Brahma ordered that thenceforth, Indra should  (clarification of meaning). (31) Granthaparayana rule in the East, Yama in the South, Varuna in the  (reading of books). (32) Natakadarsana (enacting of West and Kubera in the North. Yama's city is called  plays). ( 33) Samasya purana (part of a verse, generally Sariiyamin5. (Uttara Ramayana).  the last lire, proposed by one person to be completed 3) Curse on Yama. Yama was once cursed by the sage  by another as.a trial of skill). (34) Nirmana (making Ani Mandavya. It was as a result of it that Yama was  of cots of canes). (35) Carpentry. (36) Logic. (37) born as Vidura. (For details see under Animandavya).  Vastuvidya (science of building homes). (38) Svarna- 4) Yama became Maharsi. Sri Rama who returned after  ratnaparisodhana (connoisseurship of gold and dig- his forest life became king of Ayodhya. He ruled over  r. It is also stated elsewhere that Kaksivan was the son of Dirghatamas, the father of Gautama. See under Dirghatamap, 2, Kala and Dharma are not the same person. See under Dharpa.  KALA I 3 68 KALA I  the country for 11,000 years. Then it was time to recall Mahavisnu who had incarnated as gri Rama , to Vaikuntha. Brahma sent Yama to the earth to bring back gri Rama. Yarna who assumed the guise of a young Maharsi, went to Ayodhya and visited gri Rama. He said that he was the disciple of the sage Atibala and had come to tell him a secret. So Laksmana was posted at the entrance to prevent anyone from entering the room. It was announced that anyone who tried to enter would be slaughtered. After that, while gri Rama and Yama were having their secret talk, Durvasas, the sage, who was hungry after a fast of 1,000 years, arrived at the door, asking for food. Laksmana told him humbly that he could not be allowed to enter just then. Durvasas, who became furious, was about to curse the whole race of Kings. So Laksmana entered the room and informed gri Rama of the arrival of Durvasas. At the same time, in fulfilment of the order, he was ready to be slaughtered. Vasistha suggested that it would be enough if Laksmana was banished from the palace. Accordingly he was expelled and he went and drowned himself in the.depths of the river Sarayu. Sri Rama who was broken-hearted at his separation from Laksmana went to the same river and drowned himself there shortly after. Yama then took their souls to Vaikuntha. (Uttara Ramayana).  5) Yama brcame crow. In Uttara Ramayana there is a story that at Marutta's Yaga, Yama who was frightened at the sight of Ravana, escaped in the form of a crow. (For details, see under Crow).  6) An Age without rama. In the Puranas there are references to three periods when there was no Yama.  (1) One such period was in Krtayuga. At that time there was no death on earth which became overcrowded with living beings. Unable to bear their weight, the earth sank down to a depth of 100 yojanas. The goddess of Earth offered tearful prayers to Mahavisnu, who incarnated as Varaha (pig) and lifted up the earth 100 yojanas. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 142).  (2) When Markandeya reached the age of sixteen, Yama went to him to take away his life. Markandeya hid himself behind the idol of giva. Yama threw leis noose at him but it fell round diva's neck. giva opened his third eye and glared at Yama who was burnt to ashes in its fire. (See under Markandeya).  (3) See under Pancali, Para 1, Sub Para 2.  Y'ama returned Satyaaan's Life. (See under Satyavan ). 8) rama and King .Nrga. See under Nrga.  9) Tamapuri (the city of Yama) . Yamapuri is


thousand yojanas in extent. There is an entrance on each of the four sides. On one side of the city stands Citragupta's mansion. The fort surrounding the city is made ofiron. There are a hundred streets in Yamapuri. They are all decorated with banners and festoons. There is a group of people in Citragupta's mansion. They are engaged in calculating the life-span of living beings. They take into account the vices and virtues of human, beings. To the south of Citragupta's residence is situated "Jvaramandira" (the abode of diseases). Adjacent to it are the abodes of all kinds of diseases, each disease having its own abode. Yama's home is situated at a distance of twenty yojanas from the abode of Citragupta. It has an area of two hundred yojanas and a height of fifty yojanas. It is supported by one thousand columns. On one side of it there is an extensive assembly hall. It is


here that those who have led virtuous lives in the world, find their abode after death. They lead a life of eternal heavenly bliss there. (Garuda Purana, Chapter 14) .


(10 ) Naraka ( Hell) . There is a world called Pitrloka in the middle of the three worlds, on their southern side below the earth and above the Atala loka. The Agnisvattas and other pitrs stay there in meditative trance for securing prosperity to those who come to pitrloka. Yama is the ruler of pitrloka. Since he is scrupulous in imparting justice, Yama is also called Yamadharma. He administers justice with an even hand to all living beings brought there by his agents, according to their virtues and vices during their earthly lives. He has power to assess the virtues and vices of people and to assign suitable punishments to them, but not to alter the laws or methods of punishment. Sinners are sent to the different Narakas by Yamadharma according to the nature and seriousness of their sins. The Puranas refer to twentyeight Narakas in all. They are:-


(1) Tamzsram. Those who rob others of their wealth, wives, children etc, are bound with ropes by Yama's servants and cast into the Naraka known as Tamisram. There, they are given sound beating until they faint. After they recover their senses, the beating is repeated and those who try to escape are bound hand and foot and pushed again into this hell. This is repeated as long as Fate has ordained.


(2) Andhatamtsram. This hell is intended for the wife who takes food after deceiving the husband or the husband who takes. food after deceiving his wife. The punishmen there is the same as that of Tamisram except the beating. But the excruciating pain suffered by the victims on being tied fast with Yama's rope by his servants, makes them fall down senseless.


(3 ) Rauravam. This is the hell into which those who have persecuted other living beings are cast. Those who seize and enjoy another man's property or resources, also come under `Persecution'. When such people are thrown into this hell, those whom they had persecuted or cheated while on earth, assume the shape of "ruru" and torment them severely. "Ruru" is a kind of dreadful serpent. This hell is known as "Rauravam" because of the abundance of rurus there.


(4) Maharauraaam. Here also there are ruru serpents. Only they are of a fiercer type. Those who deny the legitimate heirs, their inheritance and possess and enjoy others' property, are squeezed to death by these terrible serpents coiling round them.


( 5 ) Yumbhipakam. This is the hell for the punishment of those who kill and eat birds and animals. Here, oil is kept boiled in huge vessels. Yama's servants plunge sinners into this oil. The period of their torture extends to as many years as there were hairs on the bodies of the birds or animals which they killed and ate.


(6) Kalasutram (Y'amasutra). This hell is terribly hot. It is here that those who do not respect their father, mother, elders, etc. are cast. They rush about in the unbearable heat of this hell and drop down exhausted, from time to time.


(7) Asi(ta)patram. This is the hell in which those sinners who abandon svadharma (one's own duty) and accept Paradharma (others' duty) are flogged by Yama's servants with whips made of asipatra (sharp-edged sword-shaped leaves). When they run about under the flogging they trip over stones and thorns and fall on


their faces. Then they are stabbed with knives made of asipatra. They drop down unconscious and when they


recover their senses, the same process is repeated.


(8) Sukaramnkham. Kings who neglect their duties and oppress their subjects by misrule, are punished in this hell. They are crushed to a pulp by beating until they fall down unconscious and when they recover, they are again subjected to the same treatment.


(9) Andhakufiam. This is the hell for punishing those who oppress Brdhmanas, gods and the poor. In this Kupa (well) there are wild beasts like tiger, bear etc. carnivorous birds like eagle, kite etc. venomous creatures like snakes and scorpions and insects like bugs, mosquitoes, etc. The sinners have to endure the constant attacks of these creatures, until the expiry of the period of their punishment.


(10) Krmibhojanam (Food for worms). Depraved Brdbmanas who take their food without worshipping gods and honouring guests, are thrown into this "Krmibhojana" Naraka which is one lakh yojanas in extent. Worms, insects and serpents sting them and eat them up. Once their bodies are completely eaten up by these creatures, they are provided with new bodies, which are also eaten up in the above manner. They have to continue there in this manner, till the end of their term of punishment.


(11) Taptamurti. Those who plunder or steal other people's gold, jewels, ornaments or money are cast into the furnaces of this Naraka, which is built of iron and always remains red hot with blazing fire.


(12) Sdlmali. This Naraka is intended for men and women who have committed adultery. A figure made of iron, heated red-hot is placed there. The victim is urged to embrace it. Yama's servants flog the victim from behind.


(13) Irajrakantakasali. This Naraka is for the punishment of those who have unnatural intercourse with cows and other animals. Here, the guilty people are made to embrace iron images full of diamond needles.


(14) Iraitarani. This is the Naraka for Kings who have violated all ordinances of ~dstras and for adulterers. It is the most terrible place of punishment. Vaitarani is a river filled with human excreta, urine, blood, hair, bones, nails, flesh, fat and all kinds of dirty substances. There are various kinds of ferccious beasts in it. Those who are cast into it are attacked and mauled by these creatures from all sides. The sinners have to spend the term of their punishment, feeding upon the contents of this river.


(15) Puyodakam. This is a well, filled with excreta, urine, blood, phlegm etc. Brdhmanas and others who have intercourse with women of low caste against customs, ordinances etc. vagabonds who wander about irresponsibly like animals and birds and other such sinners are cast into this Naraka.


(16) Prdnarodham. This Naraka is for the punishment of Brdhmanas who keep dogs, asses and other mean animals and constantly hunt and kill animals for food. Here the servants of Yama gather round the sinners and cut them limb by limb with their arrows and subject them to constant insult.


(17) Tlisasanam. This Naraka is for the torture of those who perform Ydga by killing cows to display their wealth and splendour. They will have to remain there during the whole term of their punishment under the constant flogging of Yama's servants.


(18) Lalabhaksam. This is the Naraka for lustful people. The lascivious fellow who makes his wife 'swallow semen, is cast into this hell. Ldldbhaksam is a sea of semen. The sinner lies in it feeding upon semen alone.


(19) Sarameydsanam. Those guilty of unsocial acts like incendiarism, poisoning food, mass slaughter, ruining the country, etc. are cast into the Naraka called Sdrameydsana. There, nothing but the flesh of dogs is available for food. There are 700 dogs in that Naraka and all of them are as ferocious as leopards. They attack the sinners who come there from all sides and tear their flesh from their bodies with their teeth.


(20) Aaici. This Naraka is for those guilty of bearing false witness, false swearing or assuming false names. They are hurled into Avici from a mountain which is 100 yojanas in height. The whole region of Avici is always shaken like an ocean with turbulent waves. As soon as the sinners fall into it they are utterly smashed into dust. They are again restored to life and the punishment is repeated.


(21) Ayahpdnam. Those who belong to the first three castes-viz. Brdhmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas-who indulge in drinking Soma, Surd etc. are bound and thrown into this hell. They are forced to drink melted iron in liquid form.


(22) Kshdrakardamam. Braggarts and those who insult people of noble birth are cast into this hell. Here, Yama's servants keep the sinners upside down and torture them in various ways.


(23) Raksobhaksam. This Naraka is for the punishment of meat-eaters. There are separate compartments in this hell for those who perform human sacrifice, eat human flesh or the flesh of other creatures. All the living beings they had killed before, would have arrived here in advance. They would all join together in attacking, biting and mauling these sinners. Their shrieks and complaints would be of no avail there.


(24) o"Naprotam. People who take the life of others who have done no harm to them, by deceiving them or by treachery, pwith weapons like the trident, are thrown into the "Sulaprotam" hell. Yama's servants fix each of the sinners of the above class, on the top of a trident. They are forced to spend the whole term of their punishment in that position, suffering intense thirst and hunger, enduring all the tortures inflicted on them by Yama's servants.


(25) Dandasukam. Sinners who persecute fellow creatures like venomous serpents are cast into this Naraka. There are many wild beasts and many hooded serpents here. They eat alive, the sinners who fall into this hell.


(26) Tlattarodham. This hell is for those who persecute the creatures living on mountain-peaks, dense forests, hollow trunks of trees, etc. It resembles mountains, caves, forests etc. After throwing them into this hell the sinners are tortured with fire, snake, poison and weapons, just as they had tortured other creatures, while on earth.


(27) Paryaaartanakam. One who denies food to a person who happens to come at meal-time and abuses him, is thrown into this Naraka. The moment he falls into it, his eyes are put out by being pierced with the beaks of cruel birds like the crow, eagle etc. It is the most painful experience for them.


(28) Sucimukham. Proud and miserly people who refuse to spend money even for the bare necessities. of life, find their place in this hell. Those who do not repay the money they have borrowed, will also be cast into this hell. Here, their bodies will be continually pricked and pierced with needles. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha; Visnu Purana, Part 2, Chapter 6 ).


12) Mantra (incantation) to invoke Tama. "Mahisastha Yamagaccha dandahasta mahabala / raksa tvam daksinadvararim Vaivasvata namoS stu to". //


After invoking Yama with this mantra, one should worship with the mantra "Vaivasvatarn Sariigamanam". (Agni Purana, Chapter 56).


13) Yama Defeated by Rdaana. Once the sage Narada went to Ravana and expatiated on the glory and splendour of Yama. Immediately Ravana set out to Samyamani with the intention of subduing Yama. Accepting Ravana's challenge, Yama came out. After a terrible battle between them, which lasted for seven days neither of them was able to defeat the other. Both of them had received Brahma's boon. In the night of the seventh day, Yama rushed forth with his staff' to beat Ravana to death. Then Ravana took his Brahmastra: At that critical moment, Brahma came to the battlefield and persuaded Yama to withdraw from the fight. Yama retreated to his city and closed the gate. Ravana went back with a triumphant shout. (Uttara Ramayana).


14) Other details concerning rama.


(i) Yama attended Draupadi's Svayamvara. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 186, Verse 6) .


(ii) It was Yama who performed "Samitra" (killing of animals) at-the yaga done by devas in the Naimisaranya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 196, Verse 1).


(iii) In the fight between Indra and Arjuna in Khandavaddha, Yama joined the side of Indra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 226, Verse 32) .


(iv) Once in a thousand years, Yama comes to Bindusarovara and performs a yaga. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 15) .


(v) Yama is a member of BrahmYs assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva; Chapter 11, Verse 51).


(vi) When Arjuna erformed tapas and received Pasupatastra from Siva, Yama was pleased and presented Dandastra to Arjuna. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 25) .


(,vii) Yama was one of the devas who tested and then blessed Nala who went to Damayanti's Svayariivara. (See under NALA).


(viii) Indra made Yama, the King of Pitrs. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 14).


(ix) Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 26 says that when Devas milked Bhumidevi, Yama took the form of a calf. (See under Vena).


(x) In Tripuradahana (burning of Tripura Yama remained in Saivabana (the arrow of giva, (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 202, Verse 77. See also under TRIPURA).


(xi) Yama presented two warriors, Unmatha and Pramatha to god Skanda). (M,.B. Salya Parva, Chapter


45, Verse 30) .


(xii) Once Yama gave advice to the sage Gautama on the subject of Dharma. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 192).


(xiii) Yama once gave a boon to a Brahmana named Japaka. (See under JAPAKA. M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 199) .


(xiv) Once Mahavisnu taught Yama, Siva-Sahasranama. Yama taught it to Naciketa. (See under SIVA and NACIKETA. Also M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 17).


(xv) Yama sent his special agents to bring a Brahmana named Sarmi. (See under ~ARML Also M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 68) .


(xvi) Yama once lectured on the efficacy of giving "tila" (gingelly seed) "jala" (water) and anna (rice) to a Brahmana. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 68).


(xvii) Yama once explained the secrets of Dharma. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 130) .


(xviii) Yama used to worship Siva on the mountain Munjavan. (M.B. Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 8) .


(xix) Dhumorna is the name of Yama's wife. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 9).


(xx) There is a story in Mahabharata, Adi Parva about the condition of the world in the absence of Yama. Once Yama started a prolonged yaga at Naimisaranya. At that time there was no death in the world. All living beings, continued to live indefinitely. The Devas all joined together and approached Yama with a request to solve the problem. Yama concluded his yaga and resumed his duties and death came to the world again. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 199).


KALA II. A Maharsi. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 14, refers to this sage as offering worship to Indra, in Indra's assembly.


KALA. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. (See under Kalika).


KALA. See under the word Kaiamana.


KALA (S) A group of Manes. This group lives in the Brahmasabha. (Chapter 11, Santi Parva).


KALABANDHAKA. An adviser of Mahisasura. Ciksura was his war-minister, Tdmra his finance minister, Asiloman, Prime Minister, and Udarka, Chief of the army. Kalabandhaka, Baskala and Trinetra were the advisers of Mahisasura. (Devi Bhagavata 5th Skandha)


KALABHITI A devotee of Siva. As his father Marhti performed penance for the sake of a son for a thousand years his wife conceived, but did not deliver. Mamti asked the' child in his mother's womb why he did not come out to which the latter replied that he did not come out as he feared the Asura called Kalamarga. (As the child feared Kalamarga it came to be called Kalabhiti). As advised by Siva, Marhti created in the child knowledge about dharma, renunciation etc. and thus made him conscious about higher knowledge. The child came out of the mother's womb. In due course of time Kalabhiti took to the worship of Siva, who blessed him as follows : "Since you have outlived Kalamarga, in future you will become famous as Mahakala." (Skanda Purana).


KALABRAHMAIUA. A brahmin, who defeated Kala. A great effulgence that emanated from his head 'two hundred years after his continuous Japa (Chanting of mantras) blocked the passage of sky-walkers (Devas) and spread to the three worlds. When Brahma and others asked him to choose any boon, he said that he wanted nothing but chanting the Lord's name and mantras. Again, Brahma insisted on the brahmin's choosing some boon or other, and then he removed himself to the northern planes of the Himalayas, where also he continued chanting mantras. There too his effulgence became so powerful that Indra deputed celestial women to obstruct his Japa, but they could do nothing in the matter. Then Indra deputed Kala to end the brahmin's life, but he failed in the attempt. Ultimately King Iksvaku came to the brahmin and asked for half the power he had earned by his tapas, which the brahmin readily granted. And, Iksvaku. became thus famous all over the worlds. (Kathasaritsagara, Suryaprabhalambaka).


KALADA. An urban region in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9).


KA.LADANTAKA (KAI,ADANTA). A serpent born in Vasuki's dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yajnd of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57).


KALADVIJA. A serpent, which attained salvation. The story of this naga, which was at first a gudra is told in chapter 16 of the Padma Purana as follows:-


Once upon a time there lived in Karavirapura a very selfish Sudra called Kaladvija, who was sentenced by Kala to live in hell for four Manvantaras. After living in hell the whole of the period, he was born as a naga and suffered much in the crevices of a stone. While living thus, on an Asvina purnima (Full moon day in the month of Asvina), it threw out some fried paddy and Kaudi (shells) which fell before Visnu. At once the Lord redeemed it from all its sins, and on its death, in due course, the attendants of Visnu took him in a divine chariot to the Lord.


KALAGHATA. A brahmin scholar in the Vedas. He was a member of the assembly at the serpent yajfia conducted by Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 53) .


KALAHA. Wife of a brahmana named Bhiksu who was an inhabitant of the city of Saurastra. This woman used to do only just the opposite of what her husband asked her to do and so Bhiksu kept it a rule to ask her to do the opposite of what he wanted her to do. But


one day he asked her to float the sraddha pinda in the river Ganga, and she threw it in 8aucyakupa. As a result of that she was born in a demoniac womb. But Dharmadatta got her purified by the Dvadasaksari mantra, and giving her half the virtue accrued by him. By virtue of this they were reborn as Dasaratha and Kausalya. (Ananda Ramayana, Sarakanda ; Uttarakhanda,Padma Purana), See also under Dharmadatta.


KALAJNA(S). A synonym of the Kalakeyas. (See under Kalakeya).


KALAKA (KALIKA). One of the daughters of Daksa. Kasyapa married her. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 183 states that Kalakeya and Narakasura were born to Kalaka by Kasyapa. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Chapter 14) . In Mahabharata Aranya Parva, Chapter 174 we find that Kalaka once received from Brahma, a boon that her sons would never be killed.


KALAKA. An Asura born to Kalika by Kasyapa. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Chapter 14)


KALAKAKSA. A warrior of Skanda deva. (M.B. ~alya

 Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 69).


KALAKAKSA. An Asura. He was killed by Garuda. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 105).


KALAKAMUKHA (KALAKAMMUKA). A Raksasa. He was the brother of Prahasta, Ravana's Minister. (For Genealogy, see under Prahasta). During Sri Rama's life in the forest Kalakamukha was also among Khara, Dusana and others. The other eleven members of that group were-Syenagami, Prthugriva, Yajnasatru, Vihangama, Durjaya, Karaviraksa, Parusa, Meghamali, Mahamali, Sarpasya and Rudhirasana. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, 26th Sarga).


KALAKANYA. Daughter of Kala (Mama). (See under Puranjana).


KALAKAVRKSIYA. An ancient Saint. During the reign of the King Ksemadansin in the country of Kosala, his subjects were put to great sufferings under the misrule and corruption of his courtiers. At that time, Kalakavrksiya who was a friend of Ksemadarsin and a reputed sage, came to Kosala with a caged crow. The sage went about the country claiming to know Kakavidya" (Vayasi vidya) by which a crow could be made to tell past events. Actually,.the sage was going round the country in order to gather first-hand information about the corrupt practices of the King's men. After acquiring knowledge of the exact state of affairs in the country, Kalakavrksiya reached the palace. Under the cloak of the crow's words he exposed some of the improprieties of the King's Minister. Naturally, the Minister was furious and by his secret instructions his servants shot the crow to death that same night. On the next day, the sage himself went to the King and convinced him of the Minister's guilt. The King accepted the sage's suggestions and brought about a thorough overhaul of the administration by punishing or dismissing the culprits. (M.B. ganti Parva, Chapter 82) .


In Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 106 we find that this sage once advised Drupada to make a treaty with King Ksemadarsin_ Kalakavrksfya was a sage who flourished in Indra's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7).


KALAKETU. A renowned Asura Emperor who was the son of Danu, the wife of Kasyapa. Once he abducted Ekdvali, the wife of Ekavira and went to Patala (underworld). Ekavira fought a fierce battle with Kalaketu and recovered Ekavali. (See under Ekavira).




1) Birth. The Asuras who were born to Kala (Kalika ) by Kasyapa Prajapati, the son of Marici and Brahma's grandson.


2) General. "Kalakeya" is not the proper name of a particular Asura. The sons of Kala (Kalika) are all collectively called Kalakeyas. They number about 60,000. Sometimes they fought under the leadership of Vrtrasura and at other times under other Asura leaders.


3) Agastya and the Kalakeyas. Once the Kalakeyas started a campaign of hatred against Brahmanas. At nightfall they used to enter Brahmana premises and commit murders, disturb their yagas, etc. The Brahinanas complained to the sage Agastya. Agastya set out to capture the Kalakeyas, who were alarmed and hid themselves in the ocean. Agastya dried up the ocean by drinking it. But some of the Kalakeyas escaped and fled to Patala. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 101) .


4) Arjuna and the Kalakeyas. The headquarters of the Asuras was Hiranyapura, situated near Devaloka. Once they allied themselves with thousands of other Asuras called "Nivatakavacas" and launched an attack on Devaloka. Indra sent his charioteer Matali and brought Arjuna•to Devaloka. Arjuna defeated the Nivatakavacas and Kalakeyas in battle. A large number of Kalakeyas were killed in the battle. (M.B. Vana Parva Chapters 172-175 ).


KALAKIRTI. A Ksatriya King. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67 says that this King was born from the limb of Suparna, the younger brother of the Asura, Mayura.


KALAKOTI. A sacred place in Naimisaranya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 3) .


KALAKLTTA. The virulent poison that came up during the churning of the Ocean of Milk. Siva swallowed and retained it in his throat, and so he came to be called Nilakantha.


"And Kalakuta arose like fire burning all the worlds. The smell of it sent the three worlds into a swoon. At the request of Brahma Siva swallowed the poison to save the world from absolute destruction. And, he (Siva) retained it in his throat". (Adi Parva, Chapter 18).


KALAMANA. (Calculating time). In ancient days in India time was calculated in the following

 manner.  Time taken (needed) to pierce a leaf with a  needle  30 Alpaltalas 30 Trutis 30 Kalas 30 Kasthas 4 Nimisas  10 Ganitas - 6 Netuvirpus 6 Vinazhikas 60 Ghatikas 15 Ahoratras 2 Paksas  2 Masas (months) 6 Rtus  300 Years (Men's) 4800 Divyavarsas 3600 Divyavarsas 2400 Divyavarsas 1200 Divyavarsas  12000 Divyavarsas 71 Caturyugas 14 Manvantaras 1 Pralaya Alpakala 1 Truti 1 Kala 1 Kastha 1 Nimisa (matra) 1 Ganita 1 Netuvirpu, (time for a deep sigh) 1 Vinazhika 1 Ghatika 1 Dad (Ahoratra) 1 Paksa (Fortnight) 1 Candramasa ( A day for the Pitrs) 1 Rtu. 1 year for men (A day for the Devas ) 1 Divyavarsa (Divine year) 1 Krtayuga 1 Tretayuga 1 Dvaparayuga 1 Kaliyuga 1 Caturyuga 1 Manvantara 1 Pralaya (Kalpa) Brahma's one ( Bhagavata skandha) 7 2 Nazhikas ( Ghatikas ) - 1 Yama

 4 Yamas - 1 day time  8 Yamas - 1 day (day and night).  (Devi Bhaga.vata, 9th Skandha).  The `Kalaxnana' according to the Visnu Purana  differs in certain respects from the calculations given above. Chapter 3, Part 1 of Visnu Purana says :-  Fifteen Nimisas make one Kastha. Thirty Kasthas  make one Kala and thirty Kalas make one Muhurta.  Thirty Muhurtas make one day (man's) and thirty  such days, divided into two fortnights form a Masa  (month). Six months form an Ayana; there are two  ayanas called Daksina and Uttara. Daksinayana is  night, and Uttarayana is day for the Devas. 12,000  Divyavarsas-Deva varsas-form a Caturyuga consisting

 of the K,rta-Treta-Dvapara and Kali yugas, con  sisting respectively of 4000, 3000, 2000 and 1000  Divyavarsas. Before the commencement and after the  end of every one of the above four yugas there is an  interval respectively of 400, 300, 200, and 100 years.  The interval before the commencement is called  Sandhya and that at the end is called Sandhyarizsa. The  period between Sandhya and Sandhhyams'a is called Krta  yuga etc. One thousand Caturyugas form one day for  Brahma, and it (Brahma's one day) has 14 Manus.  Again, Chapter 8, Part 2 of the Visnu Purana has the  following to say about Kalamana.  Fifteen nimisas make one Kastha, thirty Kasthas one  Kala, thirty Kalas one muhurta and thirty muhurtas  one day and night. Day is long or short according to  the length or shortness of parts of the day, like morning,  noon and evening. Despite the above variation evening  or dusk time is always (2 nazhikas) the same. The  three muhurtas from the sun's ardhodaya (when half  of the sun has arisen) is called Pratahkala, (morning)  and it is 1 /5th of day time. The three muhurtas  following are known as sariigava. Madhyahna ( noon )  is the three muhurtas after The time after  madhyahna is aparahna ( afternoon) . Aparahna lasts  for three muhurtas. The time after this is dusk. Thus,  a day-time of fifteen muhurtas is divided into five parts  of three muhurtas each. On Visuvat day the day will  have full fifteen muhurtas. Then during Uttarayana  and Daksinayana the day mill be longer or shorter.  During Uttarayana the day will be longer than night,  and during Daksinayana vice versa. Visuvat occurs  when the sun enters the Tula (Libra) and Mesa (Aries)  houses. Daksinayana is when the sun enters Cancer,  and Uttarayana when it enters Capricorn.  Fifteen days and nights constitute a Paksa (fortnight)  and two Paksas one month. Two solar months consti  tute a Rtu ~ (season), three rtus one ayana and two  ayanas one year. Since there are four kinds of months,  i.e. Saura, Savana, Candra and Naksatra, years are  considered to be of five different kinds. The first is called  Samvatsara; the second parivatsara; the third idvatsara;  the fourth, anuvatsara and the fifth, vatsara. This  period of five years is called a yuga. In a yuga of five  years there are 60 saura months. 61 sivana months,  62 Candra months and 67 naksatra months. At the  beginning of the sixth year the sun and moon meet in  the same house and that period of five years also is  day. called yuga. (Sridhariyam).  Trtiya KALAMRA. See under BHADRAS`ALA.


KALAMUKHA (S) A hybrid race born from the  union of men and Raksasas. Sahadeva defeated the  Kalamukhas also during his conquest of the southern  region. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 67) .


KALANEMI I. A great Asura. In later years he was born as Kamsa, the son of Ugrasena. ( See under Karhsa ) .


KALANEMI II. A brahmin from Malava. His  father was called Yajfiasena. (Kathasaritsagara, Kathamukhalambaka).


KALANEMI III. A Raksasa. During the war, when Laksmana swooned, Hanurnan started for Drona mountain for medicine. Ravana deputed Kalanemi to obstruct the path of Hanuman. Well acquainted with the trickeries of the Raksasas Hanuman killed Kalanemi who appeared befor-_ him disguised as a age. (Adhyatma Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Canto 67) .


KALANIRNAYA. (Calculating time). See under Kala_mana.


KALANJARAGIRI. A famous mountain at Medhavika tirtha. He who bathes in Vedihrada on this mountain will get the benefits of gifting away 1000 cows. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25). Spread on the four sides of mount Mahameru are twenty mountains. They are :Kurafiga, Karaga, Kusumbha, Vikarikata, Trikuta, Sisira, Patafiga, Rucaka, Nila, Nisadha, Sitivasa, Kapila, Sankha, Vaidurya, Carudhi, Harhsa, Rsabha, Naga, Kalafijara and Narada. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha).


KALAPA. A powerful sage of great majesty. Yudhisthira worshipped this sage at the end of the Rajasuyayajfia. (Chapter 85, Sabha Parva).


KALAPA. A great sage, who was a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4) .


KALAPARVATA I. A mountain on the sea coast near Lanka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 277) .


KALAPARVATA Il. A mountain seen by Arjuna on his way to $iva with Sri Krsna during their dreamjourney. (Drona Parva, Chapter 80) .


KALAPATHA. A son of Visvamitra. He was a scholar in philosophy and a Brahmavadi. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4) .


KALAPISIGA I. A holy place. (Sloka 43, Chapter 25, Anusasana Parva).


KALAPIAIGA II. A kind of bird. See. under Kapifijala.


KALAPRSTHA. A serpent. It was with this serpent that the hair on the necks of horses attached to the chariot of Siva at the burning of the TrTuras, was tied. (Karna Parva, Chapter 34) .


KALARATRI. The Devata presiding over the night on the eve of death. The fierce aspect of the Devata is described in the Mahabharata as follows :-


Coal-black in colour, with swollen mouth and eyes and wearing red garlands and clothings-thus appeared the wom in (Devata) presiding over the death-night. With the fierce cord in her hand she drags away the souls of the dead. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 9) .


KALASA. A serpent born of the family of Kasyapa. (Sloka 11, Chapter 103, Udyoga Parva).


KALASAILA. A range of mountains in Uttarakhanda in ancient India. (Vana Parva, Chapter 139).


KALASAPOTAKA. A serpent. (Sloka 7, Chapter 35, Adi Parva).


KALASI. A holy place. If one sips water from a pond in that place one will acquire the benefit of conducting an Agnistoma Sacrifice. (Sloka 80, Chapter 83, Vana Parva.


KALASODARA. A soldier of Skanda. (Sloka 72, Chapter 85, Salya Parva).


KALASUTRA. A hell. (See under Kala).


KALATIRTHA. A sacred place in Ayodhya. A bath here is as good as making a gift of eleven cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85) .


KALATOYAKA. An urban region in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9) .


KALAVATI I. A daughter of the King of Kasi. This gern of a woman worshipped the sage Durvasas and became a saint by obtaining the Saiva Paficaksara (five letters pertaining to Siva-Sivaya namah). Ai'terwards Dasarha, King of Mathura, married her. The King felt very hot whenever he approached her and he questioned her about it. She said she had received the Paficaksara Mantra even from childhood and sinners would feel the heat if they touched her. The King was greatly disappointed and Kalavati took him to Sage Garga to redeem him from all his sins. The sage dipped the King in the river Kalindi and when the King rose up all his sins flew away from his body as tiny birds. The King reaching the palace, embraced Kalavati and then he felt her body very cool and pleasant. They got a son also. (Paficaksaramahatmya, Siva Purana).


KALAVATI II. Mother of Mrgavati, a queen. Mrgavati was the mother of Udayana. See under Mrgavati).


KALAVATI III. A nymph. See under Thinthakarala.


KALAVEGA. A serpent born in the Vasuki dynasty. It was burnt to ashes during the serpent yajfia of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 7) .


KALAYAVANA. A powerful Asura born out of the effulgence of Gargacarya. He was killed by Sri Krsna. (See under Krsna).


KALEHIKA. A female attendant of Skandadeva. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46) .


KALEYA (S) . A set of Asuras born to the great sage Kasyapa of his wife Kala. Some scholars hold the view that the Kalakeyas and the Kaleyas are one and the same. Kaleyas destroyed the Asramas of sages like Vasistha, Cyavana and Bharadvaja. (Vana Parva, Chapter 102). Devas killed some of the Kaleyas; the others ran away to Patala.


KALI I. Incarnation of sin, the Sin-god.


1) Birth. Kasyapaprajapati, son of Brahma, begot of his wife Muni sixteen sons and Kali was the fifteenth son. He was a deva-gandharva. The other sons of Kasyapa were: Bhimasena, Ugrasena, Suparna, Varuna Dhrtarastra, Gopati, Suvarcas, Satyavak, Arkaparna, Prayuta, Visruta, Citraratha, Salisiras, Parjanya and Narada. (4 Slokas from verse 43, Chapter 65, Adi Parva).


2) How Parakrit controlled Kali. When Sri Krsna went to Vaikuntha, the Pandavas entrusted the administration of the state to Pariksit, son of Abhimanyu and started for the Mahaprasthana. King Pariksit was travelling the continent conquering places when he saw Kali in the garb of a Sudra King teasing a cow and bull couple. Pariksit aimed an arrow at him and then Kali came and bowed down before the King. The King did not kill him. He let him go free but ordered him to go away from his state. Kali was nonplussed because all the land belonged to Pariksit and there was no place for him to go. So Kali begged of the King to give him some space to live. Pariksit then declared that Kal i could live in the following five places: Gambling Drinking, Woman, Murder and Gold. From that day onwards the free movements of Kali were thus restricted (Chapter 17, 1st Skandha, Bhagavata).


3) Kali, Lord of YLaliyuga. There are fourteen Manvantaras during the life of Brahma. The life' time of a Manu is a Manvantara. This present period is the seventh Manvantara. In each Manvantara there are four yugas, Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. Krtayuga consists of 17,28000 years, Tretayuga consists of 12,96000 years, Dvaparayuga 8,64-000 years and Kaliyuga 4,32,000 years. The christian era started in the Kali era 3102 and after another 4,26926 years Kaliyuga will come to an end and the present universe will enter the. eighth Manvantara. From the beginning of the Kaliyuga acts of sin predominate and Kali, sin-god, will lord over the world.


Kali was born on the day Sri Krsna ascended heaven. When Bhagavan Mukunda abandoned his body and went to his place in Vaikuntha. Kali came into being binding all on earth. (Slolka 66, Chapter 1, Bhagavata Maha tmya) .


4) Yali and Nala. Kali and Dvapara were going to the Svayamvara of Damayanti when they met Indra and others returning from the Svayarnvara. They told Kali and Dvdpara that Damayanti was married to Nala. Kali and Dvapara felt it an outrage that Damayanti should have married a man of the earth and not a deva. Kali decided that Nala should be sent out of his country and his matrimonial life made most unhappy. Dvapara consented to be his accomplice in this attempt. Kali followed Nala waiting for an opportunity to enter his body. One day, by an oversight Nala, without doing the acamana after passing urine, performed his sandhyavandana. Taking that opportunity Kali entered the body of Nala. Kali went to Puskara, brother of Nala in the guise of a bullock and made Nala challenge his brother to a game of dice putting that bul1ock as a wager. Puskara accepted the challenge. Nala wagered and lost all his movable and immovable possessions and went to the forests with Damayanti. Nala, prompted by Kali, abandoned Damayanti in the forests and went his way. Damayand cursed Kali.


It was at this time that the great serpent Karkotaka was entrapped in a wild fire. Nala sa=ved him from the fire but in return the cobra bit him turning Nala into one of blue hue and said "Oh Nala, let Kali who cheated you and is now inside your body suffer with the poison I have injected into your body."


Nala roamed about and reached Ayodhya and there became the charioteer of Rtuparna, King of Ayodlrya. When Rtuparna went to the second marriage of Damayanti to Vidarbha, Nala went with him as his charioteer. On the way Nala taught Rtuparna the science of Asvahrdaya and Rtuparna in return taught him the science of Aksahrdaya. When Nala learnt the secret of Aksahrdaya he vomited all the poison inside him and Kali left him. Nala was about to curse Kali but refrained from it at the request of Kali. At once Kali climbed on a Tanni tree (Beleric Myrobalan) and went down from the tree when Nala left the place. Tanni is from that day onwards considered a cursed tree. (Chapter 58, Vana Parva) .


5) The world in Kaliyuga. The celebrated sage Markandeya had prophesied about the happenings in Kaliyuga thus: In Kaliyuga all will be dishonest. Charity and Sacrifices will be only for a name. Brahmanas would do the duties of gudras. Sudras will become prosperous. There will be sinners as kings. People will


be short-lived and the stature of the people also will diminish. Beastly type of men will be on the increase. Taste and smell will vanish. Women will be `Mukhebhagas'. Men will sell rice and brahmanas, the Vedas. Women will sell their vaginas. The yield of milk from cows will decrease. Flowers and fruits will become less. Crows will be on the increase. Brahmanas would become beggars. Sages will be merchants. Brahmanas would without any reason grow hairs and nails. None will observe the four dsramas correctly. Students will defile the bed of their preceptors. Rains will be in and out of season. Trees and plants will refuse to grow in many places. There will be murder of people everywhere. Merchants will be cheats and they will use false measures. Righteous persons will decrease and sinners will increase. Girls of seven or eight years will become pregnant and boys will become fathers. Young men at the age of sixteen would be grey-haired. Old men will continue practising the habits of young men. Wives will lie with their servants. Wives will be prostitutes even while their husbands are alive. People will die in lots of hunger." (Chapter 188. Vana Parva).


6) KaOugaththa. The greatest tirtha of Kaliyuga is the river Ganga. (Chapter 85, Vana Parva).


7) Duryodhana was the incarnation of Kali and Sakuni, that of Dvapara. (Chapter 31, Asrama Parva).


KALI II. A synonym of Surya. (Sloka 20, Chapter 3, Vana Parva).


KALI III. A synonym of Siva. (Sloka 79, Chapter 17, Anusasana Parva).


KALI I. A synonym of Satyavati, mother of Vyasa. (See under Adrika and Satyavati) .


KALI II. An aspect or form of Parvati. (See under PArvati) .


KALIDASA. The greatest poet and dramatist in Sanskrit. Some scholars opine that Kalidasa flourished in the 8th Century B.C. while others place his date upto the period 11 th Century A.D. At any rate most of the scholars consider the period between 1st Century B.C. and 5th Century A.D. as the most probable date of the great poet. Some of'the main theories in this regard are as follows;-


(1) Eighth century B.C. Towards the close of Raghuvarnsa 1/Iahakavya Kalidasa has referred to the son of King Agnimitra. Therefore the poet must have lived in the 8th Century B.C. This is the view of the scholar Hippolyte Fanche.


(2) Second Century B.C. According to Dr. Kunjan Raja Kalidasa lived in the second Century B.C., the reasons for the belief being as follows. The poet was a contemporary of King Agnimitra of the Suriga dynasty. This Agnimitra is eulogised in Kalidasa's Malavikagnimitra. Agnimitra is referred to in the Bharatavakya (epilogue) of the drama also.


(3) First Century B.C. The traditional belief is that Kalidasa was a member in the assembly of poets and scholars of the court of emperor Vikramaditya, who started the Vikrama era in B.C. 56.




Khyato Varahamihiro nrpateh sabhayarn Ratnani vai vararucir nava vikramasya.


4) Fifth Century A.D. According to Dr. Keith, Kalidasa lived in the fifth Century A.D. One Candragupta II, who defeated the Sakas in 339 A.D. was King of Ujjain. He was known as Vikramaditya also. Dr. Keith thinks that the great poet might have been a member of this King's court. Perhaps Kalidasa had remembered his royal patron Vikramaditya in his drama called VikramorvaZiya. Dr. Keith is further of the view that Kalidasa composed Kumarasambhava after attending the birth celebrations of Kumaragupta, son of King Vikramaditya.


(5) Sixth Century A.D. Three scholars, Fergusson, Max Muller and Kern have opined that Kalidisa lived in the sixth Century A.D.


Whichever be the date of Kilidasa it could be known from his works that he spent the major part of his life in Ujjain, and was inextricably indebted to the city in many ways. Raghuvaritsa and Kumarasambhava are his two mahakavyas. He had also written three dramas, Abhijnanaakuntala, Vikramorvasiya and Malavikagnimitra and a lyric called Rtusarithara. He wrote also a world-famous poem called Meghasandes a.


KALIKA. A female attendant of Skanda. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 14) .


KALIKA. One of the attendants given to Skanda by Pusan, the other being Panitaka.' (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 43) .


KALIKASRAMA. A holy place. If one bathes and spends three nights here one will be released from the sorrows of life and death. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25) .


KALIKEYA. A son of King Subala. He was killed by Abhimanyu. (Drones Parva, Chapter 49).




1) General. Kdlindi alias Yamuna is one of the holy rivers in India. The presiding deity of the river is Kalindidevi. Kalindi, the daughter of the sun has her source in Kalinda mountairy, and hence the name Kdlindi for the river. Kalindi joins the Ganges at Prayaga, and this confluence of the two rivers is called Sangama, which is a sacred place.


2) Gave way for Sri Krsna. As soon as Krsna was born Vasudeva stealthily removed the child to Ambadi. Due to heavy rains the Kdlindi was overflowing, and Vasudeva begged Kalindi for a passage, and the river gave way for Vasudeva to take Krsna to Ambadi. (Bhagavata 10th Skandha).


3) Balabhadra dragged Kdlindi. Balabhadrarama once stayed in Ambadi for two months. One day he was picnicking on the banks of Kalindi with the Gopis. Under the influence of liquor he desired to play with his companions in the waters of Kalindi. He called Kalindi to his side, but the chaste Kalindi refused to oblige him. So he dragged her by his plough hooking her to it. In great fear Kalindi saluted him, and he enjoyed with the gopis for some time on its waters. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).


4) A'Vindi, gri Krsna's wife. After Maya had built Indraprastha for the PAndavas, Sri Krsna spent a few days there with them. And, one day while Krsna and Arjuna were strolling on the banks of Kdlindi the latter saw there a beautiful woman performing penance and he approached her. She told Arjuna that the object


of her penance was to get Krsna as husband, and when


Arjuna passed on the information to Krsna he took her in his chariot to Dvaraka and duly married her. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).


5) Soris of Kalindi. Ten sons, were born to Kalindi by Krsna. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).


6) Harhsa and his son in Kalindi. Once Krsna attacked Jarasandha and the son of his minister, Hamsa, being told that his father had been killed, committed suicide by jumping into Kalindi. But, Harnsa had not been killed; and when he returned from the battlefield and knew about the death of his son, he too jumped into Kalindi and committed suicide. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14).


7). Other information.


(i) Kdlindi is one of the seven tributaries of the Ganges. One who drinks its water will be released from all sins. (Adi Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 19) .


(ii) The Pandavas, during their life in exile in the forest drank Yamuni water, got over their weariness and continued their sojourn. (Vanes Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 2).


(iii) Sahadeva, son of Srfijaya, gave Agni Deva 1000 golden emblems on the banks of the Yamuni. (Vanes Parva Chapter 90, Verse 7).


(iv) Bharata performed thirty-three ASvamedhas on the banks of the Y amuna (Vanes Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 8) . On another occasion he conducted six Asvamedhas at the same spot. (Drones Parva, Chapter 68) . On yet another occasion he conducted three hundred Asvamedhas. (anti Parva, Chapter 29) .


(v) Ambarisa, the son of Nabhaga conducted a yajiia on the planes of Kalindi. (Vanes Parva, Chapter 129 ). (vi) Agastya the great sage performed penance on the planes of Kalindi. (Vanes Parva, Chapter 161).


(vii) King Santanu conducted seven yajnas on the banks of the Kalindi. (Vanes Parva, Chapter 162) .


(viii) The colour of Kalindi is black. Kama (Cupid) shot arrows of flower at Siva, who was lamenting over the death of Sad, and he (Siva) thus excited to a condition of insanity jumped into Kalindi with the result that its water turned black in colour. (Vimana Purina, Chapter 6 and also see under Yamuna).


KALINDIDVIPA. It was on this island that Vyasa was born as the result of the intercourse between Para~ara and Satyavati. (Adi Parva, Chapter 60) .


KALINGA I. Rtayu, King of Kalinga was present at the svayarimvara of Draupadi. (Sloka 13, Chapter 185 Adi Parva). Rukmi played a game of dice with Balabhadra with the help of Kalinga (for details see under Rukmi). The sage Dirghatamas begot a son of the wife of the aged and senile Kalinga and the boy was named Kaksivan (Sukta 125, Anuvika 18, Mandala 1, Rgveda).


KALI1NGA II. A warrior of the god Skandha. (M.B. ~alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 64),


KALINIGA Ill. A Daitya who lived in Krtayuga. In Skanda Purina there is a story that he conquered heaven, drove away the Dikpalakas, posted his own forces in their place and was finally killed by Devi.


KALINGA. Srutiyus, King of Kalinga, and a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4) .


KALIPNA(M) (KALINGA). An ancient place in the south of Bharata.


Other details.


(1) Arjuna visited this place while he was on a pilgrimage. (Sloka 9, Chapter 214, Adi Parva).


(2) Kalinga was also included in the countries conquered by Sahadeva while he was on his victory march. (Chapter 31, Sabha Parva).


(3) People from Kalinga presented Yudhisthira with gifts for the Rajasuya. (Sloka 18, Chapter 52. Sabha Parva).


(4) Yudhisthira visited Kalinga while he was on a pilgrimage. (Sloka 4, Chapter 114, Vana Parva).


(5) Karna conquered Kalinga while he was on a victory march. (Sloka 8, Chapter 254, Vana Parva .


(6) Sahadeva defeated the King of Kalinga. (Sloka 24, Chapter 23, Udyoga Parva).


(7) Sri Krsna slaughtered the people of Kalinga. (Sloka 76, Chapter 48, Udyoga Parva).


(8) The people of Kalinga took part in the war between the Pandavas and Kauravas. (Sloka 6, Chapter 20, Drona Parva).


(9) Paras urdma conquered this place. (Sloka 12, Chapter 70, Drona Parva).


KALINGASENA. See under Madanamanjuka.


KALIPRIYA. A prostitute. She attained svarga by observing the Karttikavrata. (Chapter 21, Brahmakhanda, Padma Purana).




1) Birth. Kasyapa, grandson of Brahma and son of Marici begot of his wife Kadru powerful nagas like Sesa, Airavata, Taksaka, Karkotaka, Kaliya, Maninaga, Purananaga etc. and from them were born all kinds of ragas on earth. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35) . Kaliya possessed one thousand heads. (Bhagavata, loth Skandha).


2) Kdliya took his abode in Kdlindf. Vinata and Kadru were wives of Kasyapa. The former was the mother of Garuda and the latter of the ragas. In a wager Vinata was defeated and had to become the slave of Kadru. Garuda brought Amrta from Devaloka and redeemed his mother from slavery. Yet Garuda and the ragas continued to be enemies, Garuda killing and eating ragas whenever he got a chance for it. At last the ndgas entered into an understanding with Garuda agreeing to give him the havis (offering) which they got on certain days, and thus Garuda stopped eating the ragas. But Kaliya did not subscribe to the above agreement ; he treated Caruda with contempt. But, in an encounter with Garuda Kaliya was put to so much of hardships that he, along with his family, shifted his residence to a particular sector in Kalindi.


3) Admission denied to Garulla. Owing to the curse of a sage called Saubhari, who was performing penance on the banks of Kalindi, that Garuda would die urokenheaded if he entered Kalindi, it was a prohibited area to Garuda.


4) Suppression of YLdliya. Owing to the virulent poison of Kaliya the waters of Kalindi became poisonous and the trees on its banks dried up. Once, while Krsna and his companions, the Gopalas came to the banks of the river grazing their cows. The Gopalas drank water from the river and fell down dead. Then Krsna jumped into the river from the top of a tree on its bank and danced upon the hoods of Kaliya who had rushed to attack him. Kaliya vomited blood and saluted Krsna. His wives and children also saluted the Lord. Krsna sent all of them away to Ramanaka island assuring Kaliya that Garuda would not attack him en seeing the marks of his (Krsna's) feet on Kaliya. Thus did Kaliya and his family shift their residence to Ramanaka island. (Bhagavata, loth Skandha).


KALIYUGA. See under Manvantara.


KALKI. The tenth avatara (incarnation) of Mahavisnu. The ten avataras are called Dasavataras. Kalki is the last of them. Agni Purana, Chapter 16 says as follows about the incarnation of Kalki


Towards the end of Kaliyuga, all people will lose their faith in God and become irreligious. They will accept presents from the wicked. At that time, there will be intermixture of castes. People will become thieves and evil doers. Fifteen divisions of the Veda Vkjasaneya alone will become the authoritative document. People, wearing the garb of righteousness, will indulge in unrighteousness. Mlecchas (lowest class of people) assuming the form of Kings will begin feeding upon human beings. At that time Lord Visnu will incarnate as Kalki, the son of Visnuyasas and the priest of Yajnavalkya and exterminate all mlecchas. He will restore people to caturvarnya and the four asramas and maintain proper standards of conduct. Afterwards the Lord will renounce the form of Kalki and ascend Heaven. Then Krtayuga will begin again.


Chapter 190 of Bhasa Bharata supports almost all the above statements. In the light of them, we car, gather certain features of Kalki's incarnation when Kaliyuga reaches its zenith. Mahavisnu will be born as a Brahmana with the name Visnuyasas, in the village called Sambhala. Visnuyasas will become famous under the name Kalki. He will be the priest of Yajnavalkya. He will create arms and soldiers by his will itself and destroy the wicked. With that Krtayuga will commence.


There is difference of opinion as to whether Kalki's incarnation has passed or is yet to come. But in the light of the statements in the Puranas, Kalki has not yet come. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, says that Kaliyuga extends over a period of 4, 32, 000 years. It is now only a little over 5,000 years since it bean. Still, more than 4, 26, 900 years have to pass before the end of Kaliyuga. Therefore lakhs of years have still to pass before the incarnation of Kalki.




KALMASAPADA. (KALMASAIZGHRI, MITRASAHA, SAUDASA). A famous king of the Iksvaku dynasty. H-a wandered about in the forest as a Raksasa for twelve years.


1) Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in the following order -Brahma--Marici-Ka<yapa-Vivasvan-Vaivasvata Manu-Iksvaku-Vikuksi-Sasada -Pur anj aya-Kakutstha-Arenas-Prthulas va-Prasenaj it-Yuvanas va-Mandhata-Purukutsa-TrasadasyuAnaranya-Aryasva-Vasumanas- Sutanva - Trayyaruna-Satyavrata-(Trisariku)-Hariscandra- Rohitasva- Harita-Cuncu-Sudeva-Bharuka-Bahuka-


Sagara-Asam anjasa--Ams uman-Bhagiratha-Srutanabha-Sindhudvipa-Ayutayus-Rtuparna- Sarvakama Sudasa (Sudhasana)-Mitrasaha (Kalmasapada).


2) Name. His actual name was Mitrasaha. Since he was the son of Sudasa, he was called Saudasa also.


(M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 78). Kalmasa,nghri and Kalmasapada were names which he got as a result of Vasistha's curse.


3) Mitrasaha became a Raksasa. Mitrasaha was a reputed and glorious king belonging to the solar dynasty of kings who ruled over Ayodhya. He had a queen named Madayanti. While they were leading a happy and enviable married life, Mitrasaha was forced to lead the life of a Raksasa in the forest for a period of 12 years, as the result of a curse. The story of this curse is given in different Puranas in different versions and they are given below;-


4) gakti Cursed Mitrasaha. One day Mitrasaha went to the forest for hunting. Vi..<vamitra wished to get this mighty King as his disciple. While the King was passing through the forest, he saw Sakti, Vasistha's son, coming towards him. The King was a Ksatriya and Sakti was a Brahmana. They were faced with the problem of whether the Ksatriya should make way for the Brahmana or vice versa. Neither of them made way for the other. At last, Mitrasaha struck Sakti with his whip. In his anger Sakti cursed Mitrasaha that he should become a Raksasa and roam about in the forest for 16 years. Visvamitra who was standing nearby at the time introduced a devil into the body of the King and from that day Mitrasaha wandered about in the forest in the form of a Raksasa. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 176) .


5) Vasi~th cursed Mitrasaha. Mitrasaha once went to hunt in the forest. While hunting he came across two tiger cubs. Actually, they were two Raksasas in disguise. The King who was unaware of it, killed one of them with an arrow. The other cub suddenly assumed his. own form as a Raksasa and after giving Mitrasaha a warning that he would take revenge on him at the proper time, vanished.


After the hunt the King returned to his palace. He informed Vasistha that he wished to perform Asvamedhayaga like his ancestors.' The sage offered to assist him in it. Shortly after, one day, the old Raksasa-tiger, disguising himself as the sage Vasistha, came to Mitrasaha and said; "Oh King! I will tell you a secret. Don't tell anyone else. I have a great desire to eat meat food. Please send some cooked meat to my !Urama without anyone knowing about it." After saying this, the disguised Raksasa-sage left the place.


The King told this secret to.his wife Madayanti. They prepared the meat-food secretly and took it to Vasistha's Asrama. When Vasistha saw the meat food, he took it as a personal insult and transformed the King into a Raksasa. (Uttara Ramayana).


6) Another story of hasistha's curse on Mitrasah % Once while Mitrasaha was hunting in the forest, he happEned to kill a. Raksasa by accident. The dead Raksasa's younger brother swore to avenge his death. He went to the King in the disguise of a young Brahmana cook. Mitrasaha appointed him as a cook in the royal kitchen.


At about that time, one day, Vasistha came to Ayodhya, on the invitation of Mitrasaha for a Sraddha. Mitrasaha, accompanied by his queen, greeted the sage with honour. He ordered the cook to prepare food for the guest at once. The Raksasa disguised as cook, decided to make the best of this opportunity. In a short time


he cooked some human flesh and offered it as food for Vasistha. The enraged sage cursed the King to become a man-eating Raksasa who would roam about for twelve years in the woods. Thus Mitrasaha became a Raksasa. (Siva Purana, 8ivaratri Mahatmya).


7) How Mitrasaha got the name "Kalmasapdda." Mitrasaha became very angry whan he was cursed by Vasistha. He decided to pay back in the same coin by cursing Vas.istha also. He took water in his hand and was about to throw it down with the words of curse. But his queen Madayanti stopped him. She reminded him that it was not right to curse a Brahmana and requested him to sprinkle that water on his own feet. The King's anger cooled down. and he sprinkled the water on his own feet. Since his feet were polluted by the water of sin Mitrasaha came to be called "Kalmasapada", and Kalmasanghri" from that day. (Siva Purana, Sivaratri Mahatmya).


8) Kalmj~afidda's life as RCLksaya. The curse-ridden Kanmasapada began to look upon Vasistha and his sons with inveterate hatred. He roamed the countrysides and forests in the form of a Raksasa. He started man-eating by feeding upon Sakti, the eldest son of Vasistha. After that he ate all the remaining 99 sons of Vasistha. Distreseed at the loss of his children, Vasistha left his A:, rama, bent on committing suicide. He tied his'own hands and feet securely with a rope and jumped into the river to drown himself. This attempt, like several other attempts to commit suicide, failed and he did not die. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 177) . In the Mahabharata there •.'s a story which says that once Uttanka, a disciple of the sage Gautama went to beg the Kundalas (ear ornaments) worn by Kanmasapada's (Saudasa's) queen, for the sake of Gautama's wife. (For details, see under the word "Uttanka").


9) Brahmanf's curse on Kalrndsabdda. In the course of his wanderings through the forest as a Raksasa, Kalmasapada happened to come across a Brahmana youth engaged in amorous pleasures with his wife Arigirasi. The King caught hold of the youth and killed him. His wife, the Brahmani wept loudly and after cremating her husband's body in a funeral pyre, jumped into it and burnt herself to death. Just before her death she pronounced a curse on Kalmasapada that if he touched any woman in future he would die immediately.


After the death of the Brahmana couple, the sin of Brahmahatya (killing of Brahmana) continued to pursue Ka lmasapada in the form of a terrible monster. He fled for life from it and at last reached the presence of King Janaka. There, , he happened to see the sage Gautama who taught Kalmasapada Divyajnana (Divine wisdom). As advised by the sage, he went to the temple at Gokarna and spent some years in deep meditation. (Siva Purana, givaratri Mahatmya).


10) Sapamoksa. (Liberation from Curse). Towards the close of the twelve years which Mitrasha (Kalmasapada) spent as a Raksasa, Vasistha saw him. The sage sprinkled holy water on Mitrasha and at once the Raksasa (the spirit of the Raksasa)left his body and he resumed his original figure of the King. He accepted Vasistha as his preceptor. They went back together to Ayodhya.


Although Madayanti, queen of Mitrasaha was there;the King was not able to touch her owing to the Brahmani's curse. So he requested Vasistha to beget children by her. Accordingly Madayanti became pregnant by Vasistha. But she did not deliver the child even after twelve years. At last she hit the embryo in her womb with a stone and the child was born. Since he was born with the help of a stone (ASman), the child was named "A maka". (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter f 67) .


KALMASI. A river. It was while travelling by the side of this river, that King Drupada reached a Brahmana village where he happened to meet Upayaja. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 166). Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 78, Verse 16 says that it was on the bank of this river that the sage Bhrgu blessed Yudhisthira. (Modern scholars believe that Kanmasi. is the same as the present river Yamuna).


KALODAKA. A sacred place. The sin of causing abortion of those who bathe in the tirtha here will be washed away. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse


60 and Sand Parva, Chapter 152, Verse 12) .


KALPA I. A son of Dhruva. See under DHRUVA.


KALPA II. A period of one thousand Yugas or fourteen Manvantaras. See under MANVANTARA.


KALPA III. The customary proceedings of Y5.gas. These proceedings are made in the form of Sutras. The Sutras describe how the Brahmanas and mantras are to be used. For each Sarhhita there are separate Srauta Sutras. The Srauta Sutras ' for Rgveda Samhita are Asvalayana, $amkhayana and Saunaka. Those for Samaveda are Masaka, Latyayana and Drahyayana. Those for Krsna Yajurveda are Apastamba Bauddhayana, Satyasadha, Hiranyakeci, Manava, Bharadvaja, Vadhula, Vaikhanasa, Laugaksi, Maitra, Katha and Varaha. For Suklayajurveda it is Katyayana Srauta Sutra. For Atharvaveda it is Kaus ika Srauta Sfitra. All these Sutras contain only brief symbolic words and are difficult to understand without explanation.


KALPAKA. Siva's garden. It is situated in Kailasa. (Kathasaritsagara, Kathapithakalambaka, Part I) .


KALPAVRKSA. A tree in Devaloka. It has the power of giving any object that one wishes to get. There are five Kalpavrksas in Devaloka. Their names are : Mandara, Parijata, Santana, Kalpavrksa and Haricandana.


Agni Purana, third Chapter mentions that among the wonderful things obtained by the churning of the ocean of milk, there was Kalpavrksa also. So Kalpavrksa was born from the ocean of milk.


KALYA (KALI). Mother of Vyasa. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278).


KALYANA. A sage. Once certain Angirases including this sage observed sattra (sacrifice) for the attainment of Heaven. But nobody was sure about the Devayana path which leads to Heaven. So they selected Kalyana to find out the path. He went in search of the Devayana path and on the way he met LTrnayu, a Gandharva who was in the company of some apsara women. The gandharva disclosed the Sama which would enable Kalyana to find out the Devayana path. On his return, Kalyana told the other Rsis that he had received the Sama, but he refused to disclose from whom he obtained it. With the help of that Sama known as Aurnayuva, the _Afagirases attained Heaven, but because of his failure to disclose the whole truth, Kalyana was denied access to Heaven. Besides that

he became a victim to the disease of leprosy. (Pancavims a Brahmanam).


KALYANI. A female follower of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 6).


K AMA I. God of beauty in Indian mythology.


1) General. A Prajapati named Dharma was born from the right breast of Brahma. Dharma was very handsome. Three sons, Sama, Kama and Harsa who were exceedingly handsome, were. born to him. Of them, Karra became the god of beauty. His wife was Rati. Sama became the husband of Prapti. Harsa had Nanda for his wife. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verses 31-33) .


In Kalikd Purana we see another story about Kama's birth. Brahma created ten Prajapatis. After that, the woman Sandhya was created. At the very moment of her birth, Brahma and the Prajapatis were irresistibly fascinated by her charm and they sprang up from their seats. All their thoughts converged on the same object. At this time a handsome youth emerged from Brahma's mind with a floral bow in his hands. Immediately after his birth, he asked Brahma "Karii darpayami" (Whom should I make proud ?) Brahma replied-Let the minds of living beings be the aim of your arrows". He suggested Rati the daughter of Daksa, to be Kama's wife. Since he stirred the mind of Brahma, he got the name "MANMATHA", and since he was extremely attractive in appearance he came to be called "KAMA". (For further details, see under "RA TI."


2) How Kamadeua got the name "KA.NDARPA". As soon as Kama was born, he went to Brahma and asked him "Kariz darpayami ?" (Whom should I mak~: proud ?). Therefore he got the name "KANDARPA". (Kathasaritsagara) .


3) Brahma cursed Kdma. Once Brahma was meditating upon Para Brahman for the purpose of creation. He felt carnal thoughts rising in his mind. At once a girl was born from his mind. She appeared before him and did obeisance to him. This girl was Sarasvati. Brahma fell in love with her: He declared that she should stay in the tongues of all living beings, and .particularly at the tip of the tongues of all scholars. After that he made Sarasvati his wife. Soon he felt repentant for his weakness of mind. His anger blazed at Kama who was the cause of all this. He cursed that Kama would be burnt to ashes in the fire from Siva's third eye. After that Brahma gave his carnal desire to the great ,sage Atri who transferred it to his wife Anasuya. It hardened itself within her and took the form of Candra, who was thus born to her. (Brahman da Purana, Chapter


4) Y'ama was burnt up in fire. Long ago an Asura named Taraka, who was proud of his invincible might, was causing much havoc and terror in the whole world. Even the gods were afraid of him because hehad received a loon that diva's son alone was capable of killing him. It was the time when Parvati, the daughter of Himavan, was performing a penance praying that Paramesvara should become her husband. Taking advantage of this opportunity, Indra sent Kama to rouse the passion. of love in diva's mind. Kama reached diva's seat and tried to stir up his passions. Siva who was enraged at this, opened his third eye blazing with fire. Kama was.

burnt to ashes in that fire. The place where Kama's body (Anga) fell, came to be called "Angarajya". Since he lost his body, Kamadeva got another name "Ananga". (Valmiki Ramayana. Bala Kanda, Chapter 23) .


5) Kama's Next Birth. When Siva burnt up Kama, the latter's wife Rati prayed to Siva to restore her husband to life. Siva was pleased and said that Rati would be born in the world and Kama would take birth as her son." (Kathasaritsagara).


According to Siva's blessing Rati was born in the world under the name of Mayavati. She became the kitchenmaid of an Asura named Sambara. At that time Sri Krsna approached Siva with a request that he should be blessed with a son. Siva blessed him saying that Kama who was burnt up in the fire of his eye would be born as the son of Rukmini, Sri Krsna's wife. Accordingly, Rukmini, conceived and a handsome child was born to her.


Sambara, who employed Mayavati as his kitchen-maid had received a boon from Siva. A condition laid down in it was that Sambara would die not long after Kamadeva's birth in the world. So Sambara was making careful enquiries to ascertain whether Kama was born anywhere in the world. It was during this period that Sambara received the news that Kama had been reborn as Sri Krsna's son. At once he went secretly to Rukmini's house and stole the little baby and threw it into the sea. A sea-fish swallowed the child and a fisherman who caught it presented it to gambara. When Sambara cut it open, he saw a lovely baby inside the fish. He entrusted the child to Maydvati to be brought up.


At this stage, the sage Narada happened to come there and he explained to Mayavati in secret, that the baby was Kamadeva and she was Rati. From that time, =she brought up the child with great affection and tenderness. As years passed and Kama grew up into a youth, Mayavati began to make amorous advances towards him. Looking upon her with regard due to a mother, Kama was displeased with these advances. Then she told him what Narada had disclosed to her about,their relations in the past life. She advised him to kill gambara and to leave the place for Dvaraka as soon as possible.


As advised by her, Kama killed gambara and both he and Mayavati went to Dvaraka in a Vimana and paid their respects to their parents there. In the presence of a large number of sages, Kama was christened "Pradyumna". Aniruddha, the husband of Usa, was the son of Pradyumna. Besides Aniruddha, Pradyumna had a daughter Trsa.l


6) Other names of Kama. The following names have been used for Kama in the Puranas:-Madana, Manmatha, Mara, Pradyumna, Minaketana, Kandarpa, Darpaka, Anaftga, Kama, Pancasara, Sambarari, Manasija, Kusumesu, Ananyaja, Puspadhanva, Ratipati, Makaradhvaja, Atmabhu, Iraja, Isma, Kinkira, Abhirupa, Grdhukalakeli, Karijana, Ramana, Dipaka, Madhudipa, Samantaka, Muhira, Rupastra, Vama, Puspaketana. Makaraketu, Ratinayaka, Ragavrnta, Samsaraguru, Gadayitnu, Mapatya, Mayi.


7) Kama's weapons. Kama has a bow made of sugari. From Kathasarits5gara we find that Udayana and Vasavadatta


cane, its string is made up of beetles, and the tips of his arrows are flowers. His vehicle is the parrot and the sign on his banner is fish. The five flowers of his arrows are:-Aravinda, A;oka, Cuta, Navamalika, Nilotpala. Besides these, he has five more arrows which areUnmadana, Tapana, Sosana, Stambhana and Sammohana. (Amara Kosa).


KAMA II. An Agni who was the son of Svahadevi. Mahabharata, Vana Parva. Chapter 219, Verse 23 says that this aghi was of inimitable beauty.


KAMA III. Another name for Paramesvara. (M.B. Anusdsana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 42) .


KAMA IV. Another name for Mahavisnu. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 45).


KAMA V. A great sage. There is a reference to this sage in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 41.


KAMA. Daughter of Prthusravas. She was the wife of Ayutanayi, a king of the Puru dynasty and mother of Akrodhana. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 177) .


KAMATHA (KAMATHAKA). A serpent born in Dhrtarastra's family. This serpent was burnt up in Janamejaya's sarpasattra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 16) .


KAMACARI. A woman follower of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 23).


KAMADA. Another woman follower of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 27) .


KAMADEVA. See under Kama.




1) General. She is the first mother of cattle. She is a goddess with marvellous powers and attainments who gives milk ~Ahenever needed by gods and sages. The Puranas declare that all the cattle in the world today are descended from Kamadhenu.


2) Three different names. This sacred cow is sometimes called "Kamadhenu", at other times, "Surabhi" and also "Nandini". They are not three different cows, as some people suppose. See Bhasa Bharata, Aranya Parva Chapter 9, Verses 7 and 17. There Sur abhi and Kamadhenu are names used for referring to the same cow. Again, in the Bhasa Bharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 14, we find thr; name Nandini applied to Kamadhenu. Thus we may conclude that Kamadhenu had two other names, viz. Surabhi and Nandini. But since the term "Surab'hirgavi" occurs in Amarakosa, itfollows that even ordinary cows may be called "Surabhi"-


3) Birth and family. In the Puranas Surabhi is described variously as Daksa's daughter, Kasyapa's wife, Kasyap.a's daughter, etc. Although at first sight there may appear some discrepancy in these statements, in the light of them we may clearly arrive at the ancestry and birth of Surabhi. Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, 14th Sarga says that Kasyapa, the son of Marici and the grandson of Brahma married Daksa Prajapati's daughters -Aditi, Diti, Dann, Kalika, Tamra, Krodhava9a, Mann and Anala. FrQm verses 20 and 21 in the same Sarga we understand that Surabhi was the daughter of Krodhavasa, Daksa's daughter, by Kasyapa. In the same Sarga we find that two daughters, Rohini and Gandharvi were born to this Surabhi and from kohini were born all the cows in the world that we sce today were the rebirths of Karna and Rati.

It was by her own father Kasyapa himself that Surabhi's off -springs were born. Therefore, the reference to Surabhi as the wife of Ka'syapa may also be justified.°' Since Krodhavasd, the daughter of Daksa was the mother of Surabhi, actually Surabhi was the grand-daughter of Daksa, But in a broad sense, a grand-daughter may be considered as a daughter. So the reference to Surabhi in Bhasa Bharata, Anuaasana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 28 as baksa's daughter is correct in that sense.


4) HowKdmadhenuReceived Divine Powers. Long ago Aditi, wife of Kasyapa, conceived Mahavisnu in her womb and began an austere penance standing on one leg. At that time Surabhi went to Kailasa and offered worship to Brahma for ten thousand years. The gods who were pleased, . came to Surabhi taking Brahma with them. Brahma said to her:-`Surabhi I .have made you a goddess. You are now above the three worlds-Heaven Earth and Hell. Your world, "Goloka" will become famous. All people will worship you and the cows who are your off spring."


From that day on which Brahma blessed her, Surabhi became a goddess with marvellous spiritual powers. (M.B. AnuZsana Parva, Chapter 83 ).


5) More than one Kdmadhenu? There are references to several Kamadhenus in the Puranas. There is one Kamadhenu in Vasistha's Asrama. At Varuna's yaga we see another Kamadhenu. There is no ground for believing that there is only one Kdmadhenu and that it was borrowed by each Deva in turn for some particular occasion. It is possible that there were many Kamadhenus in the family of Kamadhenn and they were owned by different Devas. Moreover it is stated that several Kamadhenus take their origin from sources other than the family of Kasyapa. One of them is from the ocean of milk. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 18, we find that when the Devas and Asuras churned the ocean of milk, along with many other precious things, Kdmadhenu also came up to the surface.


There is a reference to another Kdmadhenu in Bhasa Bharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, There, it is said, Brahma who,got Amrta swallowed it beyond limit in his avidity and when he vomited, a Kdmadhenu came out from his mouth. That Kdmadhenu is said to be living in the world known as Rasatala. The abovementioned passage also says that there are four other Kamadhenus living on the four sides of the Kdmadhenu which lives in Rasatala. They are Saurabhi in the east Hamsika in the south, Subhadra in the west and Dhenu in the north.


The next Kamadhenu is the one which was born from the side of Sri Krsna. Once Sri Krsna and his consort Radha were amusing themselves by amorous pleasures in a remote and secluded place. When they were tired they wished to drink some milk. At that time, Sri Krsna created by his will power, the cow Surabhi and the calf Manoratha, from the left side of his body. Sridaman milked that cow into a new earthen pot and when Sri Krsna was drinking it, the pot fell down and the milk was spilt all over the floor. The milk which spread over an area of 100 yojanas, became a, lake called "Kirasagara" for Radha and her maids to bathe and enjoy" water-sports. Numerous cows were born from the pores of Surabhi and they were presented to the 2. In Visp.i Puran a; Part 1, Chapter 15, Surabhi is described as Kasyapa's wife.


Gopas by Sri Krsna. (Devi $hagavata, 9th Skandha). Like this, several Kamadhenus are seen in the Puranas. Therefore there is no discrepancy or contradiction in statements declaring that there were many Kamadhenus in different Asramas. But since Kdmadhenu had achieved divine powers by Brahma's grace, it is but reasonable to believe that the different Kamadhenus are really the different forms of the original Kamadhenn, the daughter of


6) Theft of Kdmadhenu by Satyavrata (Tri.sanku). Satyavrata (Tri~axiku) was the son of Aruna, a King of the Iksvaku dynasty. He was a vicious and immoral fellow. Once he abducted a Brahmana girl just at the time of her marriage in her bridal dress. Enraged at this his father drove him away from his palace. Satyavrata wandered about aimlessly in the country and in the forests.


Soon after this there was a famine in the land. Human beings and animals began to die of starvation. At that time Visvamitra was performing penance in the forest after leaving behind his wife and children in the country. When he saw that the whole family was in danger of death by starvation, he decided to make some money by se1ling one of the sons, in order to save the lives of the rest of the family. Satyavrata who came to know of this, met Visvamitra and dissuaded him from selling his son. He promised to supply some flesh every day to the family by hunting animals in the forest and keeping the flesh suspended from the branch of a near-by tree. Accordingly, he began leaving the flesh regularly hanging from the branch of the tree. One day he could not get any flesh by hunting. That night he went to Vasistha's asrama and stole Kamadhenu. He killed the cow and ate some of its flesh. The rest he gave to Visvamitra's family.


The next morning when Vasistha woke up, he did not see his cow. But he came to know of the whole affair by his intuition. In his fury he cursed Satyavrata and said that the world would brand him with the name "Trig aixku" because he had committed three heinous sins viz. killing of cows, abducting another man's wife and incurring his father's displeasure. After that Vasistha restored Kdmadhenu to life. (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha). 7) hisvdmitra attacked lfdmadhenu. Once while Visvamitra was a ruling King, he went into a forest to hunt. In the course of his rambles through the forest, he happened to arrive at Vasistha's Asrama with his retinue. Vasisilxa called Kamadhenu and ordered her to provide food for Visvamitra and his party. Kamadhenu, by her divine powers, prepared food within a short time and gave them a sumptuous meal; ViSvdmitra was greatly pleased with this amazing feat of Kdmadhenu and he asked Vasistha to give her to him. He even offered to give crores of cows in return for her. But Vasislha refused to comply with his request. Then Visvamitra tried to seize and take her away by force.


At once Kdmadhenu assumed the form of a terrible monster of destruction. From the different parts of her body emerged fierce warriors who clashed with Visvamitra's followers. All the arrows shot by Visvamitra were caught by Vasistha with his hand. In the end Visvamitra admitted that the might of a Brahmana is superior to the might of a Ksatriya. (Vasistha- was a Brahmana and Visvamitra a Ksatriya). Vi.svamitra, soon gave up his kingly duties and began penance, thus turning himself into a °`Rajarsi" (Royal saint). (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kan da, 52nd Sarga ; M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 40 ; M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 175).


8) Kdmadhenu was attacked by the. Asta Fasus. (See under the word "Astavasus", Para 2).


9) Kdrraadhenu cried. (See under the word "Indra", Para 16) .


10) Kamadhenu revived King Baka. (See under the word "Gautama").


11) Other details.


(i) Kamadhenu gave birth to Ajasa, Ekapat, Ahirbudhnya, Tvasta and Rudra. Visvarupa was the son of Tvastd. (Agni Purdna, Chapter 18).


(ii) 'kdmadhenu said that she had no part in the theft ofAgastya's lotus. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 94).


(iii) Sri Krsna turned Govardhana mountain into an umbrella and defeated Indra when Kamadhenu came to Gokula and bathed Sri Krsna with her milk according to Bhagavata, 10th Skandha.


(iv) Once the sage jamadagni went to Goloka and propitiated Kamadhenu by his tapas. Kamadhenu gave her sister Su~ila to jamadagni. The sage presented that cow to his, wife Renuka. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 61).


KAMALA I. Mother of Prahlada. (Padma Purana).


KAMALA II. A follower of Skandadeva. (Sloka 9, Chapter 46, Salya Parva, M.B.).


KAMALAKSA I. A great warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas. Duryodhana sent this warrior along with Sakuni to attack Arjuna. (Chapter 156, Drona Parva. M.B.).


KAMALAKSA 11. A son of Tarakasura. He was one -of the famous trio of demons. For details see under 'Tripura'.


KAMALAKS I. A follower of Skandadeva. (Chapter 46, Sal~' a Parva).


KAMALAVRATA. See under "Jayasarman".


KAMANDAKA. A great sage of ancient times (Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 123) states that this sage once taught Rajadharma (kingly duties) to King An' girasa.


KAMAPALA. A Yadava dependant of SriKrsna. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).


KAMATHA I. A King of a country called Kamboja. This King, was a prominent member of. the court of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 22, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


KAMATHA II. A great sage. He became a realised soul by his penance: (`Chapter 296, Santi Parva, M.B.).


KAMATIRTHA. A sacred place. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 105 says that a man who takes his bath in this holy tirtha will have all his wishes fulfilled.


KAMBALA. A prominent serpent of the family of Kasyapa. (Chapter 35, Adi Parva, M.B. ). The Prayaga tirtha was the abode of this serpent.


KAMBALA. A part of Kusadvipa. (Island of Kusa). (Chapter 12, Bhisma Parva, M.B.)


KAMBAR. A celebrated Tamil poet. He was born in a poor family. At the orders of the King many poets wrote the story of Ramayana in Tamil. But Kambar's work was accepted as the best. This is the renowned Kamba Ramayana. Kambar has written many other poems of


which the important ones are Sarasvati Antadi and Kafici Purana. It is said that unintelligent children of Tamil nadu are even now given sand from the burial ground of Kambar to induce intelligence into them. The (-r) suffix in Kambar is plural denoting respect. (See under `Bhadrakali'). _


KAMBOJA I. Sudaksina, the King of the country, Kamboja. He was present at Draupadi's svayamvara. In Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 156 we read that his younger brother was killed by Arjuna. The Kings of Kamboja were all known as Kambojas. Long ago, this country was ruled by a King named Kamboja. In Mahabharata, 9anti Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 77, we see that this Kamboja was given a sword by the King Dhundhumara. Perhaps it was from this King Kamboja that the country came to be called `Kamboja'.


KAMBOJA II. This kingdom was situated in the north western part of India. It is the modern Kabul. We get the following information from Mahabharata.


(1) From Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 23, we see that Arjuna had subdued this Kingdom.


(2) The horses which were tied to Yudhisthira's chariot were brought from Kamboja. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 5) .


(3) The Mlecchas (a tribe of low-class people) of Kamboja will become Kings in Kaliyuga. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 36).


(4) There were Kambojas in Duryodhana's army. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 130) .


(5) At the time of Mahabharata the King of Kamboja was the brave and heroic Sudaksina. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 166, Verses 1-3) .


(6) In the battle between Kauravas and Pandavas, the Kambojas took their position in some places in the "Garuda Vyuha", a phalanx in the shape of an eagle made by Bhisma. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 7).


(7) The horses of Kamboja were beautiful in appearance and of the colour of parrots. The horses which were tied to Nakula's chariot, were of this kind. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 7) .


(8) When the horses of Kamboja ran, their tails and ears remained motionless. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 36) .


KAMBUGRIVA. Son of Sudhanva, King of the country of Madra. Candrasena, King of Simhala, tried to get his daughter Mandodari married to this King. But Mandodari did not consent to it. (5th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata.)


KAMODA. A goddess who came out of the churning of the ocean of milk. (For further details see under `Vihunda' ).


KAMPA,. A prince of Vrsnivamsa. He became a Vi9vadeva after his death. (Chapter 5, Svargarohana Parva M.B.).


KAMPANA 1. A mighty King. He was a prominent member of the court of Yudhisthira. (Chapter 4, Sabha Parva, M.B.).


KAMPANA II. A demon. (See under Nahusa).


KAMPANA. A river. If one bathes in this river one will get the benefit of doing a Pundarika yajna. (Chapter 84, Vana Parva, M.B.).


KAMPILYA. An ancient town in South Paficala. It was the capital city of King Drupada. gikhandi had come

to this city after his marriage. Once the King Dasarna came near this place and sent a Brahmana messenger to Kampilya. In olden days, a King named Brahmadatta used to rule over this city. (M.B. Udyoga Parva) . See under the word `Brahmadatta'.


KAMSA I. Son of Ugrasena, King of Mathura, and an incarnation of an Asuta called Kalanemi.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Vi snu : BrahmaAtri - Candra - Budha-Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa-YayatiYadu-Sahasrajit-Satajit-Hehaya-Dharma-Kunti (Kuni)$hadrasena-Dhanaka-Krtavira-Kar taviryarj una-MadhuVrsni - Yudhajit - Sini-Satyaka-Satyaki (Yuyudhana)Yaya-Kuni-Anannitra-Pr3~ni-Citraratha -Kukura-VahniViloma-Kapotaroman (Kapotaloman)-Turnburu - Dundubhi-Daridra-Vasu-Nahuka-A.huka-Ugrasena-Kansa.


2) Karhsa, an incarnation of Kilanemi. In the svayambhuvamanvantara Marici had a wife named Lrna and they had six mighty and powerful sons. One day they ridiculed Brahma saying `A father who has married his own daughter' (Brahma married Sarasvati, his own daughter). Brahma became angry and cursed them to be born as demons on earth. All the six sons were, therefore, born as sons of a demon called Kalanemi on earth. In their next birth they were born as sons of Hiranyakasipu. They led a pious life and pleased at this Brahma asked them what boon they wanted and they demanded that they should not be killed by anybody. Their father, Hiranyakasipu, did not like his sons getting a boon behind his back and so he cursed his sons "May you all six go to Patala (nether-world) and sleep there for a long time under the name of SadarbhakaS. The sons begged for relief and Hiranya-. kasipu said that they would after sleeping for a long time be born to - Devaki, wife of Vasudeva, as their children and that Kalanemi, their father in their previous birth would then be born as Karhsa and kil1 the children of Devaki by striking their heads on the ground.


Accordingly Kalanemi was born as Karirsa and he killed the six children of Devaki by striking them on the ground. (Skandha 4, Devi Bhagavata) .


The 10th Skandha of Bhagavata states "killing Kalanemi born as Kafsa" when it refers to the killing of Karhsa.


3) Another story regarding the birth of Karhsa. Karhsa was not actually the son of Ugrasena. It was Narada who revealed to Karhsa the story of his birth. It is as follows.


Once when the wife of Ugrasena was in her menses she went to the garden with her companions. Then a Gandharva named Dramila disguised as Ugrasena went to her but she knew the trick and cursed him that he would go to hell. But Dramila committed rape on her and then left the place making her pregnant. When the child was born Ugrasena's wife greatly hated the child got of an evil deed and cursed it saying that the child would be killed by a member of the family of Ugrasena. Thus Karirsa was the son born to the wife of Ugrasena by the Gandharva Dramila. It was because Karhsa was aware of it that he behaved very. badly to Ugrasena and Krsna. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


4) How Kamsa got Mathurdpuri. In olden times there was a famous place called Madhuvana in the river-base of Kalindi. The place got the name of Madhuvana because the demon Madhu was residing there.


Madhu had a son named Lavana. Lavana was a very wicked demon always ill-treating the devas. Satrughna, son of Dag aratha, killed him and lived there establishing a beautiful kingdom there. He named that place Mathura. After the death of b`atrughna two of his sons ruled that country. Then when the Surya dynasty be'carne extinct the city of Mathura came into the possession of the Yadu dynasty. It was ruled then by a very brave and valiant ruler named Surasena. Vasudeva father of Sri Krsna was the son of Surasena. After the death of SUrasena another King of the Yadava dynasty, Ugrasena, became the ruler of the place, Vasudeva accepting cow-rearing as his profession. Karhsa became King keeping Ugrasena as a prisoner. (Skandha 4, Devi Bhagavata). .


5) h sudeva and Devaki are imprisoned. Vasudeva married Devaki daughter of Ugrasena and sister. of Karirsa. Karirsa pleased with his sister presented her with a chariot. Karhsa, Vasudeva and Devaki ascended the chariot and Karhsa himself drove the chariot. Then from an unknown source above came a voice which said "Oh King, know thou this and from this moment chalk out thy plans for the future. The eighth son of your sister will kill you for certain. You will be no match against him." (Chapter 1. Bhagavata 10th Skandha).


Hearing this voice from heaven Karhsa got furious and dragging his sister by the hair raised his sword to kill her. Vasudeva then pleaded weeping not to kill Devaki. Only the eighth child of Devaki was going to kill him. Vasudeva would hand over all the children to him as soon as they were born. Such arguments pacified Kariasa and he left off Devaki without hurting her.


Devaki delivered a son.,He grew up, under the name of Kirtiman and one day Narada visited Karirsa and told him that he was the incarnation of an Asura named Kalanemi and the son who would be born to Devaki to kill him was Naraya-kia. Kamsa, blind with fury, killed kirtiman by striking him on the earth and imprisoned both Devaki and Vasudeva.


6) Man-hunt of Karnsa. Pralamba, Canura, Trnavarta, Mustika, Ar.istaka. Kesi, Dhenuka, Agha, Vivida and Putana were born in the Asura family as servants of Kaxhsa. He sent them to different sides of the country to torment the Yadavas. Many Yadavas left the place. Even-Karhsa's father Ugrasena, a great devotee of Visnu was teased.


In the meantime Devaki delivered six sons including Kirtiman and all of them were killed by Karhsa by smashing their heads against the ground below. The seventh foetus of Devaki was aborted. (Instructed by Mahavisnu, Mayadevi invoked the seventh foetus of Devaki and transferred it to the womb of Rohini another wife of Vasudeva. The child thus born to Rohini was Sankarsana or Balabhadrarama. Mahavisnu then entered the womb of Devaki instructing Mayadevi to enter that of Yasoda, wife of Nandagopa of Ambadi at the same time. Sri Krsna was then born in the figure of Visnu. The watchmen were sleeping. Following directions from the new-born child Vasudeva took the child to Gokula and leaving the child there brought back the child of Yasoda and p'aced it near Devaki. When the watchmen awoke and knew about the delivery of Devaki they immediately ran to Karhsa to tell him. Boiling with rage Karnsa rushed to the side of Devaki and taking the child by the legs raised it for smashing it against the ground. The child to the frightened dis may of Karhsa slipped from his hand and rising up in the air said "Hi, ill-mannered wicked Karhsa, do not waste your valour on women. Your killer has already been born on earth. Do search for him quickly."


Kariisa went pale with fright on hearing this and went away to his palace.


7) Conspiracy of Karhsa. The thought that his killer was born somewhere made him restless. He let off Vasudeva and Devaki finding them innocent. Then he sat sadly pondering over the future. The courtiers then advised him to kill all the children who had been born within the past ten days and that would include the killer also. Kariisa accordingly sent to different parts of the country his secret agents to kill all children, ten days old.


During this campaign Putana, 8akata, Trnavarta, Aristaka and Keg! tried to kill Sri Krsna, also but Krsna killed them all easily. For details see under each head separately. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


8) Karhsa is slain. Aristaka was one of the prominent Asuras sent to kill Krsna. He attacked Krsna in the form of an ox. Sri Krsna killed it without any difficulty. Narada who saw this incident informed Karizsa about it adding that Krsna and Balaranra were the sons of Vasudeva only and the child who slipped out of his hands was the child of Yasoda. Karirsa got furious and he again imprisoned Vasudeva and Devaki and brought to Mathura Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama and started thinking of ways and means to kill them. Karhsa arranged to conduct a grand celebration of Ayudha.puja (worship of the weapons) and invited Krsna -and Balarama for the same among many other gopas from Ambadi. He sent his chariot with Akrura to fetch Krsna and Balarama from Ambadi. Akrura privately informed Krsna of the bad intentions of Karirsa. Nandagopa and many others from Ambadi started for Mathura. When Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama started their journey in the chariot the gopas and gopikas assembled there cried loudly. Some blamed Akrura.


Krsna and Balarama reached Mathura. There they slew a huge wild elephant and the five Asuras, Canura, Mustika, Kuta, Sala and Kosala whom Kariisa hail kept rea.dv to kill Krsna and Rama. Sitting on a platform watching this, Karirsa became frightened and restless and roared with rage thus "The sons of Nandagopa should be instantly sent away from this palace. All their wealth and all that of the gopas should be confiscated. Bind with ropes the rogue Nandagopa, and kill the wicked Vasudeva. Throw my father, Ugrasena, into the river Kalindi bound hand and foot. Even a father should be killed if he was a relative of one's enemy."


Sri Krsna and Balarama boiled with rage when they heard the orders of Karnsa and Krsna, jumping on to the platform pushed Karirsa down and jumping down along with him killed him. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata). 9) Other details.


(i) Karirsa had married the two daughters of Jarasandha named Asti and Prapti. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


(ii) Karhsa was a fierce bow-man. All the kings hated him. Karhsa kept under him a crore of fighting men. He had eight lakhs of charioteers and an equal number of elephants. His-army contained thirtytwo lakhs of horses. (Daksinatyapatha; M.B., Sabha Parva, Chapter 38).


KAIVISA II. Mahabharata mentions another Kariisa who was also killed by Krsna. But he was not the son of Ugrasena. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Daksinatyapatha,. Page 825).


KAMYA. A celestial woman. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 122, it is said that she took part in the celebrations at the birth of Arjuna.


KANIYAKAVANA. The Pandavas lived in this forest for a long time, during their forest- life. At that time, several sages were performing penance in Kamyakavana. Vidura who went out in search of the Pandavas met them in this forest. After that Sanjaya went to Kamyakavana and took Vidura with him. It was in this forest that the Pandavas met sages Mdrkandeya and Narada. (M.B. Vans Parva).


KAN. Daksa. (See under DAKSA).


KANABHUTI. A devil. His name in the previous life was "Supratika". Once he made friends with the devil Sthulasiras. Kuberawho became angry at this, cursed Supratika- and turned him into a devil. Supratika settled down in the Vindhya mountain, assuming the new name "Kanabhuti". After narrating Brhatkatha to Gunadhya, Kanabhuti assumed his former form. (For further details, see under the word GUl:ADHYA).


KANADA. A famous sage of ancient India. He was the founder of the Vaisesika system. The word means one who eats Kana (atom). His foes gave him this name to ridicule him. He is also called Kanabhaksaka. Kanada is known as Pippalada also. (He got that name because he used to eat Pippali (long pepper) in large quantities). (See under PIPPALADA).


KANAKA. A big forest on the southern base of Mahameru. Anjanadevi gave birth to Hanuman in this forest. (Uttara Ramayana).


KANAKADHVAJA. (KANAKAI~LGADA). A son of King Dhrtarastra. He was slain by Bhimasena). (S`loka 27, Chapter 96, Bhisma Parva).


KANAKAKSA. A soldier of Skandadeva. (Sloka 74, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).




KANAKAREKHA. Daughter of the King of the island of Kanakapuri. By a curse she was born as the daughter of Paropakari, King of the city of Vardhamana. A brahmin named Saktideva married her. (Caturdarikalambaka, Kathasaritsagara, Tarafrga 1) .


KANAKAVARSA. A King who ruled the country of Kanakapuri on the banks of the river Gangs. (Kathasaritsagara) .


KANAKAVATI. A follower of Skandadeva. (Chapter 618) Salya Parva).


KANAKAYUS. A son of Dhrtarastra. He had another name, Karakayus. This prince was present at the svayarhvara of Draupadi. (91oka 185, Chapter 67, Adi Parva).


KANAKHALA I. The place where the Daksayaga was conducted. (Chapter 4, Vamana Purana).


KANAKHALA II. A holy place on the shores of the river Gahga. If one bathes in this river one gets the benefit of performing an Asvamedha sacrifice. (8loka 30, Chapter 84, Vana Parva). Kalidasa speaks about this place in his famous work `Meghaduta'. At the behest of Vasistha, Taksaka, son of Laksmana, conquered the foresters of Kanakhala and then established a city there called Agati. (Uttara Ramayana).


KANCANA I. One of the two warriors given to Skandadeva by Mahaxneru. The other warrior was named Meghamall. (M.B. galya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 47).


KANCANA II. A King of the Puru dynasty. See under the word PURUVAMSA.


KANCANAKSA. A warrior of Skandadeva. (M.B. ~alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 57) .


KANCANAKSI. A river which flows through Naimisaranya. This is a part of the river Sarasvati. (M.B. Salya Parva. Chapter 38, Verse 19) .


KANCANAMALA. A lady attendant of Vasavadatta, wife of Udayana.


KANCI (KANCIPURA). This was the capital cityof the Cola Kings. This city was also called "Kancivaram". It is mentioned among the holy cities. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 161, Verse 21) .


KANDARA. A follower of Skandadeva. (Chapter 46,

Salya Parva).


KANDARPA. Another name for Kamadeva. Kamadeva was born of the mind of Brahma and as soon as he was born he turned to Brahma and asked "Karh darpayami ?" (Whom should I make proud ?) So Brahma gave him the name Karhdarpa alias Kandarpa. (Lavanakalambaka, Kathasaritsagara, Tarariga 6).


KANDU. A great sage of ancient Bharata. He was the father of Marisa (Varksi) wife of the Pracetas.


1) Birth of Marisa. Marisa, daughter of Kandu, took her birth from a tree. There is an interesting story about this in Visnu Purana.


Sage Kandu, chief of the devajnas, was performing penance in a hermitage on the banks of the river Gomad. Devendra sent Pramloca, an enchanting nymph, to Kandu to distract him from his penance.


Pramloca by her sweet words and enticing manners won the heart of the sage and Kandu accepting her as his wife went to the valley of Mandara and lived there happily for a hundred years.


One day Pramloca went and bowed before her husband and sought his permission to go back to Devaloka. "Dear, stay here for some time more" replied the sage.


Another hundred years went by. Again one day she went and sought permission to go home. Again the sage asked her to stay for a while more. Centuries passed without the sage losing even a little of his amour. On the other hand every day it found different channels of expression. One evening the sage stepped


out of his Asrama and on seeing that Pramloca enquired where he was going.


Sage : The sun is going to set. I am going to do my sandhyavandana. I do not want to bring a break in my daily ablutions and duties.


Pramloca : Oh, Righteous one, did the sun set for you only today ? The Sunset of hundreds of years has gone by without your knowing.


Sage : Dear, you came to this holy river-shore only this morning. It was only this morning that I saw you coming to my Asrama for the first time. Now the day is over and dusk is coming. Why this do tell me the truth.


Pramloca : That I came to you one quite true. But since that several elapsed.


Sage : How many years have gone by enjoying with you ?


Pramloca. : Nine hundred years, six months and three days have passed since I came to you.


The great sage became very angry and scolded Pramloca much. That beautiful maiden heard it all standing bathed in perspiration. The sage in rage commanded the trembling nymph to go away from his presence. P,ramloca, thus reprimanded and sent away, rose up in the air and travelled by it. As she flew, the perspiration of her body was absorbed by the tender leaves of trees on the way. She was pregnant at that time and the embryo which went forth along with her perspiration was absorbed in bits by the tender leaves and sprouts. Wind gathered them from the different trees and made everything into one. Moonlight gave it development and gave it the form of a woman. She was named Marisa. That was how Marisa was born of trees (Chapter 15, Arizsa 1. Visnu Purana). 2) Curse of K4ndu. Kandu's dear son aged sixteen died in a forest. Grief-stricken, the sage cursed that forest and made it a desert. There was no water there and all the trees became dried and dead. Hanuman and party who went in search of Sita came to this place. (Chapter 48, Kiskindha Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


3) Kandu in the presence of Sri Rama. When S`ri Rama returned to Ayodhya after his exile many sages from all the four different parts came to visit him. Those who came from the south were Kandu, Dattatreya Namuci, Pramuci, Valmiki, Soma and Agastya. (Uttara Ramayana).




1) General information. One of the ministers of Dhrtarastra. He was a brahmin well-learned in Kutaniti (Diplomacy). Tlie bad advice he gave to Dhrtarastra became well-known as "Kanika's Kutaniti".


2) Kanika's li utaniti. Once Dhrtarastra asked Kanika how to conquer one's enemies by using the four methods of Sama, Dana, Bheda and Danda. Kanika replied : "Threaten the timid ones. Give respect to the brave and kill them by trickery. Give gifts to the greedy ones. If any one becomes your enemy kill him even if it be your father, preceptor, son, brother or friend. Never speak insulting words about others even when you are extremely angry. Never believe the faithful and unfaithful alike."


3) Kanika's story. Kanika justified his policy by means of the story of a fox who put into practice the four tricks to gain his end.


Once there was a very selfish fox in a forest. He felt a desire to eat the flesh. of a lion. For that end he made friends with a tiger, a rat and a mongoose. The fox advised the rat to gnaw the paws of the lion and make it lame. The tiger should then kill the lion. The lion was killed and the fox suggested that they could have 4 hearty meal of the lion after a bath. Everybody ridicule ? Please fine morning is centuries have since I started excepting the fox went for his bath and the fox stood watch over the carcass of the lion. First came the tiger after his bath. The fox looked worried and the tiger asked him the reason why. The fox said "Comrade, the rat says with arrogance that he it was that killed the lion. My pride does not allow me to eat what the rat claims to be his kill." Hearing this the proud tiger left the place saying "Let me see whether I can kill my prey without the help of anybody."


Sometime later the rat came after its bath. The sly fox said "My friend, the mongoose says that the flesh of a lion is poison. It says "Let the rat eat it and die." Hearing this the rat went its way.


Then came the mongoose. The fox threatened it and it went away. The fox then ate the flesh of the lion by himself and was contented.


Kanika then said that the Kings should use such tricks against their enemies. (Chapter 139, Adi Parva).


KANIKA II. There is a statement in Mahabharata about another brahmin of the Bharadvaja family who was also well-versed in Kdtaniti. He was an adviser to gatrunjaya, King of Sauvira. (Chapter 140, 9anti Parva).


KANINA. Achild born to an unmarried woman. Vyasa, Karna, gibi, Astaka, Pratardana, and Vasuman were Kdninas.


KANJALA. See under Dharmasarmd.


KANKA I. One of the seven famous archers of the Vrsni dynasty. The seven are : Krtavarma, Anddhrsti, Samika, Samitinjaya, Kanka, ~anku and Kunti. (Chapter 14, Sabha Parva).


KASIKA II. A King of ancient India. (9loka 233, Chapter 1, Adi Parva).


KANKA III. A bird, son of Surasa. (9loka 69, Chapter 66, Adi Parva).


KANKA IV. The name-which Dharmaputra bore when he spent his life incognito at the palace of the. King of Virata. (See under Dharmaputra).


KANKA V. A place of habitation of ancient India. This place was given to Dharmaputra as a gift by the inhabitants of the place. (Chapter 51, Sabhd Parva).


KANKANA. A follower of Skandadeva. (9loka 16, Chapter 46, galya Parva).


KANTAKINI. A follower of Skandadeva. (91oka 16, Chapter 46, S`alya Parva).


KANTARAKA. A city in South India. There is a reference in Mahabharata, Sabhd Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 16, about the conquest of this place by Sahadeva. Modern scholars are of the opinion that Kantdraka is situated on the banks of the river Vend.


KANTARIKA. An ancient sage. He was a worker of his gotra. It was in this family that the pre-eminent Brahmadatta was born. (Chapter 342, 9anti Parva).


KANTI. A city in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 40) .


KANTIVRATA. A Vrata observed in the month of Karttika. It consists in offering worship to Balarama and $ri Krsna and taking food only at night. By observing this Vrata for one year, beauty, longevity and health can be obtained. (Agni Purana, Chapter 177).




1) General information. Kanva attained Purdnic fame as the father who brought up Sakuntala. From Rgveda


it can be gathered that the Kanva family was very prominent among the Rsi families of ancient India. Because he was born in the family of sage Kasyapa, son of Brahma, Kanva was known as Ka,yapa also. Kanva's father was Medhatithi as could be seen by a reference to him in Sloka 27, Chapter 208 of Sand Parva as Medhatithisuta. Kanva was staying in a hermitage on the banks of the river Malin!, with a number of disciples.


2) KanvVrama. Vana .Parva of Mahabharata states that kanvasrama was on the northern shore of the river Praveni. According to certain critics Kanvasrama was situated on the banks of the river Cambal, four miles to the south of 'Kota' in Rajputdna.


3) How Kanva got Sakuntala. Once Visvamitra started a severe penance and Indra desiring to obstruct the attempt sent the enchanting Menaka to entice him. They fell in lave with each other and soon Menaka bore a girl. The parents left the child in the forest and went their way. Birds (Sakuntas) looked after her for some time and so she was named 8akuntala. Accidentally Kanva came that way and took the child to his ASrama.


4) The raga of Bfiarata. Bharata, son of Dusyanta, performed a peculiar type of Yaga called `Govitata' with Kanva as the chief preceptor to officiate. (Sloka 130, Chapter 74, Adi Parva).


5. Yanva and Duryodhana. Once Kanva narrated to Duryodhana how Matali and his wife Sudharma went to him in search of a suitable husband to their daughter Gunakesi. (Chapter 97, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).


6) Kanva, a sage of the east. When gri Rama returned to Ayodhya after his exile many sages from many different parts came to visit him. Kanva was one of those who came from the east. The others who came along with him were, Vasistha, Atri, Visvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja, Sanaka,. Sarabhanga Durvasas, Matanga, Vibhandaka and Tumburu.


7) Kanva and Fgveda.


(i) Titre are ten Mandalas in Rgveda. The Mandalas from two to seven are written by different Rsi families. The second Mandala was written by the Bhdrgava family of rsis, the third by the Visvamitra family, the fourth by that of Vamadeva, the fifth by Atri, the sixth by that of Bharadvaja and the seventh by the family of Vasistha. Fifty Suktas of the first Mandala and the whole of the eighth Mandala were written by Kanva.


(ii) Kanva had a son named Medhatithi. Sukta twelve of Anuvaka four in the first Mandala of Rgveda is written making Medhatithi a sage.


(iii) Kanva had a daughter named Indivaraprabha by Menaka. (Kathasaritsagara). (See under Candravaloka and Kasyapa 1) .


KANVA II. A King of PuruVamsa. (Puru dynasty). He was the son of the brother of Santurodha, father of Dusyanta. His father was Pritiratha and he also had a son named Medhatithi. (Agni Purdna).


KANVAIRAS. A caste. Originally they were Ksatriyas. In Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 17 we find that they were reduced to low caste because of their being jealous of the superiority of the Brahmanas.


KANYAHRADA. A sacred place. If one stayed in this place for a while one would attain Devaloka. (Chapter 25, Anusdsana Parva) .


KANYAKAGUNA. A place of habitation of ancient India. (Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).




1) General information. A city of Puranic fame on the banks of the river Ganga. This is the same place which is now known as Kanauj. Visvamitra was the son of Gadhi, King of Kanydkubja.


2) Origin of this city. Once there was a great sage. named K& a who was the son of Brahma. He had of his wife Vaidarbhi four sons named Kusamba, Kusanabha, Asurtarajasa and Vasu. Kusa asked them each to rule a country and so each of them built a city of his own. Kusamba named his city Kausdmbi, Kusanabha gave his city the name of Mahodayapura, Asurtarajasa called his city Dharmaranya and Vasu called his city Girivraja. Of these Mahodayapura, city of Kusanabha, became later fatuous as Kanydkubja. (Bali Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


3) How kahodayapura became Kanyakubja. Kusanabha begot a hundred daughters of the nymph Ghrtaci Those beautiful girls were once playing in the forests when the wind-god fell in love with them. The girls rejected his love and Vayu getting angry with them cursed them and made them hunchbacks. Because the hundred Kanyakas (girls) became Kubjas (hunchbacks) at that place, the place became known as Kanyakubja.


When the daughters returned to the palace as hunchbacks Kusanabha was greatly distressed. Weeping, the girls told him what had happened. At that time a sage named Cull was performing penance in a forest nearby. Somada, daughter of TJrmila, a gandharva 1ady, married Cali and they got a son named Brahmadatta. This Brahmadatta nkarried the hundred hunchbacks of Kusanabha and the very touch of Brahmadatta transformed the hunchbacks into beautiful girls.


After having given his daughters in marriage Kusanabha conducted a Putrakamesti yaga to get a son. In that Yaga Brahma appeared in person and blessed Ku sanabha and he got a son. The son was named Gadhi.l Gadhi got a son and a daughter. The son was named ViAvamitra and the daughter, Satyavati. Rcika married Satyavati. Gadhi and Visvamitra were the rulers of Kanydkubja. See under `Rcika, Visvamitra'-(Sargas 32 to 34, Balakanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


4) Narada and Kanydkubja. There was a very big lake in Kanydkubja. Mahavisnu once showed Maya to Narada at that place. (See under `Narada').


5) Maamitra and Indra take wine together. Vi6vamitra and Indra took wine together at Kanyakubja. (Sloka 17, Chapter 87, Vana Parva)


KANYAKUMARI ( KANYATIRTHA) 1) General information. Mahabharata makes references in many places to Kanyakumari, the southern extremity of former Kerala and Gokarna, the northern boundary. It must, therefore, be surmised that these two holy places were very ancient ones. Vana Parva, praises Kanyakumarl at many places. If any one bathes at this place one will become very famous. (Anusasana Parva, M.B.).


Chapter eightyfive of Aran ya Parva, of Bhasa Bharata speaks praisingly of Kanyakumari and Gokarna among other places. It says thus:


i Gadhi-This is found as `Gadhi' in Mahabharata ancl'Gadha' in Ramayana,


"If you visit Rsabhacala of Pandyadesa you will get the benefit of conducting an Asvamedhayaga. Then you must go farther south and take a dip in Kanyatirtha. The touch of that water absolves you of all sins. Then visit Gokarna situated in the ocean famous in all the three worlds and worshipped by a1l."


From this it is to be understood that of the time of Mahabharata Kanyakumari was part of Pandyadesa and that Gokarna was an island.


2) Puranic stories about Kanydkumari. There are several stories regarding the origin and renown of Kanyakumari in the Puranas. The most important ones are given below.


(1) Absolver of sins. The wife of a brabmin named Apaficika living in Kasi became unchaste and to wash away her sin she came to Kanyakumari walking all the way and did penance there, daily bathing in its waters. She attained Salvation and it is believed that a bath in its waters would absolve anybodv of all his sins. (Manimekhala).


(2) Cakra tirtha of Kanydkumdri. Punyakasl, daughter of Mayasura, once went to Kailasa and worshipped Siva. After three yugas Siva appeared before her and asked her what she wanted. She replied that she wanted to be merged in Siva always. Siva then said `Three hundred and sixtyfive days would make a year. Four lakhs and thirtythree years would make a Kali Yuga. Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali are four Yugas and when two thousand such Yugas are over Brahma finishes a day. Such thirty days make one month and twelve months, a year for Brahma. When such hundred years of Brahma are over the great deluge comes. Such ten deluges make a nazhika (twentyfour minutes') of Visnu. Counting thus when you pass ten Visnudeluges Siva* passes a second. Then is the time for the fulfil. ment of your desire. Till that time you sit in meditation on the shores of the south seas. Your hermitage would be known as Kanyaksetra or Tapah Sthala. During your stay there you must kill all the wicked people like Banasura and give relief to the people. I wil1 also come and stay with you there then."


Punyakasi after prostrating before Siva went to the south seas. Taking a Japamala (necklace for prayer) in her hands she assumed the name Kanyakumari, and started her penance. After conquering all the three wor1ds demon Bana was having a wicked rule over his people when he saw Kanyakumari and asked her to be his wife. He approached h(.-,r with his wicked servants Durmukha and Durdarsana. But Kanyakumari flatly refused and in the battle that ensued, Banasura fell dead by the Cakrayudha (Discus) of Devi and at that spot is the Cakratirtha. (Skanda Purina).


(3) The phantom child which escaped from the hands of Karizsa at the time of the birth of Sri Krsna was that divine lady, Kanyakumari. (Padma Purina).


3) The Geographical view. It is said that there was an extension of the present continent to the south and that expansive land called Lamuria was later submerged in waters. There is a description of such an extended land in some of the old literature like Cilappadikaram." Kanyakumari which was called `Kumari-ambadi' also was the first setu; Dhanuskoti the middle setu; and Kotikkara, last setu. (Setu Purina)


4) In History. Kanyakumari had attracted the attention of foreigners long before Christ. Herodotus who lived in the third century B.C. has written about Kanyakumari in one of his books.


In the book `Periplus' written in 60 A.D. there is a mention of Kanyakumari. It says: "Pious persons at the fag end of their lives dedicate their lives to God and go to Kanyakumari on a pilgrimage and stay there accepting an ascetic life. A divine lady bathed in the holy waters there grants you `darsana'."


Ptolemy another traveller who lived two thousand years ago refers to Kanyakumari in his book as `Komaria Akron'. He had bathed in those waters and worshipped in the Kanyakumari temple.


Marco Polo of Venice who had tra-~7e]1ed these parts in 1243 A.D. has written of his worshipping in the Kanyakumari temple. He has also recorded having seen thirty miles from Kanyakumari a glittering figure like that of the Pole-star.


Ibn Batuta who lived in 1203 A.D. has referred to Kanyakumari in his book as Raskumhari.


KANYASAMVEDYATIRTHA. An ancient holy place. It is believed that those who visit this place will attain the world of Prajapatimanu. (Chapter 84, Vana Parva).


KANYASRAMA. A holy place. If a man spends three nights at this place he would attain Svarga. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva) .


KAPA(S). A company of Asuras. The Mahabharata gives a story of how the brahmins killed these demons. The Asvinidevas once came to the earth and gave eyesight to the blind sage Cyavana. It was the time when Indra had denied Soma juice to the Asvinidevas. Sage Cyavana got back his eyesight and promised the Asvinidevas that he would lift the ban on wine for them. Cyavana conducted a Yaga to which the Asvinidevas were also invited. Indra and the other devas refused to take the sacrificial wine and butter along with the Asvinidevas. Cyavana got angry and he produced from the sacrificial fire' an Asura named Mada. With a huge mouth and long teeth the demon went round eating all the Devas. All at once Cyavana conquered the earth and the Kapas subjugated heaven. When they lost both heaven and earth the Devas approached the brahmins for help. The brahmins started a war against the Kapas. The Kapas sent Dhani to the brahmins for peace-talks. Dhani said "The Kapas are equal to you, Oh brahmins, and so Why do you fight them?They are well-versed in Vedas and are very wise men who are entitled to conduct Yagas. They are righteous persons similar to 'Brahmarsis. Prosperity lives in them. They never keep unchaste wives nor do they eat stale meat. It is not proper to fight against such virtuous persons."


But the brahmins did not pay heed to what Dhani said and they killed all the Kapas in bulk. The Kapas, though they were born Asuras, were good-natured persons. (Chapter 157, Anugasana Parva)


KAPALA. See under Brahma, 5th Para.


KAPALAMOCANA. A holy place on the shores of the river Sarasvati, in Kuruksetra. (Chapter 88, V ana Parva; See under Rahodara and Siva).


KAPALI I. One of the eleven Rudras. This Rudra.was the son of Sthanu, son of Brahma. (Chapter 66, Adi Parva). According to the Mahabharata the eleven Rudras are the following: Mrgavyadha, Sarpa, Nirrti,


Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhnya, Pinaki, Isvara, Kapali, Sthanu, Bharga and Dahana. (See under Kapardi). The eleven Rudras are referred to in different ways in Agni Purana and Visnu Purana.


KAPALI II.. The kahabharata gives the following story regarding the reason for Siva's getting the name of Kapali.


Once a great controversy arose regarding the supreme sovereignty of the three worlds between Brahma and Visnu. Then there came to their midst an effulgence of 'Siva and a voice from heaven said "He who finds the source of this brilliance is the real sovereign of the three worlds". Brahma went up to find the upper end and Visnu went down to find the lower end. They travelled for a very long time without finding the end when Brahma saw a Ketaki flower coming down: On enquiry the flower said it was coming from the origin of the brilliance and that three Brahma deluges had elapsed since its starting from there. Brahma took that flower and went to Visnu. Visnu asked Brahma whether he had seen the end of the effulgence and Brahma said `yes'. Immediately the flower in the hand of Brahma turned into the figure of giva•and cut off one of the heads of Brahma making five-headed Brahma into fourheaded. The angered Brahma cursed Siva "May you go begging with a Kapala (human skull) in your hand." Thus Siva became a Kapali. Siva cursed Brahma back saying "You will not be worshipped by anyone" (See under Siva, Brahma).


KAPARDI. One of the eleven Rudras. According to Agni Purana the Ekadasa Rudras (eleven Rudras) are the following : Hara, Bahurupa, Tryambaka, Aparajita, Vrsakapi, Sambhu, Kapardi, Razvata, Mrgavyadha, Sarpa and Kapali. (Chapter 18, Agni Purana .


KAPATA. A demon. He was Kasyapa's son born of his wife Danu. (Chapter 65, Bhisma Parva).


KAPATABHIKSU. A false sage. To illustrate the fact that if a man fails in his deceit he will be subjected to ridicule, a story of a false sage occurs in Kathasaritsagara. Since this Character has earned a place in the Indian literature his story is given below


There was once a city .called Makandi on the banks of the river Ganga. In that city lived a sage who observed silence as a Vrata. One day when he went begging he saw a beautiful girl in a VaiSya's house and the false ascetic was attracted by her. Breaking his silence he said "What a pity!" and left the place. The Vaisya was worried why the sage said so and approached him and asked why he broke his silence to say so. The sage said : "Your daughter is ill-omened. If you give her in marriage all of you remaining will perish. So pack her in a box and with a torch burning on the top of it set it afloat on the river." The Vaisya did so.


The sage coming to his Asrama called his disciples to his side and said "To-night a box with a torch burning on the top of it- will come floating on the river. You must take it and bring it to me without opening it."


The disciples went to the river and seeing the box coming floating caught it and took it to their preceptor. But from a point high up in the river a prince had seen the box coming floating and had opened- it. He had then released the girl from the box and had floated the box again filling-it with a black monkey. When the disciples got the box to the guru he said "Take it upstairs and keep it there. There is a Puja to be conducted with the recital of sacred verses. It should not be seen by others. You can all go to sleep."


The false sage went up eager to enjoy the girl in the box and opened the box with pleasant thoughts. But to his utter horror there jumped from the box a ferocious black monkey who mauled him terribly. The Kapatabhiksu was fooled. (Taranga 1. Lavanakalambaka, Kathasaritsagara).


KAPI. A river. (M.B. Bh1sma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 24) .




KAPILA 1. A fierce sage.


1) Genealogy and birth. Kapila was the son of Kardamapraj5pati, son of Brahma, born to him of his wife Devahuti, grand-daughter of Brahma and daughter of Svayainbhuva Manu.


Svayambhuva Manu got two sons named Priyavrata and Uttanapada and three daughters named Akuti, Devahuti and Prasuti. The daughters were married to Ruci, Kardama and Daksa respectively. To Ruci was born of Akuti a boy named Yajfia. He was a partial incarnation of Visnu. To Kardama was born of his wife Devahuti Kapilacarya, a great sage and the celebrated exponent of the Sankhya philosophy. Prasuti got many daughters


(8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


Sage Kapila was known as Cakradhanus also. (Sloka 17 Chapter 109, Udyoga Parva).


Kardama married the daughter of Vaivasvata Manu called Devahuti. They spent their honeymoon in the air travelling throughout the world. Devahuti delivered nine daughters and a son named Kapila. Kardamaprajapati gave his daughters in marriage to Marici and the other sages.


2) Kapila-incarnation of hisnu. The Brahmanda Purana states that Kapila was the incarnation of Visnu. In Chapter 93 there is this statement : "Bhagavan Narayana will protect us all. The Lord of the universe has now been born in the world as Kapilacarya."


3) Yiapila imparts spiritual knowledge to his mother. Kapila started a severe penance. At that time Kardamaprajapati died and Devahuti wife of Kardama and mother of Kapila approached Kapila and asked him to instruct her on the path of Bhakti Yoga. Kapila imparted to her spiritual knowledge and gave her instructions to follow the path off Bhakti Yoga for Salvation. She entered into a life of austerities and attained Samadhi. (3rd Skandha, Bhagavata).


4) How Ktapila burnt to ashes the Sagaraputras. Once there was a king called Sagara in the Solar dynasty. He had two wives named K6 in! and Sumati. Kesini got a son named. Asamafijasa and Sumati got sixtythousand sons. Once Sagara conducted an Asvamedha Yaga at a place where the rivers Sindhu and Ganga meet. Amsuman, son of Asamanjasa led the sacrificial horse. Indra disguised as a demon stole the horse when it came to a mountain side and hid it in the nether worlds.-


Sagara sent his sixtythousand sons in search of the horse. They dug the whole continent of Jambudvipa surrounded by mountains. Devas, gandharvas and bhujangas complained to Brahma. Then Brahma said: "The whole of this world belongs to Visnu. He has incarnated himself as sage Kapila to kill the sons of Sagara and is now in the nether-world bearing this world. In the fire of his anger the Sagaraputras will be burnt to death". On hearing this all of them came back.


The Sagaraputras returned to their father when they could not find the horse. But Sagara ordered "Go and dig again till you find it". They went to the nether world. After circling the eight elephants who carry the world they dropped down to the nether world through the north-east corner of the earth. There they saw sage Kapila engaged in penance and the sacrificial horse grazing by his side. The sons of Sagara made a great hubbub there and Kapila produced a big sound of rebuke and stared at them. All the sixtythousand sons of Sagara were reduced to ashes. For more details see under Bhagiratha. (Sargas 39 and 40; Balakanda. Valmiki Rdmayana).


5) Kapilavogasdstra. Kapila made the renowned Kapilasastra sitting in his Asrama and taught it to his mother Devahuti. Kapila was a great yogin. The yoga Sastra itself is based on the Sankhya philosophy of Kapila. His Sankhya 9astra, known as Kapila Sastra also, contains the distinctive yoga of meditation and it creates in you spiritual knowledge removing your ignorance totally. After teaching his mother his `Kapila' lie went to the A'srama of Pulaha and lived there. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


6) Other details regarding Kapila.


(i) Kapila was the preceptor of the King of Sindhu. 5th Skandha, Bhagavata) .


(ii) Kapila visited Bhisma while the latter was lying on his bed of arrows before his death. (Sloka 8, Sand Parva, M.B.).


(iii) There occurred a discussion once between Kapila and a Sage named `Gau' on the subject whether Grhasthadharma (doing one's duty as a house-holder) or yogadharma (doing yoga


(Chapter 286, Santi Parva).


(iv) Kapila was a sage of When the sons of Sagara went to search of the horse they saw the practices) was superior.


great brilliance of body. the nether world in sage Kapila sitting there radiating a brightness equal to that of fire. (Chapter 107, Aranya Parva).


(v) Kapila was an authority on S5.nkhya and Veda and was a worshipper of Siva. ( Sloka 4, Chapter 18, Anus asana Parva).


(vi) He has written two books, namely, Safikhyapravacana and Tattvasamasa.


KAPILA II. Another name of Surya. (Sloka 24, Chapter 3, Vana Parva, M.B.).


KAPILA III. A serpent king. It is believed that Kapila is one of the seven serpent Kings who hold the earth in its position. The others are: Dharma, Kama, Kala, Vasu, Vasuki and Ananta. (Sloka 41, Chapter 150, Anusasana Parva) .


KAPILA IV. Son of an Agni named Bhanu. He was his fourth son and was believed to be another incarnation of sage Kapila (Sloka 21, Chapter 221, Vana Parva) .


KAPILA V. Another sage who was the father of Salihotra. He officiated in a yajfia conducted by Uparicaravasu. (Chapter 336, San ti Parva).


KAPILA VI. A son of Visvamitra who was a brahmavadi. (Chapter 4, Anusasana Parva) .


KAPILA VII. A synonym of Siva. (Chapter 17, Anusasana Parva).


KAPILA VIII. A synonym of Visnu. (Chapter 149, Anusa.sana Parva).


KAPILA I. Daughter of Daksapraiapati. Kasyapa married Kapila. (Sloka 12, Chapter 65, Adi Parva M.B. )


KAPILA II. A holy place of Kuruksetra. If one bathes in a sacred pond there one will get the benefit of making a thousand Godanas (giving away cows as gifts). (Chapter 83, Vana Parva).


KAPILA IIl. A river. (Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


KAPILA IV. The mother of Paficasikha. (Chapter 21.8, Santa Parva).


KAPILA (M). Seventh division of Kusadvipa. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 14) .


KAPILAHRADA. A sacred place art Kasi. If one bathes there one will get the benefit of performing a Rajasuya yajira.


KAPILAKEDARATIRTHA. A holy place of ancient India. Sage Kapila stayed here for some time. If one bathes in a pond there one will acquire the art of becoming invisible to others (Chapter 83, Vana Parva, M.B.).


KAPILASASTRA. The ~astra made by Kapila, the sage. After making this ~astra Kapila communicated it to his mother Devahuti. (Devi Bhagavata 8th Skandha).


KAPILASVA. Son of a King called Kuvalaeva. A sage named Dhandhu destroyed him. (Sloka, 40 Chapter 204, Vana Parva)


KAPILA TIRTHA. A sacred pond owned by a King called Kapila. (Sloka 32, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).


KAPILAVATA. A sacred place. If you stay there and observe fasting you will get the benefit of giving away in charity a thousand cows. (Chapter 84, Vana Parva).


KAPILEYA. Son of Vi: vamitra. After saving ~una.`sepha from death, Visvamitra was fondling the child on his lap. At that time, the child's father Ajigarta came to him and wanted Visvamitra to return the child to him. Visvamitra then told him "Like Kapileya and Babhravya, this is also my son." From this we may infer that Kapileya must have been ViSvdmitra's son. (Aitareya Brahmaa) ;


KAPINJALA. A river of ancient India.' (Sloka 26, Chapter 9. Bhisma Parva).


KAPINJARA. (KAPINJALA). A bird. There is a story about the origin of this bird in the Mahabharata.


Once Tvasta created Triiras to kill Indra. Trisiras had three heads. When by one head he recited the Vedas by another head he drank wine and by the third he looked at the world wickedly. Indra envious of the growing strength of Trisiras felled him down by his Vajrayudha. A person called Taksaka carrying an axe came that way then and by orders frorri Indra he cut off the heads of Trisiras. When the heads fell down there emerged from them birds called Kapinjala, Tittiri and Kalapirigala. From the head which recited the Vedas came the birds Kapihja1as; from the head that drank the wine came the birds Kalapingalas; and from the head that looked at the world with wickedness came the birds Tittiris. (Chapter 9, Udyoga Parva).


KAPISKANDHA. A soldier of Skandadeva. (Sloka 57, Chapter 45, Salya Parva.)


KAPOTA. A son of Garuda. (Chapter 101, Udyoga Parva).


KAPOTA. A sage. Citrangada, the daughter of Kakutstha and Urvasi, was his wife. She had two sons named Tumburu and Suvarcas. Kapota received much wealth from Kubera and gave it to his sons. Once Kapota cursed Taravati, the queen of Candra.~ekhara, that she would bring forth two sons with monkey-Faces. (Kalika Purana, Chapter 56) .



Son of the emperor ~ibi who was greatly devoted to his dependants, (For genealogy see under ~ibi). He had another name Audbhida. (Chapter 197, Vana Parva). He was a prominent member of the court of Varuna. (Santa Parva) .


KARABHA. A King who bowed before jarasandha, King of Magadlia. (Sloka 13, Chapter 14, Sabha Parva, M.B.).


KARABHAJANA I. A King of ancient India.


KARABHAJANA II. One of the nine celebrated sons of Rsabhadeva. He was a yogin of divine wisdom. He imparted spiritual knowledge to these present at the yajfia of the King of Videha. (Skandhas 4 and 5, Bhagavata).


KARABHANJAKA. A place of habitation in ancient India. (Sloka 69, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


KARABHI. Son of Sakuni. (Matsya Purana).


KARAHATAKA. A country of south India. Sahadeva conquered this country. (Chapter 31, Sabha Parva, M.B.) .


KARAKA. A place of habitation in ancient India. Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


KARAKARAKA. A brother of the Raja of Cedi. Sarabha is* the other brother. The Raja of Cedi along with his brothers, Karakarsaka and Sarabha, helped the Pandavas in the great battle. (Sloka 47, Chapter 50, Udyoga Parva).


KARAKASA. A soldier who fought on the side of the Kauravas. He stood and fought at a strategic point in the Garuda Vyuha formed by Drona. (Sloka 6, Chapter 20, Drona Parva).


KARALA. A Deva Gandharva. lie took part in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Chapter 122, Adi Parva, M.B.).


KARALADANTA. A great Sage. He was a bright member of the court of Indra. (Chapter 7, Sabha Parva, M.B.).


KARALAJANAKA. A King of Mithila. Vasistha imparted to him spiritual knowledge. (Santa Parva).


KARALAKSA. A soldier of Skandadeva. (Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


KARAMALASAMPRADAYA. The method of counting the number of recitals of a prayer by using the fingers of the band. (See under Gayatr3).


KARAMBHA. Brother of Rambha, father of Mahisasura. See under Mahisa.


KARAMBHA. A princess of Ka1ihgade,".a. She was married to Akrodha, a King of the Puruvamsa. She was the mother of Devdtithi. (Sloka 22, Chapter 95, Adi Parva).


KARANA. Another name of Yuyutsu. See under Yuyutsu and Varna.


1) General information. A King of Iksvaku Vamsa. Descending in order from Iksvaku came Viriisa--Kalyana-Khaninetra-Suvarcas. Suvarcas later on became famous as Karandhama.


2) How he got his name Karandhama. Once there came a famine in the country of Suvarcas. The treasury became empty. Taking that opportunity the enemies attacked his country. There was no army for him to fight -against his enemies. Meditating upon God he blew his hands and then an army sufficient to fight his enemies appeared before him and using that he defeated them. Because he arranged an army by Karadhamana (blowing of hands) he was given the name of Karandhamana also.


3) Other details.


(i) The celebrated King Aviksit was the son of Karandhama. (Chapter 4, Asvamedha Parva).


(ii) Karandhama was a prominent member of the court of Yama. (Sloka 16, Chapter 8, Sabha Parva).


KARANDHAMANA. See under the word Karandhama.


KARANDHAMANA (M). A tirtha situated near the southern ocean. The five holy places in the southern ocean, viz. Agastya tirtha, Saubhadra tirtha, Pauloma tirtha, Karandhamana tirtha and Bharadvaja tirtha were called Panca tirthas. In the course of Arjuna's pilgrimage, he visited these Pafca tirthas. At that time, the Sages never used to go there. There was a special reason for it. The five celestial women, Varga, Saurabheyi, Samici, Budbuda and Lata used to live in them in the form of crocodiles as a result of a sage's curse. Arjuna liberated all of them. (For details see under the word "Varga").


KARAIVJANILAYA. Anala, the mother of all trees. She was the daughter of Daksa and the wife of K.asyapa. She is known as Virudha also. That was how Virut became a synonym of tree. It is believed that Anala stays in the tree Karanja. To obtain blessings from Anala people worship the Karanja tree. (Slokas 35 to 36, Chapter 230, Vana Parva).


KARAPARVAN. A holy place in the Sarasvati river valley. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 54) .


KARASKARA. A despised country of ancient times. There is a reference to this country in the Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 44.


KARATA. A place of habitation of ancient India. (Sloka 63, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


KARATOYA. A holy river. This river worships Varuna sitting in his court. (Sloka 22, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva) . If one stays on the shores of this river and observes fasting for three days one would get the benefit of performing an Asvamedha yaga. (Chapter 85, Vana Parva).


KARAVIRA I. A prominent serpent. (8loka 12, Chapter 35, Adi Parva).


KARAVIRA II. A mountain on the southern side of Mahameru. See under Mahameru.


KARAV IRA III. There was once a country named Karavira on the base of the mountain Gomanta. That country was being ruled by a King called Srgalavasudeva. He was killed by Sri Krsna and Balarama together as per instructions from Parasurama. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).


KARAVIRA IV. A forest in the neighbourhood of Dvaraka. (Chapter 38, Sabha Parva).


KARAVIRAKSA. A demon. He fought against Rama and Laksmana along with Khara, Dusana and Trisiras. (9loka 24, Chapter 26, Aranya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


KARAVIRAPURA. A holy .place. If one bathes in this place one will attain the form of Brahma. (Chapter 25, Anusasana Parva).


KARDAMA I. A Prajapati. Pulaha, son of Brahma, begot of his wife Ksama three sons named Kardama, Urvariyan and Sahisnu. (Chapter 10, Arhsa 1, Visnu Purana). Of these three Kardama married Devahuti. Devahirti was the daughter of gvayarnbhuva Manu and sister of Akuti and Prasuti. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavats) .


Devahuti was an ideal wife and served her husband with great devotion. Kardama was pleased with his wife and presented her with an aeroplane. Kardama and Devahuti conducted then a tour of the worlds in that plane. Devahdti deliyered nine daughters and a son. The daughters were married to Marici and other sages and the son grew into the celebrated Sage Kapilacarya. Kardama then entered into Samadhi. (Sitting in yoga and courting death of one's own accord). (3rd Skandha, Bhagavata).


KARDAMA II. A virtuous serpent: (Chapter 35, Adi Parva).


KARDAMA III. This Sage sits in the court of Brahma and worships him. (Sloka 19, Chapter 11, Sabha Parva, M.B.).


KARDAMA IV. A celebrated sage who was the grandson of Viraja. He had a son named Anariga. (Sloka 90, Chapter 59, Santi Parva).


KARDAMILAKSETRA. A temple near the mountain of Samanga. Bharata was crowned King at this temple (91oka 9, Chapter 135, Vana Parva).


KARENUMATI. Daughter of Sigupd1a, King of Cedi. Nakula married her and they got a child named Nira. mitra. (Sloka 79, Chapter 95, Adi Parva).


KARISA. A son of Visvamitra. (M.B. AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 55).


KARISAKA. A place of habitation in ancient India. (Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva, M.B.).


KARISINI. A river. (Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


KARITLA place of habitation in ancient India.- (Chapter 9. Bhisma Parva).


KARKAKHANDA. A place of habitation in ancient India. This place was conquered by Karna for Duryodhana. (Vans Parva).


KARKANDU. A saintly King mentioned in Sukta 112, Anuvaka 16, Mandala 1 of Rgveda.


KARKARA. A prominent serpent. See under Kadru.


KARKATI. See para 12 under Brahma.


KARKI. The son of the sage Apastamba by his wife Aksasutra.


KARKOTAKA. A terrible serpent.


1) Birth. This serpent was born to Kasyapa by his wire Kadru.


2) The curse. Once Karkotaka cheated the sage Narada. The angry sage cursed him and said that he would have to remain without the power of movements in the forest till Nala came to rescue him. From that day Karkolaka lived in that forest, awaiting the arrival of Nala.


3) Nala and li arko taka. Once a wild fire spread all over the forest. Karkotaka whose power of movement was destroyed by Narada's curse, cried aloud, calling upon Nala to come and save him. It was at this time that Nala arrived at the spot after leaving Damayanti in the forest. Nala came to him, on hearing his cries. The serpent informed Nala about the story of Narada's curse and reducing himself to the size of a thumb sat on the ground. Nala removed him to a safe spot away from the fire. The serpent asked Nala to walk a few steps counting his footsteps. Nala did so and at the tenth step, Karkotaka stung him and his whole body was turned blue. Suddenly Karkotaka assumed his own original shape and spoke to Nala as follows:-"I have changed your appearance so that people may not be able to recognize you. Kali who is troubling you, still lives within you. It is he who is affected by my poison. You need not fear danger from poison any more. You will never be defeated in battle. Go and engage yourself as the charioteer of Rtuparna, King of Ayodhya. You will teach him Asvahrdaya mantra. In return for it he will teach you Aksabrdaya mantra. Here are two garments which I give you. If you put them on, you will be restored to your own shape. May you be blessed again with a happy family life."

After saying this, Karkotaka vanished. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 66) .


KARKOTAKA. A land beyond the eastern ocean. It is not far from there to the river Sitoda. The Udaya mountain is just across it. (Kathasaritsagara).


KARMABHUMI. The land of Bharata. How this continent got the name of Karmabhumi is given below. All those born in this land enjoy a life in Svarga, on earth or in hell according to the class to which their actions belong namely Sattvic, Rajasic or Tamasic. It is possible for only this land to obtain for its people life in other worlds.' Therefore this land got the name Karmabhumi. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


KARMAJIT. A King of the family of Arjuna. He was the son of Brhatsena and the father of Srutanjaya. (9th Skandba, Bhagavata) .


KARNA I. The eldest son of Kunti. Though he was the brother of the Pandavas he joined sides with the Kauravas and became the King of Ariga. So the name of Karna comes in the genealogy of the Anga royal family. 1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu:Brahma-Atri- Candra-Budha-Pururavas- Ayus - NahusaYayati-Turvasu-Vahni-Bharga-Bhanu-Tribhanu-Karandhama-Marutta - (Marutta had no son and he adopted Dusyanta) - Dusyanta - Varutha - Gandira - GandharaKola-Druhyu-Babhrusetu - Purovasu - Gharma - GhrtaVidusa-Pracetas-Sabhanara-Kalanara - Srnjaya - Puranjaya~Janamejaya-Mahasala-Mahamanas-Usinara -Titiksu-Rusadratha-Paila-Sutapas-Bali-Ariga - (The Anga dynasty begins) - Dadhivahana - Draviratha - Dharmaratha-Citraratha-. Satyaratha - Lomapada - CaturangaPrthulaksa-Campa-Haryanga-Bhadraratha-Brhatkarma.Brhadbhanu-Brhadatma jayadratha-Brhadratha- Visvajit-Karna.


2) Birth of Karna. Pandu, a King of Candravamsa, married Kunti, daughter of King Surasena. This girl was brought up even from childhood by a King called Kuntibhoja. She grew up in the palace of the King. She was once put in charge of attending to the welfare of those engaged in religious duties. The sage Durvasas came there then and stayed for four months as the king's guest., Kunti served the sage during his stay there with so much care, patience and devotion that the sage was immensely pleased and gave her at the time of his departure a divine mantra. If she called upon any god repeating that mantra once, that god would manifest himself to her and bless her with a son equal to him in glory. The mantra was to be used only five times. Kunti was young and wanted to test the power of the mantra. So she recited the mantra meditating on the Sun. Instantly she felt she saw a divine person coming to her from the sun. She was perplexed. But the divine form embraced her and consoled her saying that she would never lose her virginity even if she bore a son 'from him. None excepting her step-mother knew about this. In due course Kunti delivered a male child and with the help of her step-mother she put that child in a box and floated it on the river Asva.


That box leaving the river Asva entered the Yamuna river and leaving Yamuna it entered the river Gafiga. Drifting slowly the box reached Campapuri, a country of Sutas. Adhiratha born of the Sutavamsa and an ally of the Kauravas, saw a box floating on the river while he went for his bath and took it home. Radha, wife of Adhiratha, who was childless was greatly pleased to see a babe inside the box and they adopted it and brought it up. The boy was named Vasusena. It was this babe that became the celebrated Karna afterwards. (Four chapters from X05, Vana Parva).


3) Education of Karna. Karna grew up in the house of Adhiratha in the country of Anga bearing the names Vasusena and Vrsa. Kunti knew this through spies. When the time came for imparting education to Karna Adhiratha sent him to Hastinapura to the presence of Drona for teaching him archery. Karna studied under Krpa and Paras urama also. After his education he entered into a treaty with Duryodhana. (Chapter 309, Vana Parva).


4) Yarna is cursed. Karna was cursed by a brahmin and Para~urama. The story is given below.


Even while they were studying archery Arjuna and Karna vied with each other. Karna once requested Drona to teach him in private the secret of the Brahma missile to fight against Arjuna. But Drona did not accede to his request.


Karna then went to Mahendragiri and bowed before Para'urama and represented himself as a member of the Bhrgu family. He said he had come to him to be his disciple and learn the secret of the Brahma missile from him. Parasurama believed him and accepting him as his disciple taught him many new techniques in archery. Once Karna was wandering in the vicinity of the asrama when he saw a lonely cow grazing there and Karna without knowing that it belonged to a brahmin sent an arrow and killed it. The brahmin got furious and cursed Karna thus "Oh, sinner, the wheel of your chariot would go down in the mud when you face the enemy to fight against whom you are now taking training. Then, when you stand perplexed, your opponent would cut off your head." Karna requested for a removal of the curse but the brahmin refused to show any mercy.


Parasiirama taught Karna the secret of the Brahma missile. One day tired after a day's fast and a walk around the dsrama with his disciples Parasurama slept resting his head on the lap of Karna. Then a beetle named Alarka attacked Karna and started sucking blood from his thigh. Blood was oozing from his thigh and still Karna did not stir from his position lest it should disturb his guru in' his nap. Suddenly Parasu. rama awoke and stared` at the beetle and the beetle fell i According to a belief of old, all other parts of the world excepting Bharatavarsa were inhabited by Devas, dead. It then took the form of a demon and rising up in the air said "Svamin ! I was once a demon called Darhsa. Once I carried away by force the wife of the sage Blrrgu and the angered sage cursed me and made me a beetle. When I craved for pardon he said that I would be given my original form by Parasurama."


When the demon disappeared saying so much Parasurama turned to Karna who stood with respect, his dress all covered with blood. Parasurama said : "No Brahmin can bear so much pain with such patience. Surely, you are not a brahmin. Let me know the truth." Trembling with fear Karna revealed his identity and then Parasurama cursed him saying "You will forget the secret of the Brahma missile at the time when you want to use it against your enemy." (Chapters 2 and 3, Santi Parva).


5) How YL artta became the King of Afga. The Pandavas and Kauravas were studying archery under Dronacarya together and Karna also was. among them. When their education was complete a day was fixed to exhibit the skill of the students. The public also was invited to see the skill of the princes. Everybody showed his best and Arjuna displayed super-human skill so that the vast assemblage was lost in wonder and admiration. Then strode Karna to the scene and not only did he duplicate with ease Arjuna's feats but he did show something more. The assemblage was dumbfounded. Arjuna turnned pale. At this moment Krpa stood up and questioned the right of Karna to compete with these with royal blood in them. Then rose Duryodhana and said : "If the combat is not in order simply because Karna is not a prince it is easily remedied. I crown Karna as the King of Anga". Then there came to the scene the aged Adhiratha, the foster-father of Karna, and as Karna saw him coming he went and bowed before him and Adhiratha embraced him with tears in his eyes. (Chapters 134 to 136, Adi Parva, M.B.).


6) Karna's armour and ear-rings. Karna was born with an armour on his body and rings in his ears. Chapter 99 of Adi Parva says thus : "1'o Kunti was born of Surya the mighty Karna. Even at his birth he was adorned with an armour over his body and rings in his ears."


Surya had ordained that as long as Karna wore the armour and ear-rings he would be unconquerable. Indra knew this and wanted to get Karl ia rid of these so that Arjuna, his son, might gain a victory over Karna. Karna was reputed for his charity and Indra under the garb of a brahmin went to Karna and begged of him his ear-rings and armour. The Sun god had already warned him in a dream that Indra would thus try to deceive him. Still Karna could not bring himself to refuse any gift that was asked of him and so he cut off the ear-rings and armour with which he was born and gave them to the Brahmana. The only request that the noble Karna did make was that in separating the ornaments from his body no wound should be made. Indra did it with great skill neither hurting him nor making even a scratch on this body. Indra bade Karna ask for any boon he wanted. The Sun god had also advised him to ask for a good weapon in return in case he gave away his assets and so he requested Indra the best of the weapons he possessed. Indra gave him his weapon, the Sakti, called Vaijayanti also. Karna had to use that

weapon to kill the great Ghatotkaca in the Mahabharata battle.


7) Other details.


(i) Karna was present at the Svayamvara of Draupadi. (Sloka 4, Chapter 185, Adi Parva).


(ii) Bhima defeated Karna once in a single combat. (S1oka 20, Chapter 34. Sabha Parva).


(iii) Karna took part in the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 7, Chapter 34, Santi Parva).


(iv) Karna defeated Jarasandha once in a single combat. Chapter 44, Sabha Parva) .


(v) Karna defeated in his victory march many kings like Drupada, Bhagadatta and Kerala. (Chapter 254, Aranya Parva).


(vi) Karna conquered the cities of Malini and Campa and annexed them to the country of Anga. (Chapter 5, Karna Parva).


(vii) Karna prompted Duryodhana to tease the Pandavas living in the forest. (Chapter 7, Vana Parva) .


(viii) Karna swore that he would kill Arjuna. (Chapter 257, Vana Parva).


(ix) Karna lost his clothes during a fight against the king of Virata. (Chapter 65, Virata Parva).


(x) Kandaprstham is the name of Karna's bow.


8) Karna and the Kuruksetra battle. The great battle of Mahabharata lasted for eighteen days and some of the incidents touching Karna during that period are given below


(i) Before the great war started Kunti went alone to the shores of Gafiga and met Karna. She then confessed to him that she was his mother and that the Pandavas were his brothers. She advised Karna to join sides with the Pandavas and the Sun god approved of it. But Karna refused to do so. He said he would never forsake Duryodhana who had brought him up from his childhood at a time when he was in peril. But he promised his mother that he would never kill any of her other four sons but would kill Arjuna in the battle-field. (Chapter 146 Udyoga Parva).


ii) Karna started his fight against the Pandavas after taking blessings from Bhisma. (Chapter 3, Drona Parva) .


(iii) Karna fought against the princes of Kekaya, Arjuna, Bhima, Dhrstadyurnna and Satyaki in single combat. (Chapter 32, Drona Parva).


(iv) Abhimanyu defeated Karna in a single combat. (Chapter 40, Drona Parva).


(v) Karna made Bhima unconscious. (Chapter 139, Drona Parva).


(vi) Karna once withdrew a bit when hit by the arrow of Arjuna. (Chapter 139, Drona Parva).


(vii) Karna insulted Krpacarya at one time. (Chapter 158, Drona Par va) .


(viii) Karna killed Ghatotkaca with the weapon Sakti which India had given him in exchange for the armour and ear-rings which he had given Indra. (Chapter 180, Drona Parva).


(ix) Kan naran away from the battlefield when he heard that Drona was dead. (Chapter 193, Karna Parva).


(x) Karna was made the Generalissimo of the Kaurava army when Drona died. (Chapter 10, Karna Parva). (xi) Salya became the charioteer of Karna (Chapter 86, Karna Parva).


(xii) The beautiful headwear of Arjuna fell down to the ground by the snake-faced arrow of Kama. (Chapter 90, Kama Parva)


(xiii) When Arjuna was fighting against Karna the chariot-wheels of Kama -sank into the ground. (Chapter 90, Kama Parva).


(xiv) Arjuna slew Kama. (~loka 50, Chapter 91, Kama Parva).


(xv) Kama had three sons named Citrasena, Satyasena and Susena. All the three were killed at Kuruksetra by Nakula. (9fokas 19 to 50, Chaptcr 10, 8alya Parva). 9) Yaqa goes to heaven. After his death Kama went to heaven and merged with his father, the Sun god. (Sloka 20, Chapter 5, Svargarohana Parva).


10) Names of Karna.


(i) Because Kama was born with an effulgence (Vasu) he was first given the name Vasusena.


(ii) Because he was born with Kundalas (ear-rings) in his Karnas (ears) he was called karna. (Chapter 302. Aranya Parva).


(iii) Besides these two he had many other names. A few are given below:


Adhirathi, Adityanandana. Adityatanaya, Ahgaraja, Angesvara, Arkaputra, Bharatarsabha, Goputra, Kaunteya. Kuntisuta, Kurudvaha, Kuruprtanapati, Kuruvira, Kuruyodha, Partha, Vrsatmaja Radhdsuta, Radhatmaja, Radheya, Ravisunu, Sauti, Savitra, Sfiryaja, Suryaputra, Suryasambhava, Suta, Sutanandana, Sutaputra, Sutasunu, Sntasuta, Sutatanaya. Vaikartana, Vaivasvata and Vrsa.


KARMA 11. A son of Dhrtarastra. Bhimasena killed this Karna. (Chapter 67, Bhisma Parva).


KARMA III. Younger brother of Ghanta. See under Ghant5karna.


KARNAKA. A barber who lived in Kas i. (Chapter 29, Harivarhsa).


KARNANIRVAHA. A sage who attained Svarga after observing correctly the duties of Vanaprastha. (Sloka 18, Chapter 244, Santi Parva).


KARNAPARVA. One of the ?arvans of Mahabharata. See under Mahabharata.


KARNAPRAVARANA. A country of South India. The army of Duryodhana contained soldiers from this country. (9loka 13, Chapter 51. Bhisma Parva)..


KARNAPRAVARANA (S ). An ancient tribe of people who inhabited the shores of the sea in the south. The one distinctive feature of this tribe was that their ears were extraordinarily long, drooping down to the feet. Sahadeva conquered and subdued this tribe. ($loka 67, Chapter 31, Sabha Parva). They once brought to Yudhi~thira many valuable presents and paid their respects to him. (91oka 19, Chapter 52, Sabha Parva).


KARNAPRAVARANA. A follower of Skandadeva, (Chapter 46, Sloka 25, galya Parva).


KARNASRAVAS. A sage who was a member of the court of Yudhisthira. (S`1oka 23, Chapter 26, Vana Parva).


KARNATAKA. A country of South India. Mahabharata says like this: "There are a few more countries to the south and they are: Dravida, Kerala, Pracya, Musika, Vanavasika, Karnataka, Mahisaka, Vikalpa and .Musaka." (Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


KARNAVESTA. A Ksatriya King. He was the incarnation of an Asura named Krodhavasa. (Chapter 67, Adi Parva).


KARNIKA. One of the eleven Devakanyakas who sang and danced .in the Janmotsava of Arjuna. The others are: .Menaka, Sahajanya, Punjikasthala, Rtusthala, Ghrtaci, Visvacl, Purvacitti, Ulloca, Pramloca and Urvasi. (Chapter 123, Adi Parva).


KARNIKARAVANA. A forest to the north of the mountain Sumeru. All the six seasons appear there at the same time and so this forest is always filled with flowers. (Chapter 6, Sloka 24, Bhisma Parva).


KARPARA, See under Ghata.


KARPASIKA. A country in ancient India. The maids of this country served in the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 8).


KARSAPANA (M) . (KARSIKAM). A measure of weight for gold and silver in ancient India.


KARSNI. A Deva Gandharva. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 56 says that he participated in the celebrations connected with Arjunays birth.


KARTA. A Visvadeva, (Sloka 35, Chapter 91, Anugasana Parva).


KARTASVARA. world emperor. Verse 52) .


KARTAV IRYARJUNA (KARTAV IRYA) . A renowned King of the Hehaya dynasty.


1) Genealogy. From Mahavisnu were descended in the following order: Brahma-Atri--Candra-Budha-Pururavas - Ayus- Yayati-Yadu-Sahasrajit- $atajitEkavira-(Hehaya)-Dharma-Kani - Bhadrasena -Dhanaka-Krtavirya-Kartaviryarjuna.


2) Hehaya Dynasty and Bhargava Dynasty. The Hehayas were Ksatriyas and the Bhargavas were Brahmanas. The Bhargava sages were the family preceptors of the Hehaya Kings. The Hehayas who were generous and charitable, used to give plenty of wealth to the Bhargavas. Consequently in course of time, the Bhargavas grew wealthy while the Hehayas gradually declined. In order to tide over their difficulty, the Hehayas decided to borrow some money from the Bhargavas. But the Bhargavas refused to oblige, on the plea that they had no money. The enraged Ksatriyas (Hehayas) began to persecute the Bhrgus (Bhargavas). The Bhrgus left foi the Himalayas after burying all their treasures under the floor of their Agramas. The Ksatriyas pursued them and hunted them even there. At last a Brahman! wl:o belonged to the Bhargava race, gave birth to a sage named Aurva through her thigh. With his birth the Hehayas began to lead a less aggressive life. After the lapse of many years, the mighty Kartaviryarjuna was born in the Hehaya dynasty and the mighty sage Jamadagni was born in the Bhrgu dynasty. Both of them nourished their hereditary feud. With his capital in the city of Mahismat! on the banks of the river Narmada, Kartaviryarjuna began his reign. (See under Aurva I) .


3) Thousand Hands of Kdrtaviryarjuna. Once when Kartaviryarjuna was living in his capital Mahismati, the sage Narada happened to come there. The King greeted him with due reverence and asked him what course of action was to be followed for attaining moksa (salvation) and at the same time for enjoying worldly pleasures. Narada replied that by performing the rite known as "Blaadradipa Pratistha", both these objects could be achieved. Accordingly, Kartavirya went to the banks of the river Narmada with his wife


An Asura. Once this Asura became (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 227, and began the observance of Bhadradipa Pratistha. Kartavirya's guru was Dattatreya, the son of Atri. At the conclusion of the Yaga rites, Dattatreya who was pleased, asked Kartaviryarjuna what boons he wished to have. Kartavirya with joined palms asked him many boons one of which was that he should have a thousand arms. Dattatreya granted him the boons, and Kartavirya who became proud of his new possession, ruled at Mdhismati for 86,000 years. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 44) .


4) Trdyu's Warning. Kartaviryarjuna who returned triumphant after receiving the boon from Dattatreya heard a mysterious voice warning him in the following words :-"You fool ! Don't you know that a Brahmana is superior to a Ksatriya ? A Ksatriya governs his subjects in alliance with the Brahmana". On hearing this, Kartavirya became angry. He understood that Vayu, the divine messenger was behind the mysterious voice. He despised Vayu and argued that a Ksatriya was superior to a Brahmana. Vayu gave him a warning that a Brahmana would curse Kartavirya. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 152) .


5) Kdrtavirya cursed by the sage. Once Agni (fire-god) approached Kartavirya and begged for food. The King allowed him to feed upon mountains and trees from any part of his Kingdom. So Agni began to devour the woods and hills. This led to the burning down of an Asrama owned by a sage called Apava. The enraged Sage came to know that Kartaviryarjuna was responsible for the havoc and pronounced a curse that Parasurama would chop off all the thousand hands of Kartaviryarjuna.


6) Kdrtavirydrjuna and Rdvana. In the course of his triumphal march, after conquering the whole world, Ravana once arrived with his forces on the bank of the river iVarmada. Enjoying the smooth flow of the crystal clear stream of the Narmada and the pleasant sand banks in the river-bed, he spent a night there with his followers. Early next morning he took his bath in the river and setting up the idol of Siva on the sand bank, began to worship it.


Just then Kartaviryarjuna and his wives came to the place and began their water sports, a few yards down the river from the place where Rlvana was sitting. As part of his amusements, Kartavirya stopped the flow of the river by making a dam with his thousand arms. This caused the level of the water to rise and Ravana with his materials of worship was submerged in the flood. Enraged at this disturbance to his worship, he sent two of his men down the river bank to find out what was happening. They traced the source of the trouble to Kartaviryarjuna and his water-sports and reported the matter to their master. At once Ravana armed himself with his bow rushed to Kartaviryarjuna and began a fierce fight. At last Ravana fell down under the heavy stroke of Kartavirya's mace and was bound in chains and imprisoned. He 1ay there for one year. Ravana's father sage Pulastya came to know of this and he went to Kartavirya's palace. He was received with due respect and at his request, Kartavirya released Ravana and after that they remained friends for life. (Uttara Ramayana).


7) Kdrtavirya and Renukd's Death. One day when Parasurama was fourieen years old, his father sage Jamadagni went to the forest to fetch some Samits


(sacrificial twigs). Jamadagni's wife, Renuka swept and cleaned the A`srama and went to the river Reva to fetch water and Parasurama was left behind in the Asrama. When she reached the river bank, she saw Kartaviryarjuna indulging in amorous pleasures with his wives in the water. She waited unobserved on the bank for some time and after they had left the place, she stepped into the river. But since the water was muddy, she had to go to another place in the river to get clear water. There also she lingered for a few minutes, looking at the amorous amusements of Citraratha, King of Salva, with his wives. It was only after they had departed that she was able to return to the Asrama with water. Meanwhile Jaxnadagni who had returned to the Asrama earlier was angry at her delay and was waiting impatiently for her arrival. As soon as she reached the Asrama, the sage, in a fit of fury, ordered Parasurama to cut off her head and the latter obeyed him. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 58) .


8) The Triumphal March of lidrtavirya. All the Kings in the world acknowledged the supremacy of Kartavirya. In Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 16, we find that Kings of the Solar dynasty like Trayyaruna, Hariscandra, Rohitasva and Cuficu were defeated by Kartaviryarjuna. In his golden chariot he went about defeating Devas, Yaksas, Rsis and others. He challenged even Visnu. He insulted Indra in the company of Indrani. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 115) .


Intoxicated by his successes, Kartavirya went to the sea-shore and challenged the ocean and began to destroy the animals in the sea by shooting them with his arrows. God Varuna appeared before him and asked him what he wanted. Kartavirya asked the god to name a man who had the capacity to fight with him. Varuna answered that Jamadagni's son Parasurama was the person who satisfied that condition. Kartavirya accepted the challenge and went in search of Parasurama. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 29) .


9) Killing of gamadagni. Once Kartavirya went to hunt in the forest with his followers. They were roaming in the Vindhya forests in search of game. At noon after a refreshing bath in the clear waters of the river Narmada when they were preparing to return, they saw Jamadagni's Asrama. After asking his men to wait at the river-bank, Kartavirya went alone to the Asrama. He paid his respects to the sage and after their usual greetings, Jamadagni asked him to call his followers also to the Asrama-. When all of them arrived the sage gave them a sumptuous feast. Kartavirya wondered how the sage managed to do it. They spent the night there and when they returned home next morning Kartavirya's minister Candragupta told him that he saw a cow in Jamadagni's Asrama and that it was from that divine cow that the sage was able to get all the rare articles of food which he supplied to the guests. He also offered to get the cow from the sage. So the King sent Candragupta to the Asrama to beg the cow from the sage for him. Candragupta accordingly went with a few followers to the Asrama and begged for the cew. At that time Parasurama was not in the Asrama. Jamadagni told them that the cow was Kamadhenu's sister, Susila and that it was not possible to give her. Candragupta tried to seize the cow by force but she suddenly vanished into the sky. The King's men tried to capture her calf. Jamadagni who came forward to prevent them, was beaten to death by Candragupta. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapters 67 to 70).


10) Yamadagni's Restoration to Life. Parasurama returned soon to the Asrama with the disciple Akrtavrana. At the sight of his father lying dead on the floor, Parasurama cried aloud. Renuka beat her breast twentyone times. Seeing this, Parasurama took a solemn vow that he would go round the world twentyone times and extirpate the Ksatriya Kings. The sage Sukra appeared there with Susila who had vanished. After restoring jamadagni to life ~ukra went back.


11) Death of h artaviiydrjUna. Paras a Rama who had turned himself into the very embodiment of Revenge, accompanied by Akrtavrana, took his stand at the gates of the city of Mahismati and challenged Kartaviryarjuna to a fight. Kartavirya came out with a huge army. In the terrible fight that followed, Parasurama himself with his axe (parasu) chopped off all the thousand arms of Kartaviryarjuna. All his sons were killed. Kartavirya himself fell down beheaded. This was the end of the pillar of Hehaya dynasty. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 81) .


i2) Rartaairya's sons. Kartavirya had one hundred sons. All of them were killed in the battle by Parasurama. Their names, as given in Chapter 76 of Brahmdnda Purana, are given below : Nirmada, Rocana, Sanku, Ugrada, Dundubhi, Dhruva,


Sdrgi, Satrujit, Kraufica, Santa, Nirdaya, Antaka, Zkprti, Vimala, Dhira, Niroga, Bahuti, Dama, Adhari, Vidhura, Saumya, Manasvi, Puskala, Busa, Taruna, Rsabha, Rksa, Satyaka, Subala, Bali, Ugresta, Ugrakarma, Satyasena, Durasada, Viradhanva, Dirghabahu, Akampana, Subahu, Dirghaksa, Vartulaksa, Carudariistra, Gotravan, Manojava, Crdhvabahu, Krodha, Satyakirti, Duspradharsana, Satyasandha, Mahasena, Sulocana, Raktanetra, Vakradamstra, Sudariistra, Ksatravarma, Manonuga, Dhumrakesa, Pingalocana, Avyanga, Jatila, Venuman, Sanu, Pasapani, Anuddhata, Duranta, Kapila, Sambhu, Ananta, Visvaga, Udara, Krti, Ksatrajit, Dharmi, Vyaghra, Ghosa, Adbhuta, Purafijaya, Carana. Vagmi, Vira, Ratlhi, Govihvala, Safigramajit, Suparva, Narada, Satyaketu, gatanika, Drdhayudha, Citradhanva, Jayatsena, Virfapaksa, Blhimakarma, Satrutapana, Citrasena, Duradharsa Viduratha, $fzra, Surasena, Dhisana, Madhu, and jayadhvaja.


KARTTIKEYA. Skanda, the son of Siva. Fox details see under Skanda.


KARUNA. See under Dhanarijaya.


KAKUSA I. A King of Karusa. A lady of name Bhadra was performing penance to get this King as her husband when Sisupala carried her away. (9loka 11, Chapter 45, Sabha Parva).


KAKUSA II. One of the nine sons of Vaivasvata Manu. The other sons are : Iksvaku, Nabhaga, Dr sta, Saryati, Narisyanta, Pramsunaga, Dista and Prsadhra. (7th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


KAKUSA. III. A Yaksa. This Yaksa accompanied by his brothers performed penance on the shores of the river Kalindi, to propitiate Devi, taking in only air. Devi was pleased and appearing before him in person said "You will become the lord of Manvantara". (Skandhas 10 and 13, Devi Bhagavata) .


KARUSA I. The sixth son of Vaivasvata Manu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 75 ) .


KARUSA. II. An ancient land. (The King of this land used to suppress robbers and plunderers. He was present at Draupadi's Svayamvara. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1$5),


KARUSA (M) . A place in ancient India. Historians are of opinion that it is the Bundelkhanda of modern India. The sin of Brahmahatya (killing of Brahmins) of Indra was washed away by Brahmins at this place. The place where Karisa (cowdung) from Indra fell was called Karisa and it gradually became Karusa. (See under Angamalaja).


KARVATA. An ancient country of India. The King of this land was slain by Bhimasena. (Chapter 30, Sabha Parva ) .


KASERAKA. A Yaksa. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 15 says that Kaseraka continues to attend on Kubera as a member of his assembly.


KA~ERU. A lovely daughter of Tvasta, the Prajapati. Narakasura abducted Kaseru when she was fourteen years old. She was one of the virgins married by Sri Krsna who won a victory over Narakasura. ( M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 38, Daksinatya Patha).


KASERUMAN ( KASERUMAN) . An Asura who was a Yavana. He was slain by Sri Krsna according to Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 32.


KAS1 I. (VARANASI. BANARAS). (See under Divodasa also).


1) General. One of the oldest and most popular sacred centres in India, Kasi is reputed for its Visvanatha temple of hoary traditions, according to one of which the Sivalinga in the temple was installed by Brahma himself. (Halasya Mahatmya).


2) Pilgrimage on foot to Y'asi. Devotees from many parts of India go on pilgrimage to Kasi on foot, bathe in the holy waters of the Ganga and thus earn spiritual satisfaction and release from worldly attachments. The reason for the above is stated in the Agni Purana as follows :-Once, at Kailasa Siva told Parvati that the temple at Kas i was called `Avimukta' ( unreleased ) as it never perished, and all Japa, tapa, homa and dana made there never cease to give auspicious results. One should walk on foot to Kasi and live there. Having gone there one should never leave the place. There are eight great tirthas at Avimukta, i.e. Hariscandra tirtha, Avratakesvara tirtha, Japye9vara tirtha, Sri Parvatirtha, Mahalayatirtha, Bhrgu tirtha, Candeivara tirtha and Kedaratirtha. These tirthas extend to two yojanas to the east of the Kasi temple and half-ayojana to the west of it. The river Varana is also there, and Varanasi is at the centre of all these. Whatever is done at Varanasi like bath, Japa, homa, worship of Devas, dana, obsequies for the dead, oneself living there etc. is productive of devotion and salvation. (Agni Purana, Chapter 112).


3) References to Yasi in the Mahabharata.


(i) Pandu- once conquered Kasi. (Bhisrna Parva, Chapter 9).


(ii) Bhima married Balandhara, daughter of the King of Kasi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 77).


( iii) Bhimasena conquered Kay f. ( Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 6).


(iv) Sahadeva conquered Kasi. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 31).


KA91 1I 396 KA9YAPA


(v) In the war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, the King of KU! fought on the side of the former. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter .196, Verse 2) .


(vi) Arjuna conquered Kasi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 40).


(vii) Sri Krsna conquered Kasi. (Drona Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 15).


(viii) Karna once conquered Kasi on behalf of Duryodhana. (Karna Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 19).


(ix) Kasi had been ruled by the Kings called Haryasva. Sudeva, and Divodasa. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verses 12 to 15).


(x) King Vrsadarbha and Usinara had ruled over Kasi. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 9).


(xi) Bhisma conquered Kasi during the Svayariavara of Amba. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 38) .


(xii) The horse sent out in connection with Yudhisthira's Asvamedha passed through Kasi also. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 14) .


( xiii) For the origin of the name Kasi see under Divodasa. KASI 11. An inhabitant-citizen-of Kasi. (Bhisnza Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 18).


KASI III. A son of Kaviprajapa.ti. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 133) .


KASIKA. A famous charioteer on the Pandava side

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter 171, Verse 15).


KASISVARA TIRTHA. A sacred place on the banks of river Ambumati on the borders of Kuruksetra. A bath in the river redeems one from all sins and raises one to Bhrahmaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 57) .


KAJMIRA (KASMIRAKAM). A state in North India, Kamira was famous during the Mahabharata period also. Once Arjuna conquered this state (Sabha Parva, Chapter 27) . People from the state had attended Yudhisthira's Rajasuya with many articles of presentation. Sri Kr&na once defeated its ruler. (Drona Parva, Chapter


1 1',*~7erse 16). Parasurama also once defeated its ruler. (Drona Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 11) .


KASMIRAMANDALAM. A particular place in Kamira where once a conference of sages was held. (Vana


Parva, Chapter 203) . Besides all -the prominent sages of North India, distinguished persons like Nahusa, Yayati, Asi and Kasyapa attended the conference.


Rivers Jhelam and Chenab flow through this place, and it is a holy centre. Those who bathe here will become like sages.


KASTURIGANDHI. Another name for Kdli (Matsya-


gandhi) or Satyavati, the mother of Vyasa. To know hoFw she got this name, see under Satyavati.


KA.7YA I. A famous King of Kasi ; father of Amba, Ambika and Ambalika. He was also called Krodhavasa. According to Chapter 171 of Udyoga Parva, Ka,'sya's real name was Senabindu.


KA~SYA II. One of the great sages who visited Bhisma on his bed of arrows. (anti Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 10).


KASYAPA I. Chief among the Prajapatis.


1) Ka~yapa-Son or Grandson of Brahma ? It is impossible to give a definite answer to this question. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65, we see that six spiritual sons-Marici, Ang:ras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu-were born to Brahma. Kasyapa was born as the son of Marici and that all living beings in the world took their origin from Kasyapa. According to this statement, Ka~yapa is the grandson of Brahma.


But in the 14th Sarga of Aranyakanda in Valmiki Rarrzayana there is an account oft he creation of all animate and inanimate objects in this world. According to a statement in that passage, we find that Kasyapa was the youngest brother of Marici, Atri, Pulastya and others. This means that Kas yapa was the son of Brahma. Therefore there is nothing wrong in regarding him either as the son or as the grandson of Brahma. In the Puranas we find references to him in both ways.


2) Original Gotra or Clan. Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 297, verse 17 says that all living beings belong to the four original Gotras - the gotra of Afigiras, Kasyapa gotra, Bhrgu gotra and Vasistha gotra and that all the other gotras came into existence subsequently.


3) kasyapa's wives. Kasyapa had 21 wives who were:Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arista, Surasa. Khasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavasa, Ira, Kadru, Muni, Puloma, Kalaka, Nata, Danayus, Siriihika, Pradha, Visva, and Kapila. Of these, the 13 wives, Aditi, Diti, Kalaka, Danayus, Danu, Simhika, Krodha, Pradha, Visva, Vinata, Kapila, Muni and Kadru, were the daughters of Daksa.


Of these the first wife Aditi had 12 sons. These 12 sons namely Visnu, Sakra, Aryama, Dhata, Tvasta, Pusa, Vivasvan, Savita, Mitra, Varuna, Amsa and Bhaga are called Adityas (som of Aditi). In the sixth Manvantara these 12 Adityas belonged to the tribe known as Tusitas. (The present Manvantara is the seventh one). The 33 crores of Devas came into being from the twelve Adityas.


The Daityas were born from Kasyapa's second wife Diti. The chief Daityas are H.iranyakasipu, Hiranyaksa and Sixhhika. All the other IDaityas were born from them.


The Danavas were the children of Danu, another wife of Kasyapa. Dvimurdha, Sambara, Ayomukha, Sankus.iras, Kapila, Sankara, Ekacakra, Mahabahu, Taraka, Mahabala, Svarbhanu, Vrsaparva, Puloma, and Vipracitti are the famous Danavas. The other Danavas were the children of the people mentioned above.


Another wife of Ka4yapa, Surabhi gave birth to Aja, Ekapad, AWrbuddhnya, Tvasta and, Rudra and also the Ekadas a Rudras namely: -Hara, ahurupa, Tryambaka, Aparajita, Vrsakapi, Sambhu, Kapardi ,Raivata, Mrgavyadha, Sarpa, and Kapali. Vinata gave birth to Garuda and Kadru was the mother of the nagas. The Puranas proclaim that all living beings that we see in the world today, sprang from Kasyapa's offsprings by his different wives. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Chapter 29;= Visnu Purana. Part I, Chapters 15-21; Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapters 16 and 65 and Agni Purana, Chapter 18) .


4) Brahma taught Kasyaba cure for snake, poison. The serpents (Nagas) were born to Kadru, one of the wives of Kasyapa. Once Kadru asked her children to hang down like hair from the tail of Uccais s ravas. They refused to do so. Kadru became angry and cursed them that they would be burnt alive at Janamejaya's Sarpa Sattra (snake-sacrifice). After the curse, the Nagas became dangerously venomous. At this stage, Brahma taught Kasyapa the art of curing snake-poison to protect other creatures that might be bitten by the Nagas. Cure of snake-bite in this world dates from that time. (M.B. Adi Parva. Chapter 20) .


5) Kasy pa and Garuda. Garuda is a mighty son of Kagyapa by his wife Vinata. Vinata made a bet with her sister Kadru. Kadru won the bet. Vinata became Kadru's maid-servant as a result of the bet. To be relieved of this bondage Vinata's son Garuda had to bring Amrta from Devaloka and give it to Kadru and her Naga-sons. Garuda agreed and flew up to Heaven to fetch Amrta.


On the way, he visited his father Kagyapa who was performing penance on the Gandhamadana mountain. He asked his father to give him some food, as he was very hungry. Kasyapa told him the following story:"Long ago a sage named Vibhavasu lived near this place. He and his younger brother named Supratika began to quarrel over the sharing of their father's wealth. The elder brother transformed the younger brother into an elephant by a curse and the younger brother turned the elder into a tortoise lay his curse. They are still living in yonder lake as elephant and tortoise and continue like enemies. If you eat .both of them, you will be strong enough to fight against the Devas and get possession of Amrta for yourself."


On hearing this, Garuda went to the lake and caught the elephant and tortoise in his claws and flew up into the sky. The mountains began to tremble and a whirlwind swept the Heavens when Garuda beat with his wings. He flew about here and there unable to find a convenient place to sit and enjoy his meal. On the way, his eye caught sight of a huge banyan tree spreading its branches far and wide, to a distance of 100 yojanas around it. When he perched on one of its branches with the elephant and tortoise, the branch broke and fell down. From that branch certain sages known as Balakhilyas were hanging with their heads downwards. So, to prevent them from falling to the ground, Garuda lifted it in his beak and began to fly up again. Unable to find a suitable spot where he could deposit the branch with the sages, Garuda returned to his father again. At the request of Kasyapa, the Balakhilyas went to the Himalayas. He showed Garuda a vast, snowclad mountain on which he could deposit the broken branch he was carrying. Garuda flew to that mountain and ate up the elephant and tortoise and thus gained strength to fight with the Devas for Amrta. After that he proceeded to Heaven. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 29-31) .


6) Other Birth of Kasyapa. In Caksusa Manvantara, the sage Sutapas performed a penance along with his wife Prsni for 12,'000 years. Lord Visnu appeared to them and asked what boon they wished to ask. They prayed that the Lord should take birth as their son. Visnu granted their prayer and was born as their son.


In the next Manvantara (the period of Vaivasvata Manu) Sutapas and Prglni were re-born. as Kasyapa and Aditi respectively. At that time also Mahavisnu was born to Aditi as Vamana. (See under Vamana). In this birth, Kagyapa had many other wives besides Aditi. Surasa was one of those wives. (Bhagavata,10th Skandha).


It was this Kagyapa himself who was reborn as Vasudeva and Aditi became Devaki. Surasa was born as Rohini, another wife. There is another reason for Kagyapa and Aditi to take birth for the third time. Once Kagyapa had prepared to perform a Yaga. All arrangements were complete. But the sacrificial cow


alone was not available. Kasyapa solved the problem by stealing a cow from. Varuna's cattle-shed. Aditi and Surasa concealed it in the Asrama. Enraged at the theft of his cow, Varuna complained to Brahma. A curse was pronounced by Brahma and Varuna that as a punishment for stealing and hiding the cow, Kagyapa should be reborn as a cowherd and Aditi and Surasa should be reborn as the cowherd's wives. It was by this curse that Kasyapa, Aditi and Surma were reborn as Vasudeva Devaki and Rohini respectively. (Devi Bhagavata,4th Skandha).


7) Parasurdma's gift of land to Kasyapa. Paragurama performed a Yaga after exterminating all Ksatriya Kings. At that Yaga he gifted all the lands he had conquered till then to Kasyapa. In Mahabharata, Aranya Parva, Chapter 117, there is a reference to this gift.


8) Kasyapa and Kerala. After Parasurama went round the world eighteen times and exterminated the Ksatriya Kings he performed a Yaga. At that Yaga he gave the whole earth as daksina to Kasyapa. After that, Kasyapa drove away Parasurama from the earth to the south. Taking pity on Parasurama, the ocean gave him the region known as "Surparaka". Kagyapa seized Surparaka also from Parasurama and gave it to Brahmanas. Parasurama went to the forests after it. Later on, intermixture of castes took place in this region and anarchy prevailed there. At one time, Sarparaka sank down into Patala (lower world). Kasyapa who saw this held the earth up, brought Ksatriyas from the north and made them rulers of the country. (M.B, Santi Parva, Chapter 49) . This "Surparaka" is believed to be Kerala.


9) Other Details about Kasyapa.


(i) Kasyapa arrived at the place of Arjuna's birth accompanied by other sages. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 122) .


(ii) Kagyapa flourished in Brahma's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11).


(iii) Once there was a dispute between Virocana, the son of Prahlada and Sudhanva, the son of Arigiras. It was KaSyapa who settled this dispute. (See the 5th Para under the word Axigiras).


(iv) Once Kagyapa went on a pilgrimage in the company of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter


(v) Once Brahma gifted the entire earth to Kasyapa at a Yajna. Bhumidevi (Goddess of the earth) who was distressed at it, went to Patala and began to lament.. At that time Kagyapa propitiated the goddess by is austere penance. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter


(vi)) After Parasurama had given the entire earth to Ka:' yapa, Ka- yapa drove away Paras urama from the


earth. Paraurama then shot an arrow into the sea and converted that portion of the sea into land. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 70, Verses 18 and 19).


(vii) When the war between Kauravas and Pandavas was in progress, Kasyapa approached Drona and wanted him to bring the battle to a close. (M.B.


Drona Parva, Chapter 190).


(viii) Kasyapa was also present with other sages at the time of Skanda's birth. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45) .


(ix) Kasyapa once gave some pieces of advice to Pururavas. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 73)..


(x) In the 8th verse of Chapter 208 of Santi Parva, in Maliabharata, we find that Kasyapa had another name Aristanemi.


(xi) Ka'syapa once related to Bhisma, the story of Mahavisnu's Varahavatara. (Incarnation as Boar). (M.B. Santi-Parva, Chapter 209, Verse 6).


(xii) Bliasa Bharata says that gingelly seeds were first introduced into this world from sage -Ka'syapa's body. (M. B. Anugasana Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 10) .


(xiii) Kafiyapa explained to Vrsadarbhi, the evil of receiving pratigraha (presents). (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 93) .


(xiv) K&''yapa once spoke to Arundhati about the weakness of his body. (M.B. Anu'sasana Parva, Chapter 93, Verse 65).


(xv) At another time, Agastya suspected that Ka'syapa had stolen his lotus. But Kagyapa swore that he was innocent. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 94).


(xvi) In Bhasa Bharata it is said that Kasyapa was one of the Sapta Gurus (seven Preceptors) of Kubera. The other six Gurus were-Vasistha, Atr.i, Gautama, Bharadvaja, Visvamitra and jamadagni. M.B. Anu'sasana Parva, Chapter 150) .


(xvii) In Bhagavata we see that Kagyapa and other sages were instrumental in bringing about the destruction of Yadu Vamsa. (For further details see under SAMBA).


KASYAPA II. A serpent. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 122, we read that this serpent was present at the time of Arjuna's birth.




1) General. Two sages Kas yapa and Ka9syapa are mentioned in the Puranas, and due to the close similarity in the names in some Puranas the two names are used one for the other. There is, therefore, considerable difficulty in distinguishing the one from the other and unerringly hitting upon the right person in certain contexts.


There is a very ancient sage the first cause or the original father of all living beings in the universe. He is described, in most of the Puranas, as the grandson of Brahma and the son of Marici. He was the husband of the original or first mothers of living beings, called Did and Aditi. The interpretation that he was called Kasyapa as he used to drink Kasyam (liquor) is not founded on facts. No Purana refers to him as a drunkard.


The sage called Kayapa was the foster father of Sakuntala. The statement that he was called Kasyapa as he was born in the dynasty of Kasyapa is also not correct. Kanva was not born in the dynasty of Kasyapa. The genealogy of Kasyapa is as follows:


2) . Genealogy. Descended from Vi sUu thus: BrahmaAtri - Candra-Budha-Pururavas-Ayus-NahusaYayati-Puru janamejaya - Pracinvan - Pravira -Namasyu-Vitabhaya-Sundu- Bahuvidha - Sariiyati - Rahovadi - Raudra'sva - Matinara-PritirathaMedhatithi-Kanva (Kasyapa).


Medhatithi was Kanva's father. (Santi Parva, Chapter 208, Verse 27) . According to the Agni Purana a son called Kanva was born (Kasyapa) to Medhatithi, son of King Pritiratha of the `Puru dynasty. But, nothing about the family matters of Kanva is mentioned therein. In the Mahabharata itself the name Kas' yapa is often used instead of Kanva.


From the above facts it may be understood that Kanva was born as a prince, and that later on, he became a sage. Moreover, the Agni Purana says that Santurodha, the brother of Kanva's father, was the father of Dusyanta. According to that Ka'syapa and Dusyanta were the sons of brothers, Kasyapa being that of the elder one. For the time being the above are the only reasonable inferences, and the truth has to be found out by further researches. But, one thing is certain according to the genealogy, that Kasyapa was born twenty generations after Kasyapa.


3). Kasyapa and Taksaka. The story is told in the 2nd Skandha of Devi Bhagavata and in the Adi Parva of Bharata that Taksaka set out to bite King Pariksit and Kasyapa to cure him of Taksaka's poison, but that Taksaka bribed Kasyapa ofF his mission to save the King. But, the story as such is unfounded. It was Kasyapa and not KdSyapa whom Brahma had taught the science of the treatment and cure of poison (see under Kasyapa) and, therefore, it should be Kasyapa whom Taksaka bribed.


4) . ~ Kasyapa and Sakuntald. See under KA. VA.


5) . Y`asyapa and R, ryasrriga. Father of Rsyasrnga was one Kasyapa; may be Kasyapa or Kasyapa. The greater possibility is for Kasyapa to be the father. (See under RSYASR&GA).


6). After a Yajna Visvakarman made a land-gift to Kasyapa once. (See under KANVA).


KASYAPA II. Priest of Vasudeva; this Kasyapa lived for years as a good friend of the Pandavas. He is considered to be a very distinguished ascetic. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 16 ) .


KASYAPA III. Son of Sage Kasyapa. This Kasyapa was member of Indra's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7). He was present at the Yajna conducted by emperor Prthu.


KASYAPA IV. An Agni, the son of Kasyapa. Pancajanya was born from the five Agnis, Kasyapa, Vasistha, Prana, Angiras and Cyavana, all of whom were sons of Kas yapa. ( Vana Parva, Chapter 220 ) .


KASYAPA V. A haughty Vaisya once felled to the ground a Brahmin youth called Kasyapa by hitting him with his chariot. (See under Indra, Para 38) .


KASYAPA VI. Sons of Ka~yapa like Vibhandaka. Rajadharman, Visvavasu, Indra, Aditya and Vasu, other Devas and other living beings born in Kas yapa's dynasty-all these are also called Kasyapas.


KASYAPADVIPA (ISLAND). An island in the shape of a hare visible in the moon. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 55 ) .


KASYAP1. (Earth). The earth came to be known as Kasyapi as it had been given as a gift to Kasyapa by Paragurama.


"The whole of the earth was given to Kasyapa and thus it came to be called Kasyapi". (BrahmandaPurana, Chapter 89 ).


KATHAKA. A soldier of Skanda. (Sloka 67, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).






KATVAKU (KHATVAKU). A son of Vaivasvata Manu. Brahmanda Purana states that he was an ancestor of Iksvaku.


In the beginning Manu, alias Vaivasvata, had a son named Katvaku. He was the first of kings and he ruled the world for a long time. On the banks of the river Sarayu he constructed a city called Ayodhya. Ayodhya was celebrated for its beauty and wise men proclaimed that it was more beautiful than the cities of the eight guards of the universe or the city of even Brahma, the Creator.


KATYAYANA I. A grammarian who wrote a commentary on Panini's grammatical work entitled Atadhyayi. He has also written Srauta Sutras and a* book on "Dharma Sastra".


KATYAYANA. 11. Kathasaritsagara says that "Katyayana" was another name of Vararuci.


KATYAYANA. III. A great sage who flourished in Indra's assembly. We see a reference to him in Maha, bharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 19) . _


KATYAYANI. One of the two wives of Yajnavalkya. After withdrawing completely from worldly activities, Yajnavalkya asked his wives to divide his worldly assets equally between them. But Maitreyi the other wife, being of a deeply spiritual nature, Katyayani herself had to undertake the burden bf all the material affairs. (Brhadaranyakopanisad).


KAUKUHAKA. An ancient country in South India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 60) .


KAUKULIKA. An attendant of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 15).


KAUMODAKI. The club of Sri Krsna. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 224, Stanza 23, that this club was given to Sri Krsna by Varuna the god of water, at the time of the burning of the forest Khandava.


KAUNAPA. A serpent born in the family of Vasuki. This serpent was burnt to death in the Sarpa Sattra (sacrificial fire to kill serpents) of janamejaya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 6).


KAUNAPASANA. A famous serpent born in the family of Kaurava. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 14).


KAUNDINYA  A hermit. This hermit had erected his hermitage in Has timatisabhramatisarigama and lived there. Once due to excess of rain the river flooded and his hermitage was washed away. So the hermit cursed the river. "Let the river be dried up". Then he went to the realm of Vaikurttha. (Padma Purina, Uttara Khanda, Chapter 145) .


KAUI\jIKUTSYA. A noble Brahmin. It is mentioned in MahAbharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 25, that this Brahmin visited Pramadvard who died of snakebite. .




I)' General Information. Those who were born in the family of the famous King Kuru. Descended in the following order from Visnu :- Brahma-Atri-Candra Budha-Pururavas -Ayus -Nahusa -Yayati-Purujanamejaya-Pracinvan -Pravira-Namasyu -Vitabhaya-Sundu-Bahuvidha---Sariry<iti --Rahovadi-Raudrasva-Matinara-Santurodha -Dusyanta-BharataSuhotra-Suhota -_- Gala -Garda - Suketu - Brhatksetra-Hasti-Ajamidha-Rksa-Sarnvarana - Kuru. This is the genealogy of Kuru. From Kuru the genealogy continues as follows :- jahnu-Suratha - Viduratha-Sarvabhauma --jayatsena -Ravaya -Bhavuka-


Cakroddhata -Devatithi -Rksa -Bharata -PraticaSantanu. Santanu had two wives Gang. and Satyavati. Bhisma was born of Ganga. Vyasa was born to Satyavati before her marriage. from the hermit Pardsara. After the marriage, from Santanu, two sons Citrangada and Vicitravirya were born to her. A Gandharva killed Citrafigada. Bhisma brought the three daughters of the King of Ka'si, Amba, Ambika and Ambalika as wives of Vicitravirya, but on the way knowing that Amba was in love with the King of Salva, she was sent back. Ambika and Ambalika became the wives of Vicitravirya. Shortly Vicitravirya also died. With a view to continue the royal family, Satyavad sent for Vyasa, so that he might beget children of Ambika and Ambalika. At the time of coition Ambika closed her eyes to avoid seeing the uncouth face of Vyasa. So she got as son Dhrtarastra who was blind from birth. Seeing the ugly figure of Vyasa Ambalika. turned pale and so the son born to her was pale in colour. He was called Pandu. From Dhrtarastra, Duryodhana and his brothers were born and from Pandu were born the Pandavas. All members born in the family of Kuru were known as Kauravas. But later, the sons of Dhrtara stra came to be known by the name 'Kauravas'.


2) The origin of Y`auraaas. (Duryodhana and his brothers). Dhrtarastra married Gandhari the daughter of Subala the King of Gandhara. Once Vyasa reached the palace weary with hunger and thirst. Gandhari gave Vyasa food and drink. Vyasa was pleased with her and told her that she might ask for any boon. She said that she wanted to get hundred sons from Dhrtarastra. Vyasa granted the boon. Gandhari became pregnant. Even after two years she did not deliver. She heard that Kunti, the wife of Pandu had given birth to a child. Gandhari became sad. She crushed lzer womb and gave birth to a lump of flesh. Understanding this, Vyasa came there and cutting the lump into hundred and one pieces kept them in ghee-pots. Advising Gandhari to keep the pots in secret, Vyasa went to the Himalayas. The pots were broken at the proper time and hundred sons and a daughter came out. Besides them Dhrtarastra had another son named Yuyutsu by a Vai3'ya woman.


The hundred and one sons of Dhrtarastra beginning with Duryodhana are the Kauravas.


3) Names of the Kauravas.


Duryodhana, Dussasana, Dussaha, Du'ssala, jalagandha, Sama, Saba, Vinda, Anuvinda, Durdharsa, Subahu, Duspradharsana, Durmarsan a, Durmukha, Duskar na, Karna, Vikarna, gala, Sattva, Sulocana, Citra, Upacitra, Citraksa, Carucitra, Sarasana, Durmada, Durvigaha, Vivitsu, Vikatanana, Crnanabha, Sunabha, Nanda, Upananda, Citrabana, Citravarma, Suvarma, Durvimc ca, Ayobahu, Mahabahu, Citranga, Citrakundala„ Bliimavega, Bhimabala, Valaki, Balavardhana, Ugrayudha, Susena, Kundadhara, Mahodara, Citrayudha, Nisangi, Pasi, Vrndaraka, Drdhavarma, Drdhaksatra, Somakirti, Anudara, Drdhasandha, jarasandha, Satyasandha, Sadasuvak, Ugrasravas, Ugrasena, Senani, Dusparajaya, Aparajita, Kundasayi, Visalaksa, Duradhara, Drdhahasta, Suhasta, VI;1tavega, Suvarcas, Adityaketu, Bahy5si, Nagadatta, Ugrasayi, Kavaci, Krathana Kundi, Bhimavikrama, Dhanurdhara, Virabahu, Alo,lupa, Abhaya, Drdhakarman, Drdharathasraya, Anadhrsya, Kundabhedi, Viravi, Citrakundala., Pramatha, Apramathin, Dirgharoman, Suviryavan, Dirghabahu, Suvarma, Kaficanadhvaja, Kundasin, Virajas, and Yuyutsu. Dus~ala (daughter). (Mahabharata. Adi Parva, Chapters 67 and 117). (For further details about the Kauravas see under Duryodhana and Dussasana).


KAURAVYA. A noble serpent which was born of Airavata, (M.B. Adi. Parva, Chapter 218, Stanza 18).


KAUSALA (KAUSALA). Skandadeva once changed the shape of his face to that of the face of goat. Then he got the name Kausala. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 228, Stanza k).


KAUSALYA I. A queen of King Dasaratha and mother of Sri Rama. Dasaratha had three wives Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. Kausalya gave birth to Sri RAma, Kaikeyi to Bharata and Sumitra to Laksmana and Satruglina. (Valmiki Wamayana, BE-la Kanda, Sarga 16) .


KAUSALYA II. Queen of the King of K5,si. Aruba, Ambika, and Ambalika were daughters of this Kausalya. Of these daughters Ambalika also was called Kausalya. After the death of Panclu,she went to the forest with Ambika. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 129) .


KAUSALYA III'. The queen of a Y5dava King. She was the mother of the Yadava named Kegin. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


KAUSALYA IV. Wife of Puru, the son of King Yayati. Janamejaya was born to Puru of his wife Kausalya. (ALB. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Stanza 11) .


KAUSALYA V. The queen of janaka, the King of Mithila. Once King janaka decided to sell his palace and everything he possessed and to go abegging for alms. But his brave wife Kausalya convinced her husband by her reasonable arguments that he should not venture to do so. Thus she prevented her husband from carrying out his decision.


KAUSALYA. A teacher, who belonged to the line of disciples of Vyasa. Jaimini was the disciple of Vyasa. Sumantu was the son of jaimini. A son named Sutva, was born to Sumantu. Sukarman was the son of Sutva. Sukarman had two disciples Hiranyanabha. and Pauspifiji. Kausalya was another name of Hiranyanabha. (Visnu Purana, Amsa 3, Chapter 6).


KAUSAMB1. Four sons, Kusamba, Kusanabha, Asurtarajas and Vasu were born to Kusa, the son of Brahma, of his wife the princess of Vidarbha. According to the order of their father each prince built a city and began to rule over it. Kau'sambiis the city built by Kusamba. Kusanabha built the city of Mahodayapura ; Asurtarajas, the city of Dharmaranya and Vasu the city of Girivraja. (V51miki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 32) . It is mentioned in Kathasaritsagara that the. city of Kausambi stood in the middle of the kingdom of Vatsa and that Udayana born of the family of the Pandavas had once ruled this country with Kausambi as his capital.


KAUSIKA I. (Visvamitra). See under Visvamitra.


KAUSIKA II. A hermit who lived in the palace of Yudhisthira. It-is mentioned in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83, that while going to Hastinapura, Sri Krsna met this hermit on the way.


KAUSIKA III. A minister of jarasandha. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Stanza 22, that he had another name Harilsa also.


KAUSIKA IV. While the Pandavas were leading forest life, the hermit 1\Iarkandeya told the story of a noble Brahmin named Kausika, to Dharmaputra. Once this


Brahmin sat under a tree and performed penance. A small crane which sat on a branch of the tree passed excreta on the head of the Brahmin. He became angry and looked at the bird. Instantly the bird was reduced to ashes. The Brahmin sincerely repented and went to the countryside to live on alms. Once he reached the house of a Brahmin. The wife of the Brahmin came to the door and requested him to wait a bit. Immediately her husband arrived, and she, being engaged in 1ooking after the needs of her husband forgot the Brahmin Kausika, who became angry and spoke cruel words to her. She argued that the noblest deed was looking after one's husband and that it was not meet and right for Brahmins to get angry. She advised Kausika to go to Mithilapuri and to receive advice from the famous Dharmavyadha. Kausika repented his rash nature, went to Dharmavyadha and received advice from him. He returned home and lived peacefully with his parents. (M.B. Vana Parva, ten chapters from 206).


Though .a man of veracity, he finally had to go to hell, for the following reason. While he was engaged in penance in the forest some thieves came by that way with some stolen goods. The owners of the goods were chasing the thieves. Kausika told them the way by which the thieves had gone. So at the end Kausika was thrown into c~ hell. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 69).


KAUSIKA V. A King of the Puru dynasty. Kapila was his father and Grtsapati was his brother. The four castes Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sudra originated from Grtsapati. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278) .


KAUSIKA VI. A hermit. This ancient hermit lived in Kuruksetra. His sons Svasrpa, Krodhana, I-Iiriisra, Pi::una, Kavi, Vagdusta, and Pitrvartti lived with hermit Garga for learning under him. Their names indicated their character. Their father died. The son's were in poverty. At this time rain ceased altogether. Garga asked his disciples to take his milch cow to the forest for grazing. Owing to hunger the brothers decided to kill and eat the cow. But the youngest said: "If you are bent on killing the cow, we had better make use of it as an offering to the Manes, and no sin will visit us."


All agreed to this and Pitrvartti killed the cow and began the sacrifice. Two eider brothers were employed in worshipping the gods and three were detailed to give offerings to the manes. One was asked to be the guest. Pitrvartti was the sacrificer. Remembering the ancestors with reverence he began the sacrifice in accordance with the rites. Thus the seven hermits ate the cow and told Garga that the cow was caught by a tiger.


In due course the seven of them died, and took rebirth as rude low-caste people in Das apura. Because of the sacrifice and offerings to the Manes they had the remembrance of their previous birth. So they feared god and took fast and vow at a holy bath and in the presence of a multitude cast off their lives and were born again as animals in Kalafijara hills. Because of their abstinence due to knowledge they cast off their lives by Prapatana (jumping down from the top of the mountain) and were born again as Ruddy geese, in the Manasasaras whentheir names were Sumanas, Kusuma, Vasu, Citradars i, Sudar< i, Jfiata and jfianaparaganames conforming to their character. The seven brothers became pure and sinless by their union with God the Supreme Spirit. But three of them fell out of the union because of their desire. They saw the pleasurable life led by Anuha the King of Paficala who was immensely wealthy with many beautiful wives. At the sight of this, one of the geese-the Brahmin Pitrvartti, who performed the sacrifice of offering to the Manes because of his love for his father-wished to become a king. Seeing the two wealthy ministers who led luxurious lives, two of the ruddy geese wanted to become ministers. Accordingly Pitrvartti was born as Brahmadatta the son of Vaibhraja and the other two as sons of ministers with names Pundarika and Subalaka. Brahmadatta was anointed as King of Paficala in the great city of Kampilya. That King was mighty, loving his father well, always desirous of giving offerings to Manes and harmonious with God, having the ability to read the hearts of every living being. He married Sannati the daughter of Sudeva. This woman in her previous birth was the cow of Garga. As this cow was used as offering to the Manes she got rebirth as a religious-minded woman and be. carne the queen of Brahmadatta, who ruled over the kingdom well for a long time.


Once the King and the queen were walking in the garden when they saw two ants which were quarrelling with each other. They were husband and wife. After a time the quarrel ended and they grew more loving than before and the she-ant pressed closely against her husband. Brahmadatta hearing their conversation stood smiling. He could understand the language of every living being because of the merits of his previous births. When the King smiled his wife asked him for the reason. He described to his wife the quarrel of the antcouple. The queen did not believe his words. She thought that the King had been making fun of her. She asked him how he learned the language of birds and beasts. But the King could not give an answer and he became thoughtful. The remaining four of the ruddy geese took rebirth as the sons of a poor Brahmin in the same city of Kampilya. They had the remembrance of previous births. Their names were Dhrtiman, Sarvadarsi, Vidyacandra and Tapodhika, names befitting theircharacter. They decided to perform severe penance to attain Supreme bliss, and were about to get away from the house when their father, the poor Brahmin cried bitterly, being helpless. They taught their father the following poem and advised him to recite the poem before the King the next morning, in order to get plenty of wealth.


"Noble Brahmins in Kuruksetra The seven foresters in Dasapura Deer in Kalanjara and in Manasa Ruddy geese, the same now are men." Brahmadatta who was not able to give answer to the question of his wife, was about to go out from the palace for a walk with his wife and ministers, when the old Brahmin made his appearance and recited the poem taught by his sons, to the King. When the King heard the stanza he remembered the previous births and fainted and fell dowri. The two ministers, Subalaka son of Babhravya the author of the science of love and Pundarika son of Pillc5la the author of the science of medicine and treatment, also remembered about their previous births and fell down with grief. The three of them lamented about their fall from the union with the Supreme Spirit. Brahmadatta gave that old Brahmin plenty


of wealth and villages and sent him away contented. After anointing his son Vi svaksena as King, Brahmadatta and his retinue went to Minasasaras for penance. For a while they lived in the forest engaged in penance and then cast off their lives and entered the world of Supreme bliss. (Padma Purina, Part 3, Chapter 10),


KAUSIKA VII. A King. This king became a cock at night. His wife Vi~ila was filled with grief at this transfiguration of her husband in the night. She told her grief to the hermit Galava who told the queen about the previous birth of her husband as follows :"In the previous birth he used to eat cocks to get strength. Knowing this Tamracuda the king of fowls cursed him. "You shall become a cock during nights." That is why your husband has become a cock."


According to the advice of the hermit the King began to worship Lord Siva and he was liberated from the curse. (Skanda Puraria).


KAUSIKA. (GOMATI). A river. The hermitage of Vis-vamitra stood on the bank of this river. The modern name of river Kau-, ika is kosi. The river Kos! flows through Bihar. Those who bathe in this river will obtain remission of sins. See under Gomati. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84) .


KAUSIKACARYA. The king Akrti. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 21, that this King ruled over Saurislra and was known also by the name KaWikacarya.


KAUSIKAKUNDA. A holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 142 that Visvdmitra got his attainments in this place.


KAUSIKASRAMA. A holy place. It was at this place that Amba, the daughter of King of Kasi performed a severe penance. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 156, Stanza 27) .


KAUSIKYARUNASA&GGAMA. A holy place. It is stated in Mahabhdrata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84 that if a man fasts in this place, the confluence of Kaufiki and Aruna rivers he will be absolved of all his sins.


KAUSTUBHA. A brilliant precious stone. It is mention ed in Agni Purina, Chapter 3; Valmiki Ramayana Bilakanda Sarga 45, Stanza 39 and Mahibharata, Adi Parva that this precious stone floated up at the time of the churning of the sea of Milk. This jewel which originated from the ghee in the sea of Milk, was worn on the breast by Visnu.


"This divine jewel called Kaustubha came up in the middle of ghee and stayed in the breast of Visnu, spreading its rays everywhere." (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 18, Stanza 37) .


KAUTHUMI. Son of a Brahmin named Hiranyanabha. Once this Brahmin youth went to the hermitage of King Janaka and entered into a controversy with the Brahmins there. In the argument Kauthumi became angry and killed a Brahmin. From that day he became a leper. The sin of Brahmahatyi (murder of Brahmin) also followed him. Finally according to the advice of his father he worshipped the sun God, with Sravyasarizjfiakasukta (a spell or incantation) and by the blessing of the Sun God he got deliverance from the sin of Brahmahatya and the disease of leprosy. (Bhavisya Purina, Brahma Parva).


KAUTILYA. See under Cinakya.


KAUTSA. A noble Brahmin scholar. He was present at the sarpa-sattra (sacrificial fire to kill serpents) of

Janamejaya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 53, Stanza 6) .


KAUTSYA (KAUTSA). A hermit who was the disciple of Varatantu. When he had completed his education he asked his teacher what gift he desired. The teacher said that he wanted fourteen crores of gold coins as gift. Kautsya approached the emperor Raghu. The emperor had just finished a sacrifice called Visvajit and had emptied his treasury by giving away all the wealth he had as alms. Only pots made of wood were left as his wealth. When the emperor heard about the need of Kautsya he decided to conquer the capital city of Kubera. That night Kubera filled the treasury of Raghu by a shower of gold. The emperor Raghu gave Kautsya fourteen crores of gold coins. (Raghuvamga).


KAVACA. A sage in the assembly of Indra. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7) . He was one of the sages of the western part. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 208, Verse 30).


KAVACI. One of the sons of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 103) . In Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 84, it is said that he was killed by Bhlmasena.


KAVERI. A holy river in South India. Famous sacred places like Srirafiga and Kumbhakona are on its banks. The Devi of the river lives in Varuna's assembly worshipping him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 20) . The Skanda Purana has the following story as to how Kaver! came down to earth


Once Agastya propitiated Siva at Kailasa and sought the boon of some water for him to found a sacred place on earth. At the same time Kaver! also was worshipping Siva. Siva filled Agastya's bowl with Kaver! water. Agastya, on his way back from Kailasa cursed the Raksasa ca1led Kraufica and kicked the Vindhya mountain down. (See under Agastya). After overcoming various difficulties Agastya at last reached South India. He sat in meditation with the bowl of Kaver! water before him, and then, at the request of Indra, Ganapati, in the guise of a crow came and sat on the brink of the bowl and upset it. The water in the bowl flowed as a river, and that river is the present Kaveri. (Asurakanda, Skanda Purana).


KAVI. I. A son of Vaivasvata Manu. Vivasvan was the son of Kasyapa and Aditi. Vaivasvata Manu was the son of Vivasvan. Manu had sixteen sons who wereManu, Yama, Yam!, Asvinikumaras, Revanta, Sudyumna, Iksvaku, Nrga, Saryati, Dista, Dhrsta, Karusa, Narisyanta, Nabhaga, Prsadhra and Kavi.


KAVI II. There is a reference to a sage named Kavi who was the son of the sage Bhrgu, in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 42,. He was among the sages who stole the lotus of Agastya. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 32) .


KAVI III. An agni who was the fifth son of Brhaspati, is named Kavi. This agni is situated in the sea in the form of Badavagni. This agni has two other names also-Udalha and LDrddhvabhak. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 20).


KAVI-IV. In Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Verse 132; Chapter 85, we find that three persons, namely, Kavi, Bhrgu and Angiras took their birth from the


sacrificial fire at the famous Yaga of Brahma. Of them Brahma made Kavi his own son. This Kavi had eight sons known as the Varunas. One of them was named Kavi and another was named Kavya.


KAVI V. Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 17th Anuvaka. 116th Sukta refers to a blind sage named Kavi.


KAVIRAJA. A Sanskrit poet who lived in India in the 12th Century A.D. His chief works are "Raghavapandaviya" and "Parijataharana". His real name was Madhavabhatta.


KAVISA. A sage. There was a person named Kavisa among the sages who came to visit Sri Rama when he returned after his life in the forest. The sages who came there from the western country were, Vrsangu, Kavisa, Dhaumya, Raudreya, Narada, Vamadeva, Saubhari, Astavakra, guka, Bhrgu, Lomasa, and Maudgalya. (UttaraRamayana).


KAVYA. Son of Kavi, one of the Prajapatis. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85) . Also, a synonym of gukra.


KAVYA (M). Agni Purana, Chapters 390 to 400 contain a discussion on poetry, which is the basis for literary criticism in India. The above discussion in Agni Purana, comprehends the forms and features of poetry, rasa (sentiment), style, the art of acting and the drama, and other matters related to poetry and art.


KAVYAMATA. Mother of gukra, the preceptor of the Daityas.l Kavyamata possessed extraordinary powers of penance. In the Devi Bhagavata the following story is given; how she cursed Visnu and how she made Visnu and Indra powerless.


Once a fierce war was fought by the Devas and the Asuras in which the latter got defeated, and they sought the help of Sukracarya. But, as the Devas enjoyed the support of Visnu, Sukra could not do anything for the asuras, and he therefore advised them to get on somehow or other for some time. After that 8ukra went to Kailasa and performed penance, hanging head downwards, for a thousand years to secure rare and exceptional mantras. During this period the Devas again attacked the Asuras, who ran up to Kavyamata for succour, and she, by one glance, sent the Devas to long sleep. She reduced Visnu and Indra also to a state of paralysis. Then Visnu meditated upon the Sudarsana Cakra, which arrived immediately and with the Cakra he cut off Kavyamata's head. Sage Bhrgu then appeared on the scene and brought back Kavyamata to life, and she, in furious rage cursed that Visnu should fake many births. As a result of the curse Mahavisnu had to incarnate himself on earth many times. (Devi Bhagavata, 4th Skandha).


KAVYAVAHA (S). A group of Pitrs. The Devi Bhagavata, Skandhas 11 and 15 state that this group of Pitrs were born from the drops of sweat which came out of the bodies of Daksa and others when they were fascinated by the charm of Sandhya, the spiritual daughter of Brahma.


KAYADH>:-J. Wife of Hiranyakasipu. Prahlada was born to her.


KAYAgODHANATIRTHA. A holy place in Kuruksetra. According to Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Sukra is also known as Kavya. Certain Puranas claim Sukra as the son of Bhrgu, while certain others refer to him as the son of Kavi son of Bhrgu. Puloma was Bhrgu's wife. But, the Puranas call the mother of gukra Kavyamata. No mention is made about the wife of Kavi the son of Bhrgu. Puloma and Kavyamata are different person. Therefore, gukra might be the son of Bhrgu by another wife, or he might be the son of Kavi.

Chapter 86, by taking a bath at this place the body would be purified.


KAYAVYA. A Candala. He was born to a Candala woman as the son of a Ksatriya. But the Candalas who were impressed by kayavya's moral conduct, made him the headman of the village. He taught others that all people should honour Brahmanas and love their country. His political creed was that those who prospered by the ruin of a country were just like the worms living on a dead body. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 135).


KEDARA. A holy place in the interior of Kuruksetra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, that those who bathe in this holy Bath would obtain the fruits of good actions. One of the twelve Lingas consecrated in important places, is in Kedara.


KEKARALOHITA. A great serpent which once took sage Cyavana to Patala. Cyavana, after worshipping Siva at Nakulesvara tirtha got into river Narmada to take his bath when the naga called Kekaralohita caught hold of him, dragged him and bit him. As the sage meditated upon Visnu the poison did not affect him. The serpent released him from Patala as he was unaffected by poison. Cyavana went to the palace of Prahlada accompanied by naga damsels. On the request of Prahlada Cyavana described to him the holy places on earth, and without any delay Prahlada came to earth for hunting during which sojourn on earth he visited Naimisaranya. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 8) .


KEKAYA. The Mahabharata mentions another Kekaya, a King of the solar dynasty. He wedded two Malava princesses from the elder of whom were born Kicaka and Upakicaka, and from the younger was born Sudesna, also called Kaikeyi. This Sudesna married Matsya, the Virata King. (Virata Parva, Southern text, Chapter 16) .




1) General. A Kingdom in ancient India. Kaikeyi, one of Dasaratha's wives, was a daughter of a Kekaya King.


2) Origin. The country got the name `Kekaya' as it was ruled by King Kekaya. His genealogy is as follows. Descended from Visnu thus :-Brahma-Atri--CandraBudha-Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa - Yayati - Anudruhyu-Sabhanara-Kalanara- Srnjaya - Usinara -Sibi-Kekaya. Sibi had four sons called Bhadra, Suvira, Kekaya and Vrsadarpa. (Bhagavata 9th Skandha).


Other details. (1) The King and the people of Kekaya were called the Kekayas.


(2) Five heroic Kekaya princes met with their death in fighting Drona. (Stri Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 25) .


(3) Two Kekaya Princes, Vinda and Anuvinda fought on the Kaurava side. (Karna Parva, Chapter 13) .


KERAKA. People of an ancient country in South India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabhaparva, Chapter 31 that Sahadeva the son of Madri conquered the Kerakas and Kerala.




1) General information. A small country lying in the south-west corner of India. From the Puranas it could be understood that this country lying to the south of Gokarna upto Cape Comorin and to the


west of Western Ghats had a, very ancient history and civilization of its own.


2) Origin of~Kerala. There are two statements, slightly different from each other, in the Puranas, about the origin of Kerala.


(1) For performing the funeral ceremony of the sons of Sagara whose ashes were lying in Patala (Nether world), Bhagiratha performed penance and brought the heavenly river Ganga to the earth. (See under Ganga). The river fell in North India and flowed in torrents to the sea and the surrounding regions were submerged in water. Among the places submerged, there was the important holy place and Bath of Gokarna a1so, lying on the west coast of India. Those hermits who lived in the vicinity of the temple at Gokarna, escaped from the flood and went to Mahendragiri and informed Paras urama of the calamity of the flood. Parasurama went with them to the sea-shore. Varuna did not make his appearance. The angry Paraurama stood in deep meditation for a little while. The weapons came to his hands. Varuna was filled with fear and he instantly appeared before Parasurama, who asked him to release the land swallowed by the sea. Varuna agreed. Parasurama sent his bow and arrow back to the sky. Then he took a winnowing basket (Surpa) and threw it at the sea. The sea retreated from the place up to the spot where the winnowing basket fell, and the portion of land including Gokarna which had been swallowed by sea was recovered. This land is called Kerala, which is known by the name `Surparaka' also. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapters 98 and 99).


(2) Parasurama went round the world eighteen times and killed all the Ksatriya Kings. After that he performed the sacrifice of Asvamedha (horse sacrifice). In the sacrifice he gave all the lands as alms to Brahmins. Kasyapa received all the lands for the Brahmins. After that he requested Paragurama to vacate the land. Accordingly Parasurama created new land by shooting an arrow at the sea, for his own use. "At the words of Kasyapa, he made the sea retreat by shooting an arrow, thereby creating dry land." This land was Kerala. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 70)-


3) Kerala and Patala (Nether world). The ancient sages of the Puranas have grouped the worlds into three, the Svarga (heaven), Bhumi (the earth) and the Patala (the nether world). The three worlds taken as a whole were divided into fourteen worlds. It does not appear that this grouping was merely imaginary. A keen observation of the Puranas would lead one to infer that the Himalayan plateau was considered as Devaloka-Svarga (heaven), the planes between the Himalaya and the Vindhya as Bhuloka (the earth) and the regions to the south of the Vindhya as Patala (the nether world), by the ancient people of India. The seven worlds of Patala such as Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala might have been seven countries in this region. The following description which occurs in Devil Bhagavata, Skandha 8, would substantiate this inference.


"Patala is below the earth. This Patala is a group of seven worlds one below the other, with names, Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Rasatala and Mahatala. In all those worlds, there are several beautiful cities and houses, palaces and castles, parks, gardens, open temples and hails, natural arbours etc. made by Maya. There live the Asuras, the Danavas (a class of Asuras-demons) the nagas (serpents) and others, with their families, with happiness and comfort. Chirping birds, pigeons, parrots; docile parrots etc. always play there with their inseparable mates. Trees bearing sweet fruits, plants covered with fragrant flowers, arbours with creepers growing thick, beautiful houses floored with white marble, and so many other things giving pleasure and comfort are seen there in plenty. In these things the atala surpasses heaven. Daityas, Danavas and the agas (the Asuras and the serpents) are the dwellers of these worlds. They lead a happy and pleasant life with their families enjoying all sorts of comfort and luxury." atala, one of the seven divisions of the world is described as follows


"This is the region of the Nagas (the serpents). At the root-place of this region there is a particular place having an area of thirty thousand yojanas. Visnu Kala who has the attribute of `tamasa' (darkness) lives there under the name `Ananta'. The real Ananta or AdiAesa is the radiant embodiment of this Kala. The daughters of the Naga Kings are of fair complexion and very beautiful, with clean body. They use perfumeries such as sandalwood, aloewood, saffron, etc."


In this description, the words Daityas, Nagas, Ananta, Sandalwood, aloewood etc. and the mention of natural beauty should be paid particular attention to. From the Ramayana we can understand that the Aryas referred to the Dravidas as Asuras, Raksasas (Giants) etc. History says that the Nagas were the early inhabitants of Kerala. The ancient word `Ananta' denotes Trivandrum (Tiru-Ananta-puram). The temple of Sri Padmanabha at Trivandrum answers to this description. The perfumeries such as, sandalwood, aloewood (cidar) etc. are the wealth of Kerala. On the whole the description of Patala fits well with that of Kerala. So it is not wrong to infer that the description of in the Puranas is entirely about Kerala in all its aspects.


4) The Primitiveness of Kerala. From the portions of Puranas given below it could be ascertained that Kerala had an independence of its own from the very ancient days.


(1) Among the Kings who attended the Svayarnvara (marriage) of 8asikala, the daughter of the King of Kasi, such as, the King of Kuru, King of Madra, King of Sindliu, King of Paficala, Kings of Karnataka, Cola and Vidarbha, there was theKing of Kerala also. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 3) .


(2) When describing the various p1aces in the Southern part of Bharata, names such as Dramida, Kerala, Musika, Karnataka etc. occur in the Mahabharata. So it is to be understood that when Vyasa wrote Bharata, there was the kingdom of Kerala and that it was separate from the country of Dravida. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9) .


(3) "Kartaviryarjuna took his majestic seat in the midst of Cola, Kerala, Pandya and other Kings of the countries under the-sea, who were standing round him 54) ay homage to him." (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter


(4) It is mentioned in Agni Purana, Chapter 277, that a King named Gandhara was born in the dynasty


of Turvasu the brother of Yadu, and that from Gandhara were born the powerful families of the Gandharas the Keralas, the Colas, the Pandyas and the Kolas.


(5) In Mahabharata, Adi ~a_rva, Chapter 175, it is mentioned that the people of Kerala were considered as barbarians by the North Indians:


(6) In Bhagavata, Skandha 10, it is mentioned that the Kings of Cola, Pandya and Kerala, from South India, had reached the capital city of Vidarbha to take part in the Svayamvara (marriage) of Rukmini.


(7) Mention is made in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Stanza 15, that in his conquest of the countries, Karna had conquered Kerala also.


(8) It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, that Sahadeva, one of the Pandavas, conquered the Keralas and the Kerakas. It may be noted that the Kerakas are different from Keralas.


(9) Valmiki mentions the countries which could be seen by the monkeys who were sent to the South by Sugriva to search for Sita.


Nadim Godavaridr caiva Sarvamevanupasyata /


Tathaivandhran ca Paundran ca Colan Pandyan ca Keralan. I/


"You could see the river Godavari and beyond it the countries of Andhra, Paundra, Cola, Pandya and Kerala."


This is a proof of the primitiveness of Kerala.


(10) The King of Kerala had given Yudhisthira, as presents, sandalwood, pearls,,Lapis Lazuli etc. (M.B. Daksinatyapatha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 51).


In several other Puranas also, mention about Kerala occurs.


5) The ancient administration of Kerala. Parimelazhakar, a Sairga poet who was a great expounder of "Tirukkural", has stated that from the beginning of the world the three kingdoms, Cera, Cola and Pandya had existed. Though there is a bit of exaggeration in this statement, there are enough proofs to say that a long time before the birth of Christ, Kerala was under a systematic rule. In `Tolkappiyam' the first grammatical work in Tamil mention is made about the administration of Kerala. Megasthenes, a traveller of 4th century B.C. has stated about the rule of Kerala


There were five councils called the ParYcamahasabhas (the five great councils) to help the Cera Kings. It is stated that these councils were formed by the King Utiyan Cera of the Trkkana fort. Besides these five councils there was an advisory Committee, of which, the priest of the King, the Chief Minister, Chief of the spies and the Chief Revenue officer (Kaviti) were members.


For convenience of administration the country was divided into tarakkuttas (groups of houses-villages) and and Nattukkuttas (Districts-group of villages). Taras (villages) were ruled by four elders (Karanavas). Four villages formed a Nalpadu (group) of four. Four Nalpadus formed a Kazhaka (a division of the country with a chief temple within it) and four Kazhakas formed a Perurirkazhaka (greater Kazhaka). Perumkazhaka was also known as Trkkala. The assembly hall of trkkutta is called Kottil. This hall was erected generally beside the temple. The chief officer of the temple was the chairman of the trkkutta (assembly of the people). When a trkkutta is assembled, sixtyfour elders of the "taras", the "accas" (officers) of Kazhakas, the sixtyfour Tandans and sixteen Nalpadies had to be present. The Nalpadies were the chiefs of four taras. The accas, who were the Presidents, had to come clad in variegated silk, with waist-band of long cloth and wearing a small sword (Churika). Till recently the Kazhakas of Andallur, Rampallya, Kurvantatta, Turutti etc., and so many Nalpadus and taras and the elders thereof had been retaining and enjoying titles and distinctions of rank.


The Namboothiris (Brahmins) entered Kerala before the beginning'of the Malayala Era. With that, changes took place in the administration of Kerala. Certain edicts help us to ascertain the changes that took place in the administration. The edict of Vazhappally of the 9th century by Rajasekhara is an important one in this connection. This emperor of the Ceras who is considered to be a contemporary of Sri Sankaracarya had the title beginning with "Rajadhiraja Paramesvara Bhattaraka". (T.A.S. Vol. II, P. 8-14) . The subject dealt with in the edict is the `daily worship and settlement', in the temple of Tiruvottiyur. It is stated in this edict that the people of Vazhappally and the representatives of 18 Nadus or divisions had met in the temple and taken certain decisions.


The next one is the Kottayam Copper edicts known as the `Tarisa Church Edicts.' This is a document granting the Tarisa Church in Quilon, the adjoining lands and some other institutions. This edict was granted by Ayyanati tiruvatikal the ruler of the Natu (division), for the Cera emperor. It is mentioned as "including the Temple Officer Vijayarakatevar", which means that Vijayaraka had been present on the occasion of granting the edict, as the representative of Emperor Sthanuravi. The Naduvazhis (local chiefs or rulers of division) were not empowered to take decision in very important matters. Titles, rights distinctions of rank etc. were granted by a council of Chief minister, Officers, Punnattalappati and Polakkutippati (two high officials). Vijayarakatevar, the Koil adhikdri, was the representative of the emperor at Mahodayapura. The supervising ofcials of temples were generally called the `Koil adhikari'. Normally the younger brothers of the Kings were appointed in this rank. These temple-officers were helped in their duties by the Division-rulers, people of the locality and the inferior officers in the temple. When the empire of Kulasekhara declined, the family of Perumpadappu got this position of `Koil adhikari'. So the title `Koil adhikari' is added to the names of the princes of Cochin.


Another one is the Mampally Edicts. This is a deed of granting some lands free to the temple of Airur, in the name of Adiccan Umayamma of Trkkalayapuram, by Venattu Sri Vallabhankota in M.E. 149. Even such an unimportant thing as the granting of free lands, had to be effected with the permission of Cera kings and their councils. (T.A.S. Vol IV, Page 9) .


From these edicts it is clear that the administration of the temples was carried out by representatives elected by people. For each village temple there was an administrative council. These councils were controlled by Naduvazhis and Desavazhis (Divisional and Sub Divisional rulers who had Nair infantry (big or small as the case may be) at their disposal. The administrative assembly met either in the open hall at the main


gate of the temple or on the stage for performances. The rights and authorities were in the hands of the general assembly of the people called Nattukkutta and the council of the temple officials. When the Namboothiris became powerful they became members of the council. With this change the Kings and Koil adhikaris became puppets in the hands of the Namboothiris. In the Ramesvaram edict of M.E. 278 it is mentioned that King Ramavarma Kulasekhara was punished with retribution for his `hatred' of the Aryas. Finally the Nambuthiris (Maiayala Brahmins) became the landlords of the country.


6) The people of ancient Kerala. It is assumed that the ancient inhabitants of Kerala were Dravidas. But some historians have mentioned about the `Proto Dravidians and the Pre Dravidians. The hill tribes such as Kanikkars, Mutuvas, Mala Vetas, Pulayas, Kuravas, Nayatis, Malayarayas, Malayatis, MalappandAras, Malayuralis, Mutuvans Pullatis etc. are said to have belonged to this group. They worshipped several things such as stone, banyan tree, elenji ti`ee; Asclapia tree, Nim tree Terminatia Bellarica, Borassus flabel1iforrnis, cassia fistula, Ghosts, thunder, rain, the sun etc. They- worshipped good ghosts for welfare, and bad. ghosts to avoid misfortunes. They had images of Mata, Catta, Cavu, Maruta, Pettucavu, Arukula, Preta, Vazhipinakki, Ayiramilli, Parakkutti, Kattujati, Malavazhi, Marini, Nayattu Pe Mankattamma, Muniyappa, V ettakkaran and so on. They worshipped in small bushes, open grounds or houses. They knew black magic such as cursing, giving poison in meals etc. These uncivi1ized people were very particular about cleanliness on the occasions of delivery, menstruation, death etc. They pleased bad ghosts by offering liquor, flesh and blood, and good ghosts with milk, ghee, honey etc. They buried dead bodies with a little raw rice meant for food at the time of entering the other world. They had collective worship. They sang songs at the time of worship using some primitive musical instruments. For each village there were elders who were priests and rulers. They erected stone huts in the burial place and buried the dead inside these in graves. These graves were called `Pandukuzhy'. The Oralis, continue the custom of posting two stones at either end of the grave. The custom of burial prevailed more than cremation.


Nair, Nambutiri, Tzhava, Christians, Muslims and such other castes came to Kerala from other places later.


7) An Batuta and Kerala. Ibn Batuta who was born in the town of Tanjir in Morocco in Africa in A.D. 1304,had travelled all over the Eastern countries then known. He had started from his house on a Haj Pilgrimage at the age of 22. He returned home only after 29 years, having travelled all over the known countries. He has written a book in Arabic about his travels of 29 years. One third


of this thick volume is devoted for descriptions of his travels in India alone. Its name is `Tuh Phattunannar'. He passed over the Hindu Kush in A.D. 1333 and entered India. In the midst of his travels throughout


the length and breadth of India, he came to Kerala also. He says as follows about Kerala in his book:-


"Malabar is the country of Pepper. This country's length from Gokarna to Quilon is two months' journey. All the roads in this country are rendered cool and shady by asclapia trees. On the roads at intervals of half an hour there are inns. Near the inn there will be a well and a person to give water. The non-Muslims are given water in pots. But water is poured into the hands of Muslims. Rice is served in plantain leaf and sauces are also served in the same leaf. Uncultivated and uninhabited land is not to be seen. Each house is situated in the centre of a cultivated area. The people of this country do not use animals to carry goods. Travelling is on foot Only Kings use horses. There is a conveyance called mancal (Palanquin) . Slaves are used as Palanquin bearers. I have seen roads which could be used so fearlessly, only in Kerala and, no where else in the world. Capital punishment is given to one who steals even a coconut. The people of this country respect Muslims.


There are twelve kings in Malabar. None of them are Muslims. Many of them are powerful having an army of more than fifty-thousand soldiers. But there are no quarrels or clashes among them. The powerful do not have the desire to subjugate the less powerful. The inheritants of these kings are not sons, but nephews (sons of sisters). Besides the people of Kerala I have seen only the Muslims of the country of Salam on the banks of the Niger in Africa who have adopted the system of inheritance in the female line."


Ibn Batuta has given some minor descriptions about the towns of Mamgalapuram, Ezhumala, Kannur Calicut, Paliyam, Cranganur and Quilon.


KFSARA. A Mountain in Sakadvipa (Saka island). The air on this mountain was always filled with fragrance.-(M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 23).


KESARI. A forest King who lived in the Maha Meru. While Kesari was living in the Mahameru, Brahma cursed a celestial maid named Managarva and changed her into a female monkey. She became the wife of Kesari, under the name Anjana. For a long time the couple had no children. Anjana worshipped Vayu Bhagavan (Wind-God) for a child.


Once during this period the gods and hermits went to Parama Siva and requested him to beget a son to help Mahavisnu who was about to incarnate as Sri Rama to kill Ravana. Siva and Parvatf instantly took the form of monkeys and entered the forest for play. They having not returned for a long time the gods asked the wind-god to go in search of them. The wind god carne in the form of a great storm and shook the whole of the forest. Still they did not come out. Parvati who was pregnant was ashamed to come out. With Siva she got on an Asoka tree and sat there. Seeing that tree alone standing motionless in the big storm Vayu god approached the tree and looked up. Siva and Parvati appeared before Vayu. Parvad refused to take the foetus in the form of monkey to Kailasa. As Siva had instructed, Parvati gave the child in the womb to the wind-god. It was at this time that Anjana had prayed to Vayu for a child. Vayu gave that child to Anjana, who gave birth to it. That child was Hanuman. Thus Hanuman got the names, Anjanaputra


(son of Anjana), Vayuputra (son of Vayu), Kesariputra (Son of Kesari) etc. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 417 )


KESAVA. See under Krsna.


KESAYANTRI. An attendant of Skandadeva. (M.B.Salya Parva, Chapter 46) .




1). General information. An Asura. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65 that forty Asuras or Danavas were born to Kasyapa, the son of Marici, and the grandson of Brahma, by his wife Danu, and that Kesi was one of them.


2). Kesi and Indra. Once a war broke out between the Devas and the Asuras. Disasters befell the Devas. Daityasena and Devasena, the daughters of Prajapati were about to be carried away by Keg!. Daityasena agreed to accompany him of her own accord, but Devasena cried aloud. Hearing her cry Devendra reached the spot. A terrible fight ensued and finally the defeated Keg! ran away. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 223) .


3). K~si and TTi;s?2u. Once there was a fight which lasted for thirteen days, between Keg! and Visnu. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 134, Stanza 20) .


KEST II. A follower of Karhsa. This Asura, on the instruction of Karhsa, went to Ambadi (Gokula) taking the form ofa horse, to kill Sri Krsna. Sri Krsna killed Keg!. It is seen in the Bhagavata (Malayalam ) that Sri Krsna got the name Kesava because he had killed Keg!. (Skandha 10, Kes ivadha) .


KESI 111. In Bhagavata there is another Keg i who was the son of Vasudeva.


"Pauravi Rohini Bhadra Madira Rocana Ila /


Devakipramukha asan Patnya Anakadundubheh."


Pauravi, Rohini, Bhadra, Madira, Rocana, Ila and Devaki were the wives of Vasudeva.


From this statement made in Bhagavata, Skandha 9, Chapter 24, it is clear that Vasudeva had a number of wives. Kausalya, who was one of them, was the mother of Keg i. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9, Chapter 24, Stanza 48).


KESINI I. A celestial woman. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva Chapter 65 it is stated that the twelve celestial maids, Alambusa, Misrakesi, Vidyutparna, Tilottama, Aruna, Raksita, Rambha, Manorama, Kesini, Surata, Suraja and Supriya were born to Kag yapa of his wife Pradha.


KESINI II. The wife of Ajamidha, a King of the Puru dynasty. The three sons Jahnu, Vraja and Rupina were born to Ajamidha of his wife Kegini. (Agni ~urana, Chapter 278) .


KESINI III. A maid of Da mayanti. When Nala-reached Kundinapuri, as Bahuka the charioteer of Rtuparna, Kegini approached Bahuka at the request of bamayanti and by various tests found out that Bahuka was Nala. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 74 and 75) .


KESINI IV. A servant of Parvati. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Stanza 48 that once Parvati with her servant Keg ini praised Siva.


KESINI V. Once there arose a quarrel between Sudhanva, the son of Angiras, and Virocana the son of Prahlada, because both wanted to marry the same girl named Kesini. Sudhanva was a Brahmin whereas Virocana was an Asura, who argued that Asura was nobler than Brahmin and Sudhanva said that it was the other way: Both wagered their lives and accepted Prahlada as their judge. The decision of Prahlada was that the Brahmin was the nobler of the two. Because Prahlada said the truth Sudhanva did not kill Virocana. But Virocana had to wash the lfeet of Sudhanva in the presence of KeSini, feet Sudhanva married kesin! in the presence of Virocana. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 35).


KESINI. VI. A wife of King Sagara. This Kesini was the daughter of the King of Vidarbha. The son Asamanjasa was born to Sagara of Kesini. (Vdlmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Sarga 38).


KETAKI. (A flower). [Pandarnus odoratissimus] Though Ketaki is a flower which had been worn on Siva's head, it is not worshipped for the following reason.


In Satyayuga Mahavisnu performed intense penance on the gveta island for the attainment of eternal happiness. Brahma also performed penance at a beautiful place for the annihilation of desires. During their tapas Visnu and Brahma, for a rest, left their seats and walked about in the forest when they met each other. There arose a controversy between them about their respective greatness when Siva, in the form of a Linga, appeared between the two contestants and told them that he, who first found out his (Siva's) head or feet was greater than the other. Accordingly Visnu went down and Brahma went up on a tour of enquiry.


Though Visnu went down deeper and deeper for a long time to find out Siva's feet he failed in the attempt and so returned and sat at the place whence he started for the search. Brahma went up a very long distance when he saw a Ketaki flower falling down from the sky. He took the flower in his hands and went to Visnu and told him that he had found out Siva's head and showed the Ketaki flower as proof of his discovery claiming that it was taken from Siva's head. But Visnu did not believe Brahma and asked the Ketaki flower to bear witness to Brahma's claim. The flower gave false evidence in favour of Brahma. Siva got angry at this false evidence of Ketaki and cursed it. The Ketaki lost its place among the best flowers from that day onwards.


KETU I. (KETUMAN). A Danava. He was the son of Kas yapa (grandson of Brahma and son of Marici ) by his wife Danu. This Asura, who exists in the shape of a planet had thirtythree brothers, i.e. Vipracitti, Sambara, Namuci, Puloma, Asiloma, Keg!, Durjaya, Ayassiras, Mvagiras, Aiva, Sanku, Mahabala, Garga, Amurdhan, Vegavan, Manavari, Svarbhanu, A9vapati, Vrsaparvan, Ajaka, Agvagriva, Suksma, Tuhunda, Ekapat, Ekacakra, Vl. rupaksa, Harahara, Nikumbha, Kapata, $arabha, galabha, Surya and Candramas. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65) .


But Ketu maintained closer relationship with Rahu, a step-brother of his, being the son of Kasyapa by another wife called Sirhhika. Rahu and Ketu are even today considered as inauspicious planets. Rahu wears a half-moon and Ketu holds in his hands a sword and lamp. Amitaujas was Ketu reborn. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 11).


KETU II. A great sage of ancient India. He attained salvation by self-study. (anti Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7) .


KETU III. A synonym of Siva. (Anugasana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 38).


KETU IV. A King born in Bharata's dynasty. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


KETU V. (DHUMAKETU). The following story is told in Visnudharmottara Purana about the birth of Dhumaketu.


Noting that the population on earth had increased abnormally Brahma created a damsel called Mrtyu and asked her to kill people. At this command of Brahma she began crying, and from her tear drops various kinds of diseases originated at the sight of which she took to penance. Then Brahma appeared and blessed her saying that no one would die because of her at which she heaved a great sigh of relief froc:a which was born Ketu or Dhumaketu.


KETUMALA I. The grandson of Priyavrata, the son of Mann. Agnidhra, a son of Priyavrata married Purvacitti. Nine sons were born to Agnidhra of his wife Purvacitti. Ketumala was one of them. His brothers were Nabhi, Kimpurusa, Hari, Ilavrta, Ramyaka, Hiranmaya. Kuru and Bhadrasva.


In old age Agnidhra divided his kingdom among his sons. Later, the portion given to Ketumala came to be known as Ketumala. (Bhagavata, Skandha 5) .


KETUMALA II. A holy place in jambudvipa. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 89) .


KETUMALA III. (See under Ketumala I) . Ketumala is the ninth division of jambudvipa. The people of this part of the earth are equal to gods (Devas). The women are very beautiful. In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva it is stated that Arjuna conquered this land. Ketumala is situated on the east of Mount Meru. In Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6, there is the description of Ketumala.


KETUMAN I. Ketu the Asura (demon). (See under Ketu I).


KETUMAN II. A King who was a luminary in the council of Yudhisthira. He was a warrior on the side of the Kauravas and a friend of Srutayudha, the King of Kalinga. It is mentioned in. Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Stanza 77, that Bhimasena killed this warrior in the battle of Bharata.


KETUMAN III, In the Mahabharata, another Ketuman who had fought on the side of Pandavas, is stated. Dhrtarastra had praised the valour of this warrior. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 10, Stanza 44).


KETUMAN IV. A palace in Dvaraka. It is mentioned in .Mahabharata, Daksinatya-patha, Sabhd Parva, Chapter 38, that Sudatta, the wife of Sri Krsna lived in this palace.


KETUMAN V. Antapala (the guard of the boundary) of the west. At the beginning of the creation of the world Brahma had appointed as guards of the boundaries, Sudhanvan in the east, Sankhapada in the south, Ketuman in the West and Hiranyaromaka in the North. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19).


KETUMAN VI. A King of the Puru dynasty. (See under Variisavali).


KETUMAN VII. In Bhagavata we see a Ketuman who was the son of Dhanvantari, who gave Ayurveda to the world.


"Who was the deva who made the Ayurveda in days of old ? His son was Ketuman whose son was Bh1maratha." (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


KETUMAN VIII. Son of Ekalavya. In Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva it is mentioned that this King of the forest tribes fought on the side of Duryodhana and was killed by Bhirna.


KETUMATI. Mother of Prahasta, a minister of Ravana. Ketumati had two sisters Sundari and Vasudha. These three were daughters of a Gandharva woman.


Giant Heti-, the son of Brahma married Bhaya and Vidyutkesa was born to the couple. Sukesa was born to Vidyutkesa by his wife Salakatanka. Three sons Malyavan, Sumali and Mali were born to Sukesa by his wife Daivavati. Sundari, Ketumati and Vasudha the three beautiful sisters mentioned above, were married by the giants Malyavari, Sumali and Mali respectively. Thus Ketumati became the wife of Sumali. To Sumali and Ketumati were born ten sons, Prahasta, Al_ampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumraksa, Danda, Suparsva, Samlhrada, Prakvata and Bhasakarna and four daughters Veka, Puspotkata, Kaikasi and Kumbhinasi. Most of the sons were ministers of Ravana. (Uttara Ramavana).


KETUSRiUGA. A King of ancient India. (M.'B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1).


KETUVARMAN. A prince of the country of Trigarta. He .was the youngest brother of Suryavarma, the King of Trigarta. When Arjuna led the sacrificial horse of the horse-sacrifice of the Pandavas, Ketuvarman accompanied Arjuna as a, he1per. (M.B. Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 74) .


KEVALA. A city of ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Stanzas 10 and l l that Karna conquered this city.


KHA. This syllable has the meanings `empty' and `organ of sense'. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348) .


KHADGA. A warrior of Skandadeva. (Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 67) .


KHADGABAHU. See under Du•;sasana II.


KHADGI. See under Kalki.


KHAGA I.A naga (serpent) born in the family of Kasyapa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103).


KHAGA II. A synonym of Siva. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 17, Stanza 67).


KHAGAMA. A Brahmana. In Mahabharata, there is a story which describes how this Brahmin Khagama changed another Brahmin to a serpent by cursing him. The Brahmin Khagama and -Sahasrapat were friends. Once Sahasrapat made a snake of grass and terrified Khagama at Agnihotra (Burnt offering in the holy fire) Khagama instantly cursed Sahasrapat to become a serpent. Sahasrapat requested for liberation from the curse. Khagama said that he would resume his original form on the day he saw Ruru the son of Pramati. From that day onwards Sahasrapat roamed about in several countries in the form of a serpent.


Once Pramadvara the wife of Ruru, died by snake-bite. Ruru cried over the death of his wife for a long time. According to the advice of a messenger from the Devas Ruru gave half of his life-time to his wife and she came to life again. But Ruru felt a bitter hatred against serpents and began their extermination. Once he met with Sahasrapat. Instantly at the sight of Ruru, Sahasrapat obtained his original form. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 11) .


KHAGANA. A King born in the family of Sri Rama. He was the son of Vajranabha and the father of Vidhrti. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10) .


KHAGODARA. See under Kahoda.


KHALI I. A synonym of Mahavisnu. (M.B. Anugasana Parva, Chapter 17, Stanza 43) .


KHALI II. An Asura dynasty. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 155, Stanza 22, that Vasistha once destroyed an Asura dynasty called Khali, with his effulgence.


KHALU. A river of ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 28).


KHANAKA. A messenger sent by Vidura, secretly to the P5.ndavas who were living in the wax-house. Vidura sent a message through Khanaka to the effect, that Duryodhana had decided to set fire to the waxhouse employing Purocana to do it on the 14th night of the dark 1unar fortnight. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 147).


KHANDAKHANDA. A female attendant of Skanda. In Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 20, mention is made about this woman.


KHANDAPARASU. Siva. A story occurs in Mahabharata stating how Siva got this name. The famous Daksa-yaga (sacrifice performed by Daksa) was performed at a time when the Nara Narayanas v:ere engaged in penance in Badaryasrama. Daksa did not havite his sonin-law Siva. The angry Siva sent his trident against Daksa. The trident destroyed the sacrifice of Daksa and then flew against the breast of Nbrayana who was sitting in penance in Badaryasrama. By the power of the trident the hair of Narayana became of munja (a grass) colour. From that day onwards Ndrayana came to be known by the name Munjakega. By a sound "hum", the hermit Narayana deviated the trident, which reached the hands of Siva, who got angry and approached Narayana to kill him. Nara, who was close by took an arrow and reciting spells over it, released it to kill Siva. Immediately the arrow changed to an axe. Siva broke the axe. After this the axe became the weapon of Siva. In Mahabharata Santi Parva, Chapter 49, Stanza 33, it is mentioned that this axe was given to Parasurama the disciple of Siva. Thenceforward Siva got the name Khandaparasu. (Para-' u means axe). (Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 343. Stanzas 150-59, 167) .




1) Introduction. Long ago a King named Svetaki began to perform a sacrifice of duration of 100 years. Many Brahmins took part in the sacrifice as priests conducting the rituals and ceremonies. These Brahmin priests began to depart after a few years turning blind due to the smoke coming out of the sacrificial fire. Thus the sacrifice was stopped for want of priests. Svetaki was grieved at this and performed penance to Siva for getting a priest. Siva appeared before him and pointed out hermit Durvasas as the priest. Svetaki recommenced the sacrifice and under the supervision of Durvasas the sacrifice was completed. But Fire god caught dysen, tery due to the continuous eating of oblations offered in the sacrificial fire for a long period. His face became pale, body became lean, and he had no taste for food. At last Fire-God went to Brahma and complained about his disease. Brahma said that in the forest of Khandava there lived so many creatures which were enemies of the devas (gods) and that by eating their fat the disease of Agni would be cured. Accordingly Agni came to the Khandava forest.


The serpent Taksaka, a friend of Indra, lived in this forest with his wife and children. Indra knew that Agni had come to burn the Khandava forest and resolved to save Taksaka at any cost. When Agni (fire) began to catch the forest, Indra had already begun rain. So it was not possible for Agni to consume the forest. Agni tried seven times to consume the forest and in all these seven attempts he failed. Agni again approached Brahma, who told him that the Nara-Narayanas would take birth in the earth as Krsna and Arjuna and that at that time it would be possible for fire to consume the forest Khandava.


2) Ytrfna and Ariuna in the forest ofKhandaaa. While the Pandavas were living in Indraprastha, once the hot season became so unbearable that Arjuna took Krsna with him and went to the forest of Khandava. While they were playing in the river Yamuna with their wives Agni came there in the guise of an old Brahmin and told them all that had happened and requested their help for eating the forest. Krsna and Arjuna promised to help him in this affair.


3) Preparation of weapons. For the time being Krsna and Arjuna were not having sufficient weapons. ,kg**ni (fire-god) thought of Varuna (the God of water) who instantly appeared. At the request of Agni Varuna gave Arjuna the famous bow `Candradhanus' (Gandiva), a quiver which would never become empty of arrows and a chariot having a flag with the sign of monkey and to Sri Krsna the weapon of the discus. Varuna gave four white horses also with gold chains round their necks for drawing the chariot of Arjuna. With these weapons Krsna and Arjuna got ready to help Agni. Sri Krsna became the charioteer of Arjuna.


4) Burning the forest. When Krsna and Arjuna stood ready Agni began to consume the forest. Krsna and Arjuna guarded the boundaries of the forest so that the inmates of the forest might not escape. The living creatures ran hither and thither finding no way to escape. Many died of suffocation. At that time the hermits who were dwellers of that forest ran to Indra and informed him of the great calamity. Indra instantly got ready to fight and save the forest. He covered the whole of the sky with clouds and a heavy rain was showered on the forest. Arjuna created a covering of arrows like an umbrella over the fire and saved him from the rain.


5) The ,family of Taksaka. At this particular time Taksaka had been away at Kuruksetra. ASvasena the son of Taksaka was writhing with heat and pain. Seeing this his mother (wife of Taksaka) swallowed him, from tail to head. Then she ran to the boundary to throw the child into the outer region. Seeing this Arjuna got angry and cut at the head of Mvasena. But at the nick of time Indra sent a storm and made Arjuna swoon and Asvasena was saved. So Arjuna became furious and began to cut down every creature he saw. Arjuna, Krsna and Agni together cursed Asvasena that he would get refuge nowhere.


Asvasena kept up his hatred of Arjuna. In the Bharata battle, Asvasena got on an arrow sent by Karna at Arjuna and knocked off the crown of Arjuna and returned. But due to the curse Karna did not receive him back.


6) Deadly fight. The serpents and hawks confronted Atjuna, who cut off their heads. Krsna killed the


Asuras with the weapon discus. Indra came to the battle-field riding on his elephant Airavata. Kala (Time), Kubera, Skanda, Asvinidevas and all the other Devas (gods), and Asuras (demons) helped Indra in the fight. But Krsna and Arjuna came out victorious.


7) The advent of Maya. Meanwhile Krsna and Arjuna called Indra and told him who they were and informed him that Taksaka had gone to Kuruksetra. Hearing this Indra blessed Krsna and Arjuna and retreated from the battlefield. Agni began to consume the forest more vigorously than before. Because of the unbearable heat, Maya, the architect of 'the Asuras, came out of the house of Taksaka and ran to Krsna and Arjuna and entreated them to save him. Accordingly Arjuna saved him from the fire.


8) The story of four birds which escaped from the fire. In that forest a hermit named Mandapala had erected his hermitage and lived there performing penance. He died and went to the world of ancestors. But there, the hermit did not attain any fruit of the penance he had performed. The hermit asked the Devas for the reason. They replied that it was because the hermit had no sons. The hermit came to the forest again to marry and beget sons. Mandapala married a bird called Jarita. Four sons named Jaritari, Sarisrkka, Stambamitra and Droria, were born to them. After this Mandapala left Jarita and her sons and went after another woman Lapita.


Feathers were not- yet grown on the body of Jarita's four sons. The burning of the forest began before it. Jarita and her sons were in a sorry plight. The mother could fly. But she did not think of leaving her young ones in danger. She decided to die in the fire folding the young ones under her wings. But her sons did not agree to it. They entreated her to fly away. Thus moments of tears passed by. At last Jarita told them crying, "There is the hole of a rat closeby. The rat had been taken away by 3 kite. I will take you to that hole and close it. Then I shall go away and return when the fire is abated."


But the young ones did not agree to this. They loved to be killed by fire, rather than to be killed by rat. Finally at their request Jarita flew away.


Mandapala thought of his sons. He separated from Lapita, and came to Agni and requested him to save his sons and Jarita. Agni consumed the forest and neared the birds. The young birds requested Agni to save them. Agni Deva saved them. Mandapala and Jarita returned. That family lived for a long time in joy and happiness and finally attained the world of the gods. Agni returned to heaven after the burning of the forest of Khandava. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 233 to 346) .


KHANDAVAPRASTHA. See under Indraprastha.


KHANDAVAYANA. Parasurama gave all the countries conquered by him to Kasyapa. Along with the lands he gave a golden dais also. The group of hermits called Khandavayanas cut the dais into pieces and shared them with the permission of Kasyapa. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 117, Stanza 13) .


KHANDIKYA. A Ksatriya King. Kesidhvaja was the son of his paternal uncle. Both had learned well the ways of union with the divine life. Khandikya had become an expert in Karmayoga (the path of action) for becoming one with the divine life whereas Kegidhvaja tied to achieve oneness with divine life by Jnana Yoga (the path of knowledge or spiritual attainment) . Each desired to subdue the other. Consequently Khandikya lost his kingdom and had to live in a forest with his priest and minister. (Bhagavata, Skandhas 9 and 13) .


Kesidlivaja who tried the path of knowledge to attain Absolution performed several sacrifices for that purpose and cut himself asunder from the bonds of action. Once, while lie was performing a sacrifice, a tiger came to the place of sacrifice and killed the sacrificial cow. Then Kesidhvaja asked the priests who were conducting the sacrifice, what the atonement was for the death of the sacrificial cow. The priests sent the King to the hermit Ka~eru, who sent the King to the hermit Bhrgu. Hermit Bhrgu in his turn sent the King to the hermit Sunaka. But the matter did not end there. The hermit Sunaka could not dictate the atonement for the death of the sacrificial cow. So he sent the King to Khandikya who was living in the forest. The moment Khandikya saw Kesidhvaja he stood ready to kill him. But Kesidhvaja revealed everything to Khandikya, When he understood the situation Khandikya to1d him with sincerity the rites given in the ~astras (Vedangas) to atone the death of the sacrificial cow.


Kesidhvaja returned and completed the sacrifice. The one item of `gift to the teacher' alone remained. So Kesidhvaja came to the forest again. Khandikya raised the sword to cut him. Kesidhvaja said that he had come to give Gurudaksina to the teacher. Khandikya repented his rashness and requested Kesidhvaja to tell him the ways of cutting himself asunder from the bonds of sorrow and grief. Kesidhvaja advised him the ways to obtain eternal bliss. (Narada Purina).


KHANINETRA. The eldest son of Vivam9a, a King of the solar dynasty. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 4, that this King was driven away from the country as he harassed the people.


KHARA T. A giant (Raksasa). Khara and Atikaya were the rebirths of Madhu and Kaitabha. .For details see under Kaitabha and Atika-ya.


1) Birth and genealogy. Mahabharata mentions as follows about the birth of this giant:-Visravas was born from Pulastya the son of Brahma. Kubera was born from Visravas. Kubera ruled over Lanka. Visravas who had no one to help him once looked with anger at Kubera, who, understanding the wish of his father gave him three giantesses named Puspotkata, Raka and Malin! as attendants. They attended on him faithfully and Visravas was pleased with them. To ViSravas two sons named Ravana and Kumbhakarna were born by Puspot` ata, Viblhisana was born by Malin! and the twin sister and brother Surpanakha and Khara were born by Raka. By and by Khara became a famous archer. Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhisana performed penance to obtain boons and Khara and Surpanakha stayed with them to serve them. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 275).


2) Other brothers. Khara had two other brothers Dusana and Trisiras. (Uttara Ram ayana) .


3) The slaughter of Khara. While Sri mama, Sita and Laksmana were staying in the forest of Dandakaranya Surpanakha the sister of Khara came there once and tried to get one of the brothers Sri Rama and Laksmana as her husband. Laksmana cut off her nose and ears.


She went to Khara, Dusana and Trigiras and lamented before them. The three of them immediately started with an army of fourteen thousand giants and fought with Rama and Laksmana, who killed every one of there. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakanda, Sargas 19 to 30).


KHARA II. Anothrr giant who helped Ravana in the battle between Rama and Ravana.


In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 285, Stanza 2, it is said that "Parvana, Patana, Jambha, Khara, Krodhavasa, Hari, Praruja, Aruja, Praghasa and others fought with Rama.


KHARAJA1~fGHA. A female attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 22) .


KHARAKARMI. A female attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 26).


KHARI. A female attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 22) .


KHASA. A wife of Kasyapa Prajapati. (Visnu Purina Amsa 1, Chapter 15).


KHASA(M). A country in ancient India. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 41).


KHASIRA. A place situated on the North East corner of Ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 68) .




1) General Information. A King of the Iksvaku dynasty, known by the name Dilipa also. Bhagavata Skandha 9, states that Khatvanga was the son of the grandson of Kalmasapada. A~maka was the son of Kalmasapada, Mulaka the son of Asmaka and Khatvanga the son of Mulaka.


Khatvanga who was a royal hermit once pleased God and understood how long he would live. From that day onwards he left all the work of administration in the hands of ministers and spent the remaining days in devotion and meditation. (Bh5gavata, Skandha 2).


2) Particular details. In Mahabharata it is mentioned that Khatvanga was the son of the woman called Ilibila and that he had the name Dilipa also. KhatvaAga was one of the sixteen famous Kings of Bharata. The sixteen Kings were Marutta, Suhotra, Paurava, Sibi, Sri Rama, Bhagiratha, Khatvaiiga, (Dilipa) Mandhata, Yayati, Ambarlsa, Sasabindu, Gaya, Rantideva, Bharata, Prthu and Parasurama. Khatvanga performed one hundred sacrifices. At the tune of sacrifice he made golden roads. Even Indra came to the sacrifice. The Devas blessed Khatvanga on that day. See under Dilipa. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 61).


KHILA. There is an appendix to Mahabharata called Khila. This Khila is known as Harivarhsa also. This portion too was written by Vyasa.


KHYATA. An attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 20) .


KHYATI I. A daughter of Prajapati Daksa. The hermit Bhrgu married her. A daughter named Laksmi and two sons named Dhata and Vidhata were born to Bhrgu by Khyati. (Agni Purana, Chapter 20) .


KHYATI II. Daughter of Kuru, who was born of the family of Dhruva. Six sons, Anga, Sumanas, Svati, Kratu, Angiras, and Sibi were born to Kuru by his wife Agneyi. (Visnu Purina, Am- a 1, Chapter 13) . Khyati was a daughter born to them.


KICAKA. Brother-in-law of Matsya, king of Virdta and son of Kekaya, king of the Sdtas.


1)General information. To Kekaya, king of the Sutas was born of queen Malavi, Kicaka and other 105 sons younger to him called Upa-Kicakas. Their only sister was called Sudesna, (Bharata, Southern text, Page 1898). Kicaka and Upa-Kicakas took their birth from an aspect of Bana, the eldest of the Asuras known as the Kalakeyas. (See Bharata, Page 1893) . Matsya, the Virata king .wedded Sudesna; and from that day onwards, the brothers too lived in the Virata palace. Kicaka was the chieftain of Virata's army, and he had, many a time, defeated in war King Sugarman of Trigarta. (Virata Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 30) .


2) Kacaka and Pancali. During their life incognito, the Pandavas lived in the Viraia palace after taking up various jobs. Pancali, under the assumed name Malin!, served Sudesna and her daughter Uttara as their chaperon. Kicaka fell in love with Pancali at first sight. But, Pdficdli resisted all his advances. Then, he sought the help of his sister Sudesna to bring round Pdficdli to him somehow. Sudesna asked Kicaka to be ready on the New Moon day with liquor and rice and promised to send Malin! (Paficali) to him. Ordered by Sudesna, she went to Kicaka with his plate of food much against her will. Kicaka caught hold of her, but she ran when the former caught her by the hair, felled her on the floor and kicked her. A Raksasa, who was deputed for Pancali's security appeared on the scene in a trice and felled Kicaka.


3) . Kicaka's Death. The very same night with tears in her eyes, Pancali told Bhima all about the indecent behaviour. He asked Paficali to invite Kicaka to a secret meeting at a specified place the next night, and promised her that he would remain concealed there and kill Kicaka. Accordingly Bhima concealed himself the next night in the dancing hall and, as requested by Pancali, Kicaka came to the hall at midnight to spend a few hours with Pancali. Bhima was lying there on a cot, and Kicaka, mistaking him for Pancali kissed him. Bhima caught him in his iron grips and crushed him to death. The next morning, it was the fate of Kicaka's brothers to lament over his death. The story also was spread that Kicaka was killed by some Gandharva, the husband of Pancali.


The Upa-Kicakas removed the dead body of their brother to the burning ghat. Proclaiming that Pancali, who was responsible for the death of their brother would also be burnt to death on the same pyre, the Upa-Kicakas forcibly took her with them. Hearing the heart-rending cries of Pancali Bhima rushed to the-spot and killed all the Upa-Kicakas and saved Pancali from death. In the presence of the Virata king the cremation of Kicaka and the Upa-Kicakas took place. (Virata Parva, Chapter 13 et seq).


KIKATA. A King born in the dynasty of Priyavrata, son of Manu. He was one of the nineteen sons of King Bharata, the other eighteen being Kusavarman, llavarta, Brahmavarta, Aryavarta, Malaya, Bhadraketu, Sena, Indrasprk, Vidarbha, Kapi, Hari, Antariksa, Prabuddha, Pippalayana, Avirhotra, Dramida, Camasa and Karabhajana. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


KIKATA (M) . The country ruled by King Kikata. The following story is told in Devi Bhagavata as to how an ass in this kingdom attained heaven.


There was once in Kikata a merchant who had an ass to carry his merchandise. Once the merchant was


returning home from Bhadracala with his ass loaded with bundles of costly Rudraksas. The old ass fell down dead on the way, the weight of the Rudraksa bundles having been too much for it, and immediately it assumed the form of Siva and went to Kailasa. Even if a man does not know what he is carrying, if he carries sacred things he will certainly attain salvation, like the ass that attained salvation in this case. (Devi Bhagavata, 11th Skandha).




1) Origin. About the origin of Kilis (parrots) the following is stated in Canto 14, Aranya Kanda of the Ramayana.


Kasyapa, the grandson of Brahma and son of Marici married the eight daughters of Daksaprajapati, one of them being called Tamra. Tamra had five daughters called Kraufici, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastri and Suki. Sukas or Kilis (parrots) are the offsprings of Suki.


2) Parrots acquire talking faculty. Lord Siva agreed to beget a son to kill Tarakasura, at the request of the Devas. The coitus between Siva and Parvati for the purpose did not end even after a hundred years. Due to the pressure of the process the whole world shook, and when the world appeared to et destroyed the Devas asked Agnideva to persuade Ca to stop. But, afraid of approaching Siva Agni ran off and hid himself in the ocean. The Devas followed him, and animals in the water which were burning with the heat of Agni, told the Devas that Agni was hiding in the sea. But, Agni cursed them all to dumbness, and leaving the ocean hid himself on mount Mandara. The parrots revealed this secret, when Agni cursed them also and made their tongues fold inwards. The Devas and the parrots requested for redemption from the curse. Redemption was granted thus : "Though the tongue be turned inwards your sound will be melodious. Just like the voice of a child your (parrots') sound also will be sweet and wonderful."


From that day onwards parrots began talking and singing. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka, Taranga 6 and Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85) .


KIMPUNA. A river in Devaloka. It worships Varuna in his assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 20).




1) General. A King called Agnidhra was born in the dynasty of Priyavrata, son of Manu. He became lord of the Jambu island, and married an apsara woman named Purvacitti. To them were born nine sons called Nabhi, Kimpurusa, Hari, Ilavrta, Ramyaka, Hiranmaya, Kalva, Bhadra'sva and Ketumala. Agnidhra partitioned the kingdom among the nine sons. The land Kimpurusa ruled over was known as Kimpur,isa or Kimpurusavarsa. It lay to the south of Hemakuta mountain. It was here that Hanuman spent his last days worshipping Sri Rama.


"The son of the wind God (Hanuman) lives in the country called Kimpurusavarsa in the worship of Sri Rama.- (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


According to the Sabha Parva (Chapter 23, Verses 1,2) Kimpurusavarsa guarded by the sons of Druma is situated to the north of the Himalayas facing the Dhavala mountain, and this country was once conquered by Arjuna.


2) Other information.


(i) Kimpurusas were the sons of Pulaha Prajapati. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 8) .


(ii) They witnessed Agastya drinking up the ocean dry. (Vana Parva, Chapter 104, Verse 21).


(iii) They guard the lotus ponds kept by Kubera to sport with his beloved ones. (Vana Parva, Chapter 15 , Verse 9) .


(iv) In his conflict with Ravana, Kubera left behind him Lanka and his Puspaka Vimana, escaped towards the north and settled down on mount Gandhamadana with the help of the Kimpurusas. (Vana Parva,-Chapter 275, Verse 33) .


(v) Yaksa women were their mothers. (Santi Parva, Chapter 207, Verse 25).


(vi) They were present at the asvamedha of Yudhisthira. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 37).


(vii) Suka Brahmarsi reached Bharata, crossing Kimpurusavarsa. (anti Parva, Chapter 325).


KINDAMA. A great sage. Once sage Kindama and his wife were roaming in the forest in the form of deer. While hunting, King Pandu discharged his arrow against the he-deer. It assumed .its original form as sage Kindama and told the King that it was wrong on his part to have hit him (the sage) while he was engaged in love play. "I am dying, but in future if you physically contact your wife you too will die." After saying so the sage fell down dead. Pandu could never have children of his own from his wives due to this curse. He forgot all about the curse once, embraced Madri and fell down dead. (Adi Parva, Chapter 117) .


KINDANA (M). A sacred place in Kuruksetra. A holy dip here is productive of innumerable auspicious results.


KINDATTAKCPA. A holy pond. He who sows gingelly seeds in the pond is redeemed from the three Rnas (debts) i.e. Rsi-Rna Pitr-Rna and Deva-rna. The first is to be redeemed by Brahmacarya (celibacy). the second by house7holder's life and the third by yajfias. (Vana Parva, Chapter 88) .


KINJAPYA. A particular holy place in Kuruksetra. A bath here is productive of innumerable auspicious results.


KISIKANA. A King born in the lunar dynasty. Namroci, Kinkana and Vrsni were the three sons of King Mahabhoja. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


KINKARA I. A Raksasa. Sakti, the son of Vasistha and King Kalmasapada of the solar dynasty once quarrelled with each other, and the King cursed and turned Sakti into a Raksasa. At this juncture Visvamitra invoked Kinkara, a Raksasa attendant of his, into the body of Kalmasapada, and induced by Kinkara, Kalmasapada killed all the sons of Vasistha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 175) .


KINKARA II. Name of Kala's stick. It is with this stick that Kala kills living beings. "Like Kala who holds the stick Kinkara". (Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 122).


KINKARA (S) . A race of Raksasas. After building the palace at Indraprastha for the Pandavas Mayasura put 8000 Kinkaras for guarding the palace (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3) . These guards were able to remove the palace from one place to another. Yudhisthira, who started for the north to collect money is said to have met the Kinkaras on the Himalayas. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 6).


KIKINIKASRAMA. A holy place. A bath here will lift one to heaven. (Anusasana Parva Chapter 25, Verse 23) .


KINNARA (S) . A sect of Devas all of whom hold Vinas in their hands. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51).


KIRATA. An urban region in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 51).


KIRATARJUNIYA. During the life in exile in the forest of the Pandavas, Arjuna performed penance to propitiate Siva in the Himalayas. Disguised as a forest-hunter Siva appeared on the scene and tested Arjuna's valour. Arjuna won in the test and was presented the Pasupatastra by Siva. The story is told in Chapter 167 of the Vana Parva. (See under Arjuna) .


KIRITI I. A warrior of Skanda deva. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 71).


KIRITI II. A synonym of Arjuna. (See under ArJuna).


KIRMIRA. A fierce Raksasa, brother of Baka and friend of Hidimba. Having heard about the death of Baka at the. hands of Bhima, Kirmira who was living in Kamyaka forest planned a revenge against Bhima. After being defeated in the game of dice the Pandavas came to the forest, and they confronted Kirmira. In the duel with Bhima, Kirmira fell down dead. (Vana Parva, Chapter 11).


KIRTI I. Daughter of Suka Brahmarsi, son of Vyasa. Suka wedded Pivari, the beautiful daughter of the Pitrs. Four sons named Krsna, Gauraprabha, Bhfiri and Devasruta and a daughter Kirti were born to Suka and Pivari. Kirti was wedded by Prince Ann, son of King Vibhrama, and a son called Brahmadatta was born to them, who grew up to become a great scholar and an ascetic. On the advice of Narada, King Brahmadatta ultimately abdicated the throne in favour of his son, performed penance at Badaryasrama and attained salvation. (Devi Bhagavata, 1st Skandha),


KIRTI II. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. Svayambhuva Manu wedded his own sister Satarfipa, and to them were born two sons called Priyavrata and Uttanapada and two daughters called Prasfiti and Akfiti. Daksaprajapati married Prasfiti, and they had twenty-four daughters who were : Sraddha, Laksmi, Dhrti, Tusti, Medha, Pusti, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja, Vapus, Santi, Siddhi, Kirti, Khyati, Sati, Sambhfiti, Smrti, Priti, Ksama, Sannati, Anasfiya, Urja, Svaha, and Svadha. The first thirteen of the above twentyfive girls were married by Dharmadeva. The other eleven girls were married respectively by Bhrgu, Siva, Marici, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Atri, Vasistha, Agni and Pitrs. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 7).


KIRTI III. The Devi who is the basis and cause of all fame and reputation. (Vana Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 38) .


KIRTIDHARMA. A Ksatriya hero, who was a supporter of Dharmaputra. (Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 39) .

KIRTIMAN I. The first son born to Vasudeva and Devaki. As a celestial voice had warned Kamsa that ,the eighth son of Devaki would kill him he had ordered that every child born to her should be taken to him. Accordingly the first-born son of Devaki was taken to him, but was returned to the parents as Kariisa thought that he was not his enemy. He was