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J   . This letter means jya (victory). (Agni Purana, Chapter 348) .

JABALA. The mother of the hermit Satyakama. (For details see under Satyakama).


JABALI I. A famous hermit. In Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza, 55, it is stated that Jabali was one of the sons of Visvamitra. They were expounders of the Vedas. Though he was the son of Visvamitra his life was mostly connected with Va,sistha. The Puranas do not make it clear how this son of Visvamitra happened to fall into the circle of Vasistha who was a foe of Vi4vamitra. He was one of the seven spiritual advisers of King Dasaratha. It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana, Balakatrda, Sarga 48 that eight hermits such as ~uyajna, Vamadeva, Jabali, Kasyapa Vasistha and others lived in Ayodhya in the palace of the King Dasaratha.


When Bharata. went to the forest, to bring Sri Rama back to Ayodhya, Jabali also followed him. Jabali argued with Sri Rama, using several arguments, to make him return to Ayodhya. These arguments made Sri Rama angry. But he was pacified by the consoling words of Vasistha. (Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda).


Jabali comes in the line of disciples of Vyasa. Vyasa divided the Veda and taught Sumantu Atharvaveda. The hermit Sumantu first taught Atharvaveda to his disciple Kabandha who divided it into two parts and taught two disciples Devadarsa, and Pathya. The disci-


ples of Devadarsa were Magadha, Brahmabali, Sautkayani and Pippalada. Pathya had three disciples. They were jabali, Kumuda and Saunaka. Of these jdbdli was a famous expounder of Atharvaveda. (Visnu Purana, Aril's a 3)


JABALI II. Son of Rtadhvaja, a hermit. (See under Visvakarma, Para 2) .


JABALI III. A hermit. The descendants of this hermit also are known by this name. jdbdli who performed penance on the mountain of Mandara had several disciples.


While jdbdli was going along the forest he saw a young man of handsome appearance engaged in penance on the shore of a lake. jdbdli wanted to know about him and his penance. But as the young man was in deep meditation jdbdli had to wait there for several years. At last the young man awoke from his meditation and told jdbdli the secrets of devotional meditation and contemplation of Krsna. The remaining life of Jabali was spent in the worship of Krsna, in consequence of which in the next birth he was reborn as a cowherdess, named Citragandha in the house of the cowherd Pracanda. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapters3~2 and 109).


JABALI IV. A hermit. The intensive penance of this hermit compelled Indra to depute the celestial maid Rambha to hinder it. jdbdli became a prey to the enticement of this heavenly beauty and a daughter was born to them. This damsel was carried away by the King Citrarigada. The hermit jdbdli cursed Citrangada to become a leper. (Skanda Purana. Chapters 3, 143, and 144) .


JADA. An immoral brahmin. Jada, who set out to do commercial business once was killed by thieves. As a result of sins committed in previous births he was turned into a Pisaca. After his death his son, who led quite a moral life went to Kasi (Banares) to perform his father's obsequies, and at the particular spot where his father was living as Pisaca the son recited Chapter 3 of the Gita, on hearing which Jada got released from his state as Pisaca. (Padma Purana, Uttarakhanda and Markandeya Purana).


JAGANNATHA PANDITA. A very powerful and ruthless literary critic in Sanskrit. He lived between 1590 and 1665. He is also known as Panditaraja (King of scholars) . His most important and- well-known work is Rasagarigadhara. To this day it remains as an invaluable treasure in rhetorics. (Alarikara Sastra).


His poetic theory is "Ramaniyarthapratipadakah Sabdah Kavyam". (Words which convey beautiful meanings constitute poetry). He vehemently opposed the dhvani vada (suggestive words and phrases conveying more meanings produce more. rasa than they literally and apparently appear to carry). CitramimarnsaKhandana is another work of the Panditaraja. In this work another rhetorician named Appayadiksita is strongly criticised. The allegoric poem, "Bhaminivilasam", is supposed to have been written by this great rhetorician based on the untimely death of his wife, Bhamini. He has also written five other works, the five Laharis [Gangalahari etc].


JAGATl. One of the seven horses which draw the chariot of Surya. Gayatri, Brhati, Usnik, Jagati, Trstubh, Anustubh and Pafrkti are the seven horses. (Visnu Purana, Part II, Chapter 8) .


JAGRAT. According to the vision of Rsis or sages, every living being has four states. They are Jagrat (waking state), Svapiia (dream), Susupti (profound sleep) and Turiya (the fourth state of the soul, i.e. oneness with Brahman in different degrees). The hermits and sages have said about the four states of soul as given below:1) Jdgrat. In this state the individual soul is awake. The five organs of senses, the five organs of activity and the four inner organs of the living being will be active, when the soul is awake. In this state he enjoys the outer world through the five senses. That is, he sees with the eyes, hears with the ears, tastes with tongue, smells with the nose and feels with the skin. Every man thinks that his understanding through the senses is real. It is the individual soul which is responsible for this understanding. But it is difficult to say whether these perceptions through the senses are real or unreal. A hermit says as follows:-"An individual soul travels from Jagrat to Svapna and from Svapna to Jagrat as a fish which goes from one shore to the other without touching anything. For an individual soul the state of jagrat is only one of the four states. So we cannot give the verdict that the state of J5grat alone is real and all the rest are unreal." The individual soul which is in the state of Jagrat enjoys the outer world and so it is `bahihprajna' (external-knowing). In this state the individual soul enjoys the external world with the seven organs and the nineteen faces. The seven organs are, the two eyes, head, soul, body, urinal bladder and the legs. The nineteen faces are the five senses, the five organs of activity, the five life-breaths and the four inner organs of mind, intellect, egoisr:z and will. The individual soul in the state of Jdgrat enjoys the external world with these organs and faces. The soul in this state is called `Vaisv~inara'. This state is experienced by all the human beings of the world and so it is called Vaisvanarasl (Brhadaxanyaka, MAndtakyopanisad) .


2) Svapna (dream) . The second state of the individual soul, is svapna (dream). He who indulges in dream, forgets everything he had experienced in the state of Jagrat and creating new worlds he. enjoys them. While the five organs of senses anal the five organs of activity of the dreamer take rest, the four inner organs of citta (will) Ahankara (egoism) Buddhi (reason) and manas (Mind) will be working. See what the author of Upanisad says. "The dreamer separates his self from the wide universe and creates his own radiance by his own radiance. The light of the self is the light for the dreamer. That man creates a chariot or an assemblage of chariots or roads where there is no chariot or an assemblage of chariots or a road; joy, delight or extreme delight where there is no joy or delight or exi (a) Tadyatha mahamatsyasya ubhe kule anusarhcaratah Purvam capararh caivarh evavarh purusah etavubhavantau anusarhcarhti wapnantarir buddhantarh ca. (Brhadaranyaka).


(b) Jagaritasthano bahihprajriah saptahgah ek0navirirsati-


mukhah sthulabhukvaisvanarah. (Mandfikyopanisad)


z (a) Sa yatra prasvapityasya lokasya sarvato matramupadaya


svayarh vihatya wayarh nirmaya svena bhasa svena jyotisa prasvapityatrayarb purusah svayaxir jyotirbhavati. (Brhadaranyaka).


(b) Atraiva devah svapnamahima.nam anubhavati yad


drstarh drstam anupasyati srutarir srutarnevartham anusrnoti. Dasadigantaraisca pratyanubhutarn punah punah pratyanubhavati, drstarh cadt'stam casrutarh ca 'srutarh canubhutarh ca ananubhutam ca s4ccasacca sarvark pasyati sarvarir pasyati. (Prasnopanisad).


treme delight; ponds, wells and rivers where there are no ponds, wells and rivers. A dreamer is a Lord; the state of the dream is the state of activity." Another hermit says as follows about the state of dream :"The dreaming individual soul which sees again things which were seen here and there, hears again things which were heard here and there, enjoys again things which were enjoyed in places far and near, is really enjoying greatness. He sees things seen and not seen, heard and not heard enjoyed and not enjoyed. The dreamer, like a King who travels with his train throughout his country, as he pleases, plays by getting in and out of his own body, and enjoys lofty experiences, and so he is happier than he who eats alone and enjoys his food. The individual soul in its state of dream is called the Taijasa (the radiant) because he illuminates himself by his own radiance. In this state the individual soul does not touch anything and so it is sinless.2


3) supifiti. The third state of the individual soul is susupti (profound sleep). The soul alone is active in this state. In susupti the individual soul desires for nothing and does not indulge in dream. In this state the individual soul does not think that the soul and the body are two. So it is unitary. The sleeper is called `Prajna' also. The individual soul which is in the state of sleep, completely severs its connection with the organs of senses, the organs of action, mind, the Pranamayakoga (the chest of the life-breaths), the manomaya ko,a (the cask of mind) and Vijnanamaya Kos a, the chest of knowledge orunderstanding. 'I'he mind, the sense organs, SfiksmaSarlra (the suble body) and the actions are the items which could abandon the connection with jivatma (individual soul). In sleep the jivatma separating all its connections, for the time being, with these items absorbs itself in the Brahman. See what the author of the Upanisad says about the state of Susupti (Sleep).3 As an eagle folds its wings and falls down weary and tired, after flying round in the air for a long time, the individual soul, avoiding all desires and having no dreams, takes rest. The soul seeps in the nadi, with seventytwo thousand branches called `hita', like a child or a King or Brahman. During sleep the mind, senses etc. are not destroyed. They only keep away. They reappear when the man wakes up from sleep.4


4) luriyam. In the state of Turiya the jivatma alone is active. The individual souls which abide in creatures are another aspect of Brahman. Everything said about Brahman can be said about the jivatma in the state of profound sleep. But the bliss that we enjoy in sleep is not remembered in the state of activity. The same bliss that we enjoy in profound sleep could be enjoyed


(c) Sa yatha maharajo janapadad grhitva sve janapade yathakamarh parivartate, evamevaisa etat pranan grhitva sve gsarire yathakamarh parivartate (Brhadaranyaka) .


3 (a) Yatra svapno na karhcana kamarh kamayate na kancana svapnarb pasyati tat susuptarh susuptasthane ekibhutah prajnanaghanam eva anandamayam hi Anandabhukcetomukhah prajnah. (Mandukya, Tritiya pada).


(b) Saptasthanontah prajfiah saptafrgah ekonavirhsatimukhah praviviktabhuk taijaso. (Dvitiyapada Mardukya)


4 Tadyathasminnakase syeno va suparno va viparipatya srantah sarirhatya paksau sarhlayayaiva dhriyata evam ayarh uurusah etasma antaya dhavati, yatra supto na karhcana kamarh kamayate no karhcana svapnarh pasyati.




in the state of samddhi (contemplation) of yoga or union with the universal soul. When it came to be known that this supernal bliss could be enjoyed. even after one had awakened from contemplation, a ourth state of the jlvatma (individual soul) was recognized. But in the Brhadiranyaka only three states of the jivatma are mentioned.


Immersion of the individual soul by the yogin in the universal soul Brahman in the state of jagrat or activity is called Turlya. The individual soul which is in the state of Turiya, is described as follows in the Chandogyopanisad.


"The jivatma which is in the state of Turlya is not conscious internally. He whose inner consciousness is active is Taijasa. He is not bahihprajfia (conscious of the outer world). Bahihprajfia is Vaisvanara. He is not a combination of Taijasa and Turiya. He is not compact with consciousness as a conscious man not a conscious man; nor is he an unconscious man. He, who could be explained only by negations, cannot be seen. He is unmanifestable, indiscernible, unthinkable, indescribable and without any characteristic mark. Only by unswerving faith could he be known. It creates the universes and at the same time negates it. It is the supreme reality, the one without a second (dvaita). This is the state of Turiya.l


Vaisvanara is called the soul with annamayakosa (the material body), Taijasa, the soul with Pranamayakosa (the sheath of the life breaths), Prajfia, the soul with Vijfianamayakoga (the sheath of understanding) and Turiya, the soul with anandamayakor a (the chest of bliss).


JAGUDA. A country in'ancient India. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 51, Stanza 25, it is mentioned that the King of this country took part in the Rajasuya (royal consecration) performed by Yudhisthira.


JAHNAVI. The river Ganga. (See under Jahnu).


JAHNU. A hermit King borrr in the family of Puru.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order :-Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas -Ayus-Nahusa-Yayati-Puru janamejaya-Pracinvan -Pravira-Namasyu=Vitabhaya-gundu- Bahuvidha - Samyati - Rahovadi - Raudrasva - MatinaraSanturodha-Dusyanta-Bharata-Suhotra-Brhatputra -Ajamidha jahnu.


Ajamldha had three wives, Dhumini, Nil! and Kesini. Rksa was born from Dhumini, Dusyanta arid Paramesthi from Nil! and Jahnu from Kesini. The descendants of Jahnu are called the Kus ikas. Jahnu handed over his kingdom to his son Balakasva and went to perform penance. Kusika was the son. of Balakasva.


2) Drank up the river Ganges. The river Ganga, which flowed through the earth in accordance with the request of Bhaglratha, submerged the hermitage of Jahnu. Jahnu became angry at this haughtiness of Ganga and drank up the river, but at the entreaty of Bhagiratha pushed Gangadevi out through his ear. (See under Ganga). From that day onwards Ganga got the name jahnavi.


JAHUSA. A King of the period of Rgveda. It is stated in Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 17, Sukta 116, that


when this King was surrounded by enemies once, the Asvinidevas got him into their chariot and through easily passable ways took-him to the top of a mountain.


JATGISAVYA. A hermit who attained salvation by the strength of his penance.


It is stated in Harivamsa Chapter 18, that three daughters, Aparna, Ekaparni and Ekapatala were born to Himalaya by Mend and the hermit Devala married Ekaparna and the hermit Jaigisavya married Ekapatali. In Mahabharata, anti I'arva, Chapter 229, mention is made that this hermit gave much advice to the hermit Devala, son of Asita, about the need for equanimity. On another occasion this hermit talked to Yudhisthira about the glory of diva. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 18, Stanza 37) .


There is a story about how this hermit Jaigisavya attained the world of Brahma. Once he reached the hermitage of Devala, who showed the necessary hospitalities. After a few days this hermit disappeared. After that he used to be seen only at the time of meals. Once Devala took his waterpot and went by air to the sea, to fetch water. When he reached the sea he saw Jaigisavya bathing there. Devala had gone when Jaigisavya was in the hermitage. How did he reach the sea before Devala ? Devala filled the pot and returned thoughtful. When he reached the hermitage Jaigisavya was there. After this Devala travelled through the wor1d of the inspired sages. Wherever he went, he saw Jaigisavya. He asked the inspired sages how it was possible. They praised the attainments, Jaiglsavya had obtained, by his `tapas' (penance). Finally in the sight of everybody, Jaiglsavya flew to the world of Brahma. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 50).


It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabhi Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 24, that this hermit Jaiglsavya sits in the palace of Brahma and carries on meditation and contemplation on Brahma.




1) General Information. A hermit of the highest degree of learning. In the "History of Classical Sanskrit Literature" it is mentioned that Sumantu, Jaimini, Paila, Vaisampiyana and Suka were the five important disciples of Vyisa. Of these Suka was the son of Vyasa. In Devi Bhagavata, it is mentioned that Vyasa had other disciples also in his hermitage, such as Asita, Devala and others. The five disciples mentioned first gave publication to the work of Vyasa called Jaya', which was the original of the Mahibhirata. Vaisampayana and Jaimini made some additions to the work 'Jaya'. In Sanskrit there is another book called Jaimini Bharata, which contains only Asvamedha Parva. (See under Guruparampara).


2) Other details. (1) It is mentioned in Brahminda Purina, Chapter 1 that Brahminda Purina is the story told by Jaimini to Hiranyanabha at Naimisaranya.


( 2) Jaimini was present at the sarpasatra ( sacrifice to kill serpents) of Janamejaya. ( M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 53, Stanza 6) .


(3 ) Jaimini had been a member of the council of


r Nantah prajiiari, na bahihpraj naxh nobhayatah nrajnam na praj7zanaghanam na prajnam naprajmam adrstam avyaharyam


agrahyam alaksapam aeintyam avyapadesyam ekatmapratyayasararb prapancopasamam 'santam sivam advaitam caturtham manyate sa atma


sa vijneyah..


Yudhisthira. (M.B. gabha Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 11).


(4) This hermit visited Bhisma in his bed of arrows during the Bharata Battle. (M.B. 9anti Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 7).


JAIMINI II. The priest of Subahu the King of the Cholas (Colas). In accordance with the advice of . this priest the King performed many good deeds and consequently attained heaven. (Padma Purana, Chapter 94).


JAITRA. A son of Dhrtarastra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, galya Parva, Chapter 26, Stanza 14, that he was killed by Bhimasena in the battle of B'narata.


JAITRAM I. The chariot of King Hariscandra. It was by driving in this chariot that the King carried out the conquest of countries. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 12 ).


JAITRAM II. The conch of Dhrstadyumna. (M.B. galya Parva, Chapter 61).


JAJALL A hermit who reared birds on his head by the power of penance.


This hermit who had practised corltinence from his childhood lived in a forest. Jajali never thought rain, heat of the sun, snow and such other natural things as unbearable. Once this hermit stood like a pillar in the forest, immersed in meditation. Two birds built their nests in his matted hair. Non-violence being his policy, he did not move. The birds came to their nests every evening and stayed for the night. After a few days they laid eggs in the nests. Still the hermit did not move. The eggs were hatched. The hermit understood that also. Still, he did not move. The young ones got wings. They grew up and began to go out with the parent birds. They went out in the morning and returned in the evening. The hermit stood like a pillar. One morning they went out and did not return in the evening. The hermit stood there for six days waiting for the return of the birds. On the sixth day evening they returned. Next time the hermit waited for a month for the return of the birds. They did not return. So he started from there and went to the sea and dipped in the water and said, "there is no man more virtuous than I either in water or on land" with haughtiness. But the water demons said in an ethereal voice that Tuladhara, the merchant of Kasi was more virtuous than he.


Hearing this jajali went to Kasi and saw Tuladhara. Tuladhara greeted him gladly and they. talked for a long time. Jajali understood that Tuladhara was far more virtuous than he. So he sought advice from Tuladhara and thus Jajali obtained heaven. (M.B. 9anti Parva, 3 Chapters from 261) .


JALA. A deity of water. In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 20 it is mentioned that this deva was a luminary in the durbar of Brahma.


JALA. A tributary of river jamuna. The King Usinara performed a yaga (sacrifice) on the bank of this river and attained a position higher than Indra. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 13, Stanza 21) .


JALADA. A mountain in Saka island. The famous country known as Kumudottaravarsa is near this mountain. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 25) ..


JALADHARA. A mountain in gakadvipa (The island of Saka). (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 16).


JALADHI. The crocodile which is the conveyance of Varuna. It is mentioned in Vamana Purana, Chapter 9, about conveyances of Gods as follows :-


"The conveyance of Indra is the white elephant, which came into being from the palm of Danu, and is of extraordinary strength and valour. The black buffalo called Paundraka, which, was born from the thigh of Rudra, and is as quick as the mind and very fierce, is the conveyance of Yama (the god of death). The conveyance of Varuna is the black crocodile called °Jaladhi', born from the ear-wax of Rudra, and having divine power of movement. The conveyance of Vaisravana (the god of wealth) is a ferocious man with eyes like two cart-wheels and body as big as mountain, who was born from the leg of Ambika. The eleven Rudras have speedy horses, terrible serpents and white oxen of high speed. Candra has a chariot as his vehicle yoked with five hundred swans. The vehicles of the Adityas are chariots yoked with horses and camels. The conveyances of the Vasus are elephants, men for Yak sas, serpents for Kinnaras, and horses for the Asvinidevas. The Maruts of fearful appearance have deer as conveyance. The Vidyadharas have parrots for conveyances. An asura called Andhaka has a chariot with thousand posts as his vehicle. Prahlada had, as conveyance a divine chariot of gold and silver yoked with eight white horses and elephant for Virocana, horse for Kujambha, divine chariot yoked with yellow horses, for gankukarna, elephant for Hayagriva, chariot for Maya, Great serpent for Dundubhi, Aeroplane for Sarhbara and lion for Aya~.sanku.


JALANDHAMA. A warrior of Subrahmanya.. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 57).


JALANDHARA. A mightly and valiant Asura. Khadgaroma was his charioteer and Vrnda was his wife. Jalandhara was the grandson of the sea of Milk. Once he met with the headless R~hu, who said to Jalandhara, the whole story beginning from the churning of the sea of Milk. Jalandhara, became furious at the gods who had churned his grandfather. So he collected a big army of asuras and went to war with the devas. Though a large number of Asuras were killed in the battle, Indra and Visnu were defeated and Visnu was taken captive and hidden under the sea. Finally Paramasiva went to fight with the Asura. In the fight jalandhara was killed and Visnu was rescued. (Padma Purana, Chapters 3 to 5) . For further details see under Mayas iva.


JALAPADA. See under Devadatta I.


JALAPRADANIKA PARVA A sub section of Stri Parva, of the Mahabharata. This sub section comprises of Chapters 1 to 15 of Stri Parva.


JALAPRALAYA. In all the Asiatic Puranas, reference to an ancient great flood, with slight changes occurs. According to Hindu Puranas this great flood took place before Mahavisnu took the incarnation of Matsya. In the Holy Bible which is the scripture of the Christians, the story of the great flood is allied to the story of the Noah. (See under Avatara). This story occurs in the Babylonian literature also. The book `Gilgamish' which is as old as the Rgveda, is considered to be the oldest in the world. The theme of the Gilgamish is the travel of a man named Gilgamish. This story is written in twelve clay-tablets. After 1850, the scientists of England who carried on an archaeological research, found in the library of Ancient Nineveh, the most famous in the ancient world, these twelve tablets along with twentythousand other tablets, all of which were in good condition. This library was built by the. King Asurbanipal in 7th century B.C., on a very high place on the bank of the river Tigris, in the ancient Nineveh.


All these clay tablets have been removed to the British Museum. It took several decades to decipher them. When these clay tablets were discovered there was not a single man who could read and understand them, in the world. In spite of hard work, several years passed by without getting even a single tablet deciphered. They were written in `Accadean', which was the language of the court of Asurbanipal and the national and the international language of the time. Another copy of this great work was discovered on the bank of the Euphrates, where the capital of the famous King Hamurabi of Ancient Babylon stood. Later discoveries disclosed that this great work Gilgamish was part and parcel of the famous ancient civilization of the Oriental countries. The Hittites and the Egyptians tried to translate this book Gilgdmish into their own languages. In the tablets with letters in the form of arrowheads, found on the bank of the Nile, the portions which were difficult for them to translate, are given red marks.


It was from a small piece of broken clay tablet that clues to the origin of this famous work were obtained. The world is indebted to the Sumerians, who had their capital in the place where the city Ur stands, for the original work of Gilgamish.


Mention is made about a great flood in Gilgamish, as follows: Gilgamish set out on an adventurous journey to see his ancestor Utnapistim to learn from him the means of obtaining eternal life. The gods had told this man about the secret of eternal life. At last Gilgamish reached an island and found out his ancestor and asked him about the secrets of eternal life. Utnapislim said that he had lived in `Shoorappak' and that he had been an ardent devotee of `Iya' God. When the gods decided to destroy mankind by a great flood the God Iya called his devotee Utnapistim and said to him "You, man of shoorappak, the son of Urbartutu: Demolish your house and build a ship. Leave off your wealth and search for your life. Cast away your property and save your life. Bring the seeds of every living thing into the ship. The ship you build should be according to measurements." The rest of the story is like the story of the "Ark of Noah". The scientists are of opinion that in pre-historic times the, three continents of Asia, Europe and Africa were one continent and that by earthquake or some other reason the south part of Europe had sunk down and water flowed in and thus the mediterranean sea came into existence. At a time when the far off regions of the earth were unknown, the people who escaped the flood imagined that the entire world had been submerged by the flood. It could be imagined that this story of the great flood passed on to posterity verbally and after so many generations it appeared in different regions in different languages in different forms.'


i In writing about Jalapralaya. I have dealt with Gilgamish a English translation of a famous German work by Venar Keller. This So these details are included under this word "Jalapralaya".


JALASANDHI I. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Bhimasena killed him. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, Stanza 33) .


JALASANDHI II. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas against the Pandavas. He was present at the svayar'nvara of (marriage of Pa:icali). It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 115, Stanza 52, that he was killed by Satyaki in the battle of Bharata.


JALELA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 16) .


JALESVARI. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 16) .


JALEYU. A son born to Raudrasva the son of Puru, by a celestial woman named Misrakesi. Mention is made about Jaleyu in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 10.


JAM. It means gitam (music). (Agni Purana, Chapter 348 ) .


JAMADAGNI. A hermit of majestic power. He was the father of Parasurama.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order are: Brahma- Bhrgu - Cyavana - Aurva -Rcika Jamadagni.


2) Birth. There is an interesting story about the birth of Jamadagni. Gadhi was the son of king Kusamba. A daughter named Satyavati was born to Gadhi. The hermit Rcika giving a dowry of one thousand horses, each with one black ear, married Satyavati. Once Satyavati told her husband that herself and her mother wanted to get a child each. After the sacrifice of oblations to Agni (fire), Rcika took two parts filled with boiled rice and gave them to Satyavati, with mantras (spells). The radiance of Brahma was invoked into one pot and the radiance of Ksatra was invoked into the other. The hermit had asked Satyavati to eat the rice into which the radiance of Brahma had been invoked and to give the other pot to her mother. But the daughter and mother changed the pots secretly and Satyavati ate the rice in the pot into which Ksatra radiance was invoked and gave the pot of rice filled with Brahma-radiance to her mother. Both the women conceived. As the child grew in the womb the radiance of Brahma shone on the face of the mother and Ksatra lustre was seen on the face of Satyavati. Rcika asked Satyavati for the reason. She admitted the secret interchange of the pot.


Satyavati and her mother both delivered at the same time. Satyavati got the son Jamadagni, who was the embodiment of Ksatra tejas and the child with Brahma tejas born to the mother was Visvamitra. Therefore, in some Puranas Visvamitra is described as the uncle of Jamadagni whereas in some others they are said to be brothers. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 57) .


3) A house-holder. When Jamadagni grew up he made a tour and visited the holy places one by one and reached the palace of King Prasenajit of the family of Iksvaku. He saw Renuka the beautiful daughter of King Prasenajit and fell in love with her. He requested Prasenajit for the hand of Renuka. The King, without raising any objection gave his daughter Renuka in marriage to Jamadagni. The couple came to the bank little elaborately. Details on Gilgamish were obtained from the book had not been received when I wrote about the work ~Gilgamish'. of the river Narmada and erecting a hermitage began `tapas' (penance) . Four sons, Rumanvan, Suhotra, Vasu and Visvavasu were born to Jamadagni by Renuka. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 58) .


4) The birth of Parusu rdma. Because of the wickedness of the Ksatriya Kings, the goddess Earth became miserable. She made a representation to Brahma who took her to the sea of Milk and told Mahavisnu everything. Mahavisnu promised to take an incarnation as the son of Jamadagni and destroy all the wicked Kings. Accordingly Renuka gave birth to Parasurama, who was an incarnation of Mahavisnu. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 59) .


5) ,jxamadagni getting the bow of Visnu. Once the devas (gods) desired to know who, of Aiva and Visnu was the more powerful. They informed Brahma of their desire. Brahma asked Visvakarma to make two tremendous bows. He gave one to Siva and the other to Visnu. The bow which Visnu got was known as Vaisavacapa and that which` Siva got was known" as Saivacapa. After this Brahma caused enmity between Siva and Visnu. A terrible battle ensued between Siva and Visnu. After a while the Saivacapa became less effective. At the request of the devas, the fight was stopped. The devas decided that Visnu was superior to Siva, in power. Siva got angry at this decision and gave his bow to Devarata Janaka, the King of Videha. It was this bow that Sri Rama broke at the marriage of Sita.


Seeing that Siva had given away his capa (bow) Mahavisnu gave his bow to his devotee, the hermit Rcika. That Vaisnava capa was given to Jamadagni by Rcika. Thus the famous Vaisnava capa arrived at the hermitage of.,Jamadagni. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 75) .


6) Renuk(d was killed. Parasurama became fourteen years old. Jamadagni went to the forest to gather fruits, roots etc. After completing the cleansing work of the hermitage, leaving Parasurama in the forest, Renuka went to the bank of the river Narmada (Revd) to fetch water. When she reached the river, Kartaviryarjuna and his wives were playing in water. She waited for them to go. When they were gone she got into the river.. But as the water was muddy because of the play, she walked a little to the east where there was pure water. She saw there Citraratha the King of Salva playing with his wife in the water. How beautiful they were ! She had never seen so beautiful a woman or so handsome a man. She stood there looking at them for a while. When she reached the hermitage with water, Jamadagni had already returned a long while ago. He had returned weary and tired of the heat of the midday-sun. He did not see his wife in the hermitage. He had been sitting very angry .when Renuka returned with water. She put the pot down and bowed before her husband and told him the reason for her being late. When he heard the reason his anger blazed. He called his sons one by one and ordered them to kill her. But the four elder sons did not dare to execute his order saying that slaughter of a woman was a great sin. But Parasurama came forward and by a cutting-arrow cut off the head of his mother. The father called the four sons who disobeyed him and cursed them thus "Since you have disobeyed the order of your father, because of your ignorance, you shall become foresters and live in forest."


Being overwhelmed with sorrow at the death of his mother, Parasurama swooned and fell down. When his anger subsided, discretion dawned on Jamadagni. He aroused his son and took him on his lap and asked him what boon he wanted for having accomplished the unaccomplishable task. Parasurama's request was that his mother should be brought to life again. The hermit was pleased and he brought Renuka to life again. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 60).


7) The sun gave Jamadagni an umbrella and sandals. See under the word Cerippu (Sandals).


8) The temfitation of Dharma. See under the word `Dharma' Para 6.


9) Jamadagni was killed. Once Kartaviryarjuna, with his minister Candragupta and some attendants had been hunting in the forests on the banks of the river Narmada. It was noon. The hunters grew tired of hunger and thirst. They came to the hermitage of Jamadagni. The hermit called his divine cow SWila and ordered her to give food to the King and his party. Within a few seconds meals were got ready for thousands of people. The King and his attendants had a feast. On their return journey the wonderful cow Susila was the subject of their talk. The King wanted to get the cow which possessed divine power. So he sent his minister Candragupta to the hermitage of Jamadagni with instructions to,get the cow Susila in exchange for a crore of cows or even half of the kingdom. But the hermit was not prepared to give the cow. The minister and his men caught the cow by force and went away. The hermit, filled with grief, followed the party a long way through the forest, and requested Candragupta to return the cow. Candragupta got angry and struck him to death, and took the cow to the palace, in the capital city of Mahismati.


After waiting for a long time, Renuka started in search of her husband. She saw Jamadagni lying almost dead, in a pool of blood. She fell down and beating her breast cried aloud. Parasurama with Akrtavrana and other disciples came there. When she saw her son Parasurama, she beat her breast twentyone times' and cried. Parasurama, took an oath that since his mother beat her breast twentyone times and cried, he would travel around twentyone times and put an end to the Ksatriya Kings. After that they took the dead body of jamadagni and placed it on fire, and began to sing the song of Visnu. Then the hermit Sukra came by that way and with the help of M,rtasanjivani brought Jamadagni to life again. The lost cow Sus ila also returned without her calf. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 69; M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 49) .


10) Death of ,7amadagni. Parasurama and Akrtavrana went to the city of Mahismati with the intention of bringing the calf of Suaila back. They stood at the gate of the city and challenged Kartaviryarjuna for a


i Seeing his mother beating her breast twentyone times, Bhargava caught hold of her hands and said `Mother , stop afflicting your body. Don't be sorry. I am here to end your sorrow. Since you have beaten your breast twentyone times, I will annihilate the Ksatriya Kings twentyone times.' Bhargava Rama took an oath thus, to his mother.




fight. Kartaviryarjuna came out with his army. In the battle which ensued, Kartavirya and his sons and most of his warriors fell dead. Parasurama and Akrtavrana returned with the calf. Jamadagni asked Parasurama to go to Mahendragiri and do penance in order to mitigate the sin of killing a large number of people. When Parasurama had gone for penance, Surasena a son of Kartaviryarjuna came with his men to the hermitage, cut off the head of Jamadagni and took it away. Parasurama and the disciples of


Jamadagni placed the dead body of Jamadagni on the pyre and burnt it. Renuka jumped into that fire and died. After this Parasurama began his twentyone tours for the extermination of the Ksatriya Kings. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 86) .


11) Other information. (1) Udayana grew up in the hermitage of Jamadagni. (See under Udayana).


(2) Jamadagni was one of the hundred sons of Rcika. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 45) .


(3) Jamadagni was one of the hermits, who visited Sri R5ma on his return from forest life. The hermits who came to Ayodhya from the North were, Kasyapa, Bharadvaja, the Sanakas, Sarabhanga, Durvasas, Matanga, Vibhandaka, Tumburu and the Saptarsis (the seven hermits). Uttara Ramayana).


(4) Jamadagni was present at the Janmotsava (birth celebration) of Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 51) .


(5) This hermit is a luminary in the assembly of Brahma. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 22) .


(6) During the time of the battle of Mahabharata, Jamadagni Entered Kuruksetra and advised Drona to stop the battle. (M.B. IDrona Parva, Chapter 190, Stanza 35).


(7) Jamadagni once delivered a speech on the bad sides of accepting rewards, to the King Vrsadarbhi. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 93, Stanza 44) .


(8) Jamadagni vowed that he was innocent in the affair of the stealing of Agastya's lotus. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 25 .


12) The Names of Jamadagni. Areika, Bhargava, Bhargavanandana, Bhrgusardula, Bhrgusrestha, Bhrguttama Rcikaputra are the names used by Vyasa to denote Jamadagni, in Bharata.


JAMAGHA. A King of the family of Yayati. (Bhagavata„ Skandha 9) .


JAMBAVAN. A monkey of extraordinary might. He was the minister of Sugriva.l


1) Birth. When the troubles and hardships caused by the wickedness of Rava4a became unbearable the goddess Earth and the Devas approached Brahma for redress. Brahma took them to the sea of Milk. Mahavisnu heard everything and said that he would incarnate as the son of Dasaratha and would kill Ravana. Brahma was directed to create monkeys to help him on that occasion. Accordingly Brahma created Jambavan and several other monkeys.


i It is difficult to ascertain whether Jambavan was a monkey or monkey. In Malayalam he was thought of as a monkey from ancient van is denoted by the words 'Kapi' (monkey) and Rksa (bear). Sarga 17. From this it is to be assumed that Jambavan was a bear. make the gods and thecelestial women take birth as monkeys to wrong to consider Jambavan either as a bear or as a monkey.


2 For the cause of his forgetting his own powers see under


There are two stories about the birth oFJambavan in the Puranas.


(1) Brahma sat for a long time thinking about the creation of monkeys. Then he wanted to yawn., for which he opened the mouth and instantly Jambavan came out from inside Brahma through the open mouth. "I have already created Jambavan the noble bear, who jumped out of any mouth when I yawned." (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Sarga 17, Stanza 6) .


(2) One day time of Brahma ended and the night had advanced two yamas (six hours). The Madhukaitabhas born of the ear-wax of Mahavisnu began to create trouble and commotion in the waters of the great flood. They saw a lotus on the surface of water. Seeing Brahma in it they challenged him for fight. Hearing their shouting and the challenge Brahma became afraid of the asuras. His middle face began to sweat. The sweat flowed through his cheeks and reached the loins. Jambavan came into being from that sweat. So he got the name Ambujata, (born from the water of sweat). As he' was the first person who entered the country of Jambunada he was called Jambavan. As he was born when there was no universe or time his age or date of birth could not be ascertained. At the time of S`ri Rama Jambavan was six Manvantaras (age of a Manu) and for hundred and sixtyfour Caturyugas (a period of four yugas) old. (The present age is the twentyeighth Caturyuga of the seventh Manu). Jambavan had witnessed all the incarnations from Matsya to Sri Rama. (Kamba Ramayana Purva Kanda).


2) _7ambavdn and the incarnation of bsri R.zma. During the time of Sri Rama Jambavan was the minister of Sugriva. It is stated in Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Sarga 41, that Nila, the son of Agni, Hanuman, Jambavan, Suhotra, Sarari, 8aragulma, Gaja, Gavaksa, Gavaya, Susena, Rsabha, Mainda, Dvivida, VijayaGandhamadana, Ukamukha, Asanga, Angada and' others were the ministers of Sugriva.


The monkeys who went to the south in search of Sita, reached the sea shore. The question was how to jump over the sea to Lanka. Each of them came forward to show his ability and admitted failure. Finally Jambavan called Hanuman to him and advised him to jump over to Lanka. Hanuman who was not aware of his own powers,2 refused. Jambavan told him about his birth, self-power, attainment of boons etc. Hanuman became convinced of his powers at the words of J ambavan and jumped over the sea to Lanka. (Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda ).


3) ,Jambavcin and the incarnation of Vcimana. Jambavan walked round Mahavisnu, who incarnated as Vamana to curb the powers of Mahabali. At that time Jambavan was immensely strong. But by the time of the incarnation of Sri Rama his strength had decreased much. Hear what he said to the monkeys who assembled on the sea shore to go in search of Sita.


"My abilities in olden times were not what you see now. In the far old days, I had walked round that


a bear. In some of the Indian languages he is described as a period. In Valmiki Ramayaea, which is the original work, JambaJambavan is called Rksapungava in Valmiki Rzimayana Balakanda


In the same chapter it occurs that, it was the aim of Brahma to help Mahavisnu in the incarnation of Sri 'Rama. So it is not Trnabindu II.




Eternal Being Visnu when he measured three steps at the sacrifice of Mahabali. Now, I am very old and have not enough strength to jump over the sea." (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha kanda, Sarga 65) .


4) 7dmbave7n and the incarnation of Sri Krsna. The longliving Jambavan who bad witnessed nine out of the ten incarnations of Mahavisnu is seen in connection with the precious stone Syamantaka, in the incarnation ofKrsna. The Sun-god gave this jewel Syamantaka to King ~atrajit. His younger brother Prasena wore it and went to the forest for hunting. A lion killed him and took the jewel in his mouth and was going along the forest when Jambavan killed it and took the jewel. It was rumoured that Sri Krsna had killed Prasena and taken the jewel. So Sri krsna went in search of the jewel to the forest, defeated Jambavan and took the jewel, and returned it to Satrajit. Sri Krsna married Jambavati the daughter of Jambavan. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10) .


5) ,7ambavdn became old for ever. At the time of the incarnation of Vamana, Jambavan was very strong and valiant. When' Vamana brought under control the three worlds by measuring three steps Jambavan travelled throughout the three worlds carrying the news everywhere. Within three moments Jambavan travelled eighteen times through the three worlds. In this travel of lightning-speed the end of the nail of his toe touched the highest peak of Mahameru, who considered it as an insult and said "You are arrogant of your speed and youth. Hereafter your body will not reach where your mind reaches and you shall be ever old." Because of this curse Jambavan became old and unable to carry out what he wished. (Kamba Ramayana, Yuddha Kdnda).


JAMBAVATl. Daughter of the famous Jiimbavan. gri Krsna went in search of the famous precious stone Syamantaka which was lost when Prasena, wore it and went to the forest for hunting. Krsna found it in the cave of Jambavan, who fought with him and was defeated. Finally he gave his daughter Jambavati to Sri Krsna as wife, and the jewel Syamantaka as dowry.


Sri Krsna came to his capital Dvaraka with his wife Jambavati. When sons were born to the other wives of Krsna she became sad and requested her husband that sons may be born to her also. On hearing this request Krsna went to the mountain where the hermit Upamanyu was engaged in penance. With that hermit who was an ardent devotee of giva, as his teacher, Krsna began a penance before 8iva, in accordance with his (Upamanyu's) advice. The penance, holding yogadanda and Kapala (devotee's staff and skull) lasted for a month. In the second month penance was performed standing on one leg and drinking only water. In the third month he did penance standing on toes only and using air as food. After six months Paramas iva appeared and blessed him that his wives would have ten sons each. Accordingly Jambavati gave birth to her first son who was named Samba. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 4).


JAMBHA. A Daitya (Asura). He was the chief among those who snatched away Amrta from the bands of Dhanvantari. (Agni Purana, Chapter 3).


In the Puranas several Asuras (demons) bearing the name Jambha are mentioned. It is stated in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Daksinatyapatha, Chapter


38, that Sri Krsna killed an Asura named Jambha. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 98, Stanza 49 that the teacher 8ukra refused to help a Jambha whom Indra killed later. It occurs in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 102, Stanza 24, that Mahavisnu had killed an asura called Jambha. ,It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 285, Stanza 2, that a group of Jarnbhasuras, who had undergone training under Ravana, once attacked Hanumdn. Another Jambh,~sura had been killed by Arjuna, as stated in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 49. All these Danavas (Asuras) were sons of Kagyapa born of his wife Danu.


JAMBHAKA. A Ksatriya King. This King was killed in battle by Sri krsna. He had a son who, later became King but was killed by Sahadeva in his conquest of the countries. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Stanza 7).


JAMBU. A tree which stands on the southern side of the mount Mahameru. This tree bears fruits and flowers throughout the year irrespective of the seasons. This tree is watered by the Siddhacaranas. The branches of this tree reach the realm of heaven. The place in which this tree stands is known as Jambudvipa. The ripe fruits as big as elephants fall down. and are broken. The juice oozing from them flows as a big stream. This is called the river Jambu. It flows through the southern part of the country known as llavrtta. The goddess who lives on the bank of this big river is known as Jambvddini. She is very fond of Jambi! fruit. This goddess who loves everything in the world, is worshipped by the gods, nagas (snakes) , the hermits and sages, Raksasas (giants) and every body in the world with devotion. Even by the mere thinking of her she could be pleased. She destroys the sins and increases the purity of people. She cures all the diseases and gives people, health, wealth, long life, prosperity and happiness.


The juice of the Jambu fruit when mixed with soil and acted upon by water, air and sun's rays, turns into a kind of gold called Jambunada. The devas, Vidyadharas etc. use this gold to make ornaments for their women. This gold is superior to other kinds of gold. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8) .


JAMBUDVTPA. One of* the Puranically famous Saptadvipas (seven continents). These seven continents are embankments separating the seven seas. Jambtzdvipa, Krauncadvipa, Sakadvipa and Puskaradvipa are included in the seven islands.


Jambudvipa has an area of one lakh of yojanas. The island is round like a lotus flower. There are eight long mountain ranges which divide the island into nine countries, which look like nine petals of the lotus flower. Each of these nine countries has an area of nine thousand yojanas. The two countries of the north and south extremities are bowshaped. Four of the remaining seven are longer than the rest. The central country is square. This country is known as llavrtta, at the centre of which there is the mountain Sumeru with a height of one lakh of yojanas. This is called Svarnaparvata (The mountain of gold). The top of this mountain is a great flat place with an area of thirtythousand yojanas. This great plain is ten thousand yojanas above the ground level. On the northern part of Ilavrtta lie the three mountain ranges of Nilagiri,  Svetagiri and Srngavan, and midway between them the three countries called Ramyaka, Hiranmaya and Kuru. On the southern part of Ilavrtta, there are the three mountains of Nisadha, Hemakuta and Himalaya and three countries Harivarsa, Kimpurusa and Bharata. The mountain Malyavan lies to the west and Gandhamddana to the east of Ilavrtta. There are two countries Ketumala and Bhadrasva having an area of two thousand yojanas each with the two mountains Nila and Nisadha as boundaries. At the foot of the mount Mahameru, there are the mountains of Mandara, Meru, Suparsvaka, Kumuda and many others. On those mountains big trees like naval (syzygium jambolanum) Makanda (Mango tree) Katambu (Naucka Candamba) banyan etc. grow in plenty. On the top of these mountains there are four lakes, full of milk, honey, juice of sugarcane and sweet water. The devas become prosperous by the touch of the water of these lakes. Besides these parks there are four heavenly parks known as Nandana, Caitraratha, Vaibhraja and Sarvabhadraka. The women folk of the devas (gods) and Gandharvas (demi-gods) play in these parks, which are convenient for couples to carry on lustful play. A river is formed there, by the juice oozing from the fallen mango fruits. The river is purple coloured and is called Arunanadi (river Aruna). The goddess named Aruna lives here. The famous Jambu tree is in this Jambudvipa. (Devi Bhagavata, 'Skandha 8) .


JAMBUKA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 74) .


JAMBUKA. (JAMBUMALIKA). A Sudra Sage. The child of a brahmin died when Sri Rama, after his twelve  years' exile in forest had returned to Ayodhya and was  ruling the country in an ideal manner. The brahmin  and his wife carried the dead body of their child to the  palace with loud lamentations. Everybody felt surprised  how there could be child-death in the land when. the  King was ruling it in the inost dharmic (righteous)  manner. `then did Narada, who was present in the  assembly, point out that in a corner of Ramarajya a  Sudra Sage was doing tapas and that it was the reason  for the untimely death of the brahmin child. At once  Sri Rama set out in search of the Sudra Sage after  directing Satrughna to see that no enemy entered the  country, and asking Laksmana to take care of the dead  body of the brahmin child. After a rather detailed  search Sri Rama found Jambuka at the mountain called  gailam doing tapas hanging from the branch of a tree  on his legs with head down. He told Sri Rama that he  was the legs Sage called Jambuka and was performing  tapas thus so that he might ascend to heaven in his very  body. Sri Rama at once cut off the head of the Sudra  Sage, who attained, as soon as Rama's sword fell on him,  moksa (salvation), and the dead child of the brahmin  returned to life again. (Uttara Ramayana).


JAMBUKESVARA. Name of an idol of Siva (Linga) installed in Mysore. The Sivaliriga installed in the Jam= bukesvara temple in Mysore. Jambu is a fruit tree. There is a story about how Siva happened to come under this tree.


Once upon a time this place was full of Jambu trees, and a recluse performing a penance under a Jambu tree got a fruit of it. Attracted, so to say, by the sanctity of the fruit the recluse submitted it first as an offering


to Lord Siva, and only after that he ate it. As a result of that the fruit germinated in the stomach of the sage grew-up into a tree and emerged into light and air bursting his head open. Elated at this the sage danced before God, who asked him to return to the place from where he got the fruit. Accordingly he returned to Tiruvanakovil and continued his penance. Pleased so much with the Sage Siva followed him and sat under the tree. From that day onwards Siva came to be called Jambunatha. To this day Jawbunatha sits under the Jambu tree.


Later, a temple came to be built there under the following circumstances. A controversy arose between Malyavan and Puspadanta, two of the Bhutaganas of Siva, as to who cherished more devotion to the Lord. The controversy developed into a quarrel and Puspadanta cursed Malyavan into a spider, and Malyavin cursed Puspadanta into an elephant. Now, when the mutual curse took effect wisdom dawned on both Malyavan and Puspadanta, and they took refuge in the Lord for redemption from the curse. The Lord sent both of them to the Cola country, and after wandering about in different parts of the country both of them came to Jambukesvara, and lived there worshipping God. The elephant used to bathe daily in sacred tirthas, bring holy water in its trunk and make an offering of it to the Lord. As for the spider it wove a net above the head of the Lord. so that dried leaves did not fall on it. The elephant used to daily sweep off the net above the head of the Lord and make his offering of the water thereon. But, the spider would again weave the net. Thus their quarrel continued. One day the spider, in great anger, got into the trunk of the elephant and bit it hard. Due to unbearable pain it smashed its trunk on a granite stone and fell down dead. At this God appeared and blessed both of them. The Lord also said that the sacred spot would come to be known as Tiruvana-Kovil (ana= elephant ; Kovil=temple) in memory of Puspadanta who had taken the form of the elephant. The spider was told that he would be born in the Cola dynasty and carry on for long years many good acts. Accordingly Malyavan was born as the son of Subhadeva, the Cola king and Kamalavati, his queen, and ruled the land for many years under the name King Cenkanna. He it was who built the Jambukesvara temple. (Tiruvanakkavu Purina).


JAMBUKHANDAVINIRMANA PARVA. A sub section of Bhisma Parva, in the Mahabharata. See under Mahabharata.


JAMBUMALT. A Raksasa (giant) who was the son of Prahasta. Hanuman killed this Raksasa in a fight, when he went to Lanka in search of Sita. (Valmiki Ramayana Sundarakanda, Sarga 44).


JAMBUMALIKA. See under Jambuka.


JAMBUMARGA. An ancient holy place. If one visits this place one will attain the fruits of performing the sacrifice of Asvamedha (horse sacrifice). (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 62) .


JAMBUNADA I. A mountain. The river Ganges flows through the valley of this mountain which is connected wits Mahameru. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 139, Stanza 16) .


JAMBUNADA II. A golden mountain which stands in the place called Us irabija. A King named Marutta


JAMBIJNADA. III. Gold is formed from the river Jambu which flows through jambudvipa (the is1and Jambu). The gold is called Jambunada, according to Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 26.


JAMBUNADA 1V. A son of janamejaya, a King of the dynasty of Puru. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 56) . -


AMBUNADI. A famous river. (See under jambudvipa).


JANADEVA. A Janaka King who ruled over Mithila (anti Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 3).


(1) Mahavisnu, once in the guise of a brahmin, tested the King, and ''leased with him granted him certain boons. (Santi Parva, Chapter 219 ).


(2) None of the 100 acaryas in has court could answer his questions about salvation satisfactorily. But, Pancas ikha, who casually came to the palace advised the King about the means to attain salvation. (anti Parva Chapter 211).




1) Genealogy. Janaka was descended from Visnu in the following order:-Brahma,--Marici-Kasyapa-Vivasvan-Vaivasvata-Iksvaku-Nimi-Mithi- UdavasuNandivardhana - Suketu - Devarata -BrhadrathaMahavira-Sudhrti-Dhrstaketu-Haryasva - MaruPratvantaka - Kirtiratha - Devamidha -VibudhaMahidhraka-Kirtirata-Maharoman--SvarnaromanHrasvaroman--Siradhvaja (Janaka).


2) _7anaka dynasty. Danda, Vikuksi and Nimi were the three prominent sons of Iksvaku. The dynasty of Vikuksi earned reputation as the cradle of such powerful Kings as Vikuksi, Kratha, Mandhata. Tri--anku. Hariscandra, Sagara and Bhagiratha. Sri Rama also was born in Vikuksi's dynasty. It was Nimi, the younger brother of Vikuksi who founded the Videha dynasty. There is a story about that dynasty getting the name, Videha. Nimi decided to conduct a yajha and requested Vasistha to act as high priest at the yajna. Vasistha, who then was busy with the affairs of another yajna asked Nimi to postpone his proposed yajna to a later date. To this Nimi made no answer, and Vasistha went away under the impression that his suggestion had been accepted by Nimi. Accordingly, as soon as he got free from other preoccupations Vasistha went to Nimi to conduct his yajna. But, Nimi had already performed the Yajna with Gautama as high priest. Enraged at this Vasistha cursed Nimi that he should lose his body and become Videha (without body). As the result of the curse Nimi fell down dead. As Nimi had no sons living the Rsis churned out of his body a child. As the child was got by mathana (churning) he was named Mithi Janaka. After that all kings born in Mithi's dynasty began using the common name janaka.


The actual name of janaka, father of Sita, was Siradhvaja. Mithila or Mithilapuri was the city founded by Mithi. From the time of the curse pronounced on Nimi the Kings of that dynasty also came to be known as Videhas, and the country they ruled Videha. (See Nimi). (Devi- Bhagavata, 6th Skandha).


3) Brother of Siradhvaja. Siradhvaja, the father of Sita had a brother called KuSadhvaja. While Siradhvaja was the King of Mithila the King of Samkasya called Sudhanvan attacked Mithila. Szradhvaja killed Sudhart-


van in the war and crowned his brother Kusadhvaja as the King of Samkasya. Laksmana's wife IJrmila was Kusadhvaja's daughter. Kusadhvaja had three daughters called Mandavi, LTrmila and Srutakirti. Bharata married Mandavi and Satrughna married Srutakirti. (Kamba Ramayana, Balakanda; Valmiki Ramdyana. Balakanda, Canto '71) .


4) Birth of Sita At a time when Siradhvaja had no issues a girl emerged from the furrows of the ploughed earth, and Siradhvaja felt the desire to bring up the child as his own daughter. And, a celestial voice, "Oh! Siradhvaja! it is your own daughter" clinched the issue for the King. That daughter was Sita. SiradhvajaJanaka-accordingly brought up Sita as his own daughter. (Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda, Canto1 18) . 5) janaka got Saivacaba. See under jamadagni 6) 7anaka and Kahotaka. See under Astavakra. 7) ganaka and Astavakra. See under Astavakra. 8) janaka in Y'amaloka. King janaka once, by his yogic powers cast off his physical body. A vimana (aerial chariot) from Devaloka arrived to carry janaka's soul there. On his way to Devaloka janaka approached Kalapuri where innumerable sinners were being tortured in the various hells. When they breathed the air which had come in contact with janaka's body, they got much relief from their tortures and the fire of hell now became cool and pleasing to them. When janaka was about to go away the inmates of hell begged him not to leave them in that condition. He thought to himself thus: "If these beings get some comfort or happiness from my presence I shall surely stay here in Kalapuri, which will be my svarga (heaven)." Thinking thus, Janaka the most righteous of souls stopped there.


And then Kala arrived there to determine suitable punishments to the various kinds of sinners, and seeing Janaka there, asked why he, the most virtuous and the purest of souls, waited there, Janaka explained his reason for standing there and added that he would quit the place only if Kala released all those people from hell. On hearing Janaka's answer Kala pointed out to him one by one the sinners who were being tortured in hell and explained things as follows:- "Look here, that fellow there had seduced the wife of his most intimate friend, and that is why he is tied to a red hot iron bar for 10,000 years. After those 10,000 years he would be born in a pig's womb, and when he is born among human beings it would be as a eunuch. The other fellow there forcibly kissed another man's wife, and so he has to be roasted in Raurava hell for hundred years. That other fellow is put into this vessel filled with blood and pus with both his hands cut off as he had stolen other people's property. This fellow did not speak even a word of welcome to a tired and hungry man who sought his hospitality at night. That is why he has been thrown into thick darkness, and there, for a hundred years, he must undergo the additional suffering of wasp-bite. As for this man he had in a loud voice found fault with another man, and this other fellow is his friend who listened to those vilifications attentively. And, that is the reason why both of them have been pushed into this unused well. So, all these people have to suffer for their sins. You, King janaka, who did only righieous acts will please go away from this accursed place."


Janaka asked Kala how those sinners could be released from hel1, and Kala answered that if any good act of the King was transferred to them they could be set free. One early morning Janaka had, with a pure heart, chanted "Rarria, Rama" and that good act was exchanged for the freedom of the sinners.


After their release had been effected, Janaka asked Kala : "You say that only sinners come here. What sin have I committed that I should come here ?" Kala's reply to the question was as follows :-"Oh ! King, no one else in the whole world has so much punya as you have got. But, a small sin you have committed. Once you prevented a cow from eating grass, and, therefore, you had to come up to the gates ofhell. Now, that sin has been atoned for. So you may go to svarga." Janaka saluted Kala and in the divine vimana went to Heaven. (Padma Purana, Chapters 30 and 31) .


9) Artificial Janaka. While Sita was a captive in Lanka Ravana, to bring her round, deputed a very clever magician called Marutta to her, disguised as Janaka, her father. And Marutta, in the capacity of her father consoled her and advised her to yield to the wishes of Ravana. -But Situ did not yield, and the artificial Janaka assumed his original form of Marutta and went away. (Karirba Ramayana, Sundara Kanda).


10) Other information about 7anaka. (1) Bhimasena defeated one Janaka, who was King of Mithila during the time of the Pandavas. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 13) .


(2) King Janaka was a personification or incarnation of all good qualities. (Vana Parva, Chapter 207, Verse 37) .


(3) Janaka, the father of Sita, in his old age renounced his kingdom and became a recluse. (anti Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 4) .


(4) Once the sage called As maka imparted some pieces of advice to Janaka. (See under ASmakopdkhyana). (5) Once in a war between Janaka and a king called Pratardana, the army of Janaka, in the presence of the army of Pratardana stood aghast, and Janaka incited them to fight by showing heaven and hell to them. (anti Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 4).


(6) Once in a war with a King called Ksemadarsi when victory for Janaka was found to be an impossibility he, as advised by Sage Kalakavrksaka gave his daughter to Ksemadargi in marriage. (anti Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 2) .


(7) Once Mandavya a great sage put many questions about Trsna (desire) to Janaka and he, the great philosopher answered the questions quite satisfactorily (anti Parva, Chapter 276) .


(8) On another occasion Janaka had a talk with Sage Parasara about the attainment of prosperity and welfare. (anti Parva, Chapter 296).


(9 ). There was a King called Karala Janaka among the Janaka Kings. Once Vasistha gave some good advice to Karala Janaka. (anti Parva, Chapters 302308) .


(10) Once a Sage advised a Janaka King' called Vasuman on subjects relating to Dharma. (anti Parva, Chapter 309).


( 11 ) Vasuman Janaka, son of Devarata put many questions to Yajnavalkya and they were answered to the full satisfaction of the King. (Santi Parva, Chapters 310-318).


(12) The Janaka King called Janadeva had once a discussion with Sage Pancasikha about the means to avoid death. (anti Parva, Chapter 319) .


(13 ). There was once a Janaka King called Dharmadhvaja, and Sulabha, an erudite woman in Mithila wanted to test the King. By her yogic powers she assumed the form of a very beautiful woman and visited Janaka's palace. She was offered a seat by the King, and seated on the stool she took her soul into the body of Janaka, and the soul entered into a dicussion on philosophic subjects with Janaka. Sulabha was thus convinced about the unique scholarship of the King and left the palace ashamed about her attempt to test the King. (anti Parva, Chapter 320) .


(14) Suka, the son of Vyasa not being fully satisfied by the study of Bhagavata once visited Janaka at the instance of his (Suka's) father, and Janaka did so easily clear the doubts of Suka, which even Vyasa had not been able to successfully tackle. (Devi Bhagavata, 1st Skandha).


(15) King Janaka did not eat flesh. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 65).


(16) Dharma, once in the guise of a brahmm imparted many pieces of advice to Janaka. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 32) .


The above facts prove that the Janaka kings, as a rule, were great scholars and philosophers.


11) Synonyms of Janaka. Aindradyumni, Daivarati, Dharmadhvaja, Karala, Karalajanaka; Maithila, Mithiladhipa, Mithilesvara, Vaideha etc.


JANAKI I. A Ksatriya king who was the rebirth of an asura named Candravinasana. It is stated in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 20, that the Pandavas had sent to him a letter of invitation to take part~in the battle of Bharata.


JANAK, II. See under Sita.


JANALOKA. One of the fourteen worlds. This world is situated three crores of yojanas (leagues) away from Dhruvapada (the region of Dhruva-Pole star) according to Visnu Purana, Arnsa II, Chapter 7) .


JANAMEJAYA I. A famous King of the Solar dynasty 1) Genealogy. Descended from Vi snu thus :-BrahmaAtri - Candra - Budha - Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa-YayatiPuru - Janamejaya - Pracinvan - Pravira-Namasyu-Vitabhaya-Sundu-Bahuvi dha-Samya ti-Rahovadi-Raudra-- vaMatinara - Santurodha - Dusyanta - Bharata-SuhotraSuhota - Gala - Garda - Suketu - Brhatkse.tra-Hasti-Ajamidha-Rsa-Sarirvarana-Kuru jahnu-Suratha-VidurathaSarvabhauma jayatsena - Ravyaya - Bhavuka - Ca~roddhata - Devatithi - Rksa-Bhima-Pratica-Santanu-VyasaPandU-Arjuna-Abhimanyu-Pariksit janamejaya.


2) Birth, marriage and accession to throne. Janamejaya was the son of Pariksit by his wife Madravati. Vapustama, daughter of Suvarnavarman, King of Kas !was Janamejaya's wife. Two sons, Satanika and Sarikukarna were born to them. Janamejaya had three brothers called Srutasena, Ugrasena and Bhimasena. (Devi Bhagavata, 2nd Skandha ; Adi Parva, Chapters 3 and 95).


3) Death of his father. Janamejaya's father, Pariksit ruled the country in a very distinguished manner for sixty years. While once hunting in the forest Pariksit became very tired and thirsty. While searching for water he came across a Sage named Samika and asked him for some water. Samika being engaged in meditation did not hear the King's request. But, the King mistaking the sage's silence for haughtiness threw in anger a dead snake round his neck and went away. But, within seven days of the incident Pariksit was bitten to death by Taksaka, king of the Nagas according to the curse pronounced on him by Gavijata, son of sage Samika.


Janamejaya was only an infant at the time of his father's death. So the obsequies of the late king were performed by his ministers. After that at an auspicious time Janamejaya was crowned King. Within a short time he mastered statecraft. Dhanurvidya was taught by Krpacarya. Very soon he earned reputation as an efficient administrator. He got married in due course. (Devi Bhagavata, 2nd Skandha).


4) His hatred towards snakes. In the course of a talk one day with Janamejaya UttaIlka the sage detailed to him the circumstances of his father's death. Only then did he understand the actual cause of Pariksit's death, and the information kindled in him intense feelings of revenge not only against serpents but also against the whole serpent dynasty. (Devi Bhagavata, 2nd Skandha).


5) Sarpasatra. (Serpent yajna). Janamejaya sought the advice of priests and Rtviks as to how best revenge could be taken against the serpents, and they advised him to perform the great Yajfia called Sarpasatra. And, accordingly all necessary arrangements for the Satra were made, and the King began diksa (Initiation) for it (to live for a few days under severe routine to prepare the author of the yajfia for it). But the priest who made the arrangements looked into signs about the successful conclusion of the yajfia arid opined that it would be obstructed by a brahmin, and, the King, therefore, ordered strict steps to be taken against the entry of strangers into the Yagasala.


And, the Sarpasatra began. High priests wore black clothes, and chanting mantras they made offerings in the sacred fire, and this created a burning sensation in the hearts of serpents. They began, one after another to come and fall into the fire. All varieties of serpents got consumed by the fire thus.


Sages like Uttanka, Candabhargava, $arrigarava, Vyasa, Uddalaka, Atreya, Pramataka, Svetaketu, Narada, Devala, Kalaghata, Sruta'sravas, Kohala, Devagarman,, Maudgalya and Samasaurabha acted as Rtviks at the Satra. Though almost all the serpents courted death in the fire, Taksaka alone did not come. Fear-stricken he had taken refuge with Indra.


As the chanting of mantras increased in intensity and volume Vasuki began to feel the burning sensation. He requested his sister Jaratkaru to find out some means of escape from the Satra, and at the instance of Jaratkaru her son Astika set out for the palace of Janamejaya to obstruct the Yajfia.


Though the Rtviks invoked for a long time Taksaka did not appear. Enraged at his absence, Uttanka Searched for Taksaka with his divine eyes and found him seated on the throne of Indra along with him, who had given him (Taksaka) asylum. This challenge of Indra kindled the wrath of Uttanka a]1 the more, and he invoked Indra, Taksaka and Indra's throne too so that all of them might together come and fall into the fire. And, lo! there came the whole lot of them. Only two minutes more and all of them would be reduced to ashes.


By now Astika, the son of Jaratkaru had arrived at the Yajfia gala. Janamejaya received the young Sage with all respect and promised to grant his desire whatever that be. Astika's demand was that the Sarpa Satra should be stopped. Though Janamejaya was not for stopping the yajfia, he was reminded of his promise to grant any desire of Astika and the latter insisted on the stopping of the Satra. Janamejaya stopped it. Astika blessed that the serpents which had died at the Satra would attain salvation. (Adi Parva, Chapters 52-58 ; Devi Bhagavata, 2nd Skandha).


6) Listens to the Bhdrata stoiy. While the Sarpa Satra was being conducted Vyasa came over there and related the whole story of the Mahabharata at the request of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 60) .


7) Saramd's curse. Janarnejaya along with his brother once performed a yajfia of long duration at Kuruksetra. While the yajfia was going on, a dog (son of Sarama the bitch of the Devas) came there. The three brothers of Janamejaya beat the dog which returned to its mother, Sarama, crying. The mother asked him whether he had done anything to deserve the beating, and he answered thus : "No, mother, I had done nothing. wrong. I did not 1ii-k the havis, nor did I even look at it." Hearing her son's reply Sarama in deep anguish, went to Kuruk setra and questioned Janamejaya as to why her innocent son was beaten by his brothers. Neither he nor his brothers replied to Sararna, and she cursed Janamejaya that he would be subjected to adrstaphala (unforeseen results). This curse upset Janamejaya so much that after the Sarpa Satra was over and on his return to Hastinapura he made a search for a Purohita (priest) competent enough to redeem him from his sins, and at last he invited Somasravas, son of the great sage Srutasravas to be his Purohita, and thus did Somasravas become the priest of Janamejaya (Adi Parva, Chapter 3) .


8) Successors of ,jtanamejaya. Janamejaya had. two sons, Candrapida and Suryapida by his wife Kasya. Hundred sons, experts in archery, were born to Candrapida. The eldest of them, Satyakarna, ruled the country after Janamejaya. Satyakarna had a son called Svetakarna to whom was born a son called Ajaparsva by his wife Yadavi, the daughter of Sucaru. (Bhavi sya Parva, Chapter 1) .


9) Other Information


(1) Janamejaya defeated the King of Taksas ila and subjugated the country. Adi Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 20) . (2) The Sage called Veda was the preceptor of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 82) .


t3) After the Sarpa Satra, Janamejaya performed an Asvamedha yajfia at which Vyasa delivered a lengthy discourse on life and salvation. As Janamejaya said that if he were to believe the words of Vyasa his dead father Pariksit should be shown to him. Vyasa brought Pariksit down from Svarga and showed him to his son. On the occasion were also present sage 8amika and his son Srfigi. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 35)


10) Life time of Janamejaya. The great war at Kuruksetra was fought in 3138 B.C. (See under Mahabharata ) After the war was over the Pandavas ruled the country for 36 years. Vyasa took three years to compose the Mahabharata. According to the Mahaprasthanika Parva the Pandavas set out for the forest after handing over the government to Pariksit, who ruled the country for sixty years. From the above facts it becomes evident that janamejaya became king in 3042 B.C.


11) ,S"ynonyms of _7anamejaya. Bharata, Bharatasardula, Bharatasrestha, Bharatadhya, Bharatarsabha, Bharatasattama, Kaurava, Kauravasardula, Kauravanandana, Kauravendra, Kauravya, Kurugardula, Kurusrestha, Kurudvaha, Kurukulasrestha, Kuruh ulodvaha, Kurunandana, Kurupravira, Kurupungavagraja, Kurusattama, Pandava, Pandavanandana, Pandaveya, Pariksita, Pauravya etc.


JANAMEJAYATI. One Janamejaya, a prominent member of Yamaraja's assembly is referred to in the Adi and Sabha Parvans of the Mahabharata. This Janamejaya had once been defeated by Mandhata. (Drona Parva, Chapter 62, Verse I0). He conquered the world within three days. (Santi Parva, Chapter 234) .


JANAMEJAYA III. A Ksatriya King who was Krodhavasa, the Asura, reborn. He was killed by Durmukha, the son of Dhrtarastra. (Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 19) .


JANAMEJAYA IV. A prince born to King Kuru by his wife called Vahini. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 51).


JANAMEJAYA V. Another King born in the dynasty of Pariksit. He had a son called Dhrtarastra. (anti Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 3) . He once committed brahmahatya (sin of killing a brahmin) and so had been. forsaken by his subjects. So he had to take to the forest. His search for means to get rid of the sin took him at last to sage Indrota, who made him perform Asvamedha yajfia. Thus, he got redemption from the sin and he became Indrota's disciple also. (anti Parva, Chapters 150-153).


JANAMEJAYA VI. A son of King Kuru by his wife, Kausalya. He is also Pravira. The King had a son called Pracinvan by a noble lady called Ananta of the Madhu Dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95) .


JANAMEJAYA VII. A serpent who attends the council of Varuna. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 10).


JANAMEJAYA VIII. A King born in the family of Nipa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 174, Stanza 13) .


JANAMEJAYA IX. A King who had been of help to Yudhisthira. He fought with Karna. This janamejaya was the son of King Durmukha. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 23; Karna Parva Chapter 49).


JANAPADTA celestial maid. This celestial maid was sent by Indra to - hinder the penance of the hermit Saradvan and the moment the hermit saw this celestial beauty seminal discharge occurred to him. Krpa and Krpi were born from that semen. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 129).


JANARDANA I. A synonym of Mahavisnu (Sri Krsna) . Because he made the Dasyus (Asuras--demons) tremble, Sri Krsna was called Janardana.


"He, who has lotus as his seat, who is eternal, imperishable and unchangeable, he who has all these attributes is Pundarikaksa (lotus-eyed) and he who makes the Asuras. tremble is janardana." (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 70, Stanza 6) .


JANARDANA II. See under Dibaka.


JANASTHANA. This is a part of the forest Dandaka,which lies in the basin of the Godavari. Sri Rama had lived in this forest with Sita and Laksmana for a long time during the period of his forest-life. It was at this place that .gri Rama killed fourteen thousand Raksasas


(giants) such as Khara Dusana, Trisiras and others. (M.B. Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38) . Marica allured Sita and Ravana kidnapped her in this place. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 147). Surpanakha tried to attract Sri Rama and Laksmana, and her nose etc, were cut off, in this forest. It was in this place that Sri Rama cut off the head of a Raksasa (demon) and threw it away. That head fell in the lap of a hermit called Mahodara. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 39) . Janasthana is regarded as a holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 29, that those who stay in this place and take bath in the Godavari will acquire imperial prosperity.


JANDAKARA. One of the eighteen Vinayakas, who stay near the Sun. In chapter 16 of the Sambhava Purana it is mentioned that this iandakara is engaged in carrying out the orders of Yama (the god of death).


JAINGALA. A country in ancient India. (M.B. Bhi.sma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 56) .




1) General information. A King of the Puru dynasty. It is mentioned in Agni Purana, Chapter 278, that he was the son of the King Somaka and father of the King Vrsatanu.


2) Bantu born again. Somaka had hundred wives. But only one of them gave birth to a child. That child was Jantu. He was a pet of all the hundred wives. Once Jantu was bitten by an ant. All the hundred queens began crying and shouting and all ran to him. Hearing the tumult in the women's apartment of the palace, the King and the minister ran to that, place. When the tumult was over the King began to think. "It is better to have no sons at all, than to have only one son. There are hundred queens. But none of them bears a child. Is there a solution for this ?"


At last the King summoned his family-priests and consulted them. The decision of the priests was that if the King should sacrifice his only son, then all his wives would become pregnant and all would give birth to children, and that among the sons thus born, Jantu also would be reborn. The mother of Jantu did not look at this project with favour. "How can we be sure that Jantu also will be there among the sons to be born, after his death?" She was worried by this thought, The priests consoled her and said that there will be a golden mole on the left flank of Jantu. Finally the mother agreed to their plan. Sacrificial dais was arranged. Sacrificial fire for holy offerings was prepared. The priests tore the child into pieces and offered them as oblation in the fire. When the sacrifice was finished, all the hundred queens became pregnant. Each of them gave birth to a child. As the priests had predicted, there was a golden mole on the left flank of the child delivered by the mother of Jantu. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 127 and 128) .




JAPA (S). A group of Gods (devas) of the third Manvantara (age of Manu). In that Manvantara the Mann was Uttama, Indra was Susanti, and the Devaganas (groups of gods) were Sudharmas, Satyas, Japas, Pratardanas, and Vas'avartins, the five groups, each consisting of twelve members. (See under Manvantara).


JAPAKA. A Brahmana who was constantly engaged in uttering Gayatri. japaka was ordered to go to hell because certain mistakes were detected in the uttering of Gayatri. But Devi Savitri intervened. She appeared before him and gave him heaven. This Japaka was a contemporary of Iksvaku. (M.B. Santi Parva, 3 Chapters from 197) .


JARA. A forester. It was this forester who shot an arrow at Sri Krsna and killed him mistaking him for an animal. (See under Sri Krsna).


JARA. A harpy (Raksasi). Though she was a harpy she loved human beings. It is believed that if the, picture of Jara and her children is placed in the house and venerated, there will be no haunting of any other kinds of demons.


The figure of Jara was sculptured on the wa1l of the Palace of Brhadratha, the King of Magadha, and was being worshipped. Because the King worshipped her, she had been looking forward to an opportunity to reward the King. Brhadratha had married two daughters of the King of Kasi. They were twin sisters. For a long time they remained childless. The King was very sorry, and went to the forest with his wives. He saw the hermit Kaksivan or Candakausika, the son of Gautama arid requested that a son should be born to him. The hermit was sitting in meditation under a mango tree and fell on his lap. The hermit took it and by prayer and meditation he invoked divine power into it and gave it to the King. The King divided it into two and gave it to his wives. The queens became pregnant and the three returned joyously.


In due course both delivered. But each of them gave birth to only half of a child. The horrified queens took the uncouth figures outside the palace and left them there. Jara was watching this. She ran to the spot and placed the two portions together. Instantly it became a child of proper form. Hearing the cry of the child the mothers came out. Jara appeared there and placed the child before the King Brhadratha. As desired by Jara the child was named Jarasandha because he was joined together by Jara. This child grew, up and became the notorious King Jarasandha of Magadha. (M.B. Sabha Parva, 3 Chapters from 17) .


It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 182, Stanza 12 that when Arjuna fought with Jarasandha this harpy had been staying in the weapon of Jarasandha and was killed in that fight.


JARATKARU I. A hermit who is Puranically famous.


1) Birth. This hermit was born in a Brahmana dynasty known as Yayavaras. He was the only son of Yayavaras. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 13).


2) The name _7aratkdru. The meaning of the name Jaratkaru is given in Bhasabharata, Ad! Parva, Chapter 40, as follows : -


"Jara is consumption, Karu is daruna (awful). By and by his body became hard and awful and by penance he made his body to wear out, and so he got the name `iaratkaru'."


By means of penance he made his body lean and worn out and so got the name Jaratkaru.


3) Marriage. The calm and abstemious Jaratkdru remained unmarried for a long time. One day he happened to meet with his Manes. They were holding on to a grass and were about to fall into hell, and a 'rat was cutting the root of the grass which was their only hold. The moment the root is severed all the Manes would fall into the deep ravine of hell. It was at this juncture that Jaratkaru, met his Manes. The moment they saw him they said, "See Jaratkaru, we are your Manes. We have to obtain, heaven, life, contentment and happiness by the good deeds of your son. So go and get married quickly."


At first he did not like the talk about marriage. Still, in order to procure heaven fox- his ancestors he agreed to get married. But he made a condition that the name of the bride also should be Jaratkaru and she should be given to him as alms. Saying these words, he walked away along the forest.


News reached the ears of Vasuki, the King of the Nagas (serpents) that the hermit Jaratkaru was wandering through the forests calling out that somebody should give him as alms a damsel .named Jaratkaru. Vasuki had a sister. Jaratkaru was her name. Vasuki decided to give her to the hermit Jaratkaru. She was adorned with costly garments and ornaments and was taken to the hermit Jaratkaru. Jaratkaru said :-


"Hear my condition, I will not cherish her if she causes displeasure to me. If she does so I will send her away instantly."


On condition that if she did anything displeasing to him he would leave her at once, the hermit Jaratkaru married Jaratkaru the sister of Vasuki. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 2; XIahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapters 13 and 47) .


4) Leaves his wife. Jaratkaru lived in the hermitage with her husband looking after him with love and loyalty. One day the hermit was sleeping with his head on the 1ap of his wife. Though it was sunset the hermit slept on. It was time for the evening worship of the hermit. If he is aroused he will get angry. The wife was in a difficult situation. Anyhow she aroused her husband. The hermit got up full of anger and shouted, "You have hindered my sleep, you wicked woman and teased me. So from today you are not my wife. I am going away."


She begged him for pardon with tears. But without paying any heed to the entreaties of his pregnant wife, he left her.


The helpless Jaratkaru gave birth to a son named Astika who later stopped the famous sacrifice, Sarpa Satra meant for killing the serpents. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 47) . See under Jaratkaru II.




1) General information. It occurs in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 9, about jaratkaru, the sister of Vasuki and the wife of hermit Jaratkaru as follows, This devi (goddess) is the daughter of Prajapati KaSyapa, born from his mind. So she got the name Manasadevi (goddess born from rhind). Some think that she got the name Manasadevi because she is the deity of mind. There are some who imagine that she got the name Manasadevi because she held Sri Krsna Paraxnatman (the Supreme Spirit) firmly in her mind. This devi had been meditating upon Sri Krsna Paramatma for three yugas (world-ages) She is known by twelve names.


(1) Jaratkdrn. Manasadevi had been performing penance, and meditating upon Sri Krsna Paramatman for three complete yugas and her garments and body were worn out. So Krsna gave her the name Jaratkaru. (2) Yagadgauri. Because she was comely and beautiful and of fair complexion and was worshipped all over the world, she got the name jagadgauri.


(3) ATanasa. Because she was born from the mind of Kasyapa, the name "Manasa" was given to her.


(4) Saddhayogini. As the fruits of her Tapas (penance) , she got the attainments of Yoga (meditation, devotion, contemplation and other ways of union with the Universal Soul) and so she was given the name Siddhayogini.


(5) Pai.,rraavi. Because she had constant devotion to Mahavisnu she was called Vaisnavi.


(6) Njgabhagini. Because she was the sister of Vasuki the King of the Naga.s, she got the name Nagabhagini. (Sister of N5ga).


(7) Saivi. As she was a disciple of Siva she got the name gaivi.


(8 r Ndgesvari. Because she saved the Nagas (serpents) from the Sarpasatra (sacrifice for killing the serpents) o~anamejaya the son of the King Pariksit, she got the name Nagesvari.


(9) 7aratkampriyd. Because she became the wife of the hermit Jaratkaru she was called Jaratkarupriya.


(10) Asukamata. Because she was the mother of the hermit Astika she got the name Astikamata.


(11) Tlisahari. Because she was the goddess who destroyed poison, she was known by the name Visahari. ( 12) Mahajnanavatf. Since she had the attainments of vast knowledge, yoga and the power of bringing the dead to life, she was given the name Mahajnanavati.


2) Birth. Once the serpents became a plague to the men of the earth and they all went to Prajapati Kagyapa and made their complaints. Kasyapa and Brahma consulted each other and at the instruction of Brahma Kas yapa created several Mantras , (spells and incantations) and Manasadevi from his rriind as the deity of these spells.


3) Power of her tapas (penance). When she was very young she went to Kailasa and performed penance to Paramasiva for a- thousand years. At last Siva appeared before her and gave her the divine knowledge, and taught her the Samaveda. He gave her the divine Sri Krsna mantra (a spell) called `Astaksari' and the Sri Krsna Kavac4, (the armour of Krsna) called Trailokypmangala' and taught her how to use them in worship. Wearing this armour and using the spell she performed penance in Puskara, meditating upon Sri Krsna Paramatma, for three yugas (world ages). At the end of this period Sri Krsna Paramatma appeared before her and gave her all the boons she wanted. Sri Krsna said that all over the wor1d she would be worshipped -a-nd that she had power to give boons to her worshippers.


4) Marriage and rejection.' Kasyapa gave his daughter Manasadevi in marriage to Jaratkaru, a hermit. As .they were living in the hermitage, once the hermit slept with his head on the lap of his wife. Seeing the setting sun she aroused her husband. The hermit became


angry and decided to reject her: She thought of the Devas, -who instantly arrived. Brahma argued that it was not meet and right to reject his wife before a child was born to tier. The hermit touched the groin of his wife and prayed and with the power of yoga (meditation, contemplation etc.) she became pregnant. The son born to her is the famous hermit Astika.


After giving birth to Astika she went to Kailasa, where Paramesvara and Parvati received her.


5) The mantra (incantation) of worship. To get the attainment of Manasadevi one has to utter the spell (mantra) "Oih Hrirh-Srim-Klirh-Airii-Manasadevyai svaha" five lakh times. He who has got the attainment of this mantra as given above will be equal to Dhanvantari (the physician of the Gods) and to him poison will be Amrta (ambrosia). This goddess could be invoked into a secluded room on the day of Sankranti (Transit of the Sun) . If offerings of oblations and worship are carried on, he would be blessed with children, wealth and fame.


JARASANDHA I. A terrible King of Magadha.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order :-Brahma - Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas-AyusNahusa - Yayati-Puru - Janamejaya-Pracinvan-PraviraNamasyu - Vitabhaya-Sundu=Bahuvidha-Samyati-Rahovadi - Raudrasva - Matinara - Santurodha - DusyantaBharata-Suhotra-Suhota-Gala - Garda - Suketu - Brhatksetra-Hasti-Ajamidha-Rsa-Sariivarana-Pdru-Sudhanvd-




) Birth. jardsandha* was created by joining together two halves of a child, by a giantess called Jara, and so this child got the name Jarzsandha. (For detailed story see under Jara) .


3) The first battle with gri Krr~za. Asti and Prapti, the two wives of Kamsa, were daughters of Jarasandha. When Sri Krsna killed Kamsa, the two daughters went to their father and shed tears before him. Jaraandha became angry and with a mighty army surrounded the city of Mathura. A fierce battle was fought between Jarasandha and Krsna. At last Balabhadrarama caught hold of Jarasandha and was about to kill him, when an ethereal voice said that Balabhadrarama was not the person to kill jarasandha. Accordingly Rama and Krsna set Jarasandha free. (Bhag~vata, Skandha 10).


4)- Other information.


(1) It is mentioned in Bhagavata, Skandha 10, that Jarasandha was the teacher too, of Kariisa.


(2) Jarasandha had four sons, Soma, Sahadeva, Turya and Srutasru of whom Sahadeva became King of Magadha, after the death of Jarasandha.


(3) Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, that Jarasandha had been present at the Svayamvara (marriage) of Pancali.


(4) Once there arose a battle between Jarasandha and Karna, in which Jarasandha was defeated and so he made a treaty with Karna. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 6) .


5) The death of Jardsandha. The enmity between Sri Krsna and,Jarasandha was life-long. These two mighty powers confronted each other eighteen times. Sri Krsna decided to kill Jarasandha, the King of Magadha," in a duel. Once Sri Krsna with Arjuna and Bhima, reached the city of D~iagadha in the guise of Brahmanas. They started from the kingdom of Kuru travelled through Kurujafigala and passed by Padmasaras and Kalakata, visited the holy. places of Gandaki, Mahasona, Sadanira and such others, crossed the river Sarayu and reached the opposite bank. Then they travelled through the countries of East Kosala and Mithila. Touring through the countries they crossed the rivers Carmanvati, Ganga and Sona. Wearing matted hair and barks of trees they reached Girivraja, the capital city of Magadha. There were three big drums, which were used only on special occasions. The hide of elephant was used for making them." Seeing all these sights they reached the presence of jarasandha, who welcomed them with necessary formalities and talked with them. But they kept silence. At last Sri Krsna told him that his two friends were having the vow of silence, which would terminate only at midnight. So the King left them in the sacrificial hall and went to the palace. He came to them at midnight and asked them who they were. Sri Krsha revealed to him that they were Krsna, Bhima and Arjuna, who had come to fight a duel with jarasandha, who had unreasonably put many innocent Kings in dungeon, and challenged him to select any one of them for duel. Jarasandha, trembling with fury, selected Bhima. In that duel jarasandha was killed. (M.B. Sabha Parva, 3 Chapters from 20) .


6) .Names given to _7arasandha. Barhadratha, Magadha, Magadhadhipa and jaraputra are some of the names used in the Mahabharata by Vyasa as synonyms of Jarasandha.


JARASANDHA II. (Satrusaha). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 137, Stanza 30 that this jarasandha was killed by Bhimasena.


JARASANDHA III. - In Karna Parva of the Mahabharata, Chapter 5, Stanza 30, we see a King jayatsena who fought on the side of the Kauravas and had been killed by Abhimanyu. The father of this King jayatsena `was one jarasandha, a Ksatriya of Magadha.


JARASANDHAVADHAPARVA. A sub-section of Sabha Parva, of the Mahabharata. This sub-section comprises of Chapters 20 to 24 of Sabha Parva.


JARAYU. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 43, Stanza 19).


JARITA. A mother bird with four young ones, who suffered much in the burning of the forest Khandava. (For detailed story see under Khandavadaha, Para 8) .


JARITARI. A son of the mother bird jarita. (See under Khandavadaha, Para 8) .


JARJARANANA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 19).


JARTIKA. A tribe of Vahikas. They are considered to be the lowest of the tribes. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 44, Stanza 10) .


JARUDHI. A country in ancient India. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 38).


JARUTHI. An ancient city. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 30, that Sri Krsna, with his friends Ahuti and Kratha defeated Sisupala, Jarasandha, Saibya and Satadhanvan in this city.


JATADHARA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. SalyaParva, Chapter 45, Verse 61).

r. See under Brhadratha IV to know about the sound of this big drum.


JATAKARMADISAMSKARA (S) . In the ancient days the people of Bharata observed certain social and customary rites immediately after the birth of a child. They were known as jatakarmans. Each caste had its own jatakarmans. They are given below


If it is a male child jatakarman should be done before eutting'the umbilical cord. At that time gold is to be rubbed in ghee and honey and the tongue of the child should be touched with it, uttering mantras (spells) (Colloquial name of this rite is giving gold and honey). The child should be named on the tenth or twelfth day after birth, selecting suitable lunar day, good star and auspicious moment. The name should imply prosperity to Brahmans, might to Ksatriyas, wealth to Vaisyas and humility to Sudras. That is, the word `barman' in the case of Brahmana, `Varman' for Ksatriyas, 'Gupta' for %laisyas and `Dasa' for 8udras, should be added to the name. The names given to girls should be of easy utterance, having clear meaning but not cruel, very beautiful, charming, and propitious avoiding long letters as far as possible. Four months after delivery, the child should be taken out of the room of confinement to see the Sun. On the sixth month the rite of `Annaprasa' (feeding with rice) should be performed. In accordance with hereditary customs the two rites mentioned above may be performed at airy time after the third month. For Brahmanas and Ksatriyas the ceremony of `Caula' (tonsure) may be performed at the time of birth or at the age of three. The ceremony of Upanayana (Investiture with the Brahma string) should be conducted at the age of eight from pregnancy for Brahmanas, at the age of eleven from pregnancy for Ksatriyas and at the age of twelve for Vaisyas. But Upanayana could be performed at the age of five for Brahmanas who . desire Brahma-radiance, at the age of six for Ksatriyas who desire might and at the age of eight for Vaisyas who desire wealth. There is another opinion that Upanayana could be performed up to the age of sixteen for Brahmanas and twentytwo for Ksatriyas. Even after the attainment of this age, if this ceremony is not performed, that boy will be considered an out-cast from the mantra (spell) of Gayatri, and will have no admittance to the rituals and ceremonies performed by Brahmanas and will be known by the name Vratya (an outcast, uninvested Brahmana). These Vratyas could not be taught Vedas or be given women as wives.


Brahmana, Ksatriya and Vaisya brahmacaris (celibates) could use the hides of black antelope, spotted deer or goat as upper garment and clothes made of silk thread, flax or wool of sheep or red leopard. To tie round the waist, Brahmanas have to make belts out of Munja (grass), j~_satriyas, out of Marva (grass) and Vaisyas out of flax. When these are not available, Brahman as may use Kusa grass, Ksatriyas nanal grass and Vaisyas Darbha grass called balbaja to make belts of customary three darns or five darns with a knot. A celibate should have a stick. For Brahmanas the stick should be made of Bilva (Aegle marmelos) or "palasa" (butea frondosa) and for Ksatriyas, of banyan or blackwood. (Mimosa catechu) and for Vaisyas, of Dillenia speciosa (Uka tree) or fig tree. For Brahmanas the stick should reach up to the top of the head, for Ksatriyas up to the forehead and for Vaisyas up to the nose. Before going for alms, the celibate should take his stick, bow before the sun, go round the fire and only then set out. The alms received should be offered to the teacher as oblation, then he should turn to the east and wash hands and mouth and eat it. Brahmanas should wear the upper garment or their sacred thread (Yajnasutra) on the left shoulder and under the right arm and then it is called `Upavita'; if it is on the right shoulder and under the left arm it is called "Pracinavita" and if it is round the neck it is called "Nivita".


These jatakarmans may be done for the female child also at the stipulated times by tantras, without reciting mantras, for the purification of the body. The rituals performed without reciting Vedamantras (spells) are called tantras. For women marriage is to be considered as Upanayana, looking after the needs of husband to be considered as learning at the house of the teacher, and housekeeping as samidadhana (gathering fuel of Butea frondosa). (Manusmrti, Chapter 2) .


JATALIKA. A female attendant of Skanda. ($alya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 23) .


JATAPATHA. See under Ghanapatha.


JATARUPASILA. A mountain. This mountain stands in a place having an area of thirteen yojanas, on the opposite shore of the sea where the water-creatures fall with tremendous cry at the mouth of the submarine fire (Badavagni). The monkeys sent by Sugriva to search for vita, made a search in this mountain also. (Valmiki Rainayana, Kiskindha Kana, Sarga 40, Stanza 50) .


JATASURA I. A King, who' was a member of' Dharmaputra's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 24).


JATASURA II. A Raksasa, Jatasura, disguised as a brahmin lived with the ~apdavas in the forest. His aim was to carry off Pancali and the arrows of the Pandavas as and when he got .an opportunity for it. One day taking advantage- of Arjuna's absence Bhima was out ahunting) Jatasura caught hold of the others as also the arrows and ran away with them. Sahadeva alone managed to slip away from his clutches. Dharmaputra pledged his word that jatasura would be killed before the sunset. Hearing all the hubbub (Bhima hurried to the scene, killed the Asura and saved his brothers and Paficali from difficulties and danger. (Vana Parva, Chapter 157) .


JATASURA III. This jatasura had a son called AlambUsa who was killed by Ghatotkaca in the great war. (Drona Parva, Chapter 174) .


JATASURA PARVA. A sub-Parva of Mahabharata. (See under Mahabharata) .


JATAVEDA (S) . Three sons of Purfiravas, born from Agni (fire). They are called the jatavedas. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


JATAYU. A bird famous in the Puranas.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu as follows,


Brahma-Marici-Kas yapa-Aruna-Jatayu.


2) Birth. Two sons called Sampati and Jatayu were born to Aruna. Their mother, a bird, was 8yeni. 8yeni,


wife of Aruna, delivered two children, Sampati and the great jatayu (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 71) . "Know that I am the son of Aruna and Sampati is my elder brother. My name is jatayu, and I am the son of 8yeni." (Valmiki Ramayana, Canto 14, Verse 32).


But, according to Karnba Ramayana, the name of the mother of Sarnpati and jatayu was Mahasveta. (Kiskindha Kanda) . Perhaps, 9yeni was also known as Mahasveta.


3) _7atayu flies towards Surya. Sampati and jatayu, once under a bet flew up towards the sun. Jatayu outflew Sampati, and in the exuberance of youth entered Suxya's orbit at noon time with the result that, due to the excessive heat his wings were scorched. At this Sampati, to save his brother., flew up higher than Jatayu and spread out his wings like an umbrella over Jatayu with the result that Sampati's wings were burnt, and he fell down somewhere on the Vindhya mountains. He spent the rest of his life under the protection of a sage called Nisakara who was performing penance. on the mountains. After their tragic meeting in Suryamandala Sampati and jatayu never again met in their life. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha. Kanda, Chapter 58; Kamba Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda) .


4) Fought with Rdroana. Jatayu clashed with Ravana, who was carrying away Sitadevi in his vimana, and in the fierce fight that they fought in the air, Ravana cut off jatayu's wings and thus felled him on the earth, almost dead. (Valmiki Ramayana, Axanya Kanda, Chapter 51).


5) Death. Rama and Laksmana during their search in the forest for Sita came upon jatayu lying without wings almost dead and reciting Rama's name. Jatayu described to Rama how Ravana had carried away Sita and how he had tried to stop him and fought with him. After giving this account he died. Rama and Laksmana lit a fire and cremated jatayu. The great bird's soul attained salvation. (Kamba Ramayana).


JATI. See under Caturvarnya.


JATILA. The name assumed by Siva when he played the part of a 'Brahmacarin. Parvati began rigorous penance to obtain Siva as her husband, and Siva visited her disguised as jatila, a brahmacarin to test her. (Siva Purana, Satarudrasariihita).


JATIL. . A righteous and generous woman who was born in the Gautama dynasty. She once sought the help of the saptarsis. (Adi Parva, Chapter 195; also See under Gautami II) .


JATISMARA. A holy bath. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 128 that the body and mind of the person who bathes in this tirtha (bath) will become pure.


JATISMARAHRADA. A holy place. In. the Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 3, mention is made that if a man gives alms at this holy place, he will be able to remember his previous birth and life.


JATISMARAKITA. A worm which got emancipation through the advice of -Vyasa. Once while Vyasa was roaming about in the country, by chance he saw this worm. It was running through the road, seeing a cart coming very fast. Vyasa stopped it and asked, "What are you running from ?"The worm replied that he was running in fear that the wheel of the cart coming frQm behind might crush him. In the previous birth this worm was a gudra. Jealousy, resentment, arrogance, selfishness etc. were the traits of his character in his previous life. Only twice in his life had he done good deeds. Once he honoured his mother and on another occasion he respected a Brdhmana. Because of these two good deeds, in his present life as worm he had the remembrance of his previous life. Vydsa gave the worm necessary advice. Instantly the worm was crushed under the wheel of the cart.


In the next rebirth this jatismarakita was born as a Ksatriya King. As he was leading the life of a powerful King he met with Vyasa. He received advice from the hermit. In his next life he became a Brahmana and finally he attained bliss. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, 3 Chapters from 117) .


JATHARA I. A very erudite brahmin scholar in Vedic lore. Jathara was a prominent figure at the serpent yajna held by janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 53, Verse 8).


JATHARA II. A mountain within the ranges of Mahameru. On the eastern side of Mahameru there exist two mountains called jathara and Devakuta, 18, 000 yojanas in extent and 2000 yojanas high. On the western side of Meru are the mountains called Pavamana and Pariyatra, on the southern side Kailasa and Karavira, and on the northern side Trisrriga and Makaragiri. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha).


JATHARA III. An urban region in ancient India.


JATHARA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. galya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 128).


JATUGRHAM. See under Arakkillam (lac palace).


JATUGRHAPARVA. A particular section of Adi Parva.


JATUKkRNA. An ancient hermit with control over his senses. He was a member of the council of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva; Chapter 4, Stanza 14)


JAVA warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 75)


JAYAIA son of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Stanza 119) . He fought with Arjuna at the time of the stealing of cows. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 54) . This jaya fought with Nila and Bhima in the battle of Bharata. Bhirria killed him. (Drona Parva, Chapters 25 and 135) .


JAYA II. A deva (god). At the time of the, burning of the forest Khandava, this deva came with an iron pestle to fight with krsna and Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 226 Stanza 34).


JAYA 111. A King in ancient India. He sits in the Durbar of Yama (God of death) and worships him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 15).


JAYA IV. A synonym of the Sun. (M.B. Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 24).


JAYA V. The pseudo name taken by Yudhisthira at the time of the pseudonymity of the Pandavas in the country of Virata. Bhima was known as Jayanta, Arjuna by the name Vijaya, Nakula by the name jayatsena and Sahadeva by the name jayadbala at that time. (Virata Parva,_ Chapter 5, Stanza 351. At that time Pahcali addressed all her five husbands by the name Jaya. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 23, Stanza 12).


JAYA VI. A naga (serpent) born in the family of Kasyapa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Stanza 16).


JAYA VII. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 156, that both gakuni and this warrior fought with Arjuna.


JAYA VIII. A warrior of. the country of Paficala. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Karna Parva7 Chapter

56, Stanza 44 that this warrior fought on the side of the Pandavas and that Karna wounded him in the battle.


JAYA IX. One of the attendants given to SubrahmaPya by Vasuki, the King of the Nagas (serpents). Vasuki gave Subrahmanya two attendants named Jaya and Mahajaya. (MA Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 52) .


JAYA X. A synonym of Mahavisnu. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 149, Stanza 67) .


JAYA XI. (JAY-AVIJAYAS). They were gate-keepers of Vaikuntha. As these two .sons of devas were engaged in the service of Mahavisnu guarding the gate, the hermits Sanaka and others came to see Mahavisnu to pay him homage. Jaya and Vijaya stopped them at the gate. Sanaka got angry and cursed them to take three births on the earth as Asuras (demons). The sorrowful Jaya and Vijaya requested for absolution from the curse. The hermit said that they had to take three births as Asuras and that they would be redeemed by the weapon of Mahavisnu. Accordingly Jaya and Vijaya were born in the earth as Hiranyaksa and Hirairyakagipu. They were killed by Mahavisnu. n the second birth they were Ravana and Kurirbhakara. Mahavisnu incarnated as Sri kama killed them. In* the thirdb* ih they were gig up5la and Dantavaktra. They were


ir killed by Sri Krsna, an incarnation of Bhagavan Visnu. For further details see under Hiranyaksa. Hiranyakasipu, Ravana; Kurirbhakarna, Sisupala and Dantavaktra. After three births Jaya and VijayaL returned to Vaikuntha. (Bhagavata, Skandha 7).


JAYA XII. Father of the Raksasa (giant) Viradha, who was killed by Sri Rama at the forest Dandaka. Vira-dha was born to the giant Jaya by his wife Satahrada. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 3) .


JAYA XIII. The original name of the Mahabharata written by Vyasa. Many of the scholars are of opinion that Vyasa was not the author of the whole of the Mahabharata that we see in its present form .now. They say that the Bharata written by Vyasa consisted only of eight thousand andeighthundredsta.nzas. Thatworkwas named Jaya. To those eight thousand and eight hundred stanzas Vaisampayana added fifteen thousand, two hundred stanzas and this great book was given the name Bharata or Bharata sarizhita (Bharata collection). When Suta recited this book to other hermits in Naimisaranya the book had a lakh of stanzas. Henceforward the book was called Mahabharata, (History of classical Sanskrit Literature; Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 62, .Stanza 20) .


JAYA. I. A daughter of the hermit Gautama. Gautama had two daughters by his wife Ahalya named jayanti and Aparajita besides jaya.s While Daksa was performing a yaga, (sacrifice) this Jaya informed Parvati of it. Parvati fell down when she heard that Daksa had not invited Siva. to the sacrifice. Siva got .angry at Daksa's negligence and from his wrath the Bhutaganas such as Virabhadra and others (attendAnts of Siva) arose. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 4) .


JAYA. II. Wife of Pus padanta, a gana (attendant of $iva) . See under Puspadan a.


JAYA. III. Another name of Parvati. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 6, Stanza 16) .


JAYA IV. A daughter of Daksa. Two daughters named Jaya and Suprabha were born to Daksa. To Suprabha and Jaya fifty sons each were born. These hundred sons wore various kinds of arrows and such other weapons. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakdnda, Sarga 21).


JAYA V. A maid of ~drvatl. It*is' seen in Skanda Purana that this Jaya was the daughter of Prajapati Krsasva.


JAYA. Wife. The husband enters the wife in the form of semen and takes birth as the foetus and then is born from her as son and so the wife is called Jaya.


"Patirbharyarii sampravisya Garbho bhutveha jayate Jayayastaddhi jayatvarir Yadasyarir jayate punch" //


(Manusmrti, Chapter 9, Stanza 8 ). JAYA (M) I. The name of an auspicious moment. This has the name Vijayam also. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 6, Stanza 17).


JAYA (M) II. The name given to the story of Vidula. See under Vidula.


JAYADBALA. The false name assumed by Sahadeva at the time of the incognito life of the Pdndavas in the city of Virata. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 35) .


JAYADEVA I. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 13th century A.D. He is the author of the play `Prasannaraghavam'. As far as the story of Sri Rama is concerned, some changes have been made in this play from that given by Bhavabhud in his `Mahaviracarita'. According to this play Sri Rama and Banasura both were lovers of Sita. The famous work `Candraloka', a treatise on rhetorical figures, was written by this poet Jayadeva. His most important work is `Gitagovinda', the theme of which is the. early life of Sri Krsna, especially the love between Sri Krsna and Radha, which is very touchingly described. This book consists of 12 sargas and each sarga contains 24 octaves. This poet was a devotee of Krsna. He used to sing lyrics before the image of Krsria while his wife danced according to the beat.


JAYADEVA II. See under Dussasana II.


JAYADHVAJA. The fifth of the hundred sons of Kartaviryarjuna. It is stated in Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 46 that, of the hundred sons of Kartaviryarjuna, 8ura, 8urasena, Dhisana, Madhu and Jayadhvaja were the mightiest warriors. This Jayadhvaja was the father of Talajangha.


JAYADRATHA 1. A mighty warrior King who ruled over the kingdom of Sindhu.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order : Brahma -Atri -Candra -Budha -PururavasAyus-Nahusa -Yayati -Puru Janamejaya-Pracinvan-Pravira-Namasyu-Vi tabhaya--Sundu-Bahuvidha -Sariryati -Rahovadi -Raudrasva -MatinaraSariturodha-Dusyanta -Bharata-Suhotra-SuhotaGala-Gardda -Suketu -Brhatksatra-Hasti-Ajamidha-Brhadisu-Brhaddhanu-Brhatkaya--Jayadrathal 2) Birth and attainment of Boon. Jayadratha was born as a result of severe fasts and vows taken by his father. There was an ethereal voice at the birth of Jayadratha, "This child would become a very famous King. The head of him, who puts down the head of this child on the earth would break into a hundred pieces within a moment" His father was filled with joy when he heard this ethereal voice, and so he made jayadratha King atr . It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67 that Jayadratha was the son of- Brhatksatra. After Bharata, Brhat-


ksatra was the only famous and mighty emperor. Really speaking Jayadratha was the grandson of Brhatksatra. The statement that Jayad-


ratha was the sore of Brhatksatra only means that he was a descendant of that king. very young age and went to Samantapancaka to perform penance. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 146)


3) Alarriage. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 116, Stanza 17, thatJayadrathamarried the princess Dussala.


4) Jayadratha and Pancali. From the very beginning Jayadratha was a bitter enemy of the Pandavas. It is not difficult to find out the root of this enmity. It is stated in Adi Parva, Chapter 1$5, Stanza 21 that Jayadratha was present at the svayaxirvara of Pancali. The fact that he did not get Pancali, might have laid the foundation of this enmity.


From dais moment Jayadratha was looking forward to a chance to carry off Pancali.


The forest life of the Pdndavas began. They wandered through many forests and finally reached the forest, Kamyaka. Once the Pdndavas 1eft Pancali alone in the but and went to the forest for hunting. Jayadratha came to know of this. He came with his men to the place where the but stood. At the very first sight of Pancali, he fell in 1ove with her. He sent Kotrkasya, the King of Trigarta, who was the son of Suratha as a messenger to Pancali. Ko-tikasya told Pancali about the superior qualities of Jayadratha and requested her to accept Jayadratha, leaving the Pandavas. $ut she rejected his request. The messenger returned to Jayadratha and told him what had happened. Jayadratha himself came in a chariot and tried to entice her. Pancali did not yield. ,jayadratha caught her by force and took her away in his chariot. Dhaumya the priest of the Pdndavas followed them with tears. Shortly afterwards, the Pdndavas returned to the hut. They searched for Pancali here and there. They heard everything from a maid, and instantly followed Jayadratha, whose army confronted the Pandavas. The heads of almost all the warriors of Jayadratha fell on the ground. Jayadratha fled from the battlefield. The Pandavas followed him and caught him and scourged him. Bhirna shaved his head letting only five hairs to stand on the head. They, took him as a prisoner before Dharmaputra. Finally at the instruction of Yudhisthira and Pancali, he was released. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 264 to 272).


5 ) Other details.


(1) In the sacrifice of Rajasuya (imperial consecration) performed by Yudhisthira, Jayadratha took part as a tributary King. ( M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Stanza 8) .


( 2) Jayadratha was present at the game of dice between Duryodliana and Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 58, Stanza 28).


(3) It was while going to Salva to marry a damsel that Jayadratha attacked Pancali at the forest of Kamyaka. ( M.B. Vana. Parva, Chapter 264) .


(4) Feeling ashamed at the result of his attempt to carry off Pancali, Jayadratha went direct to Gairgadvara and pleased diva by penance. Siva gave him the boon that he world be able to defeat al1 the Pandavas except Arjuna. (M.B. Vana 1'arva, Chapter 272).


6 ) ,7ayadratha in the battle of Bharata.


In the battle of Bharata, which lasted for eighteen days between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, Jayadratha took the side of the Kauravas and fought against the Pandavas. The part played by him in the battle is given beiow:-


(1) On the first day there was a combat between Jayadratha and Drupada. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Stanzas 55 to 57) .


(2) Attacked Bhimasena. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 79, Stanzas 17 to 20) .


(3) Fought with Arjuna and Bhimasena. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapters 113 and 115).


(4) Engaged in a combat with the King Virata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 116, Stanzas 42 to 44).


(5) Jayadratha and Abhimanyu fought with each other. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Stanzas 64 to 74) .


(6) Fought with Ksatravarman. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Stanzas 10 to 12) .


(7) Arjuna vowed that he wou1d kill Jayadratha, who tried to flee from the battle-field when he came to know of this. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 74, Stanzas 4 to 12).


(8) He began to combat with Arjuna. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter, 145) .


7) The death of gayadratha. When a fierce fight began between Arjuna and jayadratha, Sri Krsna came to Arjuna and said, "Arjuna, there was an ethereal voice at the birth of jayadratha. The head of the person who puts down the head of jayadratha on the earth, would be broken into a hundred pieces. So send an arrow in such a way that his head falls on the lap of his father." Hearing this, Arjuna sent an arrow which cut off the head of jayadratha and the head fell in the lap of jayadratha's father who had been sitting in deep penance and meditation in Samantapancaka. Instantly the father awoke from meditation and stood up and the head of his beloved son, with ear-rings on both ears fell on the earth and the head of the father was broken into a hundred pieces and he died. (Drona Parva, Chapter 146, Stanzas 104 to 130).


8) The names of ja Saindhavaka, Saindhava,


Sauvira, Sauviraja, Sauviraraja, Sindhupati Sindhuraja,


Sindhurat, Sindhusauvirabharta, Suvira, Suvirarastrapa,


Vardhaksatri and such other names are used as syno


nyms of jayadratha in the Mahabharata.


JAYADRATHA II. In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 36 we see another jayadratha who sits in the durbar of yama (the death-god) and meditates upon him.


JAYADRATHAVADHAPARVA. A sub section of Drona Parva in Maha Bharata. This consists of Chapters 85 to 152 of Drona Parva.


JAYADRATHAVIMOKSANA PARVA. A sub section of the Vana Parva, in Mahabharata. Chapter 272 is in this section.


JAYANIKA I. A grandson of Drupada. Mention is made in the Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 156 Stanza 18, that this jayanika was killed by Mvatthama.


JAYANIKA II. A brother of the King of Virata. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Stanza 42) .


JAYANTA I. Son of Indra.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order: Brahma - Marici - Kasyapa-Indra jayanta. Jayanta was the son born to Indra by his wife Sacidevi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 112, Stanzas 3 and 4). 2) jayanta lost one eye. During his forest life? Sri Rama


lived with Sita and Laksmana on the mountain Citrak5ta for some days. Once Sri Rama, being very tired of walking in the forest fell asleep with his head in the lap of Sita. Taking this chance jayanta came it the shape of a crow and scratched the breast of Sita with his claws. Situ cried and -8r! Rama woke up and saw Jayanta in the shape of a crow. Rama got angry and shot the'Brahmastra (a divine arrow) against jayanta. Fear of life made him fly throughout the whole of the three worlds. Even Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara were unable to protect him, All the while the divine arrow followed him. Finally having no go he came and fell at the feet of Sri Rama. $ri: Rama said that the Brahm5stra could never become futile and so the arrow must hit his right eye. Accordingly the arrow struck at his right eye and thus jayanta lost his right eye. In Adhyatma Ramayana this story is stated with some slight changes. According to Adhydtma R5mayana, this incident took place when Sita. had been drying raw flesh. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sundara Kanda, Sarga 38) . 3) jayanta hidden in the ocean. After getting the boons Ravana became arrogant and with a big army went to the realm of the gods. Ravana engaged Indra in a fierce battle. In that fight Meghanada the son of Ravana attacked jayanta, who swooned and fell down. Immediately Puloma, the father of Sacidevi, gathered Jayanta in his hands unseen by anybody and hid him in the sea. After the disappearance of jayanta the battle entered the second stage. Thinking that his son jayanta had been killed, Indra began to fight with Ravana with more vigour than before. In the battle which followed Meghanada subdued Indra and made him a. captive. Taking Indra and the celestial maids as captives, Ravana and his men went to Lanka. (Uttara Ramayana ).


4) jayanta became Bamboo. Once Agastya came to Indra's durbar. Indra arranged for the dance of Urvasi in honour of Agastya's visit. In the midst of the dance Urva~i saw jayanta before her and she fell in love with him. Consequently her steps went out of beat. Narada who was playing his lute called Mahati went wrong. Agastya got angry and cursed Jayanta and changed him to a bamboo. Urvasi was cursed to become a woman with the name Madhavi. Agastya cursed Narada that his lute Mahati would become the lute of the people of the world. (Vayu Purdna).


5) Other information.


(1) In the stealing of the Parijatapuspa (the flower of a paradise tree) Jayanta fought with Pradyumna the son of Sri Krsna and was defeated. (Visnu Parva Chapter 73) .


(2) Jayanta was defeated by 8urapadma, an Asura, in a battle. (Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda).


JAYANTA II. During the time of his life incognito in Virata the name assumed by Bhimasena was jayanta. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 35).


JAYANTA III. In Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 171, Stanza 11, mention is made about one Jayanta of Paficala.


JAYANTA IV. One of the eleven Rudras. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 20).


JAYANTA V. A synonym of Mahavisnu (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 149, Stanza 98).


JAYANTA VI. One of the twelve Adityas. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 150, Stanza 15).


JAYANTA VII. One of the ministers of Dasaratha. The eight ministers of Dasaratha were jayanta, Dhrsti, Vijaya, Asiddhartha, Arthasadhaka, Asoka, Mantrapalaka and Sumantra. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 7).


JAYANTI I. A holy place on the bank of the river Sarasvati. There is a tirtha (bath) here known as Somatirtha. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 19 that those who bathe in this tirtha would obtain the fruits of the sacrifice of Rajasuya. (Imperial consecration).


JAYANTI II. Daughter of Indra and sister of jayanta. In Bhagavata, Skandha 4, there is a. story stating how jayanti was the wife of 8ukra for ten years.


8ukracarya was the teacher-priest of the Asuras (demons). Once the devas (gods) had completely defeated the Asuras. With the intention of procuring new powers from Sri Paramesvara, ~Sukracarya went to Kailasa. When the penance of Sukra became more and more severe the gods and Indra began to be flurried. Indra told his daughter jayanti to become the servant of Sukra and to break his penance somehow or other. Jayanti did not like this procedure of her father. Still she did not like to disobey her father. So she went to Kailasa and became the attendant of 8ukra and stayed with him. She served him dutifully and with chastity. She would fan him with plantain leaf. She would prepare cold anal fragrant water for him to' drink. When the Sun became hotter she would hold her upper garment as an umbrella so that he should be in the shade. She would gather fully ripened good fruits for him to eat. She would gather good variety of darbha grass, cut them into the length of a span and with good flowers she would give them to the hermit for his morning oblations. She would gather soft sprouts and make bed for him and would stand near him fanning till he slept. She would get water ready for him to rinse his mouth when he woke up. Thus she did the work of a dutiful disciple. She did not, in any way by speech or action, try to entice him so that his vow of penance might be broken. She spoke only words which would be pleasing and helpful to liim. This continued for thousand years and then Paramasiva appeared before him and gave the boons he requested for. After that Sukracarya ta1ked with her. In accordance with her request the .hermit Sukra allowed her to live with him for ten years as his wife. He gave her a boon that during that period of ten years they both would be invisible to the world. Thus gukracarya married jayanti and theylived in the house very happily for ten years `JAYANT I Ill. The queen of the King gsabha who was born in the dynasty of King Agnidhra. Hundred children were born to Rsabha of jayand (See under Rsabha II) .


JAYAPRIYA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. S`alya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 12).


JAYARATA. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas. Bhimasena killed this warrior, who was a prince of Kalinga, in the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 155, Stanza 28).


JAYARATHA. A Sanskrit poet who 1ived in Kasmira in the 12th century. He was a $aivite. His important work is Haracaritacintamani'. (History of classical Sanskrit literature).


JAYARARMAN. A Brahmana who became wealthy by taking the vow of Kamala (Kamalavrata). Kamala is the eleventh day of `Adhimasa'.


It is believed that this day is better than other days. If a man fasts on that day Goddess Kamala will be pleased with him.


The devotee should awake in the Brahma muhurta (fortyeight minutes before sunrise) and take bath thinking of. Purusottama and begin the fast. If the prayer and meditation is conducted at the house he will get double the fruits. If it is at a river it will yield four times the fruits. If it is at a cow-shed the fruits will be thousandfold and, if it is conducted at a fireshed or Saivite temple, at a holy bath or in the presence of God the fruits will be a thousand and one hundredfold and if it is near a tulasi (holy basil) the fruits will be a lakhfo1d and if it is done in the presence of Visnu the fruits obtained will -be unlimited.


This jayasarman who took the fast was the son of a noble Brahmana named 8ivasarman of Avanti. He was the youngest of five sons. He became a wicked man. So he was avoided by his relatives. Being driven away from home, he went to a distant forest and lived there. Once, by luck, he happened to reach the holy place of Triveni Mahatirtha. He was very tired of hunger and thirst. So he bathed in the tirtha and searched for some hermitage. By chance he saw the hermitage of Harimitra As it was the month of Purusottama many people had gathered there. Brahmanas were telling stories of mitigation of sins. He heard the story of the vow called Kamalavrata and its fruits. So jayasarman stayed in that hermitage with them and took the vow of Kamalavrata. That night Devi appeared before him and said : "I have come from Vaikuntha, because I am greatly pleased with you. Since you have taken the vow of Kamalavrata on the eleventh day of the dark lunar fortnight called Kamala of the month of Purusottama I will grant you boons. Because you have taken the vow at Triveni, I am immensely pleased with you. The noble Brahmanas of your future generations also will be blessed by me". Saying these words the Devi gave him boons and disappeared. From that day onwards jayas arma became a great wealthy man and he returned to his father's house (Padma Purana, Chapter 64) .


JAYASENA I. Father of the famous Candamahasena. (See under Candamahasena).


JAYASENA II. A prince of Magadha. He was a member of the council of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva Chapter. 4, Stanza 26) .


JAYASENA III. A King of Avanti. To this King was born a son named Vindanuvinda and a daughter named Mitravinda by his chief wife Rajadhidevi. Mitravindha was married by Sri Krsna.


JAYASVA I. A son of King Drupada. It is mentioned in Maha Bharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 156, Stanza 181 that jayasva was killed by Asvatthama in the battle of Bha,r~ata.


JAYAJVA II. , A brother of the King of Virata. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Stanza 42) .


JAYATSENA I. A King of the kingdom of Magadha. It is stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67 that this King, who was the son of jarasandha, belonged to the family of Kalakeya. This King was a friend of the Pandavas. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 8, that jayatsena was present at the svayariivara (marriage) of Draupadi. Towards the end of the battle of Bharata, the Pandavas sent a letter of invitation to this King and accordingly he came to the help of the Pandavas with an aksauhiri of army (21870 Chariots, 21870 elephants, 65610 horses and 109350 infantry). (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Stanza 8) .


JAYATSENA 11. A King of the Pdru dynasty. His father was Sarvabhauma and his mother was the princess Sunanda of Kekaya. Jayatsena married Susravas, the princess of Vidarbha. A son named Arvacina was born to them. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 35) .


JAYATSENA III. The name assumed by Nakula in his life incognito. (Virata Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 35) .


JAYATSENA IV. A King who took the side of the Kauravas. He was son of jarasandha. This King came with an aksauhini of army and helped the Kauravas in the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 16, Stanza 16) . It is mentioned in Karna Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 30 that this King was killed by Abhimanyu.l


JAYATSENA V. A son of Dhrtarastra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 69, that this Jayatsena was defeated by Satanika and in Salya Parva, Chapter 26 that he was killed by Bhimasena.


JAYATSENA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. galya Parva. Chapter 46, Stanza 12).


JAYAVIJAYAS. See under Jaya XI.


JHA. This syllable means `famous'. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348) .


JHAJHA. The father of Sunda an Asura who was the father of Marica, whose mother was Tataka. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala.Kanda, Sarga 25).


JHILLI. A Yadava of the house of Vrsni. He was one of the seven chief ministers of Sri krsna in Dvaraka. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Daksinatya patha).


JHILLII. jhdlipinddraka). A warrior of the ~rsnis. It is stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter. 185, Stanza 20, that this warrior was present at the svayariivara (marriage) of Draupadi. It is also seen that this Yadava carried the dowry of Subhadra to Khandavaprastha from Dvaraka. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 120, Stanza 32) : This "warrior took part in the Bharata battle. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 28 that this warrior played a laudable part in the battle of Kuruksetra.


JHILLI II. (jhillipindarakam) (fhillika). A worm. This worm has another name Jhinku. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 64, Stanza i ).


JHILLIKA(M). An ancient town in South India,. Mention is made about this town in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 59.


JHLI\(KU. See under Jhilli II.


JIHVA. A servant woman who stole ornaments from the palace. For the detailed story of how she was caught with stolen goods see under Harisarman.


JIMUTA I. A King born of the family of Yayati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


JIMGTA. II. A wrestler (Pahalvan). While the Pandavas were living incognito in the city of Virata, once Brahmotsava (Brahma festival) was celebrated all over the country. Wrestling was an important item of the Brahma festival. Jimuta was the most famous of the wrestlers who took part in the festival. He struck several wrestlers down. At last King Virata asked Bhima to wrestle with jimuta. Bhimasena accepted the invitation.In the wrestling jimuta was killed. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 16) .


JIMUTA III. A hermit. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 111, Stanza 23 that this hermit got a treasure of gold called jaimtata from the Himalayas.


JIMUTA IV. The horse of the King Vasumanas. See under Vasumanas.


JIMUTAKETU I. A synonym of Siva. There is a story in the Puranas about how Siva got the name jimutaketu.


When summer season began Parvati told her husband Siva: "My Lord, Summer has set in. What are we to do without a house to protect us from the hot sun and the strong wind?" Siva replied. "Dear ! It is because I have no house that I walk about in the forest always."


Because Siva said so, the loyal wife Satidevi spent the summer with her husband in the shade of trees. When the summer was over rainy season began. People stopped walking about. The sky became black with clouds. The roaring sound of thunder was heard. everywhere. Seeing that the rainy season had begun Parvati again requested her husband to erect a house. Hearing her request Siva replied. "I have no wealth at all to build a house. You see that I am wearing the hide of a leopard. The serpent Sesa is my Brahma-string. Padma and Pingala are my car-rings: One of my bracelets for the upper arm is Kambala and the other one. is the naga (serpent) Dhananjaya. My bracelet on the right hand is Asvatara and on the left hand is Taksaka. The string that I wear round my waist is Nila, as black as antimony. So let us go above the clouds and spend the rainy season there. Then rain will not fall on your body."


Saying thus, Siva got into a lofty cloud with Parvati and sat there. That cloud looked like the flag of Siva. 'Thenceforward Siva came to be known by the name Jimutaketu. (Vamana Purana, Chapter) .


JIMUTAKETU II. See under jimutavahana.


JIMUTAVAHANA. A Vidyadhara. (demi-god). He was the son of jimiztaketu, who was the ruler of a city named Kancanapura in a valley of the Himalayas. Being childless he had been sad for a. long time. At last he approached the divine tree Kalpaa (a heavenly tree that yields every- wish) that stood in his garden and requested it to bless him with a child. Thus a son was born to him. The famous jlmutavahana was that son.


When jimutavahana came to know of the divine powers of the Kalpaka tree, from the ministers, with the permission of his father he went to the Kalpaka tree, bowed before it and said to it, "Oh noble tree! You have i. The Mahabharata mentions two princes of Magadha, bearing the same name `Jayatsena'. The fathers of both of them happen


to be jarasandhas. But it is said that after the death of the famovs jarasandha his son Sahadeva became king. This Sahadeva, with his brother jayatsena took the side of the Pandavas and fought against the Kauravas. Hence the King jayatsena mentioned here must be the son of some other jarasandha of the Kingdom of Ma gadha.

granted all the wishes of my forefathers. But I have one wish. No body should be miserable in the world. So I wish to give you to the world with that purpose in view". Instantly an ethereal voice said from the tree. "If you are forsaking me I am going away. But I will fulfil your wish." Thus according to the wish of JimutavAhana the Kalpaka tree shed gold everywhere in the world and then went to heaven and disappeared. The earth became =wealthy and prosperous. The fame of Jimdtavahana spread throughout the three worlds, and all the Vidyadharas grew jealous of him. As the heavenly tree Kalpaka, which yielded all the wishes, had returned to heaven, they thought it the most propitious time and arrayed their army against Jiantztavahana. His father Jimutaketu had completed all preparations to meet the enemy. But jimutavahana approached his father and said, "Father ! T am perfectly sure that no body could defeat you in battle: But see how mean it is to destroy so many lives and win the country merely for the pleasures of this fragile body. So let us go away from here. Leave the kingdom to them."


Jimutaketu, who was pleased at this generous nature of his son, respected his wish and went with his family to the Ma1aya mountain and lived there. Mitravasu, the son of Visvavasu, the King of the Siddhas and Jimutavahana became close friends. One day jimutavahana was wandering about in the forest when he saw in the middle of a garden a temple dedicated to Devi and a young woman of exquisite beauty, surrounded by her maids, singing hymns and worshipping Devi. Jimutavahana was attracted by her extra ordinary beauty. Love budded in her heart also. On enquiry it was understood that she was Malayavati, the sister of Mitravasu. After that both of them engaged in a little talk of love-making. Hearing her mother calling, Malayavati instantly went home. Being fallen head-long in love, Jimutavahana spent the night somehow or other and at dawn reached the temple with a hermit boy. While the hermit boy was consoling jimutavahana Malayavati also came there. Jimutavahana and his friend hid behind a tree. She was alone, and since she could not bear separation frorn her lover she decided to commit suicide and standing at the steps, she said "Devi ! If it is impossible to get that Jixmitavahana as my husband in this birth, let it be so. But bless me that I may have my wish granted in the next birth at least". Saying this she tied one end of her upper garment on the tree and tried to commit suicide. Instantly there was an ethereal voice which said, "Daughter, don't do such rash things. Jimutavahana will become your husband. He will become the emperor of the Vidyadharas also." Jimutavahana came and untied the knot of the upper garment with his own hands and saved her from death. Her maid appeared and said with delight. "Friend ! you are very lucky. Today I heard what prince Mitravasu said to his father Vi4vavasu. Thus he said `Father ! Jimutavahana who gave away his own Kalpaka tree for the welfare of others has come to this place. It will bring prosperity to us, if we show our hospitality to this noble guest by giving our Malayavati to him. It is very difficult to get such a noble man for my sister anywhere else." The father consented. The prince instantly went to the abode of this gentleman. I think the marriage will take place today. So come, let us go home,"


With his heart overflowing with joy, Jimutavahana went to his house. Mitravasu was there. Ile revealed the purpose of his coming. Jimutavahana, who had the remembrance of his previous births told Mitravasu that in the previous birth also they had been friends and that Malayavati had been his wife. Thus their marriage took place. Delightful days of. the married life passed one by one. One day jimutavahana and Mitravasu went for a walk. They reached a forest on the seashore. Seeing some bones there Jimittavahana asked Mitravasu about them. Mitravasu said ; "In ancient days Kadru, the mother of Nagas (serpents) made Vinata, the mother of Garuda, her slave by sonic trick. Garuda liberated his mother from slavery. But the hatred increased day by day and Garuda began to eat serpents, the children of Kadru. Seeing this, Vasuki the King of Nagas entered into a contract with Garuda, so as to prevent the nagas from. being destroyed altogether. The arrangement was that V asuki would send a serpent everyday to Garuda. Garuda ate all those serpents sent by Vasuki in this place. These are the bones of those poor snakes."


When Jimutavahana heard this story his heart was filled with pity. He decided to save the life of at 1east one serpent by giving his body instead. But the presence of Mitravasu was an obstacle to carry out his wish. At that particular moment a minister of Visvavasu appeared there and took away Mitravasu saying that he was wanted by his father. Left alone, Jimutavahana stood there when he saw a young man coming with an old woman who was crying bitterly. On enquiry jtmutavahana learned that in accordance with the agreement with Garuda, the old woman was bringing her only son Sankhacuda to give him as food to Garuda. Jimuthavahana told them that he would take the place of Sankliacuda that day. The mother and the son reluctantly agreed to his desire. The o1d woman went away crying and Satikhacuda went to the temple.


Hearing the sound of Garuda's wings Jitnutavahana. laid himself on a stone and Garucla taking him in his beaks flew to the top of the Malaya Mountain. On the way the jewel of Jimutavahana known as 'Cudaratna', which was soaked in blood fell down, in front of Malayavati. Knowing that it was the jewel of her husband, with a terrible cry she ran to her father. Because of his knowledge of arts and sciences, Jimutaketu also knew everything and with his wife and daughter he went to the top of the Malaya mountain.


In the meanwhile, Sankhaciada, having done obeisance to `Gokarnanatha' (God), came back to the stone where he had left Jimutavahana and seeing a poo1 of fresh blood, became sad and silent. Then determining that he would save jimutavahana at any cost, he went up the mountain following the track of the blood drops.


Garuda took Jimiitavahana to the peak of the mountain and began to peck at him. Jimutavahana grew more and more delightful as the pecking became harder. Garuda looked at him with wonder and thought, "Surely, this is not a naga. It must be a Gandharva or somebody else." Not knowing what to do he sat looking at his pre, who invited him to finish off his meal. By this time' ~ankhacuda had reached the spot. Soon Jimutaketu with his wife and Malayavati also arrived.


They all cried aloud. Garuda was in great confusion. When he knew that he was about to eat the famous Jimutavahana, who had given away even the Kalpaka tree for the good of others, Garuda was filled with remorse. Instantly jimutavahana died. The parents and S`ankhacuda cried beating their breasts. Malayavati fell on the ground and cried. Then looking up she called out with tears. "Ha ! Devi ! Jagadambika ! you have told me that my husband would become the emperor of the Vidyadharas. Has your boon become futile because of my misfortune ?" Devi appeared and said "Daughter ! My words will not become futile." Jimuta-


He sprang up more radiant than before, and was anointed as emperor of the Vidyadharas by Devi. When Devi disappeared Garuda who was much pleased, told jimutavahana to ask for any boon.


Jimutavahana requested for the boon that Garuda should stop eating the Nagas and that all the serpents who had been reduced to bones should be brought to life again. Garuda granted him that boon. All the serpents which had been killed by Garuda came to life again. All the gods and hermits came there with joy. After all had gone, Jimutavahana went with his relatives to the Himalayas as the emperor of Vidy_adharas.l (KathLasaritsagara, Sasankavati Lambaka, Taranga 23) .


JIRNODDHARA. Erection and consecration of images fixed in temples which have fallen into dilapidation, is called Jimoddhara. Mention is made in Agni Purina, Chapter 67, about the principles of jirnoddhara, as follows


The priest should adorn the image with ornaments and perform `Stavana'. If the idol is very badly ruined by age it must be abandoned. Broken image and that with any part of the body severed or disfigured should also be abandoned, even if it is made of stone or any other material. When the image is renovated the priest should make burnt offerings thousand times with Narasimhamantra (spell or incantation). If the ruined image is made of wood it should be burned. If it is made of stone it should be placed at the bottom of deep water, ei&her in the sea or anywhere else. If it is made of metals or jewels, it must be put into water. The ruined image should be placed in a carriage and covered with a cloth. With instrumental music and so forth the image should be taken to water in a procession and then submerged in water. After this the priest must be given a gift. Only after this should the new image be erected and consecrated. On a good day in an auspicious moment a new image of the same material and measurement as of the old image should be erected and consecrated by the priest.


JITARL Son of Aviksit born of the family of Puru. Aviksit was the son of King Kuru. Mention is made about Jitari in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 53.


JITATMA. A Visvadeva (A class of gods) concerned with Sraddha (offerings to the Manes). (M.B. Anu.sasana Parva, Chapter 91, Stanza 31) .


JITAVATI. A daughter of King Usinara.She was the most beautiful woman in the world. She was the friend


Then Devi sprinkled Amrta (ambrosia) on vahana and brought him to life.


of the wife of a Vasu named Dyau. It was because of the words of this Jitavati that the Astavasus (the eight Vasus) stole the cow Nandini of V.asistha, and by the curse of Vasistha had to take birth in the womb of women on earth. ( See under Ganga, Para 7 ) .


JISNU I. A name of A.rjuna. (See under Arjuna).


JISNU II. A synonym of Sri KMrs As Sri Krsna had won all the battles he fought, he got the name Jisnu. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 70, Stanza 13) .


JISNU III. A warrior who fought on. the side of the Pindavas against the Kauravas. This warrior who was a native of Cedi, was killed by Karna (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Stanza 48)..


JISNUKARMAN. A warrior who stood on the side of the Pandavas and fought against the Kauravas. He was a native oh the country of Cedi. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Stanza 48) .


JIVAJIVAK.A. A King of birds. Mention is made in Mahabharata, anti Parva, Chapter 139, Stanza 6, about this bird.


JIVALA. A charioteer of Rtuparna, the King of Ayodhya. Nala who had been living there under the name Bahuka had accepted Jivala as his friend. (See under Nala ) .


JIVATMAN (The iuduaidual life or soul). The Aparabrahman (which is next to the highest Brahman) that is so minute and subtle is called Jivatman. Parabrahman is God almighty. It is mentioned in Taittiriyopanisad about this iparabrahman as follows


"Tasmid vi etasmidatmana iikdsah sambhutah, dkdsdd vayuh vayoragnih, agneripah adbhyah prthvi prthivyi osadhayah osadhibhyo annam annat purusah sa va esa Puruso annamayah."


`From this Atman came into existence ether possessing the quality of sound. From ether air, possessing the qualities of sound and touch, came into existence. Fire with the qualities of sound, touch and colour came into being from. air. From fire, water having the qualities of sound touch, colour and taste came into being. From water earth with the qualities of sound, touch, colour, taste and smell came into existence. Vegetation grew from earth, and from vegetation food., from food semen, and from semen Purusa came into existence. The materia1ized form of aparabrahman is the body. Its subtle form is the soul. Jivatma or the individual soul is the subtle form of soul dwelling in the materialized form of the aparabrahman. This soul sits in the miniature lotus of heart in the miniature ether. The body which is made of the five elements is the dwelling place of this'Jivatma. The individual life exists in every living being. The body originated from food is the outer covering of the Jivitma. This materialized body is also called Annamayakosa (the cask of food). Inside this annamayakosa there is the Prinamayakosa (the chest of the life breaths). It is stated in the Taittiriyopanisad that this Prinamayakosa is separate from and existing inside the annamayakosa. The Prinamayakosa which exists inside the annamayakosa has the shape of man. The life breath which appears as the inhaling and exhaling breath is the head of the Prinamayakosa. The life breath Vyana is the right wing and Apana is the left wing, ether its soul and Prthvi (the earth) its tai1.2 Inside the Prinamayakosa, there exists the Manomayakosa (the chest of mind), z This story is told to the king Trivikramasena by Vetala. See under Trivikramasena.


2 Tasya prana eva sirah vyano daksiaiah paksa~ apanah uttaral,t paksah akasa atma, Prthivi puccham. (Taittiriya).

but it fills the entire interior of the Pranamayakosa. The VijfianamayakoSa (the chest of knowledge or understanding) exists inside the Manomayakosa. 'The Jivatma or the individual life dwells inside this Vijfianamaya. koga and pervades the entire body. It is by the activity of Vijfianamayakosa that the ;Jivatma feels its individuality. Inside the Vijfianamayakosa there exists a fifth kola (chest) called the Anandamayakosa, which is the immediate covering of Jivatma, and which has no sense of individuality. The three Kosas, Anandakosa, Vijfianakosa and Pranarnayakosa together is called Suksmasarira (the subtle body). It must be remembered that Suksmasarira is different from Susuksmasarira (the minute subtle body).


Heart is the abode of the Jivatma. Hrdi (in heart) ayam (this being jivatma exists). So the name `Hrdaya' (heart) is meaningful.' The Purusa (male being), which sits inside the heart or the Jivatma is as.big as the toe according to the Kathopanisad.


The Jivatma or the Aparabrahman is without beginning. Even from the past which is beyond our thinking crores and crores of Jivatmans had got into individuals and when the Annamayakosas of the individuals .decayed due to death, they abandoned them and entered into new individuals. The author of the Brhadaranyaka gives an explanation to the question why this jivatma which is as free as air enters the body of man, beast, bird, tree, rock etc. and subjects itself to misery and hardship. "Where does the Jivatma originate from? how does it enter this body?" Jivatma originates from Para. matma (the soul of the universe). As the shadow pervades the body of a man this Jivatma overshadows this body." Sari Sankaracarya expounds it in another way; he says that the jivatma is tied to the body by the imagination or desires of the mind.


JNANAPAVANATTRTHA. An ancient holy bath. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter, 84, Stanza 3 that those who visit this holy place will attain the fruits of performing the sacrifice of Agnistoma.


JRMBHADEVI. See under Kottuva (Gape).


JRMBHIKA. Yawning or gaping. For the Puranic story of how gape came into existence in the world, see under Kottuva (Gape).


JUHU. A King of the family of Yayati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


JVALA I. A daughter of Taksaka. The King Rksa uiarried her. Matinara was the son born to the couple. (Mahabharata, Atli Parva, Chapter 95. Stanza 25) .


JVALA II. The wife of Niladhvaja. There is a story about this Jvala in the "Jaimini AAvamedha Parva", Chapter 15, as follows


The Pandavas began the sacrifice of Asvamedha. Arjuna led the sacrificial horse. He continued his victorious march defeating a1l Kings and reached the city of Niladhvaja. Niladhvaja was not prepared for a fight. Seeing this his wife jvala tried various ways to push her husband to war. Seeing them to be futile she approached her brother Unmuka and asked him to fight with Arjuna. He also was not prepared to fight with Arjuna.


Jvala became very angry and walked to the bank of the Ganges. When the Ganges-water touched her feet she stopped and said, "Dear me ! I am become sinful


by the touch of Ganges-water." The amazed Ganges took the forma of Sumangaladevi and stood before Jvala and aked her the reason for saying so. Jvala said "Gangadevi submerged her seven sons and killed them. After that she took the eighth son from 8antanu. That son too was killed by Arjuna in the Bharata-battle. Thus Ganges is childless and sinful." Hearing this Ganges Devi cursed Arjuna "Let his head be cut off in six months' time." Jvala was satisfied. (For the result of the curse see under Arjuna, Pares 28) .


JVALAJIHVA I. One of the two attendants given to Subrahmanya by Agnideva. (Fire god). Jyoti was the other attendant. (M.B. 8alya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 33).


JVALAJIHVA II: A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. ~alya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 61) .


JVALVARA. See under Tripura.


JVARA. (Jvaram) (Fever).


1) General information. A fearful being. It is stated in the Puranas that living beings catch fever owing to the activities of this monster.


2) The origin of jaara. Once Siva and Parvat9 were talking with each other in the Holy Bath called Jyotiskarn on mount Mahameru. On that day Daksa had performed a sacrifice at Gangadvara. Siva alone was not invited. Seeing the Gods Brahma and the others going to that place through the sky, Parvati asked diva what the matter was. ~iva exp1ained everything to Parvati, who became very sorry because her husband had not been invited. Siva grew uneasy at the sorrow of his wife. A drop of sweat fell down from his third eye. A fearful monster with the lustre of fire arose from that drop of sweat. That figure is described as follows


"A terrible monster, with dwarfish figure, staring eyes, green moustaches, hair standing erect on head and body covered with hair all over, looking like a combination of hawk and owl, with jet-black colour, wearing a blood-coloured cloth." (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 283) .


"With three legs, three heads, six hands and nine eyes, comes Jvara the terrible monster, as fierce as Yama the god of death and fearful like a thousand clouds with thunderbolt, gaping and sighing, with tight body and horrible face, rendered so by many eyes." (M.B. Visnu Parva, Chapter 122) .


To this uncouth figure diva gave the name Jvara, who dashed away arid entered into all devas (gods). Brahma and the others caught fever and were laid up. At 1ast they all came to diva. )=Tearing their request diva divided Jvara into several parts- and separated them from devas and entered them into other living beings, and ordered that, headache for elephants, green coverings for water, shedding of skin for snakes, hoof-rot for cows, sore-throat for horses, feather-sprouting- for peacocks, sore-eye for cuckoo, hiccough for parrot, weariness for tigers and fever for men will be caused by Jvara.


It was the time of the terrorization of Vrtrasura. Jvara caught ho1d of that Asura also. It was at this time that Indra used his thunderbolt and killed Vrtrasura. (M.B. anti Parva, Chapter 283 ; M.B. Visnu Parva, Chapter 122).


JYAMAGHA. A King born in the dynasty of Iksvaku. (Harivarhs a, Chapter 36) .


Five sons, who were equal to gods, named Sahasrada, Payoda, Krosta, Nila and Ajika were born to Yadu of the family of Iksvaku. Several noble persons were born in the family of krosta. A noble and broadminded son named Vrjinivan was born to Krosta. Svahi was born to Vrjinivan, Ruseku to Svahi, Citraratha to Ruseku and $asabindu to Citraratha. Thousand sons were born to 8asabindu who was an emperor. Important among those thousand who were blessed with radiance, fame, wealth and beauty, were Prtliusravas, Prthuyasas, Prthutejas, Prthubhava, Prthukirti and ~rthurnati, Usanas was the son of Prthusravas, Sineyu was the son of Usanas and Rukmakavaca the son of Sineyu. Rukmakavaca killed all the archers and conquered the countries and performing asvamedha (horse sacrifice) gave away all the countries he conquered, as gift to Brahmanas. Five sons were born to Rukmakavaca. Jyamagha was one of them. His brothers were Rukmesu, Prthurukma, Parigha and Hari. Of them Parigha and Hari were made Kings of foreign countries. Rukmesu was given the country ruled by his father. Prthurukma served Rukmesu. They drove jy 5magha away from the country.


Jyamagha went to the forest and erected a hermitage for him. Then according to the advice of a Brahmin, he who was an old man took bow and arrow and got into a chariot flying a flag and went to the bank of the river Narmada. He had neither wealth nor attendants. He stayed on the mountain Rksavan eating fruits and roots. His wife Saibya also had become old. They had no children. Still Jyamagha did not marry anybody else. Once jyamagha came out victorious in a fight in which he got a girl. Jy5magha took the girl to his wife and told her, "This girl shall be the wife of your son." She asked him how that could be when she had no soar. He said, "She will become the wife of the son who is going to be born to you." As a result of severe penance a son named Vidarbha was born to ~aibya. The damsel who became the wife of Vidarbha gave birth to two sons named Kratha and Kaisika. (Padma Purana~, Chapter 13) .


JYESTHA I. A deity of inauspicious things. In Kamba Ramayana, Yuddha Ka.nda, it is observed that jyestha was a goddess obtained by churning the Sea of Milk. As soon as she came up from the sea of Milk, the T rimurtis (Visnu, Brahma and giva) found her and sent her away ordering her to sit in inauspicious places. The Goddess jyestha came out of the Milk-Sea before the goddess Laksmi. So this deity is considered the elder sister of Laksmi. As she is the elder she is also called Mudhevi (Mudevi). The mode of worshipping this goddess is given in Bodhayana Sutra. Tondiratipotialvar, who was a Vaisnava Alvar, who lived in 7th century A.D. said that it was useless to worship this Goddess. Ancient images of this Goddess have been found. But worship of Jyestha was completely discontinued after the 10th century.


In Saiva Puranas it is mentioned that this Goddess is one of the eight portions of Parasakti. It was believed that the powers of this Goddess regulated human lives in various ways.


JYESTHA II. A star. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Anu~asana Parva, Chapter 647 Stanza 24 that if Brahmanas are given greens on the day of this star it will bring good to the giver.


JYESTHA. A hermit who was well-versed in the Samaveda. This ancient hermit once received valuable advice

 from the Satvatas called Barhisads. (M.B. $anti Parva, Chapter 318, Stanza 46).


JYESTHAPUSKARA. A holy place. Those who visit this holy place will get the fruits of performing the sacrifice of Agnistoma. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 200, Stanza 66).


JYESTHASAMA. A Sama meditated upon by the hermit jyestha. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 348, Stanza 46) .


JYESTHILA. A river. This river stays in the palace of Varuna worshipping him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 21 ).


JYESTHILA. A holy place. He who stays in this holy place for a night will get the fruits of giving a thousand cows as gift. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 164).


JYOTI I. Son of the Vasu named Aha. Mention is made about him in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 23.


JYOTI II. One of the two attendants given to Subrahmanya by the God Agni (fire). The second one was Jvalajihva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 33).


JYOTIKA. A famous serpent. This serpent was born to Kasyapa by his wife Kadru. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 13) .


JYOTIRATHA. A famous river. The people of India used to drink water from this river. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9; Stanza 26) .


JYOTIRATHYA. A river. He who bathes in this river in the particular place where it merges with the river Sonabhadra, would obtain the fruits of performing the sacrifice of Agnistoma. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 8).


JYOTIRVASU. A King born in the family of Pururavas. He was the son of Sumati and the father of Pratika. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


JYOTISA(M). (Astronomy and astrology). Jyotisa is the science about the stars and heavenly bodies. The heavenly bodies are the sun, the moon, the other planets and the stars etc. From the very ancient days men believed that these planets and stars in the sky played an important part in controlling the growth and activities of all the living and non-living things in the world.


Astrology has been a recognized science in Egypt, China and India from very ancient days. History tells us that 3000 years before Christ there were astronomers in Babylon. But even before that time astronomy had fully expanded and grown in Bharata.


The Vedas are supposed to have six Angas (ancillaries) They are Siksa (Phonetics), Kalpa (ritual), Vyakarana (Grammar), Jyotisa (astronomy) Chandas (metrics), and Nirukta (etymology). From this it can be said that the Indians had acknowledged Astronomy as an ancillary of the Vedas. The expounders of the Vedas say that Astronomy is the eye of the Vedas.


Astronomy has two sides, the doctrinal side (Pramdnabhaga) and the result-side (Phalabhaga). The Calendar is reckoned in accordance with the Pramana-bhaga. Prediction and casting horoscopes of living beings is the Phala-bhaga.




The astronomers have divided the sky that surrounds the earth into twelve parts called ras is (zodiacs) . All the stars of the first zodiac appear in the shape of a goat (Mesa) so that zodiac was called Mesa. Thus the


zodiac in which the stars took the shape of an ox was called Rsabha (ox). In the zodiac Mithuna the stars took the shape of a young couple. Karkataka means crab. In that zodiac the stars appear in the shape of a crab. In the same way Sirhha means lion and Kanya means a damsel. Tula means balance and Vrscika means scorpion; Dhanus means bow and Mzkara means Makara matsya (horned shark). Kumbha is a water pot and Mina means fish. The name of the zodiac is according to the sign of the zodiac. That is, in what shape the stars in that particular zodiac appear to the people of the earth. The figure of the twelve zodiacs with the earth as centre is given below:-


Mina Mesa ~ Rsabha  Mithuna


Kumbha  Karkataka


Makara  Simha


Dhanus Vrscika I Tula  Kanya


In Kerala and some other places the zodiacs are marked to the right in order beginning with Mesa, whereas it is marked to the left in the same order in some of the other parts of India.


The earth completes one rotation in 60 Nadikas (24 minutes) i.e. 24 hours. In each rotation these twelve zodiacs face the earth. For a man standing at a particular point on the earth it will take 60% 12 i.e. 5 nadikas (two hours) on an average, for a zodiac to pass him. But it may vary in different places according to the difference of the shape of the earth. A month is the time the sun remains in a zodiac. The planet Jupiter takes a year and Saturn two years and a half on an average to pass a zodiac. The calendar shows which are the planets standing in each zodiac and how far they have travelled at a particular time in that particular zodiac. When a particular zodiac is in a particular region of the earth, a man born in that region is said to be born in that zodiac. When a particular place faces the zodiac of Mesa the child which takes birth in that place is said to be born in the zodiac of Mesa. The zodiac of birth is given the name Lagna by


astronomers. Those who are well-versed in the resultside of astronomy are of opinion that the life, fortune etc. of living beings depend upon the position of the planets in relation to their lagnas.


JYOTISKA. A famous serpent born to Kagyapa by his wife Kadru. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 203, Stanza 15).


JYOTISKA(M). A peak of mount Sumeru. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 283, Stanza 5) .


JYOTISMAN. An ancient King of Kusadvipa. This King had seven sons, called Udbhida, Venuman, Vairatha, Lambana, Dhrti, Prabhakara and Kapila. Each division of that country is given the name of each of these sons. ( Visnu Purana, Anna 2, Chapter 4) .


JYOTSNAKALT. The second daughter of Candra. In Maha Bharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 98, Stanza 13, it is mentioned that this daughter was extremely beautiful and that the Sun married her.