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I. () . This letter means Kamadeva. (Agni Purina, Chapter 348) .


y. (~) . This letter means `Rati' and Laksmi. Agni Purina, Chapter 348) .


IDA I. Daughter of Vayu (wind-god). ?da had a son Utkala by Dhruva.


IDA 11. Daughter of Manu. In Taittiriya Brahmana, we find the following reference to this Ida :--


Once Manu came to know that Devas and Asuras had performed an Agnyadhana (consecration of the -fire). To ascertain whether it was deposited at the proper time, Manu sent Ida to them. Ida found that both parties had followed the wrong method, She said to Manu :-"Your yajfia (Agnyadhana) should not be as ineffectual as that of the Devas and Asuras. Therefore I myself shall deposit the Trividhagnis (the three Agnis which are to be set in the proper place) at the proper place." Manu agreed and began his yaga. As a result of it the Devas attained plenty and prosperity.


Once when Ida was in the presence of Manu. the Devas invited her openly and the Asuras invited her covertly. Since Ida accepted the invitation of the Devas, all creatures abandoned the Asuras and joined the party of Devas. (Taittiriya Sarhhita).


IDHMAJIHVA. Svayambhuva Manu had two famous sons-Priyavrata and Uttanapada. Of them Priyavrata married Surupa and Barhismati, the two daughters of Visvakarma Prajapati. Idhmajihva was born to him by his first wife. Idhmajihva had nine brothers Viz,


Agnidhra, Yajfiabahu, Mahavira, Rukmasukra,


Ghrtaprstha, Savana, Medhatithi, Vitihotra and Kavi. Uxjjasvati was their youngest sister. (Maha Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha),


IDHMAVAHA. Son of Agastya and his wife Lopamudra. The actual name of Idhmavaha was Tridasyu. There is a story in the Mahabharata about the birth of this boy. When Lopamudra was pregnant, Agastya asked her :1°1000 sons of average ability; or 100 sons, each of them having the worth of 10 sons; or 10 sons, each having the worth of 100 sons; or a single son having the nobility and greatness of more than a thousand sons; which would you prefer ?" Lopamudra chose a single son with the greatness of a thousand sons. Tr idasyu or Idhmavaha was the son born according to her wish. The child was in the womb for seven years before he was born. He began to recite Vedas even from the moment of his birth. As the boy grew up, he used to bring small pieces of firewoods and twigs to feed the fire for his father's homa. That was why he got the name Tdhmavaha. (One who brings the necessary things for homa) . (Idhma =fuel; vaha= one who carries).


IKSULA. An important river. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 17).


IKSUMATI. A river. It flows near Kuruksetra. The Tgdi Taicsaka and As vasena lived in this river. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 138) .


Kusadhvaja, brother of the King of Mithila used to live in the Iksumati river valley, (Valmiki RamAyana, Bala Kanda. 7th Sarga, Verse 2).


There is a reference to this river in Kathasaritsagara, Madanamaficukalarimbaka, 2nd tarariga also.


IKSVAKU.1 A son of Vaivasvata Manu.


1) Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in the following order-Brahma-Marici-Kasyapa-Vivasvan -Vaivasvata Manu-Iksvaku.


Sraddha, Vaivasvata Manu's wife bore him ten sonsIksvaku, Nrga, Saryati, Dista, Dhrsta, Karusa, Narisyanta, Nabhaga, Prsadhra and Kavi. Vaivasvata Manu had six more sons by another wife, Chaya. They were Manu, Yama, Yami, Asvinikumara. Revanta, Sudyumna. The Tksvaku family takes its source from Iksvaku. The Kings of the solar dynasty were all born in the Iksvaku family. This dynasty is named "Solar Dynasty" because Iksvaku was born to Vivasvan (Sun) the son of Kasyapa. In Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha we see that Iksvaku was born from Manu's spittle. The descendants of lksvaku up to Sri Rama's sons Lava and Kusa are given below :-


Iksvaku had three sons-Danda, Vikuksi, and Nimi. From Vikuksi was born Sa:;ada ; from Sa:~ada, Purafijaya; from Puraiijaya, Kakutstha; frora Kakutstha, Anenas; from Anenas, Prthula:"va; from Prthulasva Prasenajit; from Prasenajit, Yuvanasva; and from Yuvanasva was born Mandhata. Ambarisa, Mucukunda and Purukutsa were the sons of Mandhata. Besides them he had fifty daughters also. The, sage Saubhari married them. The family-tree continues again from Purukutsa, one of the sons of Mandhata.


From Purukutsa, Trasadasyu was born; from Trasadasyu, Anaranya;from Anaranya, Aryasva; from Aryagva, Vasumanas; from Vasumanas, Sutanva; from Sutanva, Trairyyaruna; from Traiyyaruna, Satyavrata or


Mabharata Asvamedha Parva (Chapter q,) says that Mahabahu was the son of Vaivasvata Manu, Prasandhi was the son of Mahabahu, Ksupa was the son of Prasandhi and lksvaku was the son of Ksupa.


Trisanku; from him Hariscandra; from Hariscandra, Rohitasva; from Rohitasva, Harita; from Harita, Cuncu; from Cuncu, Sudeva; from Sudeva, Bharuka and from Bharuka Sagara was born. Sagara had two wives-Sumati and Kcsini. Sumati gave birth to 60,000 children, while Kesini had a single son, Asamafijasa. Aiiz'sum~in was the son of Asamanjasa; Bhagiratha was the son of Am:~uman; Srutanablia was the son of Bhagiratha; Sindhudvipa was the son of Srutanabha; Ayutayus was the son of Sindliudvipa; Rtuvarna was the son of Ayutayus; Sarvakama was the son of ktuvarna; Sudas was the son of Sarvakama; Mitrasaha, the son of Sudas; Kaimasapada was the son of Mitrasaha; Asmaka was the son of Kalmasapada; Mulaka was the son of Agmaka; Khatvanga waz the son of Mulaka; Dirghabalm (Dilipa) was the son of Khatvanga; Raghu was the son of Dirghabdhu; Aja was the son of Raghu; Dasaratha was the son of Aja. Dasaratha had three wives. Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. Sri Rama was born to Kausalya, Bharata, was the son of Kaikeyi and Sumitra had two sons, Laksmana and ~atrughna. Lava and Kusa were Sri Rama's sons by Sita. (See the word Kalabrahmana)1


ILA The name taken by Sudyumna when, after becoming woman, he became man again. (See under ILA I) .


ILA I. Daughter of Vaivasvata Maim.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in this order :Brahma-Marici-Ka'syapa-Vaivasvata Manu-Ila. Vaivasvata Manu was the son of Kasyapa by his wife Aditi, and Ila the daughter of V aivasvata Manu by his wife, Sraddha. Iksvaku, the ancestral father of the solar dynasty of Kings was brother of Ila.


2) Vaivasvata Manu and 8raddha had, for a long time no children. Manu got performed once by Agastya a yajfia to propitiate the Mitravarunas so that a son might be born to him (Manu). Soon a daughter was born to him and she was called Ila. Then Manu asked Vasistha why a daughter was born to him instead of a son for whom the yajfia was performed by Agastya. At once, Vasistha by his will-power turned the girl Ila into a boy, and the boy was named Sudyumna. (Bhagavata).


3) Sudyumna again turned into woman. Once Sunaka and some other sages went to the great forestKumara Vana near Kailasa to salute Sri Parame;vara ignorant of the fact that just then Parvati and Parmesvara were enjoying themselves. The sudden appearance of S`unaka and others was not relished by the divine couple, who were then naked. They therefore, pronounced the curse that anybody who entered the forest in future would be turned into a woman. (Bhagavata).


Sudyumna, now a young man, went for hunting one day. Sudyumna who was ignorant of this curse entered this forest with his friends while hunting. At once all of them were transformed into women. Grief-stricken, they stayed in the forest for some days, and then started for the palace. Sudyumna bearing the name Ila walked at the head of the party as a beautiful woman. On the way Budha met Ila, they fell in love with each other and got married. A son, Pururavas was born to Budha by Ila. (Bhagavata).


-4) Transformation again ; Ila expressed to Vasistha, her grief at having been turned .into a woman, the sage requested Sri Parame~vara to restore her to her former form as a man. Siva said that lid would be a man and a woman every alternate month, throughout life. During the month when she was a man he would engage himself in matters of Government, and the next month, when a woman, she would stay in the inner apartments in the palace. Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 32 says that Iksvaku, brother of Pururavas ruled the state. till the latter became a major. As soon as Pururavas attained majority Sudyumna handed over to him the reins of Government and retired to the forest for tapas, and during this period he was taught the Navaksara mantra by sage Narada. Sudyumna adored Devi with this Mantra. She appeared to him and blessed him with the state of salvation. (Bhagavata) .


Pururavas married Urvasi, and ruled the country. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha; Devi Bhagavata, First Skandha; M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 75 and Anusasana Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 26) .


ILA TI. A river. At the birth of Subrahmanya this river paid homage to him with fruits and roots. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 86, Verse 24) . Dharmaputra along with the brahmins bathed in this river. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 156, Verse 8) .


ILASPADA. An ancient holy bathing ghat. A dip in the holy waters wards off ill-fate and confers the benefits of the Vajapeya yajfia. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verses 77, 78)


ILAVARTA (ILAVRTA). A King in the line of Priyavrata, son of S'vayambhuva Manu, (See Genealogy).


ILAVRTA (ILAVRTTA). A locality. (See Bhugunita) .


ILAVRTA VARSA. 'That part of the country in the centre of jambudvipa. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 28).


ILAVU. See Vayu, Para 6.


ILIBILA. The wife of Visravas and mother of Kubera.


Visravas was born as the son of Pulastya, one of the Prajapatis by Manini. Visravas had two wives, Kaikasi and Ilibila alias Devavarnini and Vaisravana (Kubera) was born of Ilibila. Hence Kuber i is called Ailibili also; To Visravas was born by Kaikasi, Ravana, Vibhi-, sana, Kumbhakarna and Surpanakha.


ILILA. A King of Puruvaril,;a; father of King Dusyanta. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 71).-Rathantari was Ilila.'s wife. (Adi Parva, Chapter 74) . Some Puranas call Ilila by the name Ilina and Rathantari as Rathamdari also.


Matinara, the most righteous of Kings had four sons endowed with great prowess named Tarizsu, Mahan, Atiratha and Druhyu. Tamsu was responsible for the growth of the Puru dynasty. He conquered the whole of earth and won fame. ylina was Tarizsu's son. He also conquered the whole world, and he had five sons. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 14-18) .


ILINA. Son of king Tamsu of the Puru dynasty. His wife was Rathantari. Ilina had five sons by her. They were: Dusyanta, Sura, Bhima, Pravasu and Vasu.

 (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 16-18. See also under the word Ilila).


i. There are certain-variations in the genealogy according to some Puranas. The genealogy given above is based on Bhagavata and Agni Purana.


ILLAKA. A person who led a very idea1 family life. Son of a Vaisya in the city of Mathura, Illaka had a very beautiful wife. Illaka had one day tb go to another place and his wife wanted to accompany him. But; Illaka did not allow that and went alone. Then she waited at the gates looking towards the husband moving fast away. And, when he completely disappeared from sight she, who could not bear the separation, fell down on the spot and expired. Illaka heard about the death and without delay, he hurried back home. He placed the dead body of his wife on his lap and wept. Weeping thus he also expired. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalarirbaka, Tarafrga I) .


ILVALA. An Asura, who lived in the Manimati city. Ilvala and his brother Vatapi ate up a number of Brahmins and Agastya cursed them to death. (See Agastya) .


INDIA. `South 8arakh', a newspaper published from the United Arab Republic with the assistance of the Indian Embassy gives the following account of how thL land originally known. as `Bharata' came to be called India. The name `India' was given to "Bharata" by the Arabs. Even from very early times, Arabs used to give the name `Hind' to their girls. In ancientArabic love poems, this name could be seen very frequently. There were commercial and cultural contacts between Bharata and Arab lands, from very old times. The words 'Kharan Ful' (spices) `Pulful' (Pepper) etc. may be seen in Arabic poems of the pre-Islamic period. These contacts became more intimate in later years and the Arabs began to take very great interest in the products and the people of this country. They began to call `.Bharata' by the pet name `Hind' which they used for their little children. They began to use the term `Al Hind' when referring to Bharata in their poems, records'and trade agreements. In course of time this was shortened to `Hind' and finally became INDIA'.


INDIVARAKSA. A Gandharva. He was the son of Nalanabha, the chief of the Vidyadharas. There is.a story about this Gandharva in Markandeya Purana, Chapter 60 :-


Indivaraksa went to the sage Brahmamitra to learn Ayurveda. For some unknown reason, the sage did not teach him. Indivaraksa decided to learn by overhearing what the guru taught the other pupils from a hiding place. In six months' time he learnt Ayurveda. Overjoyed at the thought that he was able to acquire as much learning in this science as the other pupils, within such a short time, and oblivious of his surroundings, he laughed loudly. The guru who understood the secret, uttered a curse that he would become a Raksasa within seven days. The repentant Indivaraksa begged for his pardon. Then the sage told him that he would be restored to his own form and give up the Raksasa shape when ire was shot with arrows by his own children.


Once when he approached his daughter Manorama to devour her, his son-in law, Svarocis who had learnt the science of archery from that girl, defeated him. In this way, Indivaraksa got his own former form. After that he taught Svarocis, the sciences of archery which he had learnt from his own daughter and also from Brahmamitra.


INDIVARASENA. Son of Parityagasena a King who ruled the city of Iravati. Parityagasena had two queens-Adhikasamgama and Kavyalafrkara. As they


had no children, the distressed King with his queens worshipped the goddess Durga. Durga gave the King two fruits. She blessed that the queens would bear children when they ate the fruits. Adhikasariigama ate both the fruits without showing them to the other wife. Two sons were born to her. Indivarasena was the elder son. (Kathasaritsagara, Ratnaprabha. larhbaka, 8th Tarariga).




1) Genealogy. Visnu-Brahma-Mariei-KasyapaIndra.


2) Birth. Kasyapa was born to. Marici, the eldest of the spiritual sons of Brahma. Indra was the son of Kasyapa and Aditi, the eldest daughter of Daksa. The twelve sons who were born to Kasyapa and Aditi are called Adityas. The twelveAdityas are-Dhata, Aryama, Mitra, Rudra, Varuna, Surya, Bhaga, Vivasvan, Pusa, Savita, Tvast?, and Visnu. In addition to them, Aditi had twentyone sons more. Indra is the eldest of the 33 sons. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verses 9-15) . Indra became the ruler of the Devas. Airavata is Indra's elephant, Uccaissravas, his horse, and Vajra his weapon. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51, M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 18) .


3) Indra and Garuda. Kasyapa had two sons, Garuda and Aruna by Vinata and a large number of Nagas by his other wife, Kadru. Kadru and her children kept Vinata and her son Garuda as their servants. Kadru agreed to set them free if they brought Amrta from Devaloka.


Once Kadru and her children asked Garuda to carry them to the beautiful Nagalaya in the middle of the ocean. Garuda carried them on his shoulders and flew very high near the sky. The excessive heat of the sun made the Nagas unconscious. Kadru, in her distress, prayed to Indra. Indra showered rain and cooled the atmosphere. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 25, Verses 717). They reached the lovely island in the middle of the ocean.


Garuda decided to earn his freedom by bringing Amrta from bevaloka. With determination, he flew up into heaven and secured Amrta. The enraged Indra attacked him with his weapon, Vajra. But Garuda spread his feathers in such a way that he was not wounded. Indra was struck with wonder, and pleased with the beautiful feathers (Parna) of Garuda, named him `Suparna'. At last Indra was pleased and allowed Garuda to take Amrta with him. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 32, Verses 18-25).


4) How Indra came to have 1000 eyes. (See Tilottama, 2nd Para) .


5) Indra and Arjuna. (1) Kunti, Pandu's wife had received five mantras from Durvasas for begetting sons. One of those Mantras was chanted meditating on the sun even before she was married and Karna was born. After marriage she used three more of the Mantras and three sons were born to her from Yama, Vayu and Indra respectively. The fifth Mantra was presented to Madri the other wife of Pandu. Thus Arjuna was the son of Kunti by Indara. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 123) .


(2) There is a story of a rivalry between Indra and Arjuna in the Mahabharata. (See under `Khandavadaha').


(3) During their life in the forest, once Arjuna started to Kailasa to worship Siva. On the way Indra appeared before him and showered his blessings on him. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 4.1, Verses 15, 16) .


(4) During his life in the forest, Indra presented to Arjuna who visited him in Indra's residence, a Gandharva named Citrasena as his companion. Citrasena taught him music, dance, etc. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 91.


(5) At the palace of Indra, as secretly instructed by Indra, Urvagi approached Arjuna with advances of love. Arjuna who refused to yield to her temptations was turned into a eunuch by her curse. But Indra lifted the curse by saying that this curse would be an advantage to him during the incognito life of the Pandavas. It was Citrasena who was used as a tool by Indra to test Arjuna's self control. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapters 44, 45) .


(6) In order to ensure Arjtina's victory in battle, Indra, disguised as a Brahmin, obtained by begging Karna's ear-rings. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 310).


6) Indra and Vrtrdsura. A famous exploit of Indra was the killing of Vrtrasura. Under -the leadership of Vrtrasura, the Kalakeyas and many other Raksasas besieged the Devas. The battle 'raged furiously. Indra fell down unconscious owing to the shower of arrows from Vrtra. At once Vasistha with his divine power restored Indra to consciousness. Finding it impossible to kill Vrtra, the nonplussed Devas under the leadership of Indra approached Mahavisnu. Visnu told them that Vrtra could be killed only with the bone of the sage Dadhica. So all of them approached Dadhica. Realising the situation, Dadhica let Indra have his bone for the purpose. Indra made his weapon Vajra with that bone and receiving a fatal stroke from it, Vrtra fell down dead. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 101, Verses 14, 15; Santi Parva, Chapter 281, Verses 13-21).


By killing Vrtra Indra incurred the sin of Brahmahatya. To expiate for that sin the Devas and Rsis took Indra to Sarayu river and performed his holy bath there. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, 24th Sarga).


(For further details about Vrtrasura see under Vrtrasura).


7) Indra and Cyaaana. Indra did not allow the Asvinidevas to drink soma juice. The sad Agvinidevas left Indraloka and while passing through a forest, they met Sukanya, wife of the sage Cyavana. She was extremely beautiful. The Asvinidevas advised her to become their wife instead of being the wife of .the blind Cyavana. But Sukanya rejected their advice. Pleased by her conjugal fidelity, they restored Cyavana's eyesight and made him a youth with beautiful eyes. In his gratitude, Cyavana promised to get permission for them to drink soma juice. He performed a yaga. Indra, Az vini devas and other gods attended it. Indra insisted that the Asvinis should not be allowed to drink Soma juice. Cyavana disputed with him and in the dispute Indra was defeated. From that time the Agvinis were allowed Soma dt'inking. See also `Cyavana'. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 124, Verse 14; Anusasana Parva, Chapter 156, Verses 16-31).


8) Indra and Trisiras. Indra's brother Tvastr did not like some of Indra's activities. With the object of rebuking Indra, Tvastr begot a son named Visvardpa, Vi-6varupa had three faces and so he was also called


Trisiras. With one face he used to recite Vedas, with the second he drank alcohol and he used the third face for observing the world. He performed a rigorous tapas. Indta, who was alarmed at it, sent goddesses to allure him, but in vain. At last Indra himself went to the. forest riding on his elephant Airavata and killed Trig iras with his Vajrayudha. In his violent fury he had the three heads of Trig iras cut by a carpenter. From that day, it was ordained that the head of the cow sacrificed at yagas should be given to a carpenter. Tvastr who was enraged by Indra's killing of his son Trig iras, begot another, son Vrtrasura. (Devi Bhagavata, 6th Skandha).


9) Indra and Nahusa. See the. word Agastya.


10) Indra and Bali. When Indra defeated and drove away the Asuras, Mahabali, the Asura emperor assumed the ,form of an ass and hid himself in an empty house. Brahma informed Indra of this. Indra found him out there, but set him free without killing at the behest of Braluna. (M.B. 9anti Parva, Chapter 223)


11) Indra and Eaydti. Yayati was the son bf Nahusa. In his old age, he handed over the kingly duties to his younger son Puru and went to the forest for performing penance. After performing penance, he reached Indraloka in the end. Indra did not like Yayati's boast that there was none who had greater power of tapas than himself. Indra pushed him down to the world. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 88).


12) Indra and Saradadn. Saradvan was born as the son of Sage Gautama. Saradvan started a penance for acquiring divine arrows. Devendra who was alarmed, sent the Apsara woman Janapati to obstruct his tapas. Deeply affected by her irresistible charm and fascinated by her temptations, he had art involuntary emission of semen, which fell on the Sarastamba and split itself into two parts. Two children a boy and a girl, were born from it. The King's servants brought them to Hastinapura. The boy was named Krpa and the girl was named Krpi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 130) .


13) Indra and king Kuru. The King named Kuru was once ploughing the field at the place known as Kuruksetra. (This was long before Kuruksetra became famous as the battlefield of Bharata Yuddha). Indra who happened to come that way at the time, seeing the King tilling the land, asked him why he was doing so. The King replied that he was performing a yaga to enable the men whof'ell dead there, to attain Heaven. Indra returned to Heaven, smiling. Other devas came to know of. this from Indra. They said that if all men came to Devaloka, the share of yajtia which was to be received by the gods, would be diminished and so they advised India to go and give some boon to King Kuru. Indra returned to earth and gave his blessing to Kuru as follows


The following classes of people will attain heaven if they die there (at Kuruksetra).


(1) Those who die of starvation. (2) Those who die fighting heroically.


(3) Those who were men in their previous life, but who have been born as animals.


From that time Kuruksetra became an important place. (M:B. galya Parva, Chapter 53).


14) Indra and Takraka. Indra's friend, a Naga named Taksaka lived. in Khandava forest. When Agni burned Khandava Forest, Indra caused the rain to fall in order to save Taksaka. See under `Khandavadaha'. (M.B. Arayn Parva, Chapter 235) .


For the story of how Indra saved Taksaka from the Sarpasatra see under `Astika'.


15) Indra and Khdndavaddha. At the time of Khandavadaha, Sri Krsna and Arjuna fought against Devendra.


16) Indra Sabhd.


(assembly ball) When it was being discussed, the sage Narada described to them Indra's sabha as given below :-


India has a Sabha which dazzles with divine effulgence. It is 150 yojanas in length and 100 yojanas in breadth. It has a height of five vojanas. Beautiful storeyed buildings and divine trees add to the grandeur of the sabha. Indra is seated within the holy light in it. Sacidevi takes her seat near him. Indra is very handsome. He wears a crown, he is dressed in spotlessly pure clothes, and wears a garland round his neck. Maruts, Siddhas, Devas, Rsis and a host of others stand around attending on him. They are all bright with the halo of fire. Parasara, Parvata, Savarni, Galava, Sarnkha, Likhita, Gauras iras, Durvasas, Akrodhana, Syena, Dirghatamas, Pavitrapani, Bhaluvi, Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka, Svetaketu, Pandya and other famous sages are members of .India's assembly. In this way, Indra's Sabha is the most magnificent. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7).


17) India and Kdmadhenu. Once Indra saw Surabhi, the Kamadhenu, crying in the Indraloka. He asked her why she was-crying. Surabhi answerd: "My Lord, the cattle, who are my children are groaning in theworld under the yoke of the farmer. I was overwhelmed with grief at the sight of their sufferings" Indra's heart meltted due to Kamadhenu's tears. He caused very heavy showers in the world when ploughing the fields became impossible. In this way as a result of Surabhi's tears Indra caused hoavy rainfall which gave rest to the cattle in the world. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 9 ).


18) Indra and Nala. Nala proceeded to Vidarbha to attend Damayanti's Svayamvara. On the way, the four gods, Indra, Agni, Varuna and Yama met him. (For further details see the word `Nala'). Nala married Damayanti with the blessings of these gods. When the devas returned, they met Kali and Dvdpara. to whom they described Nala's marriage. Kali and Dvapara who wished to marry Damayanti, naturally felt disappointed and angry. Kali was about to pronounce a curse on Nala. But on the advice of Devendra he did not do so. Still he decided to gain secret entrance into Nala's body and to bring about the loss of his Kingdom. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 58).


19) Indra and Mdndhdtd. A King named Yuvanasva was born in the Iksvaku dynasty. He earned great reputation by performing many Asvamedha yagas. But he was very much distressed because he had no children. So he entrusted his kingly duties to his ministers and proceeded to the forest. One day during his wandering he arrived at the asrama of the sage Bhrgu. He was tired and thirsty. Bhrgu had filled a pot with water by reciting a mantra and placing it on a low stool, he had gone to sleep. Not knowing that it was a pot of water intended to cause pregnancy, and in his intense thirst, Yuvanasva drank water from it. He became pregnant and in due course Yuvana~va brought


Maya undertook to build a sabha for the Pandavas at Indraprastha.


forth a son. India, accompanied by other gods came to see the child. When the Devas asked how the child was going to drink milk, India put his index finger into the child's mouth and the child began to suck it. Ir_dra said `The child will drink me". The Sanskrit words °.`Mam dhata" mean "one who drinks me". Thus the child was named "Mandhata" by India and the other gods. (M.B. Aranya Parva Chapter 126) .


20) India and Sibi. Once India and Agni tested the strength of Emperor Sibi's `dharma'. India took the form of an eagle and Agni that of a dove. The dove flew down into the lap of Sibi. The eagle pursued it. The dove entreated Sibi to save it from the eagle. Sibi promised to do so. The eagle argued that the dove was its prey and should be returned to it. But Sibi offered to give the eagle his own flesh, equal in weight to that of the dove. Accordingly, the dove was placed in one pan, but even when all the flesh from his body was cut and placed in the other pan, it did not weigh equal to the dove. At this stage, India and Agni appeared to Sibi in their own forms and blessed him to be more happy and prosperous than before. ( M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 131 ).


21) India and Yaaakrita. Long ago there was a sage named Yavakrita. He started a tapas with the ambition of acquiring all knowledge by himself, without the help of a Guru. India was alarmed at the sternness and rigour of the tapas. He induced Yavakrita to stop tapas, but it was in vain. At last India disguised himself as an old Brahmin and went to the bank of the Ganga where Yavakrita was performing tapas. He began to build a dam across the river with sand. Seeing this Yavakrita ridiculed him. The old Brahmin retorted that Yavakrita's tapas was also equally ridiculous. But Yavakrita was not shaken even by his taunt. He resumed his tapas with renewed strength. At last finding no other alternative, India appeared to Yavakrita and granted his wish. (M.I3. Vana Parva, Chapter 135).


22) Loss of India's umbrella. Once Narakasura went to heaven, fought with the gods and robbed India of his umbrella and the earrings of Aditi, India's mother. Grief-stricken India complained to Sri Krsna. Accompanied by ,Satyabhama and riding on the back of Garuda, Sri Krsna went to the city of Pragjyotisa, the residence of Narakasura and razed it to the ground. He recovered the umbrella and ear-rings and returned to heaven with Satyabhama. India and Aditi were overjoyed on getting back the lost articles. On their return journey, Sri Krsna at the request of Satyabhama cut for her a twig of the Parijata tree. This made India angry and he fought against Sri Krsna. After defeating Indra and other gods, Sri Krsna accompanied by Satyabhama returned to Dvaraka with the Parijata. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).


23 ) India and JVarakdsura. The Asura called Naraka once performed a very severe penance on the Gandha-madana mountain with the object of usurping India's place. India was alarmed and rushed to Mahavisnu for help. Visnu went to Gandhamadana mountain and killed Narakasura. ( M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 142).


24) India and the sage Baka. After the war between Devas and Asu_ras, India, in a peaceful state of mind, was going around the world, riding on his elephant, Airavata. When he reached an Asrama on the eastern coast of the sea, he met the great sage Baka. A conversation about the happiness of longevity took place between Indra and sage Baka who was hundred thousand years old. After that Indra returned to Devaloka. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 193).


25) Indra and Kesi. Long ago a terrible war took place between Devas and Asuras. At that time an Asura called Ke,'i attempted to abduct Devasena, daughter of a Prajapati. Hearing her shrieks, Indra rushed to the spot. In the clash between Kesi and Indra, Kesi's club was broken into two with Indra's weapon Vajra. Suddenly Kesi lifted a mountain and threw it at Indra. Indra broke that mountain also into two. One part of it fell on Ke;: i himself, who fled frightened. After that, Indra asked Devasena how she happened to fall in Kei's hands. Devasena answered thus :-"I am the daughter of Prajapati. My name is Devasena. Ke,' i had abducted my elder sister, Daityasena. My sister and I used to come to take our bath in this Manasa lake. Kesi had expressed his wish to abduct both of us. My father has given me his blessing that a person who is worshipped by gods and asuras will become my, husband. Having heard these facts, Indra held consultations with Brahma and arranged the marriage between Subrahmanya and Devasena. See also the word "Subrahmanya". (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 223).


26) Indra and AYgiras. After killing Vrtrasura, Indra hid himself in a lotus flower in the Manasa lake, to expiate for the sin of Brahmahatya (killing a Brahmin). It was at that time that Nahusa became Indra. After Nahusa had been forced to go back to the earth as a serpent by the curse of Agastya, the Devas brought back Indra. At that time, Arigiras praised Indra with mantras from Atharvaveda. From that day Angiras got the name of `Atharvarigiras'. Indra was pleased and blessed Arigiras that his name would become famous throughout the world. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 18).


27) Indra and the Bow called Vijaya. Kama had a bow called Vijaya. It was made by Vi~vakarma according to Indra's liking. (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 31. Verse 42 )..


28) .Indra and the Tripuras. The Tripurasuras performed penance and received boons from Brahma. After that they clashed with Indra. Indra was not able to kill them. The vanquished Indra had the Tripuras killed by Siva. See the word "Tripura". (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 33) .


29) Indra and,Surya (the sun-god). When Kama and Arjuna came into conflict at the Bharata battle, a controversy raged in heaven between Indra and Surya. Indra argued that Arjuna would win, while Surya as, serted that Kama would gain victory. The Devas joined the side of Arjuna and Asuras joined Kama's side. In the end, Arjuna came out victorious arid thus Surya was defeated by Indra. (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 87).


30) Indra and ,Namuci. The Raksasa Namuci once evaded capture by Indra by remaining hidden in the rays of the Sun. Indra went to him and pretending friendship, promised not to kill him either with wPt thing or dry things or at night or in day time. Trustinghis words, Namuci came out. Then Indra cut off Namuei's head with the froth scraped from the waves of the sea at the time of dusk. The head pursued him shouting,


"You murderer of a friend, 6y breaking your promise!"


Indra sought refuge under Brahma. Brahma advised him to bathe in Sonapunya tirtha to expiate for the sin. Accordingly Indra bathed in the river Sarasvati and washed off his sin.


River sarasvati. There is a story about how Sarasvati river became Sonapunya tirtha. There were frequent quarrels between Vasistha and Visvamitra. Once Visvamitra got angry when lie came to know that Vasistha was performing a penance on the banks of the river Sarasvati. Ile summoned Sarasvati and ordered her to produce Vasistha before him immediately. Sarasvati was in a dilemma. If she brought Vasistha to Visvamitra, Vasistha would curse her; if on the other hand, she did not bring him Visvamitra would curse her. At last she decided to produce Vasistha before Visvamitra. By eroding the earth on her bank little by little near the place where Vasistha was performing his penance, Sarasvati managed to bring him down into her own current. Then she carried him floating down to the place where Visvamitra was waiting. When Vasistha reached his presence, Visvamitra was pleased. But without allowing Visvamitra to capture Vasistha she took him away in her current, eastwards. Enraged at this, Visvamitra pronounced a curse that blood should flow through the river Sarasvati. Thus the water in the river became blood-red. The great sages who came there afterwards sympathised with Sarasvati in her ill-luck and as a result of their prayers Siva made her Sonapunyatirtha.


It was in this river that Indra took his bath and washed off his sin. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 43).


31 ) Indra and grutavatf. Bharadvaja's daughter Srutavati (Sruvavati) performed a very severe penance to get Indra as her husband. To test her character, Indra assumed the shape of Vasistha and went to Srutavati. She received the guest with due reverence. Pleased with her treatment, the guest handed her five raw fruits and asked her to cook them for him. Srutavati gladly undertook that service. She proceeded to cook the fruits but even after burning ail the fuel she had, the fruits were not properly cooked. So she began to use her limbs one by one as fuel and burned them up. Indra was deeply impressed by her selfsacrifice and appearing to her in his own form married Srutavati, (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 48) .


32) Indra became Satakratu. Indra performed one hundred sacrifices at the place called Indratirtha. Thus he became Satakratu. It was there that he gave much wealth to Brhaspati. (M.B: Salya Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 2) .


33) Indra became a bird. Once Indra took the form of a bird and went to the forest and preached moral and spiritual duties to the sages who had gathered there. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 11) .


34) Indra and Dantideva. Once Dantideva received a boon from Indra that he should have plenty of food and enough travellers to eat it. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 29, Verses 120, 121) .


35) Indra and Brhaspati. Once Brhaspati told Indra that everything in the world could be achieved with soothing speech. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 2).


Brhaspati's wife Tara once fell in love with Candra (the Moon god). She deserted Brhaspati and went to live in Candra's residence. Brhaspati complained about it to Indra. Indra promised to bring her back and to restore her to Brhaspa.ti by whatever means possible. Accordingly he sent a messenger to Candra. Compromise talks with Candra ended in failure. So preparations were started for a dreadful war between Indra and Candra. Sukra, the preceptor of Asuras also joined the side of Indra. Brahma who came to know of all this, came riding on his swan and reconciled Indra and Candra. As directed by Brahma, Candra agreed to restore Tara to her lawful husband, Brhaspati, (Devi Bhagavata, First Skandha).


36) Indra and Prahldda. The great King Prahlada once conquered Heaven. Indra, who lost his kingdom and


Rlory, accepted Brhaspati's advice and went to meet ukracarya. Sukra told Indra that Prahlada was the noblest person and that he had earned that nobility by his good qualities. Indra decided to acquire those good qualities from Prahlada.


Indra disguised himself as a Brahmin boy and approached Prahlada with a request for moral and spiritual advice. Prahlada accepted him as his pupil and gave him moral and spiritual advice. Pleased with the pupil's devotion, Prahlada agreed to give him whatever boon he wanted. The pupil said that he wanted only the good qualities of the Guru. Prahlada agreed to it. Then a shadow-like figure appeared to emerge from Prahlada's body. Prahlada who was puzzled asked the figure :"Who are you" "The figure answered :- "I am your virtuous character. Now I am leaving you and entering this boy's body." Saying thus it left Prahlada's body and entered Indra's body. Following it, all the good qualities of Prahlada, like charity, truth, glory etc. entered Indra's body one after another. It was only in the end that Prahlada came to know that the cunning pupil was Indra. Thus from that day, Prahlada began to decline in his cod qualities and Indra began to prosper. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 124).


37) Indra and Gautama. There is a story in the Mahabharata, of how Indra restored life to a dead Brahmin. Gautama was a Brahmin who had left his own home and settled down to live in the village of Dasyus (an aboriginal tribe). He married from a low caste and followed the customs of Dasyus. At that time another Brahmin happened to come there. He ridiculed Gautama who had lost his caste. Next morning Gautama left his residence and went to another place. Tired after his long journey, he fell asleep under a banyan tree. A King of birds named Nadijarizgha lived on that tree. Nadijamgha who was the son of


Kasyapa, became very friendly with Gautama. He brought fish from the river Ganga to feed Gautama and fanned him with his wings. Gauta-ma told the


bird that he was a poor Brahmin and that he was anxious to get some wealth. There was a wealthy Raksasa King named Virupaksa in that country, who was a close friend of Nadijadigha. Nadijarhgha sent


Gautama to Virupaksa with a request to give Gautarna some wealth. Virupaksa gave plenty of gold to Gautama. Ho returned to the foot of the banyan tree carrying the gold on his head. Gautama who was quite tired after his long walk, was hospitably received


by Nadijarh.gha. That kingly bird lay asleep close by Gautama. An evil desire to eat the flesh of Nadijamgha dawned upon the mind of Gautama. He killed that King of birds in his sleep. Virupaksa who came to know of this, killed Gautama-and gave his flesh as food for Dasyus. Virupaksa, with tears in his eyes, made a funeral pyre and cremated.Nadijamgha's body. At that time, as directed by Brahma, Surabhi caused milk to flow from heaven and revived Nadijarhgha. Virupaksa told the whole story to Indra who came there at that time. Indra said that Nadijamgha died as the result of Brahma's curse. He had offended Brahma on a former occasion by refusing to attend Brahma's assembly, although he was invited. Nadijamgha who was restored to life, was noble enough to request Indra to bring back Gautama also to life. Accordingly Indra revived Gautama. Nadijamgha returned the gold to Gautama and sent him away with his good wishes. Indra returned to heaven. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 173).


38) Indra and AhalyB. Indra, once fell in love with Ahalya, the wife of Gautama. Sage Gautama who came to know of it, cursed Indra. For further details, see under Ahalya.


39) Indra turned into a Fox. Once a haughty Vaisya knocked down a young sage named Kasyapa, with his chariot. The disgraced sage decided to commit suicide. Knowing this Indra went to the sage in the form of a fox and spoke to him, dwelling upon the evil aspects of suicide. At last the young sage gave up the idea of committing suicide and returned to his hermitage.


(M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 130) .


40) Indra and Subrahmanya. Long ago the Asuras led by Tarakasura, persecuted the gods in many ways. Tarakasura had received a boon from Brahma that only the son born to Siva could slay him. So, to distract Parame9vara from his penance, in order to make it possible for him to beget a son, Indra sent Kamadeva


(god of love) to him. But Kamadeva was burnt up in the fire from the third eye of Siva. After that Parvati won Siva as her husband as a result of her austere penance. She prayed to Siva that Kamadeva should be brought back to life and that a son should be born to her. Siva replied to her :-


"Kama was born from Brahma's mind. As soon as he was born, he asked Brahma "Karii Darpam ?" which means-whom shall I tempt and conquer ?" So Brahma called him "Kandarpa". Brahma had advised him even at that time that he should never tempt me. Disregarding that advice he came to attack me and I burned him up. Now it is not possible for him to be born in a physical form I shall beget of you a son with my spiritual power. I do not need the urge of Kamadeva for this, as in the case of ordinary mortals".


As they were discussing this problem, Indra and Brahma arrived there. At their request Siva agreed to beget a son by Parvati. Since it is not desirable that all living beings should perish, Siva allowed Kamadeva to be born in the minds of all creatures. Brahma and Indra returned quite happy. One day, Siva and Parvati began their amorous dalliance. They did not stop it even after a hundred years. The whole world began to shake to its very foundations. Fearing that the world might perish, the devas, as ordered by Brahma prayed to Agni, to interrupt the amorous play of $iva and Parvati. Agni, who understood that it was not possible to achieve their object, fled and concealed himself under water. The Devas went out in search of Agni. By that time, the creatures in the water who could not bear the heat of Agni, told them the secret. Then Agni deprived them of the power of speech by a curse. After that he went and hid himself on the Mandara mountain. Elephants and parrots disclosed the secrets of Agni, who was hiding within the hollow of the trunk of a tree. Agni deprived them of their tongues by a curse. At last the gods discovered Agni. They sent him at once to Siva to stop him in his amorous dalliance. Agni succeeded in his mission by his intense heat. Siva transferred-his semen to Agni who became pregnant. Being unable to bear its weight Agni deposited it in the river Ganga, who at the behest of Siva himself, left it in the woods on the Mahameru mountain. Siva's attendant bhutas (spirits) offered Puja to it there. After a thousand years a boy with six faces (Subrahmanya) was born out of it. He was suckled by the Krttikas employed for that purpose by Parvati and the boy grew up with astonishing rapidity within a few days. Having been suckled by the Krttikas, the,boy got the name "Karttikeya".


In those days, Devendra who was defeated by Tarakasura, decided to give up war and was living in Mahameru. The Devas and the sages used to go to Subrahmanya for protection. When Devendra knew it, he became angry and went to war with Subrahmanya. Subrahmanya was wounded on the face with Indra's weapon. From the wound two sons named Sakha and Visakha were born to Subrahmanya. With their help Subrahmanya encountered Indra again. At this stage Siva appeared there and informed Indra that Subrahmanya had been born with a mission to kill Tarakasura and to restore Indra's kingdom to him. It was then that Indra recognized Subrahmanya. He begged pardon of Subrahmanya and expressed his desire to instal him as his military commander. When he tried to perform the ceremony of installation by sprinkling the holy water on Subrahmanya's head, the water refused to come out of the pot. Siva told Indra that it was because he had tried to perform the installation before propitiating Ganapati. Indra then offered worship to Vighnesvara (Ganapati) and the ceremony went off without any hitch. Subrahmanya who thus became Indra's commander, killed Tarakasura shortly afterwards. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalarimbaka, 6th Taranga) .


41) Indra and Mahabali. The vanquished Mahabali who had left his home and country was in gloom and despair when once Indra paid him a visit. At that time Mahalaksmi emerged from Mahabali's body and entered Indra's body. (M.B. ganti Parva, Chapter 224).


42) Indra and Godina (gift of cow). Once Indra asked Brahma about the efficacy of godana or giving a cow as gift. Brahma told him that there is a world free from the infirmities of old age and diseases and it is called "Goloka". He added that those who perform Godana would get a place in Goloka.


43) Iudra and a bird. A hunter in Kas i once went to shoot birds with poisoned arrows. One of his arrows hit a big tree accidentally and the powerful poison dried up the whole tree. In the hollow of the trunk of that tree there lived a bird with mystic powers. It did not like to leave that tree which had been its refuge ever since its birth. One day Devendra, in the guise of a Brahmin came. to the bird, who recognized him by


its mystic power. In the conversation between them Devendra advised the bird to leave the tree and find some other suitable place for its residence. The bird did not accept his advice. Indra was pleased at the bird's loyalty and gratitude towards that tree which had been its shelter all along. So he took the bird along with him to Devaloka. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 5) .


44) How Indra turned Bharizgasva into a woman. There was a King named Bhamgasva. Once he performed a sacrifice called "Indradvista" which was. believed to have the power of blessing him with children. ,Indra being not invited was displeased with him and was waiting for an opportunity to wreak vengeance on him.


One hundred sons were born to Bharhga$va. Once he went to the forest after entrusting the affairs of the kingdom to his sons. Indra cunningly misguided him and made him lose his way in the forest. Wandering alone with his horse in the forest, he reached the bank of a river. Weary and thirsty, he stepped down into the river. To his amazement, he was instantly transformed into a woman ! The bewildered "woman" somehow reached BharhgdSva's palace. All the members of his family were deeply grieved over his change of sex. To avoid embarrassment to himself and others, Bhamgasva returned as a woman to the forest and there lived as the wife of a sage and became the mother of a hundred sons. After some years "she" went back to the palace with the sons and leaving them there returned again to the forest.


Indra went to the palace at this time and made the two sets of hundred sons quarrel with one another until all of them perished in fighting. Hearing about this the mother who was in the forest, wept bitterly. Indra visited her (Bhamgasva) there and she told him the whole story of her misfortunes and begged his pardon for performing Indradvista sacrifice without inviting Indra. Pleased with her repentance Indra promised to resuscitate one set of her hundred sons. She wanted all the hundred sons who were born when she was a woman, to be restored to life. Indra was ready to restore her manhood too, but'she preferred to continue as a woman. Indra restored to life all the 200 sons of Bhamgasva and leaving Bharimgasva as a woman, returned to Devaloka. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 12) .


45) Indra and Matarizga. A story is found in the MahaBharata under the title of "Indra-Matariiga-Saxhvada" which illustrates that a K satriya, Vais ya or Sudra can never become a Brahmana by any means. It was told by Bhigma to Arjuna as follows :-


"Long ago a Brahmana's wife gave birth to a boy. The boy was given the name Matamga. His father sent him in a chariot drawn by a donkey, in connection with a yaga which he wanted to perform. Matafga whipped the donkey mercilessly. Seeing this, the donkey's mother said to Matarimga-"You are not a Brahmana. Brahmanas cannot be so cruel. You are a Candala (a man of the lowest caste) born to your mother by a barber."


Matamga sadly returned to his father and after telling him what he had heard froip the mother-donkey set out to perform an austere penance with the object of becoming a Brahmana. Devendra appeared to him and asked him what he wanted. Matamga asked for astanding on repeated that come a Brahmans. Then Matarhga continued penance for a thousand years, standing on his Indra appeared again and transformed Matamga a Deva named "Chandodeva". Indra told him boon whereby he could become a Brahmans; Indra by the dog without turning back or looking behind. At vanished after saying that it was impossible. After that the end of the journey, Indra was waiting for him with


Matariiga performed penance for hundred years, his chariot. He told Dharmaputra that his brothers and  one foot. Indra appeared again and wife had already taken their places in Heaven and that  it was impossible for Matamga to be- he should leave behind the dog and get .into the chariot  his ~o go to Devaloka. Dharmaputra pleaded that it was  toe. not right for him to enter Devaloka after deserting the  into dog which had followed him so far. Even though Indra  that pressed him very much to enter the chariot without the  dog, Dharmaputra did not yield. At last the dog assum  ed the form of Yama who appeared and explained to  them that he had taken the form of a dog and followed  his son Dharmaputra to test his noble nature. They  were all happy and all the three of them proceeded in  the chariot to Devaloka. (M. B. Mahaprasthanika  Parva, Chapter 3 ) .  52) Indra and Bali. In Uttara Ramayana there is a  story as given below, about the birth of Bali, a son of  Indra :  Arum, the charioteer of Surya (the sun-god) went one  night to Indraloka to see the goddesses dancing. Men  were not allowed to enter the dancing hall. So, Aruna  managed to enter the hall by disguising himself as a  beautiful lady. The moment Indra saw her he .fell in  love with her. The name she assumed at that time was  Arun!. Indra secretly took her outside and they had a  sexual union. Bali was the son born from their union.  53) Indra's theft of a Horse. A King named Sagara once  performed a sacrifice. Devendra stole the sacrificial  horse. Sagara sent all his 60,000 sons in search of the  horse. They dug up the earth and went to the Nether  worlds where they saw the horse tied in front of the  sage Kapila. The enraged sons of Sagara tried to  capture and bind the sage. But Kapila reduced all  the 60,000 princes to ashes by his curse. (Valmiki  Ramayana, Balakanda, Chapter 39) .  54) India cut an embryo to pieces. Did and Aditi were  the daughters of Daksa. Kasyapa married them. India  was born as the son of Aditi. At this birth of a son to  Aditi, Diti became jealous of her sister. One day she  told her husband Kasyapa that she too wanted to have  a virtuous, heroic and brave son who would be equal  to. India in every respect. Kasyapa promised to grant  her wish.  In due course, Diti became pregnant. Now it was  Aditi's turn to become jealous of Diti. She could not  bear the thought of Diti having a son equal to her own  son India, in glory and splendour. So she called Ir1dra  and secretly instructed him to destroy Diti's child in the  womb, by whatever means.  In obedience to his mother, India approached Did  pretending friendship and spent a lot of time in her  company. He soon won her confidence and love by his  affectionate attentions. On one occasion, when she was  in sound sleep, India, by his mystic power, entered into  Did's womb with his weapon Vajra and cut the child  in the womb into seven pieces. The child began to cry  loudly, but India said "Maruda"which means "do  not cry" and cut each of the pieces again into seven  parts. Thus the embryo (child) was finally cut into  fortynine pieces, which later became the fortynine  "Marutas" or "Maruts". When she woke up, Diti  realized India's treachery and in her fury she cursed  India and Aditi.She cursed that India would lose his  kingdom of Devaloka and that Aditi would be im-  though he could become a Deva, he could never achieve Brahminhood. In his extreme grief Matamga renounced his life and entered Heaven. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapters 27, 28 and 29) .


46) hzdra and Sarhbara. There is a story in the Maha Bharata in which an Asura named Sambara explained the greatness of Brahminhood to Indra. Once Indra approached the Asura, Sambara and asked him what was the source of his glory and prosperity. Sambara replied that it was all due to his whole-hearted worship of Brahmanas. From that time Indra began to offer worship to Brahmanas and thus he won the place of Indra. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 36) .


47) Indra lowed Ruci. There is a story in the Mahabharata of how a sage named Vipula who was born in the family of Bhrgu once saved Ruci, his Guru's wife from Indra. Long ago, a great sage named Devasarma lived in a forest. His wife Ruci being enchantingly beautiful, many suitors were attracted to her. Chief among them was Indra. Devasarma was aware of this. Once he had to leave his asrama in connection with a yaga. So he ordered his disciple Vipula to guard his wife Ruci during his absence. He had given a hint to Vipula that India who was an expert in disguises, might appear in the asrama in any form. Vipula, by means of his mystic power entered into his guru's wife and guarded her.


After some time, India reached the Asrama in the guise of a handsome youth. He disclosed his real identity to Ruci and told her that he had come there to spend a night with her. Ruci fell in love with him. But since she was under the mystic control of Vipula, India was unable to fulfil his desire. At last Vipula sent him away in disgrace. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, 44)._


48) India's tla2ft of Lotus. India once stole Agastya's lotuses. (See under Agastya).


49 ) India's theft of an Elephant. India once stole an elephant belonging to the great sage Gautama. The sage .complained to Dhrtarastra, who advised him to offer prayers to India. Accordingly Gautama pleased India by his prayers. India appeared and after returning the elephant took both the elephant and Gautama along with him to Devalolca. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 102) .


50 ) India and Marutta. Long ago there was a famous king named Marutta. India was closely associated with him in many of his activities. (For more details see Marutta).


51) India and Dharma,butra. Another anecdote about India which deals with the last part of Dharmaputra's life is given in the Mahabharata.


The Pandavas, towards the end of their lives entered the forest and were travelling to the north. Dharmaputra who was walking in front, was followed by a dog. On the way the four brothers and Pancati fell down dead. Dharmaputra continued his journey accompanied prisoried and her sons would be killed. As a result of this curse Devendra lost his kingdom on one occasion. Aditi, in her next birth, was born as Devaki, wife of Vasudeva and was imprisoned by Karhsa who killed her children. (Devi Bhagavata, Fourth Skandha).


55) Indra and Arirbarisa.


(1) King Arizbarisa had a minister named Sudeva. Sudeva fell fighting in the battle-field. After some years, Afbarisa also died. When Ariibarisa arrived in Heaven, he was surprised to find that Sudeva had already secured a place there long ago. Ambarisa had performed many more acts of holiness than Sudeva. Yet Sudeva attained Heaven earlier than Arnbarisa. Ambarisa asked Indra why it was so. Indra answered that just as Ariibarisa had performed many sacifices, Sudeva had performed many war-sacrifices. He added that war-sacrifices were as efficacious for attaining Heaven as other kinds of sacrifices (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 98) .


(2) Ariibarisa, King of Ayodhya was performing a sacrifice. At that tune, Indra had stolen the sacrificial animal. To continue the sacrifice without interruption, the King decided to substitute Sunaus epha, the son of Rcika, for the cow. But Sunaaepha prayed to Indra who came and rescued him from the jaws of death. (This story is given in other Paranas with slight variations. Valmiki Rarna,yana, Bala kanda, 61st Sarga).


56) Indra and Trisa,iku. There is a story that Indra once pushed down from Heaven, Tri>sariku a King of the Sdrya varimsa (Solar dynasty). See under TRISAt~IKU.


57) Indra and Visadmitra. Once Visvamitra observed a vow of silence for a period of one thousand years. At the end of that period, when he was about to take his food, Indra appeared in the form of a Brahmin and asked for that food. Vi~vdmitra gave that food to the Brahmin and resumed his austere penance. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, 65th Sarga)^


58) India, Sri Rdma and garabhaaga.


(1) . At the time when Sri Rama and Laksmana were leading their life in the forest, one day Indra paid a visit to the Asrama of the sage Sarabhafrga. Devendra wished to take the sage with him to Devaloka. As they were talking, they saw Sri Rama coming to the Asrama. Indra advised Sarabhariga to speak to Sri Rama and left the place. As suggested by Indra, the sage had a conversation with Sri Rama. After it Sarabhariga offered his body to the fire and went to Devaloka. (Vdltniki Ramayana, Aranrya Kanda, 5th Sarga).


(2) When the battle between Sri Rama and Ravana was in progress, Indra presented to Sri Rama, an excellent chariot along with the horses. The chariot and horses were handed over to Sri Rama on the battlefield by Mdtali; India's charioteer. Sri Rama.fought against Ravana from that chariot and slew him. (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Sarga 103) .


(3) After the war with Ravana, Indra appeared before Sri Rama and asked him what boon he wanted. Sri Rama replied that all those monkeys who died in the war should come back to life and the forests in which they lived should abound in fruits and flowers in all the seasons of the year. Indra restored all those monkeys to life and made all the forests in which they lived, green and rich with luxuriant vegetation, (Valmiki Ram~yana, Yuddha Kanda, Sarga 129) .


59) Indra gives his sword for safe-custody. During their life in the forest Sri Rama and Laksmana, accompanied by


Sita entered Dandakaranya., 8ri Rama's chief object in going there was to give protection to the sages and their hermitages in the forest. But seeing that he had made the killing of Raksasas his main purpose, Sita told him that this change in the objective would spoil other important matters. T o illustrate this she told him the following story:-


`Once upon a time, a great sage was observing holy rites with great austerity. Indra was alarmed at it. He went to the sage's hermitage in the form of a warrior armed with a sword. Indra handed over his sword to the sage for safe custody. The sage accepted it and from that time all his attention was concentrated on the sword. All his time was spent in guarding the sword and he began to neglect his devotional duties as a sage. As a result of it his mystic power declined and ultimately he fell into Hell. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, 9th Sarga).


60) Indra and Kabandha. See under Kabandha.


61) The Post or Office of Indra. Ind°a was anointed as King of Devas on Meghavan mountain. In the 42nd Sarga of Kiskindhd kanda of Valmiki Ramayana we find that Sugriva had ordered the monkeys to search for Sita on that mountain also.


62) Indra and Maya. Maya, the carpenter of the Asuras, performed penance to Brahma and acquired complete mastery in the science of carpentry and architecture. After that he constructed a forest mansion of golden colour and took up his residence in it. Once Maya set his eyes on a goddess named Hema. When Indra knew this he became angry and killed Maya with his weapon--Vajra. From that time Hema got Maya's golden mansion. This was told by Hema's maid, Svayarnprabha to Hanumdn. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, 51st Sarga).


63) . Indra cut of the wings of Mountains. In Krtayuga all the Mountains in the world had wings. They used to fly about here and there like Garuda with the speed of wind. The sages and the Devas feared that they might fall on their heads. The Devas held a conference and elected Indra to find a remedy for this. Indra cut off the wings of the mountains with his Vajra. The Mainaka mountain was a friend of wind. When Indra was about to cut off the wings of that mountain, Wind suddenly removed it and deposited it in the ocean. It is out of his gratitude for this that the Mainaka mountain rose up from the ocean and provided a resting place for Hanuman, the son of Wind god, when he jumped to Lafika. This story was told by Mainaka mountain to Hanumin. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sundara Kanda, 1st Sarga).


64) Indra cut off his preceptor's head Once Devendra accepted a sage named Visvarupa as his preceptor for a sacrifice. Visvarupa's mother was a Danava partisan. So this priest, as directed by his mother, performed the sacrifice with the prayer= "May the gods and the Asuras prosper." As a result of the prayer, both the gods who performed the sacrifice and the Asuras who did not perf)rm it, prospered. At this Devendra becamc furious and he cut olf the head of the Guru. (Devi Bhagavata, 3rd Skandha).


65) Indra and Mahisdsura. See under Mahisasura.


66) Indra became a bull. Long ago there was a King called Kakutstha in the Iksvaku dynasty. When he was ruling over the kingdom of Ayodhya, a war broke out between Devas and Asuras. In that war, the Devas were not able to defeat the Asuras. Indra in distress approached Visnu for refuge. Visnu advised him to seek the help of kakutstha, King of Ayodhya. So Indra with the other gods went to Ayodhya. When Kakutstha heard about their appeal for help, he glady offered his help but only on condition that Indra became his vehicle. Seeing no other way, Indra assumed the form of a bull and Kakutstha, riding on the back of the bull fought against the Asuras and defeated them. It is from that day that the King came to be called "Kakutstha", "Indra-vahana" and "Purafijaya". (His original name is unknown). "Kakut" means the "hump


of a bull". Because he was seated on the "Kakut" he got the name "Kakutstha". Because he made Indra "vahana" (vehicle) he got the name of "Indravahana". As he defeated the Asuras and conquered their city (pura) he was called "Puranjaya". Kakutstha was the son of gasada and the father of Prthu. Sri Rama is called "Kakutstha" because he was born in the family of Kakutstha. (Devi Bhdgavata; 7th Skandha).


67) Indra's Task. Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha says that Indra is one of the "Astadikpalakas (the eight protectors .of the quarters) and the name of his city is "Amaravati".


68) . Indra's term of Life. The Devi Bhagavata 5th Skandha says that two life-spans of Brahma make Visnu's life-span. Siva has double the life-span of Visnu, that during the life of Brahma, fourteen Indras will drop down from Heaven and perish, and one day of Brahma is made up of one thousand "Caturyugas."


There are fourteen Manvantaras during the life of the present Brahma (See under Manvantara). This means that fourteen Manus will be born and will die one after another during this period. Each Manvantara will have its own Indra and the Devas. The first Manu was Svayambhuva. After him five more Manus, Svarocisa, Uttama, Tdmasa, Raivata and Caksusa, have passed away. The present Manu is Vaivasvata the son of Surya. The current Vaivasvata Manvantara is the seventh. At the end of seven more Manvantaras, the present Brahma will perish and a new Brahma will be born. For the names of the Indras of different Manvantaras, see under Manvantara. (Visnu Purana, Part 2, Chapter 1).


69) Indra became a Calf. (See under Prthu).


70) The name Purandara. Sardar K. M. Panikkar in his preface to Rgveda Sarhhita says that Indra got the name Purandara because he destroyed the cities (Puras) of the Dasyus. But in Chapter 71, of Vdmana Purdna, we are told that he got this name because he killed "Pura", the son of Mahabali.


71) Indra in the land of Y`orikana. Once an Asura named Surapadma obtained from Brahmd, a boon to enable him to conquer the whole world. He persecuted the inhabitants of all the three worlds. He sent his followers to bring Indrdni (Indra's wife) to him as a captive. Indra, who came to know of this, secretly went away with Indrani to the Konkana land and lived in a temple there. After some days, entrusting Indrdni to


the protection of Sasta, he went to Kailasa. Just at this time, Surapadma's sister Ajamukhi came there and tempted Indrani. Sasta cut off the hands of Ajamukhi and took Indrani to Kailasa. (Skanda Purdna, Asura Kanda) .


72) Indra and Mucukunda. Mucukunda, a King of the Iksvaku dynasty, once went to Devaloka at the invitation of India. In the war between the Devas and Asuras, Mucukunda helped Indra and the Asuras were defeated. Indra was pleased and asked Mucukunda what boon he wanted. Mucukunda asked for a boon which would give him long and sound sleep. Indra granted it and in addition declared that anyone who disturbed Mucukunda's sleep would be reduced to ashes. After that Mucukunda went to sleep in a cave in the middle of a dense forest.


A King of the tribe Yavana performed penance to Brahma and obtained his boon which would enable him to defeat the Yadavas (Sri Krsna's clan) and he began to fight with Sri Krsna. Because of Brahma's boon, Sri Krsna was not able to kill him. He drove Yavana into the cave in which Mucukunda was sleeping. Mucukunda suddenly woke up from his sleep and looked at him with great anger. Yavana was at once reduced to ashes. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).


73) Indra's favourite Drink. The juice of the Soma Plant is the favourite drink of Indra. (1Zgveda, 1st Mandala, 1 st Anuvdka, 1 st Sukta) .


74) Indra became a Goat. Sage Angiras began worshipping the Devas, hoping to have a son who will be equal in glory to Indra. Indra who did not like another person to be his equal, took birth himself as the son of Arigiras. Savya is the name of that son. Once Savya assumed the form of a goat and ate up the soma plant of a sage called Medhatithi. The sage then called him Mesa (goat). Indra is still known by the name, Mesa. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 1st Anuvdka, 51st Sukta) .


75) Indra turns woman. Once Indra took birth as the daughter of a king named Vrsanasva and assumed the name Mend. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 1st Anuvaka, 52nd Sukta) .


76) Indra and R, jisaan. Once Indra helped a King named l~jisvd to defeat the Asuras, Karanja, Parnaya and Varimgrda. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 1st Anuvaka, 53rd Suktx).


77) Indra and Saga. A King named Svasva offered prayers to Surya to bless him with children. Surya himself took birth as his son: Once a great sage called Etasa got involved in a fight with this son (Surya). When the sage was about to collapse, Indra came to his rescue. (IZgveda, 1st Mandala, 11th Anuvaka, 62nd Suktal.


78) Indra and Sarama. Once an asura called Pani stole some cows and hid them in some unknown place. Indra asked Sarama, the bitch of the Devas to find out and inform him where the cows were kept concealed. Sarama replied that she was prepared to do so, if Indra would give milk to her child and look after it in her absence. Indra undertook that task and the bitch went out and found out the place where the cows were hidden and reported it to Indra, (l~gveda, 1 st Mandala, 11 th Anuvaka, 62nd Sukta).


79) Indra and Dadhica. Dadhica (Dadhici) was the son of Atharva. He used to scare away the Asuras by his eerrible look. Once when he had gone to Heaven, the earth became infested with Asuras. Indra set out to fight them. He tried to find out whether Dadhica had left behind anything to be used as a weapon. "Dadhica had with him, a horse-head", he was told. Indra went in search of it and at last found it in a lake at a place called garanya. It is with its bone that he killed the Asuras. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 13th Anuvaka, 84th Sukta).


80) Indra and Dadhyari. Indra taught Madhuvidya (The science of intoxicating drinks) to Dadhyan. He was warned by Indra that if he communicated that lore to anyone else, his head would be cut off: Once the Asvinis wanted to learn it. Since Indra had denied Soma drinking to As vinis, they were not on good terms with Indra. So they approached Dadhyan to acquire that Knowledge. But he refused to teach them due to his fear that Indra would cut off his head. So the Mvinis cut off Dadhyan's head and fixed a horse's head in its place. With that horse-head Dadhyan taught the Mvinis Madhu Vidya. After they had learnt the knowledge, they replaced his own head after removing the horse-head. (Rgvcda, 1st Mandala, 17th Anuvaka, 116th Sukta).


81) It is said that once, in a light mood, Indra made a mare give birth to a cow. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 18th Anuvaka, 121st Sukta).


82) Indra and gatdnika. Satanika was a King of the Lunar dynasty who ruled over the city of Kausambi. Indra who was highly impressed by his heroic exploits once invited him to Devaloka to suppress the Asuras. In the war with Asuras, Satanika was killed. After that ~atanika's son, Sahasranika went to Devaloka and killed the Asuras. Indra who was pleased declared that Sahasranika would marry the beautiful 1Vlrgavati and they were married. See under Mr gavati. (Kathasaritsagara, Kathamukha lambaka, 1st Taranga). 83) Indra and Vasavadatta. Vasavadatta who was the wife of Udayana was born in the world by Indra's blessing. See under "Vasavadatta". (Kathasaritsagara, Kathamukha larimbaka, 1st Taranga).


84) Indra and Meghandda. Ravana conquered the world with the help of Brahma's ~1essing. In his pride he came into conflict with Indra. After a fierce battle, Ravana's son, Meghanada defeated Indra. He took Indra to Lanka as a prisoner. Ravana chained Tndra's hands and feet and tied him to his flagstaff. The Devas in distress approached Brahma for help. Brahma went to Lanka and secured the release of Indra. After giving the title of Indrajit to Meghanada, Brahma returned to Brahmaloka.


Sometime before this Devendra had committed adultery with Ahalya, Sage Gautama's wife. At that time Gautama had uttered a curse on him, that he would have to spend a year in prison, chained by an enemy. His life in Ravana's prison in Lanka was in fulfilment of that curse. (Uttara Ramayana).


85) Indra and Hanuman. Hanuman, the son of Vayu (wind) sprang up into the sky as soon as he was born, seeing the brilliant rising sun, and mistaking it to be some delicious food. He saw Rahn who was standing near the sun and made a leap towards him. When he came near, he saw Airavata, Indra's elephant, standing in Devaloka. At once he turned towards that elephant to swallow him. Seeing the struggle between Hanuman and Airavata Indra used his weapon Vajra which cut the monkey's "hanu" (jaw bone) and he fell


down dead on the earth. Vayu, in deep sorrow, took the dead body of his son and went to Patala. When Vayu (wind) left the world, the creatures of the world underwent great suffering. Then the Devas led by Brahma went to Patala; consoled Vayu and revived Hanuman. Since his "Hanu" was cut with Vajra, the monkey was named "Hanuman" by Indra. Besides, Indra gave him a blessing that I-lanuman would die only when he wished. (Uttara Ramayana, Valmiki Ramayana; Kiskindha Kanda; 66th Sarga).


86) Indra and Govardhana. For the story of how the people of Gokula (Cowherds' colony) stopped the worship of Indra, how Indra caused a heavy shower of rain, and how Sri Krsna used the Govardhana mountain as an umbrella, see under "Krsna".


87) Indra becomes victim of old age. Once the sage Durvasas went to Devaloka. The goddesses gave him a grand reception at which Menaka presented him with a garland made of fragrant flowers. The sage gave it to Devendra. Indra placed it on Airavata's tusk. The fragrance of the garland attracted a large number of bees to it. They swarmed round the head of the elephant and annoyed it. Airavata picked up the garland trampled it under his foot, pulled it to pieces and threw it away. Durvasas took this as an insult to himself and pronounced a curse that all the gods would be subjected to wrinkles and grey hair of old age.


Indra and the other gods fell victims to old age. Indra requested Durvasas to release him from his curse. The sage relented and told him that if the Devas drank Amrta obtained by churning the ocean of milk .they would recover their youth. Accordingly, the ocean of milk was churned by the joint effort of the Devas and Asuras and in the end the Devas snatched it away. When the Devas drank Amrta, the symptoms of old age disappeared and they recovered their .youth. (Uttara Ramayana).


88) Indra and Dandakdranya. Danda the son of Iksvaku, a King of the Solar dynasty, ruled over the territory between the Vindhya and the Himalayas. Once when he was out ahunting in the neighbourhood of the mountains, he saw a charming woman. She was "Ara", the daughter of the sage $ukra. The King was fascinated by her beauty and fell desperately in love with her at the very first sight. He seized her by force and committed rape on her. When Sukra knew about this, he .was furious and uttered a curse that Indra should shower a rain of fire on Danda's kingdom. Thus the whole country of Danda was destroyed by Indra's rain of fire. In course of time that region was turned into a dense forest and came to be called "Dandakaranya". (Uttara Ramayana).


89) Other names of Indra. Indra; Marutvan, Mvf-havan, Bidaujas, Pakasasana, Vrddhasravas, Su nasira, Puruhuta, Purandara, Jisnu, Lekharsabha, rakra, Satamanyu, Divaspati, Sutrama, Gotrabhit,_ Vajri, Vasava, Vrtraha, Vrsa, Vastospati, Surapati Valarati,acipati, Jambhabhedin, Harihaya, Svarat, Namucisudana, Samkrandana, Duscyavana, Turasat Meghavzhana, Akhandala, Sahasraksa, Rbhuksa.


90) Indra's Divinity. In the earliest stage of Hinduism, Indra had occupied one of the most eminent places among the gods. Mahavisnu had only the place of younger brother of Indra at that time. In Amara Ko•-a we find "Upendra Indravaraja" as the synonym of Visnu. In Rgveda I.ndra has a more important place. Although Rudra is a divinity or deity and although there are references to Kapardin, there is not even a single stuti (praise) about Siva in the Rgveda. Rgveda does not recognize Devipuja and idol worship. But in the Puranic age, Indra was transformed into a lascivious "Deva Prabhu" (Lord among the gods). Sardar K.M. Panikkar, in his preface to "Rgveda Sarilhita" says about Indra:- "The main actor in Rgveda is Indra. In the war against the Dasyus the Aryas seek. the help chiefly of Indra. Indra is represented as very handsome and of a golden complexion. His weapon is Vajra, thunderbolt which was made by Tvasta. Vayu (wind) is his charioteer. He is constantly travelling about in the sky driving in his golden chariot. Indra likes drinking Soma juice more than the other gods. Indra is even referred to as "Somapa". He is also sometimes described as the twin brother of Agni. Sages have sung unendingly about the exploits of Indra. Hiranyastupa, a sage, has composed a work entitled "Indrastuti" which celebrates many of the heroic deeds of Indra. Indra was Vajrapani who had slain the Asuras like Ahi, Tusna, Safbara, Vala, Vrtra and others.


There are also several stories in the Vedas about the birth of this hero. At the time of Indra's birth, somehow, his mother felt that he was incapable of being killed. So she decided to abandon him. Fearing trouble for herself, she asked the child to leave her and go to some other place. Indra refused to do so and followed her to the house of Tvasta. There he drank the juice of the soma plant and gained strength to kill his enemies. But unaware of this, his mother, tried' to keep him concealed. Indra, however, came out of the place in his dazzling attire and encountered the enemies. Vrtra who met Indra got ready for a fight. In the fight Vyarnsa struck down Indra. The devas fled in fear. Indra who was left alone called upon Visnu and sought his aid.


Although Indra needed help in his fight with Vrtra, he was the chief support to the Arynas in their fight against theDasyus. It was Indra's Vajra which broke up the fortresses of many Dasyu kings. That was why he got the name "Purandara". Once Iiidra dried up the whole river to enable his army to cross it for the sake of Sudas. When SuEravas became helpless, Indra destroyed twenty kings and 60099 soldiers with his chariot wheel. Thus we see Indra in the Rgveda as the destroyer of the Dasyus and the protector of Aryans."


Indrani, Sac! and Pulomaja are the names of Indra's wife. indra's son, Jayanta is also known by the name of I'akasasani. Indra's city is Amaravati ; his chariot "Vimana", his charioteer Matali, and his garden Nandanavana. "Vaijayanta" is the name of his mansion. Indra's weapon has several other names, such as, Hradini, Kuli•,,a, Bhidura, Pavi, Satakoti, Svaru, Samba, Dambholi, A~ani etc. Indra's assembly is called "Sudharma". Indra's bow is the rainbow, his sword is Paranjaya and his residence is Heaven. The trees iii Heaven are, Mandara, Parijata, Santana, Kalpavrksa and Haricandana. The festival celebrated in honour of Indra is called "8akradhvajotthana" or "Indrotsava".


91) Indra and Uttanka. See under Uttanka.


92) Indra and Kabandha. See the second para under the name Kabandha.


93) Indra was born as Gddhi. See under Gadhi.


94) Siva ended Indra's pride. See under Pandavas.


95) Indra stole the cows. For the story of how Indra stole the cows from Gokula see under Krsna.


96) Indra and MahVani. Once 4aliisani, the son of Hiranya defeated the gods in a battle and took Ir_dra and indrani to Patala as captives. The Devas who knew that Mahasani was a relative of Varuna, sought the help of Varuna. At the instance. of Varuna, Indra was released. The revengeful Indra prayed to Siva. Siva appeared and asked Indra to submit his complaint to Visnu. Indra offered his prayers to Vi snu. As a result of it, a man who had the elements of Siva and Visnu, in him, took his birth from the water of the Ganga. He killed Maha-.ani. (Brahmanda Purina).


INDRADAIVATA. A yajfia (sacrifice) performed in order to get children. King Yuvanasva got the yajiia conducted. After it was over the King drank water from pots filled by brahmins, and became pregnant. (See Mandhata). (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha).


INDRADAMANA. A King who gifted a lot of money to Brahmins. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 13).


INDRADATTA. See °Vararuci'.


INDRADHVAJA. A flag staff. It is erected in order to get rain. If anybody dreams that it has brokenand fallen, it is a bad omen. It means that some disaster will befall the country. (Agni Purina, Chapter 229) .


INDRADVIPA (INDRA ISLAND). Mahabharata, Sabha Parva refers to the island as having once been conquered and subjugated by king Sahasrabahu.


INDRADYUMNA I. A King born in the dynasty of Svayambhuva Manu, and a king of the Pandya country.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in this order :VisUu - Brahma - Svayambhuva Mann - Priyavrata - Agnidhra - Nabhi - Rsabha - Bharata -Sumati - Indradyumna.


2) Indradyumna turned into elephant. Indradyumna, a devotee of Visnu handed over governance of the country to his children when he became old, and performed penance in the Malaya mountain. One day, when he was immersed in meditation Agastya came there. Naturally, Indradyumna did not notice Agastya's arrival. Enraged at this the latter cursed Indradyumna and turned him into an elephant. Being told immediately about the curse by his servants Indradyumna sought redemption from the curse from Agastya himself. Redemption was granted thus : Indradyumna would roam in the forest for years as an elephant, a devotee of Visnu and he would attain salvation when Lord Visnu came down to the earth and patted the elephant omits back. Accordingly Indradyumna who was turned into an elephant roamed about in the forest for many years in the company of a herd of wild elephants. At last it arrived at Mount Trikuta. There was a lake there on the banks of which was sage Devala engaged in penance. Huhu, tae Gandharva had once come to this lake with a number of Apsard women and they indulged in amorous sports, which Devala did not like. He cursed Huhu and turned him into a crocodile, and the crocodile lived in the same lake.


Indradyumna who was turned into an elephant, stepped into the lake to drink water when the crocodile caught hold of its hind leg. Neither did the elephant yield nor the crocodile leave the former free. Their tug of war continued for 1000 years when Mahavisnu appeared on the scene, killed the crocodile and saved the elephant. At once the elephant was re-transformed into Indradyumna and he attained Vaikuntha (the abode of Visnu). (Bhagavata, 8th Skandha).


A Malayalam verse summarises the, above story as follows :-Impelled by Agastya's curse the elephant went to the lake at Mount Trikuta, and suffered for 1000 years as the crocodile which caught hold of its hind leg did not loosen its grip. Then appeared on the scene the killer of Murasura (Lord Visnu) on his vehicle, Garuda, killed the crocodile with his discus and granted salvation to the elephant.


3) Indradyumna's, fall from heaven when the merits of his good deeds were exhausted. The merits or the result of his good and noble deeds having been exhausted, Indradyumna, the saintly king once descended from heaven to earth, and the sad King approached sage Markandeya. But, the sage did not recognize him. The King and the sage went to Pravirakarna, an owl living on the top of the Himalayas. It also did not recognise the King. Then they went to Nadijariigha, a stork very much older than the owl and living in the lake known as Indradyumna. Nadijarhgha also could not recognise the King. In another part of the lake was living a tortoise called Akupara, who was older than Nadijariigha. At last the King, the sage, Pravirakarna and Nadijamgha approached Akupara. At his very sight Akupara recognized the King. Akupara told sage Markandeya that Indra.dvumna was a very famous King and quite liberal and munificent in distributing gifts, and that the lake Indradyumna was formed by the passage of the cows gifted by the King. Having heard these details regarding the King the sage sent him back to heaven. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 199).


INDRADYUMNA II. Mahabha.rata, Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 32 refers to a certain King Indradyumna, a contemporary of Sri Krsna ; Krsna killed him.


INDRADYUMNA 111. A sage Indradyumna is mentioned in the list of Saints who paid their homage to Dharmaputra during his forest life. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 22) .


INDRADYUMNA IV. Name of King,Janaka's father.


INDRADYUMNA V. A king of the Iksvaku dynasty. (See Para 2, under Vi9vakarman).


INDRADYUMNA VI. A king who lived in the Krta yuga, and a devotee of Visnu. He visited the jagannatha temple in Odra Deta once to worship Lord Jagannatha. The Lord was thin hidden in the sand. When the King, disappointed at this was about to return, determined to fast unto death at Mount NiIa when a celestial voice cried, "Thou sha1t see Him". Afterwards the King performed a horse sacrifice and built a magnificent Visnu temple. Narasirhharnurti brought by Narada was installed in the temple. During sleep the King had a darsana (sight) of Lord Jagannatha. Also an astral voice directed him to cut down the fragrant tree on the seashore and make idols with it. Accordingly the king got idols of Visnu, Balardma, Sudar~ana and Subhadra made and installed them in the temple. (Skanda Purina).


INDRADYUMNA(M). A lake. A stork called Nadijarhgha and the Adikurma called Akupara lived in this


lake. It came into existence when the cows given in gift by King Indradyumna passed along that way. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 198) . The pool lay near Mount Gandhamadana, and the Pandavas once visited it. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter I18, Verse 18).


INDRAJIT. Ravana's son, Meghanada.


1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus:-Visnu,Brahma--Pulastya-Vi::ravas - Ravana - Meghanada (Indrajit) .


To Pulastya, one of the Prajapatis was born by Malini, Visravas. Visravas had two wives, Devavarnini, also called Ilibila and Kaikasi. Vaisravana or Kubera was his son by Ilibila and Ravana, Kumbhakarna, Vibhisana and Surpa.nakha (daughter) being the offsprings of Kaikasi. Ravana married Mandodari and three sons, Meghanada, Atikaya and Aksakumara were born to them. Meghanada came to be known as Indrajit also, because he had defeated Indra once.


2) Son of Siva. Though it was Mandodari, Ravana's wife, who gave birth to Meghanada (Indrajit) the Uttararamayana refers to him as the son of Siva in a story as follows:-


Once, after religious fasting and other rites on a Monday (to propitiate the Sun-God) Madhurd, an Apsara woman, adorned with all kinds of ornaments went to Mount Kailasa to offer salutations to Lord Siva. Parvati, Siva's consort was not present then, and Madhura used the opportunity to please the Lord, and she got pregnant by him. All on a sudden Parvati appeared on the scene, and knowing what had happened in her absence she cursed Madhurd to fall into an abandoned well as a frog. Madhura prayed for redemption from the curse, and Siva pitying her sad plight blessed her that after 12 years she would get herself transformed into a fair damsel and become the daughter of Maya and would, then, be married by a great King. According to Parvati's curse Madhura fell into a well in the forest as a frog. Mayasura was performing penance near the well to get a daughter. On the expiry of 12 years after Madhura fell into the well as a frog, Mayasura looked into it and beheld a beautiful girl. He took her to his palace named her Mandodari and brought her up as his own daughter. Ravana married her. It was at this stage that Siva's vital fluid which had, twelve years before, entered her womb made its appearance in the form of a son. Ravana named him Meghanada. Being Siva's son he grew up with great prowess. (Uttara Ramayana). 3) Meghanjda's yajnas. When once Ravana was away from Lanka on a conquest of the world, Meghanada went to Nikumbhila, the central place for conducting yajfias, and performed seven yajnas with sage Sukra as the chief priest. By the time all the seven yajnas, viz. Agnistoma, Asvamedha, Bahusvarna, Vaisnava, Mahesvara, Rajasuya and Gosava were over, Ravana returned to Lanka and sage Sukra gave him details about the yajnas conducted by his son Meghanada. Ravana did not like the Vaisnava yaga performed by his son, and Sukra, who got angry at this cursed, Ravana that he would meet with his death at the hands of Visnu. (Uttara Ramayana) .


By performing a Saiva yaga, Meghanada got the blessings of Siva, who taught him (Meghanada) the great art of Samadhi, which helped one to move amongst others invisible to them.


4) The name, Indrajit. Once Ravana encircled Indraloka with a big army, and Indra, very much alarmed ran up to Visnu for protection. Visnu told Indra that it was not yet time for Ravana's death and when it was time Visnu himself would slay him. Disappointed at this Indra returned, and a fierce war ensued between him and Ravana. Indra fought with Ravana, and Jayanta, his son fought with Meghanada. When fighting reached its climax Meghanada resorted to the art of Samadhi taught by Siva, and became invisible to others. Then he showered his arrows. Jayanta fainted on the battlefield. Puloma, father of Indrani, carried away Jayanta without others knowing and concealed him in the ocean. Everyone thought that Jayanta was dead. Burning with grief and revenge Indra confronted Ravana again. Ravana fell down at the blow with Indra's vajra (thunderbolt). Then once more making himself invisible to others, Meghanada jumped into Indra's chariot and bound him prisoner. By that time Ravana got up on his feet, and he and Meghanada carried away Indra to Lanka and chained him to the foot of the flagstaff.


The Devas, grief-stricken at this sad fate of Indra went to Brahma and submitted their grievance. Brahma reached Lanka, and named Meghanada Indrajit. (He who gained victory over Indra). Indrajit prayed to Brahma for the boon, which wou1d ward off death for ever. When Brahma told him that the boon of eternal deathlessness was out of the question be sought the following boon : that when he had performed a yajna, out of the sacrificial fire should emerge a chariot and necessary horses and that he should not be killed by any one while fighting from that chariot, and that he did not mind being killed -by enemies if he got away without completing the yajfia. Brahma granted him the boon. And, as directed by Brahma Ravana released Indra from imprisonment after one year. (Uttara Ramayana).


5) Indrajit and Han uman. A clash occurred between Indrajit and Hanuman, who landed in Lanka in search of Sita, and the former got Hanuman bound by Brahmastra. (Valmiki Ramayana).


6) Death of Indrajit. At the height of the fierce war between Rama and Ravana, Indrajit and Laksmana clashed with each other. Finding victory impossible Indrajit created a fake Sita and killed her. Thinking that Slta was dead, grief-stricken Hanuman, Laksmana and the regiment of monkeys withdrew from the fight. Informed of Sita's death Rama fainted.


Indrajit began the yajfia for victory over Rama at the place called Nikumbhila. Vibhisana told Rama and Laksmana about the warning of Brahma that Indrajit would be killed if the yajfia was obstructed. Happy at the information Rama and Laksmana immediately went to Nikumbhila to fight with Indrajit who was engaged in performing the yajfia, and without completing the yajfia he came out and began fighting, and Laksmana killed him. (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Chapters 82-91) .


INDRAKILA, A mountain in front of the Himalaya and Gandhamadana mountains. The presiding deity of this mountain is a devotee of Kubera. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 37) .


INDRALOKABHIGAMANA PARVA. A sub Parva in Mahabharata.


INDRAMARGA. An ancient sacred place (bathing ghat) Those who take a dip in the holy waters there will attain heaven. (M.B. Anus asaria Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 9) .


INDRANI. Wife of Indra (Saci) . 1) Genealogy. Descended


from Visnu thus : VisnuBrahma- Kasyapa --Puloma-Saci (Indrani), Yuloma was an asura born to Kasyapa by his wile IDanu. Indra married Saci, the daughter of Puloma, and hence Sac! is called Indrdni also. She is called Paulomi also as she was the daughter of Puloma.


2) Indrdni and 9urapadma. An Asura called Surapadma once coveted Indrani. He deputed his men to fetch Sac! somehow or other to him. Hearing about this, Indra, keeping Indrani with hire, went to and stayed in the Chiyali temp1e in Konkanadesa, and afterwards Indra went to Mount Kailasa after asking pasta to guard Indrani. During Indra's absence Ajamukhi, sister of Surapadma met Indrdni and induced her to become Surapadma's wife. Indrani refused. Ultimately Indra returned and took Indrdni back to Devaloka.


3) Indrdni and Nahusa. See under Agastya.


4) Indrani and Pa&ali. Mahabharata says that Paficali was a partial incarnation of Indrani. (See under Paucali) . A part of Sac! was born in the family of Drupada as Draupadi, viz. Paficali. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67). (1) Indrdni once went to the assembly of Brahma and worshipped him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 42) .


(2) When once Satyabhama came to Devaloka with Sri Krsna, Indrdni conducted her to Aditi, mother of the Devas. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 36) .


(3) Sac! also was present at the birth of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 13) .


(4) Indrdni and Arjuna. (See under A_rjuna)


INDRAPARVATA. A mountain in Videha. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 15) .


INDRAPRAMATI. A disciple of Paila. He belonged to the line of Vyasa's disciples. For other details see under Vyasa.


INDRAPRASTHA. Capital city of the Pandavas. It is the same as Delhi, the capital of modern India.


1) Construction. As ordained by Dhrtarastra, Dharmaputra, claimant to half of the kingdom, went to the forest Khandavaprastha with his brothers. Sri Krsna stood by them ; great sages like Vyasa helped them. There, in the forest, they built a city called Indraprastha as beautiful as Indraloka. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 211).


2 ) Reconstruction. Once Agni burned down the Khandava forest. (See under Khandavadaha). Arjuna saved Maya and five others from the fire. Maya asked Arjuna what he should do in return for saving his life. Arjuna replied that it was not proper to expect any reward for saving one's life and that, if Maya was very keen about doing something in return, it might be done for Krsna. Then Krsna asked Maya to build for the Pandavas a palace, the most beautiful one in the world at Indraprastha. And, accordingly, after getting the Brahmins duly feasted, Maya marked the ground ten thousand Kiskusl in extent. Then Maya went to the mountain Mainaka to the west of Mount Kailasa, where in the pool called Bindu he had stored a large quantity of gold and gems. Maya brought those materials as also a conch called Devadatta from there and built the most beautiful palace in the world at Indraprastha. Within the palace were made many a beautiful pool and various patterns with galleries etc. in glass. It was built so beautifully and in such a manner as to create, at the very sight, the illusion that there was water where there was really no water and vice versa. It took fourteen months to complete the construction of that most beautiful model of architecture. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapters 1-3).


3) Vajra, son of Aniruddha of the Yadava dynasty was made master of Indraprastha after the time of the Pandavas. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Verse I1).


INDRAPUJA: This puja (Indra-worship) is also called Indrotsava. It was during the reign of Vasu, a king of the lunar dynasty that Indrotsava began being celebrated in an organised manner. Pleased at the long penance of Vasu, Indra appeared to him and presented a Venudanda. Vasu planted the danda on earth and conducted Indrapuja. Thenceforward raising the Venudanda became the first item in celebrating Indrotsava. The staff is decorated with flowers, sandal, garlands etc. To the top of the staff is attached the form of a Hariisa and offerings are given to it. The reason for this is the fact that it was in the form of a Hamsa that Indra appeared to Vasu. Pleased by the Indrapuja of Vasu, Indra announced as follows :-If men, and especially kings worship me in the manner done by Vasu, prosperity and welfare will accrue to them and to their kingdoms. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 63) .


INDRASENA I. A son of King Nala. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 23). Nala had also a daughter called Indrasena.


INDRASENA II. Son of King Pariksit. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 55) .


INDRASENA III. Mahabharata, Sabha Parya, Chapter 33. Verse 30 refers to one Indrasena, charioteer of the Pandavas. He accompanied the Pandavas in their forest life. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter I, Verse 11).


When the Pandavas arrived at Mount Gandhamadana they left Indrasena with Subahu, the Pulinda King.


(M.B. Vans, Parva, Chapter 140, Verse 27) . After some time the Pandavas sent him to Dvaraka. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 58) . Indrasena was present at the wedding of Abhimanyu which was celebrated in the city- of Upaplavya. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 23).


INDRASENA IV. A King who fought on the side of the Kauravas. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 156, Verse 122).


INDRASENA I. Name of Pancali in her former birth. (See under Pancali) .


INDRASENA II. Daughter of King Nala.


INDRASENA III. Nalayani, a princess of Anga. She was married by the sage Rsyasrriga. (See, under l~yaSriiga). (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 113, Versec Kisku means a cubit. "Kiskurhaste" (Amara).


11). Indrasena served her husband for 100 years. M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 11).


INDRATAPA. An Asura, who was a devotee of Varuna. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 15) .


INDRATIRTHA. A sacred place on the banks of the river Sarasvati. It was here that Indra performed 100 yajnas. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 49) .


INDRATOYA. A river near Mount Gandhamadana. Bathing in the river and staying there for three nights is tantamount to performing the horse sacrifice. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 11) .


INDRAVAHANA. King Kakutstha of the lksvaku dynasty made Indra his vehicle in the form of an ox and fought the Asuras thus. Hence the name Indravahana. (See under Kakutstha).


INDRAVARMAN. A King of Malava, he fought on the side of the Pandavas, and got killed by an elephant called Asvatthama. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 190, Verse 15) .


INDROTA (INDRODA). A sage, son of Suka, the great sage, and also called Saunaka. Janamejaya, son of King Pariksit once killed a brahmin, and at once Brahmahatya (sin of having killed a brahmin) seized the King. The King lost all mental peace at this and 'sought the advice of many sages for redemption from the sin, and Indrota (Saunaka) advised him to go on a pilgrimage and perform righteous duties (dharma). The King acted accordingly and got rid of the sin of killing the brahmin. This story occurs under the title Indrotapariksitiyam in Santi Parva in .three chapters. (Chapters 150-i52).


INDROTSAVA. See under Indrapuja.


INDUPRABHA. See under Malayaprabha.


INDUMATI I. Daughter of Candrasena, King of Simhala and his queen, Gunavati. (fee under Candrasena) .


INDUMATI II. Mother of Nahusa. (See under Nahusa).


INDUMATI III. Wife of Raghu.


IRA I. One of the wives of Kagyapa. Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arista, Surasa, Khasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavas a, Ira, Kadru and Muni were the wives of Ka9yapa. Grass on earth originated from Ira. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19) .


IRA II. There was a devi called Ira among the attendants of Kubera. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 11) .


IRAMA. A river. Sage Markandeya is reported to have once seen this river in the stomach of child Krsna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 104. Also see under Markandeya).


IRAVAN. A son born to Arjuna of the serpent damsel (Nagakanya) named Ulupi. (For genealogy see under Arjuna).


1) Birth. According to the practice laid down Pa11Cal1 used to live with each husband for one year by turn. When she was living with one husband the other four husbands had no admission there. When once Arjuna wanted his arms to redeem the cows of a brahmin stolen by thieves he entered the apartment of Dharmaputra where the arms had been kept and took them. For thus having entered, against rules, the apartment then kept by Dharmaputra and Pancali, Arjuna had to go on a pilgrimage for one year. Numerous brahmins accompanied Arjuna and while spending the night on the banks of the Ganges, Arjuna entered its waters for bathing. There he saw the Naga damsel, Ulupi. They fell in love with each other and got married. And, a son named Iravan was born to them. Ulupi granted Arjuna the boon that all water-animals would obey him and that in water he would be invincible. Leaving Ulupi and Iravan behind, Arjuna continued his stay in the forest.


2) Further Information. (I ) In the great war Iravan fought on the side of the Pandavas. During the first day's fighting Iravan and * Srutayu fought a duel, (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verses 69-71) .


(2) Iravan defeated Vinda and Anuvinda in fight. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 83, Verses 18-22).


(3) Iravan killed five brothers of Sakuni. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 90, Verses 27-46).


(4) Iravan fought against Alambusa and was ki1led b6)y the latter. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 90, Verses 56-


IRAVATI I. Grand daughter of Kasyapa. Ten daughters were born to Kasyapa by his wife Krodhavasa, viz. Mrgi, Mrgamanda, Hari, Bhadramata, Matamgi, 8arduli, gveta, Surabhi and Kadru, and Iravati was Kadru's daughter. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda).


IRAVATI 11. A sacred river. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 146, Verse 18) .


IRJIKA. A locality. (M.B. Bhisma Parva; Chapter 9, Verse 52) .


IRI. There are hundred Kings in the palace of Yama worshipping him, and they are called the iris. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 23) .


IRIMPU. A Malayalam word meaning `iron'. The metal iron originated in the following way. The Devas sought Brahma's protection against the onslaughts of Tarakasura, who had obtained a boon to the effect that he could be killed only by a son born to Siva. And, implored by Brahma and others Siva entered into the sex act with Parvati. The impact shook the universe. Agni separated them from the process and the semen of Siva dropped in Agni. Agni deposited it in the Ganges. The Ganges could not bear it and it coursed through her (Gariga's) arteries and out of it was born Subrahmanya. Also from the particles of the semen gold and silver were produced. From tire intensity of the heat were produced iron and copper. See under Subrahrnanya. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Canto 37) .


ISA. A Visvadeva. (Universal deva). (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 31) .


ISANA (SIVA). Lana, with matted hair rides on the ox. See under Siva. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51) .


ISANADHYUSITA TIRTHA. An ancient tirtha. Tasting the water of this tirtha will give all the benefits of the horse sacrifice. (M.B. Vanes Parva, Chapter 84, Verses 8, 9) .


ISTARASMI. A King mentioned in the Rgveda. He performed many yajfias. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 13, Sukta 123) .


ISTASVA. A King mentioned in the Rgveda. He performed many yajnas. (Rgveda, Mandala I, Anuvaka 19, Sukta 124) .


ISUPADA. An Asura born to Kasyapa and his wife, Dann. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 25). This


Isupada was reborn in his next life as the very heroic and powerful King Nagnajit. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verses 20, 21) .


ISVARA. Once Devi told Himavan who, according to the Hindu religion, God is, and how creation takes place from Is vara (God). The famous discussion about Godhood, called Devigita is quoted hereunder.


(1) Ahamevasa purvam to


nanyad kirircit nagadhipa / Tadatmaruparn cit sariivit Parabrahmaikanamakam. / (Before the creation of theuniverse commenced, I alone was ; there was nothing else. Then I was called Parabrahman, Citsvarupi, Sarnvitsvarupi and Atmarupi) .


(2) Apratarkyamanirdesya-


manaupamyamanamayam / Tasya kacit svatah siddha


saktrrmayeti visruta //


(That form is beyond discussion (Apratarkyam); beyond description (Anirdesyam) ; incapable of being compared (Anaupamyam) ; beyond birth, death youth, old age etc. (Anamayam). In this form of mine resides mayas akti.


(3) Na sat! sa nasati sa-


nobhayatma virodhatah / Etadvilaksana kacid-


vastubhutasti sarvada ,/~


(That mayasakti cannot be said to be existing or not existing. Thus it is neither existing nor not existing. The statement existing and not existing is subject to the error, paradox. That great force exists always in me with the pair of aspects.


(4) Pavakasyosnateveyamusnarirsoriva didhitih / Candrasya candrikeveyam Mameyarn sahaja dhruva //


(Fire does not exist without heat, nor Sun without light nor Moon without its rays. Just like this, that mayasakti is coeval with me. It is permanent.


(5) Tasyam karmani jivanarh Jivah Kalasca saficare /


Abhedena vilinah syuh Susuptau vyavaharavat //


(Just as all actions, feelings and even the sense of time remain latent in deep sleep, even so all the actions and emotions of all living beings lie absorbed in Maya).


(6) Svag aktes ca samayoga-


daharir bijatmatarh Bata / Svadharavaranattasya-


dosatvarii ca samagatam //


(I am myself the source of this Maya; but it has a strange power called avarana which hides my real nature).


(7) Caitanyasya samayogad


nimittatvarn ca kathyate / Prapaficaparinamacca


Samavayitvamucyate //


(Being joined to Caitanya (Brahman) Maya becomes the material as well as the immediate cause of the universe (Prapafica) .


(8) Kecittam tapes, ityahustamah kecijjadarh pare Jfianam mayam pradhanarn ca prakrtirh saktimapyajam //


(This inaya is referred to differently by different people as tapas, tamas, jada, jfiana, mayor, pradhana, prakrti and aja.).


(9) Vimarsa iti tam prahuh Saivasastravisaradah / avidyamitare prahurvedatatvarthacintakah // (Experts in Saiva philosophical thought refer to this mayor as vimar~a and Vedic seers call it avidya).


(10) Evam nanavidhani syuh namani nigamadisu /


tasyahjadatvarn drsyatvdt jfiananasattatossati //


(Thus Vedas refer to mayor by various names. because of visibility mayor is called jada, and because it is destructive of true knowledge it is called asat) .


(11) Caitanyasya nor drsyatvarh drsyatve jadameva tat /


svaprakasark ca caitanyaf nor parena prakas itam //


(Caitanya (Effulgence) is not visible. What is seen is jada (material expression). Caitanya is self-illuminating; it is not illuminated by something else) .


(12) Anavasthadosasatvanna svenapi prakasitam j Karmakartrvirodhah syattasmattaddipavat svayam /.! (13) Prakasamanamanyesam


Bhasakarii viddhi parvata / ata eva ca nityatvarii


Siddharh samvittanormama //


(If caitanya is not self-illuminating then it is subject to the drawback of Anavasthadosa (Absence of finality). If Caitanya does not possess the quality of light and illumination there should necessarily be something else, which illuminates it, and there should again be something to illuminate that which illuminates Caitanya. And, it continues ad infinitum. This state of no conclusion is called anavastha dosa. Also one thing cannot be, at the same time, the subject (actor) and the object of action, and that invites the draw-back of paradox. Therefore, O King of mountains ! understand that Caitanya is self-illuminating and it illuminates other things by its own illumination. And this, therefore, proves that my Caitanya is eternal).


(14) Jagratsvapnasusuptyadau drsyasya vyabhicaratah / sarhvido vyabhicarasca nanubhutosti karhicit ;/ (All visible things go on changing in the three states of awaking, dream and deep sleep. But, like visible things Caitanya is not subject to change, and does not, experience the three states) .


(15) Yadi tasyapyanubhava-


starhyayarh yena saksina / anubhutah sa evatra


sistah samvidvapuh purl //


(If it is argued that it (Caitanya) experiences the three states then there must be something else as `witness' for the experience. But, since it is established as self-illuminating there cannot be something else as `witness'.


(16) Ata eva ca nityatvarii proktarh sacchastrakovidaih / anandarupata casyah parapremaspadatvatah //


(Because of the above reasons experts in the science of philosophy hold that this Caitanya is eternal, and that, since it is the basis of bhakti which assumes the form~of absolute love, it is anandarupa) .


(17) Ma nor bhuvarii hi bhuyasamiti prematmani stbitarh / sarvasyanyasya mithyatvadasariigatvarh sphutarii mama // (No living souls think `I am not'. Every body cherishes always his self-importance, the `I'. It is present there in every living soul in the form of love. This fact itself proves that I am different from all material objects).


(18) Aparicchinnatapyevamata eva mata mama ! tacca jfianarii natmadharmo dharmatve jadatatmanah /! (That I am indivisible is quite definite. Knowledge is not an attribute of the soul (atman) but is the very form of the soul itself. If knowledge were only an attribute of the soul it (soul) should have been material (jada) and it is quite a certitude that the soul is not material, because knowledge is the very nature of the soul).


(19) Jfianasya jadasesatvarh nor drstain nor ca sariibhavi Ciddharmatvarii tatha nasti Cirascid nahi bhidyate // (The soul is pure knowledge without any touch of the jada. It is also pure existence. It is one and indivisible).


(20) Tasmadatma jfianarupah sukharupas ca sarvada / satyah purnopyasariigas ca dvaitajalavivarjitah // (The atman (soul) is therefore jfianarupa (of the nature of pure knowledge), Sukharupa (of the nature of pure joy) and satyarupa (of the nature of absolute truth). It is unattached to anything and free from duality).


(21) Sa punah kamakarmadiyuktaya sviyamayaya / purvanubhutasariiskarat kalakarmavipakatah //


(22) Avivekacca tattvasya sisrksavan prajayate /


a* ddhiparvah sargosyarh


bu kathitaste nagadhipa // Etaddhi yanmaya proktarii mama rupamalaukikam / avyakrtarh tadavyaktarii mayasabalamityapi //


(24) Procyate sarvasastresu sarvakaranakaranam tattvanamadibhutarii ca saccidanandavigraham // Sarvakarmaghanibhutamicchajfianakriyasrayam / hririrkaramantravacyarii tadadi tatvarh taducyate // (Impelled by the Vasanas of previous actions the Mayasakti proceeds to create the world, beginning with the 24 tattvas. My form which is immaterial and unmanifested is praised by all sastras to be the cause of all catises and the basis of all tattvas. It is also the basis of all knowledge, action and volition and realizable only through the hriihkara mantra) -


Tasmadakas a utpannah sabdatanmatrarupakah /


bhavet spar~atmako vayustejorupatmakarh punah /I


(27) Jalarh rasatmakarh pascattato gandhatmika dhara / aabdaikaguna akaso vayusspars aravanvitah


(28) 8abdasparsarupagutlam teja ityucyate budhaih .sabdasparsaruparasairapo vedagunah smrtah /I


(29) 8abdaspargariiparasagandhaih paficaguna dhara/ tebhyobhavan mahatsutram yallimgarh paricaksate //


(30) Sarvatmakarh tat saihproktarh suksmadehosyamatmanah / avyaktarh karano dehah sa coktah purvameva hi //


(From this primordial principle (paficabhutas) were born. The first of these is ether which is the element of sound because sound travels through ether (sabda-tanmatra-rupa). Then air (vayu) gave rise to the sense of touch and so air is called sparsarupa. This vayu again gave rise to Agni (Vayoragnih). Then came water which corresponds to the sense of taste (rasarupa). From water came earth which is gandharupa (the source of smell) (Udakadbhumih). Akasa (ether) has only one guna, namely sound. Vayu (air) has two gunas-Sabda and Sparga (Sound and touch). Agni has three gunas:-rupa, sabda and sparsa. Jalarh (water) 'has four gunas-sabda, spars a, rupa, and rasa. The last element-earth-has five gunas-sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa and gandha. From these five tanmatras is born the linga-sarira or suksma-sarira).


(31) Yasmin jagadbijarupam sthitarh lingodbhavo yatah / tatah sthulani bhutani paficikaranamargatah //


(32) Paficasarhkhyani jayante tatprakarastvathocyate/ purvoktani ca bhutani pratyekarh vibhajeddvidha //


(The jagat (universe) remained in embryo form (bijarupa) in these paficatanmatras. Then by the process of Pallcikarana all the gross material objects were created. These pancabhutas were first divided into two (each was divided into two). Then by a process of the combination of these ten parts different substances were born as detailed in the following stanzas.


(33) Ekaikarh bhagamekasya caturdha vibhajed gire / svasvetaradvitiyarhs e yojanat pafica pafica to /(


(Each half of each of these five bhutas is again subdivided into four parts. These 1 /8 parts are joined to the other halves and by combining them in other fractions the material bodies (sthialaSarYras) of all beings are made).


(34) Tatkaryarh ca virat dehah sthfiladeho yamatmanah / paficabhfitasthasatvdri-lsaih srotradinarh samudbhavah


the five elements


Viratdeha (Cosmic body) is the sum total of these individual material bodies. The inner conscience and bodily organs like ear etc. originate from the gentle and pure aspects of the five elements.


(35) Jnanendriyanam rajendra ! pratyekarh militaistu taih / antahkaranamekarir syad vrttibhedaccaturvidham //


(36) Yada to saxhkalpavikalpakrtyam tadabhavettanmana ityabhikhyam / syad buddhisarhjfiam ca yada pravetti suhiscitam samsayahinarupam //


(37) Anusandhanarupam ta-


ccittarh ca parikirtitam / aharh krtyatmavrttya to tadaharhkaratam gatam (Antahkarana, due to differences in state assumes four forms. ~ When once conception and doubt' arise in a


subject, then it is called mind. When there is no doubt, but there is assuredness it is called understanding (buddhi). The function of examining a subject again and over again belongs to citta. To think of `I' is egoism or ahaxhkara) .


(38) Tesam rajorhsairjatani Kramat karmendriyani ca / pratyekam militaistaistu prano bhavati paficadha //


(39 ) Hrdi prano gudespano


nabhisthastu samanakah / kanthadesepyudanassyadvyanah sarvasariragah //~


(From the coarse (rajasic) aspects of the five senseorgans originate the five organs of action like word, foot, hand, excretory and the genital organ, and also the five prams (breaths) called pram, apana, samana, udana and vyana. Prana is located in the heart, apana in the anus, samana in the nabhi (navel) udana in the throat and vyana all over the body) .


( 40 ) Jnanendriyani paficaiva paficakarmendriyani ca / pranadi paficakam caiva dhiya ca sahitam manah II


(41) Etat suksmasariram syan manna lingarh yaducyate / Tatra yd prakrtih prokta sa rajan dvividha smrta // ( Organs of knowlege 5, of actions 5, and pranas 5, and buddhi 1, mind 1, the body is composed of these 17 factors). This forms the Suksmasarira whose prakrti is two-fold (as mentioned below) .


(42 ) Satvatmika to maya syadavidya gunamisrita


svasrayarir yd to saxhrakset sa mayeti nigadyate //


One is pure maya and the other is avidya possessing properties).


(43) Tasyarh yat pratibixhbamsyadbimbabhutasya cesituh sa hvarah samakhyatah svasrayajfianavan parah //


(44) Sarvajfiah sarvakarta ca sarvanugrahakarakah / avidyayam to yat kirhcit pratibirhbam nagadhipa //


(Brahmacaitanya reflected in this maya. is !svara (God). That lsvara is the same as the atman (soul), brahman absolute, creator of everything, omniscient, and the cause of all blessings. The soul reflects to a small extent in avidya also).


(45) Tadeva jivasarirjnarh sydt


sarvaduhkhasrayarir punah / dvayorapiha sariiproktam


dehatrayamavidyaya //


(This jiva is the receptacle of all sorrows. Due to vidya and avidya both get three kinds of bodies).


(46) Dehatrayabhimariaccapyabhunnamatrayarir punah ! prajnastu karanatma syat suksmadehi to taijasah //


(47) Sthuladehi to visvakhyastrividhah parikirtitah / evamis opi samprokto jivasutraviratpadaih //


(48) Prathamo vyastirupac?u samastyatma parah smrtah / sa hi sarvesvarah saksat jivanugrahakamyaya //


(49) Karotr vividham vrsvam


nanabhogasrayarh punah / macchaktiprerito nityarir


mayi rajan prakalpitah. //


He who is attached and is proud about the material body is called Visva; he who attaches importance to the subtle body is called Taijasa, and he who is aware of the causal body is called Prajna. The jiva is Vyastisvarupa (has individuality) but lsvara is Samastyatmaka (embraces all the jivas). lsvara works impelled by my power).


!YAM. Iyarh in Malayalam paeans the metal lead. A metal formed out of the dirt in river Ganga. (See Irimpu).