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H (if). This letter has two meanings : (1) Understanding (2) Rudra. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348) .


HAHA. A Gandharva, the son of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Pradha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122; Verse 59).


Other Information. (1) H5ha was present at the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 59) .


(2) He lives in Kubera's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 25).


(3) Haha welcomed Arjuna in the Devaloka when once he visited the place. (Vana Parva, Chapter 43. Verse 14) .


HAIHAYA. A King, the son of Vatsa, born in the dynasty of garyati. He was the founder of the Haihaya dynasty. He became a brahmin by choosing Sage Bhrgu as his Preceptor. He was also known as Vi.tahavya. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verses 54-57) .


HAIMAVATA. A region north of the Himalayas made famous in the Puranas. gukabrahmarsi on his way from Mahameru to Mithilapuri crossed this region. (anti Parva, Chapter 325, Verse 14).


HAIMAVATI I. A synonym of river gatadru, (See under gatadru).


HAIMAVATT II. A wife of Visvamitra. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 13) .


HAIMAVATI III. A wife of Sri Krsna. When Krsna was cremated Haimavati also ended her life in the funeral pyre. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 73).


HAIRANYAVATI. A river which flowed along Hiran. maya, a Puranic region. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 5).


HALADHARA. A synonym of Balarama. (See under Balabhadrarama).


HALAHALA (S) A sect of asuras, who were the first creation of the Trimurtis, when they also possessed the power of creation. The Halahalas, who became very powerful within a short period of time earned from Brahma all the boons they wanted, and they then conquered the three worlds. At last they barricaded Kailasa and Vaikuntha also, and Hariharas (Visnu and Siva) defeated them after a fierce fight lasting for a thousand years. The Hariharas returned to their abodes and spoke about their achievements. Their wives laughed at the bravado of their husbands. At this got angry with Laksmi and Siva with Parvati, and in protest the Devis left their husbands. From that day onwards Visnu and Siva began losing their power. Brahma, who divined the reason for the growing w'kness of Vis u. and Siva persuaded Laksm! and ea


Parvati to return to their husbands so that they might regain their former power. Yet, Brahma told them that in future he alone would handle the work of creation. Thus was Visnu and Siva divested of their right to creation. (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha).


HALAYUDHA. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 10th century A.D. A mahakavya called Kavirahasya is his most important work The hero in the great poem is Krsna III. A King of the Rastrakuta dynasty, and poet Halayudha was a courtier of his.


HALIKA. A prominent naga born dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 15) .


HALIMA. One of the Saptamatrs (seven mothers) . (Vana Parva, Chapter 22, Verse 10) .


HALIMAKA. A naga born in the family of Vasuki. He was burnt to death in the serpent yajna of janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 5) .


HAMSA I. An incarnation of Maha Visnu in Krtayuga. He instructed great sages like Sanaka on yoga in the presence of Brahma. He is also called yajna. (Bhagavata 11 th Skandha) . Hamsa, who was a prajapati as well advised the Sadhyadevas about the means to attain salvation and the advice is known as Harirsagita. (anti Parva, Chapter 288) .


HAMSA II. A son born to Kasyapa of his wife, Arista. He was a Gandharva and it is believed that Dhrtarastra was an arh~avatara of this Gandharva. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 6, See also under Arirs avatara).




I) General. A minister of jarasandha. Harhsa and Dirhbhaka were the sons of Brahmadatta, the chief of Salva, and they were adepts in archery. Parasurama was their preceptor. (Harivarhsa 3, 103) . The Mahabharata calls Harirsa's brother Dibhaka.


2) Education. Vicakra and janardana were intimate friends of Harnsa from their very infancy, of whom Janardana was the son of Mrtrasaha, a friend of Brahmadatta. Harhsa, Dimbhaka and janardana had their education together; and their marriages also were conducted at the same time. After some time Siva presented them many weapons like Rudrastra, Mahesvarastra and Brahmasirastra, and also two attendants for self-protection. (Harivarir€a 3, 105).


3) Curse df Duraasas. Swo1len-headed and haughty on account of Siva's boon, Harirsa and Dirhbhaka turned out to be a nightmare to the world, and they once tried to give trouble to Durvasas, who cursed them to be killed by Mahavisnu. Sometime later the sage himself informed Sri Krsna about this curse of his.


4) Death. The Harirsa brothers began an a€ vamedha (Horse Sacrifice) and deputed janardana to collect the tax thereof. Sri Krsna alone refused to pay the tax with the result that Harhsa clashed with Krsna who killed Dimbhaka and kicked Hamsa down to Patala. He died there, in Patala of snake-bite. (HarivarhSa 3, 128) .


5) Grief of jarasandha. Hariisa's death caused much grief to jarasandha, and for many years after it, he shed tears over the death of his friend. Even at the time when Bhimasena, during his triumphal tour of the east, attacked jarasandha he remembered the dead Harirsa and Dimbhaka. (Sabha Parva, 13, 37).


HAMSA (M) . Swan. For story about the origin of harirsa on earth see under Srsti, Para 12.


HAMSACODA. A Yaksa, who worships Kubera in his assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10; Verse 17) .


HAMSADHVAJA. A King of Campanagari, who was a great devotee of Visnu. During his reignin the Kasyapa

monogamy prevailed in the country. He took the yajfiic horse of Yudhisthira captive, and in the fight to release the horse Arjuna killed Sudhanva and Suratha, sons of Harirsadhvaja. Grieved and enraged at their death Harizsadhvaja took the field against Arjuna, and Sri Krsna finding that Arjuna's life was in danger pacified them both. Also Krsna requested Harhsadhvaja to be a supporter of Arjuna in future. Hamsadhvaja had five sons called Suratha, Sudhanva, Sudarsa, Subala and Sama. (Jaimini, Asvamedha Parva, 17, 21).


HAMSAJA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. Chapter 45, Verse 68) .


HAMSAKAYA. A Ksatriya by caste, HariZsakaya was present at the rajasuya of Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 14) .


HANISAKLJTA (M) . A mountain lying between Hastinapura and the SaWrziga mountain. On his way to Satassrriga Pandu crossed Harhsakutam. (Adi Parva, Chapter 118, Verse 50). Sri Krsna once tore off a peak of the mountain and established it in Dvaraka. (Bharata, Southern text, Chapter 38) .


HAMSAPATHA (M) . A region famous in the Puranas. The armies from this place fought in the great war. They fought taking their position at the grivasthana (neck position) of the Garuda vyuha (A particular array of soldiers) set up by Drorra. (Droria Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 7).


HAMSAPRAPATANA TIRTHA. A sacred place at Prayaga on the banks of the Gariga. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 87) .


HAMSAVAKTRA. A warrior who fought on the side of Subrahmanya and defeated the Asuras. (galya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 75) .


HAMSI. A daughter of Bhagiratha whom sage Kautsa married. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 26).


HAMSIKA. A daughter of Surabhr. This cow is said to be supporting the southern region. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, Verse 7) .


HANLTMAN. A monkey born of the elements and aspects of Devas. In the epics of no other country could be found a character that belongs to tl~e animal kingdom who is as powerful, erudite and 'philosophic as Hanuman.


1) Birth. Many and different are the stories about the birth of Hanuman to1d in Puranic literature, and they are briefly noted below.


(1) The semen discharged by Siva, whose erotic feelings were excited by the sight of Visnu disguised as Mohini was received by the Saptarsis and deposited in the womb of An and, and Hanuman was born out of it. (Siva Purana, An-and,


(2) Da'saratha divided among his wives the divine payasa (pudding) got from the putrakamesti yajfia which was performed so that he might be blessed with children. Somehow or other a kite snatched some pudding and flew off with it. On its way the pudding fell down from the beaks of the kite on the fingers of Afijand doing tapas in the forest. She ate that pudding and Hanuman was born as the son of Afijand due to the extraordinary powers of the pudding. (Ananda Ramayana).


(3) Siva, once in his fierce and effulgent form (aspect) entered Kesari, the husband of Anjana and had coitus


(Salya Parva,with her. After that Vayu ( Wind-god) also had coitus with her. Thus as a result of the sexual act by both the Devas Afijand got pregnant. Later, Afijand was about to throw into the valley of the mountain her new-born child as it was an ugly one when Vayu ( Wind god) intervened and saved the child. Hanuman was the child thus born of Siva and Vayu. (Bhavisya Purana, Pratisarga Parva ) .


(4) Hanurtran's actual father was diva. Ganapati was born to diva and Parvati as they played in the forest disguised as elephants. After that diva and Parvati played about in the forest disguised as monkeys as a result of which Parvati, got pregnant. Since Parvati did not like the idea of being the mother of a monkey, diva, by his yogic power entrusted the child, (in embryo) that was in the womb of Parvati to Vayu (Wind god), who carried it with him hither and thither till it became mature, when it was deposited in Afijana, the monkey woman. The monkey called Kesari was her husband. Thus Hanuman was born as the son of Afijana.


Afijand also has a story of her own. Once upon a time she was the maid-servant called Pufijikasthala of Brhaspati. One day she went out to gather flowers when the love-makings of other young women attracted her so much that, without gathering flowers, and her erotic sentiments being aroused much, she returned home and covered Brhaspati with kisses. Brhaspati got really angry with the misbehaviour of his maid-servant and cursed her into a female monkey. She was told that, after she had lived for sometime with a monkeyhusband she would get a child from the vitality of diva, after which she would return to him as maid servant as of old. And, accordingly, Pufijikasthala became a female monkey under the name Afijana and lived at Anjana forest with a handsome monkey called Kesari as her husband.


It was while Afijand was doing tapas so that she might become pregnant by Siva that diva and Parvati played in that forest disguised as monkeys, and Parvati conceived and the child ultimately came out as the son of Afijana.


Even while Anjana was pregnant the child in her womb had much to suffer at the hands of Bali. Hearing from Narada that diva's son had been born in Anjana's womb Bali feared that the actual birth of such a son would jeopardise his lordship over the monkeys. To ward off the threatened contingency, Bali, as advised by Narada, let in the five metals (gold, copper, iron, tin and zinc) in watery form into the stomach of Anjana. (This is a means of causing abortion). But, the attempt misfired. Instead of the five metals killing the child in Afijana's womb, they became ear-ornaments for it, and Hanuman was thus born with ornaments in his ears. (Kaxirba Ramayana Purvakanda).


2 ) Naming and boons. As soon as Hanuman was born Afijand was released from the curse, and she wanted to return to heaven. The monkey child asked its mother what its future would be and how it was to earn its living. She assured him that he would never be destroyed and that fruits as ripe as the rising sun (she pointed the sun out to him) would form his food. And, Anjana returned to heaven.


Thinking that the glowing and glittering Sun was food for him to be eaten, the monkey child made just one jump at it (Sun) and quite neared it. But seeing Rahu, bigger than the Sun he jumped at it. Then it was that it saw Airavata and it tried to eat it. And, seeing this attempt of the monkey-child, Indra used his vajrayudha (Thunderbolt) against it. The weapon hit its chin and wounded it, and in precarious condition it fell down on earth. Vayu (Wind god) who saw his child falling down wounded carried it off to Patala.


When Vayu (air) quitted the earth everything thereon came to a dead-stop. Living things were on the verge of death due to suflbcation. And, then Brahma and others went to Patala, comforted Vayu and congratulated the monkey child. On the basis of Indra's vajra having made a scar on its hanu (jaw-bone or chin) the monkey child was named Hanuman by the Devas, who, one by one blessed him as follows :-


Brahmadeva ; May you live long, so long as Brahma exists.


Mahavisnu : May you live all your life as the greatest devotee of God.


Indra : No weapon of any kind will wound or hit your body.


Agm : Fire will never affect you. Kala : May not death ever court you.


All the Devas : None will ever equal you in strength and speed. Brahma blessed Hanuman again giving him more physical power than Garuda and Vayu blessed him to have more speed than himself. (air). (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 15; Uttararamayana; Kambaramayana, Purvakada; Adbhutaramayana).


3) Education. Being born* of Siva and on account of the Sivassakti in him, Hanuman reached boyhood immediately. To learn the four Vedas and the six 'astras he chose Surya mentally as his preceptor, and approached him with the request to be taught the Vedas etc. Surya agreed to have Hanuman as his disciple subject to the condition that the latter would not be permitted to sit with the Balakhilyas in his (Surya's ) chariot and study. Hanuman agreed to the condition to learn from Surya walking in front of him. With book opened in his hand and concentrating all his attention on the face of Surya Hanuman traversed the sky and within a short period of sixty hours he mastered all the Vedas and the sastras thoroughly well. Though Surya said that he would consider the great interest Hanuman took in his studies as daksina (tuition fee) Hanuman wanted Surya to accept something more by way of daksina, and Surya said as follows :- "If you are so very particular about offering me something more as daksina I shall tell you. My son Sugriva is living on earth with Bali and he is not as strong and powerful as Bali. You be of help to Sugriva as his minister and constant companion."


Happy at Surya's words Hanuman returned to the forest and lived as Sugriva's minister for the rest of his life.


4) Sri Rdma's servant. From the day he met Sri Rama after the abduction of Sita by Ravana till Rama's death his story is inextricably connected with that of Rama. (See under Rama).


5) His music. Once in a musical competition Hanuman defeated Narada. (Adbhutaramayana; also see Para 8 under Narada).


6) Sivalinga at Rdmesvaram. There is a story in the Yuddhakanda of Ramayaa connecting Hanuman with the Sivalinga installed in' the temple at RameSvaram. (See under Ramesvaram).


7) Lost his divine power. Once due to a curse of sage Trnabindu Hanuman lost his great strength and vitality. But, he would regain the lost power when one reminded him of it. During the search for S ita Hanuman felt it difficult to jump across the southern sea to Lanka due to the above curse. But, when jambavan described to him about his noble origin and powers Hanuman regained his lost power and vitality, and successfully jumped across the sea to Lanka. (See Trnabindu II, Para 2) .


8) A fort made of tail. He made a fort of his tail and saved Rama and Laksmana within it. (See Patalaramayana).


9) Han uman and Sahasramukha Ravana. (See Sahasramukha Ravana).


10) Hanuman and Satrughna. gatrughna, who conducted the horse in connection with the Asvamedha performed by Sri Rama after his return from exile in the forest, fell down unconscious in his fight with King Viramani, and then Hanuman brought a herbal medicine called `Droa' from the Himalayas and with its aid brought back' Satrughna to consciousness. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda. Chapter 44) .


11) Taken captive by KuSa and Lava. The Yajnasva


(sacrificial horse) of the Asvamedha yajna of Sri Rama


led by a contingent of Rama's army was resting in a tent put up near the hermitage of Gautama when Kusa and Lava together captured the horse. Hanuman, who rushed over to the spot on receiving intimation of the news was bound hand and foot with creepers by Kusa and Lava and dragged to the hermitage. Seta, was then in the hermitage brooding over the past, and the repetition of the word 'Rama' by the humiliated Hanuman awoke her from her reverie. She was taken aback to see Hanuman there in that plight and got him released from captivity by her sons. (Kamba Ramayana, Uttarakanda).


12) Old age. Having witnessed Ramavatara (incarnation of Rama) to its very end, Hanuman, who had by now become quite old, spent his days guarding the Kadali forest. Bhima, who happened to go there to collect Saugandhika flowers got defeated in fight by


Hanuman. (See Bhima, Para 7) .


13) Arjuna's fag-Symbol (See under Arjuna 17 B).


14) Idols of Hanuman. When an idol of Hanuman is installed in a temple, he must be represented as holding Vajra in one hand and his feet must seem to tear the ground under them. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51).


HANYAMANA. A famous place in south India mentioned in the Puranas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 69).


HARA I. A famous Danava, born to Kasyapa of his wife Danu. He was reborn as King Subahu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 23) .


HARA 11. One of the eleven Rudras. (anti Parva, Chapter 208, Verse 19) .


HARA III. A synonym of Siva.


HARA (M) . A region of Puranic fame. Nakula subjugated the King of Hara by a simple command without any resort to arms, and the King attended Yudhisthira's Rajasuya with presents. (Sabha Parva, Chapter  51, Verse 54). 


HARAKALPA. One of the sons born to Vipracitti by  Sirirhi. ParaWrama killed him. (Vayu Purana, 68, 19).


 HARAKEYORAKA. See under Lavana. II 


HARAVA. An asura born from the tear drops of  Brahma. He was burnt to death in the flames emerging  from Sivalinga. (Skanda Purana, 5, 2, 48). 


HARDIKA I. A Ksatriya King born from an axhsa of  the asura called Asvapati. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67,  Verse 15).


HARDIKA II. Krtavarman. He was called Hardika because he was the son of Hrdika of the Yadu dynasty.

(See under Krtavarman).


HARI I. A synonym of Visnu., (See under Visnu .


HARI II. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 61).


HARI III. A warrior who fought on the side of the Pandavas and was killed by Karna.


HARI IV. An asura, the son of Tarakaksa, who got from Brahma a boon enabling him to prepare. Mrtasan

jivani. (a medicine to revive dead people). (Karna Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 27).


HARI V. Son of King Akarhpara. Though he was as powerful and proficient in archery as Mahavisnu, and  equal in prowess to Indra in war he got into the hands  of his enemies and was killed. (Drona Parva, Chapter  52, Verse 27) .


HARI VI. A particular sect of the attendants of Ravana. They attacked the army of monkeys. .(Vana Parva,

Chapter 285) .


HARI VII. A very powerful bird born in Garuda's dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 13).


HARI VIII. A particular species of horses. They possess long hairs on the neck and are golden in colour.

(Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 13).


HARI IX. A daughter born to Kagyapaprajapati by his  wife Krodhavasa. Lions and monkeys originated from  this Hari. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakanda, Canto  14) .


HARI X. A son of Dharmadeva. Dharmadeva begot  four sons, Hari, Krsna, Nara and Narayana of the dau

 ghters of Daksa. (Devi Bhagavata, 4th Skandha).


HARI XI. A sect of Devas. During the Tamasaman  vantara there were four such sects, viz. Haris,

 Satyas, Suparas and Sudhis. (See Manvantara).


HARIBABHRU. A great sage, who was a member of  Yudhisthira's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4,

 Verse 16) .


HARIBHADRA. Daughter of Kasyapa by Krodha. She  was given in marriage to sage Pulaha and from them

 were born the monkeys, Kinnaras, Kirhpurusas etc.  (Brahmanda Purina).


HARIDASA. A monkey King, son of Pulaha by Sveta.  (Brahmanda Purina).


HARIDHAMA. A great sage who was reborn in his  next birth as Rafigaveni, a gopi in Gokula (Cowherds' replied as follows:  colony) as he had chanted the Krsna mantra of twenty  letters during his life as sage. (Padma Purina, Patala

Khanda, Chapter 72) .


HARIDRAKA. A naga born in Kasyapa's dynasty. (Adi  Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 12) .


HARIJATA. One of the Raksasa women who kept  guard over Sita in the Asoka grove. (Valmiki Rama  yana, Sundara Kanda, 23, 5) .


HARIMEDHAS. A saintly King of ancient days. He once conducted a yajna and a daughter called Dhvajavati. was born to him. She lived in the western regions (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 13)


HARIMITRA. A Brahmin, who had his asrama on the banks of the Yamuna. Owing to his association with Harimitra a sinner called Vikundala took his bath in the sacred waters of the Kalindi during two Magha months. The first bath released him from all his sins and the second bath made him eligible to go to heaven. Thus Harimitra was responsible for the attainment of heaven by the sinner Vikundala. (Padma Purina, Adi Khanda, Chapter 31) .


HARINA. A naga which belonged to the Airavata family. It was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejava. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 11).


HARINASVA. A King in ancient India. He once got from King Raghu a sword with divine powers which he presented to King gunaka. (anti Parva, Chapter 166).


HARING. A daughter of Hiranyakasipu, also called Rohini. She was married to Visvapati, an Asura. Vana Parva, 211, 18).


HARIPINDA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. ( 9alya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 24) .


HARISCANDRA I. A King of the solar dynasty very much reputed for his unique truthfulness and integrity. He was the son of the famous Trisariku.


1) Genealogy. See under Trisariku.


2 ) A brief life-sketch. To keep his plighted word and for the sake of truth he gifted away the whole of his kingdom to Visvamitra. When that was not sufficient he cleared his debts to Visvamitra with the money got by selling his wife, Candramati, his son, Lohitasva and finally himself. And, he earned his livelihood with the wages he got for cremating corpses, himself doing duties as guard at a burning ghat and as the slave to a Candala. Ultimately the Trimurtis (Brahma, Visnu and diva) appeared and heaped on him all the boons he desired and rewarded him with high honours. ( See for details para 4 under Visvamitra).


HARISCANDRA II. An emperor of ancient times, to whom Brahma gave as a gift a palace which automatically produced everything desired by its owner. He was lord over the seven islands. About has former birth and the plenitude of his riches the Padma Purina (Uttara khanda, Chapter 32) has the following story to say:-


Hari~candra himself was surprised that he became so very rich in the matter of children and of wealth. Wondering what actions of his entitled him to so much wealth and to his position which was equal to India's the emperor went to Sumeru by vimana where he questioned Sanatkumara, a brahminical sage seated in meditation on a golden stone as to who he was in his past life and to which actions of his past life he owed all the present wealth and prosperity. The great, sage


"In the past birth you were a truthful and purehearted varsya; you gave up your own profession and so you were ousted from home by your own people. At that time a famine and other scarcity conditions occurred there. One day you got into a pond along with your wife, collected lotus flowers from it and went to KM! to sell the flowers. But, no one purchased the flowers. At last, Candramati, daughter of Indradyumna purchased the flowers for a yajfia she was performing. When you saw Visnu installed along with ~dityabhagavin (Sun-God) and worshipped with flowers, feelings of devotion swept your mind and you too worshipped the idols with lotus flowers. You enjoy today the fruits of that action in the past life.


(It is not quite definite whether HarLcandra I and II are one and the same person).


HARISCANDRA III. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 9th century A. I). The mahakavya called "Dharmasarmabhyudaya" is his main work. This mahakavya comprises of 21 cantos. He has composed another work called "Jivandharacampu".


HARITA I. A King who was the grandson of Hariscandra and son of Rohita. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha) .


HARITA II. A King, who was the son of Vapusman and grandson of Svayambhuvamanu. He was King of Haritavarsa in the island of Salmali. (Markandeya Purina 50, 28; Brahmanda Purina, 2, 3) .


HARITA III. A son born to Yadu of the ndga woman called Dhumravarna. He founded an independent kingdom in the Naga island and became a prominent leader of the Madgura tribe. (Hari Varhc a, 2, 38; 29, 34) .


HARITA I. A great sage who visited Rhisma in his bed of arrows (Sarasayya). (Sand Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 7)_ Once he attended Yudhisthira's assembly and spoke on eternal truths conducive to mental peace. That talk of his became famous as Haritagita. (Santi. Parva, Chapter 278) .


HARITA II. An author on Smrtis (codes of conduct). He. has written two texts on the subject called Laghuharita smrti and Vrddhaharitasmrti.


HARITALA (M) A mineral (yellow orpiment) got from mountains,, which is red like the clouds at dusk. (Vana Parva, Chapter 158, 94) .




1) General. A King born in the solar dynasty. In the art of music he defeated Narada and shamed Sarasvati (Geddess of language), pleased Brahma and by the melody of his music sent Visnu to sleep. The mounting achievements of the King in the art of music evoked jealousy in ~ivasankara, the lord of music. When Sankaramurti in a competitive spirit played the raga Sankarabharana (a particular tune) Haritasva) pointed out that Santarasa (the calmness and poise) which was suited to that raga had given place to raudra rasa which was a serious mistake. Enraged at this Siva opened his eye of fire at the King who retorted boldly thus, `even if the eye of fire was opened a mistake was a mistake'. This stand of the King pleased Siva so much that he bestowed on the King boons and good wishes as presents for his (king's) victory over all.


2) Killed Andhaka. Andhakasura conquered Svarga and took Indra prisoner during the period when Haritasva was King. The combined efforts of Brahma, Visnu and Siva could not kill Andhaka. At last at the instance of Brhaspati a representative of the Devas visited Harita.sva at Ayodhya and sought his help to kill Andhaka and accordingly the King set out for war against the demon. Agastya told the King in secret that A-ndhaka treasured an image of Siva and Parvati in his stomach, and after removing, with his arrows the idol from his stomach, Harita;va killed him and restored


the Deva-loka to Indra. (Kamba Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda).


HARIVANISA (M) . An appendix to the Mahabharata in 10,000 verses. The main object of it is to sing the praises of Mahdvisnu. It contains three parts called respectively _Harivarirsa Parva, Visnu Parva, and Bhavisya Parva. Creation of the world, kings of the solar dynasty and of the lunar dynasty, Yadu dynasty and the birth of Sri Krsna form the theme of Harivams9a Parva. Visnu Parva deals mainly with the pranks and games of Sri Krsna in his childhood. Though there occur certain hints about the future at the beginning of the Bhavisya Parva, the creation of the world, the incarnation of Visnu as Vamana (Dwarf) and as Narasiriiha (half man and half lion) , Siva and Visnu constitute its main theme.


HARIVARSA (M) The northern part of Mount Hemaparvata. Arjuna, during his triumphal tour of the northern regions conquered this region and took away a lot of costly gems. (Bharata, southern text, sabha Parva, Chapter 28) .


HARIVIRA. See Dhanasarman.


HARSA I. One of the three sons of Dharmadeva, the other two being Sama and Kama. Harsa married Nanda. (Adi. Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 32).


HAREA II. A great poet in Sanskrit, who flourished in the 12th century A.D., his most reputed work being the Mahakavya called Naisadha, one of the five Mahakavyas (Epic Poems) in Sanskrit language. Another wellknown work of his is Khandanakhandakhadya. He was a member of the literary assembly of King Jayacanda of Kanauj. Hira was his father and Mamalladevi, his mother.


HARSA III. King Harsavardhana who ruled over North India between A.D, 660 and 668. He is remembered and respected more as a 'poet in Sanskrit than anything else. Nigananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarsika are his more important works. The poet B5na has written the biogra= phy of Harsa.


HARYASKA. A King born in the royal dynasty of Anga. He was the son of King Carirpa and father of King Brhadratha. (Agni Purina, Chapter 277) .


HARYASVA I. The five thousand sons born to Daksa by his wife Asikni are known as Haryasvas. (See Asikn3 II).


HARYASVA II. A King of the solar dynasty. The following information about him is culled from the Mahabharata.


(1) He was king of Ayodhya. A Powerful ruler, he had a fully equipped army. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 115. Verse 18).


(2) He took Madhavi, daughter of Yayati as his wife and thus solved the problem of gurudaksina for Galava. (See under Galava).


(3) Never in life did he eat flesh. (Anusasana Parva, King of the lunar dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94,

 Chapter 11, Verse 67) . Verse 59) .


HARYASVA III. Father of Sudeva, King of Kasi. He was killed by the sons of Vitahavya. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 10).


HASINI. An apsara woman of Alakapuri. She once danced in Kubera's assembly to welcome sage Aqavakra (Anug asana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 45) .


HASTAMALAKA. A disciple of Sri Sallkara: (See under Sankaracarya, Para 7) .


HASTI I. A King born in the lunar dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94 Verse 58).


HASTI II. Another king of the lunar dynasty. His father was Suhotra and mother Suvarna, who belonged to the Iksvaku dynasty. This Hasti married Yas odhara, daughter of King Trigarta, and a son called Vikantha was born to them. Hastinapura was the city newly built by Hasti. (Adi Parva Chapter 95, Verse 34) .


HASTIBHADRA. A naga born in the Kasyapa dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 13) .


HASTIKASYAPA. A great sage who lived in North India in very olden days. He once met and talked with Sri Krsna, who was doing tapas on the mountains. (AnuS 5sana Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 11) .


HASTINAPURA. Capital city of the Pandavas. (See under Hasti II).


HASTIPADA. A naga born in the Kasyapa dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35 Verse 9) .


HASTIPINDA. -A naga born in the Kasyapa dynasty (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 14) .


HASTISOMA. A famous river mentioned frequently in the Puranas. (Bhisina Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 19 )


HATAKA (M) I. A region to the north of the Hima-


layas, where the guhyakas lived. Arjuna, during his triumphal tour in the north made the guhyakas his allies. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 3).


HATAKAM II. A drink (rasayana). Those who live in Atala a section of Patala drink this tonic. (See Patala).


HATAKI. A river. Paramesvara and Parvati once had intercourse at Vitala, a section of Patala and their semen formed itself into the river called 11ataki. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


HAVANA. One of the eleven Rudras. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 13) .


HAVIGHNA. A King of ancient days, who was one -of those who were to be remembered both in the morning and the evening. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 155, Verse 58) .


HAVIRBHU. Wife of Pulastya. (See Pulastya) .


HAVIRDHAMAN. Son of Antardhaman of the Manu dynasty. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 24) .


HAVIRDHANA. A grandson of emperor Prthu, who had two sons called Antardhana and Vadi and to Antardhana was born a son called Havirdhana by Sikhandini, and they had six sons called Pracinabarrhis, Sukra, Gaya, Krsna, Vraja and Ajina. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 14) .


HAVISMAN. A great sage who was a member of the assembly of Indra. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 13).


HAVISMATI. A daughter of Angiras. (Vana Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 6) .


HAVISRAVAS. A King born in the family of Kuru, a


HAVYA'GHNA. 'A Raksasa about whom the following story is told in the Brahmanda Purana.


Havyaghna was born from the smoke which rose from the fire of a yajna.which sage Bharadvaja along with his wife Paithinasi conducted on the banks of river Gautami, and he began eating the hauls. (Znestioned about it by Bharadvaja Havyaghna answered as follows :-"I am an unfortunate fellow called Krsna cursed by Brahma. If you would kindly sprinkle on me the Ganga water, Suvarna, glee and soma I will be redeemed from the curse.


Bharadvaja complied with the request of Havyaghria and he got redemption from the curse.


HAYAGRIVA I. An Asura, the son of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Danu. ( Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakanda, Canto 14) .


As a child the Asura began tapas on the banks of river Sarasvati, and after a thousand years Devi appeared and asked him to choose any boon he wanted, and he wanted to become invincible by Devas and Asuras, and also deathless. When Devi told him that such a boon was out of question, he wanted the boon that he (Hayagriva) should not be killed by anyone but by a Hayagriva (one with the horse's neck). Devi granted him the boon.


Hayagriva, who became haughty and overconfident on receiving such a boon, went about the three worlds troubling good people, and at last he clashed with the Devas. As he could be killed only by one with the head of a horse the combined attack of Mahavisnu and the Devas did not succeed in defeating him and Mahavisnu decided to rest for some time to recoup himself from weariness. During his rest his head was hit by the end of his own bow and the head was severed from the trunk. Mahavisnu replaced the head thus lost with that of a horse and killed Hayagriva in fight. (For details see Cital).


HAYAGRIVA II. An asura who guarded the kingdom of Narakasura. He was killed by Sri Krsna, (Lldyoga Parva, Chapter 130 Verse 50) .


HAYAGRIVA III. A King born in the Videha dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 15).


HAYAGRIVA IV. A saintly king. Though he defeated his enemies, yet, as he had no backing and support, he was finally killed. The story of Hayagriva was told by Vyasa to teach Dharmaputra the lesson that even the greatest of heroes requires the support of others. Though killed, Hayagriva secured a place in heaven. (anti Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 23) .


HAYAGRIVA V. An incarnation of Visnu.


1) In Vedic litaratwe :-In Vedic literature incarnation as Hayagriva is attributed not to Visnu, but to Yajna. But the Taittiriya aranyaka depicts yajna as a protoform of Visnu. The inference that may be drawn from the above is that the root of the Hayagriva story detailed in Vedic and Puranic literature is one and the same.


About the Hayagriva incarnation the Pancavixiisabrahmana contains the following story.


Agni, Indra, Vayu and Yajna ( Visnu) once began a yajna on the understanding that the havirbhaga obtained from it should be divided among all the Devas. But, in violation of the agreement, yajfia left the place carrying away the whole Yajnabhaga with him, and he drove back the Devas who followed him with the help of the bow presented to him by Devi. Finally the Devas got the string of the bow bitten off by termites and the bow which got straightened up cut off yajfia's head. Yajna then apologized for his offence and then the devas got the Asvinidevas to fix the head of a horse to the trunk of Yajna. (Paficaviritsabrahmana 7, 5, 6; Taittiriya aranyaka 5, 1; Taittiriya Samhita, 4-9, 1).


2) In Puranic literature. The above story is told in Skanda Purana with slight modifications as follows :-


Once Brahma and other Devatas conducted a test as to which one amongst them was the greatest, and when it became evident tha tMahavisnu was, in every respect, superior to all the others Brahma cursed that Visnu should lose his head. Visnu, who got thus bereft of his head attended a yajfia conducted by the Devas with the head of a horse attached to his trunk. After the yajna was over he went to dharmaranya and did tapas there and by the blessings of Siva got back his former head instead of that of the horse.


HAYAJIVANA. The science of controlling horses. (Vanes Parva. Chapter 77, 17) .


HAYASIRAS. Hayagriva. (See Hayagriva V).


HEHAYA (HAIHAYA). See Ekavira and Parasurama).


HEMA. A lover (wife) of Maya, the asura. (For details see Maya, Indra, Para 61 and sub para 3 of Para, 24, Rama and Svayamprabha.).


HEMACANDRA. A King, son of Kzng ViSdla and father of Sucandra. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


HEMAGUHA. A naga born in Kasyapa's dynasty. (Adi Parva. Chapter 35, Verse 9) .


HEMAKANTA. Son of King Kusaketu of Vaftga. He committed the sin of brahmahatya as he killed the sage, Satarcas. Later on he redeemed. himself from the sin by giving water to Trita, a brahmin. (Skanda Purana).


HEMAKUNDALA. A vaisya. (See Vikundala).


HEMAKUTA (M) I. A mountain in the North. Arjuna once went to Harivarsa after stationing his army here. (Sabha Parva, Chapcer 28) .


HEMAKUTA ('M) II. A mountain on the banks of the river Nanda, known also as Rsabhakuta. Once Yudhisthira went to this mountain and enjoyed the many beautiful scenes there. (See Rsabha II).


HEMAMALI  I. He used to supply flowers to Vaisravana. He had a beautiful wife called Visalaksi. Once when he returned with flowers from Manasasaras he felt an onrush of love and spent time at home in love pranks with his wife. Kubera went to the temple for worshipping Siva at noon and though he waited there till dusk time for Hemamali to bring the flowers the latter did not come. Kubera got angry and sent for Hemamali and he came trembling with fear. Kubera's curse turned him into a leper afflicted with eighteen varieties of leprosy, and separated from wife he fell from Alakapurl. At last he came to Hemadri where he met sage Markandeya. Hemamali told him all about his misfortune and the sage advised him to observe Asadhakrsnaikadasi. Hemamali did so and got cured of the fell disease and returned to Devaloka. (Padma Purana, Uttarakhanda, Chapter 54) .


HEMAMALT II. A son of King Drupada. He was killed in the great war by Asvatthama. (Drones Parva, Chapter 156, 182) .


HEMANETRA. A Yaksa. He worships Kubera in his assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 17).


HEMAPRABHA. See under Vallabha.


HEMAPRABHAVATI. See under Varatanu.


HEMARATHA. A King of the solar dynasty. Grandson of Citraratha, Hemaratha was the son of Ksema and father of Satyaratha. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandlha).


HEMAVARTA. Son of King Rocamdna. He fought in the great war on the side of the Pandavas against the Kauravas , (Drones Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 67) .


HERAMBAKAM. A region of South India, the inhabitants of which are known as the Herambas. Sahadeva, during his triumphal tour of the South defeated the Herambas. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 13).


HETI. An Asura. (See under Praheti).


HIDIMBA. A Raksasa, whom the Pandavas confronted in the forest after their escape from the lac palace. Bhima killed him and married his sister, Hidirkbi. Ghatotkaca was Bhima's son by Hidirztbi. (For details see Ghatotkaca).


HIDIMBA (HIDIMBI). Mother of Ghatotkaca. (See Ghatotkaca).


HIDIMBAVADHAPARVA. A sub Parva of Adi Parva. (Adi Parva, Chapters 151-155 form the sub Parva).


HIDIMBAVANA (M). The forest where Hidiriiba dwelt. (See Ghatotkaca).


HIDIMBI (HIDIMBA). See Ghasotkaca.


HIHI. A class of fiends (Pisacas). (Bhagavata 10th Skandha).


HIKA. A Raksasa who lived in the river Vipasa. He was a companion of another Raksasa called Bahi and to them, jointly was born a son called Bahika. (Karna Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 41).




1) General. The great mountain on the northern borders of India. In the literature and the religious tho!ight of India the Himalayas occupy a position of universal respect and adulation. The Indian belief is that the mountain has got a divine soul. ( e. g. it is referred to as "devatatma" in Kalidasa's Kumarasambhava). The Himalayas are referred to very often in the Puranas and epics.


2) Other information from Mahabharata. (1) The Balakhilyas had performed tapas on the Himalayas. (Adi Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 3) .


(2) The Naga named $esa once resided there to practise control of the mind in solitude. (Adi Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 3) .


(3) Vyasa performed tapas there. (Adi Parva, Chapter 114, Verse 24) .


(4) Pandu, father of the Panavas had to cross the Kalakfita mountain and the' Himalayas to reach Gandhamadana. (Adi Parva, Chapter 148, Verse 48) .


(5) Bhargava women hid themselves in the Himalayas at the time when the Ksatriyas were hunting out people of the Bhrgu dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 177, Verse 20).


( 6) The whole fire of the yajfia conducted by sage Paress, ara to annihilate the Raksasas was deposited in the extensive forest near the Himalayas, (Adi ParvaChapter 180, Verse 22) .


(7) Arjuna once sojourned on the Himalayas. (Adi Parva, Chapter 214, Verse 1 ).


(8) The Dcvata of the mountain worships Kubera in his assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 31) .


(9) As suggested by Surya, once Narada did penance for 1000 years on the peaks of the Himalayas so that he might see Indra's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 8).


(10) Arjuna once crossed the Himalayas and encamped at Dhavalagiri. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 29) .


(11) Bhimasera once stopped for a short time rear the Himalayas imagining himself to be emperor of the whole world. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 4) .


(12) It was at the Hinnalayas that Merusavarniimparted advice to Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 713, Verse 14) .


(13) Bhagiratha performed tapas on the Himalayas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 10$, Verse 3).


(14) The kingdom of Subahu, King of Kalinda was on the plains of the Himalayas. The Pandavas stopped there for a night and left for the Himalayas the next day. (Vana Parva, Chapter 140, Verse 24).


(15) The Pandavas, on the seventeenth day of their life in exile in the forest came to the top of the Himalayas, and visited the asrama of Vrsaparvan there: (Vana Pa rva, Chapter 18 ).


(16) I t was while Bhimasena was hunting in the Himalayas and appreciating the beauties there that a python caught him by the leg. (Vana Parva, Chapter 178),.


(17 ) Sage Markandeya once saw in the stomach of child Krsna mountains like the Himalayas, Hemakuta etc. (Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 112).


(18) Much anterior to sage Markandcya an owl called Pravarakarna had lived on the Himalayas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 199, Verse 4) .


(19) Karna conquered all the kingdoms on the Himalayas and collected taxes from them all. (Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Verse 4).


(20) On the northern heights of the Himalayas live Siva and Pfirvati for ever. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 5) .


(21) Himavan is one of the six rain-producing mountains stretching from the east to the west. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 3) .


(22) Arjuna during his tour of Kailasa in dream with Sri Krsna saw all the peaks of Himavan. (Drona Parva, Chapter 80', Verse 23) .


(23) When Siva burnt to ashes the Tripuras, Himavan and Vindhya served as the axles of Siva's chariot. (Karna Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 22).


(24) The River Gariga deposited Siva's semen on a high peak of Himavan and Subrahmanya was born from it. (Karna Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 9) .


(25) Himavan, the Devata of the mountain, also was present at the installation of Subrahmanya as chief of the army. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 14) .


(26) Himavan presented to Subrahmanya two attendants called Suvarcas and Ativarcas. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 46) .


(27) Sri Krsna once performed tapas on Himavan, and as a result of it was born his son Pradyumna from Rukmini. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 30).


(28) Himavan presented inexhaustible wealth to emperor Prthu. (Santi Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 113).


(29) The peaks of Himavan have an area of 100 yojanas; Brahma once conducted a yajfia there. (Santi Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 32).


(30) Daksapraj5.pati once conducted a yajfia at the place called Gafigf dvara on the slopes of Himavan. (Sand Parva, Chapter 284, Verse 3) .


(31) In Chapter 327 of the Santi Parva the following statement occurs about Himavun. According to the advice of King Janaka Suka brahmarsi mounted the Himalayas. Siddha-caranas lived on the mountain. Celestial women walked all over the place. The mountain always reverberated with the noise of different varieties of living beings. The noise produced by Kinnaras, peacocks and many other birds could always be heard there. Himavan was the permanent abode of Garuda. The Astadikpalakas also lived there.


(32) When Suka moved up to the world above it appeared as though the Himavan was being cut open. He saw two divine peaks of mountains on the two sides of the path; one of them was the peak of the Mahdmeru and the other that of Himavan. Both the peaks gave way to Suka. (Santi Parva, Chapter 333 ).


(33) Siva desired to secure Uma, the daughter of Himavan as his wife. Meantime sage Bhrgu demanded that Uma be wedded to him. When Himavan told the sage that it had already been decided to gave Uma in marriage to Siva, the Sage cursed that there would not be, in future, gems in the Himavan. (Sand Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 62) .


(34) Visnu and Siva once fought with each other on the Himavan, and then it seemed as though the mountain was being cleft into pieces. (Santi Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 122) .


(35) Narada had his as rama there, on the Hima-an. (Santi Parva, Chapter 346, Verse.5).


(36) Sri Krsna once visited the a>;rama of Upamanyu on the Himavan. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 43).


(37) King Marutta performed a yajfia on the Himalayas and Brahmins went away leaving a lot of wealth there. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 20).


(38) Safijaya left for the Himalayas after Dhrtarastra and Gandhari were burnt to death in a wild fire. (At;ramavasika Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 33) .


(39) During their mahaprasthana (great journey) th-. Pandavas travelled by the Himalayas and Dharmaputra ascended to heaven from tire top of the Himalayan peak. (Mahaprasthanika Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 1) .


HIMGULA. A mineral (vermillion) obtained from mountainous regions. It has the colour (red) of the sky at sunset. (Vana Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 94).


HIPPOCRAITUS. A Greek scientist and thinker. Father of the Allopathic system of medicine. He has written a book ccn medicine consisting of nearly seventy parts, His theory is that the heart is the centre of origin of life and the heat of the body is the manifestation of life. Out of the five elements of the Indian system of medicine he accepts four, viz. Prthvi (earth), Ap (Water), Agni (fire` and Vayu (air). Till the 18th century A.D. his theories were very popular.


HIRANMAYA (M) . A particular region in Jambu island, to the south of Nila mountain and to the north of mount Nisadha. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).


HIRANYA. (Hiranyakasipu, Hiranyaksa)




1) General. Owing to a curse Jaya and Vijaya who were gate-keepers at Vaikuntha were born as two asuras, Hiranxaksa (elder brother) and Hiranyakasipu (younger brother). These brothers are known also as the Hiranyas. (See Jayavijayas).


2) Birth. Three sons called Hiranyaksa, Hiranyakas ipu and Vajranga and a daughter,. Simhika were born to Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Did. To Hiranyakas ipu were born four sons called Anuhlada, Hlada Prahlada and Sarhhlada. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 15) .


There is yet another story relating to the birth of these asuras. Though the other wives of Kasyapa became mothers Did alone was not blessed with a child for a long time. One day at dusk while Kasyapa was immersed in meditation Did rushed into his room and began lamenting and complaining about her having not yet been made a mother, and urgently asked Kasyapa to make her one. But, Ka~yapa pointed out that. it was not the proper time for such things. It was dusk when Siva with his attendants would be out sight-seeing covered with ashes from burning ghat's spread all around by storms. So Kasyapa wanted to wait for some time more. But, she was not in a mood to pay heed to his advice and Kasyapa had to yield to her proposal. After obliging her, once again he took his bath and began meditation.


Did became pregnant. She also got alarmed about the indiscretion committed at dusk time that day and, Kasyapa told her : "Your mind became impure, you did not obey me, you insulted the Devas also. There are two kids of a very low type in your womb. They will oppress the three worlds and kill innocent people. Mahavisnu will never tolerate such things. He will incarnate himself to kill them. But since you feel penitent now, a grand-son of yours will become liked by all good people, and he will be a great devotee of Mahavisnu. (This was Prahlada).


At any rate, one hundred years after her getting pregnant Diti delivered twin sons. The first born was named Hiranyaksa and the next one Hiranyakas ipu. (According to certain Puranas Hiranyakasipu was the first born).


3) Hiranyjksa. The boys grew up to become a growing menace to the whole world. Hiranyaksa toured all the three worlds with a club. He besieged svarga. Devas ran away in fear. Hiranyaksa, shaking his club, jumped from the sky into the sea and engaged himself in the sport of thrashing the waves with his club. Years passed by like this, and at last he went to Vibhavarr, the capital of Varuna and challenged him to fight. Varuna came out of the palace, admitted his incapacity to fight Hiranyaksa, and suggested to him to challenge Mahavisnu. Accordingly he set out in search of Mahavisnu. It was during this period of time that the earth got engulfed in water. Svayambhuvamanu requested his father, Brahma to raise up the earth from water.. But, nowhere could be seen the earth, everywhere it was only a vast expanse of water. Brahma then meditated upon Maha visnu, who came out through Brahma's nose in the form of a tiny boar. It grew up into a very big boar within no time, and, jumped fiom the sky into the ocean, and within a few minutes it picked up from under the ocean the earth on its tusks and appeared on the surface of the water. Hiranyaksa understood that the boar, which without the least fear picked up the earth from


Patala was none other than Mahavisnu and he cbalienged Visnu to fight. After replacing the earth in its old position Visnu fought with Hiranyaksa and killed him.


4) HiranyakaSipu. With the killing of his brother, Hiranyakasipu's hatred and enmity towards Visnu 'increased very much. He, by doing tapas for very long years, secured boons from Brahma and conquered the three worlds and ruled them as Triloka Cakravarti (Emperor of the three worlds). He prohibited throughout the empire not only the chanting of Visnu's name, but even thinking about him (Visiiu) by his subjects. "Hiranyaya namah" (salutations to Hiranya) replaced the old custom of chanting `Narayanaya namah' (salutations to Narayana). Meantime; a son called Prahlada, a great devotee of Mahavisnu was born to Hiranyakas~ipu. (For the story of Hiranyakasipu's death see Prahlada). (KambaRamayana,Yuddha Kanda; Padma Purina, Bhumikhanda, Chapter 20).


5) Story about the name HiranyakasiPu. Sage Kasyapa once conducted an Asvamedha yajna. A golden seat was put up there for the great sages who came to participate in the yajna. Diti was pregnant during the time of the yajna, and while it was duly progressing she one day came and sat on the above-mentioned golden seat, and very shortly she delivered a child. As the child was delivered on the golden seat the child came to be called Hiranyakasipu. (Brahmanda Purina, 8, 5, 7-.12; Vayu Purina 67, 69) .


HIRANYABAHU. A naga born in Vasuki's dynasty. He was burnt to death at the sarpa satra of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 6) .


HIRANYABINDU. A sacred place near the Himalayas. During his pilgrimage Arjuna visited this place also. A bath in this tirtha will wash off one's sins. Hiranyabindu is situated on the top of Mount Kalanjara.


HIRANYADHANUS. A King of forest tribes. Ekalavya, the great master of archery was Hiranyadhanus's son (See Ekalavya).


HIRANYAGARBHA. A synonym of Sri Krsna. (anti Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 96) .


HIRANYAHASTA. A son born to princess Vadhrimati thanks to the blessing of the Asvinidevas. She was married by a eunuch. Sorrow-stricken at such a marriage the princess requested the Asvinidevas for children and they gave her a son, (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 17, Sukta 116) who was called Hiranyahasta. He became a sage and married the beautiful daughter of King MadirdSva. (anti Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 35) .


HIRANYAKASIPU I. (See Hiranya) .


HIRANYAKAJIPU II. A danava. He once shook Mount Meru and Siva granted him welfare and prosperity. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 73) .


HIRANYAKSA I. A brother of Hiranyakasipu. (See Hiranya).


HIRANYAKSA II. One of the sons of Visvamitra, who was a Brahmavadin. (Anusasana Parva. Chapter 4, Verse 57).


HIRANYANABHA I. A King born in the solar dynasty: He was the son of Vidhrti and the father of Pusya. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


HIRANYANABHA. II. A son of Srnjaya. A child named Suvarnasthivi was born to Srnjaya, but it died before long, and then it was Narada who brought it back to life again. After its rebirth the child came to be called Hiranyanabha also. Hiranyandbha lived for 1000 years. (anti Parva, Chapter 149) .


HIRANYAPURAM. A city of the Daityas. The Daitya woman, Puloma got the city for her children by tapas. Puloma is called Kalaka also. (Certain Puranas aver that Kalaka was the sister of Puloma). The children of Puloma are known as Kalakeyas for whose safety and security she did tapas for 1000 years. And, when Brahma asked her to choose any boon she desired, Puloma said as follows:- "There should arise no reason or cause for my sons to feel sorrow in their life; Devas, snakes or Raksasas should not kill them and they must have a beautiful city to live in. Brahma granted her all the boons. Hiranyapura was built by Brahma for the Kalakeyas to live in. It was full of gems and it could easily travel in the sky.


When life became impossible for the Devas due to the depredations of the Kalakeyas, Indra brought Azjuna to Devaloka. As the Kalakeyas were granted the boon that they would not be killed by the Devas, Arjuna's help had thus to be sought by Indra. Arjuna killed the Kalakeyas and destroyed Hiranyapura. (Vane Parva, Chapter 173) . On. one occasion Narada gave a correct description of Hiranyapura to Matali, the charioteer of Indra. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 100) .


HIRANYARETAS. One of the sons of Priyavrata, Hiranyaretas was king of the Kusa island and had seven sons called Vasu, Vasudana, Drdharuci, Nabhigupta, Satyavrata, Vivikta and Vamadeva. (Bhagavata 5th Skandha).


HIRANYAROMAN. A king of Vidarbha who exercised suzerainty over the southern regions. He was also known as Bhismaka. (See Bhismaka).


HIRANYASARAS. An ancient tirtha of the western regions. Candra washed off his sins by bathing here. (anti Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 57) .


HIRANYASR&GAM. An extensive mountain to the north of Mount Mainaka, which is to' the north of Mount Kailasa. This mountain is said to be a mine of gems. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 10 ; Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 42).


HIRANYASTLTPA. A great sage, the son of Aiigiras. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 7, Sukta 31).


HIRANYAVARMAN. A king of Dag arna, His daughter was married by Sikhandi. )See Amba).


HITOPADESA. A book written in Sanskrit on the basis of the Paficatantra. It is a collection of fortythree stories, and twentyfive of the stories are found in the Paficatantra. There is also not much difference in the stories, about the origin of the two books. The author of Hitopadesa is considered to be one Narayana Pandita, a dependant of King Dhavalacandra. Of the manuscripts available of the book, the oldest one is dated 1373 A.D. It has been surmised that the book was written somewhere between the 10th and 12th centuries A.D.


There are four parts to the book called Mitralabha (gaining friends), Suhrdbheda (creating dissensions between friends) Vigraha (separation) and Sandhi (union).


HLADA (HRADA) . A synonym for Hrada, son of Hiranyakasipu. (See Hrada).


HLADINT. A tributary of the Gaizga. Gaziga brought  down by Bhagiratha to the earth first fell on Siva's 227, 3j) .


head and thence on Bindusaras, and therefrom flowed in seven tributaries. Three tributaries, Hladini, Pavani and Nalin3 flowed eastwards, Sucaksus, Sita and Sindhu westwards, and the seventh tributary followed Bhagiratha. The mortal remains of the sons of Sagara were flooded with its waters, and their souls attained heaven.


HOMA. A king belonging to the dynasty of Bharata. He was the son of Krsadratha and father of Sutapas. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).


HOMADHENU. The cow, which offers milk needed for yajfia.


HOMA KUNDA (M). The pit for making offerings during yajfias. Rules about making the pit are described in chapter 24 of the Agni Purana as follows:-


First, demarcate a piece of ground one yard square with thread and dig i t one yard deep. After leaving two arizgulas ( inches) space on all the four sides of the pit make three divisions in it. The three divisions should be 12" X 8" and 4" deep; the inner division 1?" deep, the middle one 8" and the one outside of it 4" deep. All the three divisions should be four feet in width. The above three divisions are called Satvamekhala, Rajomekhala and Tamasamekhala, and this is the pit, vii. Homakunda. On the western side of it a yoni (receptacle) 10 .X 15 amgulas should be made. Its depth should gradually decrease in the descending order 6, 4, 2 azizgulas. In shape the yoni will be of the shape of the peepal leaf. (Yoni is that of Sakti ; the Kunda is her stomach. The conception about Sakti is that of a woman lying on her back, head towards the east.). The priest performs the rites, himself seated to the west of the yoni and his head turned to the east.


HOTRAVAHANA. A saintly king, who was the grandfather of Amba. (see under Aruba) .


HRADA I. Also called Hlada, a son of Hiranyakas ipu. (See under Anuhlada ) .


HRADA II. A naga. Iirada was also present in the company of nagas, which carried the soul of Balabhadrarama to Patala. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 16).


HRADODARA. A Raksasa, who was killed by Subrahmanya in the war between the Devas and the Asuras. (galya Parva, Chapter 46, 75) .


HRDIKA. A Yadava. He was the father of Krtavarman. (-Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 105) .


HRDYA. A great sage. He lives .in the assembly of Indra. ( Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, 13) .




1) Birth. One of the 16 daughters born to Svayambhuvamanu by his wife called Sataiupa. (Bhagavata, 4th Skazadha ) .


2) , Other information. (1) Hridevi worships Brahma in his assembly.


(2) When Arjuna started for Indraloka Draupadi meditated upon Hr! so that no dangers might overtake hire. (Vane Parva, Chapters 37, 38).


(3) Hri too was present at the instal1ation ceremony of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, 13) .


HRTMAN. A Sanatanavisvadeva. (eternal Deva of the universe). (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, 31) .


HRINISEVA. A saintly king born in the Asura dynasty. He was one of the ancient kings whom fate had made to relinquish their kingdoms. (anti Parva, Chapter


HUHU. A Gandharva, son of Kasyapaprajapati by Pradha.


(1) He was present at the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 59) .


(2) Huhu was among the Gandharvas who welcomed Arjuna in Devaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 14) . (3) Huhfx lives in Indrasabha.


(4) Once he was turned into an alligator on account of the curse of Devala. (See under Indradyurnna).


HUNTA. A tribe. There are a number of references in the Puranas to the Huas, who were created from the froth in the mouth of' Nandini, the cow which was in Vasistha's asrama. (Adi Parva, Chapter 174, Verse 18) . Nakula conquered the Hunas in the western tegions. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 32 ). The Huna kings took part in the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira and made costly presents. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 24) .


HUNDA. An asura, the son of Vipracitti. (He abducted Asokasundari, sister of Subrahmanya. (Padma Purina) . (See under A:iokasundari).


HUNDA,(M). An urban region in ancient India. The people of this.area were known as Hundas. In the great war they fought on the side of the Pandavas. They took their positions in the Krauficaruna vyuha formed by Nakula and Sahadeva. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 51 ).


HUTA(1VI). One of the five great yajnas. (See Prahutam).


HUTAHAVYAVAHA. One of the two sons of Dhara, the Vasu, the other son being Dravina. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 21).