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E. (~) . This sound means 'Devi'.
EDT. A follower of Skandadeva. (Sloka 13, Chapter 46, Salya Parva).
EKACAKRA. A village where the Pandavas lived for some time .during their exile. Bhima- killed Baka during their stay in a Brahmin-house in the village. (See under Baka).
EKACAKRA. A famous demon born to Kasyapaprajapati of his wife Darm. Demons Sarhbara, Vipracitti, Namuci, Puloma, Visruta, Durjaya, Ayassiras, Asvasiras, Ketu, Vrsaparva, Asvagriva, Virupaksa, Nikuihbha, Kapata and Ekapat are brothers of Ekacakra and are equally famous. (Chapter 65, Adi Parva, M.B.).
EKACANDRA. A follower of Skandadeva. (Sloka 30, Chapter 46, Salya Parva).
EKACUDA. A follower of Skandadeva. (Sloka 5, Chapter 46, Salya Parva).
EKADASADHIPATIS. Eleven adhipatis. For Devas the adhipati (ruling power) is Indra; for the stars, Candra; for Prajapatis, Daksa; for wealth and Yaksaraksas, Kubera; for men Maim; for rsis, Vasistlia; for Grahajyotis, the Sun; for exudations, Varuna; for rivers, the Ocean; for Bhutaganas, Siva; and for the birds, Garuda.
EKADASAMANUSADHARMA. The eleven dharmas of men are: Svadhyaya, Brahmacarya, Dana, Yajfia, free from Krpanatva, Daya, Ahiriisa, Ksama, Jitendriyatva, Sauca and Daiva Bhakti. (Tarkadipika).
EKADASASAISKARAVARNA (S) . (1) Karana (one born to a Vaisya of a 9udra woman). (2) Ambastha (one born to a brahmin of a Vaisya woman) . (3) Ugra (one born to a Ksatriya of a S`udra woman). (4) Magadha (one born to a Vaisya of a Ksatriya woman). (5) Mahisya (one born to a Ksatriya 9f a Vaisya woman). (6) Ksatta (one born to a Sudra of a Ksatriya woman). (7) Suta (one born to a Ksatriya of a brahmin woman). (8) Vaidehaka (one born to a Vaisya of a brahmin woman). (9) -Rathakara (one born to a Mahisya of a Karana woman) (10) . Paras ava (one born to a Brahmin of a S`udra woman). (11) Candala (one born to a 9udra of a brahmin woman). (See under Purii, Put, Putra)
EKADASAPUJASTHANA (S) . The eleven pujasthanas are Surya, Agni, Vipra, Gau, Vaisnava, Akasa, Vayu, Jala, Bhiimi, Atma and Sarvabhutas. (Tarkadipika).
EKADASARUDRAS. Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhnya, Virupaksa, Suresvara, Jayanta, Bahurupa, Aparajita, Savitra, Tryariibaka, Vaivasvata and Hara are the eleven Rudras. (Visnu Purana, Chapter 15, Arilsa 1) ii. The names of Ekada'sarudras are found differently in different Puranas.
EKADAGATATTVA (S) . Five Jnanendriyas, five Karmendriyas and mind constitute the Ekadasatattvas (eleven tattvas) .
EKADAGATEJOGUITA (S) . Spar:;a, Samkhya, Parinama, Prthaktva, Sariiyoga, Vibhaga, Paratva, Aparatva, 'Vega, Rupa and Dravatva. (Tarkadipika) are the eleven tejogunas.
EKADASI. The eleventh day after a new moon or full moon day. The vrata observed on this day is called the Ekadasi vrata. King Ambarisa observed very strictly and continuously the Ekadasi Vrata to obtain the status of Ir_dra. (See under Ambarisa). (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata). This vrata would fetch food for the hungry and salvation for those who are in search of it. (Agni Purana). The method of observing this vrata is detailed below:
Those who observe tire Ekadasi vrata should be on a regulated diet excluding meat and avoid sexual acts on the Dasami day, the day preceding Ekadasi. On both the Ekadasi days in a month one should not take any food at all. The period which combines Ekadasi with Dvadasi (the twelfth day) is called Harivasara because of the presence of Visnu at that time. That is a good time for doing sacred yajnas. That day where there is only a small portion of Ekadasi and the rest Dvadasi is the best day for yajnas. Trayodasi (the thirteenth day) is good for breaking the fast. The day which merges Dvadasi into Trayoda~i is the best day for breaking the fast. Do not observe the Vrata on a day which combines Dasami with Ekadasi. Hell is the result if one does so.
Completely abstaining from food on the Ekadasi day you should take food on the Dvadas i day. As you take your food you should pray like this: "Bhui'iksyehaiii Pundarikaksa saranarii me bhavacyuta". (Oh, Pundarikaksa, I am going to break my fast. Oh, Bhagavan, let you be my heaven). If an Ekadasi comes on a Puyam-Pusya.-day in the bright half of the month that day should on any account be observed. That day would give the observer unlimited good result and drat Ekadasi is qualified as Papanasini (destroyer of all evils). When Ekadasi and Dvadasi happen to combine on a >Tiruvonam (Sravana) day the Ekadasi is qualified as Vijaya. That day gives prosperity to devotees. It is a1so called Vijaya if an EkddaS !comes in the month of Phalguna (March) on a Pdyarh (Pusya ) day. The wise extol this day as one promising crores of good effects. On the Ekadas !day you should do Visnu Puja which is productive of universal happiness. He who does so will acquire children and wealth in this world and attain Visnuloka on death. (Chapter 178, Agni Puran2.
EKADA~ENDRIYA (S) . ~rotra, Tvak, Caksus, Jihva, Ghrana, Vak, Pani, Pada, Payu (anus) Upastha and mind are the eleven sense-organs.
EKAHAIVISATIRTHA. An ancient holy place of north India. If a man bathes in a sacred pond lie will get the benefit of giving away as charity a thousand cows.
(Sloka 20, Chapter 83, Vana Parva).
EKAJATA. A demoness of the castle of Ravana. This demoness talked very enticingly to coax Sita to surrender herself to Ravana. (Sarga 23, Vahniki Rdmayana, Sundara Kanda).
EKAJATA. A warrior of Skandadeva. (91oka 53, Chapter 45, galya Parva).
EKAKSA I. A demon born to Kasyapaprajapati of his wife banu. (9loka 29, Chapter 65, Adi Parva, M.B.).
EKAKSA Il. A soldier of Skandadeva. (9loka 58, Chapter 45, 9alya Parva, M.B.).
EKAKSARAKOSA. Each and every letter has got a separate meaning. The dictionary describing this meaning is known as Ekaksarakosa. (Chapter 348, Agni Purana).
EKALAVYA I. Son of Hiranyadhanus, a King of the foresters. He went to bronacarya to learn archery.
Drondcarya refused to accept him as a disciple because he was a Sudra. Undaunted he went to the forests, made a replica of the preceptor in clay and standing before it started practising archery. Soon he became a matchless archer.
Some time later the Pandavas went to the forests for hunting. One of the hunting dogs wandering saw Ekalavya and started barking. Ekalavya sent seven arrows to its mouth and kept it open. When the dog returned to Arjuna he was dumbfounded at the skill
of the archer and when he came to know the archer was an unknown disciple of Drona his disappointment
knew no bounds. Drona had once declared that Arjuna was the best and topmost of his disciples. Arjuna went
and complained to Dronacarya. Dronacdrya called Ekalavya to his side and asked him to give him as `Gurudaksina' (fee to the preceptor) his right-hand thumb. Without the least hesitation Ekalavya offered his thumb to the guru and from that clay onwards his skill faded and he became inferior to Arjuna. (Chapter 132, Adi Parva) : Ekalavya was killed by Sri Krsna. (8loka 77, Chapter 48, Udyoga Parva, M.B. ).
A son of Ekalavya seized the sacrificial horse of Arjuna and was killed by Arjuna (Chapter 83, Asvamedhika Parva, M.B. ).
EKALAVYA II. A King who was a rebirth of an asura, Krodhavasa. He participated in the great war on the side of the Pandavas. (Chapter 4, Udyoga Parva, M.B.)
EKANAVA. • A daughter of Yasodd and hence a sister of Sri Krsna. It was because of her that Krsna could slay Kamsa. (Chapter 38, Sabhd Parva, M.B.).
EKAPADA. A country of ancient Bharata. The King and the people of this country came to the Rdjasuya of Yudhisthira but were prevented from entering inside because of the uncontrollable crowd inside. (Dloka 17, Chapter 51, Sabha Parva, M.B.).
EKAPARNA. Sister of Durga. Ekaparnd, Ekapatala and Aparna were the three daughters of if imavdn born of his wife Mend. Ekaparna ate only one leaf and Ekapdtala ate a bunch of leaves. Aparnd did not eat even a leaf. Ekaparna was married to a sage called Devala and Ekapdtald to a sage called Jaigisavya. (Chapter 18, Hari Varirsa). (See under Himavdn).
EKAPATALA. See under Ekaparnd.
EKAPAT I. See under Ekacakra.
EKAPAT II. A synonym of Bhagavan Visnu. (~loka 95, Chapter 149, Anusdsana Parva, M.B.).
EKAPRZGA (EKAPIIZGALA). Another name of Vaisravana. Once Vaisravana looked jealously at Parvati
seated on the left side of Paramesvara and instantly his one eye burst. When Parvati regained her peace of mind that one eye of Vaisravana was changed into piiigala colour. (See under Kubera) .
EKARATRATIRTHA. A sacred place. If one stays at this place righteously for one day one would attain Brahmaloka. (Sloka 182, Chapter 83. Vana Parva, M.B.).
EKASRGA. One of the Saptapitrs. Vairaja, Agnisvatta, Gdrhapati, Soiiapa, Ekasrnga, Caturveda and Kala are the seven patrs. All these seven stayed in Brahmasabha worshipping him. (Slokas 47 and 48, Chapter 11, Sablha Parva) .
1) General information. An ancient sage. He was the son of the Maharsi Gautama. He had two brothers, Dvita and Trita.
2) How Ekata became a wotf by a curse. There is a story of how Ekata and Dvita duped Trita in the Mahdbharata. When Gautama died Trita became the chief of the three. Dvita and Ekata did not lite this. Once all the three were passing by a forest with a herd of cows for a yaga. Trita was walking ahead and the other two were following him with the cows. At a strategic point on the way the brothers carried away the cows by a separate route without the knowledge of Trita. When Trita came to know of the loss he was greatly distressed. On reaching the shores of the river Sarasvati, -he was frightened by a wolf and running to escape from the animal fell into a dilapidated well. He performed a yaga from where he lay. Assuming a creeper inside the well to be Somalata, Trita recited the Rks and the devas responded to his prayer. Devas like Brhaspati graciously appeared before him and asked him to demand a boon from them. Trita replied that his desire was to worship the gods standing on the waves of the river Sarasvati. Accordingly the river was made to flow that way and standing on the waves Trita worshipped the gods. After that he went home and cursed his brothers and made Ekata and Dvita into wolves.
3) Other details.
i) Ekata was a sage much banked on by the people of western Bharata. (9loka 31, Chapter 208, Santi Parva). ii) Ekata attended a yajna conducted by Uparicaravasu (Chapter 336, S`anti Parva).
iii) Ekata accompanied by Dvita and Trita once went to Svetadvipa to visit Narayana. (9loka 12, Chapter 39, Santi Parva) .
iv) Ekata and his two brothers were among the sages who visited Bhisma while he was lying on his bed of arrows. (S`loka 7, Chapter 26, Anusasana Parva, M.B.) v) All these three sages lived on the west coast as Rtviks of Varuna. (Chapter 15, Anusdsana Parva, 1VLB.)_ vi) Sukta 150 in Mandala 1 of Rgveda contains the eulogistic songs of Trita;` one among the trio. (See under Trita).
EKATVACA. A follower of Skandadeva. (S1oka 24, Chapter 46, Salya Parva).
EKAVALT. Wife of Ekavira, founder of. the Hehaya dynasty. (For details see under Ekavira) .
EKAV IRA' (HEHAYA). A founder of the Hehaya line of kings. o
1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu: AtriCandra--Budha - Pururavas-Ayus-Yayati-YaduSahasrajit---~atajit-Ekavira (Hehaya).
2) Birth of Fkavira. Once there was a King called Revanta who was an intimate friend of lndra. One day riding on Uccaihsravas, Indra's horse, he went to Vaikuntha. Fascinated by the arresting beauty of Revanta, Mahalaksmi sat gaping for a while and did not hear what Visnu talked to her. Visnu was offended and lost his temper. Laksmi was looking with interest alternatively at Revanta and the horse when Visnu cursed her to be born as a mare on earth. Horrified, shedding tears, Laksmi begged for relief. Visnu decreed
that she would return to Vaikuntha after giving birth to a son who would be equal in glory to Visnu himself. Mahalaksmi came to Earth taking the shape of a mare and lived in a forest situated at a point where the rivers Kalindi and Tamasa meet and where once Suryapatni stayed and did penance. Meditating on Siva she lived there for a thousand divine years and then one day diva and Parvati appeared before her and asked her what she wanted. She then said "Oh, Bhagavan, Mahavisnu cursed me and made me into a mare. He has decreed that I would go back after bringing forth a son as glorious as Visnu. From whom am I to bear a son like this?" Siva promised to find a solution and going to Vaikuntha sent Visnu to earth in the form of a horse. Visnu came to Laksmi and they lived together for some time and soon a son was born to Laksmi. Leaving the child in the forest both of them went back to Vaikuntha. It is this child who later on became the famous King, Ekavira. It was because he was born of a horse that he got the names, Hehaya and Haihaya. (Skandha 6, Devi Bhagavata) .
flowery forest was soon arrested by the sight of a sweet smelling lotus with a hundred petals blooming in the. river. By the side of the lotus was standing a beautiful damsel weeping. The prince went to her and asked her the reason for her weeping. After great persuasion she replied thus: "Oh, Prince, there is a country not far from yours which is now being ruled over by a very righteous King called Raibhya. His queen is called Rukmarekha. They had no children for a very long time and so Raibhya conducted a Putrakamesti yaga. When ghee was poured profusely into the sacrificial fire the flames rose up to great heights and from inside the flames came out a lovely maiden. The King named her Ekavali and bought her forth as his daughter. I am Yasovati the daughter of the minister there. We were of the same age and so I was asked to live with her as her . companion. She was very fond of lotuses and the King constructed big ponds with lotuses in them for her recreation. Yet she used to go to other ponds also in-search of lotuses.
One day we came to this side of the river Gaxiga to p1ay. Then a demon of name Kalaketu came and kidnapped her. I followed her. She never surrendered to the enticements and persuasions of Kalaketu. Her father wanted her to be married to Ekavira, King of Hehaya. Kalaketu sent her to prison. Without knowing what to do next I am standing here weeping.
Hearing this Ekavira went to Patala and defeating Kalaketu released Ekavali and brought both Ekavali and Yasovati to the palace of Raibhya. Pleased at this Raibhya gave his daughter in marriage to Ekavira. Kartaviryarjuna was born in the family of Ekavira. (Skandha 6, Devi Bhagavata) .
ELAPUTRA. A serpent born to Kasyapa of his wife Kadru. This serpent was very intelligent. Once there arose a dispute between Vinata and Kadru over the colour of the tail of the horse of Indra, Uccaihsravas. Kadru argued that there were black hairs in the tail while Vinata held there were none. Really there were no black hairs and Kadrtz to win the argument wanted her sons to go and hang on the hairs to create a black colour. The serpents like Vasuki and others refused to do so and Kadru then cursed them saying that they would all be burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. To take measures to get free from this curse a meeting of the serpents under the leadership of Sesa and Vasukx was held and in that assembly Elaputra made a stirring speech. (Chapter 38, Adi Parva, M.B.)
ELI AND PUCCA. (Eli=rat, Pucca=Cat) .
The story of the cat and the rat described by the poet Kunjan Nambiar is from Kathasaritsagara. The story in original is the following.
Once there lived on a big banyan tree near the city of Vidisa a mongoose, an owl, a cat and a rat. The mongoose and the rat lived in two separate hollows at the foot of the tree, the cat in a cavity in the centre of the tree and the owl on the branches at the top. Of these the rat could be eaten by'all the other three and the cat could kill all the rest. The rat and the mongoose afraid
3 ) How Ekaaira came to the palace. It was at this time that ,~atajit, son of the grandson of Yayati was doing penance to obtain a son. He was also doing penance in the forest situated at a point where the rivers Kalindi and Tamasa meet. One night a Vidyadhara named Campaka came with a Vidyadhari named Madalasa and seeing the infant lying helpless in the forest took it to Devaloka. Indra recognised it as the child born to Visnu and Laksmi on earth while they were living as horse and mare and so the Vidyadhara put it back on earth in the same place as before. Immediately LaksmiNarayanas appeared before Satajit doing penance there and asking him to take care of a child lying helpless in another side of the forest disappeared. Immensely pleased at this Satajit took the child to his palace and brought him forth as his own son giving the child the name Ekavira. When the boy became a prince, 6atajit crowned Ekavira King and went to the forest with his queen and after doing penance there for sometime attained Visnuloka. (Skandha 6, Devi Bhagavata).
4 ) Ekaaira marries EkaUali. Once Prince Ekavira accompanied by the son of the minister went for a pleasure trip to the banks of the river Gaxiga. It was spring and the prince wandering about enjoying the sight of a
t. The genealogy of Ekavira is stated differently in different Puranas. Devi Bhagavata states that Ekavira is the son of Turvasu, son of Yayati and that he is the father of Kartaviryarjuna. It is not correct. The genealogy chronicled here is based on Agni and Visnu Puranas. According to that Yadu, son of Yayati is the father ofthe grandfather of Ekavira: Yadu-Sahasrajit--Satajit-Hehaya (Ekavira). Descending from Ekavira-Dharma--Kuni-Bhadrasena-Dhabaka-Krtavira-Karta.virvdrjuna. From the grandson of Kartaviryarjuna, V;sni, starts the Vrsni dynasty.
Once a forester laid a net to catch the cat and the cat fell into the trap and lay there hanging inside the net. The rat coming that way saw the plight of the cat and jumped with joy. But soon the owl and the mongoose came to the spot and seeing their enemy, the cat, imprisoned rushed to catch hold of the rat. The rat then did a very clever thing. It went and tore open the net imprisoning the cat and when the cat jumped out of the net the owl and the mongoose ran away and disappeared. The rat went to its hole. This is a story to demonstrate the fact that with a change in the situation an enemy may turn out to be a friend. (Taranga 7, Madanamancukdlambaka, Kathasaritsdgara) .
ELLU. An oil seed. (Sesame). Ellu originated from the body of Kasyapa. Because Ellu is born of the body of Kas yapa, King of Rsis, it is considered as divine to offer Ellu to anybody. (Aloka 10, Chapter 66, Anu'sasana Parva).
ELU: This word in Malayalam means `Seven'.
(1) The seven qualities which would enhance prosperity are the following: Dhairya (courage) , 8ama (forbearance), Dama (control of the sense), 8ucitva (cleanliness), Daya (compassion), Mrduvak (geniality of speech) and Ahirhsd (not giving injury to your friends). (2) The seven divisions of Kerala are Vendt, Pulindt, Karkandt, Citanat, Kuttandt, Kutandt and Malayamandt.
(3) The seven CitWalyas are Daylight Candra, Woman past the prime of life, a pond without lotuses, a lovely person without learning, a lord greedy of wealth, a virtuous but poor man and a cruel royal attendant.
(4) Seven Karmas :Bravery, skill, courage, resourcefulness, non-withdrawal from war, magnanimity and commanding power.
(5) Seven solemnities : Mdmmodisa, Mizron, Kurbdna, Kumbasara, Vivdha, Pattatva and Taildbhiseka of the sick.
(6) Seven Cirafijivis (People who never die) : Asvatthama, Bali, Vyasa, Hanuman, Vibhisana, Krpa and Parasurama. "
(7) Jivdvasthds : Ajndna, Avarana, Viksepa, Paroksajnana, Aparoksajiiana, Anarthanivrtti and Anandaprdpti.
(8) Seven islands : Jambudvipa, Plaksadvipa, Puskaradvipa, Krauncadvipa, 8dkadvipa, 8almaladvipa, and Kus advipa.
(9) Seven Dhdtus : Rasa, Rakta, Mdrnsa, Medas, Asthi, Majja and $ukla.
(10) Seven rivers: Garigd, Yamuna, Godavari, Sarasvati, Narmada, Sindhu and Kaveri.
(11) Seven Nadis : Idd, Pirigald, Susumnd, Musa; Alarhbusd, Asthijihva, Gandhdri.
(12) Seven wives of Vasudeva: Devaki, 8rutadevd, Yagoda, S`rutisrava, 8ridevd, Upadevd and Surupd.
(13) Seven mountains : Himavdn, Nisadha, Vindhya, Malyavan, Pariyatra, Gandhamadana and Hemakuta.
(14) Seven Patdlas : Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Nitala,Taldtala, Rasatala, and Mahdtala.
(15) Seven holy places : Ayodhyd, Mathurd, Maya, Kas i, Kdnci, Avant! and Dvaravati.
(16) Seven Maruts : Avaha, Samvaha, Pravaha, Udvaha, Vivaha, Parivaha and Paravaha.
(17) Seven Vargas :King, Minister, Country, fort, treasury, army and strength of friends and relatives.
(18) Seven colours : White, black, red, green, yellow, blue and violet.
(19) Seven forests : Kamyaka, Aditi, Vyasa, Phalki, Surya, Madhu and Sita.
(20) Seven dosas (defects) : Laziness, arrogance, ignorance, profligacy, Hauteur, pride and selfishness.
i21) Seven vices : Hunting, dice, womanising, drinking squandering, harshness of speech and cruelty.
(22) Seven seas : Lavana, Iksu, Surd, Sarpis, Dadhi, Ksira and Suddhodaka.
(23) Seven notes : Sadja, Rsabha; Gandhara, Madhyama, Raficama, Dhaivata and Nisdda.
ERAKA. A serpent born in the family of the Kauravas. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya . (Sloka 16, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).
ETASA. A sage who is greatly extolled in the Rgveda. The son of King Svasa fought with this sage and it was Indra who saved Etasa then. (Sukta 62, Anuvdka 11, Mandala I, Rgveda.).
ETASA. One of the horses of the Sun. (Sukta 122, Anuvdka 18, Mandala 1, Rgveda).