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D. (-7) This letter mearis (1) Rudra and (2) tremor or fear (trasa).
DA. This syllable means ruin. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348)
DABHTTI. A hermit who is praised much in the Rgveda. It is mentioned in Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 16, Sukta 112, that the As vinidevas had saved Turviti, Dabhiti, Dhvasanti and Purusanti, the sons of Indra, from a danger.
1) Birth. A famous hermit. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 51, Stanza 83, that this hermit was the son of the great hermit Bhrgu, and that he was made of the essences of the world, with a huge body.
2 ) The birth of the hermit Sarasaata. Dadhica erected his hermitage on the bank of the river Sarasvati and began to do penance. The power of penance increased daily. Seeing this Indra was flurried. So he sent the celestial maid Alariibusa to break the penance of Dadhica son-chow or other. Alariibusa came to the hermitage of Dadhica and began to dance and sing. When the hermit saw her he grew lustful and seminal discharge occurred to him. The semen fell in the river Sarasvati, who became pregnant and in due course gave birth to a child. She took the child to the hermit Dadhica and told him the story of the child. The hermit was much pleased. He took the child and embraced it and blessed the river Sarasvati thus :-
"Brahma, the gods and the celestial maids will be pleased if your water is offered as oblation."
Dadhici then said that the child should be named Sarasvata. He also added that when there was a drought continuously for twelve years, Sarasvata would have the power to bring rain. Then Sarasvati took the child to her abode and brought it up.
3 ) How he destroyed the asuras with the head of a horse. Once Dadhici went to the world of the devas (gods). From there he looked down and saw the earth filled with the asuras. Indra went to destroy them. But he could not. So he made a search for anything left behind by Dadhica. He understood that Dadhica had with him the head of a horse. It was found in a lake in the country of 8aranya. With the bones taken from that head Indra and Dadhica destroyed a large number of asuras. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 13, Sukta 84),
4) The weapon (Vajra) of Indra was made from a bone. A story occurs in the Mahabharata, which says that the Diamond-weapon of Indra was made of a bone of Dadhici. The asuras went to fight with Indra under the leadership of Vrttrasura. Indra tried his utmost to kill Vrttrasura, but he could not. At last Indra approached Brahma, who told Indra that if a bone of the hermit, called Dadhica was obtained it could effectively be used against Vrtra. Accordingly Indra went with Nara and Narayana to the banks of the river Sarasvati and entered the hermitage and bowed before the shining hermit Dadhica and informed him of their errand. The hermit replied that he had no objection in giving his bone to save the gods. Saying thus the hermit discarded his life. Indra took the bone of Dadhici and made his weapon of Diamond (Vajra) with which he killed Vrtra and his followers. (Mahabharata, Chapter 100).
5 ) Other information
1) At the sacrifice of Daksa, Dadhici got angry because ~iva was not given his dues of the sacrifice. (M.B. anti Parva, Chapter 284) .
(2 ) Once Dadhici talked to a Brahmin called Karuna about the importance of the ashes dedicated to diva. (Padma Purana, Chapter 101).
(3). See Dhananjaya V to know how this hermit gave absolution from curse to a fly.
DADHICA (M). A holy place in Kuruksetra. Angiras the son of Sarasvati was born in this place. From that day onwards this place became a holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 186 that he who bathes in this holy place will obtain the fruits of performing the sacrifice Asvamedha, and enter the world of Sarasvati.
DADHIMANDODAKA. An ocean. This ocean is near the ocean Ghrtoda samudra (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 2) .
DADHIMUKHA I. A famous serpent, born to Kasyapa prajapati by his wife Kadru. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 8).
DADHIMUKHA II. A famous monkey. This old monkey was the general of a huge monkey-army. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 283, Stanza 7 that this general approached Sri Rama once, with his army.
DADHIVAHANA. An ancient king of Bharata. The hermit Gautama saved the son of this King from the attack of Parasurama (Mahabharata, anti Parva, Chapter 49, Stanza 8) .
DADH1VAKTRA. A monkey who helped Sri Rama. It is seen in Adhyatma Ramdyana, Sundara Kanda, Sarga 5, as follows :-
"Dadhimukhah Kruddhasugrivasya matulah". From this it is understood that Dadhimukha or Dadhivaktra was the uncle of Sugriva. (For further information see Madhuvana).
DADHYAIL.1 A hermit. Once Indra taught this hermit Madhuvidya (the art of mead) Indra told the hermit that his head would be cut off if he taught anybody this art. The Asvinidevas approached Dadhyafi to learn this art. Fearing Indra the hermit refused to teach them the art. Asvinidevas cut off his head and buried it in a place. Then they cut off the head of a horse and fixed it on the neck of Dadhyan. Having the head of the horse he taught the art to the A;vinidevas. When Dadhyan had finished teaching, they took away the head of the horse and fixed his own head in place. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka, 17, Sukta 166) .
DAHA I. One of the eleven Rudras. He was the grandson of Brahma and the son of Sthanu. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 3).
DANA II. An attendant given to Subrahmanya by Aritsa, a god. (Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 34).
DAHADAHA. , An attendant of Subrahmanya. (Mahabharata,alya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 20).
DAHATI. A warrior given to Subrahmanya by god Arhsa. Mention is made about this warrior in Mahabh5rata, Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 34.
DANA I. Almighty God. (See I< vara ).
DAIVA II. A kind of marriage. The form of marriage by which one gives his daughter to a priest. (See Vivaha).
DAIVALIKA. A country. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Stanza 18, that the King and the people of Daivalika were present on the occasion of the sacrifice of Rajasftya (imperial consecration) of Yudhisthira.
DAIVASAMPATTI. The virtues of those who are born of a noble family.
"He Bharata ! Security, knowledge of tattvas the desire
to attain harmony with the Supreme Being by the knowledge of Brahman, alms-giving, self restraint, performing sacrifice, self-study, penance, sincerity, truth, liberality, continence, kindness, mildness, modesty, resolution, cleanliness, forgiveness, brightness, abstaining from committing murder and getting angry, having no malignity, covetousness, fickleness and pride and not injuring others are the Daivasarnpatti or good qualifies of a noble man." (M.B. Bltisma Parva, Chapter 40).
DAITYADIPA. One of the sons of Garuda. Mention is made about Daityadipa in Mahahharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Stanza 11.
DAITYASENA. Sister of Devasena, the wife of Subrahmanya. Kesi, an asura, married her. (For detailed story, see Devasena ) .
DAKINI. A class of women supposed to be proficient in magic and the performance of feats with the help of mantras. (See Ksuraka).
1) Two Dah;ras. In most of the Puranas references about two Daksas occur. In some puranas both are referred to as one and the same person, whereas in some others both are considered as separate persons, so much so the stories concerning both are interlocked and entangled very often. The fact is that there was only one Daksa, whose life was of two stages. The first Daksa was killed at the sacrifice of Daksa, at which point, ends the first stage, or the first Daksa. The second stage was the rebirth of the same Daksa. A short biography of Daksa including both stages is given below :-
Brahma created by his mind, the seven great hermits, Marici, Atigiras, Atri, Pulastya, Vasistha, Pulaha and Kratu. So these seven hermits are called the Manasaputras (sons born from mind) of Brahma. After this, from the anger of Brahma, Rudra was born, and from his lap Narada, from his right thumb Daksa, from his mind the Sanakas and from his left thumb a daughter named Virani were born. Virani nama tasya stu asiknityapi sattama
From this passage which occurs in Kalika Purana it may be assumed that `Asikni' was another name of Virani. Daksa did penance in the mountain of Vindhya for a long time. It is mentioned in Bhagavata, Skandha 8, that Mahavisnu appeared before Daksa and gave him Asikni as his wife.
Several sans were born to Daksa by his wife Asikni. The last one was a daughter named ~ Sat! who became the wife of diva. At this time Daksa performed a sacrifice. As he was not invited to that sacrifice, diva sent Virabhadra and Bhadrakali and killed Daksa. Though the devas put the head of a goat in place of the lost head and brought Daksa to life again, no reference is made about the life of Daksa after the sacrifice. Thus the first stage of the life of Daksa ends. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7).
After this, once the Pracetases (the ten sons of Barhis) were engaged in penance and the earth was not properly cultivated in consequence of which big trees
The stories regarding the two hermits Dadhici and Dadhyan in the Puranas are not very clear. In Maha bharata Dadhica is mentioned as the son of Bhrgu, and in Rgveda it occurs that Dadhica was the son of Hermit Atharva who was the son of Vasistha. Moreover the story of Dadhyan teaching the Asvinidevas the `Madhuvidya' is connected with Dadhici in some other puranas Some statements in the Rgveda make it difficult to assume that both Dadhyan and Dadhici are one and the same person. So relying nn the majority of statements in the various puranas this book has accepted the fact that these hermits are separate persons and that Dadhici was the son of Bhrgu whereas the hermit who taught Madhuvidya to the A'svinidevas was Dadhyan.
The sky was covered with tree tops. It was difficult even for the wind to pass through them and thus the forest thrived for ten thousand years. The pracetases got out of the sea after penance and entered the shore. When they saw the big forest they got angry and the ten of them discharged fire and wind from their faces. The wind up-rooted the trees and the fire dried them. Thus almost the whole of the trees were consumed. Then Candra, the King of the medicinal herbs came there and told the Pracetases "Oh, Kings, hold your anger. I will make the trees conclude a treaty with you. The beautiful Marisa who was born to the trees is my foster-daughter. I give her to you as your wife. From half the portion of your minds and half the portion of my mind the great and wise prajapati Da ksa is going to take birth in her womb". The Pracetases controlled their anger and accepted Marisa as their wife, at the words of Somadeva (Candra) and as the son of the ten pracetases the Prajapati Daksa was born. With this the second stage of the life of Daksa begins. The important occurrences in the two stages of the life of Daksa are given below in their order. 2) Daksa's creation of the prajas or subjects. Once Brahma called Daksa and ordered him to create prajas or' subjects. Accordingly Daksa created the gods, the hermits, the Gandharvas (Demi-gods),the Asuras, the serpents etc. Seeing that the subjects he created were not proliferating as required he thought of creating subjects by coition of male and female; and he begot by his wife Asikni five thousand sons, and they were called Haryasvas. They in their turn were about to create subjects when Narada appeared before them and said "Oh, Haryasvas, you are mere children and ignorant of the secrets of this world. How do you intend to create subjects ? You fools, since you have the power to go up and down and lengthwise and breadthwise, why don't you try to find out the extremities of the earth ?" Hearing the words of Narada, they all ran in different directions and have not returned since. Thus Daksa lost the Haryasvas. Daksa a ain begot thousand sons by Asikni and they were called Sabala, vas. Seeing that they also were about to create subjects Narada scattered them also, by some tricks. The Sabalasvas who had gone to see the end of the earth have not yet returned.
Daksa got angry with Narada and cursed him thus
"You also, like my children shall wander from place to place all over the earth". From that dry onwards Narada became a wanderer, without a fixed dwelling place. The wise Prajapati Daksa again begot sixty damsels by Asikni. Ten of the girls were given to Dharmadeva, thirteen of them to Ka.yapa, twentyseven of them to Soma, and four of them to Aristanemi. Of the rest two were given to Bahuputra, two to Arigiras and two to the wise Krsasva. The names of the wives of each are given below :-
(1) Kasyapa. Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arista, Surasa, Khasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavasa, Ira, Kadru, Muni.
(2) Dharmadeaa. Arundhati, Vasu, Yam!, Lamba, Bhanu, Marutvati, Sankalpa, Muhurta, Sadhya,
(3) Soma. Mvayuk, Bhararii, Krttika, Rohini, Mrgasiras, Tarakam (Ardra), Punarvasu, Pusyam, Asle-
sam, Janakam, Phalguni, Uttaraphalgunam, Hastam, Citra, Svatl, Visakham, Anuradha,, Jyestha, Mulam, Puruasadham, Uttarasadham, Srona, Sravistha, Pracetas, Purvaprosthapadam, Uttaraprosthapadam, Revad.
The names of the wives given to Arigiras, Aristanemi, Bahuputra and Krsasva are not mentioned.
Besides these damsels, twentyfour daughters were born to Daksa of his wife Prasuti who was the sister of Uttanapada. Dharmadeva married thirteen of them also, named Sraddha, Laksmi, Dhrti, Tusti, Medha, Pusti, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja. Vapus, Santi, Siddhi, Kirti. (r)f the rest, Khy5ti was given to Bhrgu, Sat! to Siva, Sarizbhuti to Marici, Smrti to Arigiras, Priti to Pulastya, Ksama to Pulaha, Santati to Kratu, Anasuya to Atri, Urja to Vasistha, Svaha to Agnideva and Svadha to the Manes. (Visnu Purina, Arh<a 1; Chapter 1,5).
3) Sacrifice of Dak~a. Once Daksa performed a sacrifice called Brhaspatisavana. To this sacrifice he did not invite his daughter Sat! or her husband Siva. Daksa did not invite them because of three reasons according to the Puranas.
(1) Once Durvasas, the son of Atri, went to Jambunada and meditated with the mantra or spell of `Mayabija' and worshipped Jagadambika (mother of the world) the goddess there. The goddess was much pleased and gave him as a token of her pleasure the garland of flowers she wore from which nectar was oozing. Durvasas wore it on his head and went to the palace of Daksa, the Prajapati. When he saw such a wonderful garland which was not of this world, he wanted to have it and Durvasas instantly gave it to Daksa. He placed it in a prominent place in his bedroom and enjoying the wonderful fragrance of it he conjugated with his wife, and polluted that pure garland by his lust. Siva and his wife came to know of this and they scolded Daksa, who kept this bitterness in his heart and when the sacrifice was performed, he decided not to invite them. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7).
(2) Siva was considered as a polluted man by~baksa as he had always been carrying with him the skull of Brahma and so he thought it wrong on his part to admit his daughter and son-in-law to the sacrificial hall. The story of how Siva came to have the skull, is given below. In days of old when the whole world was under the single ocean (of the great flood) the sun, the moon, the fire, air everything was destroyed and darkness prevailed.. All the vegetations were destroyed. All the emotions and non-emotions disappeared. The supreme Lord was sleeping for so many thousands of nights together. At the end of the night he assumed the attribute of `Rajoguna' - (activity) and got ready to create the universe. From the face of the Supreme Lord and creator of the universes came out Brahma with five faces. In the same way, Siva with three eyes and matted hair, and trident and rosary of beads (Elaeo carpus) and with attribute of `Tamas' (darkness-destruction) also came out. Both Brahma and Siva were filled with egoism and both began to quarrel with each other. It was a contest
as to who was greater. The contest ended in attack. Siva plucked off the fifth head of Brahma, when the same face, flushed with anger, scolded Siva. The head fell into the hands of Siva, who could not throw it down as it didn't come off from his hand. Brahma cursed Siva and made him polluted. Since Siva became polluted his wife Sat! also was considered as polluted by Daksa. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 2).
(3) Once the prajapatis performed a sacrifice. Brahma, Visnu and Siva were present there. Daksa, who had been invited by the prajapatis also was present. When Daksa entered the hall his son-in-law Siva did not rise up. This arrogance of Siva made Daksa angry. Daksa made up his mind to take vengeance on Siva, and performed a sacrifice known as Brhaspatisavana. To that sacrifice he did not invite Siva or Sat!.
Hearing that her father was conducting a sacrifice Sat! came uninvited. But Daksa did not even look at her. Satidevi whose heart was broken at this treatment made a fire and jumped into it and died. Siva became furious when he came to know of this. Being overwhelmed with sorrow and anger he beat his matted hair on the ground, from which two monsters, Virabhadra and Bhadrakali, came out. They ran to Daksa's sacrificial hall and destroyed everything they saw, killed everybody, caught hold' of Daksa and cut off his head. Then they began to create havoc in the whole world. The hermits and sages began to take to flight. Men and animals shivered. Thus the three worlds began to tremble with fear. The gods approached Siva with supplication to curb his anger. The gracious 8arikara was pleased to recall the monsters. After that everybody requested him to bring Daksa back to life. But the search made for the head of Daksa was futile. At last Brahma took the head of a goat and joined it to the headless trunk of Daksa. Thus he was brought to life again.' (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7).
4) Cursing Candra. Candra had married twentyseven daughters of Daksa. But he showed particular attachment to Rohini. -The other twentysix wives could not bear this. They made a complaint to their father Daksa. Daksa called Candra and advised him to show equal attachment to all his wives and not to show any partiality to anyone. Candra did not gainsay his father-inlaw, but he did not make any change in his disposition. After a few days all the daughters except Rohini went to the palace of Daksa and told him that they were going to stay with him. This time Daksa got angry and called Candra and cursed him to become a sick man (of consumption).
From that day onwards Candra became a patient affected with consumption. All the vegetations in the world began to weaken. It appeared that the world was about to be destroyed. So the gods approached Daksa and requested him to show some leniency towards Candra. Daksa accordingly called Candra and told him that he would be affected by consumption only for a fortnight and after that he would recover gradually. Candra went to Prabhasa tirtha and Sarasvat! tirtha and dipped in water. He began to recover from that day. It is according to the curse of Daksa that Candra (Moon) waxes and wanes. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 35).
5) Other information. (1) Daksa has another name 'Kan'.
"Daksa the Prajapati is a son of ten fathers. He has two names. They are Daksa and Kan." (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 7).
(2) When the emperor Prthu milked the earth, Daksa
was crowned as the King of the subjects. (See under Prthu ) .
(3) It occurs in Mahabharata; Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 18, that Daksa was a member of the assemlbly of Brahma.
(4) Daksa was one of those who visited Bhlsma in his .bed of arrows. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 47).
(5 ) Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 166 that the devas, the manes, the gandharvas, the celestial maids, the Raksasas, animals and birds, fishes and all living creatures were born from the daughters of Daksa.
DAKSASAVARNI. The name of the ninth Manu. During the regime of this Manu, there will be three classes of devas (gods) called the Parnas, the Maricigarbhas and the Sudharmans. Each of these gams or classes will consist of twelve devas or gods. Indra, their King will be known as Adbhuta. He will be'mighty and powerful. In that Manvantara (age of the Manu) Savana, Dyutiman, Bhavya, Vasu, Medhatithi, Jyotisman and Satya will be the Saptarsis (the seven hermits) and Dhrtaketu, Dlptiketu, Paficahasta, Niramaya, Prthusrava and others will be the sons of Manu, Daksasavarni. (Visnu Purana, Axiisa 1, Chapter 2).
DAKCAYANI. Daughter of Daksa. This name is generally used for all the daughters of Daksa. Occasionally this name is used for the grand daughters of Daksa also.
DAKSIITA. A daughter, born to Prajapati Ruci, by his wife Akuti. The first Manu was Svayambhuva, the son of Brahma. He accepted $atarupa, his sister who became sinless by penance, as his wife. Satarupa gave birth to two sons Priyavrata and Uttanapada, and two daughters, Prasuti and Akuti. Of these two daughters, Prasuti was given to Prajapati Daksa and Akuti to Prajapati Ruci. Akuti gave birth to twins, a son named Yajna and a daughter named Daksina. To Yajna twelve sons were born by Daksina. They were a class of devas (gods) called the Yamas in the regime of Manu Svayambhuva (Visnu Purana, Arilsa 1, Chapter 7). Now Daksina is worshipped as a goddess. The same Daksina was reborn in the Goloka under the name Sus ila. At that time she was a cowherd woman and friend of Radha. She liked to talk with Sri Krsna. One day Radha saw her sitting in the lap of Sri Krsna, engaged in sexual sports, in a secluded place. When Suflla saw that Radha had found them out, she became dumbfounded with shame, and sat with bowed head. Sri "K,rsna slowly placed Sus!la devi down and instantly vanished. The angry Radha cursed Sugila to become ashes if ever she entered the Goloka again. Then Radha ran about everywhere in search of Sri Krsna, but he could not be found.
Immediately after the curse, Sub ila got down from the Goloka and began to worship Mahalaksm! with devotion and meditation and very severe fast and vow. After a long time Mahalaksmi appeared to her and blessed her, and Suslla became absorbed in Mahalaksmi. Since the absorption of Sus ila devi, who was the rebirth of Daksinadevl, in Mahalaksml, the sacrifice of the devas (gods) became fruitless. They were much grieved. They all went to Brahma to find a solution. As the matter was serious Brahma meditated upon Visnu, who
r. Though Daksa was brought to life again with the head of a goat there is no mention of him again in the Puranas. 44e hear of Daksa again as the son of Marisa.
became pleased with Brahma and to save the devas, he attracted Daksinadevi from the body of Mahalaksm3 and gave her as a present to Brahma. Brahma gave that devi (goddess) to Yajfapurusa (the god of sacrifice) so that the sacrifices of gods might become fruitful. When Yajnapurusa saw that supernatural beauty he was overpowered by lust and swooned. The couple spent a hundred divine years in seclusion enjoying the company of each other, as a result of which devi became pregnant. The pregnancy matured in twelve divine years and she gave birth to a child which was named Phalada. It is this same Phalada, the son of Yajnapurusa and Daksina who awards fruits to all actions. The learned men say that Yajnapurusa, Daksinadevi and Phalada divide the fruits of actions among the doers. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 9).
DAKSINAGNI. A strong wind born from the fire Pancajanya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 229, Stanza 6.
DAKSINAKAILASA. Kalahasti, Trisivaperoor and Trikonamala are known by the name Daksinakailasa.
DAKSI : AMALLA. A country in ancient India. This country is called Mallarajya. Its capital was Kusinagara or Kus inara. In Mahabharata mention is made that Bhimasena, during his conquest brought this country under control. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 30).
DAKSINAPAIVCAIA. A place famous in the Puranas. This place lies to the south of the Ganges up to the river Campat. It is mentioned in Mahabharata Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 27, that the King of this country fled to the south fearing Jarasandha. Pancala lies to the south and north of the Ganges. But the country was divided into two when Drona defeated Drupada the King of Pancala, and took away from him the part of the country north of the Ganges. After that, the part taken by Drona was called Uttarapancala and the part south of the Ganges was called Daksinapancala. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 137).
DAKSINASINDHU. A holy place. This place is on the shore of the southern sea. If one visits this place and takes bath there he will get the fruits of performing the sacrifice of Agnistoma, and the opportunity of travelling by the aeroplane of the gods. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 53).
DAKSINATYAS. The people of South India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158, Stanza 2, that at the time of the composing of the Mahabharata, the leader of the Daksinatyas was the emperor Bhismaka.
DALA. The son of King Pariksit of the dynasty of Iksvaku. The mother of Dala was Sugobhana, the daughter of the King of Manduka. Dala had an elder brother called 8ala. Dala became king when 8ala was killed. Hermit Vamadeva was the priest of this King. (MB. Vana Parva, Chapter 192). See Pariksit II.
DALBHYA (BAKADALBHYA). A Maharsi of Naimi4aranya. In Vamana Purana, there is a story of how this sage once performed a homa and burnt Dhrtarastra's kingdom in the sacrificial fire.
Long ago some of the sages of Naimisaranya approached Dhrtarastra with a request for some money. Their leader was the sage Dalbhya (Baka). It was he who begged Dhrtarastra for money. The king not only refused to give money, but also insulted the sage. Provoked at this, Dzlbhya began performing a homy in
which Dhrtarastra's kingdom was the havis in the form of sliced meat. This homa was performed in Avakirnamahatirtha at Prthudaka. As a result of it the kingdom began to decline. The King was alarmed and consulted great scholars and astrologers about the cause of the country's decline. They told him that the cause of the disaster was Dalbhya's homa. Dhrtarastra at once proceeded with rich presents to propitiate Dalbhya at Avakirnamahatirtha. Dalbhya was pleased and as desired by the King, performed homa with milk and honey and revived all those who had died. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 39) .
Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 11 says that this Maharsi flourished in Yudhisthira's assembly. On another occasion, he is referred to, as coming to Dyumatsena, the father of Satyavan. At that time, he comforted Dyumatsena by saying that Satyavan would be blessed with longevity. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 298, Verse 17) .
DALBHYAM. A holy place in North India. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 12).
DALBHYAGHOSA. Another name for the holy a9rama, Dalbhyam.
DAMA I. The brother of Damayanti. No other information about Dama is available in the Puranas.
DAMA II. A hermit. He was one of the hermits who came to visit Bhisma when he was lying on the bed of arrows. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 26, Stanza 4).
DAMA. See Sambara.
DAMA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. galya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 5).
DAMACANDRA. A King. He was a mighty hero and a friend of Dharmaputra. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 40).
DAMAGHOSA. The father of Sisupala, the King of Cedi. .(MA Adi Parva, Chapter 186, Stanza 86).
DAMANA I. A brother of Damayanti. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 53, Stanza 8 it is mentioned that King Bhima had a daughter named Damayanti, and three sons named Dama, Danta and Damana.
DAMANA II. A hermit. Bhima the King of Vidarbha pleased this hermit, who blessed the King and said that he would get children. Accordingly the king got Damayanti as his daughter and Dama, Danta and Damana as his sons. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 53).
DAMANA III. The son of the King Paurava. Dhrstadyumna killed Damana in the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 61, Stanza 20).
DAMANA IV. A son of Bharadvaja. After the investiture with the Brahma string (upanayana) Damana started on a travel. On the way near Amarakantaka he met with the hermit Garga who talked to him about the glory of Kas i. Damana who was a seeker of spiritual knowledge, stopped his travel and sat down to do penance and thus leaving his body he attained heaven. (Skanda Purana, Chapter 2, 4, 74).
DAMANAKA I. One of characters in a story, of Pancatantra. (See Mitrabhedam).
DAMANAKA II. A daitya (asura) Mahavisnu in his incarnation as Matsya (Matsyavatara), killed this asura who was a dweller of the sea. Visnu threw the body of the -asura into the earth. By the touch of the Lord the body became fragrant and it was changed to a plant which is known as (Kozhunnu or Kozhuntu) Damanakam. (Skanda Purana).
DAMANAKAM. The Tatiri tree (Grislea Tomentosa). The ceremony of worshipping this tree is called Damanakarohanavidhi. The Grislea tree is supposed to be Bhairava, -who had been changed to a tree by the curse of Siva. A story to this effect occurs in the Puranas.
Bhairava was .formed from the anger of Siva. Bhairava, against the will of Siva, destroyed the devas, and so Savor cursed him and turned him to a Tatiri tree. It is called Damanaka because Bhairava tried to do `damana' (restraint or punishment) to the gods.
Bhairava felt sorry at the curse of Siva. He requested Siva to withdraw the curse. At last Siva had pity on him and said that all would worship Damanaka tree. The method of that worship is called Damanakarohanavidhi. It is given below:
This tree should be worshipped on the seventh or thirteenth lunar day. The worshipper should go to the tree, with those who recite mantras and spells. After the worship is over the worshipper should say, "O, Tree, which has originated by the power of Hari, you come to my presence. On behalf of Siva, and by his order, I have to take you home." Saying thus the tree should be taken home and consecrated in the evening in accordance with the rituals. In the house, the Sun, Siva and Agni should be evoked and worshipped and then the root of the tree should be planted in the tuna (ICE. point) corner of the house and when it is planted, the spell or incantation of Vamadeva Mantra or Siromantra should be recited. In the same way the trunk with the branches of the tree is planted on the Northern part. The fallen leaves and flowers should be placed on the eastern side. When the root is planted the following prayer should be uttered
pratah kale mayor prabho Kartavyastapaso labhah
Purnam sarvam tavajnaya. //
After that at dawn he should take bath and with oblations of sweet-smelling flowers etc. should worship Siva. This is Damanakarohanavidhi. (Agni Purana, Chapter 80).
DAMAYANT I Daughter of Bhima the King of Vidarbha. The most noble of all the Indian heroines, Damayanti has secured a place in the literatures of almost all the languages in the world. The famous hero Nala is her huband.
1) The background of the story of .Nala. During the time of the forest life of the Pandavas, Arjuna had gone to Kailasa to do penance before Siva for getting divine weapons. The rest of the Pandavas spent the time till the arrival of Arjuna, in sorrow and sadness. They spent miserable days one by one. At that time the hermit Brhadasva visited them. They welcomed the hermit. In the midst of their conversation Dharmaputra told the hermit with tears that he was the most unhappy man in the world. Hearing this the hermit told them the story of Nala, to console the Pandavas. 2) The birth of Damayanti. The King Bhima of Vidarbha was childless for a long time. While the King was spending sorrowful days, as he had no children, a hermit named Dama reached his palace. The King welcomed the hermit. Seeing the sorrow of the King the hermit blessed the King and the queen, and as a result a daughter named Damayand and as her brothers
three sons Dama, Danta and Damana were born to them.
3 ) The S'vayamvara (marriage) of Damoyant£. During this period a son named Nala was born to Virasena the King of Nisadha. The child was an expert in the game of dice and he would speak only truth. He grew up and became a youth.
Once the swans which came to the palace of Damayang from Nala, began to praise Nala. They sang about the glory of Nala. Nala also knew about the beauty and the other good qualities of Damayanti. Thus they fell in love with each other. Nala also started for Kundinapuri, the capital city of Vidarbha, to marry Damayanti. The devas (gods) Indra, Agni, Varuna and Yama, having heard of the beauty of Damayand from Narada, had gone Kundinapuri, to take part in the marriage. On the way they met Nala. They were aware of the fact that Damayanti was in love with Nala. So they called Nala and sent him to Damayanti with a message that Damayanti should accept one of the four gods as her husband. By the boon of invisibility, given by the Gods, Nala entered the room of Damayanti unseen by others and gave the message to Damayand. But Damayanti did not agree to it. The Gods also entered the nuptial hall and took their seats in the shape of four Nalas. Damayanti entered the ha1l with the nuptial garland in her hands. She saw five Nalas including the real Nala, and prayed to the gods to show her the real Nala her lover. So the devas assumed their real forms and Damayanti put the garland on the neck of the real Nala and accepted him as her husband. Being much pleased with the behaviour and character of both Nala and Damayanti, the four gods blessed them. Agni promised to be near Nala whenever he thought of him. Yama said that Nala would always be righteous. Varuna said that Nala would obtain water at the thought of it. Indra blessed him saying that he would get moksa immediately after the completion of a yaga. The gods remained till the end of the marriage ceremony and then they departed. Nala and Damayand lived in Kundinapuri.
4) The hatred between Kali and Daipara. Hearing about the Svayarrivara of Damayand Kali and Dvapara started for Kundinapuri. On the way they met Indra and the other gods, who were returning from the marriage of Damayanti. They told Kali and Dvapara that Damayand had accepted Nala as her husband. Kali and Dvapara got angry at this and returned saying that they would destroy the kingdom of Nala. After that Kali waited for a chance to enter the body of Nala. After twelve years, once Nala, after passing urine, without washing his legs performed his evening worship. At that moment Kali entered the body of Nala. With that Nala became bereft of all senses of righteousness and duty, and challenged his younger brother Puskara to a game of dice. Puskara engaged Nala in the game of' dice. Kali stood in the shape of an ox as helper of Nala. Nala lost his kingdom in the game. Seeing that her husband was being defeated continuously, Damayanti sent for the charioteer Varsneya and sent her son Indrasena and daughter Indrasena to Kundinapuri. After leaving the children at Kundi -napuri Varsneya engaged himself in a travel. After visiting several countries he reached Ayodhya and became the charioteer of King gtuparna.
5) ,Yala and Damayanti to the forest. Puskara got the kingdom, wealth and everything that his elder brother, Nala, had possessed. The miserable Nala left everything he had and clad in only one cloth got out of the palace. His wife Damayanti followed him. They stayed outside the city for three days. Puskara made a proclamation that if anybody rendered any help to Nala he would be ruthlessly put to death. After that Nala stayed there for three more days, with only water for food and drink. Then he went to the forest. His wife followed him. They were hungry. Nala saw some golden birds. Nala wanted to catch them for food. So he took his only cloth and spread it on the ground. The birds took that cloth and flew away. Those birds were the dices used in the game. They were influenced by Kali. The miserable and hungerstricken Nala asked his wife Damayanti to go with the caravan traders who were going to Avanti and save herself: But she did not consent to go away from him.
They spent that night in an inn. They both fell asleep because of weakness. After a time Nala woke up. lie thought that his wife would somehow or other get to some country closeby and save herself, if he left her there. So he decided to take half of her cloth. How to do it without her knowledge ? Thinking so he walked round the inn. He saw a good sword. He took. the sword, and cut half of the cloth of Damayand and leaving her in the inn he went away.
In a short while she woke up and missing her husband she cried aloud and ran here and there in search of him. Then she went into the forest crying. A big snake caught hold of her and began to swallow her. She cried aloud. Hearing the cry, a forester came there. He cut the snake open and saved Damayanth But when he saw her he became overpowered by libido and tried to make her his wife. She got angry and cursed him and he instantly fell down dead. After this she began to wander in the forest aimlessly, often seeing wild animals and fearing them. At last she got on a rock and sat there and began to wail thinking of Nala. 6) Damayantf in the kingdom of Cedi. While she was sitting on the rock wailing, a caravan of traders came by that way. They had been attacked by a herd of elephants and were running away from them. They saw Damayanti. She told them her story. They brought her to the kingdom of Cedi. She wandered through the country for a while and finally reached the palace of the King Subahu. Thinking her to be a mad woman the street boys were following her. The queen saw the woman surrounded by street boys and felt pity for her. She -sent-her maid and brought her to the palace. Without revealing that she was the queen of King Nala, she told everything else to the queen. The queen consoled her and said that she would get her husband back. She invited Damayand to stay in the palace till she got her husband back. Damayanti replied as follows : "Mother, I shall stay here. But there are certain conditions. I won't eat remains and offals of victuals, I won't make others to wash my legs. I won't talk with men who are not related to me. If anybody hankers after me you must order him to be killed. Brahmanas may come and see me only in connection with the search for my husband. This is my vow." The queen agreed to her conditions and made
her the attendant of her daughter Sunanda. 7) .'Vala in Ayodhyd. Nala filled with sorrow was walking along the forest when he saw a wild fire. From the midst of the fire somebody was calling Nala by name and crying. When Nala approached the fire, he saw the great and famous serpent Karkotaka lying entwined in the. flames. Karkotaka the King of the Nagas had once deceived Narada, who then cursed him that he would become stationary in a place like an immovable thing till Nala came and rescued him. From that day onwards, Karkotaka was remaining in that forest without moving. Then the forest caught fire. Karkotaka being unable to move had to remain in the fire. Nala immediately saved Karkotaka from the fire and with that he was absolved from the curse of Na.rada. Karkotaka asked Na1a to walk forward, counting the steps. When Nala counted ten, Karkotaka bit on the leg of Nala and he became ugly. Then the serpent said to the flurried Nala, "Don't fear. I have made you ugly so that others may not recognize you. Now you are ugly because of my poison. But my poison has affected Kali who is in your body. Because he had harmed you who are blameless, he has to suffer for it. So long as this poison is in you, nobody will harm you. You must go to Rtuparna the King of Ayodhya and tell him that you are Bahuka a charioteer. You must give Rtuparna the spell `Asvahrdaya mantra' and get from liim the spell `Aksahrdayamantra'. After that you will have reunion with your wife and children. Here are two cloths for you. Whenever you want to get your original form you need only wear them." Saying these words Karkotaka gave Nala two divine garments and then disappeared.
Nala started for Ayodhya. He reached the palace on the tenth day. There he was employed as the horse keeper of Rtuparna on a pay of hundred pieces of gold. Thus he stayed there under the name Bahuka. Varsneya and jivala who were the horse-keepers of Rtuparna upto that time, were placed under Bahuka.
Bahuka used to recite a poem every evening when he returned from his work.
Weary and worn of hunger and thirst,
That poor woman, where might she be ? Serving whom will she be now. Thinking of the unlucky fool ? Hearing this song of lamentation everyday, once his assistant jivala asked Bahuka, whom he was reciting the poem about. Bahuka replied : "Once there was a man who was a fool. He got a good wife. For some reason they were separated. The fool is still wandering about weary and sad in search of his wife.".
8) Damayantf in Kundinapura. At this time Damayanti was living in the palace of the King of Cedi, as the maid of princess Sunanda. King Bhima became very sorry not knowing where Nala and Damayand had gone. He sent men in all directions to search for them. The King proclaimed that those who found them would be awarded thousand cows. lands assigned to Brahmins, and villages. He proclaimed that so many cows would be given even to those who could give any information about them. Hearing this Brahmanas went in all directions and Sudeva, one of them, reached the Kingdom of Cedi. He recognized Damayanti who was like fire inside the cover of smoke. When Damayand was alone Sudeva approached her and said that he had come from Vidarbha and that he was a friend of Damayand's brother. Damayand recognized Sudeva and she cried aloud. Sunanda who saw this scene, told her mother about it. The queen sent for Sudeva and asked him what the matter was. He revealed everything about Damayand, to the queen. When they heard the story all the women in the harem cried. Then with tears the queen said, "Hear this, Damayanti, your mother and myself are the two daughters of Sudama the King of Dasarna. Father gave your mother to Bhima the King of Vidarbha and me to Virabahu the King of Cedi. I have seen you when you were an infant."
When the King of Cedi knew everything he sent Damayanti in a palanquin to Vidarbha.
9) The search for Nala. Damayand told her father that she didn't want to live any longer unless Nala was brought to her. Bhima had been trying hard to find out Nala. One day Parnada one of the numerous Brahmins who were engaged in the search for Nala, came to Bhima and said, "while I was wandering from place to place,.I happened to reach the palace of Rtuparna the King of Ayodhya. There I made enquiries about Nala the husband of Damayand, in the presence of the King. But nobody gave me any answer. When I returned Bahuka the charioteer of Rtuparna followed me. An ugly man with short hands, an expert in driving horses, and an excellent cook, he asked me several questions about Damayand."
When Damayanti heard this she had horripilation. She secretly went to her mother and compelled her to send Sudeva the Brahmana to Ayodhya. Her mother consented. She called Sudeva, in the presence of her mother and told him to go to Ayodhya and tell Rtuparna that the second svayariivara (marriage) of Damayanti would take place before sunrise next day and that he should come earlier. Sudeva instantly went to Ayodhya.
Rtuparna, hearing the words of Sudeva, wanted Bahuka to take him in the chariot to Vidarbha within the period of a day time for the second svayamvara of Damayanti. Nala consented with a breaking heart. Immediately they started. Varsneya also got into the chariot. The chariot flew through the sky with tremendous speed, to Vidarbha. On the way the upper garment of the King fell on the ground. He ordered the chariot to be stopped for taking his upper garment. Nala said that within that winking time the chariot had travelled a yojana (league) and gloried in his power of driving horses. Then they saw in the forest a Tanni tree (Terminalia bellerica) with fruits. Seeing the Tanni tree the King said, "O Bahuka, if you are an expert in horse-driving I am an expert in reckoning. I will te1l you how many leaves and nuts there are in that Tanni Tree. There are five crores of leaves in both the branches together and two thousand and ninetyfive nuts. They stopped the chariot and checked the tree and found the reckoning of the King correct. The King had the knowledge of the art called `Aksahrdaya'. It was with this art that the king calculated the number of leaves in the tree, at one look. Bahuka drove the chariot with the speed of wind because he had known the art called `Asvahrdaya'. Then and there, Bahuka taught the King the art of `Agvahrdaya' and the King taught Bahuka the art of `Aksahrdaya'. The
moment Nala learned Aksahrdaya Kali vomitted the poison of Karkotaka and got out of the body of Nala. Long ago, the mother of Indrasena, a god, had cursed Kali and drove him out. Since then Kali had been living in the body of Nala. As soon as he came out Kali begged Nala for pardon. Nala curbed his anger. But Kali was afraid of Nala. So he made the Tanni tree his abode. Because of that Tanni became detestable.
lttuparna, Varsneya and Bahuka reached Kundinapura in the evening. When the sound of the chariot of Nala reached the ears of Damayand her heart bumped with joy. The chariot was stopped and Rtuparna entered the palace. The King Bhima welcomed Rtuparna heartily. As there was no sign of any preparation for the svayarhvara (marriage) Rtuparna understood that some sort of trick had been played on him. 10) Test of Nala. Damayanti sent her maid Keg in! to Bahuka to watch him. Keg in! had a secret talk with Bahuka. Though Nala did not reveal himself, he cried when she talked about Damayanti. Kegini returned to Damayanti and told her what she had heard and seen. Damayanti became more and more convinced that Bahuka was Nala himself So she sent Keg in! again to Nala. She discovered the following facts about Bahuka, after a keen observation, and made a report of them.
(1) Bahuka does not stop to pass through even a small door. The upper sill lifts by itself for him to pass through.
(2) He gets enough room for him to pass through even a big crowd.
(3) Empty pots are filled with water at a look from him. (4) When he stretches out a grass to the sun, it catches fire.
(5) Fire does not burn him even if he touches it.
(6) When he crushes a flower, it blooms more beautiful and fragrant than before.
When Kegini said all these facts to Damayand, she became fully convinced that Bahuka was none other than Nala himself. Damayanti sent Keg in! again to Bahuka to get some meat cooked by him. Damayanti tested the taste of the meat brought by Kegini and she knew that the food was cooked by Nala. She sent Keg in! again to Bahuka with her children. Seeing Indrasena and Indrasena coming to him, Bahuka ran to them, gathered them and embraced them and cried aloud. Then he told Keg in! that he had done so because the children were just like his two children.
11) Reunion. After having tested Bahuka so far D4.mayanti sent Keg in! to her mother to tell her everything, and to say that she was convinced of the fact that Bahuka was none other than Nala and that the difference was only in shape and to request that she may be permitted to see Bahuka in person. The queen informed the King of all these facts. With the permission of her parents Bahuka was brought to the room of Damayanti. The moment Bahuka saw Damayanti he began to shed tears. Damayanti also was filled with emotion. But she told him thus :-
"Bahuka, have you seen a, man who had left his sleeping wife in the forest ? Who else, but Nala the famous and the righteous would discard his blameless and loving wife who had been sleeping, with fatigue and hunger in a lonely place ? Have I done anything wrong to him in my younger days so that he should leave me in the forest when I was sleeping ?Leaving aside real gods I married him. I worshipped, him. I had chi1dren from his blood and now he has abandoned me. In the presence of Gods and with fire as witness, holding my hands he had taken a vow that he would support and protect me. Where has that vow gone ?" At these words Bahuka shed tears for a long time. Then he told her all that had happened to him since their separation. Damayanti requested Nala, not to have any misconception regarding the idea of a second svayamvara; she said to him that she committed no wrong and that her fidelity and loyalty had undergone no change. At that time Vayu (the wind-god) in an etherial voice said "Damayand has committed no sin". Immediately Nala put on the divine clothes given by Karkotaka and regained his original form. Damayand embraced Nala and cried aloud. The king her father, mother and the people of the city all ran to them.
Next day Rtuparna returned. After a few days Nala collected an army consisting of three hundred soldiers, sixteen elephants, fifty horses and a white chariot only, from Vidarbha and went to the kingdom of Nisadha. Reaching there Nala challenged Puskara for a game of dice. Puskara refused the challenge. Nala took his sword to cut Puskara into two. Finally Puskara agreed to play. At the first cast of the dice the life and the kingdom of Puskara fell into the hands of Nala. But Nala did not kill Puskara; instead, he embraced him. Nala became King. Damayanti and the children reached Nisadha. Nala ruled the country with more happiness and prosperity than before. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapters 52 to 79).
DAMAYANT1 II. The daughter of Pramloca. See Vi9 vakarma, 2nd para.
DAMBARA. One of the two attendants given by Brahma to Subrahmanya. The other attendant's name is Adambara. (M.B. 8alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 39).
DAIVIBHA. A danava or asura. Darfibha was the son of Vipracitti an asura born to Kasyapa by his wife Danu. This Dariibha is the father of gankhacudaan asura. Dambha received from their teacher Sukra, the spell known as the famous Vi snumantra and went to Puskaratirtha and did penance there for one lac of years. It was due to this penance that the son S`ankhacuda was born to him. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 9).
DAIVIBHODBHAVA. An ancient emperor. He was a mighty warrior prince. He brought the whole world under control. At last-there was nobody left to fight with. So he walked about challenging everybody he met with. But none dared to fight with him. Then Brahma advised him to challenge Nara Narayanas who were doing penance on the northern-most point of the earth. So the emperor went with his mighty army to Gandhamadana and informed Nara and Narayana of his desire to fight. They said that they were mere hermits and that they had no power to fight. But Dambhodbhava was not satisfied. Finally Nara and Narayana took some isika grass and began to fight the emperor with it. Though the army of the emperor was mighty and vast it could not stand against the grass in the hands of the
hermits. Finally the emperor admitted failure and bowed before the hermits. They advised him not to be arrogant in future and to lead a pure life. Hearing the exhortations of the hermits the emperor became a devoted man. He returned to his palace and led a life of righteousness. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 96).
DAMI. A famous holy place. Brahma usually sits in this place and worships Mahesvara. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 72, it is mentioned that all the sins -of those who bathe in this place will be washed away.
DAIVISA. The giant who took birth as the worm `Alarkkam'. This giant came in the shape of a beetle and pierced the leg of Karna, the disciple of Paragurama. Darin a once kidnapped the wife of Bhrgu, and the hermit cursed the giant and turned him to a beetle. He also said that ParameSvara wou1d absolve him from the curse. (See Karna, Para 4).
DAMODARA. Sri Krsna. When Sri Krsna was a small boy, Yas odd tied him to a mortar-stone. The buy ran about, dragging the heavy stone with him and the rope snapped. Part of the rope still remained round his abdomen. From that he got the name Damodara. "Dama" means rope and "Udara" means abdomen. (See KMrs 1a).
DAMO p.. I. A sage in the assembly of Yudhisthira. Once he met Sri Krsna who was on his way to Ha' stinapura. (M.B. Sabha- Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 13).
DANADARI. A town in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 52).
DANAM. Gift. In ancient India a spiritual significance was attached to danam. (offering of a free gift). One who gave water was said to achieve contentment; one who gave food, eternal happiness; one who gave land, government of the country; one who gave gold would attain longevity; one who gave a house would get domestic felicity; one who gave silver would get physical beauty; one who gave clothes would reach candraloka; one who gave a horse would attain the world of the Asvinidevas; onewho gave bulls would get prosperity; one who gave cows would reach suryaloka; according to Manusmrti.
Sukhamaksayyamannadah / Tilapradah prajamislam
(Manusmrti, Chapter 4). According to Manu, the Acarya, the rewards obtained by offering the following articles as "Danam"
Articles offered as Danam Reward obtained Vehicle-bed Refuge (shelter) Corn Brahmajnana Virtuous wife. Prosperity. Eternal happiness. Brahmasayujya. (See also Naksatrayoga and Merudana).
DANAVA. Danavas are the sons born to Ka<yapa Prajapati by his wife Danu and their descendants. (See under Danu).
DAleIAYUS. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. Ka.4yapaprajapati married Danayus. Four sons Viksara, Bala, Vira and Vrata were born to her. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65).
DAi; l,)A I. A king who was the son of Iksvaku. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 45, that this King was the rebirth of Krodhahanta, an asura.
1) Birth. Iksvaku had one hundred sons. Of them Vikuksi, Nimi and Danda were famous. Danda became a famous archer when he grew up. In the I~rahmanda Purana mention is made that this King Danda took part in the Devasura battle (Battle between the gods and the demons) and killed several thousand asuras (demons).
2) Administration. The king Iksvaku gave his son Danda the country between the mountains Himalaya and Vindhya and anointed him the King of that country. Danda built a capital city known as Madhumatta and began to rule the country. He had an army of Caturai;ga (four parts, elephant, chariot, horse and infantry). The hermit ~amana was the priest of King Danda. (Uttararamayana).
3) The origin of Dandakararya (the forest of Dandaka ).
Danda once raped Ara-, the daughter of hermit gukra, who had been doing penance in a forest in the middle of the country of Danda. 8ukra the hermit got angry and destroyed the country of Danda by a shower of fire. From that day onwards that country was known as Dandakaranya. (For further information see underara).
1) General information. Another Ksatriya King of ancient India. He was the son of the King Vidanda. In Ma.habharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, it is mentioned that Vidanda and Danda had attended Draupadi Svayamvara (the marriage of Draupadi).
2) Other information. (1) Bhimasena defeated the King Danda. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 307, Stanza 177).
(2) This King Danda was the brother of Dandadhara, the king of Magadha. Dandadhara and DaIlda were killed by Arjuna in battle. (~I.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 18, Stanza 16).
DANDA III. An attendant of the Sun. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 68).
DANDA IV. .A warrior of the kingdom of Cedi. He fought on the side of the Pandavas against the Kauravas and was killed by Karna. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter
56, Stanza 49).
DA?~DA V. A synonym of Mahavisnu. (M.B. Anugasana Parva, Chapter 149, Stanza 105).
DANDA VI (DANDAKA). A thief who had made the world tremble in the Dvapara yuga. This wicked Dandaka used to steal the wealth of the Brahmanas, kill those who trusted him, speak lies, rape the women of others, drink liquor, cat the. flesh of cows, mingle with wicked people and do various other sinful deeds daily. Danda once went to a Vaisnavite temple to commit robbery. When he reached the steps of the temple he wiped his legs which were wet, on the ground and a small depression that was there, was levelled by the
drawing of his legs. He broke the lock with an iron rod and entered the temple. Inside the temple he saw Krsna, clad in yellow robes lying on a beautiful cot, with his spouse Radha. The thief instantly bowed before the spouse of Radha. By this act his sins were washed away. Still impelled by his evil nature, he took the silk garment of Krsna, spread it on the ground, collected as many things as he could take, placed them in the garment and making them into a bundle, got out of the temple with shaky feet. The bundle fell on the ground with a loud noise. Hearing the noise the neighbours woke up and looked out. The thief began to run and was bitten by a poisonous snake and fell down dead. The men of Yama (God of death) tied the"spirit of the thief with a rope and took him before Yama. Citragupta looked into his accounts and informed Yama that he had committed all the sins. Yama asked if there was any good deed to his account. Then Citragupta said "When this great sinner was going to commit theft in a Vaisnavite temple, at the steps of the temple, he levelled a pit by the mud on his leg, and that single good deed on his part has wiped out all his sins." Hearing this Yama, gave him a golden seat and showed hospitality and then bowed before him and said "By the soil on your legs you have purified my abode today. I am grateful to you. Now you may go to the blissfu1 world of Visnu where there are no deaths or births or sorrow". Hearing this Danda entered Vaikuntha. (Padma Purana, Chapter 1 ).
DANDA VII. A giant (Raksasa). This giant Danda was born to the giant Sumali, by his wife Ketumati. The nine ministers of Ravana, named Prahasta, Akampana, Vikata, Kalakdmukha, Dhumraksa, Suparva, Samhrada, Prakvata and Bhasakarna were brothers of this Danda. (Uttara Ramayana).
DANDAM I. A divine weapon of Kala (Mama). It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 41, Stanza 26 that King Yama had presented this weapon to Arjuna.
DATTDAM II . A holy place on the bank of river PampaThose who bathe in this holy place will get the fruits of giving a thousand cows as Gift. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 15) .
DANPAM III. One of the four expedients. The four expedients are Sama, Dana, Bheda and Danda. A king should subdue an enemy by resorting to these four expedients. Of the four expedients, sama and danda are considered to be the best.
DANDABAHU. A warrior of Subrahmanya (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, ,Stanza 73 ).
DANDADHARA I. A Ksatriya King of Magadha. The following information about this King is available from the Mahabharata.
1) Dandadhara was born as the rebirth of a. giant known as Krodhavardhana. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 46).
2) Bhimasena, during his conquest of the countries, overcame King Dandadhara and his brother Danda.
(M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Stanza 17) .
3) In the battle between the PAndavas and the Kauravas, Dandadhara fought from the back of an elephant against the Pandavas. When Dandadhara began to exterminate the army of the Pandavas, Sri Krsna persuaded Arjuna to fight against Dandadhara, who was killed in the fight. (M.B. Karna larva, Chapter 8, Stanzas 1 to 13).
DANDADHARA II. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Bhimasena killed this Dandadhara in the battle of k.uruksetra. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 5).
DANDADHARA III. A king who helped the Pandavas. Very often the name Maniman also occurs along with the. name of Dandadhara. They might have been brothers or sons of the same father by separate mothers. In the Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 186, Stanza 7, mention is made that these two had been present at the marriage of Draupadi. Dronacarya killed both of them in the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Stanza 13).
DANDADHARA IV. A warrior born and bred in the country of Paficala. He kept the rear of the army of Yudhisthira in the battle of Bharata against the Kauravas. He died by an arrow of Karna. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 49, Stanza 27).
DANDAGAURi. A celestial maid. When Arjuna visited devaloka, there was a dance of this woman in honour of him. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 43, Stanza 29).
DANDAKA. See Danda VI.
DANDAKARA. A Sudra who had saved himself from going to hell by taking the vow ca1led Visnupaficaka. This Sudra who lived in the tretayuga had done a good deal of wicked deeds. Finally he accepted the advice of Brahmanas and performed the vow of Visnupaficaka and because of the vow he attained heaven. (Padma Purina, Chapter 23).
DANDAKARANTYA. A forest in the Indo-Gangetic Valley. For the story of how~this place became a great forest see under Ara.
Other information. (1) This is a holy place. He who takes bath in this place would get the fruits of giving a thousand cows as gift. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 41).
(2) During the time of the forest life of Sri Rama he made his cottage in this forest and stayed there for a while. It was in this forest that a part of the body of $urpanakhi was cut off and the infantry of fourteen thousand giants who came under the leadership. of Khara, Du~ana and Trisira was completely destroyed. Sit! was stolen, Mirica was killed by Sri Rama, and jaliyu died by the sword of Rivana in this forest of Dandakaranya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 277 to 279. )
DANDAKETU. A warrior who fought on the side of the Pandavas. Dandaketu fought on the back of an attractive horse. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Stanza 68).
DANDANITI. (The laws of chastisement). Dandaniti is the law of punishment given to the subjects by Kings of ancient India. According to the criminal laws of ancient India, fining a man upto two hundred and fifty panas (a coin) was called Prathama ~ahasa danda (first degree of punishment) and fining up to five hundred panas was called Madhyama Sahasa
danda (medium punishment) and fining upto thousand panas was called Uttama Sahasa danda (highest degree of punishment). If a man complains to the king that his property is stolen, when actually it is not stolen, the man will be fined the amount that is said to have been stolen. There was another law, that the owner of the stolen property and the thief would have to pay double the amount they admit, if the amount shown in the complaint differed from the actual amount stolen. For appearing as false witness, the three classes of non-Brahmins were punished with fine and if he was a Brahmin he would have to be cast out of the society. The King ordered that if one spent the property entrusted with him for keeping, the owner of the property would have to be paid double the amount. If one says that he has given the property for keeping when actually it is not, the person will have to be punished as if he were a thief. If a man spends an amount without knowing that it was the property of others, the man will have to be acquitted of the charge.
If an artisan has received money in advance for a particular product and fails to give the thing at the stipulated time the King will fine the artisan one svarna. If a man received money in advance on a promise to do a particular work and if he fails to do the work he will be fined one Krsnala of gold. (One Krsnala weighs three yavagrains). If a man conceals his diseases and marries a damsel, she will be considered as a spinster and the man will be fined two hundred panas. If a cowherd agrees to look after the cows of another receiving pay and food and refuses to return the cow to the owner the King will fine him hundred panas. If a Ksatriya scoffed a Brahmana the fine imposed would be hundred panas. If it is a Vai~ya the fine will be two hundred panas. If it is a 8udra he will be put to death. If a Bhrahmin scoffs a Ksatriya the fine is fifty panas. If a SO scoffs a Vaisya the fine is twentyfive panas. If a Brahmin scoffs a 8udra the fine is only twelve panas. If a kdra scoffs a Ksatriya his tongue should be cut off. If a 8udra advises a Brahmin, he may inflict any punishment on the 8udra.
If a S`udra wronged a Brahmin, the kdra might be punished by cutting off the organ which was employed in the crime. If one spat at a Brahmin, the two lips of the culprit might be cut off. If a man passed urine on a Brahmin the culprit would have his penis cut off. If a 9izdra sits on the seats of the upper classes his buttock will have to be cut off: If one slays cow, elephant, camel or horse half of his limbs will have to be cut off. Cutting across a road, changing of boundaries, making the water of pools and ponds impure etc. will have to be punished with a fine of two suvarnas. (Agni Purina, Chapter 227).
DANTDAPAYI I. A king of the family of Yayati. This King was the son of Vibhinara and the father of Nimi. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).
DANDAPANI II. The son of Paundraka, the King of Kasi. Sri Krsna killed Paundraka. As his son Dandapani was not powerful enoughi to kill- Sri Krsna, he performed the sacrifice of Mahesvara yajna. Being pleased at the sacrifice Siva created Krtya in the sacrificial fire and sent her to Dvaraka to destroy Sri Krsna, who aimed his Sudarsana cakra (wheel-weapon) at her. She ran to Varanasi, where the wheel turned
Krtya and everybody with her to ashes.. (PadrnaPurana, Uttara Kanda, Chapter 278).
DANDA$LJKA. A hell. See the para Naraka under Kala.
DANI)I I. A son of Dhrtarastra. Mention is- made about him in Mahabbarata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 103.
DANDI II. A god. This god is worshipped as a waiter of the Sun. The sun is consecrated in a chariot of one wheel, yoked with seven horses, and wearing two lotus flowers. On the rightside of the Sun his waiter Dandi will be standing as door-keeper with ink arid pen in his hand, and on the left his waiter Pixigala will be standing with a stick in his hand. These two gate-keepers are the two ganas of the Sun-. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51) .
DANAPT III. A famous critic and writer of Sanskrit literature. He lived in the 6th century B.C. His .critical work Kavyadars a made him famous. There are three chapters in this book. The first chapter is about criticism of poetry and the use of idioms. The second chapter deals with figurative language. The third chapter deals with alliteration and rhyme and the flaws in poetry.
`Dasakumaracarita', is supposed to be another work of Dandi. (History of Classical Sanskrit Literature).
DANTA. Son of Bhima, King of Vidarbha. This prince was the brother of Damayanti: (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 53, Verse 9).
DANTA. An apsaras of Alakapuri. Once she danced in honour of the sage Astavakra. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 45).
DANTADHVAJA. The son of Manu Tamasa. Once Dandadhvaja gave as oblation his flesh and blood in fire, to get children. But it was of no use. So he put his hair of the body, of the head, his sinews, the marrow of the bones, and liver and sperm in the fire. When the sperm was put in the fire there was a voice `Don't' and with that the king fel1 dead. And instantly seven luminous children came out from the fire. They began to cry aloud. Hearing their cry Brahma came there and anointed them as the Maruts (wind gods). They were the maruts of Tamasamanvantara. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 72).
DANTAVAKTRA I. A Ksatriya king of Karusa. He was the rebirth of the daitya (asura) Krodhavaga. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 62 ).
DANTAVAKTRA II. He was the rebirth of Vijaya, one of the two door-keepers of Mahavisrxu, Jaya and Vijaya. (For full particulars see under Jaya).
Dantavaktra was a contemporary king of Sri Krsna. Dantavaktra died in a battle with Sri Krsna and returned to Vaikuntha (the abode of Visnu).
DANTIMUKHA. An asura (demon). This asura was killed in a fight with Subrahmanya. (Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda).
1) General information. Danu, the daughter of Daksa was married to Kasyapa Prajapati. It is mentioned in Mahabharata that the Danavas (demons) were born from Danu.
2) Sons. One hundred sons were born to Danu. The following are the important among them.
6. Kes i
9. As' vas iras
11. , Garga
(This sun and the moon (Surya
20. Asvagrivan 21. Suksma 22. Tuhunda 23. Ekapad 24. Ekacakra 25. Virupaksa 26. Harihara 27. Nicandra 28. Nikumbha 29. Kapata 30. 8arabha 31. 8alabha 32. Surya 33. Candra. and Candra) are not the planets). From the sons named above ten families of Danavas (asuras ) arose. The founders of the families are mentioned belowI. Ekaksa 2. Amrtapa 3. Pralamba 4. Naraka 5. Vatapi 6. Tapana 7. Sara 8. Mahahanu 9. Garvistha 10. Dirghajihva
All the danavas or Asuras belong to one of these ten families. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65).
DANU II. A King. Two sons Rambha and Karambha were barn to this king. (See Karambha).
DARADA I. King of an ancient country known as Balhika. It is stated in Mahabharata Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 58 that this King was the incarnation of a portion of the asura named Surya. At the time of his birth the earth was cleaved because of his weight.
DARADA II. An ancient country in North East India. The people of this country were called the Daradas. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, that Arjuna conquered this country during his conquest of countries. The Daradas paid tribute to Yudhisthira. During their forest-life the Pandavas had passed through the country of the Daradas. At the beginning of the Bharata-battle, the Pandavas had sent invitation to the Daradas also. But they fought on the side of the Kauravas. Mentionis made in Mahabharata, Drona. Parva, Chapter 70, Stanza 11 that S`ri Krsna had conquered the Darada country. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 121, that in the battle of Bharata the Daradas attacked Satyaki and that Satyaki killed them.
DARADA III. A tribe. At first they were Ksatriyas. They grew iealous of the Brahmanas and so they were changed to Sudras. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 17).
DARADAM. A place in ancient India. There is a reference to this place in Mahabharata, ~alya Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 50.
DARBHI. An ancient hermit. This hermit built a tirtha (bath) named Ardhakila in Kuruksetra. It is believed that anybody who bathed in this place and fasted could learn the mantras (spells and incantations) and become a Brahmana. It occurs in the Purarxas that the hermit Darbhi.has brought the four. oceans to this bath. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 54).
DARDDURA. A mountain. The deity of this mountain is said to be sitting in the council hall of Kubera (the god of wealth) and worshipping him, according to Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 1, Stanza 35.
DARI. A serpent born in the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent fell into the sacrificial fire of Janamejaya and was burnt to death. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 16).
DARIDRA. A king born in the family of Yayati. He was the son of Dundubhi and father of Vasu. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).
DARPA. A king of the family of Yayati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).
DARUAKA. A country in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 53).
1) Sri Krsna's charioteer. In the Mahabharata, we come across few persons who excel Daruka in their skill as charioteers. We find the following details about him in the Mahabharata :-
1) When Sri Krsna fought against King klva, Daruka was over-whelmed by Salva's arrows. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 5 ).
2) At the time of the battle at Kuruksetra, hearing the sound of gri Krsna's conch-shell, Daruka drove his chariot and brought it before Sri Krsna. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 45).
3) When Satyaki fought with Karna, Daruka drove Satyaki's chariot. At that time he proved his extraordinary skill in charioteering. (M.B. Drona Par'va, Chapter 147, Verse 54).
4) After being attended by Daruka, Sri Krsna's chariot horses flew up into the Heavens. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 5).
5) It was Daruka who informed the Pandavas that the Yaduvarhsa had perished. On his return, he accompanied Arjuna in his journey to Dvaraka. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 5).
DARUKA II. A charioteer of Mahisasura. (Devi Bhagavata, Pancama Skandha). For further details about this Daruka, see under Ghantakarna.
DARUKA 111. A son of Garuda. (M.B. .Udyoga Parva, .!Mapter 10 1, Verse 9 contains a reference to this Daruka).
DARUTAM. A naraka (hell). See under Naraka.
DARVA. A Ksatriya king of the land called Darvam. Opinion is divided as to whether Darvam is the name of a land or of a caste. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 18).
DARVA. A country in Ancient India. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 54.
DARVADHISARA (S ). A low class people. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 93, Verse 44).
DARVAM. The word Darvas indicates a particular class of Ksatriyas. In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Stanza 13, it is said that the Ksatriyas of this family had presented Dharmaputra with a large quantity of wealth.
DARVI. An ancient town in India. (M.B. Blrisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 54).
DARVTSAIKRAMANA. A holy place. Those who visit this place will get the fruits of performing the sacrifice of Asvamedha and will attain heaven. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 45).
DADA. A country in Ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 56) . i. It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 274, Stanza
DASA. -A term used as a suffix to the name of a kdra. In ancient India the rule was that the proper suffix for a Brahmin's name should be `karma', for a Ksatriya's name, `Varma', for a Vaisya's name, 'Gupta' and for a Sudra's name, `Dasa'. (See under Caturvarnya).
DASADRYU. A hermit. It is mentioned in Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 7, Sukta 33 that Dasadryu was a valiant hermit.
DASAGRIVA. Ravana. (See under Ravana).
DASAJYOTI. A son of the King Subhrat. Mention is made about him in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Stanza 44.
DASAMALIKA. A country in Bharata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 66).
DASAMUKHA RAVANA. Ravana, the enemy of Sri Rama. (See under Ravana).
DASANANA. See under Ravana.
DASARAJA. Foster-father of Santanu's wife, Satyavati. His actual name was Uccaihsravas. For detailed story see under Satyavati.
DASARAJIVA. A great war which took place in India in ancient times. It was a terrible clash between the Aryans who lived in Pancanada and the primitive inhabitants of India, before the Rgveda period. Sudas, the king was the adversary of the Aryans. Among the relatives of Sudas were Aryans and non-Aryans. It was the people under Sudas who got victory in this war. Anyway, with this war, (Dasarajna), a new mixed race of people came into being in North India, which was composed of the Aryans and the primitive inhabitants of the country. The Hindus are the descendants of this mixed race. (Rgveda ) .
DASARATHA. (Nemi). A famous king of the Iksvaku dynasty. He was the father of Sri Rama.
1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following order. Brahma - Marici - Kasyapa = Vivasvan-Vaivasvata Manu-Iksvaku-Vikuksi-Sas ada- Kakutstha - Anenas-Prthulasva-Prasenajit-Yuvanasva-MandhataPurukutsa-Trasadasyu-Anaranya-Haryas v a- Vasumanas-Sudhanva--Traiyyaruna--Satyavrata (Trisariku) Hariscandra-Rohitasva-Harita-Cuncu - SudevaBharuka-Bahuka-Sagara-Asamarijas - AxirsumanBhagiratha- Srtanabha - Sindhudvipa - AyutayusRtuparna-Sarvakaina-Sudas-Mit_rasaha - (Kalmasapada) - Asmaka - Mulaka - Khatvariga (Dilipa; Dirgha bahu)-Raghu-Aja-Daasratha.
2) Birth. ~Dasaratha was the son of Aja, of the family of Iksvaku, born of his wife Indumati.r
3 ) Da~aratha's hunt. Once during the early part of his life Dasaratha was walking through a forest engaged in hunting. He reached the bank of the river Sarayu. It was evening and the forest was thick. He walked in search of wild animals. The night was advancing and darkness getting thicker. Then he heard a sound from the river as if an elephant was drinking water. Thinking it to be an elephant DaAaratha .sent an arrow in the direction from which the sound came. Instantly he heard a man crying with pain. The king was disappointed. He ran to the spot and saw a hermit boy lying in a pool of blood beating his limbs on the ground and crying. The waterpot he had been dipping in the water lay close by. In answer to the questions of the King, the
6 that `Ilabila, was the name of the mother of Dasaratha. hermit boy whose name was 8ravana,; said, "Oh King ! What wrong have I done ? My parents are sitting thirsty and blind with age, in the hermitage closeby. I, their only son, was dipping the pot to take water to them, when you sent the arrow at me. So, please take some water to them in this pot and console them."
Hearing this, with tears the King drew out the fatal arrow from the body of the boy and with that the boy ~ravana said good bye to the world. Dasaratha took water in the pot and went in search of the hermitage in the darkness. With difficulty he found out the hermitage and as he drew near, the aged parents of the boy heard his footsteps and called him eagerly. The King, with tearful eyes told them what had happened. There was loud wailing and crying in the hermitage. According to their wish the King took them to where their son lay. Then the King made a fire and placed the dead body of the boy in it. The aged and blind parents cursed Dar aratha, "You also will die of loss of children". Then they also entered the fire and were burnt along with their son's dead body. (Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda, Sarga 63).
4) Marriage. Dasaratha had three wives, named Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra.
5) Kaikeyi given a boon. There was a great battle in the world of the gods between the asuras and the gods. According to the request of the devas, Dasaratha went to the world of the devas to help them. Kaikeyi also went with Daaaratha. In a severe fight with Sambara, an asura, Dasaratha fell down unconscious. Kaikeyi took him away from the battle-field. When he recovered the King got into the chariot and fought more fiercely than before. This time the wheel-bolt of one of the wheels of the chariot of Dasaratha slipped away. Without informing her husband of this danger, Kaikey"; inserted her finger into the bolt-hole and prevented the wheel from sliding away. The King won the battle. After the battle, when the King came to know of the services rendered by Kaikeyi, he promised her two boons. Kaikeyi told the King that she would ask for them later, when she needed them. Then they returned to Ayodhya. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sarga 9, Karitpa Ramayana, Bala Kanda). 6) Administration of Dasaratha. The capital of bas a,ratha's kingdom of Kosala, was Ayodhya. This city was situated on the bank of river Sarayu. Dasaratha was as famous in Ayodhyd as Indra was in the realm of the gods. There were palaces in Ayodhya for the kings who brought tribute to stay. In short, as mentioned in Valmiki Rarnayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 5, Ayodhya was the heaven on earth.
7) Ministers. Dagaratha had eight ministers, Srsli, Jayanta, Vijaya, Siddhartha, Rasxravardhana, Agoka, Dharmapala, and Sumantra. (Agni Purana, Chapter 6): 8) The name Dafaratha. The real name of Dasaratha was Nemi. Once the unattackable and invincible asura S`arhbara conquered the throne of Indra. At the request of Brahma and the gods, this King reached heaven and destroyed the armies of the asuras very easily. Sariibara got angry, assumed ten shapes and attacked the King from ten points at the same time. The king confronted the ten ~ambaras at ten points, at the same time, and killed all of them at the same moment. Because 'he faced his chariot to ten points at the same time and fought with enemies on those ten points Brahma appret. 1n Agnipurana Chapter 6, it is stated that the name of this
ciated his valiant fighting and charioteecring and gave him the name `Dasaratha' (one who is capable of driving the chariot to ten points at the same time). Thus has original name was forgotten and he came to be known only by the name given him later. (Karhpa kamayana, Yuddha Kan4a).
3) Birth of Sons. Kausalya was the first wife of Dasaratha. She was the daughter of the King of Uttara Kosala. A daughter named Banta was born to Da aratha by Kausalya. After this, no sons or daughters were born to Dasaratha for a long time.
At this juncture Lomapada, the king of Anga who was the class-mate and a great friend of Das aratha, came to Ayodhya on a friend1y visit. He also had no children. So he entreated DaSaratha to give Santa to him as a foster-daughter. Thus he took away Santa to Anga. Lomapada gave Santa in marriage to Rsyasrnga a hermit. (See under Rsyasrnga).
As Kausalya was childless Dasaratha brought as his wife Kaikeyi the daughter of the King of Kekaya and sister of Yudhajit. Still no children were born to them. He was much disappointed. At last he married again and brought Sumitra the princess of Ka4i. Of these three, Kausalya was the chief wife.
Though he had three wives, Dasaratha still remained childless. The King and his queens spent their days in sorrow for a long time. The King remembered the curse he had incurred when he was young. The curse was that as they had died with sorrow at the death of their son Sravana, the same thing would happen to me. So he believed that sons would be born to him.
He performed several devotional acts to get children. Finally he gave up all kingly pleasures and began to lead an ascetic life. He built a temple for his own use and consecrated the idol of Mahavisnu in it. Then entrusting the administration of the Kingdom to his ministers he and his wives engaged themselves in daily devotion and meditation in the temple. Then the King decided to perform the sacrifice of Putrakamesti (sacrifice for getting children) by the hermit Rsyasrnga under the guidance of Vasistha. The King informed Rsyasrnga of his decision. Rsyasrriga could not refuse the King's request as She king was his father-in-law. Moreover Lomapada and Santa also requested the hermit to comply with the desire of Dasaratha. So Rsyasrnga came to Ayodhya and the sacrifice of Putrakamesti was begun. The air vibrated with the recitation of mantras (spells and incantations) and the Veda Suktas. The hermit uttered the divine spell of Putrakamesxi and offered oblations in the sacrificial fire. Then a wonderful and luminous figure came out of the fire pith a pot containing a pudding of ambrosia, and placed the pot before Rsya~rnga and then disappeared in the sacrificial fire. When the wonderful figure disappeared, Rsyasrnga took the pot of pudding and gave it to Dag aratha with prayer and incantations. Da.4aratha received the golden pot and in accordance with the instruction of the hermit, divided the pudding between his first wife Kaugalya and second wife Kaikeyi, both of whom gave half of their share to Sumitra. Thus the three wives ate the divine pudding and by and by all of them became pregnant. Kaugalya and Kaikeyi gave birth to a son each and Sumitra gave birth to two sons. The son of Kaus alya was called Rama, the son of Kaikeyi was named Bharata and the hermit boy was Yajnadatta.
Sons of Sumitra were called Laksmana and S`atrughna. Yadava leaders was known by the name of Dasarhi.
(Karfpa Ramayana, Bala Kanda).
DASARALA. An inhabitant of the Dasarna country. This name is also used for addressing King Dasarna. (Mh.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 47).
DASARNA (M). An ancient country, famous in the Puranas.
1) General information. This country had bcen divided into two, Eastern Dasarna and Western Da,'arna. The modern Patna and the surrounding places comprised Eastern Dasarna and the places of Malva, the Western Dasdrna. Some are of opinion that Daarna comprises the South-East part of the Vindhya mountain. It is men tioned in `Meghaduta' that Vidisa was the capital of Da'sarna. The modern name of Vidisa is Bhilsa.
(2) Other information regarding Dasdrna.
(1) Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 112, Stanza 25, that once Pandu brought the country of Vidis a under subjugation.
(2) At another time Bhimasena conquered the country (r)f Da;arna. (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter
29, Stanza 5) .
(3) Nakula once conquered Parva, Chapter 32, Stanza
10) The boon of ~Sani (Saturn). Astronomers are of opinion that famine will occur in the world for the period of twelve- years, when the planet Sani (Saturn) comes into the orbit of Rohini (a star). But now the planet Saturn does not come into the orbit of the star Rohini. There is a story in the Padma Purana, which states that this happened so because of a boon Sani had given to Dasaratha.
During the regime of Dasaratha the planet Sani approached the orbit of Rohini. Experts in astronomy said that the earth would be ruined by famine etc. if $ani cleft the star Rohini. Hearing this Dasaratha took his bow and arrows, got into his chariot, and started for the firmament. He travelled for one lac and a quarter of yojanas (leagues) and reached the hind part of Rohini, which is beyond the sun. Adorned with golden garments and a golden crown studded with jewels, seated on a golden chariot decorated with precious stones, and a lofty flagpost and yoked with horses of the colour of swan, the king shone in the sky as a second sun. He drew the bow-string right upto his ear and placed in it the arrow of destruction. When the devas and the asuras saw the arrow of destruction they began to tremble with fear. 8ani came to Dagaratha and fell before him and said that 'he would grant any boon to the King, and requested him to recall the arrow of destruction. Dasaratha told 8ani that he only wanted ~ani not to come to the orbit of Rohini. Sani agreed: From that day onwards ~ani has never entered the orbit of Rohini. (Padma Purana, Uttara Kanda, Chapter 34).
11) Death. Rama and Laksmana with Sita went to live in the forest. Sumantra who accompanied them up to the river Ganges, returned to the palace. By then Dagaratha had fallen down filled with grief. He had never recovered from that state of unconsciousness. At the time of his death Bharata and Satrughna had been away in the kingdom of Kekaya and Rama and Laksmana in the forest. Thus the curse he incurred in his younger days from the aged hermit, the father of Sravana, was fully realized.
12 ) Dasaratha appears again. Ravana was killed in the battle. Sita was tested in fire and found sinless. Rama accepted her, seeing that her conjugal fidelity was not marred. At this time diva appeared before Rama in a divine aeroplane. Dasaratha was seated in that plane clad in pure garments. He took Rama and Laksmana into his lap and embraced them. He blessed them and Sita who was standing with folded hands. Then Dasaratha disappeared. (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Sarga 1N).
DASARHA. A king of the Yadu family. He was so famous that his descendants were called the Dasarhas. As Sri Krsna was born as a descendant in the line of Dasarha, Sri Krsna is sometimes called Dasarha, in certain places. For genealogy see under Yaduvamsa.
DASARHI I. A woman belonging to Dasarha's family. Vijaya, the wife of Drumanyu, Sudeva, the wife of Vikanthana, Subharilgi, the wife of Kuru, Kunti, the wife of Pandu-all these Yadava women are entitled to the name Dasarhi. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 38).
DASARHI II. In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Daksinatyapatha, Chapter 38 we find that the assembly of the
this country. (M.B. Sabha 7).
(4) King Sudama ruled over the country of Dasarna. He had two daughters. Bhima, the king of Vidarbha married the first one and Virabahu the king of Cedi married the second daughter. Damayanti was the daughter of Bhima. A daughter named Sunanda was born to Virabahu. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 69). (5) Before the battle of Bharata, Hiranyavarma was the King of Dasarna. Sikhandini the daughter of Drupada went in the guise of a male and married the daughter of Hiranyavarriza. The king of Dasarna who had been deceived thus, attacked Drupada. But the problem was solved because Sikh andiniactuallybecame a male. (See the word Arriba). (1VLB. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 41).
(6) The king of Dasarna took the side of the Kauravas m the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 51, Stanza 12).
(7) Citraaigada was the king of Da~arna at the time of the Asvamedha sacrifice of Yudhisthira. In Maha,bharata, Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 83, it is stated that Arjuna defeated Citrarigada.
DASASVA. Tenth son of Iksvaku. He ruled over the city of Mahismati. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 2, Stanza 6, that Dasasva had a son named Madirasva.
DASAVAMEDHA. A holy place situated in Kuruksetra. It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 14, that those who bathe in this holy place will obtain the fruits of giving a gift of thousand cows.
DASMVAMEDHIKA (M ) . A holy place in Kuruksetra. Those who bathe here will attain Supreme ,Bliss. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 64).
DASAVARA. An asura. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 14 that this asura (demon) serves Varuna and stays in his palace.
DASERAKA(S). Members of a Ksatriya tribe. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 47).
DASERAKA(M). A place-name. It is by observing Sravana Dvadasi at a spot to the west of this place that a Vaisya attained rnoksa (salvation). (See under Sravanadvadasi ) .
DASCRA. A sage. For further details see under Saraloma.
DASI. An important river in India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 31) .
DASRA. The first of the gods called the Asvinidevas. The two gods Dasra and Nasatya are known by the collective name Asvinidevas. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 17).
DASYU. The ancient dwellers of North India. What we see in Rgveda is mostly a history of the Aryans from the period of their exodus from the plateau Kumbha till they reached the banks of the Yamuna. The plateau of Kumbha is Kabul. The Dasyus were the first people the Aryans had to confront with after passing the Indus.
Rgveda bears testimony to the fact that the civilization of the Dasyus was far advanced than that of the Aryans. Sambara, King of the Dasyus, was the ruler of hundred cities. All the cities were fortified with strong walls and fortresses, which are described as `asvamayi', `ayasi', `satabhuji' etc. The greatest enemies of the Aryans were the `Panis' of these cities. They were a particular class of people of these cities. In the `Nirukta of Yaska' it is mentioned that pan is were traders. Names of many of the Kings of the Disyus occur in the Rjveda. Dhum, Cumuri, Pipru, Varcas, Sambara and such others are the most valiant and mighty among them. The most important of the several tribes of the D asyus were the Simyus, the Kikatas, Sigrus and the Yaksus. They are mentioned as the Anasas in the Rgveda. (AnasaS-without nose). Perhaps their nose was flat; more over they are stated as having dark complexion. So it may be assumed that the
Dasyus were Dravidians. They talked a primitive language, and they despised sacrificial religion. They did not worship Gods like Indra and others. They possibly worshipped the Phallus, Siva, Devi and the like.
DATAKACHA. An ancient country on the bank of th° river, Narmada. (Kathasaritsagara).
DATTA (DATTAKA). See under Dattatreya.
DATAMITRA. This is another name of Sumitra the King of Sauvira. Arjuna, daring his conquest of the countries, defeated this Kind. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 183, Stanza 20).
DATTATMAN. A Visvadeva. (A class of gods concerned with sacrifice to the manes). (M.B. Anuasana Parva, Chapter 91, Stanza 34 ).
DATTATREYA. (DATTA). A hermit famous in the puranas.
1) Birth. Anasuya, the wife of hermit Atri ,gave birth to Dattatreya. But Dattatreya was the incarnation of Mahavisnu.
There is, a story in Brahmanda Purana how Mahavisnu came to incarnate as Dattatreya.
Once there was a hermit called Animandavya (Mandavya). While the hermit was engaged in silent meditation, some robbers passed by that way. The King's men who were chasing the robbers, came to the hermit and asked him about the robbers. The hermit did not break the silence. The King's men, thinking the hermit to be the thief bound his hands and legs and took him to the palace. The King ordered Mindavya to be killed by piercing his body with a trident. Accordingly a trident was posted on a hill far away and Mindavya was seatedi. Dattatreya is known by the name 'Datta' also in thePuranas.
It was at this time that Silavati, famous for her conjugal fidelity, went to the house of a harlot, carrying her husband Ugrasravas on her shoulder. When they passed by that way Ugrasravas scolded Animandavya; getting angry at this Animandavya cursed Ugrasravas that he would get his head broken and die before the sun-rise. Silavati became very sorry when she heard the curse and she also cursed. "Let the sun not rise tomorrow". The sun did not rise next day. Everything in the world was in chaos. The devas were flurried. They went to Brahma. Brahma took them to Siva. They could not find a solution. So all of them approached Mahavisnu. The Trimurtis (three gods) told the devas that the problem would be solved, and the devas returned. Brahma, Vi snu and Mahewara went to Silavati. Before seeing Silavati, they went to Anasuya the wife of Atri and sought her help to persuade Silavati to recall her curse. Thus Anastiya and the Trimurtis approached Silavati and spoke compassionate and consolatory words. At last Silavati recalled the curse. The Trimurtis convinced Silavati, that Ugrasravas would not die. The pleased Trimurtis asked Anasuya to ask for any boon. She replied that she did not want any boon except that the Trimurtis should take birth as her sons. Accordingly Mahavisnu took birth as Dattatreya, Siva as Durvasas and Brahma as Candra, in the womb of Anasuya. This is how Dattatreya was born.' Dattatreya did penance from his childhood and became a hermit. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapters 39 to 44).
2 ) IiarGaviry~irjuna and Dattatreya. When Kartaviryarjuna became King Dattatreya had become very famous. Kartaviryarjuna wanted to obtain supernatural powers. So he called the hermit Garga and asked for his advice. Garga advised him that Dattatreya was the incarnation of Visnu and that he would grant his wishes. So Kartaviryarjuna and his wife came to the river Narmada, and taking bath in the river, began to worship Dattatreya, who was doing penance closeby. Dattatreya was pleased and went to Kartaviryarjuna and asked him what his desire was. He requested for thousand hands and to be a youth for ever, and such other things. Dattatreya granted his wishes. After that Kartaviryarjuna would very often go to the hermit Dattatreya for his advice. (Brahma Purana, Chapter 44).
3) Cursing Ravana. Once Ravana went to the hermitage of Dattatreya. The hermit had placed a waterpot
p'fied by reciting spells and incantations. Rdvana
ur, stole that waterpot. When the hermit knew this, he cursed Ravana saying, "Since the water, which was evoked by spells and incantations, has fallen on your head, Monkeys will pollute your head by treading on it." (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda).
4) Exhortation to the Sddhyas. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 36, Stanza 4, that the hermit Dattatreya gave exhortations to the Sadhyas (the sons of Dharmadeva by his wife Sadhya).
5) A boon for the birth of Nahusa. See Nahusa.
DATTOLI. A son born to hermit Pulastya by his wife Priti. This Dattoli was in his previous birth, Agastya of the Svayambhuva manvantara. (Visnu Purana, Amsa 1, Chapter 10).
DAYAKRAMA. (INHERITANCE). Dayakrama is
the system by which the wealth of parents is received by the heirs. The system of inheritance as described by Manu is as follows :-
1) After the death of the parents, all the children should divide their wealth among themselves. When either the
father or the mother is alive, the sons should not take their wealth.
2) If the wealth is not divided, the eldest brother should keep the whole of it in his custody and maintain his brothers and sisters like a father.
3) Of the entire wealth, the eldest brother may take onetwentieth part, the second brother, one-fortieth part and the third brother, one-eghtieth part and the balance is to be divided equally among all of them.
4) If there are more than three sons, the eldest and the youngest may take one-twentieth and one-eightieth (of
the entire wealth) respectively, and each of the other brothers may take one-fortieth. The rest of the property must be divided equally among all of them.
5) After dividing like this, if there are unmarried sisters, each of the brothers should give one-fourth of his share for their marriage.
6) The ornaments which the mother had received by way of her dowry etc. may be taken after her death by her unmarried daughters.
7) If, after his marriage, one of the brothers dies, the
brother who keeps his movable and immovable proper
ties, must beget children by the brother's wife and hand
over the above properties to her issue. (See under
DAYANAKSETRA. A famous temple of Goddess Diana in Epheseus. In Greek mythology Diana (Dayana) is the goddess of hunting. She is also identified with the
Moon Goddess. Being a virgin goddess, she came to be worshipped by virgins who regarded her as their patron. Dayana (Diana) is one of thebeautiful daughters of the supreme God, Zeus. Her idol was worshipped in many places in Greece. There was a famous temple of this goddess in the town of Epheseus. This temple was destroyed in the 3rd Century B.C. by enemies.
DEVA (S). Gods or deities.
1) General information. From time immemorial belief in Devas has existed in every country and all religions have lauded their superior nature and power. It was the Hindus and the Buddhists who first applied the term `Deva' to certain very subtle beings recognised in all religions. The Parsi religion (Zaratustra) has spoken about seven Devarajans and their attendants. 'Ames pentas' is the actual term used for the Devaraja. The Christian religion refers to nine sects of Devas like Srafi, Kherubi, Dominion,' Angel etc. Islam refers to four chief Devaq
viz. Gabriel, the presiding Deva over revelations, Mikhayel of protection, Asriyal of death and Israfin of resurrection. An important section of the Rgveda is Suktas about Devas like Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni etc. In Yajnas etc. Devas occupy a very important place. The Kenopanisad states that the conceited and haughtyDevas were taught a lesson by God. The subject matter of the Kathopanisad is the advice given by Yama to Naciketas. The Mundakopanisad says that the Devas, man and birds originated from God.' There are references about Deva worship in the Srrxrtis. The Puranas and Upapux. Tasmacca devah bahudha samprasutah sadhvah manusyah
rams contain scientific discussions, about the origin, work or functions, classes,etc. of Devas. The Mantrasastra and Tantrasastra deal also about the various sects and class of Devas, their nature, and the worship to be offered to them etc.
2 ) Christian Devas, Satan and devils. Christian religious books commonly use the term Malakhas for .Devas. Greek mythology contains a story about the Malakhas, who did not obey the orders of Jehovah and how He cursed them, turned them into devils and flung them into hell. And, in hell they organised a revolutionary party to fight Jehovah. Many leaders talked on the subject of how to take vengeance on Jehovah. It was nearabout this period that Jehovah created with the dust on earth Adam as his beloved son and settled him in the garden of Aden. God created from the ribs of Adam the woman called Eve, and they lived in Eden quite happily.
Satan and other leaders in hell decided that the greatest revenge that could be taken upon Jehovah was to create troubles for his dear son, Adam in Eden. Accordingly Satan went to Eden and made Adam and Eve eat the forbidden fruit with the result that Jehovah cursed and turned them into human beings and turned them out of Eden. Milton in his reputed poem Paradise Lost has told the above story in inimitable language.
3 ) Indian Devas. Most of the Indian Devas are the sons of Kasyapa Prajapati by Aditi, daughter of Daksa Prajapati. The total number of Devas is 33 crores. The Devas are divided into many classes or sections like Adityas, Visvadevatas, Vasus, Tusitas, Abhasvaras, Anilas, Maharajikas, Sadhyas, Rudras, Vidyadharas, Pitrdevas etc, There are further divisions like Apsaras, Virupaksas, Bhadras, Gandharvas, Kuxixbhandas, Raksasas, Nagas, Agvinis, Kinnaras, Kimpurusas, Pisacas, Guhyakas, Siddhas, Caranas, Matrs, Kus mandas, Bhutas, Vetalas, etc. Yet another division is into L okapalas; Lipikas etc. The Devas are classified with special reference to bhutaganas like Prthvi etc. and are, therefore, referred to as Bhudevatas, Agnidevatas, Vayudevatas, etc. The presiding spirit of Bhudevatas is Kubera, that of the Jaladevatas is Varuna, that of the Agnidevatas, Vayubhagavan and that of the Akasadevatas, Indra. And, under them there are various sets of Devas in charge of different departments. Sadhyas, Vasus, A4ityas, Apsaras etc. are Akaiadevas, Maruttas and Gandharvas, Vayudevas. Yaksas and Yaksis are servants of Kubera. Virupaksa, Bhadra etc. are Bhudevas. Virupaksa supports the earth according to the Valmiki Purana. Those who protect nidhis (treasures) may also be considered Bhixmidevas.
There are 33 bosses or presiding spirits for the 33 crores of Devas. Dvadas` adityas (12 ) Ekadasarudras (1'1) Astavasus (8) and Acvinidevas (2) are the 33 chiefs of Devas. Indra is the chief of all of them.
4) The term Deva. The word Deva means light and also play. Devas shine forth, they are also playful. Thus the name is quite apt for them. (See Gramadevata ) .
DEVABHAGA. A king of the Yayati dynasty. (Bhagavata Navama Skandha ).
DEVABHAGASA rsi, the son of Sruta and learned in yajxias. He had accurate knowledge as to pagavo vayamsah.
which parts of the yajna-cow should be distributed to whom, and till death he did not impart this knowledge to anyone. But, sometime afterwards a non-human individual taught the subject to Girija, son of Babhru. (Aitareya Brahmana).
At the time when the Srnjayas and the Kuru kings were living in amity consequent upon the daksayana yajna it was this Devabhaga who acted as the priest of both the parties. His theories on Savitragni are quoted in Taittirlya Brahmana.
DEVABHRAT. An effulgent Devata who was the son of Ravi and father of Subhrat. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 42).
DEVADARSA. An acarya in the line of Vyasa's disciples. He was the disciple of Kabandha, and he had many
disciples. Medha, Brahmabali, Sautayana and Pippalada were chief among those disciples. (See genealogy of Gurus).
DEVADARUVANA. A holy centre. A dip in the tirtha here is productive of very good results. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 27).
DEVADASA. A rich Vaisya extolled much in the Kathasaritsagara- He lived in Patalipuira and had married the daughter of a very rich Vaisya of ~aundravardhana. After his father's death Devadasa lost all his wealth in gambling, and his wife foresook her impecunious husband and returned home.
After roaming about for some time the helpless Devadasa decided to go to his wife's house. and one mid-night he went there. While hiding himself there in the darkness he heard his wife telling her paramour the following: "In the four corners of Devadasa's house are hidden four treasures. But he does not know about the treasures hidden thus by one of his fore-fathers. I got the information from his mother. You should purchase the property for a small price."
No sooner did Devadasa hear the above than he hurried back to his house and dug up the treasure and thus became wealthy again. The paramour of his wife went to him a few days later and purchased the property at a heavy price. But, when he dug up the place no treasure was found. Then he wanted to sell back the property to Devadasa himself, but he refused to purchase it. The case was taken before the King when Devadasa detailed the whole story. And, as ordered by the King, Devadasa disfigured his wife and wedded another wife. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambakam, Taranga 5) .
DEVADATTA I. A famous brahmin boy whose story is described in the Kathasaritsagara.
Devadatta was the son of the Brahmin, Haridatta of Kambukapura. Though as a boy Devadatta learnt all the arts and sciences when he grew up to be a youth he
became a very wayward fellow. Dice-play became his main job. One day in a game of dice he lost even his clothes, and being afraid of his father, he left the place without returning home.
Devadatta roamed about, and during one such trip he saw a deserted temple, and a muni called jalapada engaged in reciting mantras. Devadatta prostrated before the muni and told him a1l the details about himself. The muni accepted Devadatta as his gisya and promised to secure vidyadharahood for him.
Next night jalapada led Devadatta to a burning ghat,
nearby the temple. After conducting Pi~ja in the shade of a fig tree with offerings of Payasa and VaiAvadevabali the muni told Devadatta thus: "You should come here daily and perform puja like this, and pray at the close of it, `Oh ! Vidyutprabha ! please accept my puja.,
Devadatta acted according to the above advice of the muni, and one day, at the close of his puja the tree broke open into two and a beautiful female who appeared from it took him with her saying that her mistress wanted him. He was thus taken to a house studded with gems wherein he saw a noble lady seated on a cot. She caught Devadatta by his hands and after seating him alongside said to him: "I am Vidyutprabha; daughter of the Yaksa king Ratnavarsa. I am a virgin girl. Muni jalapada has worshipped me so much that I have decided to fulfil his desire. I am in love with you and you will please wed me."
Accordingly Devadatta married Vidyutprabha and lived there with her. In due course she conceived, and Devadatta met jalapada and told him about the whole affair, and the muni, to achieve his personal object asked Devadatta to cut open the abdomen of Vidyutprabha and take to him the child found therein. Devadatta did not at all relish the idea. Yet reluctant to disobey his preceptor he returned to his wife. She permitted him to carry out the directions of the muni, yet his mind did not approve of the action. Then Vidyutprabha herself cut open her abdomen, took the child out of it and placing it before her husband told him thus:"He who eats the child will become a Vidyadhara. Take it. I was a Vidyadhar! turned into a Yaks! by a curse, and to cut open my abdomen and take out the child like this was the redemption promised me from the curse, and now I go to the Vidyadhara world; we shall meet there." And she disappeared.
In great sorrow Devadatta brought the child to- Jalapada who, after sending him out on the pretext of his (Jalapada's) performing Bhairavapfija, ate up the chi1d. Devadatta returned and when he knew of the action of his preceptor he was overcome with rage. But the latter rose up to the skies assuming the form of a Vidyadhara. Devadatta made up his mind to anyhow take revenge upon jalapada, and he also went to Vidyadharaloka with the help of a Vetala whom he befriended by offering human flesh. And, there he saw jalapada drunk with pride at his Vidyadharahood sitting on a throne of gems in a mansion. Meanwhile Vidyutprabha who was now once more a Vidyadhar! had turned down the advances made by the erstwhile jalapada for her love. But, at the sight of Devadatta her face flushed with love for him while, in fear, the sword fell down from the hands of Jalapada who now fainted. Devadatta prevented the Vetala from killing jalapada and he (Vetala ) at the instance of Devadatta took jalapada to the burning ghat and cremated him there.
Katyayanidev! at this time appeared before Devadatta and pleased with his courage appointed him as chief of the Vidyadharas. He wedded Vidyutprabha and lived happily. (Kathasaritsagara, Caturdarikalambakarii, Taranga 3).
DEVADATTA II. A king of ancient India, son of King Jayadatta. Jayadatta wanted to marry his son Devadatta to the daughter of a Vaisya in Pataliputra. Though it was a far cry from Pataliputra to Jayadatta's court the Vaisya married his daughter to the prince as he attached much importance to such an alliance with the King. Ff'om the dowry given by the Vais,ya to his daughter the resources of her father appeared to be very meagre to Devadatta.
After some time Devadatta's wife returned to her house with the permission of her husband. During her absence Jayadatta expired, enemies attacked his kingdom and Devadatta with his mother ran away from his kingdom. Sometime after that he started for his wife's house. But, feeling that it would not be proper for him to personally tell his father-in-law about what had happened to him he waited outside an inn near his wife's house, and he had not waited there for long when he saw a woman descending by a cord from the other door of the house. He felt deeply mortified to detect that it was his wife who was thus descending. And, when she, not recognising Devadatta in his dirty clothes, asked him who he was, he answered a `traveller'. Taking no notice of this `traveller' she got into the inn, and Devadatta followed her. Inside the inn she was met by a man who beat her for being late to go to him; but, in spite of the beating she pleased him with coy words. Then and there Devadatta divorced her in his mind, but remained there observing their love-making. In the course of their loveplay an ear-ring studded with costly gems rolled down the floor from her ears, but she did not notice it. She parted from her paramour before dawn. Devadatta went to Kanyakubja with the ear-ring, and there he pledged it for one lakh sovereigns with which money he collected an army and conquered back his lost kingdom. Then he redeemed the pledge and sent the ear-ring to his father-in-law. The whole incident became public. When she realised the fact that the stranger whom she had met at the inn was her own husband, Devadatta's wife felt so deeply hurt and humiliated that her heart was broken and she died. (Kathasaritsagara, Naravahanadatta Janana, Taranga 1).
DEVADATTA III. Father of the reputed muni Utatthya. (Satyatapas). (See Satyatapas.)
DEVADATTA (M). The divine conch of Arjuna. Maya got this conch from Varuna and he kept it in the sabha of Vrsaparvan, which was in Bindusaras on Mount Mainaka to the south of Mount Kailasa. When Maya built the palace at Indraprastha for the Pandavas he went to Bindusaras and brought for Arjuna that conch ca1led Devadattam, and a club for Bhimasena. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3 ).
In the battle of Kuruksetra Arjuna mounted a white horse and blew his conch Devadattam. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 14).
DEVADHIPA. A king who in his previous life was an asura. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 26).
DEVADUTA. A messenger of the Devas. When Dharmaputra refused to live in heaven without his brothers like Karna it was this Devaduta with whom Indra sent Dharmaputra to Karna and others. (M.B. Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 14). This Devaduta is to be meditated upon at dawn and before sun-set everyday. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 14).
DEVADYUMNA. A king of the dynasty of Bharata. From Bharata, son of Rsabha, was born Sumati, from Sumati Devajit and from him Devadyumna was born. Devadyumna was the grand-father of King Pratipa and
father of King Paramesthi. (Bhagavata Pancama Skandha).
DEVADYUTI. A Rsi who dwelt in his a5rama on the banks of river Sarasvati. Owing to the blessing of Visnu a son called Sumitra was born to him. As a result of his doing rigorous tapas for 1000 years he shone with a rare effulgence. Though Visnu appeared to him one day in the month of Vaisakha and asked him to choose any boon he wanted, he, who was so much detached in life prayed only for devotion to God. (Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda, Chapter 212) .
DEVAGANA. See Manvantara.
DEVAGARBHA. A Rsi. He too was present as one of the hotrs (Priests) at the yajfia conducted by Brahma at the Puskara temple. (Padma Purana, Srsti Khanda, Chapter 34) .
DEVAGRAHA. An evil planet. Devagraha dar4ana (seeing this planet) will lead to insanity. (Vana Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 47).
DEVAHAVYA. A sage, a member of Indra's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7).
DEVAHOTRA. A maharsi, who was an honoured member at the yajfia performed by Uparicaravasu. (anti Parva, Chapter 336, Verse 9).
DEVAHRADA (M). A tirtha centre on the heights of Mount Kalanjara. A dip in its holy waters will bring the same result as the dana (gift) of a thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 56).
DEVAHUTI. A daughter of Svayambhuva Manu, the son of Brahma. The Manu had two sons called Priya vrata and Uttanapada and three daughters named Akuti, Devahuti and Prasuti. Akuti was married by Ruciprajapati and Devahuti by Kardamaprajapati and Prasuti to Daksprajapati. Kapila, the mighty exponent of the Sarikhya system of philosophy and great ascetic was the son born to Kardama by Devahuti. Kapila taught his mother the world famous Kapila 8astra, (Devibhagavata, Astama Skandha) and when the teaching was over he bade farewell to her and took to forest life. And, his mother performed a yajna on the lines advised by her son, on the banks of river Sarasvati. Because she took three baths daily her hairs became a mixture of black and blue in colour and she got emacia ted due to fasting. She wore the bark of trees. Deva huti, who realised all the principles and the truth be came blind to all external objects like gardens, maids, mansions etc. Thus immersed in meditation she in course of time attained siddhi (realisation). The parti cular spot on the banks of Sarasvati where she attained Siddhi i5 called Siddhapada.
DEVAHVAYA. A king in ancient India. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 235).
DEVAKA I. A king in ancient India. Born in the Yayati dynasty he shone like Indra (Adi Parva, Chapter 67). He was the brother of Ugrasena, father of Kaxiasa, and the father of Devaki, the mother of Krsna. (Sabha Parva, Southern Text, Chapter 22).
DEVAKA II. A king in ancient India. He fostered a girl born to a brahmin by a $udra woman. It was this girl whom Vidura married. (Adi Parva, Chapter 113, Verse 12).
DEVAKA III. A king, a contemporary of the Pandavas. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 17).
DEVAKI. Mother of gri Krsna.
1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus :-Brahma
-Atri-Candra - Budha - Pururavas - Ayus- DEVAKUTA II. A holy place. A dip in the sacred Nahusa - Yayati - Yadu - Sahasrajit - SatajitHehaya - Dharman - Kuni - Bhadrasena -Dhanaka -Krtavirya - Kartaviryarjuna - Madhu - VrsniYudhajit - Sini - Satyaka - Satyaki - YuyudhanaJaya - Kurd - Anamitra - Prsni - CitrarathaKukura - Vahni - Viloma - Kapotaroma -Tumburu - Dundubhi - Daridra - Vasu - NahukaAhuka - Devaka - Devapa - Devaki.
Devapa had seven daughters, viz. Srutadeva, Santidevi, Upadeva, Srideva, Devaraksita, Sahadeva and Devaki. Devaki was married to Vasudeva. The statement that Devaki and Kamsa were sister and brother is not fully correct. Kamsa was the son of Ugrasena, the brother of Devaka. Devaki was the grand-daughter of Devaka. Certain Puranas refer to Devaki as the daughter of Devaka. According to them Kamsa and Devaki were children of the elder and the younger brothers respectively. According to the Agni Purina Devaki was the niece of Karizsa. Thus it is equally correct to say that between Karhsa and Devaki there was brother-sister relationship as also uncle-niece relationship.
2) Devaki in yevious birth. Devaki in her previous birth was Aditi, the daughter of Daksa and wife of Kasyapaprajapati. (See Aditi, Parva 3).
31 Marriage and children. Vasudeva, the Yadava married Devaki. Sri Krsna was their eighth child. Six sons of theirs born elder to Krsna were killed by Karilsa. (See Karhsa, Para 2). The seventh child, from the very womb itself of Devaki was passed on to the womb of Rohini, who was another wife of Vasudeva. Balabhadra was the child thus born to Rohini. The eighth child was Krsna. (For details see Krsna, Para 3-8).
4) Other information relating to Levaki. (1) Many Ksatriya kings attended the svayarhvara of Devaki. (Drona Parva, Chapter 144, Verse 9).
(2) Following Krsna's giving up of :his body and the destruction, due to mutual fights, of the Yadavas, Vasudeva, Rohini and Devaki also gave up their lives.' (Bhagavata, EkadaS a Skandha, Chapter 31, Verses 18, 19).
DEVAKSATRA. A king of the Yayati dynasty. (Bhagavata. Navama Skandha).
DEVAKULYA. Grand-daughter of Marici maharsi, who lived in the Svayambhuva Manvantara. As she washed in her previous life the holy feet of Mahavisnu, in the next birth she was born as river Ganga. (Bhagavata, Caturtha Skandha).
DEVAKUNDAM I. (DEVAHRADAM). A sacred place. A dip in the holy waters there is productive of results equal to that of an Asvamedha yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 20).
DEVAKUI:DAM II. A particular part of Krsnavena, river. It is known as jatismarana hradam also. A bath in the holy waters here will evoke memories of previous life. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 37).
DEVAKUTA I. A mountain 18,000 miles in extent and 2000 miles in height. Devakuta is on the eastern side of Mahameru. There is another mountain called jathara near this mountain. (Devi Bliagavata, Astama Skandha).
i. Devaki Rohini caiva Vasudevastathd sutau / Krsnaramavapassyantah sokdrtd vi jahuh smrtim // Pran5msca vijahustatra bhagavadvirahaturah.
waters at this place is equal in its effects to that of an A.svamedha yajna. Moreover the family of such persons also will prosper. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 14).
DEVALA I. A famous muni, the son of Pratyusa, one of the astavasus. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 26). Devala muni is a character in the well-known story of Gajendramoksa. (For details see Indradyumna).
DEVALA II. A muni, a very erudite scholar in the Vedas. He was the elder brother of Dhaumya maharsi, and was present at the sarpa-satra (serpent yajna) of King Janamejaya. Once Sri Krsna on his way from Dvaraki to Hastinapura met Devala. After the great war was over he visited Yudhisthira.
Devala had a daughter calledSuvarcala. In the svayaxizvara ceremony he held for his daughter. to which sons of mums were invited she chose Svetaketu as her husband. (anti Parva, Southern Text, Chapter 22 ).
Devala had two very intelligent and forebearing sons. (Visnu Purina, Part 1, Chapter 15).
DEVALA III. A disciple of Vyisa. Asita, Devala, Vais ampiyana, Sumantu and Jairnini were some of the disciples of Vyasa. (M.B. Prathama Skandha).
Brahmavaivarta Purina contains the following story about Devala. Devala was the son born to Asitamuni as the result of a boon granted by Siva. Rariibha, the heavenly dancer fell in love with him. But, Devala did not reciprocrate her love. So, she cursed him to become crooked in body. When he became crooked thus he came to be called Astavakra. For six thousand years he did penance after which Krsita and Radha appeared to him. Radha laughed at the uncouth form of Astavakra. But, Krsna admonished her and embraced him. At once his bodily crookedness disappeared and he became very handsome. A vimana then descended from heaven, and Ridhi, Krsna and muni together disappeared in it.
Ekaparna, daughter of Himavin was this Devala's wife. (Harivariisa, Chapter 18).
DEVAMATA. An ancient rsi in India. Once he had a talk with Narada about the Atman (soul). (Adi Parva, Chapter 22 ).
DEVAMIDHA. A reputed Yadava born in the family of Yadu, son of Yayati. He was the grandfather of Vasudeva and father of King Surasena. (Drona Parva, Chapter 144, Verse 6 ) .
DEVAMITRA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 14).
DEVAMITRASAKALYA. Son of Mindukeya muni. A great Vedic scholar, he taught the five Samhitas to his five disciples, Mudgala, Gokala, Matsya, Khiliya and Saisireya. (See Yajtiavalkya).
DEVANADI. A river described as existing in the assembly of Varuna. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 19).
DEVANIKA. A king born in Sri Rama's dynasty. (Solar). Kusa was Sri Rama's son, Aditi the son of Kusa, Nisadha the son of Aditi, Nabhas 1Visadha's son, Pundarika the son of Nabhas, Ksemadhanva the son of Pundarika and Devanika the son of Ksemadhanva. In the navama skandha of Bhagavata it is said that Devanika was the grandfather of Pariyatra and father of Rksa.
DEVANTAKA. A Raksasa, the son of Rudraketu. When the people of the three worlds could no longer stand his depredations Ganapati incarnated in Kasyapa's house and killed Devantaka. (Padma Purana, Srsti Khanda).
DEVAPA. A king born in the Yayati dynasty. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).
DEVAPATHA (M) . A holy centre. To stay there bathing in the holy waters is as productive of results as conducting a Devasattra (Yajfia). (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, ~Verse 45) .
DEVAPI I. A king born in the lunar dynasty.
Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus :-Atri-CandraBudha-Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa - Yayati - PuruJaname jaya- Pracinvan - Pravira - Namasyu -Vitabhaya - Sundu - Bahuvidha- Samyati -- Rahovadi-Raudras va-Matinara-Santurodha-DusyantaBharata-Suhotra-Suhota-Gala - Garda - SrzketuBrhatksetra--Hasti--Ajamidha-Rksa- SarirvaranaKuru - Jahnu-Suratha - Viduratha - garvabhauma jayatsena-Avyaya- Bhavuka - CakroddhataDevatithi-Rksa-Bhima-Pratica-Pratipa-Devapi.
Pratipa had three sons named Devapi, Santanu and Balhika. Santanu succeeded Pratipa as king as his elder brother had taken to sannyasa as a boy. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 61).
2) Devapi resorted to the ,forest. Devapi was the best loved by his father and was the apple of the eyes of his subjects. But he was. suffering from skin disease. So, when Pratipa wanted to crown him king the people objected. Their argument was that God would not be pleased if a man with skin disease became king. The king yielded to their wishes and crowned Santanu as his successor. The youngest brother Balh1ka went and stayed in his mother's house. Devapi who was disappoint ed that he was denied the crown, left for the forest and spent the rest of his life in penance. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 149) .
His end. Devapi did tapas at the Prthudaka tirtha in the interior of Kuruksetra and ultimately attained salvation. (Salya Parva, Chapter 39, Verse 37).
DEVAPI II. A warrior who fought on the Pandava side in the great war. He hailed from Cedi. Karna killed him. (Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 48).
DEVAPRASTHAM. A city in the northern borders of ancient India. King Senabindu had his capital there. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 13 )
DEVAPRATHA. A king of the Yayati dynasty. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).
DEVAPRATISTHA. The sacred rite of installation of Devas (idols) in temples for which definite rules have been laid down by great acaryas. According to the rules Vasudevamarti is to be installed in the centre of the pancayatanas. (the Sri kovil-the sanctum sanctorium and the four paths used for the procession of the deity, around it). The murtis Vdmana, Narasirnha, Hayagriva and Varaha are to be installed in the zones
Oih namah sakalalokaya Visnave prabhavisnave/ Vi'svdya visvarupaya wapnadhipataye namali II Acaksva devadevesa prasuptosmi tavantikam/ Svapne sarvani karyani hrdistani to yani me Om Om hum phat visnave svaha.
(corners) dominated by Agni, Nirrti, Vayu and ysana respectively. Narayanamurti should be installed at the centre bf the prasada. Ambika should be installed in Agni's corner, Aditya in Nirrti's corner,Brahma in Vayu's corner and Sivaliriga in the Is ana corner. Lifiga in the form of Rudra should also be installed in the Isana corner; or it may be installed in all the nine corners or zones. In that case Vasudevamurti should be installed at the centre. All the Devas bearing the name Rama must be installed to the east of the Prasada. Lokapalakas like Indra should be installed at the eight places starting with the east. In Paficayatana pratistha Purusottama should be installed at the centre. 1Vlahalaksmi and Vaisravana are to be installed to the east of the Prasada, and the Matrs in the south. Subrahmanya, Ganapati, Isana and the planets (grahas) like Sun should be installed in the west. Dasavataramurtis (ten incarnations of Visnu) should be installed in the North. Candika should be installed in Agni's zone, Sarasvati in Vayu's zone, Ambika in Nirrti's zone and S`ri Bhagavati in fsana zone. In temples with thirteen Alayas Visnu should be installed at the centre. Murtis like Kesava should be in the east.
Devapratimas (idols) are of seven varieties like those made of earth, of wood, of metals, of gems, of sandal wood, of stone and of flowers. Of the above, idols made of earth, sandalwood and of flowers are meant only for temporary use, but they also grant all the desires of the devotees.
Stone for idols should be got from mountains. Pandura (white), Aruna (red), Pita (yellow) and Krsna (black) -rocks having any one of these four colours maybe selected. If no such stone is available any other stone may be used, but by doing homa and reciting Narasirnha mantra the attributes of any of the specified varnas should be transferred to it. It is best to have white markings on the stone selected for the idol. There are the three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter with reference to stones. Stone which produces the sound of bell metal on being hit and gives out sparks of fire on being cut is of the masculine gender. Stone which possesses these attributes to a lesser degree is of the feminine gender. Stone with no shape is of neuter gender. Beside these three varieties there are the sagarbha (pregnant) stones also, viz. stones with round markings on them, and they should not be used for making idols. Once it is decided to make an idol, Vanayajfia should be performed first. To worship the forest from which the stone for the idol was.to be obtained is vanayajna. A specified place in the forest should be dug up, the pit treated with cow-dung and a small platform raised and Visnu worshipped thereon. After sacrificial offerings etc. instruments for the c instruction of the idol like tanka (chisel) should be worshipped. To sprinkle on the stone salitoya (water in which paddy grains are put) purified with the chanting of astramantra is the next step. After that bhutabali (offerings to the spirits of the stone) should be performed upon which the blrutas residing inside the stone will quit. Then the acarya should go to sleep repeating the svapna mantra
If he dreams good dreams everything is quite right; if bad dreams are dreamt, the next morning narasiriihahoma should be performed, the stone given offerings with chanting of astramantra. The edge of the instruments used for sculpturing the idol should be firstly smeared with ghee, honey etc. The architect should be one who has gained mastery over the senses. He should first cut the stone into a square, and then it should be placed on a chariot, covered with cloth and taken to his house. Then after performing a puja the work on the idol should be started. (Agni Purana, Chapter 43).
DEVAPUSKARINI. A very ancient tirtha in India a dip in which is as efficacious as performing an Asvamedha yajfia. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 45) .
DEVARAJA I. A king in ancient India who spent his days in the assembly of Yama worshipping him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 26).
DEVARAJA II. An immoral brahmin who had been . a trader in Kiratanagara. Once he met a whore at the bathing pool and got so inextricably tied up with her that he killed his parents and wife for her sake. Then one day he had to go to Pratisthananagara on business where he heard sacred stories being read. He had also a glimpse of the divine. A month after that he died. Though an evil fellow, because of his having worshipped diva for a month he had the good fortune to go to Mount Kailasa after his death. (diva Purana Mahatmyam).
DEVARAKSITA. Sister of Devaki, mother of gri Krsna. (See Devaki).
DEVARANYA (M). A holy centre. It vas here where Amba, daughter of the Kay i king did tapas. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 186, Verse 27) .
DEVARATA I. A king who flourished in Dharmaputra's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 26) .
DEVARATA I I. (8unas s epha).
General. A king of Mithila. The kings of Mithila were commonly called janaka. Devarata was called Devarata Janaka. (See janaka).
2) Genealogy. From Visnu descended thus:-Brahma,Bhrgu-Cyavana-LJrva- Rcika- Devarata (8unas s epha) . (For details see Sunas s epha) .
DEVARATA III. A house-holder whose daughter Kala was married by Bona. Kala was killed by Marica. Devarata and S`ona along with Visvamitra went to Sivaloka in search of Kala. As Kala had, at the time of her death, uttered the word `tiara' (Siva) she had gone to Mount Kailasa and was spending her days in the service of Parvati who, after making Kala and Sona participate in Somavaravrata sent them back to earth. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter 112).
DEVASAMAM. A mountain. Here lived Agastya in his asrama for some time. (M.B. Chapter 88, Verse 17) .
DEVASARMA I. A very reputed muni. He had a wife called Ruci and a disciple called Vipula. (See Vipula III).
II. A Brahmin, an erudite scholar in the Vedas. His story was once told to Parvati by diva as follows :-
Devasarman, the very erudite brahmin scholar in the Vedas came to be much respected by the people of the four varnas (Castes) because of his constant and unfailing performance of the various religious duties and rites like the Agnihotra etc. He had sons, relations and cows in abundance. But, he did not observe the Z. uklapaficami in Prosthapada (Bhadrapada) which is one of
the dvadasacandra masas (the 12 solar months). That day was his father's death anniversary (8raddha day) for which he would invite Brahmins on the previous evening. And, in the morning he would get cooked rice by his wife in 18 different ways for the gratification of the departed soul. Then will he feed the Brahmins. On one such day he duly treated a Brahmin versed in the Vedas. In the evening when he was washing his feet with water brought by his wife he heard the following conversation between a dog and an ox.
Dog :-Please attend to my words about what my daughter-in-law did. One day, as fate would have it, I went to my son's house, where a snake was drinking milk, and I drank the whole of the milk which was left over by it. My daughter-in-law saw me drinking it and I was absolutely crest-fallen. I don't feel any yearning even for food.
Ox:-Now dog, please attend to my sorrow and grief. Today my son feasted the Brahmins, but he did not even think of me. Nobody gave me even a blade of grass or a drop of water. I have not tasted anything today. Moreover I am a captive also. All this must be the result of some sin committed by me in my past life; no doubt about it."
The very learned and intelligent brahmin inferred from the above talk that the dog and ox were his mother and his father respectively. He thought to himself : they have been born as animals in
I find out therefor ?
On account of such painful thoughts the Brahmin could not sleep in the night. Early in the morning he went to sage Vasistha and unburdened his heart to him and requested him to find a solution to the low and mean birth which had become his parents' fate. After meditating for some time the great sage told the brahmin as follows :-
"Look here, the ox was, in its previous birth, a great brahmin in Kundinanagara. He did not observe the
ukla-.pancami in the month of Prosthapada, the day being the death anniversary of his father. His wife had menstruation on the same day, but she herself feasted the Brahmins. A woman is impure during the four days of menstruation. Because of having feasted the Brahmins on the first day of her monthly period the Brahmin's wife was born as a dog. As for the husband, he was borxf an ox as he not only did not observe the Sukla-paficami day, but also shared the sin of his wife. Further questioned by the brahmin as to what he should do for the salvation of his parents, Vasistha advised him to observe the Rsi paficami in the month of Prosthapada
(Bhadrapada). He did so and his parents blessed him and attained salvation. (Padma Purana, Chapter 78) .
DEVASARMA 111. (See Mitrabheda) .
DEVASARMA IV. The hero of a story told by Visnusarman.
Visnuiarman, the intelligent preceptor, told five stories based on five tactics to educate the five dull sons of emperor Sudarsana. The fifth tactics is called asariipreksyakaritva. He told two important stories to illustrate the dangers, which would happen to those who act in haste and in anger, without patiently attempting to find out the truth. Devasarman is the hero of one of the stories.
Story one. Once upon a time there lived in Gaudadesa my house. What remedy shall
a brahmin called Devasarman with his wife Yajnasena. When his wife got pregnant Devasarman told her that a good and lucky son would be born to them to which she replied as follows :"On no account build castles in the air and brood over things. I shall tell you a story about a danger which happened to one who built castles in the air. A brahmacari was carrying home in a pot on his head some rice flour. On the way he thought thus : `°I will purchase a she-goat with the money I get out of the sale of this rice powder, and it will deliver two kids every year. I will sell all the kids and with the sale proceeds purchase a cow and
wherewithals for cultivation and then I will do cultivation in a good fie1d and produce much paddy. And when I have thus money in hand I will renovate my house and marry. We will then have a good son whom I will name Somasarman, and if my wife, without caring for the boy, goes to milk the cow I will go to the cow shed and give her a good beating. "When his imagination reached this point the pot on his head received, without his knowing, a blow with the stick in his hand and it fell down on the ground and was broken to pieces."
Five or six days after telling the above story to her husband Yajnasena gave birth to a child. One day she went to the river to take her bath leaving the child to the care of her husband. Soon after a messenger came from the palace to invite Devasarman for food, the day being Amavasi when Brahmins were fed well and also given daksina, (presents of money). He could not wait till his wife arrived; the child became a problem to him.
The brahmin had a beloved Mongoose. After entrusting the child to the care of it the Brahmin went to the palace. Within a short time a serpent was seen crawling towards the child and the Mongoose attacked it and bit it into pieces. Naturally the Mongoose got itself smeared all over with the blood of the serpent, and the brahmin on returning home finding the Mongoose bathed in blood thought it might have eaten the child and in a rage he killed the poor Mongoose. But, when he entered the room and found pieces of the killed serpent strayed all over there truth and light dawned on him. Yajfiasena, who had returned after bath by now also found fault with him.
The second story. Once there was a Brahmin in very indigent circumstances. He was an orphan from his very childhood. One day while he was asleep quite weary and tired as he had no food that day some one appeared and told him in a dream that three sannyasins would come to his house that noon and that if beaten to death they would turn into three pot-fulls of treasure with which he could live comfortably well.
His dream came true, and he locked up the treasure in his room after sending away a barber who had witnessed the incident with a piece of gold. The barber returned home cherishing in his mind the false belief that sannyasins beaten to death would turn into pot-fulls of treasure. And, one day some sannyasins came to his house and he began beating. them and they ran out crying aloud. Their cries attracted the attention of the servants of the King. The barber's limbs were cut off and he was killed on 9ula (a three-pronged weapon).
DEVASARMA V. On every such occasion souls of the departed used to appear and bless him. Once Devasarman went to Pitrloka with his pitrs, and he got restless and sorry to find other pitrs living there in greater comfort than the pitrs of his parents. When he was told that the better fate of the other pitrs was due to their sons performing Sraddha at Mahisagarasangama he returned to earth and with the help of other people did Sraddha at the sangamaand thus raised the condition of his pitrs. ( Skandha Purana. Skandhas 1, 2 and 3) .
DEVASARMA VI. A Brahmin who lived on the northern side of riser Kaveri. The following story about him is told in chapters 2, 4 and 12 of the Skanda Purana.
One day in the month of Karttika he asked his son to bathe. The son refused to obey his father, who-got angry at the disobedience of the son and cursed him to be turned into a rat. But, when the son begged his pardon he said that the boy would resume his old form when he heard about the greatness of Karttika.
While the Brahmin, thus turned into rat, was roaming about in the forest it saw Visvamitra maharsi seated under a tree with his disciples. The maharsi was telling the disciples about the greatness of Karttika. The Brahmin boy-turned cat-heard the story and reverted to its old form as the Brahmin boy.
DEVASARMA VII. See Maya Siva.
DEVASATTRA(M). A yajna. (See Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 68) .
DEVASENA I. A very intelligent king who ruled his country with ~ravasti as his capital. ( See Unmadini) ..
DEVASENA. II. Husband of Kirtisena. (See Kirtisena).
DEVASENA. Daksa's daughter and wife of Subrahmanya and a woman of rare beauty and purity. Daityasena and Devasena, daughters of Daksa, used to enjoy themselves at Manasa saras. One day Keg!, the asura saw them and craved for their love. Daityasena agreed to become his wife, but Devasena refused, and she prayed for the help of Indra, who happened to come there at the moment. Indra and Kes i fought with each other. Kepi used the club against Indra, who broke it into two with his vajrayudha. Then Kesi hurled a mountain at Indra, who cut it also. Frightened to death Kei then ran away with Daityasena to safety, and Devasena expressed her desire to Indra to have one who could defeat the Devas, Danavas and Yaksas as her husband. But, Indra could not find such a one in the whole universe. Indra told Brahma about it. The Devas put their heads together and brought forth Subrahmanya from Siva. to be her husband. In the war between the Devas and the asuras Devasena helped Subrahmanya, and the asuras were completely destroyed. (Vans Parva, Chapters 223, 224).
DEVASILA. See Gayatirtha.
DEVASMITA. A Gem of a woman who was much devoted to her husband. The story of Devasmita has been so often quoted in ancient Indian literature. She was the daughter of a Vaisya called Dharmagupta and was married to Guhasena, son of a Vaisya called Dhanadatta, who belonged to Tamraliptinagara.
After the death of his father Guhasena decided to go to Katahadvipa for trade, and Devasmita, a very suspicious wife, objected to it. When his other relations began pressing him to go to the dvipa for trade and his wife not to go, Guhasena could not take a decision on the
matter. He began a penance so that God might take the decision in the matter. Devasmita also followed him. Then God appeared to them in their dreams and gave each of them a red lotus flower saying, "both of you keep one flower each with you, and while both of you are away from each other if either of you go astray the lotus flower in the hands of the other person will fade." And, on awaking both of them had a flower in their hands. Guhasena with his flower in his hands started for Katahadvipa, and Devasmita stayed at home with her eyes fixed on her lotus flower. Guhasena reached the dvipa and traded in gems: Everybody was surprised to find in his hands a lotus flower which never faded. Four Vaisya youngsters wanted to understand the secret of it and one day they invited Guhasena to their house and treated him to liquor very liberally. When he got absolutely drunk they questioned him about the secret of the lotus flower, and he, though in indistinct words, explained it to them. When the secret was thus out all the four youngsters decided to seduce his wife. They extracted from him the information that he was not returning in the near future, and they then carne to Tamralipti.
At that time there lived in Tamralipti a bogus Sannyisini (a female anchorite) called Yogakarandika. The four youths from Katahadvipa visited her, and she undertook to fulfil their desire. She asked them to halt at her house and then went to Devasmita with some refreshments. Devasmita's bitch barked very violently at the bogus anchorite when she told the former thus :"Child! don't you see the bitch barking at my very sight. The bitch is crying thinking of her previous birth at my sight. Herself (the bitch) and I were, in our last birth, the wives of a Brahmin. Since our husband was a courtier at the palace often he was away from home and in his absence I used to satisfy the cravings of sex by associating freely with other males. I had even at that time realised the truth that there was no duty higher than satisfying the senses, and so I am now reborn with memories of the past life. As for this bitch in her past 1ife as co-wife with me of the Brahmin, she sinned against her sense-organs by upholding, in ignorance, her chastity, as a, punishment for which she was born as dog in this life. Yet, she remembers her past.
Though Devasmita saw through the false and treacherous heart of the bogus anchorite, without expressing it she talked in all respect with her. Believing that she had succeeded in her mission she told Devasmita about the four youths who had come from Katahadvipa, and Devasmita welcomed the idea very gladly.
Devasmiti got some liquor and mixed poison in it. When it was night one of the Vaisya youths came, and after rendering him unconscious by administering the poisoned liquor to him Devasmita stripped him of all his clothes and ornaments, got him scratched on the brows by the bitch and threw him into a cow dung heap. Before it was dawn next day he returned to the anchorite's house, took a bath and dressed himself up in decent clothings. His other three companions also visited Devasmita one after the other in the next three days, and they too underwent the same experience as the first one. Lastly the bogus sannyasini also was got down and Devasmita cut her limbs and sent her away. And, after this Devasmita put on the garb of a merchant and went to Katahadvipa and identified her husband from among a thousand merchants. Guhasena too felt his own doubts about her identity. But, without revealing her identity she saw the king and told him that she had certain matters to submit before the prajaparisat (popular assembly). The King accordingly convened a session of the assembly and Devasmiti identified the four youths who had tried to seduce her and submitted all details regarding the episode. The King then gave her a lot of money, appointed the four youths as her servants and sent her back home with Guhasena. (Kathasaritsagara, Kathamukhalarhbakam, Taranga 5) .
DEVASRAVAS I A king of the Yayati dynasty. (Bhagavahta, Navama Skandha).
DEVAJRAVAS II A Rsi born in Visvamitra's family. He was a mantrika of the Kusika gotra (anti Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 5) .
DEVASRUTA. A son of Sukamuni. Suka, the son of
Vyasa married Pivari, the beautiful daughter of the Pitrs, and to them were born four sons, Krsna, Gauraprabha, Bhuri and Devasruta, and one daughter, Kirti. (Devibhagavata, Prathama Skandha).
General. A maharsi, who was a friend of the Pandavas. Other information. (1 j After the great war was over this 'mum visited Dharmaputra and induced him to perform yajnas. (2) Along with some other munis he gave spiritual advice to Dharmaputra and comforted him. (Santi Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 27) .
(3) He was one of the munis, who visited Bhisma on his bed of arrows. (Santi Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 5) .
DEVASURAYUDDHA (S) Wars between the gods and asuras. Altogether twelve wars were fought between the Devas and the asuras, viz. Narasimha, Vamana, Varaha, Amrtamathana, Tarakamaya, Adibaka, Traipura, Andhaka, Vadha, Vrtravadha, Dhvajapata, Halahala and Kolahala. Hiranyakagipu, the daitya was killed by Narasimha. Vamarta took Mahabali captive after measuring the three worlds in one stride. Hiranyaksa was killed in fighting in the sea by Varaha with its tusks. Indra defeated Prahlada and in the Tarakamaya war also killed his son Virocana who had planned to kill him (Indra). As the Devas could not kill the danavas of Tripura, Trilocana killed them. Vrtra who was aided by the danavas was killed by Indra with the help of Visnu. Indra himself killed Vipracitti and his followers who became invisible by maya after the felling of the dhvaja (flag staff), and in the course of celebrating their victory the Devas defeated gandamarka at the yajfiavabhrtha (Bathing at the close of the yajfia). Thus were waged twelve wars between the Devas and the Asuras. (Padma Purina, Part 4, Chapter 13) .
DEVASVAMI. A Brahmin. (See Vararuci).
DEVATITHI. A king born in the Puru dynasty. Akrodha was his father and Karambhi, daughter of the king of Kaltnga, his mother. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 22) . Devatithi had wedded Maryada, daughter of the King of Videha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 23).
DEVAVAHA. A king of the Yayati dynasty. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).
DEVAVANAM. A sacred place. The rivers Ba.hudd and Nanda flow along this place. (Vana Parva, Chapter 87, Verse 29 )
DEVAVARNINI. Daughter of Bharadvaja maharsi. Muni Visravas married her and to them were born a son
called Kubera. (See Kubera).
DEVAVATT I. Daughter of the Gandharva called Manimaya. Suke~ a, the Raksasa married Devavati, and three sons Malyavan, Sumali and Mali were born to them who lived as dependants of Ravana. (Uttara Ramayana).
DEVAVATI II. Slta, wife of Rama was Devavatf in her previous birth. (See Sita for information for Devavati's death in fire and rebirth as Sita).
DEVAVATI III. Daughter of the daitya called Mandaramali. (See Visvakarman, Para 2).
DEVAV ITI. Daughter-in-law of king Agnidhra. Purvacitti, the apsara woman was the king's wife and they had nine sons called Nabhi, Kiriipurusa, Hari, Ilavrta, Ramuka, Hiranjaya, Kuru, Bhadrasva and Ketumala; and these sons married the following daughters of Meru, viz. Merudevi, Pratirupa, Ugradarnstri, Lata, Ramya, Syama, Nari, Bhadra and Devaviti. Thus Devaviti became the wife of Ketumala. (Bhagavata, Pancama Skandha).
DEVAVRATA I. Bhisma (See Bhisma for details).
DEVAVRATA II. A Brahmin who believed in yajnas: He once received without due regard and with indifference the tirtha water given to him by a devotee of Krsna after worship of the Lord, as a result of which, in the next birth, he was born as a bamboo stem. And, as he did, consciously or otherwise some good deeds Sri Krsna made a flute out of that bamboo stem, and Devavrata thus attained redemption. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter 73) .
DEVAVRDHA I. A warrior, who fought against the Pandavas in the Kuruksetra war (Karna Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 3).
DEVAVRDHA II. A king who, along with his subjects attained heaven as he had made a gift of a golden umbrella. (Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 21) .
DEVAYAJANAM. The place called Prayaga which is considered to be the yajnic centre of the Devas. Amba, daughter of the King of Kasi did rigorous,tapas here. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 186, Verse 27).
DEVAYAJI. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (8alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 7) .
DEVAYANI. Sukracarya's daughter.
1) Birth. Svayambhuvamanu, son of Brahma had two sons: Priyavrata and Uttanapada. Priyavrata wedded Surupa and Barhismati, two very beautiful daughters of Visvakarmaprajapati, and he had by Surupia ten sons called Agnidhra, Idhmajihva, Yajfiabahu,
Mahavira, RukmaSukra, Ghrtaprstha, Savana, Medhatithi, Vitihotra and Kavi as also a daughter called C-Trjasvati who was the youngest of the whole lot. Of
the above ten sons Kavi, Savana and Mahavira were spiritual giants and great sages. Uttama, Tapasa and Raivata, the three sons of Priyavrata by his second wife Barhismati turned out to be manvantaradhipatis. Crjasvati, the only daughter of Priyavrata was married to gukracarya, preceptor of the asuras. Devayani was gukracarya's daughter by Urjasvati. (Devibhagavata, Astama Skandha).
2) Curse by Kaca. Kaca, son of Brhaspati became gukracarya's disciple to learn Mrtasanjivani vidya (the science to ward off death for ever). Devayani fell madly in love with Kaca. But, after his studies under her father were over Kaca returned to devaloka without marrying Devayani, who cursed that Kaca's
learning should prove useless. And, Kaca cursed her in return that nobody from devaloka should marry her. (For details see Kaca).
3) Devayani in a neglected well. Once Vrsaparvan was the king of the asuras, and Sukracarya lived in his palace. Sarmistha, the daughter of the king and Devayani, the daughter of Suikracarya became thick friends. While one day these two friends with their companions were engaged in water sports Indra came that way. Very much interested in seeing the deva damsels thus engaged in water sports Indra assumed the form of air and blew off the dresses of the damsels from the shore while they were playing in the river. The damsels hurriedly got out of water, ran after the fleeing garments and put on whatever came to their hands.. In the confusion what Sarmistha got and wore was Devayani's clothes. Devayani ran afier Sarmistha and caught hold of the clothes, but the latter did not yield them to her. Both of them indulged in hot words against each other, Sarmistha calling Sukracarya a beggar living in her father's palace for his food. Not only that, she pushed Devayani into a neglected well and went her way.
At that time prince Yayati, son of Nahusa, was hunting in that forest. Feeling very thirsty he came to the well for a drink and therein saw Devayani in tears. He brought her out from the well and leaving her there went on his way.
Sukracarya and his wife actually got anxious and upset that their daughter had not returned even after the lapse of so much time and deputed their servant Gurnika to seek for Devayani. She found her out in the forest. But, Devayani refused to return home as she did not want to continue as the daughter of one who lived on the charity of Sarmistha and her father. Gurnika carried back this news to Sukracarya, who then went himself to the forest and met his daughter. He felt deeply wounded to hear about the insults heaped on his daughter by Sarmistlia, and sent word to Vrsaparvan that they were not returning to the palace. Vrsaparvan realised that if Suhracarya quarrelled with him the whole asura world also would become divided. He, therefore, tried his best to pacify the acarya and his daughter. At last Devayani agreed to return to the palace in case ~armistha went to her with one thousand of her maids to serve as her (Devayani's) maids. Vrsaparvan acted accordingly and Devayani was satisfied and returned to the palace with her father.
(Adi Parva, Chapter 78 onwards.)
4) Wedding of Devayani. Some time afterwards when Devayani was sporting in the forest with Sarmistha and others, King Yayati happened to pass that way. They recognised each other and Devayani requested Yayati to marry her as she had mentally chosen him as her husband on the very same day on which he had saved her from the well.
Yayati realised only too well that it was really dangerous to marry the daughter of Sukracarya in the forest secretly and he, therefore, rejected Devayani's request. But, she got down her father there and with his permission Yayati married her. He also got much wealth by way of dowry. garmistha and her maids accompanied Devayani but Sukracarya warned Yayati that on no account should he touch Sarmistha.
With his wife and her attendants Yayati returned to his palace; but he put Sarmistha and her maids in a place newly built for the purpose. Devay«ni delivered a child in due course and it was named Yadu. Sarmisth« one day met Yaydti in the forest and requested for a child by him. Though at first he was reluctant to oblige remembering only too well the injunction of Sukracarya, he at last succumbed to the eloquence of ,~arniistha. She got pregnant by him and the child she delivered was called Druhyu.
Devayani was alarmed at the birth of a child to Sarmistha, who was unmarried, and questioned her about it. Sarmisth«'s answer that a brahmin stranger, who came that way was the father of her child satisfied Devayani.
Ere long another son, Turvasu, was born to Devay«ni, and Sarmisth« too delivered two children called Anudruhyu and Puru. Thus the mistress (Devay«ni) had two sons and her servant, Sarmisth« three sons.
While Yay«ti and Devay«ni were one day strolling in the garden the sons of Sarmisth« came there. She noticed the close resemblance of those boys to her husband (Yayati) and it kindled her wrath. Though Yaydti did not, because of the presence of Devayani, notice the children, when she asked them who their father was, they answered "Yay«ti", whereupon in great rage she ran up to her father. Yaydti too followed her. Devayani told her father about the infidelity of Yay«ti and he (Sukra) cursed that Yaydti be afflicted with old age. When Yaydti asked for redumption from the curse Sukr«c«rya told him that he could exchange his old age for the youth of somebody else.
Yaydti then called together all his five sons and asked them whether anyone of them was prepared to exchange his (son's) youth for his (Yayati's) old age for one thousand years. The three elder sons refused to agree to the proposal, but the fourth son Puru gladly exchanged his youth with his father's old age. After spending his life in youthful enjoyment for one thousand years Yaydti returned his youth to Puru, and Puru assumed Kingship of the country. (Adi Parva, Chapters 81-83) .
5) Synonyms for Devaydni. Ausanasi, Sukratanaya and Blhargavi.
DEVI. (Maham«ya). Though Devi is without a beginning it is told how she became first visible to living beings.
1) Beginning: While Mah«visu was resting on a fig leaf in the assumed form of a* child he began thinking as to who he was, who created him and how he should act. And then a celestial voice announced as follows:
Sarvarh khalvidamevaham Nanyadasti sanatanam.
(All that is, I am. There is nothing eternal but me.). This declaration astonished Visnu, but he could not understand who made it. While he was meditating upon it, Devi appeared to him in the following manner. Devil held in her four sacred hands weapons like the conch, the disc, the club and the lotus flower and was clad in divine clothes and wore divine ornaments and was attended upon by powers' like Rati (the erotic), Bhuti (riches and prosperity), Buddhi (intelligence), Mati (intellect), Kirti (reputation), Dhrti (understanding t . Ratir bhutistatha buddhirmati kirtih smrtirdhrtih
Sraddha, medha, svadha, sva.ba Ksudha, nidra, days, gatih
Tustih pustih ksama lajja jrmbha tandra ca saktavah /
Samsthitah sarvatah parsve Mahadevyah prthak prthak. //
(Devi Bhagavata, Prathanaa, Skandha).
capacity), Smrti (ability to remember), Sraddha(attention, concentration), Medh«(intellect), Svadha, Sv«h«, Ksudh« (thirst), Nidr« (sleep), Daya (compassion) , Gati, (momentum), Tusti(pleasure, happiness) Pusti (growth, progress), Ksama (patience, forberance), Lajj« (sense of shame), Jrmbh« and Tandr« (laziness).
And, the Devi spoke to Mah«visnu as follows:-After all, what is there to be wondered at. Whenever the world faced the phenomenon of Srstisthitilaya ( creation, existence and absorption into the primordial force) you too have come up due to the power of Mah«sakti. As for Par«sakti (the ultimate, universal force) it is above and beyond all attributes. We, all of us, possess attributes. From the n«bhi (navel) of yourself in whom sattvaguna (gentle attributes) predominates will be born Brahm« in whom rajoguna (active attributes) will predominate, and 'from the centre of his brows will be born Rudra with tamoguna (black, destructive attributes). Brahm«, by the force of his tapas will earn powers of creation and will with his rajoguna create the world blood-red in colour, and you will be the sustainer and guardian of that world. The very same world will be annihilated by Rudra at the end of the Kalpa era. You please do know that I am the s«ttvic force which depend on you for the purpose of creation. All creations of worlds have been made according to the suggestions of Devi.
2 ) Origin of Devi. Once King Janamejaya questioned Vyasa about the birth of Devi to which he replied as follows:-
Even Brahm«visnumahesvaras (Brahma, Visnu and Siva-the Hindu trinity) are not capable of thinking about the origin of Devi. Then, what about me? Yet let me make an attempt. All the forces-everythingwhich appear in various names and forms are in fact Devi herself, her different manifestations. Just as a master actor appears on the stage in different roles for the delectation of the audience the formless Devi, on behalf of the Devas, assumes many forms and imposes upon herself attributes though in fact she is without any attribute whatsoever. Thus, depending on her various forms, actions etc. she is addressed by different names. (Devi Bhagavata, Pancama Skandha).
3 ) Five forms of Devi. When primordial nature (Mulaprakrti) incarnated or manifested in the form of Visnu the desire for creation raised its head in him. And, at once the Devi-female-aspects in Visnu manifested in five forms like Durga, Laksmi, Sarasvati, Savitri and Radha. These five forms are designated as the Pahcadevis. Brief notes on the five Devis are given below.
(1) Durgadevi. Mother of Ganesa bhagavan. (God with the elephant's head). She is the consort of diva. N«rayani, the Visr;iumaya, is none else than Durga. She is also perfect Brahma, the one and the only one with no second to it. She is worshipped by Devas like Brahma and by sages and maharsis. She as the basis, the root and root cause of, everything. She is eternal, upholder of dharma, truth itself and the giver and promoter of happiness, reputation, welfare, salvation etc. as also of sorrow, grief, pain etc. She takes great pleasure in removing the worries and sorrows of devotees who seek refuge in her. She is all-power, achievements and assets personified. All imaginable permutations and combinations of every attribute comprise in her and she it is who activates the universal soul.
2) Laksmi. This Devi is the most sublime form of the universal soul, nay, the universal soul itself. She is all wealth and riches personified, and she is the very seat of beauty, compassion, welfare, peace, all goodness etc. Evil traits like anger, avarice, haughtiness etc. are miles away from her. She is all sympathy and kindness towards her devotees. In Vaikuntha, as Mahalaksmi she is ever engaged in the service of her husband, Visnu. In heaven she is the very glory of it. In houses she appears as the welfare and prosperity of the inmates. She is in fact beauty itself and is the essence of beauty everywhere. She is all-merciful, and worshipped by all.
(3) Sarasvati. She is very base and fountain head of and the presiding deity of the word, intellect, knowledge, the arts etc. She also is of the form of the universal soul and liberally grants intellect, poetical skill, reason and logic, understanding capacity etc. to her devotees. The finest music with all its beauties originates from her. Yes, she is the goddess of all learning, fine arts and every branch of knowledge. Like the ice piece, the jasmine flower etc. she is beautiful in her white cover. She recited the holy names of Sri Krsna. She is of the form of tapas and blesses those who perform it. In fact, she it is who grants all gifts and powers of understanding. She is the goddess of language and learning (Vanimata) and without her human beings would lose their capacity to speak.
(4) Sdvitradevf. She is mother of the four varnas (castes, classes) Vedangas, the tantric science etc. She is of the form of japa (chanting of holy names and mantras), tapas, the effulgence of Brahman, the very essence of truth and existence and supreme bliss. She is eternal and grants salvation. She forms the very basis and pith and core of the glowing presence of the universal soul. This world is pure, and has been purified by the touch of the sacred feet of this Devi.
(5) Radhadevi. Radhikadevi, fifth of the paficaprakrtis is the presiding deity over the five pranas and She is of the form of those pranas. She is exceptionally beautiful endowed with all fortunes and happiness, sublime and serious, and the consort of Sri K,rsna and as eternal and equally endowed with divine attributes as the lord. She is formless also, above and beyond attributes, unattached and detached, and not visible even to the great Devas and munis by the naked eye. Her clothes even ~gni would not burn. She was born, in Vardha Kalpa as the daughter of Vrsabhanu, and because her sacred feet trod over this land, Bharata (India) became holy. Once Brahma did tapas for 60,000 years to have a glimpse of the Devi's lotus feet, but could not. People were able to see her only after she, in unbounded compassion for the world, incarnated herself in Vrndavana (See Prakrti).
4) Arnsaruba(s) partial manifestations of Devf. The above discussion was concerned with the five forms of the Devi in her full and complete forms. Now, there are six other Devis, who are partial manifestations or born from certain parts of the Devi.
'(1) Gangddevf. This Devi who flows in the form of water and washes off men's sins takes her origin from the body of Mahavisnu. (There is another story which traces Ganga's origin to the Anda (egg or seed) of Brahma). (See Ganga).
(2) Tulasi. She is the lover and also the servant at the feet of Visnu. She also washes off men's sins and promotes their welfare. (See Tulasi).
(3) Manasddevi Manasa.devi, who was born as a daughter of Kasyapa is another partial incarnation of Mahamaya. She is a great tapasvini, a favourite disciple of $ankara, unique in learning and erudition, sister of Ananta (the king of Serpents), the presiding deity of Mantras, wife of jaratkaru muni and mother of Astika muni. (See Manasadevi) .
(4) Devasenddevf. Since this Devi has been born out of a sixth part of Mahamaya she is called Sasthidevi also. It is this Devi, who gives children to living beings and also protects them. For one year from the birth of a child this Devi should be worshipped. Those who cannot afford it should worship Devi on the 6th or 21st day after a child is born. (See Devasena).
(5) Marigalacandikd. She is born from the face of Mulaprakrti. Anybody who propitiates and pleases her will be the recipient of all good things like sons and grandsons, wealth, reputation, welfare etc. (See Mangalacandika).
(6) Bhumidevi. She is the basis for all things, soil for the .origin of the vegetable kingdom, the treasure house of all gems and the very incarnation of compassion and sympathy. (See Bhumidevi).
5) Aridakalddevf(s). Another class of devis who are also partial manifestations of the Supreme Devi. They are born out of the parts of Mahadevi. The following are the Arii~akaladevis.
(1) Svdhddevf. Consort of Agni Bhagavan (Fire God). Svaha is worshipped in all the worlds. If havis (oblation) is offered without repeating her name the Devas will not accept it.
(2) Daksincideva. Wife of Yajfiadeva, this Devi is worshipped by all. Without this Devi all $armans (actions) in the world will become futile.
(3) Diksddeva. Wife of Yajfiadeva, this Devi is worshipped by all.
Diyate vimalam jfianam Ksiyate karmavasana / Tena dikseti sa prokta. The Devi grants pure knowledge. (4) Svadhadevf. Wife of the Pitrs, worshipped by manes and men. Offerings made to the Pitrs without honouring this Devi will prove to be futile.
(5) Svastidevf. Consort of the Vayu. When offering Daksina and making divya-dana (divine gifts) if `Svasti' (may good happen) is not uttered the gifts will be of no use. (6) Pustidevi. Wife of Ganapati. If this Devi ceased to exist men and women would become feeble, because she is the source of all strength.
(7) Tustidevf. Consort of Ananta worshipped by everybody. If the Devi ceased to exist there would be no happiness in the world.
(8) Sampatti devi. Wife of 1sana. Worshipped by Devas and men. If the Devi ceased to exist the whole world would become poor and indigent.
(9) Dhrti. Consort of Kapila,.. Everybody worships her all the time. If the Devi ceased to exist the whole world would become timid and cowardly.
(10) Satidevi. Wife of Satya. Well-wisher of all, this Devi is worshipped by muktas. (people released from worldly attachments). If the Devi ceased to exist there would be no friendship and amity between people.
(11) Dayadevi. Wife of Moha. If the Devi ceased to exist the world would' become hellish and a fierce battle field.
(12) Pratisthadevi. Wife of Punya. In the absence of this Devi, who grants good and happy results to people's actions the whole world would become as though it were dead.
(14) Kirtidevi. Both the Devis, Siddha and Kirti are wives of Sukarma. If they ceased to exist the whole world would be bereft of reputation and become lifeless like a dead body.
(15) Kriyddevi. Wife of Udyoga. If she ceased to exist the whole world would become inactive and cease to function.
(16) Mithyadevi. Wife of Adharma. Wayward and characterless people worship this Devi. If the Devi ceased to exist the whole world as evolved by Brahma wou1d cease to exist. This Devi was not seen anywhere in the world during Krtayuga. She began to appear in a subtle form here and there during Tretayuga. In dvaparayuga she attained more growth and then her limbs and organs became doubly strong. In Kaliyuga she developed to her full stature and growth and goes about everywhere with her brother, Cheat (Kapata).
(17) Santidevi. (see below) .
(18) Lajjddevi. Both the Devis, 8anti and Lajja are goodnaturedwives. If they ceased to exist the world would become dull and sleepy.
(19-20-21) Buddhidevi, Medhddevi and Dhrtidevi. These three Devis are wives of Jnana. If they ceased to exist the world would become steeped in ignorance and foolishness.
(22) Marti. Wife of Dharma. She is very beautifu1 and effulgent. In her absence the universal soul, would become devoid of vitality, helpless and meaningless.
(23) gridevi. Wife of Mali. Her absence wil1 make the world lifeless.
(24) Nidrddevi. Wife of Kalagni. The Devi, a sage who has attained realisation, affects everybody in the world during night and makes them lose consciousness and plunges them in sleep. In the absence of this Devi the world will become a lunatic asylum.
(25-26-27) Ritri, Sandhyd and Divasa. These three are- the wives of Time (Kala). In their absence nobody would have any sense of time and none would be able to calculate and fix time.
(28-29) Vifap¢u and Daham. Visappu = hunger. Daham = thirst. These two Devis are the wives of greed (Lobha). They go about the world affecting people and thus making them worried and miserable.
(30-31) Prabhddev£ and Ddhika devi are the wives of Tejas (Vitality). Without them Isvara will find it impossible to continue the function of creation.
(32-33) Mrtyu and Jara are the consorts of Prakrstajvara and daughters of Kala. And, if they cease to exist, Brahma's creation would also cease. (For Brahma's creation individual souls with the will for action are
necessary. He cannot create a soul of his own. So death is a pre-condition of creation, birth. If there is no death there is no birth also. There is a school of thought which maintains that if there is no death but only birth there will not be space on earth for the living, and therefore birth will stop if there is no death.).
(34-35 ). Tandra and Priti are the daughters of Nidra and consorts of Sukha (pleasure, happiness). These Devis go around the world on the orders of Brahma.
(36-37) Sraddha and Makti are the consorts of Vairagya (aversion to worldly comforts, renunciation) and they give salvation to the souls of the people in the world.
Aditi, mother of the Devas, Diti, mother of the Asuras, Surabhi, mother, of cows, Kadru, mother of serpents and Vinata, mother of Garudas are also involved in the process of creation, and they are born out of parts of Devi.
6) Idol of Devi. There are special injunctions for making idols of the Devi for installation in temples. Candikadevi should have twenty hands. The hands on the right side should hold ~izla, sword, disc, cord, damaru, sakti etc. and the hands on the left side should hold nagapa: a, flag, club, mirror etc. (There are also idols with slight differences from the above).
Laksmidevi would hold in her right hand the lotus flower and a Kuvala fruit in the left. Sarasvatidevi will have in her hands books, aksamala and vina. Gangadevi rides on a makaramatsya (fish) holding in her hands a pot and lotus flowers. Yamunadevi rides the turtle with a pot in hand and she is blue in colour.
Now, about the saptamatrs. Tumburu, white in colour, and mounted on an ox rests on a sula with vina in hand before the Matrs. Among the Matrs Brahmi has four faces, wears the aksamala and holds the aksapatra etc. in her left hand. She is seated on a swan. 8ankari
(Mahe9vari) is white in colour. She has in her right hand bow and arrows, and the disc and bow in her left hand. The ox is her vehicle. Kaumari is seated on the peacock. She has two hands in one of which is held Sakti (Vel). Laksmi has in her right hand the conch and disc, and the club and the lotus flower in her left hand. Varahi rides the buffalo with staff, sword, club and conch in her hands. Indrani is seated on the club, ho1ding diamond in her hands. She has a thousand eyes. Camundi has three eyes and is without flesh in the body. Her hairs are raised above. She holds in her left hand elephant's skin and sula in the right hand. At times she is seated on a corpse also.
Now, about the idols of the eight Ariibas. Rudra Carccika holds a skull, gala and cord in her hands. She wears elephant's skin, her legs slightly held up. She becomes Rudracamunda when she assumes eight hands, and holds the skull and the damaru. And in dancing pose she is called Natesvarl, and with four faces Mahalaksmi. She is called Siddhacamunda when she assumes the form with ten hands and three eyes, and when she eats men, horses and buffaloes. In this form she holds in her right hand the sword, damaru etc. and in her left hand the Trisula, bell etc. Since the Devi is sarvasiddhipradayika (giver of all divine attainments or assets) she is Siddhayogesvari also. There is also another Devi in this very form who holds the pasa and Arhkua in her hand and who is slightly red in colour. She is called Bhairavi. When Bhairavi assumes the form with twelve hands she is called Rupavidya. All the above eight Devis were born in burial grounds and are 27. galagrama Mahadevi
Raudramurtis. They are known as the Astambas. 28. Sivalinga Jalapriya
DEVIBHAGAVATA. The Saivas venerate this book as 29. Mahalinga Kapila one of the eighteen Puranas. But according to the Vai- 30. Makota MukuteSvari snavites, this is an authoritative book of a loftier level 31. Mayapuri Kumari than the eighteen Puranas. (See under Purana). 32. Santana Lalitambika DEVIKA 1. (VEDIKA). Daughter of Govasa, the Sai- 33. Gaya Mangala bya King. She was wedded by Yudhisthira in Svayarii- 34. Purusottama Vimala vara, and to them were born a son called Yaudheya. 35. Sahasraksa Utpalaksi (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 76) . 36. Hiranyaksa Mahotpala 37. Vipasa Amoghaksf
DEVIKA 11. A holy centre. A dip in the tirtha there 38_ Pundravardhana Patala will give the same result as that of a yajiaa. (M.B. Vana 39. Suparsva Narayani Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 102). 40. Trikuta Rudrasundari
DEVIPITHA. The dead body of Satidevi crumbled into 41. Vipula Vipula small pieces and fell in different places in Bharata. 42. Malayacala Kalyani Each place where a piece of the dead body fell, is known 43. Sahyadri Ekavira f by the name Devipitha. There is a reason why the 44. Hariscandra Candrika dead body crumbled into pieces. 45. Ramatirtha Ramana Daksa performed a sacrifice to which Siva was not invit- 46. Yamunatirtha Mrgavati ed and Satidevi came to the sacrifice, and committed 47. Vikota tirtha Koti suicide by jumping into the fire. Siva who became furi- 48. Madhavavana Sugandha y - ous, killed Daksa and carrying the dead body of his 49. Godavaritirtha Trisandhi wife on his shoulder, walked the length and breadth of 50. Gangadvara Ratipriya Bharata like a mad man. It seemed that he was not 51. 8aivakunda Subhananda going to recover from this mania, and the devas (gods) 52. Devikatata Nandini were worried at this. To rescue Siva from this mental 53. Dvaravati Rukminf disposition, Mahavisnu, unseen by others, followed 54. Vrndavana Radha Siva with a bow and arrow. Whenever it was conve- 55. Madhura Devaki nient Mahavisnu sent an arrow at the body of Satidevi, 56. Patala Paramesvari on the shoulder of Siva. By the hitting of the arrows 57. Citrakuta - Sita the body was crumbled into pieces and fell here and 58. Vindhya Vindhyadhivasini there. Thus within a few days the body of Satidevi 59. Karavira Mahalaksmi came to an end and Siva walked to Kailasa. The 60. Vinayaka Umadevi pieces of the dead body fell in 108 places, and thus 108 61. Vaidyanathatirtha Arogya Devipithas came into existence. The names of the 62. Mahakala Mahesvari places and the names by which the Devi is known in 63. Usnatirtha Abhaya such places are given below. 64. Vindhyaparvata Nitamba ?, Deaipitha Name of Devi 65. Mandavya Mandavi
1. Varanasi Visalaksi 66. Mahesvaripura Svaha
2. Naimisaranya Lingadharini 67. Chagalanda Pracanda
3. Prayaga Kumuda 68. Amarakantaka Candika
4. Gandhamadana Kamuki 69. Somesvara Vararoha
5. Daksina Kailasa (Manasa) Kumuda 70. Prabhasa Puskaravati
6. Uttara Kailasa (Manasa) Kumuda 71. Sarasvati Devamata
7. Gomanta Gautami 72. Mahalaya Mahabhaga
8. Mandara Kamacarini 73. Payosni Pingalesvari
9. Caitraratha Madotkata 74. Krtasauca Siriihika
10. Hastinapura Jayand 75. KAdrttika Atigankari
11. Kanyakubja Gauri 76. Varttaka Utpala
12. Malayacala Rambha 77.or,%asangama Subhadra
13. Ekamrapitha Kirtimati 78. Siddhavana Mata (Laksmi)
14. Visva Visvesvari 79. Bharatasrama Anangd
15. Puskara Puruhuta 80. Jalandhara Visvamukhi
16. Kedarapitha Sanmargadayini 81. Kiskindhaparvata Tara
17. Himavatprstha Manda 82. Devadaruvana Pusti
18. Gokarna Bhadrakarnika 83. Kasmiramandala Medha
19. Sthanvisvara Bhavam 84. Himadri Bhima
20. Villvaka Villvapatrikd 85. Kapalamocana Suddhi
21. Seri ~aila Madhavi 86. Kayavarohana Mata
22. BhadreS vara Bhadra 87. Sankhoddhara Dhara
23. Varahasaila Jaya 88. Pindaraka Dhrti
24. Kamalalaya Kamala 89. Candrabhaga Kala
25. Rudrakoti Rudrani 90. Acchoda Sivadharini
26. Kalanjara Kali 91. Vena Amrta
92. Badaryasrama Urvasi
93. Uttarakuru Ausadhi
94. KuSadvipa Kusobha
95. Hemakuta Manmatha
96. Kumuda Satyavadini
97. Asvattha Vandaniya
98. Vaisravanalaya Nidhi
99. Vedapatana Gayatri
100. ~ivasannidhi Parvati
101. Devaloka Indrani
102. Brahmaloka Sarasvati
103. Suryabimba Prabha
104. Matrloka Vaisnavi
105. Satitirtha Arundhati
106. Ramatirtha Tilottama
107. Citta Brahmakald
108. Jivasarira Sakti
DEVISTHANA. A holy place, dedicated to gakarnbhari Devi. It is stated in Mahabharata (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 13) that one who stays in this holy place and eats greens (cira or kira) for three days will get the fruits of eating greens for twelve years.
DEVITIRTHA(M). The common name of three holy centres (gankhini, Madhuvati, Mrgadhuma) in Kuruksetra. Those who bathe in gankhini will become beautiful in appearance, while those who bathe in Madhuvati and Mrgadhuma will get the benefits of performing a thousand godanas (gifts of cows).
DHA. This letter means dharana, gobhana, Dhata, dhattura (umma plant). (Chapter 348, Agni Purana).
DHAMA. A hermit who protected Gafiga-Mahadvara. (Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter i 11, Stanza 171.
DHAMADHAMA: A follower of Subrahmanya. (9loka 27, Chapter 46, 8alya Parva) .
DHANAKA. A king of the Yayati dynasty. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata) .
DHANAPALA. A Vaisya who lived in the city of Ayodhya. He built in Ayodhya a temple for the Sun-god and appointed, for a year, paying his wages in advance, a scholar we1l versed in Pur-nas to read aloud the Puranas in the temple. After six months Dhanapala died and as a result of the goodness accrued to him by his worthy deeds the Sun-god came to him with his chariot and took him to his place and seating him on his seat paid respects to him. Later he was taken to (Bhavisya PuranA, Brahma Kanda, Brahmaloka. Chapter 94) .
DHANAGARMA. A Brahmin belonging to Madhyadesa. Once when Dhanasarma went to the forest to get darbha he confronted three fierce evil spirits and getting frightened ran away from them. But the spirits followed him and the Brahmin then cried and said "Oh, please do not harm me. Mahaeisnu will bless you."
The moment they heard the name of Visnu there came a change in them. They reiterated their story to Dhanasarma. Their names were Vaisakha, Sudasa and Advaita. Because of the ingratitude of Vaisakha he got a nick-name `Krtaghna' ( ungrateful man) also. All the three were human beings in their previous birth. Not only that, Advaita was a king called Harivira. All the three became evil spirits because of their sins.
From the conversation Dhanasarma understood that Vaisakha was his father and they then knew each other.
The son then anxiously enquired what he should do to absolve his father of his sins and save him from hell. Vaisakha then told him observe the vrata, Vaisakhapirrnima. He did that and all the spirits went to heaven. ( Chapter 94, Padma Purana ) .
DHANAVARDHANA. A virtuous Vaisya who lived in the island of Puskara in the Krtayuga. Once Dhanavardhana after having performed Vaisvadeva sat for his food. At that time he heard a cry from outside "Annaria dehi ( give me food) ". Dhanavardhana immediately came out to see who the visitor was but seeing none went in and started taking his food. Because he ate his food once left aside, his body was torn to hundred pieces. ( Bhavi sya, Brahma Kanda ) .
DHANAVATI. See Suryaprabha.
DHANAIVJAYA I. A famous serpent. This serpent was born to Kasyapaprajapati of his wife Kadru. ( 9loka 5, Chapter 35, Adi Parva). This serpent served as a rope to bind the horses to the chariot of giva during the time of burning to death the Tripuras. (Sloka 29, Chapter 34, Karna Parva). This serpent sits in the court of Varuna and worships him. (9loka 9, Chapter 9, Sabha- parva).
DHANAIVJAYA II. Another name for Arjuna. ( See under Arjuna).
DHANAIVJAYA III. The army given to Subrahmanya by diva. (9loka 17, Chapter 46, galya Parva).
DHANANJAYA IV. A Sanskrit critic who lived during the period between 11th and 12th century A.D. He was a member of the court of King Munja. His important work is `Dasarupaka'. This work contains three hundred Slokas divided in four separate divisions. After the death of Munja, Dhanika, brother of Dhananjaya, wrote a commentary on this work. The treatise is named` Dasarupavaloka'. There are several quotations in this from the Sanskrit dramas `Venisamhara' and `Ratnavali'. He has in this work discussed Drama and Poetry in general giving prominence to the emotional side of it. The critical work, Dasarupavaloka, contains quotations from a book `Kavyanirnaya' by Dhanika himself. But the work `Kavyanirnaya' has not yet been made available. Even in composing poetry Dhananjaya was well versed. He is the author of the well-known epic `Raghavapandaviya'. It is known as `Dvisandhana Kavya' also. This is based on the lives of Pandavas and Sri Rama.
Dhanaiijaya bears the name of S`rutakirti also. It is stated by scholars that Raghavapandaviya was written during the period 1123 to 1140 A.D. (History of classical Sanskrit Literature.).
DHANAlVJAYA V. There was once a Brahmin ascetic called Dhananjaya in the gotra of Vasistha. This hermit had hundred wives and got hundred sons, one by each of his wives. The son born of his wife gabhaka ( Salaka) was named Karuna. The father divided his assets equally among his sons and yet they quarrelled with each other.
Once Karunamuni went to the shores of Bhavanasini along with a few other mums to worship Narasimha. There a Brahmin had brought a lovely lime as an offering to the deity. Karuna took the lime from him and smelt it. At this the Brahmin got angry and cursed him. "Sinner, may you live as a fly for a hundred years. Then Mahatma Dadhica will give you back your original form." Karuna instantly became a fly and he pleaded to his wife thus "Beloved, I have become a fly. Please do protect me." Karuna started flying hither and thither and his cruel brothers made the fly fall in oil and killed it. Saucismita, wife of Karuna, started weeping laying the dead fly in her lap. Arundhatidevi passing that way -saw her and consoled her thus: `Sucismita, stop lamenting. I shall bring it to life this instant by sacred ashes.' So saying the Devi took some ashes from the fire-pit and reciting the powerful Mrtyunjaya mantra sprinkled it on the dead body of the fly. Sucismita fanned the fly. The potency of the ashes brought the fly back to life.
After a hundred years one of his relatives killed it again. Sucismita grief-stricken, took the dead fly to the Maharsi, Dadhica. The sage told her thus: "It was bhasma (sacred ashes) that gave life three times to Jamadagni, Kasyapa, the devas and myself. I will, therefore, give life to thy husband by bhasma itself." Dadhica took some ashes and meditating on Mahesvara recited a mantra and sprinkled it on the dead fly and brought it back to life. By the touch of Dadhica, the fly, husband of Sucismita, became Karuna again and both of them went back to their hermitage. (Chapter 101, Padma Purina).
DHANAIRJAYA VI. A brahmin devotee of Mahavisnu who lived in the Treta, yuga. Once, in winter, when for want of proper clothing he could bear the biting cold no longer, he broke some twigs of the Mvattha tree (poplar leafed fig tree) and made fire to warm him. When Dhananjaya broke the twigs it gave reflective pain on the body of Mahavisnu. But Mahavisnu who was aware of the unflinching devotion of Dhananjaya to himself was not displeased but appeared before Dhananjaya with wounds all over the body. The Brahmin enquired how Visnu got the wounds and on knowing that it was the consequence of his breaking the twigs of Mvattha Dhananjaya in utter grief started to cut his own head off. Greatly pleased Visnu stopped him from his attempt and asked him to name a boon. Very modestly he replied that he would be satisfied if he was given the strength to continue as a devotee of Visnu. (Padma Purana, Kriya Kanda).
DHANESVARA. A Brahmin born in the city of Avanti. Abandoning the duties enjoined by scriptures to a Brahmin he strayed away from the Brahmin fold doing all sorts of sins. He became a store-house of sins. He was engaged in-commerce and once while travelling he reached the city of Mahismati. There he met many people from several adjoining villages who had come there to observe the Karttika Vrata. Later Dhanes vara was bitten by a cobra there and fell down fainting. Very soon he died.
When he died the messengers of Yama came and took him bound to Kalapuri. There, Citragupta read out to Yama all the sins Dhane9vara had committed from boyhood till his death. Citragupta added "Even from boyhood there is no record of any good deed done by him. On the other hand the sins he has committed could not be told in a year. He is an incarnation of evil. He must be roasted in hell till the end of the world." On hearing this the body of Yama blazed like flame with anger and calling aside an attendant he ordered, "Hi, Pretapalaka, take this sinner away, beat him with spiked clubs and throw him into Kumbhipaka". Pretapalaka instantly took him away and breaking his head with a thorn-spiked club threw
him into a copper vessel containing burning oil. But to his great amazement the burning oil became cold as soon as the body of Dhanesvara came into contact with it just as it happened once before in the case of Prahlada. The perplexed attendant ran to Yama and told him of this strange incident. Yama was also surprised at this novelty in hell and called back Dhanesvara and started enquiring about his life once again. Narada came there at that time. Both of them then talked about Dhanesvara. Narada told Yama how the unanticipated thing so happened because Dhanesvara on the eve of his death spent some time with people who were observing the Karttika Vrata washing away thus all the sins accumulated so far in his life. Hearing that Yama took Dhanes -vara round hell and giving Dhanesvara, the position of a Yaksa sent him to Kuberapuri. (Chapter 115, Padma Purana).
DHANI. A messenger of the asuras called Kapas. The Kapas once sent Dhani to preach moral code among the Brahmins. (Chapter 157, Anusasana Parva, M.B.)
DHANIKA. A Sanskrit poet. (See Dhananjaya IV).
One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed in the great battle byBhimasena. (9loka 62, Chapter 84, Karna Parva, M.B. ).
DHANUVAKTRA. A soldier of Subrahmanya. (9loka 62, Chapter 45, galya Parva, M.B.).
General information. A scientific treatise on' the art of warfare in ancient Bharata. Because of the undue importance of the science the treatise is deemed and respected as a Veda. There have been innumerable books on the subject to teach Dhanurveda to the Ksatriya youths. In the book `Prasthanabheda' by Madhusudana Sarasvati he states that Dhanurveda is a branch of Yajurveda. A Sanskrit book called Dhanurvedasamhita is now available. Some scholars are of opinion that not much antiquity can be attributed to this work. Many books relating to Dhanurveda have been lost to us. What details are there in Agni Purana are given below
2) Divisions of Dhanurveda. This is known as Catuspada (four-footed) also because of the fact that the four main constituents of an army are the chariots, elephants, horses and men. Dhanurveda has been divided into five parts (1) Yantramukta, (2) Panimukta, (3) Muktasandharita, (4) Amukta and (5) Bahuyuddha. There is another division according to Astra and S`astra. There is yet another division of the science into two by some scholars from a different viewpoint calling them Maya and gju.
Yantramukta (Yantra=machine) . This means a warfare where machines are used. Ksepini (sling) bow and arrow and other such machines are included in this.
Pdnimukta. (Pani =hand). This is where the hand is used mainly. Stone, mace etc. are used in this.
Muktasandhdrita. This includes the use of weapons like a spear.
Amukta. The use of a weapon like a sword which never leaves your hand.
Bahuyuddha. (Bahu=head). The fight with only bare hands without the use of a weapon. One who wishes to fight should make ready his own weapons. He should be one who will never get tired even after exertion. A war with bows and arrows is considered the best and most manly, that with a spear ranks next, a fight with a sword is bad and a fight with hands, the most mean.
3) The Trainees. Only a brahmin is entitled to be a preceptor in Dhanurveda. The Ksatriya and Vaisya should learn from him. The ~udra can fight of his own in danger. He is not allowed to learn military science from a preceptor. Those mixed-born are to help the king during a war.
4) Various pastures. There are nine different ways of standing when .you give a fight, classified according to the different positions of one's foot, heel and knee.
Samapada. When you stand with your Angustha, Nariyani (Gulpha), Pani and Pada closely joined together, it is termed Samapada.
Vaisdkha. Keep your legs twentyseven inches apart and without bending your knees stand erect throwing your weight on the fingers of the foot. This stand is called Vaisakha.
Mandala. Keep your knees thirtysix inches apart and stand in the shape of a hamsapankti and this position is called Mandala.
Alidha. Bend your right knee and thigh in the shape of a plough and without any movement to that posture draw your left leg fortyfive inches apart. This stand is called Alidha.
Pratydlidha. If you bend your left knee and thigh and stand like above it is called Pratyalidha.
_7dta. Place your right foot straight and place the left one perpendicular to the right one with the heels and the ankles of the feet five fingers apart. The whole length of the posture should not exceed twelve fingers. This stand is called Jata.
Dandayata. Keep the right knee bent and the left leg straight or vice versa This posture is called. Dandayata. Vikata. If for the above posture the distance between the two legs is two palm-length it is Vikata,
Saaputa. Keep the knees vigunas and the feet Uttayanas for the posture of Svaputa.
9Uastika. Keep your 1egs sixteen fingers apart and raise your feet a little keeping the level of both the feet equal. This is Svastika.
5) Use of arrows. Before a man is to make use of a bow and arrow he should first take the posture of Svastika and bow down. He should take the bow by the left hand, take the arrow by the right hand. He then should adopt a posture of either Vaisakha or Jata and taking the bow should sink into the earth one end of the bow and draw the bow-string up to the other end and see whether there is sufficient length for the string. He should take an arrow from his sheath and thrust the arrowhead into the ground near the bow. He should place his elbow on the top of the arrow with his forearm bent and fist clenched. If the clenched fist touches the top of the bow that bow and arrow is superior to any other. He should tie the bow-string in a way that the distance between the tied bow-string and the bow is twelve fingers. He should place the bow in front of his navel and the arrows in a quiver on his hip. Taking an arrow he should raise the bow and fix the arrow at a point on the bow-tring between his eye and ear. He should take the arrow by his left fist and fix it so that the fist touches the left nipple. The bow should not change position horizontally, vertically, laterally, face downwards or upwards. Then taking an arrow from the sheath by the thumb and forefinger fix it on the bow-string and
stretch it well before sending the shot. The clue to correct aim is this. Anything that one can see with one's eyes but can be covered by his fist is within the arrowshot. When one arrow is sent another should be taken immediately from the sheath and sent in quick succession. This is called Upaccheda.
6p Operations with a sword and a carma (shield). There are thirtytwo different ways of putting into use a sword or a ~ 'carma' (shield). Bhranta, Udbhranta, Aviddha, Apluta, Vipluta, Srta, Sampata, Samudirna, ~vetapata, Akula, Savyoddhuta, Savyavadhuta, Daksinoddhuta, Daksinavadhuta, Analaksita, Visphota, Karala, Indramahasakha, Vikarala, Nipata, Vibhisana, Bhayanaka, Samagrapada, Arddhapada, Trtiyamsapada, Pada, Ardhavarija, Varija, Pratyalidha, Alidha, Varaha and Lalita.
7) Operations with roes. There are eleven different ways of using a rope in a war. Paravrtta, Aparavrtta, Grhita, Laghugrhita, Urdhvaksipta, Adhahksipta, Sandharita, 9yenapata, Gajapata and Grahagrahya. Adepts in this art have stated that there are five acts in the rope-operation. They are : Rju, Ayata, Visala, Tiryak and Bhramita.
8) Mode of using the weapons. (1) Deeds with a wheel are : Chedana, Bhedana, Patana, Bhramana, gayana and Vikartana.
(2) gula (sear). Deeds with this are : Asphotana, Ksolana, Bhedana, Trasana, Andolana and Aghata.
(3) Tomara (iron club). Deeds with this are : Drstighata Parsvaghata, Rjupaksa and Istaprapta.
(4) Gada (Mace). Deeds with this are : Gomutra, Ahata, Prabhfita, Kamalasana, Tata, Urdhvagatra, Vamanamita, Daksinamita, Avrtta, Paravrtta, Padoddhuta, and Avapluta Harimsamarda.
(5) Parasu (axe). Deeds with this are : Karala, Avaghata, Damsa, Upapluta, Ksiptahasta, Sthita and 9finya, (6) Mudgara (hammer). Deeds with this are : Tadana. Chedana, Curnana, Plavana and Ghatana.
(7) Bhindipala. Deeds with this are : Samsranta, Visranta, Govisarga and Sudurdhara. Deeds with the Laguda are the same as these.
(8) Vajra. Deeds with this are: Antya, Madhya, Paravrtta, and Nidesanta. The deeds with Pattisa are the same as there.
(9) YrPana (Churikd--small dagger). Deeds with these are : Harana; Chedana, Ghatana, Bhedana, Mrrimksana, Patana and Sphotana.
(10) Kyepinf (Kaaina-Sling). Deeds are Trasana, Raksana, Ghatana, Baloddharana and Ayata.
The feats of one who fights a bludgeon or cudgel are the following
Santyaga, Avadamia, Varahoddhfitaka, Hastavahasta, Alina, Ekahasta, Avahasta, Dvihasta, Bahupasa, Katirecitaka, Utgata, Uroghata, Lalataghata, Bhujavidhamana, Karoddhuta, Vimana, Padahati, Vipadika Gatrasam~lesana, Santa, Gatraviparyaya, Grdhaprahara, Ghata, Gomutra, Savya, Bhaksina. Paraka, Taraka, Danda, Akula, Kabaribandha, Tiryagbandha, Apamarga, Bhimavega, Sudarsana, Siriihakranta, Gajakranta and Garbhakranta. (Agni Purana, Chapters 249-252) .
9) Dhanuraeda in Mahabharata. Some references to Dhanurveda in Mahaharata are given below:
(1) A sage named Saradvan was a noted preceptor in Dhanurveda. Krpacarya learnt Dhanurveda from him and taught many others of his disciples. (Chaptar 129, Adi Parva, M.B.).
(2) Dronacarya learnt Dhanurveda from Parasurama and imparted it to many other disciples of his including the Kauravas and Pandavas. (Chapter 129, Adi Parva, M.B.).
(3) Agnives a, a sage, learnt Dhanurveda from sage Agastya. (Sloka 9, Chapter 133, Adi Parva, M.B.).
(4) Dhanurveda has got ten arigas and four caranas. (Chapters 6 and 41, Salya Parva, M.B.) .
(5) Four-footed Dhanurveda worshipped Subrahmanya. (Sloka 22, Chapter 44, Salya Parva, M.B.).
DHANUSA. An ancient sage. He was a priest in the yaga of Uparicaravasu. (Sloka 7, Chapter 336, Santi Parva).
DHANUSAKSA. An ancient sage. He killed Medhavi, son of the sage Baladhi, accusing Medhavi of having mocked other sages (Sloka 50, Chapter 135, Vana Parva, M.B.).
DHANVA. One of the Kings of Kas i. Dhanvantari was born as his son. (For details see under Dhanvantari).
DHANVANTARI I. A deva who was a preceptor in Ayurveda.
1) Origin. The devas and asuras together churned the milky ocean, Ksirabdhi, to salvage Amrta (Nectar) from it. After thousand years there arose from the ocean a deva with a Kamandalu (water-pot of ascetics) in one hand and a danda in the other. That deva was Dhanvantari, (Sloka 31, Sarga 45, Bala K5nda, Valmiki Ramayana).
The birth of Dhanvantari from the ocean of Milk is described in Chapter 29 of Harivarhsa thus
Prosperous-looking Dhanvantari rising above the waterlevel of Ksirabdhr stood worshipping Mahavisnu. Visnu gave him the name of Abja. Dhanvantari is thus known by the name of Abja also. Dhanvantari bowing to Visnu said "Prabho, I am your son. Allot to me yajnabhaga".
Vtsnu replied thus : "Portions of yajfia have already been allotted. Because you were born after the devas you cannot be considered as one among them. You will be born again in the world for a second time and then you will be a celebrity. In your second life even from while in the womb you will have knowledge of Anima and Garima. Therefore you will be born as a deva incarnate. You will write in eight divisions a book on Ayurveda ; your second life will be in Dvapara yuga." After having said so much Visnu disappeared.
2) Rebirth of Dhanvantari. Suhotra, King of Kas i, in the second Dvapara yuga had two sons, Sala and Grtsamada. Sunaka was the son of Grtsamada. Sala got a son, Arstisena. Ka$a was born to Arstisena. To Kasa was born Dirghatapas (Dhanva). For a long time Dhanva did not have any children and so he went and did penance to propitiate Abjadeva. Abjadeva (Dhanvantari) was pleased and was born as a son to Dhanva. Dhanva named the boy as Dhanvantari and the latter taught his disciples Ayurveda, by parts, eight in number. From Dhanvantari in order were born KetumanBhimaratha-Divodasa. (Chapter 29, Harivariisa).
3) Dhanvantari and Parik~it. There is a story in the puraizas that when Taksaka went and bit Pariksit to kill him, a Visahari (one who cures those infected with snake venom) rushed to save the king but was bribed and sent back by Taksaka. There are indications in the Puranas to show that the Visahari under reference was Dhanvantari though it is stated that Kasyapa was the person involved. (See under Taksaka).
4) Dhanvantari and Manasddevi. In the Krsnajanma
Khanda of Brahmavaivarta Purana there is a story connecting Dhanvantari with Manasadevi, a serpentgoddess.
Once Dhanvantariwith his disciples was going to Kailasa. On the way Taksaka made a venom-spitting hiss. At once one of the disciples of Dhanvantari boldly went and plucked the diamond on the head of Taksaka and threw it to the ground. Hearing this Vasuki, King of serpents, sent to Dhanvantari thousands of serpents under the leadership of Drona, Pundarika and Dhanafijaya. The poisonous breath of all these serpents joined together made the disciples of Dhanvantari swoon. Immediately Dhanvantari by a medicine made from vanaspati made all his disciples recover and then sent all the serpents to a swoon. When Vasuki heard this he sent the serpent-maid, Manasadevi, a disciple of Siva, to face Dhanvantari. Manasadevi and Gadura were both disciples of Siva. But Dharivantari was a follower of Gadura. Manasadevi made all the disciples of Dhanvantari swoon but the latter because of his great proficiency is Visavidya soon brought back his disciples to normal. When Manasadevi found that it was impossible to defeat Dhanvantari or his disciples by using poison Manasadevi took the trisula given to her by Siva and aimed it at Dhanvantari. Seeing this Siva and Brahma appeared before them and pacifying them sent them all their way.
DHANVANTARI II. (Amrtacarya). An eminent medical scientist born in the ambastha caste. There is. no reference anywhere in the Puranas regarding any relationship between the two Dhanvantaris. There is the following story about Amrtacarya in Ambasthacaracandrika.
Once Galava Maharsi went to the forest to collect darbha and firewood. He walked for long and felt thirsty and hungry. Then he saw a girl coming that way with water and Galava quenched his thirst taking water from her. Pleased with her the Maharsi blessed her saying "May you get a good son." The girl replied that she was still unmarried. Galava then made a figure of a male with darbha and told her to get a child from that figure. She was a Vaisya girl named Virabhadra and she got a beautiful child of that darbha male. Because the boy was born to a VaiSya of a brahmin male he belonged to the Ambastha caste. The boy was named Amrtacarya.
DHANYAMALA. The foster-mother of Atikaya. (See Atikaya).
DHAKA. Wife of a Vasu named Drona (see under Nandagopa).
DHAKA I. He is the first Vasu born to Dharma of his wife Dhumra. (Sloka 19, Chapter 66, Adi Parva).
DHAKA II. A king who was a friend of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 39, Chapter 158, Drona Parva, M.B. ).
DHAKA. A holy place. If one bathes in this holy place (Bath) has sorrows will be at an end. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84, ,Stanza 25).
DHARANA. One of the eight means of Rajayoga (One of the ways of union with the supreme Spirit). Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi are the eight means (See under P,ajayoga).
DHARANA I. A king born in the family of Candravatsa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 16).
DHARANA 11. A naga (serpent) of the family of Ksyapa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Stanza 16).
DHARANA (M) . A measure. In ancient times a dharana was made up of ten palas. (Manusmrti).
DHARAPALA. A king of ancient times. He ruled over a country named Vidisa. There is a holy place where the rivers Vetasi and Vetravati meet. Dharapala constructed a temple at the confluence. There is a story also for his doing so.
Once a give-parsada brought to give a woman at a time when Parvati was away from the place. Siva and the woman were enjoying each other when Parvati came to the place. Getting angry she cursed the Parsada and made him into a fox. The fox came to the place where the rivers Vetasi and Ve travati meet and did penance there and attained Moksa. Dharapala saw the divine plane coming down to take the Parsada away and he, therefore, constructed a temple at the place where the plane landed. He then arranged scholars well versed in Vedas and sdstras to read Padma Purana there. He himself read Padma Purana and attained moksa. (Chapter 29, Padma Purana).
DHARES`VARy. A goddess living in the tirtha (holy bath) of Jambunada. This goddess is another form of Parvati. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8).
DHARINg. A daughter born to the Manes (Pitrs) created by Brahma, by their wife Svadha. Dharini had an elder sister named Mend. Both were expounders of the Vedas and of good qualities. (Visnu Purana, Arimca 1, Chapter 10) .
DHARMA. A deva who is the abode of all luxuries in life.
1) Birth. This deva broke the right nipple of Brahma and came out in the form of a human being. Three sons were born to him: S`ama, Kama and Harsa. Kama married Rati, game, Prapti and Harsa, Nanda.l
2) Marriage and family life. The Bhagavata states that Dharma married the thirteen daughters of Daksaprajapati named S`raddha, Maitri, Dayd, S`anti, Pusti, Tusti, Kriya, Unnati, Buddhi, Medha, Titiksd, Hr! and Marti. Besides them he married ten other girls named Bhanu, Lambs, Kukubh, Jdmi, Viva, Sddhya, Marutvati, Vasu, Muhurta and Sarikalpa and also a woman named Sunrta. According to Mahabharata Dharma married the following daughters of Daksa : Kirti, Laksmi, Dhrti, Medha, Pusti, 8raddha, Kriya, Buddhi and Lajja.
From each of his wives there originated a family. The son born to each is given below Sraddha-~ubha; Maitri-Prasada; Daya-Abhaya; 8anti--Sukha; TustiModa; Unnati - Darpa; Buddhi - Artha; MedfiaSukrti; TitiksA - game; Hri - Prasraya. Marti gave birth to the virtuous Naranardyanas. Sunrta became the mother of the devas, Satyavrata and Satyasena. Satyasena became famous by slaying many cruel and evil-natured Yaksas, demons and spirits. Lambs gave birth to Rsabha and Vidyotana. Rsabha got a son, Indrasena. Vidyotana became the father of stanayitnu. Kukubh delivered Sankata and Sankata became the father of Kikata and Durgadeva. Jami got a son Svarga and of him was born Nandi. Visva gave birth to Visva. Sthanarh to daksinarii bhitva Brahmano naravigrahah I Nihsrto bhagavan dharmah sarvalokasukhavahah // Trayastasyavarah putrah sarvabhutamanoharah / Samah Kama°sca HarWea tejasa lokadharinah /l
(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65) .
devas and Sadhya to Sadhyas. These Sadhyas are different from those born ofBrahma. Sadhyas became the father of Arthasiddhi. Marutvati gave birth to Marutvat and Jayanta. Vasu gave birth to eight sons and they were known as Astavasus. Drone, the first of the Astavasus, married Abhimati: Abhimati is known as Dhara also. It was DrQna and Dhara who were born as Nandagopa and YaFoda later. Prana, second of the Astavasus, married >`Jrjasvati, daughter df Priyavrata. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata) .
3 ) Prominent sons. Four sons of Dharma, Hari, Krsna, Nara and Narayana became prominent. Hari and Krsna were great yogis while Nara and Narayana were great ascetics. (See under Naranarayana).
4) The daughter named Dharmaaratd. Dharmadeva got a daughter named Dharmavrata of his wife Dharmavati. Dharmavrata was an ascetic and she was married to Marici, son of Brahma. One day Marici came back from the forest after getting darbha and flowers extremely tired and so after food lay down to rest. His wife sitting by his side massaged his legs. The sage fell asleep. Then Brahma came there and Dharmavrata attended on him and worshipped him. Marici, when he woke up, finding Dharmavrata attending on another man cursed her and made her into stone. Dharmavrata pleaded not guilty and standing inside a fire-pit did penance for ten thousand years. Brahma and other devas appeared before her and consoled her by assuring that though she would be a stone devas would take their abode in it and that she would be worshipped by all. From that day onwards that stone was known as Devas ila and even now it is believed that Brahma and other devas live therein. (Chapter 114, Agni Purana).
5 ) Dharma was cursed and made Fidura by A,nimandavya. (See Animandavya ) .
Other details. (1) A portion of Dharma took life as Yudhisthira in Kunti. (See Dharmaputra).
( 2 ) Dharma did penance in Dharmatirtha for a very long time. (Sloka 1, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).
( 3) The abode of Dharma was Dharmaprastha. (Sloka 1, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).
(4) Dharma did penance on the banks of the river Vaitarani for a long time. (Sloka 4, Chapter 114, Vana Parva).
( 5) While the Pandavas were in exile in the forest Dharma in the form of a deer came to the but of a Brahmin and carried away by its horns the Arani stick which the Brahmin owned for making fire by attrition.
(Chapter 311, Vana Parva).
(-fi) -Dharma appeared in the form of a Yaksa and made all the Pandavas swoon except Yudhisthira, on the shores of a pond in the forest and later got them back to normal. (See under Dharmaputra).
(7) Dharmadeva went to Visvamitra in the guise of Vasistha to test him. (See pare 3 of Galava).
(8 ) Following a directive from Brahma, Dharmadeva once brought before Varuna all the daityadanavas bound by ropes. ( Chapter 128, Udyoga Parva).
(9) Mahavisnu was born as a son of Dharmadeva. (See under Naranarayana).
(10) Dharma worshipped a brahmin named Satya taking the form of a deer. (Sloka 17, Chapter 272, Santi Parva) .
(11) Dharrna tested Sudarsana taking the form of a brahmin. (Sloka 79, Chapter 2, Anus asana Parva).
(12) Dharma saved a sage named Vatsanabha from a great downpour taking the shape of a buffalo. (Chapter 12, AnuS dsana Parva) .
(13) Dharma disguised as a brahmin, went and imparted advice to janaka, father of Sita. (Chapter 32, Asvamedha Parva).
(14) To test Jamadagni, Dharma went to his asrama taking the form of Anger. Jamadagni had just milked Kamadhenu and kept the milk in a pot. Dharma as Anger crept into the milk. Jamadagni drank it and yet remained calm. Seeing this Dharma appeared before him in the form of a Brahmin and blessed him assuring Jamadagni that in future he would be obedient to Dharma (Chapter 91, Asvamedha Parva).
(15) When at the fag end of their life the Pandavas started on their Mahaprasthana, Dharma as a dog accompanied them up to the gates of heaven. (Sloka 22, Chapter 5, Svargdrohana Parva).
7) Dharma and Kala. There is a misunderstanding found even in some Puranas that Kala, the chief of Kalapuri, and Dharma are one and the same person. But if the stories around each are examined it is easy to deduce that they are two different devas. The father and mother of Dharmadeva is Brahma. The father of Kala is Surya and mother Samjfia, daughter of Visvakarma. This itself is a sufficient evidence to show that the two are different persons. Further, Kala or Yama is the sixth descendant of Visnu.
But scholars are misled to think that the two are identical. There is a reason for it.
Samano Yamarad Yamah //
Kalo Dandadharah Sraddha
Devo Vaivasvatontakah. / (Amara).
The above are the synonyms of Kala. Vyasa has used as synonyms for Dharmadeva in the Mahabharata the words Dharmaraja, Vrsa and Yama. Now among the synonyms for the two there are two words in commonDharmaraja and Yama. This has led to this misunderstanding. Because Kala weighs the evil and good in man he got the name Dharmaraja. Dharmadeva got that name because he is the incarnation of Dharma. The real name of Kala is Yama. Dharmadeva got the name Yama because he possesses `Mama' (control of the self for moral conduct). K31a has no sons; Vidura and Yudhisthira are the sons of Dharmadeva.
DHARMABHRT. A maharsi who was an inhabitant of Dandakaranya. This sage narrated to Sri Rama the story of the pond °Paficapsara' and the ganadhara that rises from it. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya, Sarga 11).
DHARMABUDDHI. See under Mitrabheda.
DHARMADA. A follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 72, Chapter 45, Salya Parva).
DHARMADATTA I. A king of Kosala. He had a wife named Nagasri. By her chastity she became a celebrity and got the name of Arundhati of the earth. They got a daughter named Taradatta. Once when Dharmadatta and &dgasr! were engaged in conversation both remem-
bered their lives in their previous births. It was not allowed to speak about previous births in open and if anybody did so death was the penalty. But Nagasri could not control herself and prepared to accept the worst. Nagasri told her husband thus: "I am just reminded of my life in my previous birth. I will tell you my story. I was the servant maid of a brahmin named Madhava in this same place. I had a husband named Devadasa then. My husband was the son of a merchant. We made a small house of our own and lived there peacefully. Each of us would bring food from where we worked and everyday we used to set apart a portion of what we got for guests and the pitrs. We were satisfied with what was left after that. If we got more than one set of clothes we would give it to the poor. Then there came a famine in the country. Our earning also was reduced daily. We lived in hunger. One day a hungry and tired sannydsi came to our place and we gave him the whole of our food. My husband died that day and I gave away my life jumping into the funeral pyre of my husband. Then I was born in the family of a King and became your wife."
Dharmadatta also got back the memory of his previous birth. He said he was the Devadasa of Nagas ri's previous life.
The moment they finished talking about their previous births both fell down dead. Orphaned Taradatta. then lived under the care of her mother's younger sister. After some time a Maharsi came to their house and by his blessing Taradatta got a husband named Kalingasena. Kalingasena was a brave and daring Prince. Very soon they got a daughter and she was named Kalingasena. (Kathasaritsagara, Madanamafijuka lambaka, Taranga 2) .
DHARMADATTA II. A Brahmin who lived in the city of Karavira. One day while Dharmadatta was going to the temple with material for puja he came across a demoness named Kalaha on the way. The brahmin threw the puja materials in his hand on to the face of the demoness. When a tulasi leaf touched the demoness she got back the memory of her previous birth.
Kalaha then abandoned her cruel nature and begged Dharmadatta to advise her as to how she should get a release from her demonaic life. Taking pity on her Dliarmadatta gave her all the `punya' he had obtained by observing Karttikavrata. (Chapters 106, 107, Uttara Khanda, Padma Purana and Chapters 2, 4, 24, 25 Skanda Purana).
Dharmadatta and Kalaha were born as Dasaratha and Kaikeyi in their next births as a result of the accumulated Punya obtained by observing Karttikavrata. (Sara khanda, Ananda Ramayana).
DHARMADHVAJA. See under Tulasi.
DHARMAGUPTA I. A prince who obtained blessings from Siva by observing the Pradosavrata. (For detailed story see Amsumati).
DHARMAGUPTA II. A Nandarajakumara belonging to the Lunar dynasty. Chapters 1, 2 and 13 of Skanda Purana gives the following story about him.
Once Dharmagupta went to the forests, hunting. Deeply interested in the game he never knew when it became dusk. It was late to go back to the palace and so deciding to stay in the forest for the night he climbed upon a tree and made a seat there to rest. After some time a bear followed by a lion came running and took refuge on the top of the same tree. The lion stood growling below. Seeing a man on the same tree the bear said "Oh, Prince, we are both in the same sad plight now. Believe me as a. friend. We can spend the night on this tree safe. Therefore, go to sleep till midnight and I will keep watch over. After that I will go to sleep and you keep watch". Gladly accepting the proposal the prince went to sleep and the bear kept vigil. Then the lion suggested to the bear to push down the prince. The bear replied that he would never cheat a friend and that it was a great sin also to do so. After midnight the bear slept and the prince kept watchover. The lion then suggested to the prince to push down the bear. Thinking that he would be saved if the bear is given to the lion the unfaithful prince pushed the bear down. But the bear escaped catching hold of the branches lower down. Embittered at this the bear cursed Dharmagupta and made him mad.
Then addressing Dharmagupta first and the lion next the bear said thus : "I am Dhyanakastha a sage of the Bhrgu family. I can take any form I like. I cursed you, Dharmagupta, because you cheated a friend. This lion is Bhadra, one of the ministers of Kubera. Once he entered into sexual act with a bear in front of the asrama of Gautama at midday and the sage cursed him and made him into a lion. The sage as a relief from the curse had further decreed that he would get his original form when he entered into a conversation with me." When Dhyanakastha finished speaking the lion changed itself into the form of Bhadra.
Dharmagupta remained mad and his father, the King, approached Jaimini for help. The sage said that the prince would be cured of his madness if he bathed in the Puskarini tirtha. The king did as was suggested and Dharmagupta was cured.
DHARMAKARA. A righteous house-holder. Once a prince entrusted his beautiful wife with Dharmakara and went away. Though she lived with him for six months he did not have any kind of contact with her. The prince returned. Wicked people tried to arouse doubts about the chastity of his wife and the householder. But it was futile. Still fearing calumny Dharmakara entered fire. In that test by fire he came out victorious. Not only did his body remain unscorched, but also that the faces of the wicked people who blamed him were filled with leprosy and became ugly. (Padma Purana, Srsti khanda, Chapter 50) .
DHARMAKETU. A king of BhargAva gotra. He was the son of Suketu and father of Satyaketu. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata).
DHARMANANDANA. A king of the family of Bhargava. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata).
DHARMAIRIGADA. A Brahmin who became a deep meditator on Visnu, because of his habits in his previous life. Dharmarigada was the son of Rukmangada by his wife Sandhyavali. Rukmangada was the son of Rtadhvaja who lived in the city of Vidisa. He was a man of good personality, who lived with his father and being a generous man he did not hesitate to give his head to Mohini for the pleasure of his fattier. God Visnu was pleased with him because of his love of his father and of his loyalty to Vaisnavite deity and took him bodily to heaven (Vaikuntha). Dharmangada
lived there for many thousands of years enjoying heavenly pleasures. Then he went astray from divine life and had to take life again as Suvrata the son of a Brahmin named Somasarma.
The wise Suvrata discarded the passions of Kdama (desire), Krodha (anger) etc. and controlled his senses and engaged himself in penance in Vaiduryamahadri. For hundred years he sat in meditation and Mahavisnu was pleased with him and took hire and his father to Vaikuntha. At the instruction of Mahavisnu, Suvrata took life again in the house of Kasyapa. When he died he went to Vaikuntha. In every successive birth he had the remembrance of his previous birth. (Padma Purana, Chapter 21) .
DHARMANETRA I. A king of the Hehaya family. He was the son of Hehaya and father of Krti. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 2) .
DHARMANETRA II. A son of Dhrtarastra. (~loka 60, Chapter 94, Adi Parva).
DHARMAPALA. A minister of Dasaratha. There were eight ministers for Dasaratha: Srsti, Jayanta, Vijaya, Siddhartha, Rastravardhana, Asoka, Dharmapala and Sumantra. (Chapter 6, Agni Purana).
DHARMAPRASTHA. A sacred place. It is believed to be the abode of Dharmaraja. There is a general assumption that anybody who touches the water in a well there will be absolved of all sins. (Sloka 99, Chapter 94, Vana Parva).
DHARMAPUTRA. The eldest of the Pandavas, the others being Bhimasena, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva. 1) Genealogy. See under Arjuna.
2) Birth. Pandu, brother of Dhrtarastra, had two wives, Kunti and Madri. There was a curse for Pandu that he would die the moment he touched his wife. (See under Pandu). Kunti, the first wife of Pandu, had obtained from Durvasas five mantras. The mantras were very potent. If she called upon any god reciting the mantra that God would manifest himself to her and bless her with a son. When Kunti found that Gandhari was pregnant and was about to deliver she became anxious and meditating on Dharmadeva recited one of the mantras given by Durvasas and got a child from him. The boy was born at midday on the eighth Jyestha day of the year on Pancami and at the auspicious hour, Abhijit. At the time of his birth there was a celestial voice which said "This boy will become a very righteous and bold King, best among the virtuous. He will be known as Yudhisthira". Obeying the dictate of the mysterious voice he was named Yudhisthira. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 123).
3) Boyhood. When he had five sons Pandu went to the forest of Satasrnga together with his family to spend the spring time there. The sages residing in that forest conducted the christening ceremony of Dharmaputra. Kasyapa, priest of Vasudeva, performed the Upanayana ceremony (thread-wearing) of Dharmaputra (Chapter 123, Daksin5tyapatha) Adi Parva, M.B.). Rajarsi Suka imparted instructions to Dharmaputra on spear-warfare. Pandu died during their stay there. Madri abandoned her life by jumping into her husband's funeral pyre. Before doing so she called Dharmaputra to her side and joining her hands together said "Son, you are now the father to your brothers." When Pandu and Madri were dead the sages of the forest took Kind and the children to Hastinapura and entrusted them to the care of Bhisma detailing to him all that had happened in the forest. (Chapter 125, Adi Parva, M.B.) .
4) Kaumara(youth) . Dharmaputra and his brothers spent their boyhood in Hastinapura along with Duryodhana and his brothers. Bhimasena became a great foe of Duryodhana and his brothers and Duryodhana always nurtured a desire to kill Bhimasena. Once Duryodhana invited Dharmaputra and his brothers to have aquatic games in the Ganges. Accepting the invitation Dharmaputra participated in the games along with his brothers. One night Duryodhana caught hold of Bhima alone and tied him with ropes and threw him into the river. When in the morning Dharmaputra found his brother missing he ran to his mother to inform her of the loss. Kunti asked him to start a search and while he was on it Bhimasena appeared before him and told him how he was thrown into the river by Duryodhana and how he went to Nagaloka and was brought to earth with great acquisitions from there. Dharmaputra advised them not to make the incident public. They received training in warfare in Hastinapura under Dronacarya. Dharmaputra got great proficiency in chariot-fighting. As Gurudaksina (fee for the preceptor) Dharmaputra agreed to bring Drupada bound before the preceptor. But Arjuna stopped him and himself undertook the task (Chapters 127 to 136, Adi Parva, M.B.).
5) Becomes heir-apparent and goes to the forest. Dhrtarastra, crowned Dharmaputra as the heir-apparent when the latter had successfully completed his course of study in warfare. By his good conduct, righteousness and administrative efficiency Dharmaputra excelled his father and became very popular among his subjects. Jealous of this Duryodhana decided to destroy the Pandavas somehow. With the permission of his father, Duryodhana constructed a palace at Varanavata for the Pandavas to reside there. That palace was built of Laksa (See under Arakkillam). The entire population resented this act of Duryodhana and rebuked him. They tried to follow Dharmaputra to Varanavata and stay there. But by tactful words he made them abandon that idea. Still many brahmins followed Dharmaputra. After some days Duryodhana set fire to the palace. But the Pandavas escaped through a tunnel from the house which had been constructed without the knowledge of Duryodhana just at the time of construction of the building. Escaping from there the Pandavas reached the forests and travelling farther came to the shore of the Ganges. (Slokas 138 to 148, Adi Parva, M.B.).
6) Story up to the life incognito.
(1) When the palace was burnt to ashes it was presumed that they were dead and by the instructions of Dhrtarastra the funeral rites of the Pandavas were conducted at Hastinapura. But Vidura informed Bhisma that the Pandavas were alive. (Chapter 149, Daksinatyapatha, Adi Parva, M.B.).
(2) Dharmaputra gave permission to Bhima to marry Hidimba while they were in the forest. (Chapter 154, Daksinatyapatha, Adi Parva).
(3) Dharmaputra counselled Arjuna to release Citraratha Yaksa who was defeated by Arjuna in a battle. (Sloka 39, Chapter 169, Adi Parva).
(4) After the svayariavara of Pancall, Dharmaputra narrated to Drupada the story of their escape from the palace. (Chapter 194, Adi Parva).
(5) After svayamvara of I'anca1i the Pandavas returned
to their country and Dharmaputra was crowned king of half of the country. He started his rule at Khandavaprastha, his capital. (Chapter 206, Adi Parva).
(6) Narada went to Khandavaprastha and advised them, how to avoid unpleasantness accruing from their having one wife in common. His advice was that Paficali should spend one year with each of the five in turn. (Chapter 207, Adi Parva).
(7) When Abhimanyu was born to Arjuna, Dliarmaputra gave ten thousand cows to brahmins as gifts. (Sloka 69, Chapter 22, Adi Parva).
(8) Yudhisthira got a son Prativindhya of Pancali. (Sloka 79, Chapter 220, Adi Parva).
(9) Yudhisthira got a son Yaudheya of Devika, daughter of King Sibi (Sloka 76, Chapter 95, Adi Parva).
(10) When Sri Krsna went to Dvaraka from Indraprastha Dharmaputra drove the chariot in the place of Daruka, charioteer of Krsna. (Sloka 16, Chapter 2, Sabha Parva).
(11) Mayasura constructed a beautiful palace in Indraprastha and gave it to Dharmaputra. (S`loka 37, Chapter 3, Sabha Parva).
(12) Yudhisthira decided to perform a Rajasuya at Indraprastha. Even before the Rajasuya Sri Krsna, Arjuna and Bhimasena together killed Jarasandha. After that Yudhisthira sent Arjuna to the northern side and the other brothers to the southern side for Digvijaya (conquest of countries). When he established his autocracy he performed the Rajasuya. (Chapter 45, Sabha Parva).
(13) Yudhisthira used °o give free sumptuous food to thousands of Brahmins in golden pots daily. (Chapter 49, Sabha Parva).
(14) Envious Duryodhana sent Vidura to bring Dharmaputra to Hastinapura and defeated him foully in a game of dice. Though Dharmaputra lost everything Dhrtarastra gave him back everything. (Chapter 72, Sabha Parva, M.B.).
(15) Before Dharmaputra went back to his place, with the permission of Dhrtarastra, Duryodhana called him back again for another game of dice. Despite protests from all sides Dharmaputra went again for a game of dice with Duryodhana and lost again all he possessed. Then he left the country with his brothers and wife to spend twelve years in exile in the forests and another year incognito. (Chapter 79, Sabha Parva).
(16) Surya gave the Aksayapatra (a pot which is never emptied) to the Pandavas. (Sloka 72, Chapter 3, Vana Parva).
(. 7) At first the Pandavas stayed in Dvaitavana and later on the advice of Vydsa they went to Kamyakavana. (Sloka 41, Chapter 36, Vana Parva).
(18) He advised Bhimasena to remain quiet for thirteen years. (Chapter 52, Vana Parva).
(19) Brhadasva, the sage, narrated the story of Nala to Dharmaputra while they were in the forest. (Chapter 43, Vana Parva).
(20) The sage Lomasa imparted instructions on philosophy to Dharmaputra while they were in the forest. (Chapter 94, Vana Parva).
(21) Yudhisthira met and conversed with Parasurama at the mountain Mahendra. (Chapter 117, Vana Parva). (22) The Pandavas then travelled in north India. On their way to the mountain of Gandhama dana Paficali fainted and Yudhisthira wept bitterly. (Chapter 145, Vana Parva).
(23) From Gandhamadana Dharmaputra with his wife and brothers reached Badarikasrama and from there they returned to Dvaitavana.
(24) When they went to Kamyaka vana Sri Krsna visited Dharmaputra there. (Chapter 153. Vana Parva).
(25)Duryodhana and his followers made a grand march to Kamyaka vana to see the Pandavas in sad plight and there the Gandharva Citrasena bound them all by ropes. Arjuna on the orders of Dharmaputra got them all released. (Chapter 246, Vana Parva).
(26) While the Pandavas were in exile in the forest Dussasana went and invited Yudhisthira to attend a Vaisnava sacrifice conducted by buiyodhana. But Dharmaputra sent him away saying that it was not proper to come to the country before the expiry of the period of exile. (Chapter 256, Vana Parva).
(27) Yudhisthira received the sageDurvasas with respect and after offering homage sent him away contented. (Chapter 262, Vana Parva).
(28) Jayadratha kidnapped Paficali and in the battle that ensued Dharmaputra slew the King of Trigartta but left free Jayadratha. (Chapter 272, Vana Parva) .
(29) At a time when Yudhisthira was plunged in sorrow the sage Markandeya narrated the story of Sri Rama to console him. (Chapters 273 to 291, Vana Parva).
7) How Dharmadeaa tested Tudhi,rthira. The Pandavas travelling through the forests reached Dvaitavana. A brahmin among their group was making fire by the arani sticks when a deer rushed at him and took the arani sticks away, carrying them on its horns. The Pandavas ran after, the deer and they travelled far away from their place, still not getting scent of it. They were all tired and thirsty. Yudhisthira directed Nakula to climb on the top of a tree and investigate whether there was any water anywhere nearby. Nakula did so and reported that he could see a pond not far from the place where they were sitting. Yudhisthira asked Nakula to go and fetch water. ,Nakula did not return for a long time and Sahadeva was asked to go and enquire. Sahadeva also did not return and Arjuna was sent in search of them. When Arjuna did not return Bhimasena went to enquire. Bhimasena also did not return and finally Yudhisthira himself set out in search of them. On reaching the pond Yudhisthira was dumbfounded to see his brothers lying dead on the banks of the pond. Weeping bitterly Yudhisthira entered the pond and to his surprise he heard a voice from the air addressed to him thus: "Ho, Yudhisthira, I am a stork living on the small fishes of this pond. This pond is my hereditary property. It was I who killed your brothers. I will ask you certain questions. If you answer them correctly you can drink from this pond. If not, you will also die.
Dharmaputra:-"I do not believe that you are simply a bird. My brothers are renowned for their valour and have defeated not only the devas, danavas, gandharvas and raksasas but also the four huge mountains like Himalaya Pariyatra, Vindhya and Malaya. I am eager to know your true self who have slain such brave brothers of mine."
Yaksa:--"I am a Yaksa and not merely a bird. I objected to your brothers' taking water from the pond.
But waving aside my objections they started taking water from the pond and then I slew them. Now, hear my questions: Who carries the Sun? Who are his followers ?Who makes the sun set? On whom does the sun exist?"
Dharmaputra:-It is Brahman who carries the Sun: Devas are his followers. Dharma makes hint set. He exists on Satya.
Yaksa:-How does Mahasiddhi come to he grotriyas ? (those who study the Vedas).
Yudhisthira:-It happens by deep penance.
Yaksa:-What is the reason for a brahmin getting divinity? What deed is equal to good conduct? What makes a brahmin mortal and what makes him evil?
Yudhisthira:-The Brahmin gets divinity by meditation. Austerity is equal to good conduct. Death makes a brahmin mortal and abusive words make him evil.
Yaksa:-What is the divinity of Ksatriyas? What is equal to good nature? What makes them mortal and what makes them evil?
Dharmaputra:-The divinity of a Ksatriya is weapon. Sacrifice is equal to good conduct. Fear makes him mortal and non-sacrifice makes him evil.
Yaksa:-What is the best thing for agriculture? What is the most important thing for agriculture? What are the installations of the atmosphere and child-birth?
Dharmaputra:-The best thing for agriculture is rain. The important thing for agriculture is seed. The installation of atmosphere is rays and that of child-birth is child.
Yaksa:-Who is lifeless even though he breathes?
Dharmaputra:-He who never offers oblations to a deva, a guest or a servant is like the dead even though he breathes.
Yaksa:-What is bigger than the earth? What is higher than the sky? What is swifter than the wind? What are greater in number than grass?
Dharmaputra:-Mother is bigger than the earth. Father is taller than the sky. Mind is swifter than the wind. Thoughts are greater in number than grass.
Yaksa:-What is it that does not shut its eyes when asleep? What is it that does not grow after birth? What is heartless ? What grows very quickly?
Dharmaputra: A fish does not shut its eyes when asleep. An egg does not grow after its birth. A stone is heartless. A river grows very quickly.
Yaksa: Who is a friend to one who lives outside his country? Who is a friend to a householder, to a patient and to one dead?
Dharmaputra:-For one who leaves his country the friend he gets on his way is the best friend. To a householder his wife is his friend, to a patient his doctor and to one dead, charity.
Yaksa:-Who is a guest of all? What is Nectar? What is spread throughout the world?
Dharmaputra:-Agni (fire) is the guest of all. Moon (Candra) is the nectar. Air is that which is spread throughout the world.
Yaksa:-Who circles around solo? Who is born again? What is the remedy for cold? What gives the maximum yield?
Dharmaputra:-The Sun circles solo. Candra is born again. Fire is the remedy for cold. Earth gives the maximum yield.
Yaksa: What is the soul of Man? Who is the companion given by God? What is Upajivana?
Dharrnaputra :-The soul of Man is his son. The companion given by God is wife. Cloud is Upajivana.
Yaksa:-How do you become rich? How do you become happy ?
Dharmaputra:-If you abandon lust you will be rich. If you abandon desire you will be happy.
Yaksa:-By what is this world covered? By what does the world become clear? By what does one lose his friend? What is the obstacle for an entry into heaven?
Dharmaputra:=Dullness covers the world. World becomes clear by intelligence. A friend is lost by desire. Domestic ties stand in the way of getting into heaven.
Yaksa:-Who are those equal to the dead? Which country is dead?
Dharmaputra :-A poor penniless man is equal to the dead. The country where there is mob-rule is dead.
Yaksa:-Who is a pundit? Who is an atheist? Who is wicked? What are lust and jealousy?
Dharmaputra:-A righteous man is a pandit. An atheist is wicked. Lust is the cause of worldly life. Jealousy is the cause of worry.
Yaksa:-Though charity, wealth and lust are incompatible with each other when do they unite together ?
Dharmaputra:-When charity and wife compromise the above three blend together harmoniously.
The Yaksa was highly pleased with the replies given by Dharmaputra. He then offered to revive one of his brothers and asked Dharmaputra to name whom he should do so. Then Yudhisthira named Nakula. Yaksa then enquired why he had named Nakula leaving aside Arjuna and Bhima. Dharmaputra replied that though Kunti and Madri were two wives of Pandu they were both mothers to them and so he wanted to see one of the sons of Madri alive. He therefore pressed the name of Nakula again. The Yaksa who was none other than Dbarmadeva was immensely happy to hear that reply and gave life to all his brothers. He. confessed to Yudhisthira that it was he who in the form of a deer came and ran away with the arani sticks. He returned the arani sticks also. Dharmadeva then advised them to go and spend their life incognito at the court of King Virata blessing them with the assurance that they would never be found out during their life in disguise. Dharmadeva disappeared after this and the Pandavas returned to their as9rama. (Chapters 312 and 313 of Vana Parva, M.B.).
8) .4jnataaasa (Life incognito). See under Arjuna.
9) Dharmoputra aad the great battle. Events relating to or involving Dharmaputra from the end of his life in disguise up to the end of the Mahabharata battle are given below:
(1) Yudhisthira tried utmost to avoid war but when it was made clear that the Pandavas would not be given even an inch of land, he decided to fight. So Yudhisthira prepared for a war and camped on one side of the Kuruksetra with his army. (Chapter 196, Udyoga Parva)
(2) Dharmaputra gave instructions to Arjuna to keep his army in vyuhas. (S1oka 6, Chapter 19, Bhisma Parva).
(3) Dharmaputra was sorry when he looked at the Kaurava army. (Sloka 3, Chapter 21, Bhisma Parva).
(4) Yudhisthira blew his conch Anantavijaya to announce the war. (Sloka 16, Chapter 25, Bhisma Parva).
(5) Yudhisthira sought permission from Bhisma to fight against the Kauravas. (Sloka 35, Chapter 43, Bhisma Parva).
(6) Yudhisthira bowed before Dronacarya and sought permission to conduct the war. (Sloka 52, Chapter 43, Bhisma Parva).
(7) He sought permission from Krpacarya to fight the war. (Sloka 69, Chapter 43, Bliisma Parva)
(8) Yudhisthira went to Salya and obtained his permission to conduct the war. (Sloka 78, Chapter 43, Bhisma Parva).
(9) Yudhisthira appealed to the warriors on the Kaurava side to join his army. Only Yuyutsu, responded to that beckoning and joined the Pandava's side. (Sloka 94, Chapter 43, Bhlsma Parva).
(10) On the first day of the battle Dharmaputra fought a duel with Salya. (S1oka 28, Chapter 45, Bhisma Parva) . (11) Yudhisthira constructed a Vajra Vyuha (an array in the shape of a diamond) with his army. (Sloka 22, Chapter 81, Bhisma Parva)
(12) Yudhisthira fought with fury and defeated Srutayus. (Sloka 8, Chapter 84, Bhisma Parva).
(13) Yudhisthira got defeated by Bhisma. (Sloka 2, Chapter 86, Bhisma Parva).
(14 Bhagadatta attacked Yudhisthira. (Sloka 84, Chapter 96, Bhisma Parva).
(15) He fought against Sakuni. (Sloka 11, Chapter 105,.Bhisma Parva)
(16) Yudhisthira sought permission from Sri Krsna to kill Bhisma and he went straight to Bhisma himself and asked him how he should be killed. I'udhisthira attacked Bhisma as per the latter's instructions. (Chapter 107 to 115, Bhisma Parva).
(17) In the meantime Dronacarya made a vow that hewould capture Yudhisthira. So Yudliisthira thereafter, always kept Arjuna near at hand. (Sloka 3, Chapter 13, Drona Parva).
(18) Yudhisthira consoled his own army when Abhimanyu was slain. (Sloka 35, Chapter 49, Drona Parva).
(19) Yudhisthira attacked Salya and Krtavarma. (Chapters 95 and 97, Bhisma Parva). (20) Yudhisthira was defeated in a fight with Drona. (Sloka 18, Chapter 106, Drona Parva).
(21) He fought against Duryodhana. (Sloka 15, Chapter 124, Drona Parva).
(22) He defeated Dronacarya in another battle. (Sloka 27, Chapter 157, Drona Parva).
(23) H~ became moody when Ghatotkaca was killed. (Sloka 27, Chapter 183, Drona Parva).
(24) He made Karna swoon in a fight. (Sloka-21, Chapter 49, Karna Parva).
(25) He withdrew from the battlefield after having been defeated by Asvatthama. (Sloka 38, Chapter 35, Karna Parva).
(26) Karna wounded Yudhisthira. (Sloka 33, Chapter 63, Karna Parva).
(27) Once Yudhisthira scolded Arjuna and the latter greatly offended started to go to the forests and then Yudhisthira himself appeased him. (Chapters 63, 70 and
71, Karna Parva).
(28) Yudhisthira slew Candrasena and Drumasena who
were the guardians of Salya's Cakravyuha. (Sloka 52, Chapter 12, Salya Parva).
(29) He slew galya (Sloka 51, Chapter, 17, Salya Parva).
(30) He killed the younger brother of Salya. (Sloka 64, Chapter 17, Salya Parva).
(31) Duryodhana at this time went to a lake in Dvaipayana and lay there immersed under water. Yudhisthira went therewith ~an army and challenged him for a fight. (Sloka 18, Chapter 61, Salya Parva).
(32) When Yudhisthira won the war he sent Sri Krsna to Hastinapura to console Gandhari. (Sloka 40, Chapter 62, Salya Parva).
10) Yudhisthira is crowned King. When Yudhisthira won the war he sent Nakula to bring Pancali. He went round the Kuruksetra battle ground and saw his own kith and kin lying dead and the sight made him faint. After that he went to Dhrtarastra. Gandhari cursed him for killing her sons. Gandhari gave a piercing look at the nails on the foot of Dharinaputra when he stood before Gandhari bowing down, Instantly the nails turned black. Yudhisthira gave Dhrtarastra the names of all the prominent persons who were killed in the war. Dhrtarastra ordered Yudhisthira to perform the obsequies of the dead. It was at this stage that Yudhisthira came to know from Kunti that Karna was his brother. Yudhisthira wept bitterly when he knew the secret from his mother and cursed womankind as a whole stating that woman would thereafter be incapable of keeping a secret to herself. The news of the death of Karna gave a sudden mental turn-back to Yudhisthira and he decided to renounce all and go to the forest. He called aside his followers and announced his decision to them. At that time Vyasa came there and preached to him about the perishable nature of life. Yudhisthira then asked him what he should do for the atonement of the sins committed. Though he strong1y desired to go to the forest Vyasa and Sri Krsna did not allow him to do so and sent them all to Hastinapura. When the Pandavas entered the city the people gave them a rousing reception and Yudhisthira was crowned King. (Chapters 10 to 17 of Sauptika Parva, Chapters 12 to 27 Stri Parva, Chapters 1 to 40 Santi Parva).
11) Administration. When Yudhisthira became King, with the permission of Dhrtarastra, he distributed the various administrative responsibilities among his brothers. He took for himself the task of taking care of their kith and kin and friends. He gave many gifts to the brahmins and other dependants. He once went to Sri Krsna to express his gratitude for him. He visited Bhisma lying on his bed of arrows accompanied by Sri Krsna and his brothers. Bhisma revealed to him the inner import of Rajadharma, Apaddharma and Moksadharma. Receiving the blessings of Bhisma Yudhisthira and his brothers returned to Hastinapura. Yudhisthira went to the Himalayas to get riches from Marutta before performing an Asvamedha Sacrifice. While on his way to the Himalayas he fasted for a night and worshipped Siva. People like Vyasa and Sri Krsna partook in the sacrifice. After the sacrifice was over Dhrtarastra desired to go to forest and sought the approval of Yudhisthira to do so. On hearing that Yudhisthira wept. But on the advice of Vyasa he gave his approval for Dhrtarastra to go to forest. Dhrtarastra appealed to him through Vidura for funds to perform the obsequies of the dead. Bhima objected to this but
Yudhisthira reprimanded him and silenced him and gave Dhrtarastra enough funds for his purposes. Kund and Gandhari accompanied Dhrtarastra to the forest. Yudhisthira accompanied by Paficali and Sahadeva went and saw them in the fozests after a few days. (Chapters 41 to 55, Sand Parva, Chapters 92 from Anusasana Parva and Asvamedha Parva and Chapter 26 from Ad.ramavasika Parva).
12) hidura merges into Dharmapulra. When Dhrtarastra,. Gandhari and Kunti went to forest Vidura also accepted sannyasa and left for the forest. There sitting under a tree he started doing penance. After a few days Yudhisthira came to the forest to see his mother and others. After spending some time with Dhrtarastra, Gandhari and Kunti he went to the place where Vidura was doing penance. Vidura started running the moment he set eyes on Yudhisthira and the latter ran after him. After some time Vidura turned back and stood staring at Yudhisthira. At that time the soul of Vidura escaping from his body merged with that of Yudhisthira. The body of Vidura stood stiff and leaned against a tree. Taking him to be dead Yudhisthira started to do the funeral rites and then there resounded a voice from heaven saying that Vidura was not dead. The unknown voice was from Dharmadeva. When the voice subsided Vidura became his old self again. Yudhiszhira went back. (Chapter 26, AEl~ramav~asika Parva).
13) The end of Dharmaputra. Soon after his return from the forest Narada came to Hastinapura and told him of the death of Dhrtarastra, Kunti and Gandhari in a wild fire in the forest. Lamenting deeply Yudhisthira performed the obsequies at Hastinapura. It was at this time that the Yadava dynasty perished and Dvaraka was sunk into the ocean. The Pandavas then crowned Pariksit as their successor and entrusted Yuyutsu with the administration of the State till Pariksit came of age. Vajra was appointed as chief of Indraprastha. The obsequies of Vasudeva, Balarama and Krsna were performed at Hastinapura. Kr p:zcarya was appointed as preceptor to Pariksit. After having made all such arrangements the Pandavas commenced their Mahaprasthana. The five Pandavas and Paficali started from Hastinapura. A dog also followed them. Yudhisthira walked ahead. On the way, one by one, Paficali Sahadeva, Nakula, Arjuna and Bhimasena fell dead. Alone with a dog to keep company, Yudhisthira reached a plateau on the top of the Himalayas and there Indra was waiting for him with a chariot. But Yudhisthira said that he would not come to heaven without his wife and brothers. He was then informed that they had already reached heaven. Yudhisthira insisted that the dog also should be taken to heaven which Indra blankly refused. But Yudhisthira refused to ascend the chariot without the dog which, he said, had given him company from the start to the finish. The dog then changed itself into Dharmadeva and he complimented him on his sense of justice. When Yudhisthira entered heaven he saw Duryodhana sitting in all luxury and glory. Yudhisthira did not like it but Narada pacified him. Yudhisthira saw all his relatives sitting there. A devaddta took him round hell also. When he heard the pitiable groans from there Yudhisthira thought his right place was with them. But Indra and Dharmadeva again consoled him. He was given a bath in Akas aganga. He then lost his mortal form and his soul entered Divyaloka.
Standing in the form of Dharmadeva he saw all his relatives including Krsna. (Chapters 38 and 39, Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 1, Mausala Parva; Mahaprasthanika Parva, Svargarohana Parva).
14) Synonyms of Tudhisthira. Ajamidha, Ajatasatru, Bharata, Bharatasardula, Bharatapravara, Bharatarsabha, Bharatasattama, Bharatasirnha, Bhimapurvaja, Dharma, Dharm aja, Dharmanandana, Dharmaprabhava Dharmaputra, Dharmarat, Dharmaraja, Dharmasuta, Kaunteya, Kaurava, Kauravasrestha, Kauravanandana, Kauravya, Kauravanatha, Kuntinandana, Kuru:;ardala, Kurusrestha, Kurudvaha, Kurukulodvaha, Kurumukhya, Kurunandana, Kurupandavagrya, Kurupati, Kurupravira, Kurupuhgava, Kururaja, Kurusattama, Kuruttama, Kuruvardhana, Kuruvira, Kuruvrsabha, Mrdangaketu, Pandava, Pandavasrestha, Pandavanandana, Pandaveya, Panduputra, Partha andYadavimata. All these words have been used to identify Yudhisthira in the Mahahharata.
DHARMARAJA. A king of Caudadea. He became King at a time when Jainism was getting more and more hold on the people and the Hindu Vedic rites were getting less and less popular among the people. The King thought it was his duty to revive the interest in the Vedic rites and so became a priest himself and did much propaganda on the superiority of the same, writing several books on the subject for the benefit of the people. (Bhavisyapurana, Pratisarga Parva).
DHARMARANYA. A Brahmin. He had many children. The major portion of his life was spent in hard work to support his large family. After that he went in search of means to attain heaven. In his quest, he happened to reach the realm of Nagas (serpents). He entered the house of a Naga named Padmanabha. When he reached the house Padmanabha had been away carrying the chariot of the Sun. Dharmaranya sat outside the house and spent a few days in vow and meditation. Then Padmanabha returned. The Brahmana asked Padmanabha about the ways of attaining heaven. The Naga replied that there was none superior to the Sun. The Brahmin accepted penance and lived in the hermitage of Cyavana for a few days. (M.B. 8anti Parva, 4 Chapters from 361).
DHARMARANYA (M) . A forest which is a holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva Chapter 82 Stanza 46, that the moment one enters this forest one would become sinless. This place was once the capital of the King named Asixtarajasa. (See under Ku,-,a I).
DHARMARATHA. A king of the family of Angaraja. He was the great grandfather of Lomapada and the son of Draviratha. (Chapter 277, Agni Purina).
DPARMASAKHA. A king of the Kekaya line of Kings. He had a hundred wives but no children. At last, at an old age, he got a son of Sucandra, wife of his elder brother. But the hunderd wives of Dharmasakha were pining for having a son and so the king consulted his ministers and on their advice conducted a Putrakamesti yajna (a sacred sacrificial ceremony for obtaining children) at Hanumatkunda near the southern sea-coast. As a result of that each of his hundred wives got a child. (Shkanda Purina, Chapter 15) .
DHARMAJARMA I. A brahmin who was born a parrot named Kanjala in his rebirth. Dharmasarma was one of
the three sons of an eminent Brahmin called V idyadhara His other two sons were Vasusarma and Namasarma While both his brothers became great scholars Dhar. m&'arma never studied anything and became a muff' His father was greatly worried on account of this Dharmasarma never heeded the advice of his fathei and went about in bad company ruining himself. Year went by and Dharmasarma became old.
One day Dharmagarma was sitting repentant in ; temple sadly pondering over his came to the temple. Watching him
past when a siddha Dharmasarma sav him go and sit m a lonely place for meditation with hi eyes shut. Dharmasarma went and stood near him very respectfully. When the Si'cldha opened his eye after some time he saw Dharmasarma standing before him and then the Siddha made enquiries about Dhar ma~arma. The latter then requested the Siddha to give him instructions to acquire the supreme knowledge The Siddha then gave him Jnanopadesa (advice or knowledge) and Dharmasarma soon became a Siddh< himself. He then started on a pilgrimage and on thf way he got a parrot. He took care of the bird just like his son and loved it very affectionately. One day when Dharmasarma was away from the place to collec fruits for his food a cat caught and ate the parrot Greatly grief-stricken Dharmasarma wept bitterly anc ran about like a mad man. After some days he diec and because at the time of death he was thinking aboul the parrot he was born a parrot in his next birth. The jnanopadega of the siddha was still lingering in hirr while he died and so even in his life as a parro the never lost the jnana he had acquired in his previous life (Chapter 122, Padma Purana).
DHARMARAJA II. See under SivaSarm
DHARMASAVARNI. The eleventh Mann. (See unde: Manvantara ) .
DHARMASVA. A Brahmin. Once this Brahmin wa: coming home with water from the Ganges. On the way he saw Kapakalpa,the servant of merchant Ratnakara being killed by an ox. Though Kapakalpa was a sinner; his end aroused pity in the heart of the Brahmin. So he sprinkled the Ganges-water on the body of Kapakalpa who instantly regained life and energy. The Brahmin who saw the power of Ganges-water began to worshiF the Ganges from that day onwards. It is mentioned in Padma Purina, Kriya Khanda, Chapter 7, that finally the Brahmin got a boon from the Ganges that on]) uttering the name of the Ganges should he meet with death.
DHARMATTRTHA I. A holy place of ancient Bharata, If a man bathes in a pond there, he would be absolved of all sins. (Sloka 1, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).
DHARMATIRTHA II. Another holy place of anciem Bharata. If a person bathes in a pond there he would get the benefit of performing a Vajapeya Sacrifice (SIoka 162, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).
DHARMAVARNA. A Brahmin who lived in the country of Anarta at the end of Kaliyuga. Once when he wem to the land of the dead, he saw his fathers hanging bN the end of darbha. They requested Dharmavarna tc marry and obtain sons who would get them relief froxr their plight. Dharmavarna married and as soon as ht got a son he went to the forest of Gandhamadana t< practise penance there. (Chapters 2, 17 and 22, Skands Purina ) .
DHARMAVATI. A wife of Dharmadeva. He got of Dharmavati a daughter Dharmavrta. Dharmavrta was married to Marici, son of Brahma. (See under Gayatirtha).
DHARMAVRTA. A daughter of Dharmadeva. (See under Gayatirtha).
DHARMAVYADHA. Though he was born in the caste of foresters he became'a saint by following the path of duty and righteousness. In his previous birth he was a Brahmin. He was a friend of a king who was an adept in archery. Once both went on hunting expedition to the forest. The brahmin sent an arrow at a wild animal but the arrow went and struck a sage who was doing penance under a tree. When the sage was rolling on the arrow he said: "Oh, evil-natured Brahmana, may you be born as a hunter selling flesh in your next life." The Brahmin went and apologised to the sage and craved for pardon. Taking pity on him the sage consoled him by saying that though he would be born as such, he would be a great scholar and attain moksa by doing his duty without even once wavering from it.
The Brahmin was born a hunter in the country of Mithila. He took to looking after his parents as a vow and soon became a top-ranking righteous man. He did his duty to which he was born. He sold meat and earned a living. He never killed or butchered an animal. One day a Brahmin named Kausika was doing penance sitting under a tree when a crane perched on the top of its branches defiled the Brahmin's head with its droppings. The Brahmin in rage looked up and his powerful stare burnt the crane and it fell down dead. Leaving that place some time later he went to a house to beg. 1 he house-wife informed him that he would be given alms only after attending to her husband. The Brahmin was not pleased with her reply. Seeing that she added "Please do not look at me like that. I am no crane. To me my husband is supreme."
The Brahmin was taken aback when he heard the lady mention the incident of the crane. The lady explained to him that all her powers were due to her devotion to her husband and advised the Brahmin to go and meet Dharmavyadha of Mithila to remove the egoism in him. Obeying her instructions Kausika went and accepted Dharmavyadha as his guru. The learned hunter then spoke to Kaujika about Varnadharmas, Sistacaras, hirhsa and ahiinsa, Mimamsa relating to dharma and karma, the importance and glory of Brahmavidya, the significance of the control of the senses, Trigunas, Pranavayu, service to father and mother and many such other things. The egoism of Kansika was removed and he returned home. Devoted to his parents he attained heaven. (Chapters 27 to 33, Vana Parva).
DHARMAYU. A king of the Puru family. His father was Raudrasva, the son of Puru and his mother was a celestial woman Misrake0. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 11) .
DHARSTAVAMSA. A particular family of kings of the Iksvaku Dynasty. This family originated from
Dhrsta the brother of Iksvaku. So this family is called Dharstavarhsa (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7).
1) General information. One of the twelve Adityas. (See Dvadasadityas and Aditya) .
2) Other details: (1 ) At the burning of Khandava
forest among the gods who came against gri Krsna and Arjuna, there was Dhata also. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 266, Stanza 34).
(2) Dhata gave Subrahmanya five fo1lowers named Kunda, Kusuma, Kumuda, Darhbara and Adarhbara as gift. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45 Stanza 39).
DHATA II. It is seen in Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1, Chapter 10, that two sons named Dhata and Vidhata and a daughter Laksmi were born to Bhrgu, the son of Brahma, by his wife Khyati. Of them Dhata and Vidhata married Ayati and Niyati, the daughters of Meru. Laksmi became the wife of Mahavisnu.
DHATREYIKA. A maid of Paficali during the time of the forest life of the Pandavas. It was this maid who informed the Pandavas that jayadratha had kidnapped Paficali. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 269, Stanza 16).
DHATU (S) . (Minerals). To understand the Puranic stories regarding the origin of iron, copper, tin etc. see under Irump (iron).
DHAUMRA. An ancient hermit. He was one of the hermits who visited Bhisma in his bed of arrows. (M.B. anti Parva, Chapter 47, Stanza 11).
DHAUMYA I. A hermit.
1) General information. This hermit was the younger brother of Devala, a hermit. The Pandavas, who escaped from burning in the Laksa house, reached the banks of the Ganges when this hermit was performing penance in the holy tirtha of Utkoca. Arjuna defeated Citraratha, a Gandlrarva. After that Citraratha and Arjuna became friends. The gandharva advised him that a priest was unavoidable and that the Pandavas should accept the hermit Dhaumya who was doing penance in the Utkocatirtha as their priest. Accordingly the Pandavas accepted Dhaumya as their priest. From that day onwards in everything the Pandavas did, Dhaumya was their priest. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 182).
2) Other details. (1 ) After the Svayaiilvara of Paficali, Dhaumya performed the marriage ceremony for each of the Pandavas from Dharmaputra to Sahadeva separately with Paficali. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 197) .
(2) When sons were born to the Pandavas, Dhaumya performed the rites of investiture etc. with the Brahma string etc. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Stanza 87). (3) Dhaumya was the chief priest who performed the rites of sacrifice at the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira. He anointed Yudhisthira as King. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 53, Stanza 10) .
(-4-) -When the Pandavas started for forest life, Dhaumya walked in front of them with Kusa grass in his hands, singing Yamasama and Rudrasama songs. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 80, Stanza 8) .
(5) Once Dhaumya talked about the attributes of the Sun and advised Dharmaputra to worship the Sun. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 3) .
(6) In the forest Dhaumya rendered powerless the illusive and magical arts of Kirmira, an asura (demon). (Mahabharata, Vana parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 20). (7) Dhaumya described to Dharmaputra the importance of several holy tirthas or Baths. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 87 to 90) .
(8) On another occasion Dhaumya described to Dharmaputra the motions of the Sun and the Moon and the positions of Visnu and Brahma. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 163).
(9) When jayadratha had stolen Pancali, Dhaumya blamed him and tried to recover Pancali. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 238, Stanza 26) .
(10) Dhaumya advised the Pandavas how to preserve pseudonymity in the capital of Virata. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 4).
(11) When the Pandavas started their life incognito Dhaumya performed the rite of Agnistoma and uttered
the Veda mantras for their prosperity, recovery of kingdom and victory in the world etc. When they started Dhaumya took the fire with oblations and went to the country of Pancala. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 54) .
(121 After the bharata battle, Dhaumya performed the funeral ceremonies, offerings etc. of the relatives of the Pandavas. (M.B. Stri Parva, Chapter 24) .
(13) After Dharmaputra was anointed King, Dhaumya disclosed to him the secrets of righteousness. (M.B. Anugasana Parva, Chapter 127; Stanza 15)..
DHAUMYA II. In the Puranas we see another hermit with the name Dhaumya. In Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 112, it is mentioned that this hermit was the brother and teacher of hermit Upamanyu. He had been keeping contact with Dyumatsena, the father of Satyavan. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 298, Stanza 19) . Other names such as Ayodha Dhaumya, Ayodha Dhaumya, Apodhadhaumya,
Apodhadhaumya etc. are used for this Dhaumya, (For details see under Ayodhadhaumya).
DHAUTAMCLAKA. A king born of a dynasty of China. (Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Stanza 14).
DHAVALAGIRI. (SVETA PARVATA). A mountain.
Arjuna once encamped in this mountain. (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Stanza 29).
DHEN,U. See under Surabhi.
1) General information. A fierce Raksasa (giant) with the figure of a donkey. He lived in the forest of Kali (Tala). People did not dare to pass by that way fearing this giant. Hearing about him, Sri Krsna and his elder brother Balabhadra Rama went to the forest. There were several palm trees in the forest, the fruits of which they shook with force. Hearing the noise Dhenuka ran to them. Balabhadra and Sri Krsna beat the giant to death.
2) Other details. (1) In Bhagavata, Skandha 10, it is stated that Pralambaka, Canura, Trnavarta, Mustika, Aristaka, Kesi, Dhenuka and others were the followers of kariisa.
(2) In Bhagavata, Skandha 10, there is another story that while Balabhadra Rama, Sri Krsna and the other cowherds were looking after the cows an asura entered into the midst of the flock, in the shape of a cow (Dhenu). Rama and Krsna saw him, struck him against a tree and killed him.
DHENUKAM. An ancient country in Bharata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50, Stanza 51) .
DHENUKARAMA. A holy place. Once the god of Death Yama took the shape of a man and did penance in this place. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 54, Stanza 8).
DHENUTIRTHA. A holy place. If gingelly (tila) is
offered as gift in this holy place, one would get redemption from all sins. ( Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chaptt~r 84, Stanza 87)
DHIMAN. Second son of Pururavas. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 75, Stanza 24) .
DHIRADHI. A Brahmin devotee of Siva. He lived in Kasi. Because he meditated on diva alone, Siva was pleased with him and helped him in various ways.
The ganas of diva were amazed at Siva's partiality for Dhiradhi. Parama~ iva told them the story of the former birth of Dhiradhi. "This Brahmin was a swan in his former life. Once he was flying over a lake when he became aired and fell down. His colour became black. Then Kamalini, another swan who dwelt in the same lake told him to recite the tenth Chapter of Gita, and to meditate on diva. Because the swan did that holy act, he was born a Brahmin in his next birth. Though he was a Brahmin in his previous birth, he kicked his teacher and for that fault he had to take birth as a swan. Later, because of the love of diva, Dhiradhi attained heaven. (Padma Purana; Uttara Khanda, Chapter 184) .
DHIROSNI. A god concerned with Sraddha (offering to the manes). (Mahabharata, Anus: asana Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 32) .
DHISANA. The wife of Havirdhana born in the dynasty of the emperor Prthu: Dhisana was born from fire. (Six sons, Pracinabarhis, Sukra, Gaya, Krsna, Vraja and Ajina, were born to Havirdhana by his wife Dhisana born of fire. (Agni Purana. Chapter 18) .
DHRSTA. A son of Vaivasvata Mann. Iksvaku, Nabhaga, Dhrsta, Saryati, Narisyanta, Prarizsu. Nrga, Dista, Karusa and Prsadhra were the sons of Vaivasvata Mann. (Bhagavata, Skandha 8).
DHRSTABUDDHI. A Vaisya who attained heaven by performing the fast of Vaisakha Vrata. He lived in the country of Bhadravati, on the bank of the River Sarasvati. The name of the king of the country was Dhrtiman. Dhanapala, a Vaisya of that country had five sons: Sumanas, Dyutiman, Medhavi, Sukrta and Dhrstabuddhi. The last of them turned out to be a wicked man. Going after many women, keeping company with wicked people, gambling, wandering about in search of harlots, not venerating Gods, Manes or Brahmanas, wasting the money of his father, eating untouchable food, drinking liquor and such other acts, he indulged in. Once he was seen walking in the street with his hand on the shoulder of a harlot. So leis father turned him out of the house. He was discarded by his relatives too. He sold the ornaments he had on his body. When that was finished the harlots also evaded him. He became a destitute having no money or clothes. When he became tired with hunger and thirst he began stealing in that city. The King's men caught him. They chained him and scourged him. Finally, he went to the forest and with a bow and arrows he lived by hunting.
Dhrstabuddhi happened to reach the hermitage of Kaundinya. It was the month of Vaisakha. While Kaundinya was coming from the Ganges, having taken bath, a drop of water fell on Dhrstabuddhi from the vet cloth of the hermit, and consequently his sins were washed off. He fell before the hermit and requested him to instruct him in the way of attaining heaven.
The hermit advised him to observe the fast of Vaigakhasuklaikadasi known as Mohini. Accordingly he observed the fast and became sinless. Invested with a divine form he entered the realm of Visnu. (Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda, Chapter 51).
DHRSTADYUMNA. The son of King Drupada. He was brother of Paficali.
1) Birth. Drupada and Drona were fellow students. After finishing his education Drupada became King. When Drona came to his palace Drupada did not honour him. Drona got angry, went to Hastinapura and began to teach the Pandava and the Kaurava princes in archery and other weapons. When the weapon-training was over, Arjuna, at the instruction of Drona, defeated and captured Drupada. Drona seized half of his kingdom from him.
As Drupada was not powerful to wreak vengeance on Drona, he performed a sacrifice to obtain a son who could take revenge on Drona and regain his lost prestige. A son and a daughter were born from the sacrificial fire. The son was named Dhrstadyumna. The daughter grew up and became the famous Paficali. The Pandavas married her.
At the time of birth, Dhrstadyumna had a crown on his head, and armour on his body, bow, arrows and sword in his hands. He ran out of the fire into a chariot and sat in it as if he were about to begin a travel of conquest. Seeing this the Paficalas were filled with joy. There was a celestial voice: "This boy will destroy the fear of the Paficalas. He is born to slay Drona." At this time the queen approached the sacrificing priest with a request that the children born of the sacrificial fire should consider her as their mother. Accordingly the children accepted the wife of Drupada as their mother. Brahmanas named the boy Dhrstadyumna and the girl Krsna.2 (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 166) . (For more particulars see under `Pancali' Para 2) .
2) Till the battle of Bharata. The history of Dhrstadyumna till the battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, is given below.
The news that Dhrstadyumna was., born to kill Drona spread everywhere. The Broad-minded Drona did nod seem to mind this news. Drona took Dhrstadyumna to his house, with the permission of Drupada and gave him training in the wielding of weapons. He believed that God's will could not be thwarted. After he had learned archery Dhrstadyumna returned to his kingdom. Next, we see I~hhstadyumna at the svayarizvara (marriage) of Pancali. Several kings arrived from various countries on that occasion. When the auspicious moment came, Dhrstadyumna brought Paficali to the nuptial dais. He proclaimed the rules and conditions that the competitors of Svayarhvara had to observe. After that he conversed with each king who was present. In the Svayarnvara Paficali accepted Arjuna. The Pandavas and Paficali were given the Kumbhakara mandira (the Palace of Kuinbhakara) which stood in the city of Drupada, to stay for that night. Though the Pandavas were in the guise of Brahmanas, Dhrstadyumna had his own doubts about their identity.
i. The fast taken on the eleventh day of the bright lunar fortnight in the month of Vai'sakha.
So he hid himself somehwere in the Palace and kept an eye on them. This shows his peculiar trait of observation. After this he returned to his Palace and pacified his father who had been much worried about his daughter's selection.
Next, we see Dhrstadyumna, during the time of the forest life of the Pandavas. He consoled Paficali, who was miserab1e. After that he took the sons of Paficali, to his house. While the Pandavas were living in the forest `Kamyaka', Dhrstadyumna visited them. The forest life of tine Pandavas came to an end. A battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas became inevitable. Then the Pandavas selected Dlirstadyumna, as the commander-in-general of their army. He ordered for a general parade of the army and gave them instructions. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 166 to 195; the whale of Sabha Parva; Vana Parva, Chapters, 12, 22 and 51; Virata Parva, Chapter 72; Udyoga Parva, Chapters 50, 157, 163 and 164).
3 ) Dhrstadyumna in the Bharata-battle The part played by Dhrstadyumna in the battle is given below:
(1) In the first day's battle Dhrstadyumna confronted Drona. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 31). (2) Fought with Bhisma. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 47, Stanza 31) .
(3 ) On the second day of the battle he formed the disposition of the army called the `Krauficarunavyuha' (1V.B. Bhisma Parva,Chapter 50, Stanza 42).
(4) A terrible fight ensued between Drona and Dhrstadyumna (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 53).
(5) He fought with Asvatthama (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 61, Stanza 19) .
( 6 ) He killed Damana the son of Paurava. ( M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6 1, Stanza 20).
(7) He killed the son of Salya. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 61, Stanza 29)
(8 ) He fought with Salya and was wounded. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 62, Stanza 8) .
( 9 ) He formed the disposition called the `Makara Vyuha'. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 75, Stanza 4) . (10 ) He shot the missile called Pramohana ( the arrow of fainting) and the Kauravas swooned. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 77, Stanza 45).
(11) He was defeated by Drona ( M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 7'~, Stanza 69) .
(12) He defeated Duryodhana. (1'a~LB. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 53).
(13) He, fought with Vinda and Aravinda. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 86, Stanza 61) .
(14) He fought with Krtavarma. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 110, Stanza 9 ) .
(15) He again fought with Bhisma. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 114, Stanza 39).
(16) There was a combat with Drona again. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 48) .
(17) He fought with Susarma. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 37).
(18) He fought with Durmukha. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Stanza 4).
(19) He killed Candravarma and Brhatksatra, King of Nisadha. (M.B. Drona Paxva, Chapter 35, Stanza 65).
2: Because he was born with Dhrstatva (boldness) amarsatva (impatience) and dyumna (vigour) the son of Drupada was called Dhrstadyumna. Draupadi was called Kr_sna as she was of Krsna yarna (dark complexion. Thus Drupada got two children from '1vlakha' (sacrifice).
(20) He made Drona swoon by shooting arrows at him and got into his chariot and sat there. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 56).
(21) In the fight which continued Drona defeated Dhrstadyumna. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 71).
(22) In the fight with Asvatthama, Dhrstadyumna was defeated. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 160, Stanza 41). (23) He killed Drumasena. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 170, Stanza 22).
(24) He was defeated by Kama. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 173, Stanza 7).
(25) He vowed that he would kill Drona, (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 186, Stanza 46) .
(26) In the fight that followed he cut off the head of Drona. (M.B. Prona Parva, Chapter 192, Stanza 62) . (27) Following this, he annihilated the elephants of the Kauravas and made Krtavarma swoon. (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 22) .
(28) He fought with Kama. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 59, Stanza 7) .
(29) In the fight with A~'vatthama, the Kauravas caught Dhrstadyumna alive. (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 59, Stanza 39) .
(30) He happened to enter the camp of Dussasana but escaped. (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 61, Stanza 33).
(31) In the night, while Dhrstadyumna was sleeping Mvatthama kicked him to death. (M.B. Sauptika Parva, Stanza 26).
(32) The funeral of Dhrstadyumna was conducted according to rites. (M.B. Stri Parva, Chapter 26, Stanza 34) .
(33) The Pandavas conducted mourning and offering to the deified ancestors for Dhrstadyumna (M.B. Stri Parva, Chapter 42, Stanza 4) .
(34) After death the spirit of Dhrstadyumna was absorbed in the Fire-God. (M.B. Svargqrohana Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 21) .
4) Names. In Bharata, the names, Draupada, Dronahanta, Paficala, Paficaladayada, Paficalakulavardhana, Paficalamukhya, Paficalaputra, Pancalarat, Paficalaraja, Paficalya, Parsada, Yajfiasenasuta, Yajnaseni,etc. are used as synonyms of Dhrstadyumna.
DHRSTAKARMA. A king of the Yayati family,
(Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .
DHRSTAKETU I. A prince who was the son of Dhrstadyumna and the grandson of King Drupada. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278) .
DHRSTAKETU II. A king of the family of Yayati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .
DHRSTAKETU III. The son of ~isupala, the King of Cedi. The details obtained from Mahabharata about this King are given below.
(1) Dhrstaketu was the rebirth of Anuhlada, the son of Hiranyakasipu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 7).
(2) Dhrstaketu was anointed as King after the death of gisupala. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 36) .
(3) After the death of his father, Dhrstaketu became a tributary King of the Pandavas (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 2 ).
(4) Dhrstaketu had a sister named Karenumad. (M.B.
Vana Parva, Chapter 22, Stanza 40).
(5) During the Bharata-battle, Dhrstaketu supplied the Pandavas with an aksauhini (21870 elephants, 21870 chariots, 65610 horses and 109350 infantry). (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Stanza 7) .
(6) Dhrstaketu was appointed as one of the seven commanders-in-chief of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 157, Stanza 11) .
(7) On the first day of the battle of Bharata, Dhrstaketu, confronted Bahlika. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45)
(8) He fought with Bhurisravas. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 84) .
(9) Dhrstaketu fought with Paurava. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 116, Stanza 13) .
(10) Dhrstaketu fought with the teacher Krpa. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 33) .
(I 1 ) He fought with Ambastha. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 25).
(12) He killed Viradhanva. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 107, Stanza 17) .
(13 He fought with the teacher Drona and was killed in tht fight. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 125, Stanza 23).
(14) Among the spirits of those relatives of the Kauravas, who died in the Bharata-battle, which were evoked to the surface of the Ganges, by Vyasa, the spirit of Dhrstaketu also appeared. (M.B. Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 33, Stanza 11 ).
(15) After his death Dhrstaketu became a Visvadeva in heaven. (M.B. Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 15).
(16) Vyasa has used the following names in his Bharata for Dhrstaketu: Caidya, Cedija, Cedipati, Cedipui1gava, Cedirat, Saisupali, ~i'supalatmaja.
DHRSNU I. The second son of Vaivasvata Manu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 75, Stanza 15).
DHRSNU II. A. Prajapati who was the son of Kavi. He was learned in Vedas. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 133) .
DHRSTI. One of the eight ministers of Dasaratha.
jayanta, Dhrsti, Vijaya, Asiddhartha, Arthasadhaka, Asoka, Mantrapala and Sumantra were the eight ministers of Dasaratha. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sarga 7).
DHRTADEVA. Daughter of King Devaka. Vasudeva married this princess. Viprstha was the son born to the couple. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .
DHRTAKETU. A king of the Bhrgu family. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .
DHRTARASTRA. I. Father of the Kauravas. 1) Genealogy. (See the genealogy of Arjuna). 2) Birth. Santanu, a king of the Lunar dynasty, had two wives Gatiga and Satyavati. Gatiga; gave birth to eight sons. But seven of them were thrown into the river Gatiga. Giving the eighth son Bhisma to Santanu Ganga disappeared. Santanu then married Satyavati, a fisher-woman. .Satyavati gave birth to two sons, Citrangada and Vicitravirya. When Santanu grew old, Citrafigada was anointed as King, as Bhisina had taken Brahmavrata (vow of celibacy). Once when Citrangada:went to the forest for hunting, a Gandharva of the name Citrangada killed him. So Vicitravirya became the King of Hastinapura. Bhisma took the three daughters of the King of Xasi, Amba, Ambika and Ambalika by force into his chariot and brought the last two, to Hastinapura to be given as wives to Vicitravirya.. On the way he sent Amba back. Vicitravirya married Ambika and Ambalika. But shortly after that he also died, before any children were born to him. Fearing that the Lunar dynasty would come to an end, Satyavati brought her son Vedavyasa, who was born to her from hermit Parasara, before her marriage, to Hastinapura. In the night Satyavatf sent Ambika adorned with ornaments and costly garments, to the bedroom of Vyasa. But she could not bear to lie with Vyasa who was clad in barks of the tree and wearing matted hair. Still thinking that it was not right on her part to stand against the wish of her mother, she approached Vyasa and lay with h:m with closed eyes. Ambika became pregnant. The child she gave birth to, was blind. That child was Dhrtarastra. Next night Ambalika approached Vyasa. When she saw Vyasa she turned pale at his uncouth figure and her face became bloodless. So the child born to her was pale and was called Pandu. Next night the maid of the queen approached Vyasa with a joyful heart and so she got Vidura as son, who was extremely wise and intelligent. Thus Dhrtarastra, Pandu and Vidura became sons of the same father.l (M.B. ~ Adi Parva, Chapters, 63 and 105) .
3) Up to marriage. After the birth of Dhrtarastra Vyasa returned to forest and since then Bhisma stood in place of father to the children. Bhisma performed `Upanayana' (investiture with Brahma-string) and other rites of the children. Dhrtarastra, Pandu and Vidura had their education in Hastinapura. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 108) .
"Dhrtarastra, Pandu and the wise Vidura The three were brought up as sons by Bhisma,
They became well educated, cultured and devotional, Respectful towards vows and fasts, and
of good physique, earnest in work And they became valiant youths.
Learned the Vedas and Veda of archery, Clubbing, shield and swords play,
Elephant-keeping, laws of chastisement,
Veda 'sastras, all-led works and epics and the Puranas, Pandu came out expert archer, Dhrtarastra the strongest of all. None in the three worlds was equal to Vidura, In wisdom and knowledge and righteousness." (M.B.Adi Parva, Chapter 109 ).
Because of his blindness Dhrtarastra was not anointed as King. It is stated in M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 108 Stanza 25, that in the place of Dhrtarastra, Pandu was anointed the King.
4) Marriage and birth of children. Dhrtarastra came of marriageable age. Bhisma had heard about Gandhari, daughter of Subala, the King of Gandhara, as a beautiful damsel of good qualities. Moreover she had acquired a boon from Siva that hundred sons would be born to her. Bhisma sent a messenger to Subala with a request to give Gandhari as wife to Dhrtarastra. Subala was not much pleased at the aspect of getting a blind man as son-in-law. Still he thought of the prestige his family would get by a marriage alliance with the kings of the Puru Dynasty, and finally agreed. Gandhari submitted to the will of her father, and to live with a husband who
:. It is stated in M.B. Asramavasika Parva, Chapter st, Stanza 7 having the name Dhrtarastra. (See under Dhrtarastra III).
was blind. She tied her eyes with a cloth. Sakuni the son of Suba1a brought Gandhari to Hastinapura, and gave her to Dhrtarastra. With the sanction of Bhisma their marriage took place.
Once Gandhari feasted Vyasa who came tired with hunger and thirst. The hermit was pleased with her and blessed her to have hundred sons. Gandhari became pregnant. But even after two years no delivery took place. She crushed her womb by force and a lump of flesh came out. At that time Vyasa came there. He cut the lump into hundred pieces and kept them in ghee-pots. Gandhari had a desire to get a daughter also. Vyasa who had known it had cut the lump in such a way that there was a small piece in excess. The pots broke by themselves in due course and hundred sons and a daughter were born. The daughter was named Dussala. A son named Yuyutsu also was born to Dhrtarastra of a Vaisya woman. Duryodhana was the eldest of the hundred sons. The children grew up. Dussala was given in marriage to Jayadratha, the King of Sindhu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 109 to 116).
5) Till Bhdrata-battle. At this juncture Pandu incurred a curse from a hermit that he would die if his wife touched him. With that Pandu retired to forest with his wives. Dhrtarastra was grieved at the separation of his brother. Pandu died in the forest and Madri jumped into fire and died with her husband. Dhrtarastra asked Vidura to perform their cremation rites. After that Yudhisthira became King. The Padavas became more and more prosperous. This made the* heart of Dhrtarastra cloudy. He gave sanction to Duryodhana to transfer the Pandavas to the lac house in Varanavata. The lac house caught fire and it was rumoured that the Pandavas died in the lac house fire, and Dhrtarastra shed crocodile tears, and ordered for the mourning and oblation to be performed. After the marriage of Paficali, it came to be known that the Pandavas were alive and that they were living with Drupada. Dhrtarastra recalled them and gave them half of the country. The Pandavas made Indraprastha their capital and began to rule the kingdom. Yudhisthira performed the sacrifice of Rajasuya (royal consecration). Dhrtarastra also took part in the sacrifice.
Duryodhana wanted to challenge Yudhisthira to a game of dice. Dhrtarastra agreed but advised Duryodhana not to live in enmity with the Pandavas. The game of dice was played, and Yudhisthira lost everything the Pandavas had. Dhrtarastra called Pancali and told her that she might ask any boon. She requested that her husband Dharmaputra might b,- exempted from servitude and the Pandavas made free. Dhrtarastra compelled her to ask for more boons. She replied that according to law Vaisyas were eligible for one boon, Ksatriya women two boons, Kings three boons and Brahmanas hundred boons, and since she had already taken two boons, she wanted no more. Dhrtarastra who was pleased at this reply gave the Pandavas freedom and returned all their lost wealth.
Duryodhana wanted to challenge the Pandavas for a game of dice again. Dhrtarastra agreed. This time also Yudhisthira lost the game. The Pandavas who had lost everything, were ordered to go to forest for twelve years and to live incognito for one year. The Pandavas went that Dhrtarastrawas born as the incarnation oaf a Gandharva to the forest with Paficali. Dhrtarastra was grieved.
After thirtee i years the Pandavas returned. Duryodhana said that not an inch of land would be given to the Pandavas. Dhrtarastra felt sorry at thi . Sri Krsna came to talk about conciliation. Duryodhana wanted to take him a prisoner. But Dhrtarastra opposed it. Sri Krsna showed Dhrtarastrahis Visvarupa (cosmic form) to see which, Krsna gave him sight for the time being for which Dhrtarastra was very thankful. The Pandavas and the Kauravas came to Kuruksetra for Bharata-battle. Dhrtarastra called Safijaya to him and asked him about the preparations the part;es had made for war. Safijaya gave a true description of the battle arrays of both parties. (M.B. Adi Parva. Sabha Parva, Vana Parva, and Udyoga Parva).
(6) Dhrtardstra and the battle of Bhdrata. The terrible battle began. The heart of Dhrtarastra was grieved with sorrow. When Arjuna vowed that he would kill Jayadratha, Dhrtarastra cried aloud. When he knew that Satyaki had destroyed the army of the Kauravas he became dumb with grief. He praised Bhima's valour and blamed his sons. When Safijaya told him about the fall of Karna, Dhrtarastra fell down unconscious. He rose up again and attended to the noises from the battlefield. He fell down again when he knew that galya and Duryodhana were killed. He rose again and cried for a long time. He gathered the women-folk, his people and went to the battlefield. He' broke the metal statue of Bhima and embraced the Pandavas. He asked Yudhisthira to do the mourning and offerings for the dead. It was done accordingly. The Pandavas respected Dhrtarastra. But Bhima scolded them. Dhrtarastra and Gandhari were greatly depressed and asked Yudhisthira to permit them to live in forest. Yudhisthira tried to prevent it. He kissed on the head of Yudhisthira. Seeing that they did not eat food he asked them to eat. Yudhisthira saw that they would eat only if he permitted them to live in forest. At last Yudhisthira agreed. Dhrtarastra accepted money from Dharmaputra and performed mourning and offerings for the dead on a large scale (M.B. Drona Parva, Karna Parva, Str3 Parva, Santi P4rva and Asramavasika Parva).
7) journey to forest and death. Afterwards Dhrtarastra and Gandhari went to forest. Kunti followed them. All the subjects followed them a long way, crying. Dhrtarastra sent them back and entrusted the teacher Kr
.pa and Yuyutsu with the Pandavas. Dhrtarastra, Gandhari and Kunti lived on the Ganges. From there they came to Kuruksetra and lived in the hermitage of Satayupa for a time. During that period Narada visited them. The Pamlavas and the subjects visited them again. Vyasa also came there. He took Dhrtara~tra and the rest of them to the river Ganges and evoked the spirits of those who died in the battle. Vyasa gave Dhrtarastra divine eye to see the departed spirits. After this, at the request of Vyasa they all returned. Dhrtarastra, Gandhari and Kunti went to Gangadvara and performed severe penance and were burnt to death in a wild fire. The relatives put their remains in the Ganges. The spirits of the three-Dhrtarastra, Gdndhari and Kunti entered the realm of Kubera. (M.B. Asrarnavasika Parva, Svargarohana Parva).
8) The names of Dhrtardytra. Ajamidha, Ambikasuta,
Ambikeya, Bharata, Bharatasardula, Bharatasrestha, Bharatarsabha, Bharatasattama, Kaurava, Kauravasrestha, Kauravaraja, Kauravendra, Kauravya, Kurusardula, Kurusrestha, Kurudvaha, Kurunandana, Kururaja, Kuruvariisavardhana, Kuruvrddha, Vaicitravirya, Prajfiacaksus etc. have been used as synonyms of Dhrtarastra.
DHRTARASTRA II. A serpent born to Kagyapa Prajapati by his wife Kadru. It is stated in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 9, that this serpent sits in the Durbar of Varuna and worships him. During the time of emperor Prthu, devas (gods), asuras (demons) and Nagas (serpents) milked the earth, and the person who milked for the Nagas was the serpent Dhrtarastra (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 69) . It is stated in 4ahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 34, Stanza 28, that once this Naga was admitted into the chariot of Siva. When Balabhadra Rama, discarded his body and went to Patala (nether world, several serpents came to greet him. Dlirtardstra was one of them. (M.B. '~tanza 15) .
Mausala Parva, Chapter 4,
DHRTARASTRA III. A deva gandharva,. (Serni-god). Some information. (1) This deva gandharva was the son of the hermit Kasyapa by his wife Muni. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 15) .
(2) He took part in the birth-celebration of Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 55) .
(3) He went to the presence of King Marutta as a messenger of Indra. (M.B. Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 107, Stanza 2).
(4) It was this Gandharva who had taken birth as Dhrtarastra, the father of Duryodhana. (M.B. Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 15) .
DHRTARASTRA IV. A king who was the son of Janamejaya and the grandson of Kuru, a king of the Lunar dynasty. He had eleven sons: Kundika and others. (M.B. Chapter 94, Stanza 58. )
DHRTARASTRA V. One of the famous sons of Vasuki. There is a story about this naga (serpent) in Jaimini, Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 39.
After the Bharata-battle, Yudhisthira performed horsesacrifice. Arjuna led the sacrificial horse. He travelled far and wide and reached Manalur. At the instruction _)f Ulupi, Babhruvahana confronted his father. A terrible fight ensued and Babhruvahana cut off the head of Arjuna. Citrangada sent Babhruvahana to the `Nagaloka' (the world of serpents) to bring the jewel `Mrtasanjivini' to restore her husband to life. The keeper of this jewel, which was under the custody of serpent Sesa was Dhrtarastra, the son of Vasuki.
Knowing that it was not easy to get the jewel, Babhruvahana fought with Dhrtarastra. After a terrible fight he got the jewel. But Dhrtarastra, who did not, want Arjuna to come to life again, stole the head of Arjuna, by the help of his sons and threw it into the hermitage of Dalbhya.
DHRTARASTRI. A daughter born from Tamra the wife of Kasyapa Prajapati. Tamra had five daughters
Kraufici, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastri and Suki. Of these, from Kraufici, the owls, the Bhasas from Bhasi, the eagle and vulture from Syeni, the swans and the ruddy goose from Dhrtarastri were born in the world. (This occurs in Valmiki Ra.mayana, Aran ya Kaada, Sarga 14) .
DHRTASENA. A king who took the' s*side of the Kauravas. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 6, Stanza 3).
DHRTAVARMA. The brother of Suvarma, the king of Trigarta, and Ketuvarma. Arjuna led the sacrificial horse of Asvamedha performed by Yudhisthira after the Bharata war. Sfiryavarma the king of Trigartta, confronted Arjuna and was defeated. Ketuvarma who came next was also killed. Dhrtavarma came next. He showered arrows on Arjuna and inflicted wound on his hand, and the famous bow, Gandiva fell from his hand. Arjuna grew angry and fought so fiercely that eighteen famous and mighty Trigartta warriors fell. At last Dhrtavarma fell at the feet of Arjuna and begged for pardon and accepted the supremacy of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 74).
DHRTAVATI. (GHRTAVATI). A famous river. M.B.Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9).
DHRTAVRATA. A king of the family of Yayati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).
DHRTI I. A daughter of Prajapati Daksa. She was one of the wives of Dharmadeva. Madri, the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva, was the rebirth of Dhrti. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67). Dhrti had given birth to Niyama -when she was the wife of' Dharmadeva, who had married Sraddha, Laksmi, Dhrti, Tusti, Medha, Pusti, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja, Vapus, Sand, Siddhi and Kirti, thirteen of the daughters of Daksa. Visnu Purana, Arizsa I, Chapter 7!.
DHRTI II. A Visvadeva god . (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91) .
DHRTI III. The son of Vitahavya, the king of Videha. He was a contemporary of Vyasa and Vicitravirya the king of the Kurus. Bahulasva was the son of this Dhrti. (M.B. Adi Parva).
DHRTIMAN I. A king of the family of Yayati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .
DHRTIMAN II. An ancient country in Kusadvipa (the island of Kusa). (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 13).
DHRTIMA,N III. See under Dhrstabuddhi.
1) Birth and childhood. Manu Svayambhuva the son of Brahma, had two sons named Priyavrata and Uttanapada. They were mighty heroes and of righteous character. Uttanapada had two wives, Suruci and Suniti. Suruci gave birth to Uttama and Suniti to Dhruva. Uttanapada showed more favour towards Uttama and Suruci. But he looked upon Dhruva and his mother with disfavour.
Once Uttama sat- on the lap of his father when the latter was sitting on the throne. Seeing this; Dhruva wanted to sit along with his brother. But fearing the displeasure of Suruci, who was also there, the King did not take Dhruva on to his lap. Seeing the endeavour of Dhruva, Suruci said to him, "Child, if you wish to sit on the lap of your father, you ought to have been born in my womb. You cherish high ambition which you do not deserve." These words of Suruci were not palatable to Dhruva who ran to his mother and sat on her lap.
When Suniti knew what had happened she shed tears. After a few moments Dhruva stood up and made a vow. "I will get a position unattainable even for my father, by my own endeavour." He then started for the forest. He attained self-renunciation even in childhood becoming a disciple of hermits and performing severe penance.
Dhruva began penance in the forest of Madhuvana on the river Jamuna. Suniti came and tried to take him to the palace. But he did not return. He intensified his penance more and more. At last Mahavisnu appeared before him. Dhruva requested for a lofty, and eternal place which would become a prop of the world. Accordingly, Visnu pointed out to Dhruva, a noble place, higher than the planets, stars Saptarsis (Ursa Major) and the devas who travelled in aeroplanes. Mahavisnu said that Dhruva would live in a lofty place as a star till the end of the Kalpa and his mother Suniti would also remain as a star near Siva as long as Dhruva lived (Visnu Purana, Amsa 1, Chapters 11 and 12) .
2) The previous birth of Dhruaa. Mahavisnu appeared before Dhruva and revealed his previous birth.
Dhruva was a Brahmin in his previous birth. He used to meditate on Visnu with concentration of mind. In course of time he befriended a prince who was a youth, of beautiful and bright complexion, enjoying all the pleasures of the world. Attracted by the position and status of the prince, the Brahmin wanted to become a prince. Mahavisnu granted his wish. Accordingly Dhruva took his next birth as the son of Uttanapada. (Visnu Purana, Arns.a 1, Chapter 12) .
3) The reign and end of Dhruaa. After receiving the boon from Mahavisnu, Dhruva returned. All who were there embraced Dhruva. Years passed by. Uttanapada left his kingdom to Dhruva and became a forest householder. Dhruva became King. The King Dhruva married Brahmi, the daughter 9f Si'sumara a Prajapati. The queen gave birth to two sons Kalpa and Vatsara. Dhruva married Ila the daughter of Vayu (wind). She gave birth to a son named Utkala.
Uttama remained unmarried. While he was hunting in the forest a Yaksa (a demi-god) killed him. Suruci was caught in wild fire and died. Hearing about the death of Uttama, Dhruva took his weapons and reached the realm of the Yaksas. He stood at their gate and challenged them for battle. One lac and thirty thousand Yaksa warriors fought with Dhruva. Dhruva destroyed the entire army. The Yaksas began illusive and tragical arts. Dhruva overcame that also. At last Kubera himself appeared before Dhruva and blessed him. They got him into a plane and placed him, in a place higher than all the planets. (Visnu Puana, Bhagavata).
4) The descendants of Dhruaa. Two sons named Sisti and Bhavya were born to Dhruva by his wife $ambhu. Succhaya the wife of Sisti gave birth to five sinless sons named Ripu, Ripunjaya, Vipra, Vrkala and Vrkatejas. Brhati the wife of Ripu gave birth to Caksusa of extreme bright complexion. Manu was born to Caksusa by his wife Puskarani the daughter of Viranaprajapati and included in the children of Varuna. Ten sons were born to the bright Manu by his wife Nadvala, daughter of Prajapati Vairaja. These ten bright sons were Kuru, Puru, Satadyumna Tapasvi, Satyavan, guci, Agnistoma, Atiratra, Sudyumna, and Abhimanyu. Agneyi, the wife of Kuru gave birth to six children. They were Anga, Sumanas, Khyati, Kratu, Angiras and gibi. A son named Vena was born to Anga by his wife Sunitha. Hermits churned the right hand of Vena to obtain children. As a result of churning Vaineya was born from the right hand of Vena. That King is the famous Prthu. This Prthu milked the earth for the prosperity of his subjects. (Visnu Purana, Arnsa 1, Chapter 13) .
5) The place of Dhruva. The origin of the river Gan* ga was through the hole at the top of the shell of the mundane egg. It flowed down and fel I on the highest part of heaven. That place is called Visnupada. Sitting in this Visnupada, Dhruva does penance to Visnu. So this place got the narxle Dhruvamandala. (Devi ~hagavata, Skandha 8) .
DHRUVA II. He was the ;on of Nahusa and the brother of Yayati. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 75, Stanza 30)
DHRUVA 111. A king. He sits in the council of Yama and serves him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 10)
DHRUVA IV. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas against the Pandavas. He was killed by Bhimasena ~(M.B. Drona larva, Chapter 155, Stanza 27)
DHRUVA V. A king who supported Yudhisthira. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 39) .
DHRUVA VI. A son born to Dharmadeva by his wife Dhumra. He was one of the asta Vasus (eight Vasus)
(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 19) .
DHRUVAKA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 75) .
DHRUVARATNA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 4) .
DHRUVASANDHI. A king of Kosala. During the reign
of this King there was prosperity in Avodhya and the people were virtuous. This king had two wives Manorama and Lilavati. A son named Sudarsana was born to Manorama. After a month the second wife also gave birth to a son named Satrujit. The King was much pleased and both sons were brought up alike. As Satrujit was cleverer than SudarSana people loved Satrujit more.
Once Dhruvasandhi went to the forest for hunting and was killed by a lion in the forest. According to the custom Sudarsana became King. Lilavati, the mother of Satrujit was the daughter of the King of Ujjayini. Her desire was to make Satrujit the King. Manorama- the mother of Sudarsana was the daughter of the King of Kalifiga. Hearing about the death of Dhruvasandhi, the kings of Vjjayini and Kalifiga arrived at Ayodhya. The King of Ujjayini got angry because Sudarsana was made king and began war. The King of Kalinga took the side of Sudarsana. A terrible battle was fought in Ayodhya as to who should be the heir to the throne. In the battle Yudhajit, the King of Ujjayini, killed Virasena, the king of Kalifiga. Sudar-lana and his mother Manorama were in a sorry plight. According to the advice-of minister Vidulla, Manorama and Sudar~ana fled from the capital. Vidulla and the maid of Manorama accompanied them. In two days they reached Gangatata. They were caught by fishermen thieves and they lost everything they had. At last with the help of a boat they crossed the Ganges and reached Trikuta. They went to the hermitage of Bharadvaja who was doing penance there. He gave them protection.
After making Satrujjit King, Yudhajit began to search for Manorama and Sudarsana. He got news that they lived in Citrakuta. Yudhajit went there with an army. But he could not get them out of the hermitage of Bharadvaja. Manorama and Sudarsarra lived safely -in the hermitage.
Once Vidulla came to the hermitage of Bharadvaja to enquire about Manorama. Seeing the old man the hermit boys called out "Kliba Kliba." Prince SudarE'ana heard only "Kli". The syllable `Kli' is the spell called `Kamaraja bijamantra'. Without knowing its meaning Sudarsana called out `Kli' several times. With that the prince got a special power.
Six more years passed. The prince became eleven years old. By this time Bharadvaja had taught the prince Vedas, Sas tras, etc. The prince was a devotee of~ Devi. Devi appeared before him and gave him a bow and a quiver which would never become empty, and an impenetrable armour. Sudarsana married empty, and the daughter of' the King of Kasi. Nisada, the King of Srngiverapura, was a. friend of Dhruvasandhi. He gave Sudarsana a chariot which Sudarsana rode through the forest: With the help of the King of Kasi and others Sudarsana recaptured Ayodhya. He made Vidulla his minister and ruled over the country for a long time. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 3) .
DHUMORNA 11. The wife of hermit Markandeya. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 146, Stanza 4) .
DHUMRA 1. A hermit. This hermit was a luminary in the Durbar of Indra. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7) .
DHUMRA II. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 64) .
DHUMRA. A daughter of Praiapati Daksa. She became the wife of Dharmadev a. Two sons, Dhruva and Dhara were born to the couple. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 19) .
DHUMRAKESA 1. A Pracetas (Bbagavata, Skandha 4) .
DHUMRAKESA 11. The third son of Prthu, the son of Vena. Five sons were born to Prthu by his wife Arcis. On the death of Prthu, his elder brother's son Vijitasva appointed Dhumra,kesa as the governor of southern countries. (Bhagavata, Skandha 4) .
DHUMRAKETU. A son of Bharata. Five sons named Sumati, Rastrabhrt, Sudarsana, Varana and Dhumraketu were born to Bharata by his wife Paficajani. (Bhagavata, Skandha 5) .
DHUMRAKSA I. A king of the lksvaku dynasty.
DHUMRAKSA 11. A minister of Ravana.
Genealogy. Brahma created the Raksasa (giant) Heti. The son Vidyutkesa was born to him of his wife Bhaya. Sukesa was born to Vidyutkega by his wife Salakatanka. Sukesa married Devavati. Three sons, Malyavan, Sumali and Mali were born to the couple. To Sumali, by his wife Ketumati, fourteen children were born: Prahasta, Akarhpana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumraksa, Danda, Supars va, Samhrada, Prakvada, Bhasakarna, Veka, Puspotkata, Kaikasi, and Kumbhinasi; most of them were ministers of Ravana. (Uttara Ramayana).
2) Work and death. Dhamraksa was one who worked in all the branches of administration of the state. In all the battles fought by the Raksasas Dhumraksa was present. He was also called Dhumralocana. He was killed in the battle of Rama and Ravana at the 'hands of Hanuman. (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Chapter 51).
DHUMRAVA. A king of the Iksvaku dynasty. He was the son of Sucandra and the father of Sanjaya. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 47) .
DHUNDHU I. A notorious Asura. He was the son of the Madhu kaitabhas.
Brahma was born in the lotus from the navel of Visnu, who was lying in meditation on the surface of water. From the ear-wax of Visnu two asuras-Madhu and Kaitabha sprang up. They terrified Brahma by shaking the stalk of the lotus. Brahma became terribly afraid of the asuras and ran about on the surface of water. Hearing the cry of Brahma Visnu awoke, but he could not defeat the asuras. Visnu decided to employ `Sama' (conciliation) the first expedient. The arrogant demons ordered Visnu to ask of them any boon. Visnu replied. "If it is so, you must be killed by me." They could not but give the boon. They agreed to the request of Visnu and said: "But we must be killed in an atmosphere, which is not cloudy." Visnu killed them when the atmosphere was clear.
A son named Dhundhu had been born to Madhu and Kaitabha. Because Visnu had killed his fathers Dhundhu decided to take revenge on Visnu and the Gods. With this idea in view Dhundhu began to do penance in the sandy desert of Ujjd1aka in Marudhanva. Standing on one leg he did penance for thousands of years. Then Brahma appeared before him and gave the boon that he would not be killed by Devas, Danavas (asuras), Gandharvas (Demi-gods), Raksasas (demons) , Yaksas (paragods) and Uragas (serpents) .. Having got this boon, he lived under sand in the desert of Ujjalaka. His idea was to destroy the gods.
A hermit named Uttanka had erected his- hermitage in another part of Marudhanva and began penance. By his penance he made Visnu appear before him and then made a request that Dhundhu's activities be put a stop to. Visnu replied `.`Uttanka! Dhundhu has become a curse to the three worlds. There is a king named Kuvalasva, born of the dynasty of Iksvaku. He will kill Dhundhu." Saying these words, Visnu disappeared.
Uttanka went to the palace of Kuva15sva and told him what Visnu had said. Kuvalasva and his sons went to the forest and killed Dhundhu in a fight. From that day Kuvalasva came to be known by thei. Dhundhu was the son of Ka'syapa, born of Darin. It was to kill name Dhundhumara,i which meant `the killer of Dhundhu: (M.B. Vana Parva,~4 Chapters from 201) .
DHUNDHU II. An ancient King who lived on vegetable food only. (M.B. AnuSiisan4L Parva, Chapter 115, Stanza 66).
DHUNDHUKARI. See under Gokarna.
DHUNDHULI. See under Gokarna.
DHUNDHUMARA. A king of the Iksvaku dynasty. (See under KuvaldSva). He was also called Kuvalayasva
DHUNDHUMCKA. A wicked King. Visalya was his wife. Even at the marriage of his son this wicked King remained indifferent. He indulged in sexual activities with a Sudra woman. Not much later he killed her. As soon as her brother knew about this he ran to the palace and killed the King Dhundhumuka along with his wife. Because he was killed by a Sudra, the family of the King faced destruction. His son was also wicked like his father. But on the advice of a sage he begant o utter (the five-syllabled and six-syllabled mantras of diva) in consequence of which, his parents were redeemed. (Liziga Purana).
DHUNDHURA. An Asura. It is stated in Ganesa Purana that this asura went to the house of Kasyapa in the shape of a parrot and tried to kill Gane~a who had incarnated in the house of Kasyapa, but was killed by him.
DHURANDHARAM. A country in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 18).
DHIJRTA. A King of ancient India. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Stanza 238) .
DHURTAKA. A serpent born in the family of Kaurava. He fell in the sacrificial fire of King Janamejaya and was burnt to death. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 13) .
DHVAJAVATA. The daughter of the hermit Harimedha, who lived in the sky, according to the order of the Sun. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 110, Stanza 13) .
DHVAJINI. •A country in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 83) .
DHVANI. The son of Apa who is one of the eight Vasus. -The had .four sons called Vaitanda, drama, Santa and Dhvani. (Vi snu Purana, Ariz:`a 1, Chapter 15) .
DHVANYA. A king. He was the son of Laksmana. ( See Rgveda Index).
DHVASANTI. A hermit of the period of the Rgveda. Asvinidevas rescued the hermits Turviti, Dabhiti, Dhvasanti and Purusanti from danger. Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 16, Sukta 112) .
DHYANA. ( Meditation) . Even from ancient times the people of Bharata believed that heaven could be-attained by meditation. There are scientific methods of meditating upon God. They are described below:
The root "dhyai", means "to think". Dhyana (meditation) means thinking of God with concentration. God is invisible and figureless. We can meditate only upon some material that contains the attributes of God. So dhyana (meditation) is to fix the mind on the object of meditation, and to imagine that particular object in a particular place and to concentrate the mind upon it. One who casts off his body, while engaged in meditation attains `Sayujya' (oneness with God) .
Dhundhu that Visnu incarnated a Vamana, Vamanapurana
He who can meditate upon God, with concentration of mind even for a moment or two can attain heaven. The fruits he attains are far greater than the fruits attained by performing great sacrifices and offerings.
For meditation, there are four factors : Dhyata (the meditator), Dhyana (the act of meditation) Dhyeya
(the object meditated upon) and Dhyanaprayojana (the attainment by meditation). He who indulges in meditation is the meditator. The act done by him is meditation. That which is meditated upon is the object of meditation. What the meditator obtains as a result of his meditation is the attainment. A meditator should be wise and virtuous, should have attention and patience, devoted to Visnu and always energetic.
We can meditate upon God, walking, standing, sleeping and awake. God should be consecrated in the centre of the lotus, chair of the heart and be worshipped with devotional meditation. It is to give practice in fixing the mind firmly on a particular object, that the sages say that some visible material object should be given to meditate upon, in the early stage of meditation,. When concentration of mind is obtained by meditating upon a visible object, it will be possible for us to meditate upon an object which is not amenable to our senses. When engaged in meditation we should be thinking "Aharim Brahma jyotiratma vasudevo vimukta Orh". (1 am Brahma,the light, the Spirit, Vasudeva, and Vimukta (having no connection with anything), OM). (Agni Purana, Chapter 374).
DIBI-IAKA. A prince who, puffed up by the power of boons and blessings from the gods, tried to harm sage Durvasas. Balabhadrarama killed him. The following account occurs in the Bhavisya Purana.
Brahmadatta, King of Salva, had two wives. No children were born to them for several years. Brahmadatta's minister, Mitrasaha, also had no children. Mitrasaha was a brahmin and a scholar. On his advice, Brahmadatta, with his wives, went to Kailasa and performed tapas to please Siva to get children. As a result of ten years' rigorous tapas Siva was pleased and blessed him that two sons would be born to him. Later his wives gave birth to two sons. The son of the eldest queen was named Hamsa and that of the second queen was named Dibhaka. At this time a son was also born to Mitrasaha, the minister by the blessing of Visnu. That child was named Janardana.
Hariisa and Dibhaka were spoilt, but Janardana was a bhakta of Visnu. Hamsa and Dibhaka performed tapas in their childhood to please 8iva and got invincible power and arrows. After that they became lokakantakas (torturers) and went round the world. Once they went to Kasyapa's asrama and destroyed the place of worship. After that they went to the a9rama of Durvasas. There they tortured the sages and made the sages naked who were wearing only loin cloth. Then they returned.
Enraged by these, sage Durvasas went to Dvaraka taking the destroyed loin-cloth and other articles. Sri Krsna and his courtiers stood up and saluted him when they saw Durvasas coming like sarhhararudra. On hearing the news, Sri Krsna assured him that he would kill Hamsa and Dibhaka and sent him back pacified.
Hamsa and Dibhaka began a rajasuya. They sent Janardana to Sri Krsna with the message that he should
either fight with them or give them tribute (in the form of money). Janardana went to Dvaraka, just as Akrura, a devotee of Visnu, went to Ambadi with the message of Kamsa. Immediately Krsna and Balabhadra with the chief Ministers like Satyaki went to Salva. In the war that followed Sri Krsna killed Hariisa and Bala. Bhadrarama killed Dibhaka. (M.B. Bhavisya Parva, Chapter 103-129) .
DIGVIJAYAPARVA. A sub-division of the Sabha Parva of Mahabharata. It comprises of Chapters 25 to 32 of Sabha Parva.
DIK. A river. The Mahabharata, (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 18) states that the water of this river was used for drinking by the people in India.
DIKSA. Diksa is the vrata that expels sin and increases Jfiana (wisdom). Those who are to be blessed fall into three categories. The person who belongs to the first category is called Vijfianakala; the second is Pralayakala; and the third is Sakala. Vijfianakala is free from sin alone. Pralayakala is free from sins and Karmans. Sakala has everything from Kala to the earth. The Diksas to be practised by the three classes of persons are of different kinds. Diksa is classified into two: "Niradhara and Sadhara.
Niradhara Dlksa is performed for the sake of Vijfianakala and Pralayakala. Sadhara Diksa is prescribed for the third class of people, the Sakaias.
DILIPA I. (Khatvanga). A mighty king of the Iksvaku dynasty.