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C. (q) The letter C has two meanings, viz., evil people and pure man.


CAIDYA. Sisupala, king of Cedi. Dhrstaketu, King of Cedi, is also known by this name. It was this Caidya who led the Krauncavyuha created by Dhrstadyumna in the great battle. (Krauncavyuha =A battle array in the shape of a stork). (Sloka 47, Chapter 50, Bhisma Parva).


CAITRARATHA. A prince born to King Kuru of his queen Vahini ($loka 50, Chapter 94, Adi Parva).


CAITRARATHA(M). A forest of puranic fame. Once King Yayati enjoyed sexual acts with the apsaras Visvaci in this forest. (S`loka 43, Chapter 75, Adi Parva) . It was here in this forest that Pandu spent some days once with his wives Madri and KuntL (Sloka 48, Chapter 118, Adi Parva).


As a support to the great mountain Mahameru were four mountains, Mandara, Merumandara, Suparsva and Kumuda. Above each of these was a garden-wood, Nandana, Caitraratha, Vaibhrajaka and Sarvatobhadra. Thus it is to be presumed that Caitraratha was on Merurnandara. (Chapter 16, Pancama Skandha, Bhagavata).


CAITRARATHA PARVA. A sub-division of Adi Parva, (See under Mahabharata) .


CAITYAKA. A mountain. This mountain is situated near Girivraja, the capital city of Magadha. This mountain was very dear to the people of Magadha. The followers of Brhadratha deemed it as a God and worshipped it. (Chapter 21, Sabha Parva).


CAKATA. (See Brahmadafta II).


CAKRA I. A son of Vasuki, the Naga king. He died at the serpent yaji1a (Sarpa Satra) of Janamejaya by falling into the fire. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 6).


CAKRA II. One of the three attendants given to Subrahmanya by Visnu, the other two being Sankrama and Atikrama. (galya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 40).


CAKRA III. One of the two attendants presented to Skandhadeva by Tvasta, the other one being Anucakra. (galya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 40).


CAKRA(M) I. Sudarsana Cakra (disc) of Mahavisnu. The Vi snu Purana contains the following story about the origin of the Cakra.


Suryadeva (the Sun God) married Sarizjna, daughter of Visvakarma. But, due to the insufferable heat of her husband the marital life of Samjna became miser-


able, and so she requested her father to lessen the heat of Surya. And, accordingly Visvakarmaground Surya on a grinding machine and thus diminished his effulgence. But, the grinding could diminish only 1/8 of that effulgence, which glowing red-hot dropped on the earth, and with that Visvakarmamade the Sudarsana Cakra, the Trisula, the Puspakavimana and the weapon called Sakti. Out of those four things the Trisula came to be possessed by Siva, the Puspakavimana by Kubera and Sakti by Brahma. The ~udarsana Cakra which was glowing like anything was deposited in the sea. (Visnu Purana, Part 3, Chapter 2) . There is a story in the Mahabharata as to how the Cakra thrown into the sea came into the possession of Mahavisnu. While Sri Krsna and Arjuna were picnicing on the shores of the Yamuna Agnideva went to them and requested them to give Khandava forest to him for food. As Taksaka, friend of Indra, was living in the forest the latter was causing heavy rains to fall there. Krsna and Arjuna realized the fact that Agni would be able to consume the forest only after subjugating Indra. But, how to manage it ? Then Agni said that he would supply the weapon to fight Indra with, and accordingly he meditated on Varuna, who presented to him (Agni) a chariot and flag with monkey as symbol, a quiver which would never become empty of arrows, a bow called Gandiva and the Sudarsana Cakra. Agnideva gave the Cakra to Sri Krsna and the other things to Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 297).


CAKRA (M) II. A city in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 45) .


CAKRADEVA. A warrior born in Vrsni varhsa. (Vrsni dynasty). (Sabha Parva, Chapter 144, Verse 57) .


CAKRADHANUS. A synonym of Kapila maharsi. (See Kapila).


CAKRADHARA. A very intelligent brahmin. One-eyed and bent down in body he is a character in Vatsarajacarita. (See Vidusaka).


CAKRADHARMA. Chief of the Vidyadharas. He, with his younger brother is engaged in singing the praise of Kubera. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 27 ).


CAKRADVARA (1VI) . A great mountain. Indra performed a y ajna on this mountain. (Sand Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 185) .


CAKRAKA. The son, a Brahmavadin, of Visvamitra. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 64) .


CAKRAMANDA. A naga (a serpent). It was this raga which was deputed by Ananta (naga king) to lead the soul of Balarama on his death to Patala. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 16) .


CAKRANEMI A woman attendant of Skandadeva. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 5) .


CAKRATI. A town in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 45) .


CAKRAVAN. A mountain very much extolled in the Puranas. When deputing monkeys in quest of Sita, Sugriva instructed them to make a special search in Mount Cakravan. It was on this mountain that Vi9vakarma made the Sudarsana Cakra. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Chapter 42, Verse 16) .




A particular pattern of army formation on ground. In the Kaurava-Pandava war Droa~arya formed a Cakravyuha wherein Abhimanyu, son' of Arjuna got himself trapped and killed. (Abhimanyu, who forced himself inside the Vyuha did not know the method of gating out of it which Arjuna alone knew). Cakravyixlha is made in the form and shape of Cart.-wheels. Vyasa has described the Cakravyuha made by Drona as follows :-The great preceptor made the Cakravyuha and posted in it to maximum capacity kings, who were equal to Indra. In every opening of the vyuha were posted princes equal in prowess to the Sun. All the princes were organised compactly. And, all of them wore red uniforms and were adorned with other things also red in colour and held red flags. They also wore golden ornaments and garlands scented with Sandal paste. Ten thousand strong they rushed forward to fight with Abhimanyu. Duryodhana's son, Laksmana, led the onrush. In the centre (of the Cakravyuha) stood Duryodhana in the company of heroes like Karna, Dussasana and Krpa. And, at the head of the army stood Drona, the captain of the army, who looked like the rising sun. Then there was the King of Sindhu, and near -him stood Asvatthama,, and there stood in front of them thirty Kauravas, all of them equal to Devas. On the flanks were great heroes like Salya, Bhurisravas. And then did the battle rage. (Drona Parva, Chapter 34).


CAKRIKA. A forest hunter. The following story is told about him in Chapter 16, Kriyayoga of the Padma Purana.


Devoted much to his parents, Cakrika was a great devotee of Visnu. He used to worship Visnu daily with fruits, (edible) roots etc. But, he did so only after himself tasting them. One day while thus tasting a fruit, somehow or other it got itself lodged in his throat, and all his attempts to dislodge it failed. The fruit had to be, at any rate, offered to Visnu and therefore Cakrika drew his sword and cut his throat with it. Lord Visnu who was so pleased at such great devotion of the man appeared on the scene and brought him back to life. Sometime afterwards Cakrika expired at the Dvaraka temple, and thus attained salvation.


CAKRODDHATA. A king in the dynasty of Yayati. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


CAKSUS I. A synonym of the Sun. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 42) .


CAKSUS II A tributary of river GangA. Starting from Visnupada (Svarga) the Ganga falls into Devayana and thence into the moon and after flooding the whole area it divides itself into four tributaries, viz., Sita, Caksus, Alakananda and Bhadra and falls into Brahmaloka and flows in four directions. Of the four tributaries the river called Caksus falls on the peak of Mount Malyavan and then flaws through Ketumala and falls into the western sea. The Ganga which flows through India is a branch of the above-mentioned tributary, Alakananda. (Devi Bhagavata, Astama Skandha).


CAKSUS III. A king born in the lunar dynasty. He was the son of King Anudruhyu. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


CAKSURVARDHANIKA. A river which flows through Sakadvipa. (8aka island). (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 33).




1) General. The sixth of the fourteen Manus. (.See Manvantara).


2) Genealogy. Uttanapada and Priyavrata were the sons of Svayambhuvamanu, and Dhruva was Uttanapada's son. Dhruva had two sons, _<isti, and Bhavya by his wife 8ambhu. Suchaya, wife of 8isti, had five sons, viz., Ripu, Ripunjaya, Vipra, Vrkala and Vrkatejas. From Brhad, wife of Ripu, was born Caksusa, the mighty and Caksusa begot, a son called Manu by Puskarani, daughter of Viranaprajapati and one of the offsprings of Varuna. This Manu was called Caksusa Manu. And Caksusa Manu had ten sons by his wife Nadvala, daughter of Vairajaprajapati, called Kuru, Puru,, Satadyumna, Tapasvi, Satyavan, 8uci, Agnistoma, Atiratra, Sudyumna and Abhimanyu. Out of the ten, Puru had the following sons by Agneyi, viz. Anga, Sumanas, Khyati, Kratu, Angiras and 8ibi. Afiga married Sunitha, and Vena was their son. The famous emperor, Prthu was Vena's son.


3) Former life. The following story is told in the Markandeya Furana about the former life of Caksusa before he was born as Caksusa. In that former life he was Ananda, son of Anamitra. Once a cat carried Ananda away and laid him on the bed of the child of King Vikranta, and the same cat deposited the king's child somewhere else. And, Ananda grew up as the real son of the King. But, one day he told the King the truth about him and left for the forest for tapas. Brahma appeared before him and blessed that he would, in the next birth, be born as the sixth Manu and thus Caksusa became the sixth Manu.


4) Chief incidents during his time. During Caksusamanvantara were born the famous Nara and Narayana as the sons of Dharma. It was also during this period that Brahma was born as Candra, Visnu as Dattatreya and Siva as Durvasas from Anasuya, the purest of women and the wife of Atri. (Devi Bhagavata, Caturtha Skandha).


CAKSUSy. An art, the study of which will enable one to see anything in the three worlds. Caksusi was taught by Mann to Soma, by him to Visvavasu, by him to Citraratha, the Gandharva and by him to Arjuna, son of Pandu. (Adi Patva).


CAKYARKlOTTU. A very important art practised in temples mainly in Kerala. It is called so because it is exhibited by Cakyars (a sect attached to temples). In important temples a place called Kuttambala is set apart for displaying the art. The Kuttu now prevalent in Kerala temples is not exactly of its old form. Kulasekharavarma perumal (elected ruler of old Kerala) effected some changes in the old art form, and Phaskararavivarma peruma1 and Tolakavi made further reforms in it. The art of Kuttu was evolved with the object of relating puranic stories in such a manner as will help devotional feelings grow in man.


The main aim of the Kfittu is to narrate puranic stories in such a way as to instil Bhakti in the hearers and to create an interest in them in the Puranas. The Cakyar (the man who gives the discourse who usually belongs to the Brahmin sect called Cakyars) tells the story in a very interesting way, reciting appropriate passages from the Puranas and illustrating them with apt examples and similes. The narration is from the beginning till end humorous. The Cakyar who delivers the discourse is usually a man with a good sense of humour and a sense of what is odd, strange or eccentric in nature and human character. There are three varieties of Kuttu : Prabandham Kuttu, Nambiar Kuttu and Kutiattam. Of these the first is narrative (Akhyanapara) while in the second and third type, the element of acting is more important (Abhinayapara) .


GALA. Laksmidevi. The following story is told in the Devi-bhagavata as to how this name came to be applied to the devi. Once Revanta the very handsome son of Suryadeva came to Vaikuntha riding Uccaihsravas, Indra's horse. Devi, who was at that time with Visnu gazed for a few minutes in wonder at the horse. She did not, therefore, attend to Visnu's talk. Angered at this Visnu told the devi : "Since your eyes find enjoyment on unnecessary things and move about among such objects, you shall be called from today onwards Rama and Cala. Also you will be born as a mare on earth. Accordingly Mahalaksmi was born as a mare on the banks of river Sarasvati, and regained her old form only after delivering a son by Visnu. That son was Ekavira, founder of the Hehaya kingdom. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 6).


CAMARA. (CAMARI). An animal whose tail is its most important and valued organ. In the course of its movements in the forest if the tail gets entangled anywhere it is supposed to lie down there till the tail is freed by itself. About the origin of Camara, the following story is told in the Valmiki Ramayana. Krodhavasa, daughter of Daksaprajapati and wife of Kasyapa had ten daughters, viz. Mrgi, Mrgamada, Hari, Bhadramada, Matangi, ~arduli, 8veti, Surasa, Surabhi and Kadrfi. To Mrgamad l the Srmaras and Camaras owe their origin. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Ka'a' a, Canto 14) .


CAMARA (M) . A rod (handle) with large tuft of hair, fibre or feathers at the end. A symbol used by kings and brahmins. Camara of the king should have a golden handle, and it should be made of the wings of the swan, the pea cock, the Balaka bird etc. But, the wings of different birds shall not be intermixed. Circular in shape, the Camara should have on its handle 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 sandhis (joints, knots). (Agnipurana, Chapter 245) .


CAMASA. A yogi, the younger brother of Bharata, a king born in the dynasty of Priyavrata, son of Manu. This country got its name Bharata from king Bharata (country ruled by Bharata) . Bharata had nine brothers called Kusavarta, Ilavarta, Brahmavarta, Aryavarta, Malaya, Bhadraketu, Sena, Indrasprk and Kikata. Bharata had also nine other brothers renowned as navayogis, born of another mother. Camasa was one of them, the other eight being Kavi, Hari, Ambarisa, Prabuddha, Pippalayana, Avirhotra, Dramida and kharabhajana. (Bhagavata Pancama Skandha) .


CAMASODBHEDA. A holy place in Saurastra which forms part of the very reputed sacred place called Vinasana. It is said that it was here that the river Sarasvati which once became invisible, was detected. A bath here is as efficacious as performing the Jyotistoma yajna. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 112).




CAMOHARA. A visvadeva. (M.B. Anusasana Parva. Chapter 191, Verse 35) .


CAMPA. A king born in the Ariga dynasty. (See CANDRAVAM~A).


CAMPA. (CAMPAPURT) . A city on the banks of river Ganga, Cariipa is often referred to in the Puranas. It was here that Lomapada lived in tretayuga. ( M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 113, Verse 15). In Dvaparayuga the city was ruled by a Suta called Atiratha, who got Karna, while he and his wife were brooding over their lack of a child. In after years Kama also ruled the city. (M.B. 8anti Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 7).


CAMPAKA. A vidyadhara. Once he visited the banks of river Yarr.una with his wife Madalasa when they got from the forest nearby a child. The child in later years became famous as Ekavira, founder of the Hehaya dynasty. (See EKAVIRA) .


CAMPAKARANYA. (CAMPAKARA). A holy place in Northern India. One day's halt at the place and a bath there is considered to be as good as giving away one thousand cows as gift. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84).


CAMPEYA. Son of Visvamitra who was a brahmavadin (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 58).


CAMPUT. A literary form of presenting a story in a mixture of prose and verse, and abounding in beautiful descriptions : "Gadyapadyamayarh kavyarn Campurityabhidhiyate". Over and above prose and verse the Campus use dandakas (very long, involved and poetical prose). This literary form had its origin first in Sanskrit and other Indian languages adopted it with some variations. For instance, though prose in Sanskrit Campus is really prose, that in Malayalam is something akin to metrical prose. There are more than two hundred Campus in Malayalam. The most famous of the Campu writers in Malayalam are Punam Namboothiri, Mahamangalam Namboothiri and Nilakantha.


CAMU. A division of an army. (See Aksauhini)


CAMUNI)A. (See Parvati)


CANAKA. The auspiciousness of Canaka (cowdung) is due to Laksmi. (See Laksmi, Paras i and 6) .


CANAKYA (KAUTILYA). The famous author of "Arthasastra" a treatise on political economy.


Eastern and western scholars have made exhaustive researches on this intellectual giant of ancient India, Canakya. But, nothing definite has yet been established about his time or life. Indians have accepted as a fact the traditional legend that he was a minister of Candragupta, the founder of the Maurya dynasty. It is also firmly believed that it was this mighty intellect of a bralimin who made Candragupta a powerful emperor and steered the ship of his state. The phrase `CAnakya's kutilaniti' (crooked tactics) has become proverbial. Some scholars hold the opinion that he came to be called `Kautilya' because of his Kutila (crooked) tactics ; but evidence to establish this view-point is yet to be adduced.


It is his famous Arthasastra, which has made Canakya's name a world famous one. The great German thinker jolly has described the Arthasastra as a unique composition in the Sanskrit language. And, Johann Meyer, the great western scholar has the following to say about the book :-


"Kautilya's Arthasastra is not one single text, it is a collection and collateration of all books in ancient India. To study the greatness of the theories and principles contained in it today requires continuous and constant study at least for twenty years and the unremitting efforts of a scholar with unabounded knowledge are required."


Even his name has not yet been confirmed beyond doubts. Kautilya is also called Visnugupta, Canakya, Dramila, and Angula. Modern researches place the date of the Arthasastra at near about B.C. 400. In Visakhadatta's Mudraraksasa (drama) the name Kautilya is used.


The Authors of Nitisastra maintain that the name of the author of Arthasastra was Visnugupta. It may be gathered from the Mudraraksasa that he became famous as Canakya as he was the son of Canaka, and that he possessed deep erudition in Nitisastra, Dharmasdstra and astrology. There is another legend to the effect that this brahmin (Canakya) belonged to Kaficipura and that he migrated to Pataliputra, the seat of learning and scholarship. As Kamandaka, who lived in the fourth century B.C. has eulogised Canakya in his nitisastra it may be surmised that Canakya lived sometime near about that. Candragupta and Canakya are referred to in the Visn.u and the Vamana Puranas. J


Kautilya was keen-eyed and scholar par excellence. "Arthasastra" i$ a great book written by him after thoroughly examining the viewpoints of previous scholars, and then establishing his own views and theories. From the Dasakumdracarita of Dandi (A.D. 700) it may be seen that there are 6000 verses in the Anustup metre (eight letters in one line) in the Arthasastra composed by Visnugupta for the use of Candragupta Maurya. The Artha astra has been held in praise by Banabhatta who lived in the 7th Century, Somadevas5ri, who lived in the 10th century and also by Hemacandra, the author of Kavyanusasana, who lived in the 12th century. The book is a discourse on the principles and practices that are necessary to establish a strong government of an ideal empire. Canakya has mentioned in his book with respect the old scholars like Manu, 8ukra, Brhaspati, Narayana, Katyayana and Govinda diksita. (For the puranic story about Canakya see Vararuci, Para 6) .


CANCALAKSI. A notorious harlot who lived in dvapara yuga. When one day at midnight she came to the appointed place to meet a paramour the latter had not arrived. While waiting impatiently there she was attacked and killed by a leopard. Emissaries of Visnu as also of Yama arrived to carry away the soul of Cancalaksi. Yama's men argued that she had sinned throughout her life, and therefore claimed the harlot's soul. But the emissaries of Visnu countered the argument thus : "once on her way to conduct her trade Cancalaksi got into a temple and munched tambula in the course of which she rubbed some lime on the walls of the temple. Taking into consideration this fact of her having spent sometime thus to clean the temple wall her soul deserves to be led to Visnuloka".


In the argument the emissaries of Yama were defeated and the soul of Cancalaksi was taken to Vaikuntha by the emissarieps of Vi s u. (Padma Purana, Chapter 6) .


CANCALAKST II. A' vidyadhara girl. Once while she was concentrating her mind in prayer over Mahalaksmi, Ravana, King of the Raksasas, committed rape on her, and she cursed him that he should die on account of Mahalaksmi herself and accordingly at last he was killed by Rama on account of Sita, the incarnation of Mahalaksmi. (Kampa Ramaya,ia).


CAN-PA. (See Candamundas).


CANDABALA. A prominent monkey. In the Rama-


Ravana war this monkey caused much trouble to Kumbhakarna. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 287, Verse 6) .


CANDABHARGAVA. A maharsi born in the dynasty of Cyavana Muni. A very erudite scholar and deeply versed in the Vedas, it was this maharsi, who performed Janamejaya's famous Sarpa sattra. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 4) .


CANDAKA. A forest hunter who attained salvation by the worship of Sivalinga. (Phallus of 8iva).


While once hunting in the woods Candaka saw a 8iva temple in ruins, and the Sivalifiga lying on the ground uncared for. This sight greatly grieved him, and he told Sirnhaketu, son of the Pancala Raja who happened to come that way all about the temple and the linga. To his query as to whether the Kastra permitted a hunter like himself to worship givalinga, Simhaketu answered there were injunctions in the ~astras for people like him (Candakas) to instal Sivalifga on rock and then worship it daily, the worshipper wearing ashes from the burning ghat on his body. Accordingly Candaka installed the lifiga on a rock and began worshipping it daily along with his wife, Pulindi. But after sometime there was left no ashes in the burning ghat and Candaka and Pulindi discussed between them the means to get ashes for the next day. Then Pulindi suggested that she should burn herself to ashes and that Candaka should continue worshipping the givalinga wearing on his body the ashes. Very unwillingly Candaka agreed with the sad proposal of his wife, and the next day he worshipped the Sivalinga wearing on his body the ashes of Pulindi. And, at the close of the worship he called aloud for Pulindi, and lo! wonder of wonders ! she stood there before him more healthy than formerly. Moreover a vimana descended from the skies and conducted both Candaka and Pulindi to Sivaloka. (diva Purana, Sambaramahatyma).


CANDAKAUSIKA. A muni, son of Kaksivan, the son of Gautama. Brhadratha, King of Magadha, was having no issues when, one day, Candakausika went to the palace and blessed the King as a result of which a son called Tarasandha was born to him. Candakausika continued to live at Magadha for long as the preceptor of the kings of that land. (See Jarasandha) .


CANDALA. (See Caturvarnya).




1) General. A very prominent and reputed king of Ujjayini. Vasavadatta, wife of Udayana was his daughter.


2) The name Candamahdsena. His real name was Mahasena. After ascending the throne he began doing tapas to get a noble wife and a good sword. When he cut his own flesh and made an offering of the same to the sacred fire after a long period of tapas the Devi became pleased, and offered him a sword of exceptional excellence and said that as long as he had that sword with him no enemy would defeat him. The Devi also assured him that ere long Angaravati, daughter of the asura called Angaraka and the fairest damsel in the three worlds would become his wife. Since he (Mahasena) did the most austere rites and rituals, the Devi `said, he would come to be called Candamahasena. Afterwards the sword given by the Devi and the elephant called nadagiri proved as successful and effective to him as were Vajrayudha and his elephant Airavata to Indra.


3) Marriage. One day, during a hunting expedition a boar escaped unhurt by the king's arrows .and after turning turtle his chariot it went into a cave. The king in great anger followed the pig into the cave, and going forward some distance he saw a beautiful animal whereupon he seated himself on the side of a tank. There he saw, amidst a number of women an exceptionally beautiful woman moving about. Casting her charming eyes glistering with love the woman approached the King. During their conversation, when the king told her about himself she began crying. To the query as to the reason for her crying she answered as follows :"The boar you saw is my father, Angarakasura. His body is harder than even diamond, and none can inflict any injury on it. The women you see around are princesses captured by my father from various palaces for my help, and my name is Angaravati. My father became a Raksasa as the result of a curse ; he is now asleep in the assumed form of a boar. On awaking he is sure to eat you for food, and it was that thought which brought tears to my eyes". To these words of Angaravati, the king replied as follows : "If you have any love for me you would go to your father and begin crying when he wakes up, and to his question as to why you are crying you should reply that thoughts about your future in the event of your fathers's death brought tears in your eyes."


Afigaravati agreed to the above proposal of the King. She hid the King in a safe place and went and stood by the side of her father. Everything happened as was anticipated and Angaraka consoled his daughter by saying that none would be able to kill him whose body was as hard and strong as diamond, there being only one opening through which he might be struck on the left wrist which might be concealed by the bow. Candamahasena who heard the above talk came out of his hiding place and challenged the asura to war. He raised his left hand to show the sign, "just coming, please wait", and the king then shot his arrow through the opening on his left wrist. The asura fell dead.


4) Birth of Vasamdatta : And, now Candamahasena married Angaravati and returned to his kingdom with his wife. Two sons, Gopalaka and Palaka were born to the royal couple, and the King celebrated an Indrotsava for the welfare and prosperity of the children. Pleased at the utsava Indra appeared to the king in sleep and blessed him saying that a daughter would be born to him and that her son would be crowned emperor of the Vidyadharas. Accordingly a daughter was born to the King, and she was called Vasavadatta. (given by Vasava, i.e. Indra) . Udayana married Vasavadatta. (See Udayana).


CANDAMUNIAS. Two brothers born in the Asura dynasty, the elder brother being called Canda and the younger Munda. These brothers collected, like the other asura leaders Dhumraksa, and Raktabija, thousands of soldiers and lived in all pomp and glory.


During this period two asura brothers called Sumbha and Nisumbha had returned from the Himalayas after securing from Brahman a boon that they would meet with their death only at the hands of a woman. Canda and Munda became their friends and attendants. 8umbha and Nisumbha set out on a triumphal tour and conquered heaven, earth and patala. The Devas


took refu,e in a forest. After wandering in the forest for a long time, at the instance of Brliaspati they sought asylum with Parvati. Parvati stood for sometime in deep concentration, and there emerged from her divine body Kausiki or Kali. Parvati assured the Devas that she would kil1 8umbha and Nisumbha. And, then Kali sat alone on a rock in the thick Forest. Canda and Munda, who happened to pass that way were attracted by the great beauty of Parvati and imparted the news to S`umbha and Nisumbha, and they deputed Dhumraksa and 60,000 soldiers to bring Parvati over to them ;but by one hurizkara (sound `hum') she reduced them to ashes. Ultimately she killed Sumbha and Nisumbha also. (Devi Bhagavata, Paficama Skandha).


CANDATU1TDAKA (S) . A son of Garuda. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 9).


CANDAVEGA. A gandharva. (See Purafijana).


CANDIKA. A terrific form of Parvati, who is worshipped in temples under the name Candikadevi. 'I he Devi's idol has twenty hands. In the hands on the right side are held Sala (three-pronged weapons) sword, Vela (rod), Cakra, pasa (rope), parigha (shield), ayudha, abhaya, damaru and Sakti, while the hands on the left side hold n-.gapasa, small parigha, axe, Ankusa (a long-hooked rod), pasa, mani, flag, gada, mirror and an iron cylindrical rod. 'I here are also idols of Candika with ten hands. At the feet of the Devi lies Mahisasura with his head severed from body. There will also be standing near the idol a purusa (man) born from the neck of the Mahisa brandishing his weapon, and with the Sula in his hand in all rage and womitting blood and with red hairs and eyes. That purusa is bound strongly on his neck with rope. The vehicle of the Devi is a lion. The Devi is mounted on the lion with her left leg on the asura lying below. This Candikadevi thus stands with weapons in the hand, as annihilator of enemies and with three eyes, and she should be worshipped in pujamandala with nine Padmas(tantric divisions) along with her idol. Firstly the Devi should be worshipped in the central padma and Indra and others in the other padmas.


There is also another Candikadevi (Durga) with eighteen hands. She holds in her right hand a skull, shield, mirror, breom, bow, flag, damaru and paaa (cord) and in her left hand rod, iron pounder, gula, Vajra, sword, Afikusa (a sticklike weapon with one end bent to hold on to things) Sara (arrow) Cakra and s alaka. There are nine other Durgas having the same weapons as the above except the Damaru and the broom. But, they have only sixteen hands each. These nine Durgas are called Rudracanda, Pracanda, Ugracanda, Candanayika, Aticandika, and Candogra. The Durga standing at the centre will have the colour of gorocana (red sandal paste) and the others will have the following colours; arunavarna (red) Krsna varna (black), nila varna (blue), sulda varna (white), dhumra varna (brown) pita varna (yellow) and sveta varna (white). The nava Durgas (nine Durgas) are installed for the prosperity of children etc. And all these are different forms of ParvatT.


Also, in various aspects or poses, Parvati is called by other names. She is called Siddha when installed in Rarnbha-vana wearing aksamala (garland of beads), kirita (crown) and agni. The same Siddha without the fire is called Lalita. Gauridevi with one of the hands on the left side placed on the shoulder and the head, and holding the mirror in the other hand, and holding in one of the hands on the right side fruits etc. and the other hand held up is called Saubhagya gauri. (For further details see Yarvati). (Agni Purana, Chapter 50 ) .


CANDRA I. A prominent asura, also called Candravarman. It was this asura, as beautiful as Candra (the moon) who was born as the king _of Kamboja under the name Candravarman (M.B. Adi 1'arva, Chapter 67, Verse 31) .


CANDRA l I. A king born in the Solar dynasty and the son of Visvarandhi and father of Yuvanasva. See Vamsavali )


CANDRA III. The Puranas declare that Candra was one of the invaluable things got at the churning of Ksirabdhi (ocean of milk) Candra, Mahalaksmi, Surd, Uccaih'sravas, Kaustubha, Parijata, Kamadhenu, Dhanvantari, Amrtam and Kalakuta were the things thus got from the Ocean of Milk. ( M.B. Adi Yarva, Chapter 18 and Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter. 9) . Also, the evil devata called Jyestha, Airavata, the gem named Cintamani and fair damsels like Tares and Ruma were got from the Ksirabdhi, ( Kampa Ramayana, Yuddhakanda). For general information about Candra, see Grahas ) .




1) Birth. The child born to Atri by Anasuya. (See Pururavas). In Skandha 4 of the Deviuhagavata it is stated that it was Brahman who was born as Candra. ( See Atri).


2) Candra led married 1i; a zoith the wife of his guru. Tares, the very beautiful wife of Brhaspati, preceptor of the Devas happened to reach Candra's home during her perambulation one day. Candra and Tares fell in love with each other at first sight and lived in conjugal happiness. And thus days passed by. Brhaspati, being informed of the fact on enquiry, deputed his discip1es to bring Tares back, but to no purpose. Brhaspati sent his disciples again and again to Tares, but all to no purpose. Then Brhaspati himself went to the house of Candra arid invited Tares, this time also to no purpose. Enraged at this the Deva guru spoke to Candra as follows: "The Brahmin-killer, gold-thief, drunkard, he who marries another's wife and he who associates himself with the above three types are responsible for the most terrible five sins, and you, therefore, are not fit enough to reside in Devaloka. Unless you return my wife to me I will curse you." None of the threats of Brhaspati could shake Candra. He told the Devaguru that Tares who had gone to his house on her own accord would also leave him when she was satiated with him. These words of Candra made Brhaspati all the more angry. He returned home and waited sometime more for Tara's return. But, he got disappointed, and getting impatient he started again for Candra's house. But, this time the gatekeepers did not let him in.


Terribly angry at the cruel rebWf Brhaspati sought help of Indra. Indra sent word to Candra asking him to send Tares back home or be prepared for way. Even then Candra refused to yield, and Indra started for war against Candra. But, there was somehow some difference among the devas about all this, and the news reached the asuras. At once gukra, preceptor of the asuras and an old enemy of Brhaspati met Candra and




assured him all support in case war broke out between Indra and Candra. He also strongly advised Candr; not to return Tares to Brhaspati. And, ultimately fierce war began between Indra and Candra. X11 acti vities in the world were thrown into confusion anc chaos. At this Brahma on his hamsa ( swan) came tc the scene and admonished Candra and 8ukra. They could not but obey Brahma and so were forced to stop fighting. Moreover, Candra returned Tares to Brhaspati.


The quarrel and fighting thus ended for the time being, but another problem cropped up. At the time Candra returned Tares to Brhaspati she was carrying, and Brhaspati was not aware of the fact. And at last Tares delivered an exceptionally beautiful male child. The naming ceremony of the child was duly performed, Brhaspati himself acting as its father. When the news reached Candra he sent a messenger to Brhaspati claiming the child was his. Brhaspati too claimed its fatherhood. This controversy developed almost to the brink of a second devasura war. At this stage Brahma went to Brhaspati's house and questioned Tares as to who really was her child's father, and she named Candra. Upon this Brahma asked Brhaspati to release the child to Candra. Brhaspati did so. (Devi Bhagavata, Prathama Skandha).


3) Wives of Candra. Candra took twentyseven daughters of Daksa as his wives. ( Devi Bhagavata, Saptama Skandha). These twentyseven wives are the twentyseven stars. Candra circumambulates Mahameru along with these, his twentyseven wives (Stars) . (M.B. Vanes I'arva, Chapter 163, Verse 33). The names of the twentyseven wives are given hereunder: Asvini, Bharani, Krttika, Rohini, Mrgasiras, Ardra, Punarvasu, Pusya, Aslesa, Janakam, Phalguni, Uttaraphalguni, Hasta, Citra, Svati, Visakha, Anu6tdhn, Jye.tha, Mules, Purvasadha, Uttarasadha, S`rona, 8ravistha, Pracetas, Purvaprosthapada, Uttaraprosthapada, Revati.


Solar eclipse accordirz; to the Purcinas. The Devas and the asuras jointly churned Ksirabdhi wherefrom emerged Dhanvantari with the Amrtakumbha (pot of nectar). ( See Ainrtam ).


But an asura mayavi (magician) called Saiiiihikeya absconded to Patala with the Amrtakumbha which nobody noticed as everybody was busy with dividing other divine objects. Only after the mayavi's disappearance was it noticed that the Amrta Kumbha was missing. At once Mahavisnu assumed the figure of a beautiful woman, got back the Kumbha and gave it to the devas. The devas began drinking the amrtam when, at the instance of some other devas, Saimhikeya, the mayavi. assuming the form of an old Brahmin reached svarga, got a share of the amrta and began to drink it. Surya and Candra ( Sun and Moon) who were on guard at the gates divined the secret of the `old Brahmin' and informed Mahavisnu about it. He cut the throat of the pseudo-Brahmin with his Sudarsana Cakra. But, half of the nectar he had drunk stayed above the throat and the other half below it. Therefore, though the head and the trunk were severed they remained alive. These two parts, in course of time, evolved as Rahu and Ketu.


When the throat was cut some blood as well as some amrta dropped on two places on the ground, and they became the red onion and the white onion respectively. Some vaidika brahmins used to consider the red onion objectionable for consumption as it was evolved from blood, while the white onion was considered usable as it was evolved from amrtam.


Rahu and Ketu still maintain their hatred for Surya and Candra who had betrayed the asura, who, disguised as brahmin tried to drink the amrta. Eclipse is the phenomenon of Rahu and Ketu swallowing Surya and Candra as and when opportunity presents itself for it. But, since the throat is severed from the body, Surya and Candra thus swallowed get out through the throat. That is the reason why Surya and Candra become visible after the eclipse in over. (Kampa Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda and Bhagavata Astaana Skandha).


5) Cmdra be;ame Calf. Once emperor Prthu transformed Bhimidevi into a cow and milked from her all things and provisions. On that occasion it was Brahma, who acted as Calf. And, following Prthu when the Rsis milked the cow Candra served as Calf. (For details see Prthu) .


6) Waxing and waning of Candra, the puranic story regardding it. Of the twentyseven daughters of Daksa whom Candra had married he loved Rohini much more than the other twentysix wives, and so kept her always with him. This annoyed the twentysix wives, who complained about it to Daksa. Daksa's advice to Gandra to treat all the wives on an equal footing had no effect on him. So, the twentysix neglected wives again complained to Daksa as follows : "We shall stay in the asrama and serve you. Soma (Candra) does not associate with us, he will not accept your advice."


Though Daksa warned Candra a second time, that too had no effect on him. So the twentysix wives, for the third time, complained to Daksa. Daksa got angry at this and cursed that Candra should suffer from tubercu1osis. Thus Candra was afflicted by consumption. Though Candra performed many a yajna to get cured of the fell disease, they did not produce the desired effect. Candra remaining a tubercular patient, the growth of medicinal plants stopped with the result that all living things contracted consumption. When people began becoming thinner, the devas asked Candra for an explanation, and he told them all the details. They then sought the help of Daksa, who gave Candra redemption from the curse by ordaining that if he dived in the Sarasvati tirtha in the western sea he would be free from consumption for half of every month. Thenceforth C indra made it a practice to dive in the Sarasvati tirtha and that is the reason why Candra is exempted from Ksayaroga for fifteen days. (M.B. galya Parva, Chapter 35).


7) Candra-King of stars and of medicines. During the reign of emperor Prthu, he changed Bhumidevi into a cow. Later the Rsis also changed bhumidevi into a cow and milked her. It was Candra who served as calf then. Pleased at this Brahman crowned Candra as king of the stars and medicines. (Harivamsa, Chapter 4, Verse 2).


8 ) Other information about Candra


(1) Candra is 11,000 sq. yojanas in area, 33,000 yojanas in circumference and a volume of 5,900 cubic yojanas. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12).


(2) Candra presented two attendants called Mani and Sumati to Subrahmanya (8alya Parva, Chapter 45; Verse 32).


(3) Candra once made a discourse on the superior qualities of brahmins to Sambarasura. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 13, Southern Text).


(•4) All welfare and prosperity accrue to him, who on full-moon day at moon-rise tenders offerings to Candra of bread in copper vessels with honey poured into it. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 36, Verse, 13, Southern Text).


(5) Candra is one of the asta-vasus. Candra had four sons, Varcas, 8isira, Prdna and Ramana by hfs wife named Manohara. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 18).


(6) Abhimanyu was Candra's son, Varcas, reborn as the son of Arjuna. (See Abhimanyu).


CANDRA. An important river in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 29).


CANDRAGUPTA I. Second son of Ravana. Once when Sri Rama was King, Candragupta abducted the daughter o! Sugriva and the daughter-in-law of Vibhisana. Hanuman released them both as ordered by Sri Rama. (Kampa Ramayana Uttara Kanda ; also see Sahasramukha Ravana).


CANDRAGUPTA II. A minister of Kartaviryarjuna. Kartaviryarjuna was once fed sumptuously by Jamadagni at his asrama with the help of 8usila, the devasurabhi (divine cow). Candragupta, at the instance of Kartaviryarjuna tried to capture Susila by force, which disappeared immediately in the sky. Kartaviryarjuna's servants then forcibly took away its calf. Candragupta thrashed to death Jamadagni, who tried to obstruct their action. (See Kartavirya, Para 9) .


CANDRAHANTA. An asura, who was reborn as King Sunaka. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 677, Verse 37).


CANDRAHARTA. A son born to Kasyapa prajapati of Simhika, daughter of Daksa. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 31).


CANDRAHASA. Son of King Sudharmika of Kerala. The following story about him is told in Jaimini Asvamedha Parva. Candrahasa, born under the star Mulam had a sixth finger on the left foot indicative of poverty and of all other evils. And, therefore, on his birth enemies killed Sudhdrmika and his wife followed him soon to the other world. The child thus left an orphan was taken to Kaundalakapuri by a female inmate of the palace. But unfortunately the woman died within three years of the above incident. The child, just for very existence, took to begging. After sometime some women jointly took up charge of the boy. Once he went to the house of Dhrstabuddhi, minister of Kaundala where a feast was in progress. The munis present there were impressed by Candrahasa and prophesied that he would become a King. To Dhrstabuddhi, the mums said that the child would guard his wealth. Angry and suspicious at the prophesy of the munis Dhrstabuddhi asked his men to kill the boy. They led him to the forest. On the way Candrahasa got a $alagrama (a small sacred stone which represented some upadevata) which he applied very devotedly to his face. They did not in fact kill the boy, but cut off his sixth finger on the left foot and showed it to their master.


Thus left alive in the forest by the murderers the boy was roaming about when the King of Kalinda on a hunting expedition saw the destitute boy, and taking pity on him took him back with him to the palace. The boy was put under the care of Medhavati, the King's consort. The king named him Candrahasa. Since the King took a special interest in the education of the child he became adept in all arts and sciences. At the age of twelve Candrahasa, with the permission of the king, set out on a triumphal tour, and the king welcomed Candrahasa on his return after his glorious victory that brought him wealth.


At the instance of the Kalinda king, Candrahasa, sent by his messengers tribute to the Kaundala king, who, understanding from them that so much of wealth had been brought to the Kalinda king by Canlrahasa started at once for the Kalinda palace. On being told the whole story about Candrahasa, Dhrstabuddhi, the minister of the King of Kaundala made up his mind to do away with him somehow or other for which he despatched a letter to his son, Madana, through Candrahasa.


Candrahasa on his way to Kaudala slept on the banks of a river. Campakamalini, the' daughter of the King of Kaundala and Visaya, daughter of Dhrstabuddhi happened to go to the river bank where Candrahasa was sleeping. Campakamalini, who became subject to great love for Candrahasa removed the anklets on her feet and approached him slowly, and when she took up and read a letter she found lying beside him, she felt awe and sorrow to find therein a suggestion to poison him to death. Without wasting much time in thought she changed the word `visamasmai' (give him poison) to `Visayasmai' (give him Visaya) and put it in its former place. After some time when Candrahasa awoke from sleep and reached Kaundala city and delivered the letter to Madana its content pleased him very much. As for Visaya, she was spending her days in constant prayer that Candrahasa should marry her. In the circumstances the marriage of Candrahasa and Visaya was solemnised on the earliest auspicious day.


In due course Dhrstabuddhi returned to Kaundala with all the wealth he could lay his hands upon after capturing Kalinda. He seethed with grief and rage at the news that Visaya had been married to Candrahasa. All the explanations offered by Madana did not satisfy him. He persisted in his determination to kill Candrahasa.


The evil-minded Dhrstabuddhi one day asked Candrahasa to go and worship at the Devi temple after having made arrangements for his murder there. But, as fate would have it, it was Madana who, instead of Candrahasa, was killed. Even before the above incident had happened the Kaundala King had married his daughter Candramalini to 6andrahasa, and after relinquishing the kingdbm also in hisTavour the King took to the forest to lead a hermit's life.


The above developments added fuel to the fire of anger in respect of Dhrstabuddhi, and when he saw in the temple precincts,* his son's corpse he became well-nigh mad. Crying out that all this was the result of his having troubled the Vaisnava Candrahasa he dashed his head against the pillars of the temple and died.


Candrahasa was grieved over the death of Dhrstabuddhi. He worshipped Devi offering his flesh in the sacrificial fire. Devi appeared and granted him two boons which helped him to bring Dhrstabuddhi and Madana back to life. And, when the Kalinda king and his wife, fearing the wicked Dhrstabuddhi were about to end their lives in


flaming fire, Dhrstabuddhi went to them and imparted to them the secrets about the life of Candrahasa. The Kalinda king and his wife dropped their former decision to end their life, and Candrahasa took up the reins of government at the behest of the King. Candrahasa, who won repute as a very powerful and effective ruler, during the Asvamedha sacrifice of Yudhisthira captured the sacrificial horse, and Arjuna, at the instance of Krsna had to enter into a pact with Candrahasa, who promised him help for the success of the sacrifice. Candrahasa had a son called Makaraksa by Visaya and another son, Padmaksa by Campakamalini.


CANDRAHASA (M). Ravana's sword. Ravana, in the course of his triumphal tour after receiving the boons from Brahman, subjugated kings; and marching northward reached the valleys of Mount Kailasa. But, Nandike9vara stopped him there, and Ravana, threatening to throw away 8iva, master of Nandikesvara along with Kailasa, put his twenty hands under it to pull it out, and the great mountain shook violently. Parvati got frightened and running upto 8iva embraced him. 8iva, who divined the reason for all these with his eye of supreme knowledge grounded the mountain firmly on earth, crushing Ravana's hands under it. Unable to take away his arms from under the mountain, Ravana remained there for about thousand years singing the praises of the Lord. At last giver appeared to Ravana and presented him with a sword called Candrahasa. It was this sword which won victories for Ravana in future wars. (Uttara Ramayana).


CANDRAKETU I. A son of gatrughna, brother of Sri Rama. S`atrughna had two sons, Angada and Candraketu by his wife grutakirti (Uttara Ramayana).


CANDRAKETU II. A vidyadhara King. See Muktaphalaketu).


CANDRAMAS. A rsi who imparted spiritual knowledge to Sampati and advised jatayu to give directions about the way to the monkeys in their search for Sitadevi. (Valmiki Ramayana).


CANDRAMAST. Terra, the wife of Brhaspati. She fell in love with Candra and lived with him for sometime, and came to be called Candramasi. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 219; see also Terra).


CANDRAMATI I. Wife of king Hariscandra reputed for his unique honesty and integrity. (See Hariscandra).


CANDRAMATT II. A city. Two sons, Taksaka and Citraketu were born to Laksmana of Crmila. Taksaka was crowned King of Agati, a city built on the eastern coast of the sea after annihilating the hunter tribe there, and Citraketu was crowned king of Candramati, a city built on the western coast of the sea after killing all the Mlecchas there. (Uttara Ramayana).


CANDRAIWADA. Grandson of Nala. He married Simantini, daughter of Citravarman, a king of Aryavarta. Simantini, hearing about Candrarigada fell in love with him, and it was with the help of Maitreyi, wife of Yajfiavalkya, that she was wedded to him.


While once Candrarigada was enjoying a boat-race in Kalindi (river) with his friends a storm upset the boat and most of them were drowned to death. The servants of Taksaka saw Candrangada sinking to the bottom of the river and carried him to Patala and he stayed there for sometime in the midst of amorous naga damsels. Candratigada's people, under the impression that he had died, performed his funeral rites, and Simantini took to widow's life. Enemies captured his kingdom and imprisoned his father, Indrasena. When once the naga King asked Candrarigada to marry naga girls and settle down in Patala he told the King that he was already married and that his wife Simantini was brooding over hirn, and he had, therefore, to return to her. Accordingly the naga king sent him back with presents of a white horse, a Raksasa and an infant serpent.


Candrafigada, with his presents, came up in Kalindi where Simantini, grief-stricken was spending her days in penance, and they recognised each other. Informed about the return of Candrarigada the enemy kings released his father from captivity and apologised to him. And he pardoned them.


Candrangada and Simantini took great interest in observing somavaravrata (fasting etc. on Mondays) and pleased at the vrata of the latter Sri Parvati blessed her. Two brahmins called Devamitra and Sarasvata were living there at the time. Three sons called Sumedha, Sarasvata and Samavan were born to Devamitra. The sons also turned out to be great scholars but they were poor. They could not get brides as they were poor. In the hope that they would get some money if they approached Candrangada and Simantini the Brahmins went to them. After hearing their story the king and his queen conducted them in a procession in the precincts of the palace, Sumedha dressed as husband and Samavan as his wife. But, to ! when the procession was over Samavan could not be divested of his womanhood, and Simantini named her Samavati. Being told that his son had turned woman Sarasvata sought the advice of some munis to remedy the situation. But, all the attempts of the munis to change the woman to man failed, and they opined that only Parvati, who had been pleased by the Somavaravrata, would be able to find a solution to the problem. From that day onwards the brahmin youths lived as husband and wife. (Siva Purina, Somavaravratam) .


CANDRAPIDA. A son of Janamejaya. Pariksit was the son of Abhimanyu (Arjuna's son). Janamejaya was Pariksit's son. janamejaya married princess Vapustama of Kasi. Two sons called Candrapida and Sdryapida were born to the couple. Candrapida had hundred sons, who distinguished themselves as great heroes in archery. Satyakarna was the eldest among the song. Svetakarna, son of Satyakarna, married Yadavi, the daughter of Sucaru. (Bhavisya Purina).


CANDRAPRABHA. (See Suryaprabha).


CANDRAPRABHA. Mother of the wonderful girl, Somaprabha. (See Somaprabha).


CANDRASARMA I. A great sinner, who killed his preceptor. The Padma Purina relates the story of four sinners named Vidura, Candrasarman, Vedasarman and Vanjula, who shed their sin by bathing in the Gariga. The sins committed by the four were respectively Brahrnahatya (killing of brahmin), Guruhatya (killing of the preceptor), Agamyagamana (having sexual contact with women like the wife of guru which is debarred) and Govadha (killing of cow) respectively. The leader of the above four sinners was one Vidura of the PIncala desa. He was begging in the streets without the tuft of hair, the sacred thread and tilaka (mark of sandal paste etc. on the forehead). He went from house to house be,g,Ping for alms crying thus: "Here is come the man (himself) who committed .Brahmahatya. Please give alms to the Brahmin-killer who is a drunkard also." During his begging tour he visited all the tirthas also, yet brahmahatya stuck on to him.


While this sinner Vidura, his heart rent with sorrow and remorse, was sitting under a tree, a Magadha brahmin called Candrasarman happened to come there. This brahmin had committed the sin of guruhatya (killing the preceptor). He told Vidura:-"While residing with the guru, blinded by desire, I killed the guru, and am now burning myself in the fire of repentance."


While they were engaged thus in conversation a third person, called Vedasarman also came there in an absolutely tired condition. He told Vidura and Candrasarman that his relatives and others had cast him out -as he once did the sin of agamyagamana, and by the time he had finished telling his storya Vaisya called Vanjula came there. Besides drinking liquor he had committed govadha (killing of cow) also. Though these four sinners assembled at the same place, they only talked, but did not touch one another, take food together, rest on the same seat or lie on the same bedsheet.


According to the advice of a Siddha (an evolved soul) the four sinners dived in the holy waters of Gafiga and came out redeemed of their sins. (Padma Purina, Chapter 91 ).


CANDRASARMA II. A brahmin of Agni gotra from Mayapura, he was the disciple and son-in-law of Devasarman. Both of them were killed by a Raksasa while they were gathering darbha (a particular variety of grass used in religious ceremonies) in the forest. Candrasarma attained Vaikuntha as he was a very righteous person. During Krsnavatara (incarnation of Visnu as Sri Krsna) he was born as Acrura. (Padma Purina).


CANDRASEKHARA. A King (son of Pausya). The following story about his birth is told in the Padma Purina.


Though married for a long time Pausya did not have an issue. He began worshipping diva to be blessed with a son. Siva was pleased at this and he gave him a fruit which he divided equally among his three wives. In due course the three wives delivered. But, to get the full and complete form of a child the three children had to be joined together, and so the parts were unified. This boy was Candrasekhara. Thus Candrasekhara acquired the name Tryarhbaka.


Candrasekhara married Taravati, daughter of Kakutstha, a King of the solar dynasty. On account of the curse of Kapotamuni two sons, Bhrngi and Mahakala were born to Taravati in Vetala yoni and Bhairava yoni respectively. Dama, Uparicara and Alarka were sons born to Candrasekhara himself. (Aurasaputras).


CANDRASENA I. A king of Sirnhala desa (Ceylon). Candrasena had two daughters, Mandodari and Indumati by his wife Gunavati. Kambugriva, son of Sudhanva, the chief of Madra desired to marry Mandodari. But, since she preferred unmarried life Kambugriva's desire did not fructify. Some time later she refused to marry another suitor also, King Virasena of Kosala. Meanwhile the marriage of her younger sister, Indumati was celebrated, herself having selected Sudesna, the Madra prince at the Svayarhvara as husband. Though a handsome person Sudesna was a philanderer, and one day Indumati saw him in bed with her maid-servant. From that day onwards, cutting asunder all marital relationship with Sudesna, Indumati went and stayed with her father. This story told by Mahisasura to show that women possess only very little discretion occurs in the Pancama Skandha of Devibhagavata.


CANDRASENA II. A king of Ujjayani and a great devotee of Siva. As he performed great sacrifices and gave away money and materials in gift to those who prayed for them, an attendant of Siva called Manibhadra once gave him a gem, which possessed supernatural powers. Attracted by the lustre and glare of the gem many kings wanted to purchase it. But Candrasena refused to sell it. Much incensed at the refusal, the enemy kings set out to fight Candrasena, who then took refuge in the Mahakala temple in Ujjayani the idol installed in which was Sivalinga. Lord Siva then appeared to him and granted him salvation. (Siva Purina, Sanipradosamahatmyam) .


CANDRASENA III. The Mahabharata refers to another Candrasena, son of Samudrasena, King of Bengal. He was present at the svayarimvara of Pancali. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 11). Bhimasena once defeated Candrasena and his father in fight. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 24). After that Candrasena became a supporter of the Pandavas. It is stated in Drona Parva that in the great war Candrasena fought from a chariot drawn by horses as white as Candra (moon) and got killed by Asvatthama.


CANDRASENA IV. Another Candrasena, a partisan of the Kauravas, is referred to in the Bharata as having fought against the Pandavas. His duty was to guard the chariot wheels of Salya; he was killed by Yudhisthira. (Salya Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 52).


CANDRASITA. A female attendant of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 11).


CANDRASRI. A woman, who, though actually in love with her husband enjoyed life with her paramour. Candrasri is the heroine of a story narrated in the Kathasaritsagara to prove that the interest married women take in clandestine relationship is only due to fleeting temptations. Candrasri was the wife of a vaisya called Balavarman, who lived in the city of Pratisthana. One day, looking out through the windows in her house she saw the very handsome vai~ya youth called Uahara and felt great desire for him. She brought him secretly to the house of her companion and satisfied her desire. When their meeting became a routine affair her relations and servants knew about it. And, her husband alone was unaware of it. Once he became ill with severe fever. Even while he was in his death-bed Candrasri continued her affair with the paramour. When one day she was with her paramour thus, she was told that her husband was no more. At once she took leave of him, returned home and-committed suicide by jumping into the funeral pyre of the husband. (Kathasaritsagara, Saktiya~olambaka, Taranga 2) .


CANDRAJVA (M). Son of King Kuvalaya<,va of the Iksvaku dynasty. He had two brothers called Drdhasva and Kapilasva. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 24).


CANDRASVAMI. A brahmin, who got back his life by worshipping Surya. He stayed with his wife, Devamati in Kamalapura ruled by King Kamalavarman. A son called Mahipala was born to him, and at the time of the birth of the child a celestial voice declared that Mahipala would become King. A few years later a daughter called Candramati also was born to Candrasvarni.


During this period, rains having failed, very severe famine stalked Kamalapura. Even the king unmindful of justice and righteousness began extracting from the people whatever they possessed. Finding the situation deteriorated so much Candrasvami set out for his fatherin-law's house with Mahipala and Candramati, and on the way they had to cross what was once a wild forest, but which had by then been denuded of green trees or other foliage due to the failure of the ra"<s. The children were severely afflicted by thirst, and so the father, after leaving them at the foot of a tree went in search of water when he was caught by the people of the forest king and taken before him. When he knew that he was about to be given in sacrifice to Devi the brahmin folded his hands and prayed to Suryadeva, who appeared before him and assured him that not only will death not visit him, but also he would be united with his wife and children.


The children left under the tree began crying, their father having not returned to them, and a Vaisya called Sarthadhara who came that way felt pity for the crying children and took them to his house. One day Anantasvami, a brahmin and a minister of King Taranatha of Tarapura happened to visit Sarthadhara. Anantasvami, who had no children of his own took away with him the children from Sarthadhara.


One day Suryadeva appeared to the forest king in his sleep and asked him not to kill the brahmin (Candrasvami) held captive by him. The very next morning Candrasvami was released from captivity. Roaming about in quest of his children, Candrasvami reached the city called Jalapura where he was put up as the guest of a house-holder. One day the host told Candrasvami that a vaisya called Kanakavarman had, a few days back, told him that he (Kanakavarman) had got two children, one male and the other female from the forest, and taken them to the Nalikera island. The very next day Candrasvami, along with a vaisya called Vi snuvarman arrived at the Nalikera island, and on enquiry'they were told that Kanakavarman, with the children had left for Kataha island. They then went to Kataha island only to be told that Kanakavarman had gone to Karpura island. With another Vaisya Candrasvami' landed. on the Karpura island to no purpose. After thus going to the Suvarna and Simhala islands too Candrasvami met Kanakavarman at Citrakutapura. Kanakavarman showed the children to Candrasvami, but they were not his. He burst into tears, and returned from- Citrakutapura. He passed on his way back many a temple and city and at dusk reached a big forest. He satisfied his hunger,by eating some roots and fruits, and got upon a tree and sat on the top of it. It was mid-night, yet sleep did not oblige him. Then he saw a matrsangha


(a group of women) consisting of Narayani and others come and dance at the foot of the tree. Narayani saw Candrasvami and after the dance was over and her companions had left the place Narayani called him down from the tree and gave him a flower. And, according to the advice of Narayani the next day morning Candrasvami went to Tarapura where, accidentally he got into


the house of Anantasvami, minister of the kingdom, and, for food, repeated vedic hymns. The minister invited him


for meals, and there he saw Mahipala and Candravati. He placed the flower presented by Narayani on Mahipala's nose whereupon the children recognised him; their father. The people celebrated it as a happy day. King Taravarman gave his daughter, Vasumati, in marriage to Mahipala along with half his kingdom. They went to Kamalapura and returned with their mother. All of them spent their days very happily at Tarapura. (Kathasaritsagara, Alankaravati Lafbaka, Tarariga 6) .


CANDRAVALOKA. A King of Citrakutanagara.


When once the King in the course of a hunting expedition came to the bank of a river tired and done up he saw there the very beautiful lady, Indivaraprabha, daughter of Maharsi Kanva by Menaka. Having fallen in love with each other they went to the asrama of the maharsi where, at his instance, Candravaloka took the pledge not to kill animals in future, and Kanva married his daughter to the King. On their way back to the palace the couple went to sleep on the banks of a pool which belonged to a Brahmaraksas, who caught hold of them, but released them on condition that they gave him in their stead a brahmin boy aged seven. Thus they returned to Citrakuta and told about the incident to minister Sumati. As advised by Sumati an idol in gold equal in size to a brahmin boy aged seven was made and a proclamation was issued that the golden idol would be given to him who, in return, give a brahmin boy seven years old. A brahmin boy was got, and he was given to the Brahmaraksas. (Kathasaritsagara Sas ankavati Larhbaka, Taranga 27).


CANDRAVAMSA. A royal dynasty the kings of which ruled India for a long time. Since the founding father of the dynasty was Candra all the kings in the dynasty came to be called Candravarhs araja. (For Candra's birth see Pururavas). A chronological list of the kings of this dynasty is given infra.


Descended from Candra thus, Budha-PururavasAyus-Nahusa. Nahusa had two sons, Ayati and Yayati. Yayati had three sons: Druhyu, Anudruhyu and Puru by his wife garmistha, and two sons, Yadu and Turvasu by his wife Devayani. The genealogy of each of them is given below.


1) Druhyu :-Descended from Druhyu thus:-BabhruSetu- Aranya- Gandharva -Dharma- Ghrta -Durdama-Pracetas-Mlecchas.


2) Anudruhyu :-Three sons, Sabhanara, Caksus and Paroksa were born to Anudruhyu. Sabhanara begot Kalanara, and he Srnjaya. Srnjaya had four sons


(a) Janamejaya, (b) Mahamanas, (c) Us inara and (d) Titiksa. Us inara and Titiksa proved to be family progenitors. Their genealogy is given below :-


c) Minara. Usinara had five sons : gibi, Vena, Krmi, US i and Darpa of whom gibi begot five sons: Bhadra=Suvira-Kekaya-Vrsadarpa and Kapotaroma, and from Kekaya was born the Kicakas.


d) Titik~a. Descended from Titiksa were : Kr9adratha-Homa-Sutapas and Bali, and Bali had seven sons : Anaghabhu-Anga-Kalinga-Suhva-PundraVanga and Adrupa. Of the seven sons Anga turned out to be the family progenitor, and thenceforth the Anga royal dynasty starts its course. To Anga were born the following sons : Dadhivahana-Raviratha-Dharmaratha - Citraratha - Satyaratha - Lomapada - Caturanga-Prthu-Campa-Haryariga and Bhadraratha, and to Bhadraratha were born three sons viz. Brhadratha-Brhatkarma and Brhadbhanu. And Brhadratha had the following sons : Brhanmanas, Jayadratha-


Vijaya-Dhrtavrata-Satyakarman and Atiratha. Karna was Atiratha's foster son and father of Vrsasena. 3) Puru. Descended from Puru were: JanamejayaPracinvan-Pravira-Namasyu- Vitabhaya - Sun duBahuvidha - Saiiryati - Rahovadi and Raudra6va. Raudrasva married Misrakesi. They had ten sons, viz. Rksayu - Krsayu - Sannatayu-Ghrtayu - CitayuSthandilayu - Dharmayu - Sammitayu- Rtayu and Matinara. Matinara begot two sons (a) Pratiratha and (b) Sindhuratha.


a) Pratiratha. From Pratiratha was born Kanva and from him Medhatithi.


b) Sindhuratha. He had three sons, Dusyanta-Pravira and Samanta, and Bharata (Vitatha) was born to Dusyanta of Sakuntala. From Bharata were descended the following :-Suhotra-Suhota-Gala-GardaSuketu and Brhatksatra, who had four sons: NaraMahaVira-Garga and Hasti. And, Nara begot Samkrti and he begot Rantideva and Kuru. A son called Papaksaya was born to Mahavira. Garga begot 8ani. And it was Hasti who founded Hasthinapura. He became the family progenitor. Hasti had three sons, Purumidha -Ajamidha and Dvimidha. The King called Vipra was the son of Purumidha.


Ajamidha, the second son of Hasti had three sons, (a) Rksa (b) Brhadisu and (c) Nila. Their descendants are mentioned below.


a) Rksa. Rksa begot Samvarana and from Samvarana ivas born Kuru. From Kuru originated the Kuru dynasty. Kuru had four sons : (A1) Pariksit, (A2) Sudhanus, (A3) Jahnu and (A4) Nisada. Out of the four Sudhanus and jahnu became family progeni. tors.


(A2) Sudhanus. The following were descended from him in order :- Suhotra-Cyavana-Krti-Uparicaravasu-Brhadratha and jarasandha. Jarasandha had four sons : Soma-Sahadeva-Turya and S`rutasru. (A3) jahnu. From jahnu were descended - : SurathaViduratha- Sarvabhauma jayatsena-Ravaya -Bhavuka-Cakroddhata-Devatithi-Rksa-Bhima and Pratici. Pratici had three sons : Devapi, Santanu and Balhika. 8antanu was also called Mahabhisak. And, he had two wives, Ganga and Satyavati. From Ganga was born Bhisma; of Satyavati, before her marriage, was born Vyasa by Parasara. Satyavati had two sons, Citrangada and Vicitravirya by Santanu. From Vyasa were born Dhrtarastra, Pandu, and Vidura, and from Dhrtarastra the Kauravas. Kunti and Madri, wives of Pandu, together got from the devas five sons, viz. Dharmaputra, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva. Dharmaputra had two sons, Dcvaka and Prativindhya. To Bhima was born .of Hidimbi Ghatotkaca. gatanika was born of Renumati to Nakula. Arjuna's descendants were : Abhimanyu-Pariksit-Candrapida-Satyakarna Svetakarna - Ajaparsva - Janamejaya - gatanika -Sahasranika - Asvamedha - Agvinikrsna - Gupta -Citraratha-Suciratha-Dhrtiman-Susena - SunitaSucaksus-Nala-Uparipalva-Medhavi-Mrtyunjaya -Dusya-Nimi - Brhadratha - S`atanika-Durdama -Vibhinara-Dandapani-Ksemaka.


B) Brhadisu. Descended from Brhadisu were : Brhaddhanu - Brhatkaya - Jayadratha - Visada - Senacitta-Rucirasva. RucirdSva had three sonshanu-Kasya and Vatsa.


C) Nfla. Descended from Nila were : ganti-SusantiPuruja-Arka-Bharmyds va and Paficala. Paficala had five sons : Mudgala, Yavinara, Kdmpilya, Brhadisu and Safijaya. Mudgala had two children : Divodasa and Ahalya. Gautama married Ahalya. To Gautama was born gatananda, to gatananda Satyavrati and from Satyavrati was born garadvan. And from Divodasa, brother of Ahalya were descended : Mitrayu-PusyaSudasa-Sahadeva-Somaka and Drupada. Drupada became King of Paficala and to him were born Dhrstadyumna and Pancali (Krsna). Dhrstaketu and Dhrtaketu were the sons of Dhrstadyumna.


4) Tadu. The Yadu dynasty owes its origin to Yadu who had four sons : Sahasrajit, Krosta, Nala and Ripu. gatajit, the son of Sahasrajit begot three sons : Mahahaya, Venuhaya and Hehaya (Ekavira). Dharma was Hehaya's son, and Kani was the son of Dharma. Kani had four sons : Sadajit, Mahisman, Bhadrasana and Durdama. Bhadrasana begot Dhanaka and he Krtavirya, Krtdgni, Krtavarman and Krtaujas. Kartaviryarjuna was Krtavirya's son, and Kartaviryarjpna had hundred sons, Jayadhvaja, ~urasena, Vrsabha, Madhu, Maurjjita and others. Vrsni with whom the Vrsni dynasty begins was Madhu's son. From Jayadhvaja the eldest son of Kartavirya were descended in order




The ITrsni dynasty. Vrsni, son of Madhu and grandson of Kartaviryarjuna had four sons : Sumitra, Yudhajit, Vasu and Sarvabhauma. gini and Nimna were the sons of Yudhajit. From gini came in order : SatyakaSatyaki (Yuyudhana) -Jaya- Kani - Amitra - Prsni. Prsni had two sons, (1) Citraratha and (2) 9vaphalka. 1) Citraratha. Two sons (1 A) Viduratha and (1 B ) Kukura were born to Citraratha.


(lA) ~P,iduratha. From Viduratha was born 9fira, and from JLira was born gini. Bhoja was gini's son and from Bhoja, Hrdika was born. Hrdika had four sons : Devavaha, Gadadhanva, Krtaparvan and 9ura and one daughter Prtha (Kunti). And ten sons were born to gura by Marisa : Vasu, Devabhaga, Devasravas, Anaka, Srnjaya, Kakanika, gyamaka, Vatsa, Kavuka and Vasudeva. Vasudeva married Devaki. gri Krsna was born as the son of Vasudeva and Devaki, and Pradyumna was gri Krsna's son. Aniruddha was the son of Pradyumna, and Vajra of Aniruddha.


(1B) Kukura. The descendants of Kukura were


Vahni-Viloman-Kapotaroma - TumburudundubhiDaridra-Vasu-Nahuka-Ahuka. Ahuka had two sons : Ugrasena and Devaka. Kamsa was Ugrasena's son and Devaki his daughter. Devaka had three sons


Devapa, Upadeva and Sudeva. Devapa had seven daughters, grutadeva, gantideva, Upadeva, grideva, Devaraksita, Sahadeva and Devaki.


2) 9vaphalka. Son of Pr, ni and brother of Citraratha. 9vaphalka, had twelve sons called Akrura, Asanga, Sarameya, Mrdura, Mrduvadgiri, Dharmavrddha, Sukarman, Ksatropeksa, Arimardana, ~atrughna, Gandhamadana and Pratibahu. Of them Akrura had two sons : Devaka and Upadevaka.


51 Turvasu. From Turvasu were descended in order


Vahni-Bharga- Bhanu - Tribhanu - Karandhama -Marutta. (As Marutta had no sons Dusyanta was adopted ; this Dusyanta is not the famous Dusyanta, husband of gakuntala). Dusyanta-Varutha-Gandira. Gandira had four sons, Gandhara, Kerala, Cola


and Pandya. From Glridhara came in order, Kola, Druhyu, Babhrusetu, Purovasu - GdndharigharmanGhrta-Vidusa-Pracetas. Pracetas had four sonsAnibhra, Sabhanara, Caksusa and Paramesu. From Sabhanara came in order Kalanara-Srnjaya-Puranjaya janamejaya-Mahasala-Mahamanas.


All the above royal dynasties belong to Candra varirsa. (Agni Purana, Visnu Purana, Bhagavata and Brahmanda Purana).


CANDRAVARMAN. A king of Kamboja. As handsome as Candra, he was born in the dynasty of the asura called Candra (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 31). Dhrstadyumna killed him in the great war. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 62).


CANDRAVATI. Daughter of Sunabha, the asura. Pradyumna, son born to $ri Krsna of Rukmini, married Prabhavati, daughter of the asura called Vajranabha. Sunabha was the younger brother of Vajranabha. Sunabha had two daughters called Candravati and Gunavati. These girls once saw Pradyumna and Prabhdvati engaged in love-talk and they were attracted by Pradyumna. They requested Prabhavati to select husbands for them also from among the Yadavas. Prabhavati, in her childhood had learnt from Durvasas a mantra, the repetition of which by a woman thinking in mind of any male would help to secure that male as the husband for her. Prabhavati taught that mantra to Candravati and Gunavati. They thought respectively of Gada and Samba and repeated the mantra with the result that Gada married Candravati and Samba married Gunavati.


CANDRAVATT. A wife of Hariscandra in his former birth. (See Hariscandra).


CANDRAVATSAM. A Ksatriya dynasty which originated from king Candravatsa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 16).


CANDRAVINMANA. An asura, who descended on earth as a reputed king under the name Janaki. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 37).


CANDRAVRATA. A penance performed for the attainment of beauty, happiness and popularity among the people. It is practised during the full-moon day in Dhanu (December-January). (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 110).


CANDRAYANA. A penance. (See Vrata).


CANDRODAYA. A brother of the Virata King. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 42).


CANORA I. A Ksatriya king, who served Dharmaputra at the council hall built by Maya. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 26).


CANURA II. An asura, one of the attendants of Kamsa. Karhsa had employed as his body-guards many pugilists-Pralarnbaka, Cdnura, Trnavarta, Mustika, Aristaka, Kesi, Dhenuka, Agha and Vivida and these pugilists were sent with Putana to Gokula to kill S`ri Krsna. On the death of Putana they returned to Mathura. When Karirsa invited Krsna to Mathura Canura and Mustika were the chief pugilists entrusted with the duty of killing Krsna. Krsna fought with Cdnura and Balabhadra with Mustika. Both Canura and Mustika were killed. (Bhagavata Dasama Skandha).


CAPALA. A king in ancient India. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 238).


CAPAYAJNA. A programme of worshipping the bow. Kamsa did this yajfia for fourteen days, and Krsna was invited to witness it. And Krsna killed Kariisa, (Bhagavata, Dasama Skandha).


CARAKA. Author of Carakasamhita.


CARMAMANDALA. A village in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 47).


CARMAVAN. Son of King Subala. He was the brother of gakuni. Iravan, son of Arjuna killed him in the great war. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 90).


CARMANVATT. A river in north India, now known as river Campa.


1) General. King ~asabindu, who ruled northern India in olden days once performed a yajfia. The skins (carmans) of animals killed in the yajfia lay there in a heap like a hill. When rain fell there flowed from the `skin-hill' a river and it was called Carmanvati. (Devibhagavata, Prathama Skandha).


2) Other details. (1) River Carmanvati serves Varuna in his assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 21).


(2) Once on the bank of this river Sahadeva defeated the son of jariibhaka in fight. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 7).


(3) He who bathes in this river will get the same result as from the Agnistoma yajfia. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 54).


(4) Carmanvati is one of the rivers responsible for the origin of Agni. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 23).


CARU (CARUCITRA). A son of Dhrtarastra, killed in war by Bhimasena. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 136).


CARUBHADRA. (See Carugupta).


CARUCANDRA. (See Carugupta).


CARUDEHA. (See Carugupta).


CARUDESNA. I. . A son of gri Krsna by Rukmini. (See Carugupta). He was present at the wedding of Draupadi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1:85). The chief incident in his life was his killing Vivindhya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 26).


CARUDESNA II. (See Candrasena).


CARUDHI. A mountain near the Mahameru. There are twenty mountains around the Meru, viz., Kanga, Kuraga, Kusumbha, Vikankata, Trikuta, Sisira, Patanka, Rucaka, Nila, Nisadha, gitivasa, Kapila, 8ankha, Vaidurya, Carudhi, Iiamsa, Rsabha, Naga, Kalafijara and Narada. (Devibhagavata, Atama Skandha).


CARUGUPTA. Son of S`ri Krsna by' Rukmini. Pradyumna, Carudesna, Sudesna, Carudeha, Sucaru, Carugupta, Bhadracaru, Carucandra, Aticaru and Caru were the ten sons of Rukmini. She had also a daughter called Carumati. (Bhagavata Dasama Skandha). As distinct from the Bhagavata the Mahabharata, speaks of three more sons to Rukmini, viz., Caruyasas, Caruvesa and Carusravas. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 59.) .


CARUMATT. (See Carugupta).


CARUMATSYA. A brahmavadi son of Visvamitra. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 59).


CARUNETRA. A celestial woman, who spent her time in Kubera's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 10).


CARUMRSA. A maharsi, who belonged to Alariibagotra. A friend of Indra, the maharsi once spoke to Dharmaputra about the greatness of giva. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 5) .


CARUVRAVAS. (See Carugupta).


CARUVAKTRA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. He was much devoted to brahmins. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 71).


CARUVESA. (See Carugupta).


CARUYAW. (See Carugupta).


CARVAKA 1. A Raksasa, who was a close friend of Duryodhana. The following story is told about how he happened to become Duryodhana's friend.


In the Krtayuga this Raksasa did tapas to please Brahma at Badaryasrama, and Brahma gave him the boon that he would be safe from all beings. Then he went round the world troubling brahmins, who, at last sought refuge in Brahma, and he pacified them with the assurance that Carvaka would become a friend of Duryodhana when he would insult Brahmins and be reduced to ashes in the fire of their anger.


Accordingly Carvaka became a friend of Duryodhana. When, after the great war, Dharmaputra entered Hastinapura with his followers thousands of brahmins gathered around and blessed him. Carvaka also disguised as a brahmin came there and condemning Dharmaputra as an enemy of his own people cursed him. The brahmins recognised him and cursed, him to ashes. (M.B. ganti Parva, Chapters 38, 39).


CARVAKA II. Certain Sanskrit texts refer to another Carvaka, a philosopher in ancient India. He was an atheist. He controverted in a powerful manner the belief in the existence of heaven and hell after death.


CARVAK 1. Wife of King Bhadra-renya and daughter of Kusamba. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 2).


CASAVAKTRA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. He had deep love for brahmins. (M.B. galya Parva, Chapter 45) .


CATURA&GA. A king of the Anga dynasty. He was the son of Hemapada and father of Prthulaksa. (Agni Purana, Chapter 277).


CATURA8VA. A Rajarsi. He was a prominent member is Yama's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11).


CATURASYA. A heroic asura. Once he fell in love with Rambha, and on his request Svayamprabha, Rambha's attendant, won over her mistress to the asura. The asura, Rambha and Svayamprabha then shifted their residence to a beautiful palace built in south India by Maya for Caturasya. But, Indra who felt Rambha's absence badly came down to earth, killed Caturasya and took Rambha back with him. Indra cursed Svayamprabha to remain on earth. And, he told her that she should welcome and treat well the monkeys who would be arriving there in their quest of Sita, and then she would get redemption from the curse. The above facts were revealed by Svayamprabha herself while welcoming the monkeys. (Kampa Ramayana).


CATURDASTMAHATMYA. The puranas declare that worshipping diva on Caturdasi day will satisfy all desires. There is a story in one of the puranas supporting this claim. (See Kumudvati).


CATURDAMSTRA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. He always showed great devotion towards Brahmins. (M.B. ~alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 62).


CATURIKA. A harlot about whom the following story is told in Kathasaritsagara.


Once a poor Brahmin got a piece of gold as Pratigraha (fee or daksina for performing a religious rite). While he was perplexed not knowing what to do with the gold, a Vita advised him to go on tour with the money got by selling the gold. The poor Brahmin did not even know how to go on tour. Then the Vita advised him to visit a harlot called Caturika, who lived close by and who, the Vita said, would teach him how to go on tour.


Brahmin:-What shall I do first after going to the harlot's house ?


Vita:-Caturika will become friendly if you would give her the gold. Then you should use sweet and charming words, and that is all.


The Brahmin went immediately to Caturika's house and he was received honourably by her. Then giving the gold to her he requested her to instruct him about going on tour. This request of his evoked laughter from people around hire. Then the Brahmin who was versed in the grutis began reciting the Saman with his palm formed in the shape of the ears of the cow. All those who were present there wildly laughed at him, and somehow or other he escaped from the none too pleasant scene, and reported his experience at the harlot's to the Vita. He very easily understood that the reason for the Brahmin being ridiculed was that misreading his advice to use `sama' (sweet words) the Brahmin recited the samaveda. He took the brahmin back to Caturika and asked her to return the `grass' (gold'given her by the Brahmin) to `the cow', the Brahmin who was as simple as the cow. Laughingly Caturika returned the gold to him. (Kathasaritsagara, Kathapitha Larnbakam, Taranga 6)


CATURMASYA. A penance (Vrata) which continues for four months. During this period, the Vedas are to be studied with pure heart. The Pandavas did this penance at Gaya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 95).


CATURMUKHALINGA. A Brahma lihga installed on the northern bank of Sarasvati by Brahma. Brahma, to start with, created animate and inanimate objects, and was thinking about further creation when a beautiful girl, born of herself appeared before him. Brahma became enamoured of that girl and showed an unbecoming passion. As a punishment for this sin one of his heads broke. Thus broken-headed Brahma, went to the Sthanutirtha, which washes off all sins, on the northern bank of Sarasvati and installed his own linga, known as the Caturmukhaliriga. This installation of liriga redeemed him from sins. (Vamana Purina, Chapter 49 ).


CATURTHIVRATA. A fast undertaken so that one may be happy for one year, may achieve all desires and attain givaloka. While observing this fast one should worship Ganapati on the fourth day after New Moon (Caturthi) in the month of Makara (February-March). Next day the fast should be broken by eating cooked rice and oil seeds. The Mulamantra of Ganapati is `gain svaha'; hrdayadisadangas beginning with `gam'. `Agacchatikaya' is the avahana mantra and `Gacchatikaya' the visarjana mantra. Ganapati should be worshipped with mantras ending with `tunkaya' and beginning with `gakara' as also with offering of sandal paste, rice balls etc. "Orh Mahotkayaya vidmahe vakratundaya dhimahi tanno danti pracodayat" is the Ganesa gayatri mantra. He or she who performs the Caturthi vrata will attain S`ivaloka. If Ganapati is worshipped on a Tuesday which is also Caturthi the devotee will get all his desires satisfied. Caturthi occurring in Mina (March-April) is called Avighnacaturthi, and that day fasting should be in the night. On Caturthi in AprilMay Ganapati should be worshipped with damanaka


flowers, and then the worshipper will become very happy. (Agni Purina, Chapter 179) . Also see Vinayaka Caturthi.


CATURUPAYAM. The four means used by Kings in olden times to achieve their objects are called Caturupayam. Sama, dana, bheda and danda are the Caturupayas (four tactics). There are three other upayas also, almost equally important as the first four, and the seven upayas are collectively called Saptopayas. There are also yet other upayas, but they are not important enough to merit special mention.


1) Sdma. It is the best means to attract and convert others to one's side. It consists in winning people with sweet words and looks. People who are friendly by temperament and straightforward may be brought round by sama. Sama is employed in dealing with sons, brothers and other relatives.


2 } Dana. There are five kinds or varieties of dana (gift) viz. pritidana, dravyadana, svayarngraha, deya and pratimoksa. If a person gets help from another and acknowledges help by reward that reward is called pritidana. The miser and the poor should be brought round by pritidana. Military captains, heroes and citizens should be won over by this dana. Those who fall at feet should be honoured by dana.


3) Bheda. Bhedopaya is of three kinds: to destroy or end the friendship subsisting between people, to create dissension and to make the parties quarrel with each other. He who is falsely praised, he who does not desire wealth or welfare, he who has been invited to come and then insulted, traitor to king, he who has been exorbitantly taxed, the angry one, the honourable one, the insulted, the unreasonably forsaken one, he who harbours hatred in his mind, the pacified one, one whose wealth and wife have been taken away or stolen, he who has not been respected though deserving of respectif such people are in one's opposite camp, suspicion should be raked up among them and thus division created in their ranks. If subordinate chieftains, and forest tribes commit offences they should be brought round by the use of sama and bheda upayas.


4) Danda. Dandopaya is of three kinds, viz, killing, denuding of wealth, and inflicting pain on the body or torture. Danda has two other forms, prakasa (open) and aprakasa (secret). Those who have become objects of hatred to all people should be subjected to prakasadanda. People, whose killing the world will detest, should not be killed openly; but only secretly. Enemies should be killed with weapons etc. Brahmins should not be killed. Friends and allies should not be subjected to danda; friends, who are made objects of danda will wither away like worm-eaten trees. The King, who possesses the three powers (of wealth, army and people's support) and is fully conscious of the time and environmental factors should annihilate enemies by the instrument of danda. Evil people should be defeated by danda itself.


The upaya maya consists in practising deception by magic or other yogic powers. The powers can be acquired by the worship of the idols of certain Devatas. People who employ go' about at night in various disguises. They disguise themselves as beautiful women or even as animals. They also deceive people by creating illusions of clouds, fire or lightning. For instance, Bhima killed Kicaka by going to him in the guise of a woman.


Not to dissuade people who indulge in unjustifiable grief, war etc. is the principal aim of the upaya called upeksa. Hidimbi gave up his brother Hidimba by practising Upeksa. Next is the Indrajalopdya (magic). For example, to create illusions of clouds, darkness, rain, fire, and other magic in order to instil fear among troops of the enemy etc. To scare the enemy is the aim of Indrajala. (For details of Caturupayas see Kanika). (Agni Purana, Chapter 241) .


CATURVARNYAM. (The four Castes, Classes).


1) General. The puranas tell that Brahma created the four castes like Brahmins, Ksatriyas, Vai$yas and 9udras and assigned to them duties and rules of procedure.


2) Origin. Brahma got ready for the work of Creation, concentrating his mind on the universal soul, the embodiment of Truth. And, the first to be born from his face were people with sublime qualities, and them he called Brahmins. Then emerged from his chest people in whom the heroic or militant qualities preponderated. (Rajasa). Them the Creator named Ksatriyas. Then from his thighs were born people in whom rajas and tamas preponderated, and they were called Vaisyas. And, lastly Brahma brought forth from his feet another sect of people, and as tamas (darkness, cultural darkness) preponderated in them they were named Sudras. The system of four castes is called Caturvarnyam. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 6).


3) Code of conduct. Ahiriisa (non-violence), Satyavada (speaking truth), Bhutadaya (love for all living beings), Tirthaseva (resort to holy places), Dana (gifts), Brahmacarya (celibacy), Vimatsaratva (absence of malice), Service of Devas, Brahmins and Gurus (elders), to attend to all dharmas (duties), Pitrpuja (worship of elders) eternal loyalty to King, to accomplish objects in conformity with the injunction of the Sastras, not to commit cruel deeds, Titiksa (forbearance, to put up with equanimity the pair of opposites such as pleasure and pain, heat and cold), belief in God-these codes of conduct are common to all Castes and in all the four stations in life. Now, the special codes for each of the four castes.


1) Brahmins. To perform and get performed Yajnas, to study and to teach the Vedas, to give gifts and to receive gifts-these form the dharma (duties) of the Brahmin. Brahmins take their second birth (dvija ) on the upanayana (wearing of the sacred thread). The caste of the mother is the caste of the child. But children born to Brahmins of their non-Brahmin wives are not Brahmins. Children born of a Brahmin woman to a gudra are called Candalas. Sons born of Brahmin women to Ksatriyas are called Sutas, and sons born of a Brahmin woman to a Vaisya are called Vaidehikas. The Brahmin shall not adopt the profession of the other castes. The twice-born are, however, allowed in certain circumstances, theprofession of agriculture, protection of cows, commerce and kusida (to lend money on interest). But, he shall not trade in gorasa (milk and other cow products) lavana (salt) and flesh. If he be an agriculturist, the Brahmin may till the earth, cut medicinal plants and destroy pests. But, he must purify the soul by performing yajfias and worshipping Devas. The soil should be ploughed with eight oxen attached to the plough. He may sustain himself either with Rta (food got by begging) or Amrta (food got not by begging). The suffix "$arma" should be added to the names


of Brahmin children. Upanayana (wearing of the sacred thread) should be done when the child is eight years old. The maunji (girdle around the waist) to be worn after upanayana should be made either of munja grass or of the bark of trees. Brahmin brahmacarins should wear hides, and when they beg for alms the sentence should commence with the word `Bhavati', e.g. "Bhavati, bhiksarh dehi). The Brahmin can marry in all the castes, but he shall perform ritual only along with the wife of his own caste.


ii) Ksatriya. To give gifts according to rules, study Vedas and perform yajnas form the duty of the Ksatriya. To look after and take care of good people and to punish evil-doers are his especial duties. Names of Ksatriya children should take the suffix "Varma". After upanayana the child should wear tiger skin. He should carry a danda (rod) of the Arayal (peepal) tree. When the Ksatriya brahmacarin begs for alms the word `bhavati' should be used in the middle of the sentence, e:g."Bhiksarh bhavati dehi". The Ksatriya can marry in the other castes, except the Brahmin. At the time of wedding the Ksatriya woman should hold an arrow in her hand.


iii) Vaisya. Agriculture, protection of cows and trade are the special duties of the VaEya. Children born of Brahmin women to VaiSyas are called Vaidehikas. Names of VaiSya children should have the suffix `gupta' after them. After upanayana the Vaisya brahmacarin should wear sheep's skin. He should carry a danda made of a branch of the Kuvala tree. The Vaisya may have a wife of his own caste and one of the ~udra caste. At the time of wedding the Vaisya woman should hold a cane in her hand.


iv) Sfidra. Service to the Brahmin and architecture ibrm the duties of the kdra. Children born to Ksatriya women by Sudras are called Pulkasas. Children born to Brahmin women by kdras are called Cadalas, and sons born to Sudras by Vaisya women are* called Ayogavas.


The Candala's profession is to hang criminals sentenced to death, and to live by women. The Pulkasa must live by hunting. Ayogava is to act on the stage and live by architecture. The Candala should live outside the village. The Candala has a right to take the clothes on corpses. He shall not have any physical contacts with the others. He will attain salvation if he died in the course of protecting others. The suffix `dasa' should be added to his name. He shall marry only from his own caste. (Agni Purana, 4 Chapters from 151).


CATURVEDA. One of the Saptapitrs (seven manes). Vairajas, agnisvattas, garhapatyas, somapas, Ekasrngas, Caturvedas and Kalas are the seven manes. (M. B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 47).


CATURYUGA. (See Manvantara).


CATUSKARLV 1. One of the female attendants of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 25).


CATUSPATHARATA. A female attendant of Skanda. (M.B. ~alya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 27).


CATVARAVASINI. A woman attendant of Skanda. (M.B. ~alya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 12).


CAVET TUPATA. (CAVERU). (Pata =army) .


A particular division of the army which in olden days used to come forward to lay down their lives in the service of the country. When defeat in war was almost certain for their king an army division under royal leadership was formed of heroes,. who took their last leave of their homes and people. The soldiers left their homes with their head and eyebrows shaved, and people gave them a hearty send-off. Either victory or death in battlefield was their s1ogan. This system originated in Kerala. Imitating Kerala, Turkey and Egypt formed their own division of Cavettupata in the 15th century. The Cavettupata of Turkey called the janissary was formed out of poor Christians captured in war, and that of Egypt called Mamaluk was formed out of slaves. But, the Cavettupata of ancient Kerala was self-organised out of burning love for their king and country. The families of those warriors of the pata who died in fight were allotted royal favours. Even before, in the 14th century A.D. there existed in Kerala this system of Cavettupata. From A.D. 1090 to 1111 A.D. many fierce


wars were fought between Kerala and the Cola country, and it was perhaps during this period that this system of fighting came into vogue. Certain inscriptions of the period go to prove that Ra.mavarmakulasekhara Cakravarti who ruled Kerala during the above period drove out the Colas from Quilon and captured places up to Kottar.


Foreign writers have also referred to the Cavettupata. "Amouces" and "Amochi" used in the `Rise of Portuguese power in India' indicate the Cavettupata. "In the war' between Cochin and Calicut in 1504 three princes of Cochin were killed, one of them being the nephew of the ruling monarch. On his death 200 Cavettu warriors who formed the body-guard of the nephew rushed to the field after shaving their heads and eyebrows and killed all the enemies they saw."


CEDI. A king of the Yaduvarnsa.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu :-BrahmaAtri--Candra-Budha- Pururavas - Ayus - Nahu sa -Yayati -- Yadu - Krostha - Vrajinavan -- SvahiRuseka - Citraratha - Sasabindu - Prthusravas -Dharma-Rucaka - Jyamagha- Vidarbha-RomapadaBhadru-Krta-Us ika-Cedi. The Cedi dynasty begins from Cedi and the land ruled over by Cedi came to be known as Cedirajya.


2) Other details regarding King Cedi.


1) Once Uparicaravasu conqueredt his land. (Sloka 2, Chapter 63, Adi Parva).


2) Karenumati, wife of Nakula, was a princess of Cedi rajya. (Sloka 79, Chapter 95, Adi Parva).


3) Once Sissupala reigned over this country. After his death his son Dhrstaketu was crowned king. (8loka 36, Chapter 45, Sabha Parva).


4) During the period of Nala, Cedirajya was ruled by king,Subahu: Darnayanti lived in his palace very comfortably. ($loka 44, Chapter 65, Vana Parva).


5) Dhrstaketu, a king of Cedi, came to the help of the Pandavas with an aksauhini (an army of 21870 chariots, equal number of elephants, 65610 horses and 10930 infantrymen.). (Sloka 7, Chapter 19, Udyoga Parva). 6) The Ksatriya warriors of this state helped Sri Krsna in many ways. (9loka 11, Chapter 28, Udyoga Parva).


7) Cedi was counted as one of the prominent kingdoms of ancient Bharata. (9loka 40, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).




1) General information. An archer of the Vrsni dynasty.


He lived for the Paridavas and attained Vira Svarga (Heaven for the brave) in the great battle.


2) Important events. (1) Cekitana was present at the svayarnvara of Draupadi. (Chapter 171, Sloka 18, Udyoga Parva).


2) When the Pandavas entered the hall constructed by Maya for the first time Cekitana was with them. (Sloka 27, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


3) At the time of the Rajasuya he approached Dharmaputra and presented him with an arrow-holder. (Sloka 9, Chapter 53, Sabha Parva).


4) On the first day of the great battle this great archer wrestled with Susarma. (Sloka 60, Chapter 45, Bhisma Parva).


5) At the Kuruksetra in the combat with Krpacarya both of them fainted. (Sloka 31, Chapter 84, Bhisma Parva).


6) He wrestled with Citrasena. (Sloka 8, Chapter 110, Bhi sma Parva).


7) Cekitana fought with Anuvinda in the Kuruksetra battle. (Sloka 48, Chapter 14, Drona Parva).


8) Dronacarya defeated Cekitana in the great battle. (Sloka 68, Chapter 125, Drona Parva).


9) Duryodhana killed Cekitana in the great battle. (Sloka 31, Chapter 12, Salya Parva).


10) When Vyasa by his yogic powers invited the spirits of all the dead warriors on the' banks of the Gafiga the spirit of Cekitana was also there. (Sloka 12, Chapter 32, Asramavasika Parva).


CEIVIB (U). (COPPER). The sperm of Lord Siva which was dropped into the river Gariga developed into form and gave birth to Subrahmanya. Along with Subrahmanya came out from Gaaiga gold and silver and from its heat steel and copper. From the dirt came out tin. (Sarga 37, Valmiki Ramayana).


CENKANNARAJA. See jambukesvara.


CENNASU NAMBLJTIRI. Cennas Narayanan Nambutirippad was born and bred up in Kerala. He was born in Vanneri in Ponnani Taluk in the year 1428 A.D. His father was Ravi Nambutirippad of Bhargava gotra. Besides his book `Tantrasamuccaya' he has written a book `Manavavastulaksana'. This book is called `Manusyalayacandrika' also.


CERA. (A king of serpents). See under Ruru.


CERIPPU. (FOOTWEAR). There is a story in Mahabharata of how Cerippu and Kuta (footwear and umbrella) were born. Once the heat of the Sun became unbearable to jamadagni and enraged at this the sage started sending arrows against the Sun. His wife Renuka was supplying him with arrows. When a set of arrows was finished Renuka brought another set. This continued without break and the Sun began to feel the attack. Unable to do anything against the sage the Sun heated the head and foot of Renuka on her way to supply the arrows so fiercely that Renuka fell down under a banyan tree exhausted. When she became well enough to walk she took the arrows to her husband who was very angry for her being late. She then explained to him how because of the extreme heat of the sun she fell down on the way. Jamadagni then started with increased fury his shower of arrows and the Sun in the disguise of a Brahmin approached and advised him that it was not possible to strike down the Sun because he was a swift-mover in the sky and so it was better to withdraw from that attempt. But jamadagni said the Sun would be stationary for some time at midday and then he would hit the Sun down. When the Sun found that Jamadagni would never drop his attempt he accepted defeat and presented Jamadagni with a pair of sandals and an umbrella to protect against the heat from below and above. From that day onwards footwear and umbrella came into vogue.


The practice of presenting sandals and umbrella is being carried down from generation to generation and even today it is being followed; these two are given as gifts on the `Sraddha' day. (Chapters 95 and 96, Anusasana Parva, M.B. )


CH. This letter means a cut, amputation severance. (Chapter 348, Agni Purana).


CHAGAMUKHA. Subralimanya. He is here idolised as one having a face like that of a goat. (Sloka 3, Chapter 228, Vana Parva).


CHANDODEVA. Sage Matanga was known in his previous birth by this name. (See Matafiga).


CHATRAKETU. The second son born to Laksmana of his wife Crmila. The eldest son was Taksaka. Sri Rama after his return from the exile established a Kingdom called Agati on the eastern sea-shore and crowned Taksaka as the King of that place. On the western side after subjugating the mlechhas (low-caste non-Hindu tribe) Sri Rama established another kingdom called Candramad and installed Chatraketu as the King of that country. (Uttara Ramayana).


CHATRAVATT. There was in ancient Bharata a country called Ahicchatra. Chatravati was the capital of that State. The country itself is also known as Chatravati. (Sloka 21, Chapter 165, Adi Parva).


CHAYA. A substitute of Sariljna, daughter of Visvakarma. Sarhjna got from Surya three children, Manu, Yama and Yam! . The heat of Surya, her husband, became unbearable to her and so she created a substitute in her exact form and leaving her to look after Surya, her husband, she left the place and went to her father. Surya did not know of this replacement and taking her to be Sarirjna, he produced three children by her, Sani, Savarnamanu and Tapati. Chaya loved her sons more and this made Yama angry and he raised his legs to strike her when Chaya cursed that Yama's legs would fall off from his body. Yama complained to his father and he amended the curse and said that only some flesh from his limbs would fall to the ground and that flesh would serve as food to the germs in the earth. Yama would escape from further injury. After consoling his son lie turned towards Chaya. The anger of Surya frightened her and she told him everything. Surya then divorced her and brought back Sarirjna. For details see Saiiljna. (Chapter 9 of Harivarhsa; Chapter 2, Arnsa 3, Visnupura4a) .


CHAYAGRAHI. I. A demoness who harassed Hanuman on his flight to Lanka from the Bharata shore. She, by a trick of the shade obstructed his path and Hanuman realising the danger killed her by a blow with his left foot and sprang forward. (Sundara Kanda, Kampa Ramayana).


CHAYASUTA. Sani (Saturn).


CIBUKA. A low-caste born of Nandini, the cow, during her fight with Visvamitra. (Sloka 38, Chapter 174, Adi Parva).


CIDAMBARA (SITAMBARA). A Sanskrit poet of 16th century A.D. He was a poet in the court of emperor


Venkata who ruled over Vijayanagar during the period 1586 A.D. to 1614 A.D. His one great work is `Raghavayadavapandaviya'. There are three Kadas in it and one Kanda each is devoted to the story* of Sri Rama, Sri Krsna and the Pandavas.


CIKURA. War minister of Mahisasura. Tamra was his finance minister, Asiloma prime minister, Bidala foreign minister, Ubharka Commander-in-chief, Sukra, minister for education and Baskala, Trinetra and Kalabandhaka consulting ministers. (Devi Bhagavata, Pallcama Skandha).


CIKURA. Son of Aryaka, the serpent king. Cikura had a son called Sumukha. Once Garuda ate Cikura for food. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 23).


CINAR. People of China. It is believed that the Cinars were born from the body of Nandini, the cow, during her fight with Visvamitra. (Sloka 38, Chapter 174, A.di Parva). These low-caste people paid homage to Yudhisthira and gave him many presents. (Sloka 31, Chapter 51, Sabha Parva).


CINTAMANI. A diamond. This was salvaged from the ocean of milk along with other precious items like Airavata, Uccaihsravas, Kalpavrksa, Kaustubha, Candra, Apsaras, Mahalaksmi, Tara, and Ruma. (Yuddha Kanda, Kampa Ramayana).


CIRADATA. There was a king called Ciradata in the country called Cirapura. Though himself a good man he was surrounded by bad advisers. Once a foreigner, Prasanga, came along with two friends to the palace to see the King. But due to the bad advice of his courtiers the King did not care to see them even. For five years they stayed there without even getting a look at the King. One day the only son of the King died. All the courtiers gathered round the child and pretended to be greatly grieved. Prasanga and his friends also came to the scene. They saw the king and spoke to him thus: "For five years you have not cared either to see or talk to us. We were cherishing a hope that at least your son would give us a better treatment when he grew old and became King. We were living here on that hope and now that hope also has been shattered and so we are leaving the place this instant." The King was surprised to hear that they were prepared even to wait for his son to become the King and gave them very many presents. (Taranga5, Alafrkaravati Larhbaka, Kathasaritsagara).


CTRAKA. A place of habitation in ancient India. Once Karna conquered this land and from then onwards they started paying tribute to Duryodhana. (Sloka 19, Chapter 8, Karna Parva).


CIRAKARI A son of Gautama Maharsi. He used to think deeply before doing any deed and so he earned the name Cirakari.


Once the sage Gautama found out proof against the chastity of his own wife and enraged at this commanded his son Cirakari to chop off the head of the latter's mother. Giving this command Gautama went into the forest and Cirakar! in obedience to his father's order carne before his mother, weapon in hand. He did not kill her immediately but pondered over the consequences of the deed. Matricide is a great sin, he mused. Then again who would be there to look after father if mother died. Perhaps his father, when he cools down, :night regret his command and come back repentant. Thus he was sitting undecided when Gautama returned full of remorse for his hasty order. On seeing his wife alive he was greatly relieved and immensely happy and he blessed Cirakari. (Chapter 266, Santi Parva).


CIRANJIVI. The name of a crow, a character in the `Paficatantra'. (See under Meghavarna).


CIRANTAKA. A son of Garuda. (Sloka 1, Chapter 101, Udyoga Parva).


CIRAVASAS I. A Ksatriya King born as a rebirth of an asura Krodhavasa. (~loka 61, Chapter 67, Adi Parva)


CIRAVASAS II. A yaksa. He stayed in the court of Kubera worshipping him. (Sloka 10, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva).


CIRAYUS. An ancient King of the country Cirayu. Ndgdrjuna was a minister of this King. Ndgdrjuna knew the secret of `Rasayanasiddhi'. Once Ndgdrjuna prepared a medicine for himself and the King which if taken would keep them eternally young. They took medicine accordingly.


After some days a child of the minister died. Griefstricken Ndgdrjuna decided to prepare Amrta which would eradicate death from this world. He had prepared it but there remained one more medicine to be added to this. The auspicious moment to add the same was to come only after five days and Ndgdrjuna waited. The devas were frightened. If Amrta was made available on earth men would become Devas. Devas could not bear-this and so they sent the Asvinikumaras to the. earth to persuade Nagarjuna to desist from his work of preparing Amrta. Further they informed him that his dead child was living happily in heaven. He agreed to stop his work.


After some time Cirayus crowned his son Jivahara as the heir-apparent. Overjoyed Jivahara ran to his mother Dhanapara to give her the glad tidings. Dhanapara told her son thus: "My child, why should you be so happy to think that you have become the heir-apparent. Several sons of your father had already become yuvarajas and died before becoming King. Your father has taken a medicine from Nagarj una and that will keep him eternally young. None of his sons can aspire to be the King. Your father is now eight hundred years old and will live long. Many of you will become yyvarajas but not the King. I will therefore suggest a way to tide over this difficulty. Everyday in the afternoon Ndgdrjuna would come outside the palace and enquire whether anybody is in need of anything. At that time he would give whatever was asked for. It is an opportunity when you can ask for his head. When Ndgdrjuna is dead your father would either die of grief or go to 'the forests. Then you can become the King."


Jivahara was pleasedwto hear this suggestion and he went that after-noon to the., palace of Ndgdrjuna and when Nagarjuna as usual came out with his query Jivahara asked for his head. Most willingly Ndgdrjuna offered his head to be chopped off. But the effect of the medicine made even the strongest cut by the sword ineffective. Jivahara lost many swords without Ndgdrjuna getting even a small scratch on his neck. The hubbub brought the King to the scene and he immediately asked Nagarjuna to withdraw his head but Ndgdrjuna refused saying, "Oh, King, in my ninetynine previous births I have offered my head like this and please do not ask me to desist from making this offer for the hundredth time".


So saying he embraced the King and taking a powder from his body smeared it on the sword and asked Jivahara to strike again. This time very easily Jivahara severed the head from the body of Nagarjuna. The King was greatly aggrieved and he renounced all and went to the forest and led a pious life.


Cirayus' son Jivahara became King. But Nagarjuna's sons killed him and his mother died of grief. (Taranga, Ratnaprabha Lambaka, Kathasaritsagara).


CIRI:VI. A river. It was on the banks of this river that Vaivasvata 11Tanu clad in hark-skin and with knotted hair did penance. (S loka 6, Chapter 187, Vana Parva ) .


CITAL. (Termites). Cital has .got its own place in the puranas. Devi Bhagavata has the following story about the origin of it.


Mahavisnu once looking at the face of Laksmi laughed without any apparent reason. Laksmi, thinking that Visnu was laughing at her and that he had an eye on some other woman more beautiful than her lost her temper and cursed Visnu that his head would be severed from his body.


No sooner was the curse pronounced than the asuras came in batches fully armed and challenged Visnu to war. Single-handed the Lord fought the asuras with one bow. The fight did not end though it continued for thousands of years. Visnu felt tired and decided to rest awhile. He planted one end of the untied bow on the ground, rested his chin on the other and sat in Padmasana. Being very tired the Lord remained asleep for a long time in this posture.


About this time the devas made preparations to perform a yajfia. All the devas except Mahavisnu attended that yajfia. Since he was the master of yajfias performed for purposes of the devas they could not begin it in his absence. So, Brahma and others went in search of Visnu to Vaikuntha. But he was not to be found there. Then Brahma and others found out with their eyes of knowledge where Visnu was and they went to the place where he was sleeping. They waited there for a long time, yet Visnu did not awake from sleep. Then Brahma hit at a plan to awaken Visnu. It was to create citals (termites) to eat the end of the bow. When they had eaten away the end of the bow planted on the ground the cord binding the two ends of it would break, the bow would straighten up and the speedy movement of it would awaken Visnu.


According to this plan Brahma created citals, but his other plans were not acceptable to the citals. They argued that the advantage of awakening the Lord from sleep would go only to the devas, while its sin would fall upon them.


They argued, Nidrabhangah kathachedo


Dampatyoh pritibhedanam / his umatrvibhedas ca


Brahmahatyasamariz smrtam / /


Brahma conceded the justness of this argument and agreed that, in future, a part of the result of yajfias shall go to citals. It was after this that havis (sa crificial offering) which, in the course of being submitted to the fire falls on the sides of the pit of fire became the share of citals (termites). This promise of Brahma pleased the the citals; and they did as was bidden by Brahma and


*To disturb one in sleep, to interrupt a story, to separate husband and wife as also mother and child from each other--these things are tantamount to Brahmahatya (killing of the Brahmin).




the bow of Visnu straightened up with a terrific sound. The devas were terror-stricken, the whole universe shook, the earth experienced a convulsion and the oceans too were shaken. Moreover, the head of Visnu was severed from the body, rose high up in the sky and fell into the sea. Brahma, Siva and others opened their eyes only to find the body of Visnu lying thus without the head.


This loss of Visnu's head proved to be useful in another way. Now, Hayagriva, after securing the boon from Brahma that he would be killed only by one with horse's head, was running rough-shod over the whole earth. The devas cut off the head of a horse and attached it to the trunk of Visnu. Thus Visnu came to life again, and according to his orders the citals gnawed away the cord of Hayagriva's bow as a result of which he was killed. (Devimahatmya, Prathma Skandha).


CITAYU. A king of the Puru dynasty. He was the son of Bhadrasva, who had ten sons called Rksayu, Krsayu, Sannatayu, Ghrtayu, Citayu, Sthandilayu, Dharmayu, Sammitayu, Krtayu and Matinara. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278).


CITRA I. A son of Dhrtarastra killed in war by Bhimasena. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 20).


CITRA II. A gajaraja (king elephant) with whom Subrahmanya, as a child, used to play. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 225, Verse 23).


CITRA III. A hero who fought on the Kaurava side against the Pandavas. He was killed by Prativindhya. (M.B. Karna *Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 32).


CITRA IV. A hero from the Cedi Kingdom who fought on the Pandava side against the Kauravas. Karna killed him. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 46).


CITRA. A celestial maiden. When once Astavakra went to the court of Kubera this maiden gave a dance in honour of his visit. (8loka 44, Chapter 14, Anusasana Parva)


CITRABAHU (CITRAYUDHA). A son of Dhrtarastra. He was killed in war by Bhima. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 20).


CITRABAZIA. (CITRA, CITRAKA). A son of Dhrtarastra. Bhima killed him in war. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 27).


CITRABARHA. A son of Garuda. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12 )


CITRACAPA. (CITRASAR,7,SANA, SARASANA). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67).


CITRADEVA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. He loved brahmins deeply. (M.B. 8alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 71)


CITRADHARMA. A king in ancient India. The asura called Virupaksa was born again as Citradharman. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67). The Pandavas invited him to come and help them in the war. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 13).


CITRAGUPTA. A minister of Kala. (God of death). His duty is to examine, after the death of men, a list of the good and evil actions they had done while living. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 130).


CITRAKA (CITRA, CITRABA). A son of Dhrtarastra. Bhima killed him in the great war. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 137).


CITRAKETU I. An emperor, who remained childless for a long time. At last a son was born to him owing to


the blessings of Sage Afigiras. But, ere long the child was dead and gone, and its parents, immersed in sorrow took the dead child to Angiras. Narada also happened to be there on the occasion. Angiras restored the dead child to life and asked him to live with the parents. The boy immediately stood up and told Angiras that he had many parents in his many previous lives, and requested to be enlightened as to which of those parents he was to live with. Brahma and Narada felt confused. In the end they disappeared after imparting spiritual wisdom to Citraketu. And, Citraketu, who, for eight davs immersed himself in concentrating the mind on God was turned into a Gandharva; his wife too turned Gandharva.


And, both of them rose up in the sky and flying over Mount Kailasa looked down to the mountain. There they saw Parvati being seated on the thighs of Siva at which sight Citraketu laughed. Enraged by the laughter Parvati cursed him to be born as an asura, and he was born as such. Vrtrasura was Citraketu born as asura. (Bhagavata, Sastha Skandha).


CITRAKETU II. A son of Garuda. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12).


CITRAKETU III. A Pancala prince who fought on the side of the Pandavas. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 41).


CITRAKETU IV. A son of Sisupala. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


CITRAKESI. An Apsara woman. King Vatsa begot sons like Vrsa of her. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


CITRAKSA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Bhimasena killed him in the great battle. (Drona Parva, Chapter 1.36).


CITRAKUNDAKA. (DIRGHALOCANA). One of the Kauravas killed by Bhima. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 27).


CITRAKUTA. A mountain.


Renowned in the puranas, this mountain is on the banks of the river, Mandakini. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 85 ). It was here, at Citrakuta that Sri Rama, Sita and others lived for a period of time. It is said that Rajalaksmi (royal wealth and welfare) will embrace those who fast on the Citrakuta after a bath in the Mandakini. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 29). This mountain is in Banda Zilla of the U.P. in modern India.


Citrakuta is described in Cantos 56 and 94 of Valmiki Ramayana.


CITRALEKHA I. A celestial maiden. This maiden came and danced in the assembly of the Pandavas once. (9loka 34, Chapter 9, Vana Parva, M.B. ).


CITRALEKHA II. A companion of Usa , daughter of the demon, Bana. She was a beautiful portrait painter. Usa once dreamt of Aniruddha, grandson of KMrs


Even before knowing the identity of the idol of her dream Usa fell in love with him. Next day morning Citralekha gathered from the gloomy Usa details of her dream and Citra1ekhd started making portraits of many known charming princes but Usa was not satisfied. She then drew in her imagination a figure which was exactly like that of Aniruddha, the man of her dream. Usa was satisfied and it was through the cleverness of Chitralekha that Aniruddha was brought to USA's room and Usa was able to marry Aniruddha. (See under `Anirucldha' ).


CITRAMUKHA. A sage. Though he was born a Vaisya, he became a brahmin and from there gradually rose to the status of a brahmarsi. (Chapter 56, Anu-asana Parva, M.B. ) ~,


CITRA1,LGA I. (CITRAfIGADA, JRUTANTAKA). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. In the great battle Bhimasena killed him. (Sloka 11, Chapter 26, Salya Parva).


CITRAf1GA II., A warrior. In the A€vamedhayajfia performed by ri Rama ~atrughna followed the sacrificial horse and Citrairga blocked there on their way. Satrughna killed him. (Chapter 27, Patala Kanda, Padma Purarra).


CITRAfIGADA I. (CITRAI-IGA). See under Citranga I.


CITRAI~IGADA 11. A son of the Maharaja Santanu. King ~antanu of the Candra dynasty had two wives, Ganga and Satyavati. Bhisma is the son born of Gariga; of Satyavati were born two sons, Citrarigada and Vicitravirya. They were very brave and learned. After ruling his kingdom for a long period, living with Satyavati and the three children Santanu passed away. Because Bhisma dedicated himself to a life of unbroken chastity 6itrahgada was crowned King. Once when he went to the forest for hunting he met with a gandharva of the same name. Both did not like the other to keep the same -name and so a fight ensued. It was fought in Kuriiksetra and lasted for three years. In the end Citrafigada was killed. Bhisma felt very sorry and after asking Vicitravirya to perform the funeral rites crowned him as King. (Devi Bhagavata:, Prathama Skandha).


CI TRAR(CIADA III. A gandharva. See under Citrarigada II.


CITRAtWADA IV. One of the Kings who attended the svayarhvar-a of Draupadi. He might have been the King of either Kalifrga or Dasarna because both these states were then ruled by a Citrarigada, (Sloka 22, Chapter 185, Adi Parva).


CITRAl~IGADA V. A king of Kaliriga. Almost all the Kings of Bharata attended a svayamvara once held at the palace of this King. (Sloka 2, Chapter 4, Santi Parva).


CITRAi-LGADA VI. A king of Dasarna. He blocked the sacrificial horse sent out by Dharmaputra during the Asvamedhayajfia and Arjuna killed him. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 83, Sloka 7).


CITRASIGADA VII. A deer. A character in the stories in the book `Paficatantra Stories' (See B-2 in Pancatantra) .


CITRA~IGADA I. A celestial maiden. Once this girl gave a dance in th court of Kubera in honour of Astavakrax (Sloka 44, Chapter 19, Anusasana Parva).


CITRAIW~ADA II. A wife of Arjuna.


General information. When once Dharmaputra was closeted with Paficali in amorous talks Arjuna by mistake entered the room and was thus compelled as per a previous mutual agreement to go on a pilgrimage for a year. During this exile he married the serpent girl Ulupi. After that he proceeded again on his pilgrimage and reached a state called Manalur. Manalur was then reigned 'by a King called Citravahana. Citrangada was the daughter of Citravahana.


An ancestor of Citravahana greatly grieved by the lack of a son, did great penance to propitiate Siva and Siva blessed him and said that in future he and his successors


would get a son to keep their line unbroken. Accordingly all the forefathers of Citravahana got a son each but when it came to the turn of the latter he got a girl instead.


Arjuna accidentally saw Citrangada and fell in love with her, and knowing that, the king received Arjuna in his palace, and requested Arjuna to marry his daughter. Arjuna married her and the couple got a son named Babhruvahana. Promising them that he would come back and take them to Hastinapura Arjuna continued his pilgrimage. (Chapters 219, 220, and 221, Adi Parva).


2) Horn Citrafgadd came to Hastindhura. When after the great epic battle Dharmaputra conducted an Asvamedhayajfia it was Arjuna who led the sacrificial horse to the south. When Arjuna came to Manalur he came against Babhruvahana who challenged him for a fight. In the grim battle that ensued Arjuna fell dead by the piercing arrows of Babhruvahana, his own son. At that time Ulupi and Citrafrgada came to the scene and seeing Arjuna lying dead, Uhipi brought the diamond, Mrtasafijivani, and placing it on Ar juna's face brought him back to life. (See Babhruvahana for details). After this incident all of them, Citrarigada, Ulupi and Babhruvahana went to Hastinapura along with Arjuna. (Chapters 79 to 81, As-vamedha Parva).


3) Other details


(1) Citrahgada on reaching Hastinapura bowed down before Kunti and Paficali touching their feet and lived amicably with others like Subhadra. (Sloka 2, Chapter 88, As vamedha Parva).


(2) Kunti, Subhadra and Paficali gave Citrarigada many diamonds as present. (Sloka 3, Chapter 88, Asvamedha Parva).


(3) Citrarigada looked to the comforts of Gandhari as a servant-maid. (Sloka 23, Chapter 1, ASramavdsika Parva).


(4) Citrangada was one among the women who wept when at the fag end of their life Dhrtarastra, Gandhari and Kunti started for Vanavasa (life in the forest).


(Sloka 10, Chapter 15, A< ramavasika Parva ).


(5) Citraiigada was a beautiful woman having an enchanting figure as that of a Madhuka flower. (Sloka 11, Chapter 25, A,ramavasika Parva).


(6) After the Mahaprasthana of the Pandavas Citrahgada left for Manipur. (Sloka 18, Chapter 1, Mahaprasthanika Parva).


CITRAl\IGADA III. Daughter of Visvakarma. Once while she was bathing in a pond along with her companions in the forest of Naimisa Prince Suratha, son of Sudevay came that way. Seeing him Citrahgada told her companions "This beautiful young man, is in love. I must give myself to him". Though her companions objected to her doing this, waving aside the objections Citrafrgada approached Suratha.


When Visvakarmaknew about this he was extremely angry and cursed her saying that she would never have a marriage. Citrarigada fainted when she heard the curse and her companions tried their best to wake her


up, but failed. They then took her to be dead and left the place in search of firewood and other things to conduct a funeral.


When Citrangada woke up she looked around for her companions and finding none including her lover, the prince, she ran and threw herself into the river, Sarasvati.




That river pushed her down to river Gomati and that river in turn washed her ashore a huge forest. There she was met by the sage Rtadhvaja. Knowing her sad tale the sage felt compassion for her and cursed Vi,;vakarma to be born as a monkey. Then he let her marry her lover and blessed them. (Chapters 63 and 64, Va.mana Purdna).


CITILUGf. Daughter of Bhadrasrenya, a king of Hehaya. She was the wife of Durmada. (See under Durmada).


CITRAPUSPAM. A garden where peculiar kinds of flowers grow. This garden is on the higher planes of Mount Sukaksa to the west of Dvaraka. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 38).


CITRARATHA I. (A&GARAPARIlfA). A devagandharva.


1) Birth. Citraratha was the gandharva son of Kasyapaprajapati of his wife Muni. (Sloka 43, Chapter 65, Adi Parva).


2) Citraratha and Arjuna. The greatest event in the life of Citraratha alias Angaraparna was the defeat he suffered at the hands of Arjuna. The Pandavas after their escape from the lac palace (Laksagrha) through a tunnel arrived in a forest and there they killed -the demons Hidimba and Baka. One night they were walking along the shores of the river Ganga when they heard a sound of somebody bathing in the river; Arjuna who was walking ahead waving a country torch went to see who was bathing at that time of the night. Arjuna then saw Citraratha enjoying a bath. with his wife Kumbhinasi. That period of the night was allotted to the gandharvas, and human beings were not expected to be out walking at that time. Citraratha felt it impertinent that Arjuna a human being should be out walking at night and peep into the privacy of the gandharvas. The gandharva and Arjuna so entered into a combat. Citraratha who was a great fighter was, after a grim battle, subdued, bound hand and foot, and brought. before his brothers by Arjuna. Kumbhinasi followed her exhausted, powerless and spiritless husband and pleaded to Dharmaputra to release him. Dharmaputra advised Arjuna to do so and on getting his release he taught Arjuna the famous Caksusividya-the magic art of seeing by one's own eyes anything and everything in the three worlds : Heaven, Earth and the netherworld. Manu was the author of this magic art and from him Soma learnt it and from Sonia Visvavasu, from Vivavasu, Citraratha and from Citraratha, Arjuna. Besides this Citraratha gave Arjuna many chariots and horses.


In return Arjuna taught him the secret of the missile


Agni~ira. Exchanging faith and affection thus Citraratha and the Pandavas became friends. He then narrated to the Pandavas many interesting stories, of which the following are a few. The story of the feud between Vasistha and Visvdmitra, story of Tapatisariivarana and tales about the sage Parasara, Kalmasapada, Adrsyanti, Bhargavas, Krtavirya and Aurva. Citraratha advised the Pandavas to have a priest for the sacrificial rites and it was thus that they engaged Dhaumya as their family priest.


Since Arjuna had destroyed all the chariots belonging to Citraratha, the latter got a name `Bhagnaratha' (devoid of chariots). Citraratha admitted that Arjuna could


conquer him because of his vow of celibacy. ( Chapters 165 to 183, Adi Parva, M.B.).


3) Other details.


(1) Citraratha attended one of the birthday festivals of Arjuna. (Sloka 52, Chapter 122; Adi Parva, M.B. ). (2) Citraratha worshipped Kubera sitting in the latter's council. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Sloka 26).


(3) He offered as a gift to Dharmaputra four hundred excellent horses which could fly like wind. (Chapter 52, Sloka 23, Vana Parva).


(4) When the gandharvas milked the earth during the tame of the emperor, Prthu, Citraratha acted as the calf. (Sloka 39, Chapter 6, Harivamsa).


~5) Siva once sent Citraratha as a messenger to Asura amkhacuda, with a message that Samkhacuda should abandon his satanic activities. (Devi Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


CITRARATHA II. One of the ministers of Dasaratha. He belonged to the Suta dynasty. (Sloka 17, Ayodhya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


CITRARATHA III. A king of Salva. Once Renuka, wife of Jamadagni, after her bath in the river stayed ashore watching this king and his queen bathe in the river with erotic plays. Renuka thus reached the asrama a bit late and Jamadagni enraged at this commanded his son Parasurama to chop the head of his own mother. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 59).


CITRARATHA IV. A king of the dynasty of Bharata. He was the son of King Gaya. Citraratha had a sister named Sugati and a brother Avarodhana.. (Paficama Skandha, Bhagavata).


CITRARATHA V. A prince of Paficala. He was killed in the battle of Mahabharata by Dronacarya. (8loka 43, Chapter 122, Drona Parva).


CITRARATHA VI. A king of the Ariga country. He married Prabhavati, sister of Ruci, wife of Devasarina. (Sloka 8, Chapter 42, Anusasana Parva, M.B.).


CITRARATHA VII. A king of the Yadava dynasty. He was the son of Uanku and father of $ura. (Sloka 29, Chapter 147, Anugasana Parva).


CITRARATHA VIII. Son of Virabahu and a friend of Sri Rama. In the Rajya Kanda of Ananda Ramayana there is the following story about him.


Citraratha•was also one among those assembled for the svayarnvara of Hem!, daughter of Kuga. He sent an anaesthetic missile to the assemblage and made them all fall down senseless. He then took Hem! out from the marriage hall. But on reaching outside he felt he had done a very unjust thing and so withdrew the missile and stood outside ready to fight. A fight ensued in which Citraratha defeated all. But Lava alone continued to fight with him. Virabahu, father of Citraratha, who was closely watching the fight came to the help of Citraratha and engaging Lava in a fight struck him down. Kusa seeing this attacked Virabahu and bound him hand and foot. At that time Sri Rama came to the scene and told Kusa that Virabahu was a friend of his and set Virabahu free. Hema was then married to Citraratha and Virabahu was sent away with due respect.


CITRARATHA. An Indian river of puranic fame. (Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva, M.B ).


CITRARUPA. An attendant of Siva. When by a curse of Mahavisnu Mahalaksmi was changed into a mare, it was through this attendant that Siva sent a message to Visnu. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 6).




CITRASARASANA. (JARASANA, CITRACAPA). One of the sons of Dhrtarastra. In the great battle he was killed by Bhimasena. (S`loka 20, Chapter 136, Drona Parva ) .


CITRASENA I. A gandharva. There is reference to this gandharva in many places in the puranas. He had two wives Sandhyavali and Ratnavali.


1) How Arjuna sawed him. Once when Citrasena with his wives was travelling in the aerial car the spittings of Citrasena fell upon the sage Galava who was doing his sandhya rites then. The sage complained about the incident to Sri Krsna who promised to bring to him the head of Citrasena before sun-set. Sage Narada informed Citrasena of this vow of KMrs The gandharva was taken aback and did not know what to do. But Sandhyavali and Ratnavali went and sought the help of Subhadra. They made a fire pit in front of her house and decided to end their lives along with Citrasena by jumping into the fire. While Citrasena was circling the fire-pit before jumping into it his wives wept loudly and hearing the noise Subhadra came out and saw what was happening. They then took from Subhadra a boon to the effect that they should be allowed to live with their husband. It was only after granting them the boon that Subhadra understood the whole situation. Subhadra was in a fix but Arjuna assured her that Citrasena would be protected at any cost. Arjuna very cleverly shielded all the arrows sent against the gandharva by Krsna and ~'radually the fight came to be one between Arjuna and Sri KrSna. Subhadracame between them and it was founddiffcult to continue the fight. Sri Krsna advised Citrasena to bow down and touch the feet of Galava. CitraSena obeyed and the issue settled without harm to both the parties.


2) Arjuna defeats Citrasena. While the Pandavas were in exile, Duryodhana knew through a spy that they were camping in the Dvaitavana forest. Prompted by Karna Duryodhana programmed to go to Dvaitavana with his retinue to enjoy the sight of the suffering Pandavas. So they started to the forests under a pretext of an annual stock-taking of the cows. They reached Dvaitavanawith a huge army. There they split into parties and roamed about making merry by themselves. Soon one of the parties reached a pond near the hermitage of the Pandavas. They saw a few gandharvas making merry in the pond. With the usual haughtiness they commanded the gandharvas to leave the pond and make room for Duryodhana to come and bathe. The gandharvas did not pay heed to their words and on being informed of this Duryodhana went to fight with the gandharvas. It was Citrasena who led the gandharvasand by his incessant shower of piercing arrows split the Kaurava forces and made them flee for life. Duryodhana was isolated from his army, was bound hand and foot and taken a prisoner. In their sheer helplessness they approached Dharmaputra in his hermitage and acquainted him with the pitiable plight of Duryodhana. DharmapUtraasked Arjuna to go to the help of the Kauravas. Arjuna faced Citrasena in a grim combat. Citrasena then appeared in his real form and Arjuna km-w that he was fighting a friend. Then at the request of Arjuna Citraratha released Duryodhana. (Chapters 239 to 243, Vana Parva ) .


3) Other details. (1) This gandharva occupied a seat in the court of Yudhisthira along with twentyseven other




gandharvas and a few Apsara maidens. (S`loka 32, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva).


(2 ) .Citrasena is a member of the court of Kubera also. (Sloka 26, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva).


(3 ) Citrasena used to attend the court of Indra also at times. (8loka 22, Chapter 7, Sabha Parva).


(4) At the invitation of Indra Arjuna went to devaloka and Citrasena taught him dance and music. It was during this visit that Arjuna threw a cold blanket on the amorous approaches of Urvas i and was consequently cursed by her to be an eunuch. It was through Citrasena that Indra sent word to Urvasi to console Arjuna and give relief from the curse. (Chapters 45 and 46, Vana Parva ) .


CITRASENA II (UGRASENA). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra.


2) Other details.


(1) Citrasena was present for the svayamvara of Pancali. (~loka 3, Chapter 185, Adi Parva, M.B. ).


(2 ) Citrasena: was among those who accompanied Duryodhana when he went to play the historical game of dice with Dharmaputra. (Sloka 13, Chapter 58, Sabha Parva).


(3 ) In the great Mahabharata battle he fought against Bhimasena, Susarma, Satyaki and Satanika. Bhima killed him. (Chapter 137, Drona Parva).


CITRASENA III. A prince of the Puru line, son of Pariksit and grandson of Aviksit. (Sloka 54, Chapter 94, Adi Parva ) .


CITRASENA IV. A minister of Jarasandha. He was known as Dimbhaka also. (Sloka 32, Chapter 22, Sabha Parva).


CITRASENA V. A king of the country of Abhisara. He fought on the side of the Kauravas against the Pandavas and was killed by Srutakarma. (S`loka 14, Chapter 14, Karna Parva).


CITRASENA VI. (SRUTASENA). Brother of Sugarma, the king of Trigarta. These two brothers jointly by an'incessant downpour of arrows suffocated Arjuna in the battle-field. (Chapter 27, Karna Parva, M.B. ) .


CITRASENA VII. A warrior of Pancala. Karna killed him in the great battle. (sloka 15, Chapter 48, Karna Parva ) .


CITRASENA VIII. A son of Karna. Nakula killed him in the great battle. (galya Parva, Chapter 10).


CITRASENA IX. A brother of Karna. In the great battle Yudhamanyu killed him. (~loka 39, Chapter 83, Karna Parva ) .


CITRASENA X. One of the kings on the sea-shore. Along with his son he fought on the side of the Pandavas against the Kauravas and was killed by Samudrasena. (Sloka 16, Chapter 6, Karna Parva ) .


CITRASENA XI. A serpent. This serpent joined hands with Arjuna during the Krsnarjuna battle. (Sloka 43, Chapter 87, Karna Parva).


CITRASENA XII. A king of the dynasty of Vaivasvatamanu. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata ) .


CITRASENA XIII. A Maharaja who obtained salvation by observing the Astamirohini Vrata. This king was a great sinner having committed such sins as Agamyagamana (Incest), Brahmasvapaharana (stealing, things belonging to Brahmins), Surapana (drinking) and Pranihimsa (causing injury to living beings). One day while hunting he followed a tiger and at dusk exhausted with thirst and hunger he reached the banks of the river Yamuna. It was the day of Astamirohini and many maidens were observing the Astamirohini Vrata there. Before them was a heap of rice and other eatables which was given as an offering to Krsna and seeing the lot the King begged for something to cat and drink. The maidens replied that it was a sin to take food on that day of Vrata and then there came a change in the mind of the King and he readily agreed to observe the Astamirohini vrata and did so. Because of this when the king died, though a great sinner he was, he was taken to heaven by the servants of Visnu. This story was told by Vasistha to Dilipa to impress upon him the greatness of observing the Astamirohini Vrata. (Chapter 13, Padma Purana).


CITRASENA I. An Apsaras. This celestial maiden was a dancer in the court of Kubera. (Sloka 10, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva). When Arjuna went to the land of Indra this maiden gave a dance in honour of Arjuna. (Sloka 30, Chapter 43; Vana Parva).


C1TRASENA 11. A prominent river. The people of ancient Bharata used to drink the water of this river. (Sloka 17, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva)


CITASENA III.R A follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 14, Chapter 40, Salya Parva, M.B.).


CITRASIKHANDI. Saptarsis (The seven saints) Marici, Aiigiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Krtu and Vasistha. These saints are called by the name Citrawikhandis also. (Sloka 29, Chapter 336, Santi Parva).


CITRASILA. A puranic river. The water of this river is used by the Indians for drinking. (Sloka 30, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


CITRASVA. Another name of Satyavan. He used to make the figure of horses using clay and people therefore gave him this name of Citr~-,,Svan. (~loka 13, Chapter 294, Vana Parva).


CITRAVAHA. A puranic river of Bharata. (Sloka 17, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva).


CITRAVAHANA. A king who ruled Manipur during puranic times. (See Citrangada).


CITRAVARMA I. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed in the great battle by Bhimasena. (Chapter 136, Drona Parva, M.B.).


CITRAVARMA 11. A prince of the country of Paficala. He was the son of a king called Sucitra. He had four brothers : Citrakettz, Sudhanva, Citraratha, and Viraketu: When Viraketu was killed in the great battle all the brothers attacked Drona who killed them all. (Slokas 43 to 49, Chapter 122, Drona Parva, M.B. ).


CITRAVARMA III. Father of Simantini, wife of King Candrarigada. (See Candrangada).


CITRAVEGIKA. A serpent of the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death at the sarpa sattra of,Janamejaya. (Sloka 8, Chapter 57, Adi Parva).


CITRTYUDHA 1. (CITRABAHU). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was slain by Bhimasena in the great battle. (Sloka 20, Chapter 136, Drona Parva).


CITRAYUDHA II. (DRDHAYUDHA). One of the sons of Dhrtarastra. He was slain by Bhimasena. (Sloka 29, Chapter 137, Drona Parva).


CITRAYUDHA 111. A King of Siriiliapura. During the victory march of the I'andavas Arjuna conquered this King. (Sloka 20, Chapter 27, Sabha Parva).


CITRAYUDHA IV. A warrior of the state of Cedi.


He fought on the side of the Nuidavas. The horse of this warrior w:as blood-coloured and his weapons were of a peculiar type. Karna killed him in the great battle. (Chapter 23, Drona Parva and Chapter 56, Karna Parva).


CITROPACITRA. One of the hundred sons of Dbrtarastra. In the great battle Bhimasena killed him. (Sloka 18, Chapter 111, Drona Parva).


CITROPALA. A river of puranic fame. (Sloka 34, Chapter9, Bhisma Parva).


CITTAVASTHAS. States of the mind. (,See under Pattu).


CIYYALI. A holy place in South-India. (See under Agastya).


COLA. A very righteous emperor of Kancipura. Because of the virtuous rule of this emperor his country got the name Cola. There is an interesting story in Padma Purana of how the emperor attained Vaikunthaloka (The abode of Mahavi snu) .


Once Cola went to Vaikuntha to worship Mahavisnu. As he was worshipping him with pearls and flowers of gold a brahmin subject of his came there to worship, him with water and Tulasi leaves. The simple offering of Tulasi leaves and flowers by this brahmarsi, Visnudasa, eclipsed the expensive one by the King and the latter was greatly offended and he rebuked the Brahmin saying that he was a poor man who did not know what devotion to Visxiu was. But Visnudasa did not take the taunt unchallenged. He asked the king to wait and see who would merge with the glowing entity of the Lord earlier.


The King on returning to his palace started a Vaisnavasattra. (An almonry dedicated to Mahavisnu). This almshouse was as comfortable and luxurious as the one once started by Brahma in the temple of Gaya. Visnudasa on the other hand spent his life in a Visnu temple leading a celibate life and observing rites pleasing to Visnu.


One day after finishing his daily morning rites Visnudasa cooked his food as usual and kept it in its place to be taken later. But on returning to it after some time he found his food eaten by someone else. He went without food that day and it happened the next day also. It continued to happen thus for a week and all these days Visnudasa went fasting. Visnudasa then decided to watch and see' who the thief was. On keeping a vigil he found a Candala (a harijan of the lowest Cadre) timidly coming and grabbing at the food with gluttonous greed to appease his hunger. Seeing the famished skeletonous body of the thief Visnudasa felt compassion rather than resentment and calling him back to take the food went after him crying "Hi, come here and take this ghee also with you. That food has no fat in it." But the Candala frightened at the sight of the owner of the food ran away as fast as his legs could carry him, Visnudasa following him. But soon the Candala fell fainting on the road exhausted and tired. Visnudasa reaching his side started fanning him with his cloth. Very soon the Candala changed himself into Mahavisnu adorned with ~amkha, Cakra and Gada arid Visnu embracing his devotee took him to Vaikuntha.


Hearing this Cola called Mudgala the priest of the Vaisnavasattra, to his side and lamented "I started this sattra to spite Visnudasa and now he has gone to Vaikuntha. It was due to his true devotion to God that he has attained salvation. What we have done is of no use." So saying he crowned his nephew as King. Even while young he had become an ascetic and as such had no sons. From that time the crowning of the nephew as King became a precedent in Cola.


Renouncing the kingdom Cola went to the sacrificial hall and circling the sacrificial fire stood before it and addressing Mukunda said "Oh Visnu, grant me unwavering devotion to you in thought, speech and deed." Repeating this three times the king jumped into the fire. At this Mudgala, the priest, burst into anger and tore off the lock of hair on his head. So even today the decendants of Mudgala do not have hair-locks. Visnu who is always affectionate to his-devotees graciously appeared from the sacrificial fire and embraced the King. The King was then taken to Vaikuntha. (Chapters 110, 111, Padma Purina).


COLA (M). The three celebrated kingdoms of SouthIndia of old were Cola, Pindya and Cera. References to these will be found in many places in the Purinas and a few are given below :-


1) Among those present for the svayarhvara of Rukmini were the Kings of Cola; Pindya and Kerala.


2) Descending in order from Turvasu were VargaGobhinu - Traisani - Karandhama - Marutta -Dusyanta - Varutha - Gindira. From Gindira w,re born the people of Kerala, Pindya and Cola. (Chapter 277, Agni Purina).


3) Arjuna conquered the army of the King of Cola. (Sloka 21, Chapter 27, Sabhi Parva).


4) The King of Cola gave gifts to Dharmaputra. (Sabhi Parva, Chapter 52, Sloka 35).


5)When during the great battle Dhrstadyumna formed the Krauficavyuha the soldiers from Cola guarded the southern wing. (8loka 60, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva). 6) Sri Krsna once conquered the land of Cola. (Sloka 17, Chapter 11, Drona Parva).


COURAS. A set of Ksatriyas who became 8udras by a curse of the brahmins.


Pindyas, Kindvas, Sirikhyas, Latas, Drividas, Keralas, Couras, Darvas, Daradas, Saundis, Sabaras, Arbaras, Kiritas and Yavanas were all Ksatriyas but were turned into Sudras by a curse of the brahmins.


CUCUKA. A low-caste tribe of south India. They were aborigines older than the Mahibhirata in origin. (Sloka 42, Chapter 207, Sinti Parva ).


CUCUKA (1VI). A place in ancient south India. (Sloka 26, Chapter 110, Udyoga Parva).


CLIDAKARNA. The character of a Sannyisi in a tale in Pancatantra.


CUDALA. The saintly wife of King Sikhidhvaja. When once Sikhidhvaja renounced his kingdom and went to the forests, his wife gave him instruction in Atmajnina and brought him back to his country. (Chapter 77, Yogavisistha).


CUDAMA. I. See under Siti.


CULI. A sage. Once Somada, daughter of a gandharva women Crmili, looked after this sage and well pleased with her service he asked her what she wanted and Somadi asked for a son by him. Cali gave her a spiritual son of his and the boy was named Brahmadatta. This Brahtnadatta married the hundred hunch-backed daughters of Kusanibha. (Bali Kinda, Vilmiki Rimiyana).


CULUKA. A river. People of ancient Bhirata used to drink the water of this river. (Sloka 20, Chapter 9,_ Bhisma Parva).


CUNCU. A King of the Hehaya line of kings. He was the grandson of Rohitasva and son of Hirita. King Vijaya is the son of Cuncu. (Brahmanda Purina, Chapter 16. )


CURAYKKA. While emperor Prthu was ruling the earth it was once transformed into a cow and milked. Each got a different substance and what the Nigas got was poison. They milked the poison into a pot-like Curaykki.


CUTU. (Dice). It is an imaginative pauranic assumption that there is a satanic force latent in dice, hunting, wine and women. There is a story to support the presence of this evil power within the above four. Indra once turned the Asvinidevas out of his court labelling them as outcastes and banned wine to them. Discontented at this the Asvinldevas approached Cyavana and the latter performing a yiga invited the Asvinidevas and gave them the yiga wine, `Soma.'. Infuriated at this Indra raised his celebrated Vajriyudha (Weapon of thunder) to kill Cyavana. But the sage by his yogic powers paralysed the hands of Indra and instantly from the sacrificial fire there arose Mada a genie to kill Indra. Frightened by this sight Indra fell at the feet of Cyavana and craved for pardon. The sage then tore the genie into four pieces and threw one each into dice, hunting, wine and women. That is why all the four are as alluring as destructive. (Saptama Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


CYAVANA. A celebrated sage of the Bhirgava dynasty. 1) Genealogy. Descending in order from BrahmaBhrgu-Cyavana.


2) Birth. Bhrgu is the son of Brahma born of Agni at the Brahmayajna conducted by Varuna. The beautiful and virtuous lady Pulomd was the wife of Bhrgu. Even before Bhrgu married her she was being loved by the demon Pulomi and her marriage with Bhrgu embittered him and he waited for an opportunity to kidnap Pulomi.


One day when Bhrgu went to the river for his bath Pulomd entered the israma and there : °, found his love Pulomd being watched over by Agni. Pulomd compelled Agni to tell him the truth whether Bhrgu had marricd Pulomd according to the rites enjoined by the scriptures. Agni confessed that it was not so and then Pulomd taking the shape of a hog carried away Pulomd who was then in a stage of advanced pregnancy. On the way the wife of the sage delivered and the babe dropped to the ground. Because the babe was born with a fall (Cyavana ) from 'the womb the boy was named Cyavana. The radiance of the boy burnt the demon into ashes. Pulomd weeping profusely with tears rolling down her cheeks returned to the asrama. Her tears ran into a river and the river got the name Vadhusari Bhrgu on knowing how all happened cursed Agni saying that Agni would thereafter be an all-round eater. (eating anything and everything). (Chapters 5 and 6, Adi Parva).


3) Penance and marriage. Even when he was very young Cyavana commenced practising austerities, He went to the forests and sat in meditation without food or sleep, oblivious to what happened outside. Years wens by and Cyavana did not stir from his place. Graduall3 earth began to cover him and soon he was completely enveloped by earth. Creepers grew on it and birds mad( rests; Cyavana did not know anything about it.




One day 8aryati with his wives and children came to that forest for a picnic. Sukanya, daughter of King 8aryati, along with her companions separated from the King and roamed about in the forest making merry. They soon came to the place where Cyavana sat doing penance. There was an unusual radiance around they heap of earth they saw there and Sukanya out of curiosity started striking down the earth. Then from inside came Cyavana's voice advising her not to crumble down the earth as she was doing. Sukanya ignored the advice and searched for the source of the voice. She then saw two points of glow and taking a thorn gave two pricks at those points and left the place with her companions.


Those glow-points were the eyes of Cyavana and Cyavana felt insufferable pain when his eyes were thus pierced through. But he neither became angry nor cursed the girl who did this havoc. Cyavana went on with his penance. But soon the country of S`aryati began to experience the bad effects of this evil-deed. People one by one in the beginning and then the whole lot were disabled from passing either urine or faeces. From men and women the disease spread to the animals also. The country was in a chaos and the subjects flocked to the palace to complain to the King. S`aryati knew that somebody must have in a some way tormented Cyavana and enquired of each and everyone of his subjects. Whether anybody had knowingly or unknowingly given pain to Cyavana. Nobody had done so and the King was worried. Then Sukanya ran to her father and confessed what she had done. The King ran immediately to the place where Cyavana was doing penance and striking down the earth prostrated before the sage who was sitting there sad and miserable. The King apologised to Cyavana and requested him to pardon his daughter.


Cyavana then told the King that it was enough if he gave his daughter in marriage to him in expiation of the harm done. The King was shocked to hear this for Cyavana was not only ugly but now blind also. The King returned to the palace sad and worried and there was gloom over the whole palace. But Sukanya approached her father and agreed to be the wife of Cyavana. The problem was solved and the King with great reluctance took his daughter to the forests and gave her in marriage to Cyavana.


4) Cyavana attains eternal,youth. It was the time when Indra had banned Somapana (drinking of the yaga wine) to the Asvinidevas. Discontented at this they roamed about in the forests and soon came to the neighbourhood of the ag rama of Cyavana.


Sukanya after becoming the wife of Cyavana, did all she could to make her husband comfortable and happy. She would collect very sweet and tasty fruit from the forests and give him. She would bathe him in hot water. After arranging all the materials needed for the morning rites like yava, sesame, darbha and water, she would take her husband to the place of the puja leading him by hand. When the morning puja. was over she would seat him in a suitable place and give him rice and fruits. After the meals she would give him pan to chew. Only after doing all these would she go to do her daily rites and that too only after obtaining her husband's permission. She would finish her routine in no time to come back to her husband to see whether he was in need of anything. Then she would make arrangements for the evening puja and after the puja was over she would give


him his dinner. She would eat on1y what was left by her husband. At night she would spread a soft bedding and lull him to sleep. Then she would take a nap lying at the foot of her husband. During summer she would fan him and during winter she would make fire to give him heat. Early morning she would take him to a distant place for his excretion and after washing him would seat him in a suitable p1ace for cleaning his teeth and face. Then the routine would start with great devotion again.


One day Sukanya was returning from the river after her bath and on the way she came across the Asvinidevas. They were astounded to see such a beautiful damsel in the forest and they accosted her and requested her to select one of them as her husband. Knowing her identity they advised her to forsake her old and blind husband and come and live with one of them. She flew into a fury when she heard her husband spoken of so slightingly and by logical argument convinced them the error of their request. Then they told her thus: "You are aware we are the physicians of the devas. We can give back eyesight to your husband and make him as beautiful as one of us. We will then appear before you as three lovely young men identical in appearance and then you must select one among the three as your husband."


Sukanya was immensely pleased as well as surprised to hear the offer and was eager to see her husband young and beautiful. But the last condition frightened her. Anyhow she promised to give a reply after consulting her husband and ran to the asrama to tell her husband the news. Cyavana advised her to accept the offer of the Asvinidevas and Sukanya ran back to the Asvinidevas and brought them to her husband accepting their terms. The Asvinidevas took the aged and blind Cyavana along with them to the river nearby and the three plunged into the river. When they rose up after a dip the three emerged as young, lovely and charming triplets difficult to be distinguished from one another. When Sukany4 stood before the three to select her real husband she prayed to her goddess and the Devi gave her the power to identify Cyavana and so she correctly chose him from the three. (Saptama Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


5) Cyaaana defeated Indra. Immensely pleased at regaining his eyesight and youth Cyavana asked the As vinidevas what they wanted. The Asvinidevas replied that Indra had banned wine to them and they would like to have the ban lifted. Cyavana Maharsi immediately commenced a Somayaga to which were invited all the devas and the Asvinidevas also. When Indra saw the Mvinidevas standing to partake of the Soma wine he was furious and objected to the wine being given to them. Cyavana dissented and a fight ensued between Indra and Cyavana. Indra raised his weapon `Vajrayudha' to strike at Cyavana and then Cyavana made all his limbs go stiff. He then raised from the sacrificial fire a fiendish demon called Mada to kill the devas. All those present were frightened by this demon and they ran away. But Indra could not run for his limbs were stiff: Standing there he prayed to his preceptor Brhaspati for help and Brhaspati advised Indra to surrender to Cyavana. Indra bowed his head before Cyavana and prayed to be excused. Cyavana was pleased and withdrawing the demon tore him into four pieces and threw one each into Dice, Hunting, Wine and Women. The devas and A'svinidevas then went back to heaven. (Saptama Skandha, Devi Bhagavata. Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 17, Sukta 116; Chapter 123, Vana Parva).


6) Other details.


(1) Paras urama once came and stayed at the as rama of Cyavana. At that time Bhrgu and Cyavana were in the asrama. They blessed him and advised him to go to Kailasa and do penance thereto propitiate Siva. It was thus that Parasurama happened to go to Kailasa to do penance there. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 62).


(2) Cyavana got a son named Pramati. This Pramati was the father of Ruru and the grandfather of Sunaka. (Chapter 5, Adi Parva )


(3) Cyavana married Arusi daughter of Manu. Aurva was the son born to Arusi from her thigh. In descending order from Aurva were born Rcika jamadagni-Parasurama. (Chapter 66, Adi Parva).


(4) Astika learnt Sanga Vedas from of Cyavana. (Chapter 48, Adi Parva).


(5) Cyavana was the guru of Bhisma. (Sloka 11, Chapter 37, Sand Parva).


(6) King Yhvanasva once went to the as rams of Cyavana greatly worried over the lack of a descendant. Cyavana prepared some sacred water made potent with the recital of mantras to induce gestation and kept it there. Accidentally the King drank that water and got pregnant. The pregnancy developed without miscarriage and in due time the King gave birth to a child, the left side of his stomach bursting forth to push out the child. It was this child who became Mandhata. (Chapter 126, Vana Parva).


(7) Cyavana was a brilliant member of the court of Brahma. (Sloka 11, Chapter 22, Santi Parva).


(8) Cyavana went to Patala (nether-world). (See under Kekaralohita ).


(9) Once the august Vedasarma ofKausikagotra went to the asrama of Cyavana lost in thought. Cyavana received him with due respect and enquired about the reason for his sorrow. Vedas arma then told him that the lack of a son worried him much. Cyavana then blessed him and assured him of a child soon. (Chapter 14, Padma Purana ). (10) Cyavana had a daughter named Sumanas and she was married to a sage called Soma~arma. (Chapter 14, Padma Purana).


CYAVANASRAMA. A sacred place. Arimba, daughter of Kas iraja, used to bathe in a pond nearby. (Sloka 26, Chapter 186, Udyoga Parva).


CYAVANASAROVARAM. A sacred place. It is believed that this is the best place for worshipping Pitrs - (spirits of the dead). (Sloka 11, Chapter 125, Vana Parva).