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BABHRAVYA. An author of the `Science of Love'. 8vetaketu was the first of the authors who had written on the Science of amour (Kama-sasti'a). Babhravya made only a condensation of the work of$vetaketu.


BABHRAVYAM. A clan or gotra of Brahman as in Ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, 8anti Parva, Chapter 342, Stanza 103 that the hermit Galava belonged to this clan.


BABHRU I. A maharsi of the line of preceptors from Vyasa. (See Guruparampara).


BABHRU II. A Yadava of the Vrsni dynasty. He was one of the ablest of Yadava warriors. (Chapter 14, Daksinatya Patham, M.B.). Even in his old age he used to do penance. 8isupala carried away his wife when once he was away in Dvaraka. He was a friend of Sri Krsna. He died when hit by an arrow from Vyasa. (Chapter 4, Mausala Parva, M.B.).


BABHRU III. A king of KUL By the help of Sri Krsna he attained Rijyalaksmi. (Chapter 28, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).


BABRRU IV. A son of King Virata. (Sloka 33, Chapter 57, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).


BABHRU V. One of the sons of Visvamitra who were Brahmavadis. (Sloka 50, Chapter 4, Anusasana Parva, M. B.) .


BABHRUDAIVAVRDHA. A Yadava king. The information from Puranas available about him is given below


1) This Rajarsi was an adept in the art of yajfia. He was a disciple of Narada and Parvata Maharsi. (Aitareya Brahmana 7.34).


2) He was a Yadava of the Vrsni dynasty and one of the seven noted ministers of the Yadu line of Kings. (Sabha Parva, M.B.).


3) At the time of the kidnapping of Subhadra Babhrudaivavrdha was partaking in a grand festival at the mountain of Raivataka. (Chapter 211, Adi Parva, M.B.) . 4) When once this Rajarsi went on a visit to Krsna, 8isupala carried away his wife. (Chapter 42, Sabha Parva, M.B.).


5) When in the end the Yadavas in Dvaraka quarrelled with each other and were destroyed, the plight of the Yadava ladies became miserable. Then Sri Krsna entrusted Dvaraka and Babhrudaivavi'dha with the .task of taking care of them. But in the battle of the maces he was killed with a mace thrown at him. (Chapter 5, Mausala Parva, M.B.).


BABHRUMALI. A sage. He was a lively member of the Sabha of Yudhisthira. (S`loka 16, Chapter 4, Sabha Parva, M.B. ).


BABHRUSETU. A Gandhara king. He was the brother of Druhvu and father of Purovasu. (Chapter 277, Agni Purana ).


BABHRUVAHANA. A son of Arjuna.


1) Birth. When the Pandavas were residing in Indraprastha after marrying Paficali, Narada went to see them once. With a view to avoiding any quarrel between the Pandavas over the one wife they jointly possessed, Narada suggested that each should take Paficali for a year in turn and he who violated the arrangement should go to the forest for a year. Once Arjuna went to the house of Yudhisthira who was with Paficali and for thus violating the arrangement Arjuna had to go to the forest for a year. During this exile while he was staying at Gangadvara he married the serpent girl, Ulupi and'got a son called Iravan of her.


After that he went to a country called Manaldr. At that time that country was being ruled by a king called Citrdfigada. Prabhafijana one of the forefathers of Citrangada had, by hard penance for a progeny, acquired from Siva a boon and each of his successors got a son each to maintain the line. But when it came to Citrangada to his surprise he got a girl instead of a son. But he got her up as a son and named her Citrangada. It was when she was ready for marriage that Arjuna went there. The king received Arjuna with respect and after enquiring about his welfare requested him to marry his daughter. Arjuna married her and stayed there for three months. Leaving that place Arjuna went to Paficatirtha and there he gave salvation to the celestial maidens who were lying in the tirthas as crocodiles. When he went back to Manalfir Citrafigada had delivered a son whom he named Babhruvahana. Promising them that he would take them later to Hastinapura, he left the place.


2) His fate to kill his own father. It was by a ruse that Arjuna made Bhisma fall. Arjuna put Sikhandi before his chariot and Bhisma refused to take arms against a eunuch and accepted defeat. But Gangadevi witnessing the battle, between Bhisma, her son, and Arjuna from above could not bear this foul play and so cursed that Arjuna would die at the hands of his son. Ulupi the serpent wife of Arjuna heard this curse and went to her father Kauravya who in turn went to Ganga and begged for a relief from the curse. Gangadevi then said that Arjuna would be killed by Babhruvahana but would be brought to life by Ulupi by placing the Mi'tasanjivani stone on the dead man's breast.


3) The killing of Arjuna. The Mahabharata battle was over. When Yudhisthira was performing the Asvamedha yaga Arjuna conducted a victory march with the yaga horse. On his way he reached Manalur. At once Ulupi called Babhruvahana and asked him to challenge Arjuna. Babhruvahana with his bow and arrows attacked Arjuna and in the grim battle that followed Arjuna fell dead. Seeing this Citrangada came to the place of battle weeping and abused Ulupi for persuading Babhruvahana to kill his own father. Ulupi immediately went to the serpent world and brought the Mi'tasanjivani stone and as she placed it on Arjuna's breast he came to life as if waking up from a sleep. When he saw Citrangada, Babhruvahana and Ulupi he smiled and asked them why they had all come there. Ulupi then explained to him the story of the curse and extremely pleased over the end of the curse Arjuna took them all to Hastinapura. (Chapters 218 to 210 of Adi Parva and Chapters 79 to 82 of Asvamedha Parva, M.B.).


4) Other details. (1) On reaching Hastinapura Sri Krsna gave Babhruvahana as a present a chariot drawn by divine horses. (Sloka 6, Chapter 88, Asvamedha Parva, M.B.).


(2) The different names given to him in the Puranas are as follows : Citrangadasuta, Manippurpati, Dhananjayasuta and Manipuresvara.


BADARIKASRAMA. (BADARYASRAMA). A very holy place in the Himalayas. It was here that Nara and Narayana did penance for thousands of years and the Puranas, therefore, give it a very prominent place in them.


BADARIPACANA TIRTHA. (BADARAPACANA). A sacred plade in Kuruksetra. If one lives here fasting for twelve years eating dates only, one will become as great as Vasislha. (Chapter 83, Vana Parva, M.B. ).


BADARIVANA. A sat;red place. Visalapuri an ancient city of puranic fame is near this place. The Badarika9rama comprises Badarivana and Visalapuri also.


BADAVAGNI. See under Aurva.


BADHIRA. A serpent of the Kasyapa dynasty. (There is a reference to this serpent in Sloka 16, Chapter 74, Udyoga Parva; M.B.).


BADULI A son of Visvamitra. He was a follower of the Brahma cult. (M.B., Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 53).


BAHIRGIRLA mountainous region of ancient Bharata. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Stanza 3 that this country lying in the vicinity of the Himalayas had been conquered by Arjuna during his conquest of the North.


BAHU I. A king of the Surya-varhsa (solar dynasty). He was the father of Sagara. He is known by the name Subahu also. This king was once defeated in a battle and being weary and sad he entered the hermitage of Aurva. His queen was given poison by another wife of the King. But the child in her womb did not die. The queen wanted to jump into the fire in which the body of her husband was to be burned. But Aurva told her that her son would become a famous king and that she should not commit suicide. Thus she desisted from committing suicide. A son was born to her. As she had been poisoned when the child was in her womb the son was given the name Sagara (with poison). It is said in Mahabharata, Adi Parva that this prince became a famous king later.


BAHU II. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 22, that the Pandavas thought of sending an invitation to a king named Bahu for the battle between the Kurus and themselves.


BAHU III. A king of the Sundara dynasty. Mention is made about this king in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74.


BAHUBHARYATVA. (Polygamy). Polygamy was a custom in vogue in ancient India. It was not prohibited for a man to have more than one wife. It was customary to give dowry also. It is said in the Rgveda, Mandala 10, Anuvaka 3, Sukta 11 that the bride should proceed to the house of the husband, after the marriage. A spell (mantra) meant for keeping down one's co-wife, is seen in the Rgveda, Mandala 10, Anuvaka 11, Sukta 17. It is a prayer to destroy the love of husband for a co-wife and to direct that love towards oneself. The deity of this spell is Indrani the wife of Indra who was a polygamist. In those days marriage was an essential duty. Widow marriage was not forbidden.


BAHUDA. A holy bath. If one stays in this place for a night in celibacy and fast, one will get the fruits of performing a sacrifice to devas (gods). The modern investigators say that this place is on the bank of river Dhavala which flows near Avadhi. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, 8anti Parva, Chapter 23 that the hermit Likhita had recovered his lost hand, by bathing in this holy place and giving oblations to his ancestors.


BAHUDAMA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B., Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 10).


BAHUDANTAKA. A book on the science of Ethics (Nitisastra), the work of Brahma. It contains ten thousand chapters. This book was abridged into five thousand chapters by Purandara. (M.B., Santi Parva, Chapter 69, Stanza 83).


BAHUD'ANTt. Mother of Purandara who was the Indra during the Manvantara (Period of a Manu) of Manu Vaivasvata. (See the word Purandara).


BAHUDASUYA. The wife of Pariksit, a King of the Kuru dynasty. A son named Bhimasena was born to her. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 95).


BAHUGAVA. A king born of the family of Yayati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


BAHUKA I. A serpent born in the family of Kauravya. This snake fell in the sacrificial fire of Janamejaya and was burnt to death. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 13) .


BAHUKA II. The pseudo-name assumed by Nala when he was living in the palace of Rtuparna in disguise. For further information see the word Nala.


BAHUKA III. A mighty hero of the family of the Vrsnis. About this Bahuka, mention is made in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Stanza 19.


BAHULA I. A river. In Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 29, mention is made about this river which is famous in the Puranas.


BAHULA II. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B., Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 3) .


BAHULA III. Wife of Vidura a Brahmin, who frequented the houses of harlots. Bahula was in the habit of going to the temple of Gokarna and hear Puranas, after the death of her husband. By this good deed Vidura got deliverance from sin. (Skanda Purana 3.3.22 .


BAHULASVAN I. A king of the family of Sri Rama. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) .


BAHULASVAN II. A king of Mithila. He was godfearing. Once gri Krsna visited his palace. At that time he received much good advice from Sri Krsna. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10) .


BAHUMl9LAKA. A serpent born to Ka9yapa Prajapati of his wife Kadru. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 16) .


BAHUPUTRA. A Prajapati (creator). He was -ne of the spiritual sons (Manasaputras) of Brahma. (Vayu Purana 65:53).


BAHUPUTRIKA. An attendant (female) of Subrahmanya. (M.B., Salya Parva, Chapter 46; Stanza 3) .


BAHURATHA. A king of the family of Bharata. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).


BAHUR1GPA. One of the eleven Rudras. Eleven Rudras were born to Kasyapa by his wife Surabhi. Surabhi, who had been purified by Mahesvara whom she had pleased by her penance, got as sons, Aja, Ekapad, Ahirbudhnya, Tvastr and Rud.ra. The renowned Visvarizpa was the son of Tvastr. The eleven Rudras are Hara, Bahurupa, Tryambaka, Aparajita, Vrsakapi, 8ambhu, Kapardin, Raivata, Mrgavyadha, Sarpa and Kapalin The number of the Rudras is one hundred lakhs. They pervade everything moving and not moving. (Agni Purana, Chapter 18).


BAHUSALA prince of Avanti. He was a friend of Sridatta. (For further information see the word gridatta) .


BAHUSUVARNAKA. An ancient city on the bank of the Ganges, (Kathasaritsagara) .


BAHUVADYA. A country in ancient India. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 55.


BAHUVIDHA. A king of the family of Anga. (Agni Purana, Chapter 277).


BAHUYOJANA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B., Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 9).


BAHVASI. One of the hundred sons of Dhx°tarastra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Bbisma Parva, Chapter 28 that he was killed by Bhimasena in the battle of Mahabharata.


BAHYAKARNA. A serpent born to Ka'syapa Prajapati of his wife, Kadru. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 9) .


*Kirmira, a demon, was the brother of Baka. (6loka 23, Chapter i


f It is in the i oth Skandha of Bhagavata that the story of this Baka not so clear. Hence the original in Sanskrit is quoted below


Sa vai Bako nama mahanasuro bakarupadhrk Agatya sahasa Krsnam tik~natundo 'grasadbali Krsnam mahabakagrastam dlstva Ramadayo'rbhakah


Babhuvurindriyaniva vina pranarh vicetas4.


BAHYAKUNDA. A serpent born in the family of Kasyapa Prajapati. Mention is made about this serpent in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103.


BAHYASVAN. A king of the Puru dynasty. He was the son of King Purujati. Five sons were born to Bahyasvan called Mukula, Srnjaya, Brhadistha, Yavinara and Krmila. These five sons became famous as Pancalas. Of these, the family of Mukula became the Maukulyas, who were leaving temples and were of two classes. A son named Pancasva was born to Mukula. A son named Divodasa and a daughter named Ahalya were born to Pancasva. Ahalya got with child from the hermit Saradvata and gave birth to a son named Satananda. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278) .


BAKA. Daughter of the demon, Sumali. He had four daughters : Baka, Puspotkata, Kaikasi and Kumbhinadi. Ravana is the son of Kaikasi. (Uttara Ramayana).


BAKA I. A demon. The Pandavas escaping from the trap of Arakkilla (lac-house) through a secret tunnel went to the village Ekacakra on the banks of the river Ganga and stayed there in the house of a Brahmin. Baka was a demon who was terrorising the villagers there. He used to come to the village freely and carry away people for his food. Because of this nobody lived in peace and so they all joined together and decided to send one man daily with plenty of other eatables to the demon in this cave. Days went by like that and one day the turn came to the Brahmin who was sheltering the Pandavas. That Brahmin had besides his wife one son and a daughter. The problem arose as to who should go to the demon. The father was willing but the wife diet not want him to go and vice versa. The children began to cry and hearing the noise Kunti, another of the Pandavas, went there to enquire and learned the tragic story of the family. She immediately went to Bhima and acquainted him with the problem before the Brahmin. Bhima at once volunteered to go to the demon deciding to kill the man-eater and thus putting an end to his depredations.


Bhima started on his journey to the demon carrying a cartload of rice and curry. Deliberately Bhima arrived at the place of the demon very late. Baka rolled his eyes in anger at the sight of the late-comer. But Bhima without heeding him sat in front of the demon and started eating the rice and curry. Baka charged at Bhima with fury but Bhima defended and a battle ensued in which Baka was killed and he fell dead like a mountain-head dropping down. * (Chapters 157164, Adi Parva, M.B.).


BAKA II. A demon. As young boys Sri Krsna and Balaramabhadra were once playing m Ambadi (Gokula ) on the banks of the river Yaanuna when the demon, Baka, despatched by Kamsa, went to them in the form of a huge terrible-looking stork. In no time opening its ferocious beaks the stork swallowed Krsna.


But the touch of Krsna burnt the throat of the bird and vomitting KMTs the bird fell dead.


z, Aranya Parva, M.B.).occurs. But in the vernacular translation of the same the story is


BAKA III. (Bakadalbhya). The great sage who poured into the sacrificial fire the country of King Dhrtarastra. For details see under Dalbhya.


BALA. A sacred incantation. (See Atibala).


BALA I. (VALA). A demon born to Kasyapa Prajapati of his wife Danayu. This demon had three brothers Viksara, Vira and Vrtra. It was this Bala who later on became the king of Pandyadesa. (91oka 42, Chapter 67, 9aloka 33; Chapter 65, Adi Parva, M.B.).


Chapter 168 of Vana Parva states that this Bala was killed by Indra. (For details see Vala).


BALA II. A deva born to Varuna of his elder brother's wife. (91oka 52, Chapter 66, Adi Parva, M.B.).


BALA III. The son born to Pariksit of the Iksvaku dynasty of the daughter of Mandukaraja. This Bala had two wives, gala and Dala. (gloka 38, Chapter 192, Vana Parva, M.B.).


BALA IV. A monkey. In the battle with Kumbhakarna this monkey did many brave deeds. (91oka 6, Chapter 287, Vana Parva, M.B.).


BALA V. One of the two warriors whom Vayu Bhagavan gave as a gift to Subrahmanya. The name of the other was Atibala. (91oka 44, Chapter 91, 8alya Parva, M.B.)


BALA VI. A Maharsi of ancient Bharata. He was the son of Maharsi Angiras. (91oka 27, Chapter 208, Santi Parva, M.B.).


BALA VII. A sanatana Visvadeva. (91oka 30, Chapter 91, Anusasana Parva, M.B.).


BALA VIII. A parsada of Visnu. When Vamana trampled over the head of emperor Bali and sent him to the underworld, the followers of Bali ascended the yajfa mandala and created a commotion. Bala was one of the parsadas who then came to the scene to quell the trouble. (Astama Skandha, Bhagavata) .


BALA IX. A son of Mayasura. He lived in a place in the netherlands called Atala. He created ninetysix different kinds of magic and gave them to the asura magicians who by the use - of them gave the devas immense trouble.


Once when Balasura yawned three bad women, Svairini, Kamini and Purn4cali were born. They had with them a potable substance called Hataka which they gave to men whom they liked and after enlivening the sex impulse in them enjoyed a sexual life with them to their heart's content. (Pancama Skandha, Bhagavata). Once during a fight between Indra and Jalandhara Bala defeated Indra in a pathetic way. Indra then sought refuge in him and praised him with songs. Flattered by this Bala asked Indra to ask of him whatever he wanted and the sly Indra requested for the physical body of Bala. Without the least hesitation Bala cut his body into pieces and gave him. Indra threw away the cut pieces to different sides and all the places where these pieces fell were at once transformed into Diamond mines.


Tam talumulam pradahantamagnivad Gopalasunum pitaram jagadgurob Cacchardda sadyo 'tirusak~atam BakaStundena bantum punarabhyapadyata Tamapatantam sa nigrhya tundayor Dorbhyam Bakaih Kamsasakhaih satam patih Pasyatsu baleju dadara May! Mudavaho viranavaddivaukasam.


After the death of Balasura his wife Prabhavati went to their preceptor (Kulaguru) Sukracarya and told him all that took place and requested to bring back to life her lost husband. But Sukracarya regretted that he could not give life again to her dead husband but could by his powers make her hear his voice again. Prabhavati agreed to that and then she heard her husband say "Leave your body and join me". Prabhavati immediately courted death and joining Bala became a river. (Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda, Chapter 6).


BALA ( M) . To know what are Dasabalas see under Pattu.


BALABANDHU. A king of ancient Bharata. There is a reference to him in Sloka 236, Chapter 1, Adi Parva, M.B.


BALABHADRA. (Balabhadrarama, Balarama, Baladeva). The elder brother of Sri Krsna and the eighth incarnation of Mahavisnu.*


1) Birth. When the number of wicked kings increased Bhumidevi (goddess of Earth) turned herself into a cow and took refuge in Mahavisnu. Mahavisnu then promised to be born as the sons of Vasudeva named Balabhadrarama and Sri Krsna and destroy the wicked. Vasudeva was the son of the Yadava, Surasena, King of Madhura. To Devaka the brother of another Yadava King, Ugrasena, was born a daughter Devaki. The marriage of Devaki with Vasudeva was celebrated but on the same day an Asaririni (a heavenly voice from above) said that the eighth child of Devaki would kill Kariisa. Instantly Kariisa put both Vasudeva and Devaki in jail. The first six sons born to Devaki were killed the moment they were born by striking them against the ground. Devaki became pregnant for the seventh time. The babe in the womb was Ananta incarnate by Visnu's directive to be of help to him when he would also be born soon as K,rsna. Therefore it was necessary to save the child from the cruel hands of Kaxiisa as it was certain he would kill the babe the same way he had killed all the others before. So he ordered Mayadevi to take the child from the womb of Devaki and place it in that of Rohini, another wife of Vasudeva. Mayadevi did so and the boy got the name Samgharsana, also because of this. The news spread that Devaki aborted. Rohini delivered a boy and was named Sarirgharsana alias Balabhadrarama. ( Dasama Skandha, Bhagavata) .


2) The colour of Balardma and Sri Krrna. Sri Krsna is the eighth child of Devaki. The elder brother Balarama is white in complexion while the younger, Sri Krsna is black in complexion. There is a story behind this. The devas decided to be born as Gopalas (shepherds) in the earth to be of help to Krsna in his duty of killing the wicked. They informed Mahavisnu of their decision and the Lord was immensely pleased. He then took one white hair from his head and said that it would go to Rohixri's womb and change into Balarama and


(Chapter ii, Dasama Skandha, Bh'agavata).


'Since the life of Balabhadra is so mixed with that of Krsna a complete life story of Batarama could be had only if it is read along with that of Krsna. taking a black hair said that it would go into Devaki's womb and change into Sri Krsna. It was thus that Balabhadra became white and Sri Krsna black. (Chapter 199, Adi Parva, M.B.).


3) Brothers. Balabhadrarama had six brothers born of his mother Rohini. They were: Gada, Sarana, Durddama, Vipula, Dhruva, and Krta. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata).


4) Till their marriage Sri Krsna spent his childhood in Arizbadi and Balarama, in Madhura. Once the sage Garga went to the house of Vasudeva and it was he who then told the story behind the births of Balarama and Krsna. Hearing this Vasudeva went to Madhura and brought Balabhadrarama also to Arhbadi. Gargamuni then performed all those sacred rites which were usually done to boys of that age and both of them then remained in Ambadi. Several important events happened during their stay here, notable among which are: Putanamoksam (killing of the demoness Putana and giving her salvation). Sakatasuravadha (killing the asura, Sakala), Trnavarttavadha (killing the asura, Trnavartta) , Vatsasuravadha (killing the asura, Vatsa), Bakavadha (killing the demon bird, Baka), Aghasuravadha (killing the asura, Agha), Dhenukasuravadha (killing the asura, Dhenuka), Kaliamardana (beating the snake, Kalia) and Pralambavadha (killing Pralamba). (See under Krsna for more details).


Kadrsa conducted a Capapuja (worship of the bow) to kill Krsna. It was on a festive scale and both Krsna and Balarama went to Madhura to attend the same. There they killed Karizsa and after that went to the asrama of Sandipani Maharsi for education. When they completed their education they at the request of the preceptor gave as Gurudaksina (The fee you pay in the end for the instructions given) the lost child of the guru. Then they went to Madhura and there several events took place, important among which was the fight between Ki'sna and jarasandha. By this time the Yadavas were becoming lean financially and so to make some money Krsna and Rama went to the diamond-infested mountain of Gomantaka. On their way they met Parasurama doing penance under a Banyan tree. On the advice of Para'surama they killed Srgalavasudeva and got immense wealth. On their return Rama and Ksna along with many Yadavas went and settled down in* the island, Dvaraka, in the western ocean. (Dasama Skandha, Bhagavata).


5) Marriage. Before the advent of Balarama and Krsna the island Dvaraka was known as Kusasthali. It was ruled over by a famous Rajarsi, Revata. This king was the son of King Anartta and grandson of emperor Saryati. Revata got a hundred sons, Kukudmin being the first and a daughter named Revati. When the time for marriage of his daughter came the King was anxious to find out a fitting husband for her and he went to Brahmaloka to take the advice of Brahma. Revati also accompanied him. There stupefied he saw Vedas, Yajnas, mountains, rivers, oceans, Rtus, all in divine figures standing before Brahma, worshipping him. The sweet celestial songs gave them both untold happiness. He then told Brahma the purpose of his visit and Brahma meditating for some time told him that Balabhadrarama, son of Vasudeva, was the only one person suited for her. The king returned to Dvaraka and gave his


daughter in marriage to Balarama. (Saptama Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


6) A pilgrimage. When the great Pandava-Kaurava battle started Krsna became the charioteer of Arjuna and Balarama went to the forest, Naimisa. He was not much interested in the battle. At the forest of Naimisa he saw Suta telling Puranic stories to the several sages assembled there before him. Suta did not rise up when he saw Balarama and the latter moved to anger very soon cut off thehead of Suta. The sages assembled there decried the act of Balarama and lamented deeply over the incident. At this Balarama promised that he would give birth, from the dead body of Suta, to one who will be well versed in all the Vedas, 'sastras and sciences. The sages then blessed Balarama.


During that time there lived in the vicinity of Naimisa forest a demon called Balvala (Vatkala). He used to annoy the sages there and the sages requested Balarama to put a stop to the atrocities of that demon. He immediately killed the demon by his weapon, Hala, and then raised from the dead body of Suta a pandita of great erudition. Later, to remedy the sin of killing Sata, Balarama, repentant, visited all the sacred places in Bharata. Once when he heard, about the grim battle between Duryodhana and Bhimasena, he went to the battle-field and tried his best to stop the war. Disappointed he returned to Dvaraka. (Dasama Skandha, Chapter 79, Bhagavata) .


7) Death. Once the rsis Narada, Kanva and ViAvamitra came to Dvaraka. To make fun of them some of the Yadavas dressed a Yadava like a pregnant woman and producing her before the sages asked them what child she would deliver. Enraged at this the munis said in one voice that she would deliver a mace and that iron mace would be the cause of the end of all Yadavas.


After the Mahabharata battle the Yadava dynasty remained alive only for thirtysix years. After that by the curse of the brahmin the Yadavas were all killed in a drunken brawl between themselves in the very presence of Krsna and Balabhadra. This happened on the shore of Prabhasa tirtha and Balarama was sitting there then in deep meditation. Suddenly the soul of Balarama went out from his mouth in the shape of a white serpent and the serpent entering the nether world was given a warm welcome by the prominent serpents there. (Mausala Parva, M.B.).


8) Other details.


(1) It was Balabhadrarama who taught Bhimasena the mace-fight. ($loka 4, Chapter 138, Adi Parva, M.B.).


(2) Balabhadrarama was present along with Sri krsna at the marriage of Paiicali. (8loka 17, Chapter 185, Adi Parva, M.B. ).


(3) Balabhadrarama became very indignant when he heard about Arjuna carrying away Subhadra and it was Krsna who pacified him. (Chapter 22, Adi Parva, M.B. ). (4) He was present at the marriage of Abhimanyu conducted at the city of Upaplavya. (9loka 2 1, Chapter 72, Virata Parva, M.B.).


(5) He was very insistent that the Pandavas and Kauravas should come to a truce. (Chapter 2, Udyoga Parva, M.B.).


(6) He witnessed the battle of maces between Duryodhana and Bhimasena at Kuruksetra. (Chapter 34, Salya Parva, M.B.).


(7) Balarama conducted a pilgrim tour and visited all the holy places of Bharata at a time when the PandavaKaurava war was in full swing. (Chapter, 35-54, Salya Parva, M.B.).


(8) Balarama was of opinion that it was unjust of Bhimasena to have killed Duryodhana and was about to kill Bhimasena. (Sloka 4, Chapter 60, Salya Parva, M.B.). (9) Once Balar ama spoke in extolling terms about the secrets of Dharma. (Sloka 17, Chapters 126, Salya Parva, M.B.).


( 10) It was Balarama who performed the obsequies of Abhimanyu. (Sloka 6, Chapter 62, Asvamedha Parva, M.B.).


(11) He went to Hastinapura when Yudhisthira performed the Asvamedha yaga. (Sloka 4, Chapter 66, A'svamedha Parva, M.B.).


(12) Balardma introduced Prohibition in Dvaraka. (Sloka 29, Chapter 1, Mausala Parva, M.B.).


(13) Once he made dry the river Kalindi. (See Kdlindi) . BALABHADRARAMA II. A very mighty serpent. (Sloka 37, Chapter 1, Adi Parva, M.B.).


BALADA. The first son of the Agni, Bhanu: It is this Agni which gives life and strength to all living beings. (Sloka 10, Chapter 221, Santi Parva, M.B.).


BALANDHARA. A daughter of the king of Kasi. Let the mightiest of mere marry her, said her father. Defeating all the ,kings who tried to take her Bhimasena married her and Sarva'sa was the son born to BYmasena of Balandhara. (Sloka 70, Chapter 95, Asvamedha Parva, M.B.).


BALADHI. An ancient hermit. He was powerful. He performed a severe penance for getting sons. The Devatas appeared and granted him a boon. Accordingly a son called MedhWin was born to him. Once Medhavin teased the great hermit Dhanusaksa, who cursed him to death. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 135) .


BALAHAKA I. (VALAHAKA). A serpent famous in the Pur4as. This serpent stays in the durbar hall of Varuna, worshipping him. (M.B., Sabha Parva,


Chapter 9, Stanza 9) .BALAHAKA II. (VALAHAKA). A brother of Jayadratha the King of Sindhu. He helped Jayadratha in kidnapping Draupadi. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 265, Stanza 12).


BALAHAKA III. (VALAHAKA). A famous horse yoked on the right side of the chariot of Sri Krsna. Mention is made about this horse in M.B., Virata Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 23.


BALAHAKA IV. A king. Once Siva gave this king a vision of him in the shape of a cow-calf. After that in the place where Siva appeared as calf a Sivalinga arose. It began to grow to the extent of an atom daily. But the growth ceased, when an outcaste who became so by Karma (action) visited it. (Skandha Purana 3-2-27) .


BALAKA (VALAKA). A forester. This forester used to go for hunting and he gave everything he got to his old parents without reserving anything for himself. One day he did not find any animal even though he had made a thorough search in the forest. He was much worried. At last he reached the bank of a river. He saw an extraordinary animal drinking water. He had never seen such an animal before.


It was a peculiar creature. That creature had done penance before Brahma, from its young age with the view of destroying everything. Brahma appeared before the creature and granted it the boon that it would have the power to make anything blind. Brahma also said that anybody who killed the creature would be given a place in the realm of Gods. The creature had been wandering in the forest making blind every creature it met, and one day it was drinking water and it was then that Valdka shot it down. As soon as the creature fell down the gods showered flowers, and took him to the realm of Gods in a divine chariot. (M.B., Karna Parva, Chapter 69) .


BALAKATIRTHA. (VALAKATIRTHA). A holy place near the mountain of Gandhamadana. Those who bathe in this holy bath would become as bright and famous as devas (gods) It is mentioned so in the Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 19.


BALAKASVA. (VALAKASVA). He is the grandson of the hermit Jahnu and the son of Aja otherwise called Sindhudvipa. Balakasva had a son called Kusika. (M.B., Sand Parva, Chapter 49, Stanza 3) .


BALAKHILYA(S). (VALAKHILYAS). A group of hermits.


1) Origin. Sixty thousand hermits were born to Kratu, one of the Saptarsis (seven hermits), by his wife, Santati.* They are called Balakhilyas. Everyone of them was only the size of half a thumb, but they were as bright as the blazing sun and had attained control over their senses. (Visnu Purana, Arimsa 1, Chapter 10) . 2) Garuda (Eagle) and Bdlakhilya(s). A story connecting the birth of Garuda with Balakhilyas occurs in the Puranas.


Once Kasyapa Prajapati performed a sacrifice to obtain children. The work of bringing firewood for the sacrifice was entrusted to Indra and the other devas (Gods) and the Balakhilyas. When Indra was heaping up on heaps pieces of big logs the Balakhilyas who were very small were bringing in chips of wood. Seeing this Indra laughed. The Balakhilyas got angry and stopping the work entrusted to them began to do penance with a view to create another Indra. Knowing this Indra was much flurried. He went to Kasyapa and told him everything. Kasyapa went to the Balakhilyas and pacified them. At this time Vinata, a wife of Ka'syapa, was doing penance to obtain a son. Kasyapa said that the penance of the Balakhilyas would not be fruitless and that as a result of their penance a son who would overpower Indra would be born to Vinata. Accordingly a son was born to her. Garuda was that son. The fact that Garuda overthrew Indra when he went to heaven for ambrosia, is well known. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 31) .


3) Routine of life. The Balakhilyas live in the mandala of Surya (solar region). They travel in front of the sun in the shape of birds. They wear hides of animals. They are righteous and are only as big as a thumb. They are very ardent in doing the works of devas (Gods). They are sinless. There are Balakhilyas living in the lunar region also. They worship the Sun daily. All the world stand firm in truth because of the penance of the Balakhilyas. (M.B., Anusasana Parva, Chapter 141.).


*In some other Furanas the mother of Balakhilyas is given the name 'Sannati'. This may be a mistake in the manuscript.


4) Other information. (1) Garuda (Eagle) who went to the realm of devas (gods) for Amrta (ambrosia) took rest on the branch of a banyan tree, and that branch was broken from the tree. Sixty thousand Balakhilyas were doing penance hanging head downwards on that branch. Garuda knew this only after the branch was broken. Fearing the curse form them he took the branch in his beak arid flew about here and there. At last, according to the advice of Ka°syapa, he took the branch to the mount Gandhamadana and without causing any harm to the small hermits p1aced it there. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 30) .


(2) When Dusyanta entered the hermitage of Kanva he saw the Balakhilyas doing panance, hanging down on the trees in the vicinity. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 7) .


(3) In Valmiki Ramayana, Balakarda, Sarga 51, it is mentioned that the Balakhilyas. were engaged in prayer and meditations and offering oblations to fire to the hermitage of Vasistha.


(4) It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana, Bdlakdpqa, Sarga 51, that in the period of the Ramayana, in South India, when Ravana was going to the house of Marica, he saw the Balakhilyas doing penance.


(5) The Balakhilyas learned the Vedas and Sastras (scriptures) sitting in the chariot of the sun. (Kampa Ramayana, Purvakanda).


BALAKHILYA SAMHI TA. See the word Guruparampara


BALAKI. (VALAKI). One of the hundred sons of Dhr'tarastra. Mention is made in the Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 2, that Valaki had been present on the occasion of the svayarhvara (wedding) of Draupadi.


BALAKI. A hermit. He is called Gargya also as he is a son of Garga. He acquired much knowledge and so he became arrogant. Because of this some called him Drptabalaki.


Once the hermit went to the King of Ka'si and told him that he would impart to him the knowledge of Brahma. The king replied that he would give thousand cows in return. Balaki declared that the sun-god was Brahma. The king said that he had known it. Everything that Balaki said had been known to the king earlier. So, in the end Balaki had to become the disciple of the King. Then the King took him to a man v; ho was sleeping. The King called the sleeping man. But he did not wake up. The King woke him up and then asked the hermit, where he had gone when he was sleeping. Balaki could not say where men go when they are sleeping and where they return from when they wake up. The king said "In our sleep we attain `Sarupya' (assimilation to god). But we are not aware of it. Though we get eternal bliss we do not know it. If we can get eternal bliss when we keep awake that is `Atmajnana' (knowledge of Supreme Soul). As the flames emanate from fire, and as the spider weaves its net and sits in its centre, the soul creates everything, controls everything and pervades everything." (Brhadaranyakopanisad) .


BALAKSA. An ancient king of Bharata. While the Pandavas were living incognito in the kingdom of Virata, Duryodhana and his brothers stole the cows of Virata, in consequence of which there was a battle. The devas (gods) came in planes to see tote fight between Arjuna and the teacher Krpa. It is mentioned in the Maha-


bharata, Virata Parva, Chapter 56, that the King Balaksa was there with the gods when they carne to see the fight.


BALAMITRA. A king. Satrughna who led the yaga horse of Sri Rama fought with Viramani and at that time Balamitra fought on the side of Virarnani. ( Chapter 40, Pataia Khanda, Padma Purana).


BALAMODAKA. The son of Suratha, the King of Kundalanagari. (Fadma Purana, Chapter 40).


BALAVIKA ( VALANIKA ) I. A son of the King Drupada. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 156, that Asvatthama ki1led him in the battle of Kuruksetra.


BALANKA (VALANYKA) iI. A brother of Matsya, the King of Virata. During the battle of Kuruksetra he had taken the side of the Pandavas and had fought against the Kauravas. (M.B., Drona Parva, Chapter 158).


BALASVAMI. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B., 8alya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 74) .


BALAVATI. The daughter of hermit Kanva. She did penance to please the Sun to obtain a husband of a very good nature. The Sun appeared before her and gave her some dates and asked her to prepare food with them and bring them back. Balavati began to cook the dates. Though all the faggots she had gathered were consumed it was not properly boiled. As there was no more firewood she put her leg into the oven. Seeing this the SunGod was pleased and said "All your wishes will be realized". From that day onwards that place was ca1led by the name `Balapa'. (Padxrta Purana, UttaraKhanda, Chapter 152 ) .


BALAVINASTAKA. The hero of a story, given in Kathasaritsagara, Kathamukhalambaka, Taratiga six, to show that it is not good to make others angry. The story is as follows :-


Long ago there was a Brahmin named Rudra karma. He had two wives. Both gave birth to a son each. The elder wife died and her son also was brought up by the younger wife. Being jealous she fed the child with food too hard for the child and it became lean with stomach swollen and the bones projecting. It looked an uncouth figure. Seeing him like this Rudra karma called him Balavinastaka (one who is lost when he is a boy). He gradually grew up. When he was only five years old he showed extraordinary intelligence. One day he decided to teach his foster-mother a lesson. On that day he was sitting alone on the lap of his father. He said to his father, "Father, I have two fathers". Thenceforward the father began to doubt his wife, that she was having a lover. He grew jealous. Hewould not talk'to her. The fostermother thought Balavinagtaka was the cause for this change in her husband's behaviour. One day she called the boy to her mildly and asked him for the reason for the change in the behaviour of his father towards her. He said that he would bring about a change in the behaviour of his father if he would be cared for properly. She agreed. Then he took a mirror and held it before his father- and when the reflection of his father fell in the mirror he said, "Father, I have two fathers". Immediately the doubt of his father was removed. It is not right to make even a boy angry.


BALAYANI. An acarya (Teacher). In Bhagavata, Skandha 10, it is seen that Balayant was taught Balakhilya samhita by Baskala.


BALAYOGI. A king of the Anga dynasty. He was the son of Bali, who had six sons named Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra, Baleya and Balayogi. (Agni Purana, Chapter 277) .


BALAYUS. One of the eight sons born to Pururavas by Urvasi. (Padma Purina, Srsti, Chapter 12) .


BALHIKA. (BALHIKA) I. A powerful king born in the family, of Ahara. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 25) .


BALHIKA II. A king who in his previous life was the asura called Krodhavasa. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 96, Stanza 12, that this King helped the Kauravas in the battle of Kuruksetra.


BALHIKA III. A king who was the third son. of Janamejaya and the grandson, of King Kuru. (M.B.; Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 56).


BALHIKA IV. A son of Pratipa; a King of the Kuru dynasty. He had two brothers, Devapi and Santanu. It is said in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 94 that Sunanda, the princess of the country of Sibi was their mother. Mention is made in Bhagavata, Skandha 9, Chapter 22, Stanza 18 that this king Balhika had a son named Somadatta. Balhika was a friend of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. Balhika exhorted them strongly, not to engage in a battle. Still, when the battle was begun, Balhika sided with the Kauravas. Balhika was once elected as the general of eleven divisions of the army of Duryodhana;


The achievements of Balhika in the battle of Kuruksetra are given below :-


1) There was a combat on the first day of the battle between Balhlka and Dhrstaketu. (M.B., Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 38) .


2) Bhimasena defeated Balhika. (M.B., Bhisma Parva, Chapter 104, Stanza 26).


3) Fought with Drupada. (Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 18)


4) Balhika fought with Sikhandi. (Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 96, Stanza 7) .


5) BhImasena killed Balhika. (Drona Parva, Chapter 157, Stanza 15).


BALHIKA V. The charioteer of Dharmaputra. (M.B., Sabha Parva, Chapter 58, Stanza 20).


BALHIKADESA. A country in ancient Bharata. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9.


BALI (MAHABALI) I. An emperor of the Asuras. He was the son of Virocana and the grandson of Prahlada. 1) Genealogy and Birth. The Asuras or the Daityas are the sons born, of his wife Diti, to Kasyapa Prajapati, son of Marici and grandson of Brahma. There were so many Asuras born as the sons of Diti. But among them Hiranyaksa, Hiranyakasipu, krapadma, Siriihavaktra, Tarakasura and Gomukha were notorious. Of their sisters Sirhhika and Ajamukhi were famous.


Four sons called Prahlada, Samhrada, Hrida and Anuhrada were born to Hiranyakasipu. Virocana was the son of Prahlada and Mahabali was the son of Virocana. Bana was born from Mahabali and four crores of Asuras called Nivatakavacas were born from Bana.


2)- The churning of the ocean. Once Mahibali had stolen the wealth of Devendra. While he was carrying it to his house, it all fell in the ocean. Mahavisnu ordered the devas (gods) to recover the lost wealth from the


ocean. It was impossible to churn the ocean without the help of Mahabali. So the devas went to Mahabali and sought his help. Mahabali agreed to help them.


The real aim of the devas was not to regain the lost wealth but to obtain the celestial nectar known as Nectar of Immortality (Amrta) and to defeat the Asuras in battle. On the side of the Asuras there was the knowledge of the Mrtasanjivani (life-restoring remedy). So the dead were being brought to life. But it was not possible for devas to do so. It was to make up this deficiency, by obtaining Ambrosia from the sea, that the devas tried to churn the sea, under the pretence of recovering the lost wealth. Mention is made in the Visnu Purina, Arhsa 1, Chapter 9 and Matsya Purina, Chapters 250 and 251 that these events took place during the regime of the Indra named Mantradruma in the Caksugamanvantara (the period of the manu named Caksusa).


3) War with Indra. The great teacher gukra again anointed Bali, who was brought to life again, as Indra. After that he performed the sacrifice of Visvajit (conqueror of the world) on behalf of Bali. Assuming the responsibilities of government, Bali performed one hundred Asvamedha yagas (Horse sacrifices) (Bhagavata, Skandha 8) .


After the Visvajit sacrifice, Yajnadeva (god of sacrifice) who was greatly pleased at the sacrifice, presented Bali with a divine chariot, equal in all aspects to that of Indra, a golden bow, two quivers, which would never become empty and a divine armour, and his grandfather gave him a garland that would never fade, and the teacher Sukra gave him a divine conch, and Brahma presented a garland. (M.B., Santi Parva, Chapter. 216) . 4) Attainment of the Position of Indra. Mahavisnu had not been on good terms with the devas, for a time. Taking, this opportunity, Sukracarya the teacher of the Asuras, persuaded Bali .to engage the devas in a battle. Bali defeated the devas completely in a pitched battle.


Thus the realm of the gods came under the sway of Mahabali. Once, during that period Bali invited his grandfather Prahlada to heaven and requested him to accept the most honourable seat there. Prahlada accepted his invitation and anointed Bali as Indra. Bali enquired of Prahlada as to the method of carrying.on the government of heaven. Prahlada said thus in reply: "Only virtue will always win. Rule the kingdom without deviating from virtue." (Vamana Purina, Chapter 74) . Because Bali had ruled his kingdom according to the advice of Prahlada, he became famous in the three worlds. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 75) .


According to the version of Bhagavata, Prahlada when he grew old, left his kingdom in the hands of his son Virocana and went to the forest for penance. Virocana was not as famous as Prahlada. After the period of Virocana, Mahabali came to the throne. He was a mighty king. Within a short time he became the emperor of the Asuras. It was during this period that the churning of the Milk Sea took place. The Asuras and the Devas (gods) sat on either side and using the mount Mandara as churn-drill, churned the Milk Sea and obtained Amrta (the celestial nectar of immortality). A battle took place between the Asuras and the Devas for the possession of Amrtakalasa (the Ambrosia and the container) and the emperor Mahabali was killed in the battle. The Auras carried the dead body of Mahlbali to his capital, where Sukracarya (their teacher-priest gukra) brought him to life again by the help of sacred herbs. Mahabali instantly waged another war, fiercer than the previous ones, with the devas, and having defeated them, he drove them out of their realm and brought it under control. (Bhagavata, Skandha 8).


5) The curse of Prahlada. As the whole of heaven came under the sway of Bali, the devas began to leave the country one by one. Everybody was happy and comfortable under the rule of Bali. But the devas and Brahmanas were denied the privileges they deserved. They approached Visnu and represented their grievances. Visnu told them thus : "Bali is devoted to me. Still, to redress your grievances I shall take the incarnation of Vamana shortly."


In course of time the Asuras and their countries began to be weakened. Seeing the approach of destruction emperor Bali became thoughtful. He approached Prahlada to learn the reason. Prahlada told Bali thus: "Lord Visnu is now staying in the womb of Aditi for his incarnation as Vamana. That is why the country and the Asuras are subjected to destruction. Hearing this Mahabali said: ``Our Raksasas are more powerful than that Visnu." Hearing these haughty words of Bali, Prahllda got angry and cursed Bali "Let your country be destroyed." Bali requested Prahlada to pardon him. Prahlada advised Bali "You will get salvation only by relying on Visnu". (Vamana Purana 77) . 6) Defeated by TTamana. The defeated devas had taken refuge in forests. Aditi the mother of the devas was very sorry at this. She shed tears before her husband Ka'syapa Prajapati, who advised his wife to take a fast of twelve days, and taught her the rules and rituals of the fast. Accordingly she took the fast, Visnu appeared before her and asked her what boon she wanted. She requested Visnu to take birth as her son, to drive away Bali and to restore her sons, the devas (gods), to their kingdom of heaven. Mahavi snu agreed.


Aditi became pregnant and gave birth to the son Vamana. He was an incarnation of Mahavisnu. [The 5th incarnation (avatara) of Visnu

At this time Mahabali was performing a sacrifice on the bank of the liver Narmada. Vamana came to the place of sacrifice in the dress of a hermit boy and told Mahabali that he was a helpless hermit boy and requested that he might be given three steps of ground. Mahabali was pleased with the boy and told him that he was willing to give the boy even the country called BhrAgaraka and that he was prepared to forego the kingly pleasures for the boy. The hermit boy did not show any desire for them. So many gathered round them to witness this sight. The teacher SSukracarya called Mahabali and said that the boy was a cheat and that his request should not be granted. But Mahabali decided to grant the wish of the boy and as a token of his gift he began to offer the boy water from a waterpot. Then the teacher got into the mouth of the pot in the shape of a mote and water would not flow freely out of the mouth of the pot. Knowing this Vamana took a grass of Darbha and pushed it at the mouth of the pot. The grass pierced one eye of Sukracarya. From that time onwards Sukracarya had only one eye. Water flowed freely into the hands of Vamana. Sukra got angry and cursed Bali. Vamana began to measure, the ground and simultaneously began to grow. The asuras who were


horrified at this, began to attack Vamana with anything they could lay hands on. Still Vamana was growing. Finally he became an immensely large being. With one step he measured the whole of earth and with the second step he took the whole of heaven. Then he asked Bali, where to place the third step. Mahabali said that he had only his body left, as his own, and that Vamana might take it and complete three steps. Vamana placed his foot on the head of Bali and pushed him down to Patala (the Netherworld). Thenceforward the asuras became the inhabitants of Patala. (Bhagavata, Skandha 8) .


7) Bali and l?aaana. Once Ravana visited Bali who was under custody in Patala, and said to him, "I have come to save you from here. So get yourself free from the custody of Mahavisnu, with my help." Hearing this, Bali asked Ravana to fetch the two earrings of Hiranyakasipu, which were shining like blazing fire a little away from them. Ravana moved forward to take them. But he fell unconscious. Bali caused him to recover and said: "These earrings were worn by my great grandfather Hiranyakasipu. How could you, who are not even capable of taking his earrings, save me from his slayer, Visnu? Visnu is Almighty and All-powerful and Supreme Lord of everything." Hearing this, Ravana was filled with shame and he returned. (Valmiki Ramayana, Uttara Kanda, Praksipta Sarga). 8) Bali born as a Gardabha (Ass). Bali, who was fallen from power took birth in the womb of an ass and roamed about. Brahma instructed Indra to find out Bali. (M.B., Sand Parva, Chapters 216-218) .


9) Other information.


(1) Mahabali shines in the durbar of Varuna. (M.B., Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 12).


(2) Once Mahabali went to Prahlada and repented of his sins and begged for pardon. Then he began to make enquiries on spiritual matters. (M.B., Vana Parva, Chapter 28, Stanza 3) .


(3) From his childhood Mahabali was a hater of the Brahmanas. (M.B., Sand Parva, Chapter 90, Stanza 24).


(4) Once Mahabali was engaged in a serious contest with Indr+ (M.B., Santi Parva, Chapter 223) .


(5) After having lost his kingdom Mahabali ridiculed Indra in various ways. (M.B., Santi Parva, Chapter 225, Stanza 30)


(6) Once Mahabali talked with S` ukracary a about giving gifts of flower, smoke and light. (M.B., Anusasana Parva, Chapter 98, Stanza 15) .


(7) Laksmi Devi had forsaken Mahabali because he behaved haughtily towards Brahmanas. (M.B., Santi Parva, Chapters 216-218) .


(8) In the religious Books such as Yogavasistha the story of Mahabali is given to illustrate disinterestedness (Anasakti).


BALI II. A hermit. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 10, that this hermit lived in Hastinapura.


BALI III. An incarnation of Siva. Siva incarnated in the hermitage of the Balakhilyas in the mount of Gandhamadana during the period of Varaha Kalpa (Kalpa-one day of Brahma or the period of 14 manus) . It is seen in Siva Purana, Satapatha Brahmana that Bali had four sons, called Sudhama, Kasyapa, Vasistha and Virajas.


BALI IV. A king of the Yadavas. He was the son of Krtavarman. Bali married Carumati, the daughter of Rukmini. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10).


BALI V. A famous monkey-king of the country of Anava. This King who was the son of Sutapas was a contemporary of the great King Sagara.


Bali did penance and Brahma appeared before him, and blessed him and said, "You will become a great sage and will live till the end of the Kalpa (a period of world age). Your power will be inimitable. Nobody will overthrow you in battle. You will be loved by your subjects and they will obey you. You will be we11versed in the knowledge of law and its observance and the learned will recognize your knowledge. You will re-establish caste system in your kingdom." (HariVamsa, 1. 31.35.39).


Sudesna was the wife of Bali. The couple had no children. At last they appealed to Dirghatamas a hermit, from whom they got five sons called Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pandu and Suhma (Brahma Purana). In Bhagavata it is mentioned that he had one more son called Andhra.


Bali left his body at the end of the Kalpa and entered heaven. Before his death he had divided his kingdom equally among his sons. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9, Mahabharata,.Adi Parva, Chapter 92).


BALI. A mighty monkey-king.


1) Birth. Bali is the son of Indra. There is a story about the birth of Bali as follows:--


Silavati who was devoted to her husband once carried her husband Ugratapas who was a leper, on her shou1der to the house of a harlot one night. On the way they saw the hermit Animandavya, who had been placed on a trident by the order of the King, beating his limbs with agony. Lying on the trident he saw Ugratapas. Seeing the amorous nature of Ugratapas Animandavya cursed him that before sunrise he would die. 8ilavati who was a woman of great purity and loyalty hearing the curse said, "Let the Sun not rise tomorrow."


Next day, though it was time the sun did not rise. The night prolonged. Aruna the charioteer was ready at the usual time but saw the Sun sitting motionless. Wasting time was intolerable to the charioteer. So he decided to make the best use of the time at his disposal by witnessing a little of the dance of the celestial beauties in the realm of the devas. But males had no admittance there. So,Aruna took the shape of a beautiful woman and got in. Seeing a new person, very beautiful to look at, sitting in the. midst of the celestial maids Indra grew amorous. Hek secretly took her to a dark place and a sort was born ou-t of that coition. That son is Bali. When Aruna returned the Sun was standing full of anger. Being afraid of him Aruna confessed everything to the Sun. When he heard the whole story the Sun expressed his desire to see that figure which Aruna had adopted. Accordingly Aruna again became a woman. The Sun also had coition with her and Sugriva was the son born out of this coition. Bali and Sugriva were brought up by Ahalyadevi in the hermitage of Gautama.


At that time a monkey-king named Rksaraja had been ruling over the forest with Kiskindha as his capital. He had no sons and so he approached Indra and placed before him his grievances. Indra brought Bali and


Sugriva from the hermitage of Gautama and handed them over to Rksarajas. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter ? 07; Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 42; Uttara Ramayana and Kampa Ramayana, Purvakanda).


2) Marriage and Kingship. Owing to difference of opinion, Bali defeated the asuras who came for the churning of the Sea of Milk. The devas who were pleased at this, gave Bali, a woman named Tara, derived from the Sea of Milk. Thus Tara became his wife and he got a son by her, named Afigada who became famous as a mighty warrior-prince. Sugriva married Ruma. At that time Rksaraja died and Bali became King. (Kampa Ramayana, Purvakanda).,


3) Enmity with Hanuman. It was during this period that Hanuman was born. While Siva and Parvati were living in the forest as monkeys Parvati got with child. The child was given to Bhagavan VAVu (Wind-God) with the womb. Vayu placed the womb with the child in Anjana Devl'S stomach. Narada informed Bali all these things. Bali thought that his position would be lost, if a being born of Siva, grew up in the form of a monkey. In accordance with the advice of Narada, Bali melted Pancaloha (Five metals) and passed it into the womb of Anjana. Sti1l the child in the womb was not killed as it was the sperm of Siva. The molten metals became earrings of the child in the womb. (Kampa Ramayana, Purvakanda).


4) Sugriva separated. Once, the son of Maya, the carpenter of the asuras, wanted to defeat Bali by a combat or cunning sleights as he was an expert wrestler and magician. He came to Kiskindha in the midnight and standing before the palace, challenged Bali, who getting angry came oat followed by Sugriva. Seeing the two of them the magician began to run. 'Bali and SugFva chased him to a cave. Placing Sugriva, at the mouth of the cave Bali followed the magician. Before going, Bali said to Sugriva: "Brother, I will go in and kill the Magician and return. Be brave and stay here. If the asura dies milk will appear at the mouth of the cave and if he kills me blood will be seen. If the latter happens close the mouth of the cave firmly and return to Kiskindha and live happily there."


Bali did not return even after a year. Finally the asura was killed. But by the cunning sleights of the magician it was blood that appeared at the mouth of the cave. Thinking that his brother was slain by the magician Sugriva felt sorry. Then he closed the mouth of the cave firmly with stone and returned to Kiskindha. Hearing about the death of Bali the monkeys anointed Sugriva as King. After a time Bali returned stronger than before and saw the mouth of the cave closed. He thought that Sugriva had closed the mouth of the cave deliberately to kill him and to usurp his throne. Bali reached Kiskindha and drove Sugriva away. SugCva fled to Mount Rsyamukacala which was prohibited area for Bali due to a curse. Matanga had cursed him that if he entered that mountain his head would be broken. So Sugriva was safe in that mountain.


The desire of Bali to take revenge on Sugriva increased everyday. Everyday he used to go to the four seashores and conduct bath, prayer, meditation etc. and return to Kiskindha within a short time. With one jump he will reach one place from another, and in each jump he would put one step on the head of Sugriva in the R'syamidkacala. Hanuman was the minister of Sugriva. He was much annoyed at this habitual torture of' Sugriva. One day as usual Bali was stepping on the head of Sugriva to jump to another place, when Hanuman caught hold of Bali by his waist. Hanuman thought that if Bali was dragged down on the mountain somehow or other, his head would break and there would be an end of his wicked deeds. Bali thought that if he could jump into Kiskindha with Hanuman it would be easy for him to destroy Sugriva. But both were of equal strength. So Bali did not jump with Hanuman to Kiskindha and Hanuman did not drag Bali to the ground. Both did not know how to stop the fight. At last they made a treaty. Bali agreed to stop torturing Sugriva and Hanuman agreed not to cause any trouble to Bali. Both returned to their own places. After that Sugriva lived in Rsyamukacala with his ministers and Bali in Kiskindha. (Valmiki Ranzayana, Ki skindha Kanda, Sarga l0;Kampa Ramayarza, Purvakanda ).


5) Bali was cursed by Matafzga the great hermit. See the word Dundubhi para 4.


6) Defeating RGivana. Bali had got a boon from the Gods that he would get half the strength of his opponent who stood face to face with him in fight. This power enabled Bali to defeat all his foes and bring the countries in all directions under his sway. Ravana heard about this and decided to overpower Bali somehow or other and approached Kiskindha. Bali knew this. His minister, Tdran, went to Ravana and told him about the power of Bali and of the boon by which Bali got half the strength of his opponent. When Ravana heard of this peculiar boon he decided to kill Bali. His idea was to kill Bali by going behind him when he went to the sea-shore to take bath in the morning.


Next morning Bali went to the eastern sea-shore and began his prayer and meditation. Ravana approached Bali from behind and sat close to him. Perhaps the idea of Ravana might have been to take Bali by his tail and beat him on the ground. Bali knew that Ravana was sitting behind him. But pretending that he knew nothing put his long tail on the body of Ravana, and passed it lengthwise and breadthwise through every part of his body and tied him like a bundle of faggots, and made a jump into the air. Within a short time he visited all the usual p1aces and reached Kiskindha. Seeing Ravana hanging by the tail of Bali, even the women folk laughed. Thus Ravana admitted defeat. Bali let him go unhurt. (Uttara Ramayana).


7) Death. After Sites had been stolen away Rama and Laksmana wandered about in the forest. Then they met with Hanuman, who took them to his King Sugriva. Sri Rama and Sugriva entered into a treaty, by which Sri Rama was to kill Bali and to restore to Sugriva his wife who was under the custody of Bali, and to make him the King of Kiskindha, in return for which Sugriva and his men had to help Sri Rama to find out and recover Sites. In accordance with the conditions of the treaty, Sri Rama and Sugriva reached Kiskindha, to confront with Bali. Sri Rama and Sugriva had hit up on a plan, by which Sri Rama was to shoot Bali down, when Sugriva was engaged in boxing with Bali. Sugriva challenged Bali to a single combat. Bali came out and a horrible boxing began between the two. But Sri Rama could not distinguish one from


the other. Thier faces were so alike. Sugriva, being defeated, receded from fight. Sri Rama and Sugriva returned to Rgyamukacala. Surgiva spoke ill o£ Sri Rama. But Sri Rama revealed the truth, and Sugriva believed it. Next day morning both of them started for Kiskindha to kill Bali. Sri Rama had put a flower garland around the neck of Sugriva to distinguish him from Bali. This time Tares tried to the utmost to dissuade Bali from fighting. But without paying any heed to her words Bali engaged Sugriva in fighting. Sri Rama, sitting in ambush, instantly sent an arrow to the breast of Bali who looked to the side from which the arrow came. Before falling down, looking at Sri Rama Bali said "It is not right on the part of the King of Ayodhya to have shot an arrow from ambush". Hearing that Sri Rama said, "If you see me face to face you will become devoted to me. It is not right to kill one's devotee. You are a friend of Ravana, who as you know, is my foe. If I let you alone Ravana is likely to get your help. Besides, you have a boon that you will get half the strength of the foe who faces you, and as such you cannot be killed by anybody in direct fight. It is unavoidable for the safety of Sugriva, for my interest, for the protection of the world at large, and for the preservation o£ law and order that you should be killed. Was it net a violation of duty on your part to steal the wife of Sugriva ?"


Bali fell down. Immediately Taradevi and Azigada arrived there. Tares spoke very harsh words to Sri Rama. At last Bali entrusted Tares and Aaigada with Sri Rama and then he died. (Kampa Ramayana, Kiskindhakan~la 1.


BALIHAM. A dynasty of Ksatriyas. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Stanza 14 that there was a king named Arkaja in this dynasty.


BALISIKHA. A serpent born to Ka'syapa prajapati of his wife Kadru. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza S).


BALIVAK. A hermit. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 14 that this hermit had been a member of the durbar of Yudhisthira.


BALLALA. Son of a Vaisya named Kafyana. From childhood Ballala was an ardent devotee of Ganapati. When he was a child he used to gather pebbles and make a heap and then worship it, imagining it to be Ganesa ( Ganapati) .


His parents did not like this. They tried their best to dissuade him from this habit. Once they tied him to a tree and gave him severe cuts. But their attempts were futile. One day an image of Ganapati arose in the place where the child used to worship. (Ganesa Purana 1 : 2 ).


BALLAVA (VALLAVA). A country in Bharata. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9.


BALLAVA (VALLAVA). This is the pseudo-name assumed by Bhimasena, while the Pandavas were living in pseudonymity in the kingdom of Virata. In some Puranas this name is shown as `Valala'. (1VLB., Virata Parva, Chapter 2, Stanza 1) .


BALOTKATA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B., galya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 23) .


BALVALA (VALKALA). An asura. This asura had been tormenting the hermits of the forest of Naimiga.


This asura was killed by Balabhadrarama. * For detailed story see para 6 of the word Balabhadrarama.


BANA (BANABHATTA) I. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 7th century A.1D. He was a member of the assembly of emperor Harsavardhana. `Harsacarita' (prose) is the most important work of Bana. Though many of the descriptions in this book contain exaggerations it affords plenty of scope for investigation into the features of ancient Sanskrit literature. He has mentioned about Vyasa, Bhattara-hari'scandra, SStavahana, Pravarasena, Bhasa, Kalidasa and such others.


Harsacarita, in -a sense, is a Romance. It is divided into eight Ucchvasas. From the first two or three chapters informations could be had of Banabhatla. His mother Rajyadevi died when he was a little boy. At the age of fourteen his father also died. After that he arrived at the palace of Harsa. The story of Harsacarita begins with the death of Prabhdkara-Vardhana, father of Harsa. The Book ends with the story incomplete. Harsacarita is the only historic prose work available in Sanskrit.


BANA II. A mighty and powerful Asura.


1) Genealogy and birth. Descended from Mahavisnu in the following order:Brahma-Marici- Ka'syapa-Hiranyakasipu-Prahlada-Virocana-Mahabali-Bana.


2) Getting a boon. BS.a began his reign with the city of Sonitapura as his' capital. Then he went to the vicinity of the Himalayas and began to do penance thinking of Siva. Siva made his appearance and asked him what he wanted. He requested that he should be considered as the son of Parvati and that he should be given thousand hands so as to destroy all his enemies. Siva granted him the boon. From that day onwards Parvati considered him as the younger brother of Subrahmanya. He returned to his Kingdom and began to reign.


3) Battle with Sri Krsna and his fall. (See the word Aniruddha).


4) Other information. (1) In the Pur5nas Banasura is often called by the name Mahakala, which is the name of an attendant of Siva. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 20) .


(2) Sukracarya (the teacher of the Asuras) always worked for the uplift of Bana. (M.B., Sabha Parva, Chapter 38, Stanza 29) .


3) In the Battle with Sri Krsna, Bana was helped by


iva, Subrahmanya, and the Gods like Agni (fire) and others. (M.B., Sabha Parva, Chapter 38) .


(4) Sri Krsna cut down the thousand hands - of Bana with his Cakrayudha (the wheel weapon). (MA, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38).


(5) Bana often stood under the cover of the mountain of Kraunca and attacked the devas (gods). So once Subrahmanya had to cut the mountain Kraunca with his arrows. (M.B., Salya Parva, Chapter 446, Stanza 82).


BANA III. A warrior of Subrahmanya. Mention is made about this Bana in Mahabharata, galya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 67.


BANA IV. An asura. During the regime of Sri Rama this Asura fought against the King and his brothers. A givalinga had beer, consecrated in the throat of this


asura. So it was not possible for Laksmana to defeat him though he had fought with him for so many days. Laksmana heard an etherial voice saying, "Unless and until the image of 8ivalinga is removed from his throat Bana could not be killed." By the operation of arrows Laksmana smashed the image of Sivalinga in his throat. With the same arrow he cut the throat of .the asura also and thus Bana was killed. (Kampa Ramayana, Uttara Kanda ) .


BANDHUDAYADA. A son who can claim to be a heir. The Puranas state about six different kinds of Bandhudayadas.


1) Svayari jata. A son born to one's wife without a progenitor.


2 ) Pranita. A son born to one's wife by the blessing of any holy man.


3) Putrikdputra. Son of one's daughter.


4 ) Paunarbhava. A son born after a re-marriage. 5 ) .Ii'anina. A son born before marriage.


6) Bhanja. Son of one's sister. All these sons are heirs. (Chapter 119, Adi Parva, M.B. ).


BANDHUMAN. A king of the country of Videha. ( Chapter 6, Brahmanda Purana ) .


BANDHUMATI. A lady attendant of Vasavadatta, wife of Udayana. (See Vasavadatta).


BARBARA. A country of puranic fame. The people living there were called Barbaras. They were considered as low caste people. There is also a statement that these people were born of the sides of the cow, Nandini. (S`loka 37, Chapter 174, Adi Parva, M.B.). During the victory march of the Pandavas Bhimasena conquered the Barbaras. Nakula also conquered these people. (Chapter 32, Sabha Parva, M.B.). In the Rajasuya yajna of Dharmaputra the Barbaras were present with gifts.


BARBARIKA. Son of Maurvi born of Ghatotkaca, son of Bhima. Skanda Purana gives the following details about him.


Barbarika was a Yaksa in his previous life. Once the devas unable to bear the insufferable harm done to them by the Danavas approached Lord Mahavisnu for help and then the Yaksa who was present there at that time said with arrogance, "There is no need for Visnu to curb the activities of the Danavas. I shall do it myself." Hearing those arrogant words Brahma cursed him saying that in his next life he would be killed by Visnu.


True to the curse the Yaksa was born in his next life as Barbarika, son of Ghalotkaca. To lessen the force of the curse Krsna advised him to worship Devi. At last pleasing the goddess by the kindly help of a Brahmin named Vijaya Barbarika killed a demoness called Mahajihva and a demon of name Repalendra. The Brahmin further gave him a weapon named Vibhuti which could split the vital centres of the body of an enemy and said, "Use this weapon against the Kauravas who oppose the Pandavas."


Once Barbarika defeated his grandfather Bhima in a battle and greatly grieved over the injury done started to commit suicide. Then Devi appeared before him and reminded him thus, "You will get salvation only if you are killed by Sri Kxsna and so desist from committing suicide."


* In the original of Bhagavata this name is given as Balvala. But in the Malayalam translation the name used is "Valkala".


The great war started and Barbarika fighting on the side of the Pandavas started using his weapon Vibhuti. He sent it against all excepting the Pandavas, Krpacarya and Asvatthama. He did not leave even Krsr~a alone and the weapon fell on the feet of Krsna also. Enraged at this Krsna used his Sudarsana dakra and cut off his head ; at once Devi appeared and brought him to life. After the great battle on the advice of Krsna Barbarika went and lived in Guptaksetra.


BARHANJAVA. A king born of the dynasty of emperor Prthu. Descending in order : Prthu-Visvarandhi-CandraYuvaril3Va-Savanta - Brhada'sva - Dhundhumara (alias Valaya'sva) - Drdhasva - Haryasva - Nikumbha and to Nikumbha was born Barhana'sva and from him Krsa~vaPrasenajit-Yuvana°sva - Mandhata. (Saptama Skandha, Devi Bhagavata) .


BARHIS. A devagandharva clan. These were born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife Prtha. (Chapter 65, Adi Parva, M.B.).


BARHISAD (S) . A class of Manes. It is mentioned in Agni Purana, Chapter 20 .that some classes of manes such as Agnisvattas, Barhisads, Anagnis, and Sagnis are said to have derived from Brahma. Brahma created two different sets of Pitts, Agnisvattas and Barhisads. (Chapter 10, Am'sarn 1, Visnu Purana).


TheseBarhisads who are members of the Yamasabh5 (council of the God of Death) perform the mantric rites for the dead. The name brings into its fold the world of the seven sacred sages also. (Chapter 208, 8anti Parva, M.B.). It was through these Barhisads that Brahma taught Satvatadharma to a brahmin who became wellknown later as jyestha. (Chapter 34, Sloka 45, Santi Parva, M.B.).


Manusmrti states that the Barhisads are the sons of the Maharsi Atri and the Pitts of all the Daityas, Danavas, Yaksas, Gandharvas, Uragas, Raksasas, Suvarnas and Kinnaras.


(Manusmrti, Sloka 196, Chapter 3) .


BARHISMATI.Wife of Priyavrata, son of Svayambhuva Manu and brother of Uttanapada. She was the daughter of Visvakarmaprajapati. Priyavrata married another daughter of his named Surupa. Surupa delivered ten sons and a daughter. They were : Agnidhra, Idhmajihva, Yajnabahu, Mahavira,~ Rukmafiukra, Ghrtaprstha, Savana, Madhatithi, Vitihotra, Kavi and a daughter 'Crjjasvati. Priyavrata got of his wife Barhismati three sons, Uttama, Tamasa and Raivata. These sons became in due course the Manvantaradhipatis. (Astama Skandha, Devi Bhagavata).


BARHASPATYA. The Nitisastra of Brahma. Brhaspati condensed and codified the laws of Ethics by Brahma. This was compiled by Brhaspati. This book contains three thousand chapters. Mention is made about this Book in Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 59, Stanza 84.


BASKALA I. A king of the asuras.


1) Birth. Two sons, Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu and a daughter Simhika, were born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife Diti. Simhika became the wife of Vipracitti. Four sons, Anuhrada, Hrada, Prahlada and Sarizhlada, were born to Hiranyakasipu. Hrada was the son

of Hrada. Three sons Ayusman, gibi and Baskala were born to Sarhhrada.


2) Later history. Baskala became one of the ministers of the famous and mighty hero Mahisasura. Ciksura was the minister of law and order. Tamra was the Finance Minister. Asiloma was the Prime Minister and Bidala the r=ainister of foreign affairs. Udarkka was the gencra1 of the army; Baskala, Trinetra and Kalabandhaka were members of the administrative council. 8ukracarya was the minister of education. Baskala played an important part in the battle between, Mahisasura and Indra. When soldiers were killed by thousands, Mahisasura sent lastly, Baskala and Durmukha. Baskala engaged himself in a combat with Devi who fought on the side of tire Devas. Baskala became angry and aiming at the breast of Devi he gave a severe blow with his club. But Devi evaded him with her club and gave him a severe thrust with her trident at his breast and Baskala fell dead. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19; Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 5).


BASKALA II. One of the disciples of Vyasa. (See the word Guruparampara) .


BATU (VATU). A Brahmin who reads the Gita daily. Because in life he held fast to duty he was carried to heaven after death. The dead body was eaten away by birds and the bony skeleton remained. When rains started the empty skull was filled with water and a sinner passing that way touched the skull and the sinner got salvation. (Padma Purana, Uttara Khancla).


BAUDHAYANA. A teacher-priest who acted according to Kalpa Sutras (rituals of sacrifices).


BHADRA I. A king of Cedi who fought on the Pandava side. Karna killed him. (Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 48) .


BHADRA II. One of the four elephants which, from Pdtala, support the world. (See Astadiggajas).


BHADRA III. Son of Sraddha, daughter born to Svayambhuva Manu by his wife gatariipa. Sraddha had the following sons : gubha, Prasada, Maitriputra, Abhaya, Dayatmaja, kntija, Bhadra, Muda, Tustija Smaya, Pustija and Yoga. (Bhagavata, Caturtha Skandha)


BHADRA IV. A yaksa, one of the ministers of Kubera. He had to be born as a lion on account of the curse of sage Gautama.


BHADRA V. People of the kingdom of Bhadragana are generally called Bhadras. It is stated in the SabhA Parva that the Ksatriya princes of Bhadragana presented lots of money in connection with the Rajasuya yajfia of Yudhisthira.


BHADRA VI. A maharsi, son of Pramati, and father of Upamanyu.


BHADRA VII. A son born to Sri Krsna of Kalindi. (Bhagavata, Dasama Skandha).


BHADRA I. See Bhadrakali.


BHADRA II. The beautiful daughter of King Kaksivan. She was married to King Vyusitas va of the Puru dynasty. When Bhadra, in unbearable grief lamented the death of her husband his soul appeared on the skies and blessed her. Accordingly she got pregnant by the corpse of her husband and delivered six sons. (Adi Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 38).


BHADRA III. One of the wives of Kubera. Kunti once related the story of Bhadra to I'dicall and exhorted her to live like Bhadra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 198; Verse 6).




BHADRA IV. The word Bhadra is used as another name of Subhadra, sister of Sri Krsna in Verse 14, Chapter 218 of Adi Parva.


BHADRA V. Yet another Bhadra, daughter of the King of Visala is mentioned in Chapter 45 of the Mahabharata. She did penance for getting the kingdom of KarUSa, when Si'supala disguised as King Karusa appeared on the scene and carried her away.


BHADRA VI. There is reference to another Bhadra, daughter of Soma in Chapter 154 of the Anusasana Parva. She once did intense penance to secure Utathya as her husband. Atri maharsi, father of Soma, came to know of the desire of his granddaughter, and got her married to Utathya.. Varuna once fell in love with Bhadra, who was an exceptionally beautiful woman, and abducted and concealed her in the sea. When Utathya returned to the Asrama, his wife was missing. He understood what had happened to Bhadra by the light of his divine knowledge (television of mind). Burning with anger he drank up the sea completely dry, and Varuna shuddering with fear returned Bhadra to Utathya,and profusely apo1ogised. Thus ended the problem.


BHADRA VII. Verse 24, Chapter 7 of the Mausala Parva, states that Bhadra, one of the four wives of Vasudeva, father of Sri Krsna died by jumping into the funeral pyre of her husband.


BHADRA VIII. A daughter of the King of KUL The grandson of Sagara, a king of the Solar dynasty married Bhadra, daughter of the King of Ki'si. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 96) .


BHADRA IX. One Bhadra, daughter of Meru was married by King Agnldhra. She had eight sisters, viz. Meru Devi, Pratirupa, Ugradamstri, Latd, Ramya, Syama, Nar! and Devaviti. (Bhigavata, Pancama Skandha).


BHADRA X. See Vidusaka.


BHADRA(M). A kingdom in ancient India. The Ksatriya princes of Bhadram gave costly presents to Dharmaputra at the Rajasuya Yaga (Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 14). Karna, in the course of his digvijaya (conquest of countries) subjugated this kingdom. (Vana Parva, Chapter 254. )


BHADRABAHU. A king of PuruVamsa. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata) .


BHADRACARU. A son of Pradyumna. (Bhagavata, Dasama Skandha).


BHADRADEHA. A king. According to the Visnu Purina he was one of the sons of Vasudeva by Devaki.


BHADRAKA I. A king belonging to the Anga dynasty. (Agni Purina, Chapter 277).


BHADRAKA II. A brahmin outcaste. This brahmin, who spent his whole life in committing sins, by chance, took magha bath for three days at Prayaga, and thus got himself sanctified.


King Virasena, who was then ruling the Avanti kingdom had earned ample sanctity by the performance of seventeen Asvamedha yagas: The Deaths of King Virasena and Bhadraka took place on one and the same day. Though Bhadraka was immoral in his life, he went to heaven along with Virasena after death as he had taken the magha bath. (Padma Purina, Uttarakhanda).


BHADRAKALI. Another form of Parvati.


1) General. Lord Siva, on hearing about the selfimmolation in fire of his wife, Sat! at the famous yajna conducted by Dak~a 'rushed in all anger to the spot,


and beat the earth with his matted hair, and there ensued two forces called Virabhadra and Bhadrakall. This Bhadrakal! was really Sat! or Pirvat! in another form.


2) Bhadrakdl£ and Karnsa. There is a story in the DasamaSkandha. of Bhagavata that Kamsa took away from the room in which Devaki had delivered Seri Krsna the child of Yagoda by whom Krsna had been replaced, and dashed the child against a rock, and that the child then escaped from his clutches and rose up to the sky. That child was Bhadrakali in another form. (Agni Purina, Chapter 12) .


3) Kampa, Lankalak,smf and Bhadrakali. Lankilaksml, who was guarding the city of Lanka, was the first to prevent Hanuman from entering the city. Tamil Puranas aver that this Lankalaksmi was an incarnation of Bhadrakali. Hanuman thrashed Lankalaksm! with his left hand at which she vomitted blood and fell down unconscious. On regaining consciousness, remembrance of the past occurred to her, and after thanking Hanuman, who restored her to her former form, she returned to Kailasa. She complained to Siva that she could not witness the Rama-Ravana war. Then Siva told her thus


"You go to the Dravida country and be put up in the `Svayambhulinga' temple there. I shall be born there as Kampa, compose the Ramayana in Tamil and get conducted the dolls-play. Then you would be able to enjoy the story of Sri Rama, especially the Rama-Ravana war, both by hearing and seeing the same in better manner than by actually seeing the war.


Bhadrakali acted according to this bidding of -Siva. There lived a great scholar named Sankaranarayana close to the temple. His wife was Cinkaravalli. Lord Aiva, as decided upon previously was born as the son of Cinkaravalli, who had become a widow while she was worshipping `Svayambhizdeva' for the gift of a child. But, Cinkaravalli, who feared scandal in her, a widow, becoming a mother, forsook the child in the temple precincts and left the place. One Ganesakaunta sighted the orphan child, and took it to Jayappavallan, the Kaunta chief. The Kaunta chief, who was without children brought up the orphan child as though it had been his own child. Since the child was recovered from the foot of the flagstaff it was named Kampa. Kampa, who was very intelligent even in his infancy, but lazy by nature turned out to be a great scholar and good poet in Tamil by the time he grew up to be a youth, and he became, consequently a prominent member in the `poets' assembly' of King Cola. When to his name was added the plural suffix `r' as a token of great respect he came to be known as Kampar.


Once King Cola asked Kampar and Otlakkutta another member of the poets' assembly to compose in Tamil poetry the story of Sri Rama. The King's direction was that. Oltakkutta should compose his poem upto the incident, Setubandhana (building a bridge in the sea up to Lanka) and Kampar should write the story of the war in his poem. Ottakkutta completed the task allotted to him within six months. But Kampar had not attempted to write even a single line. Having been informed about the matter the King ordered that the poem, Ramayana should be recited in the assembly the very next day itself. Kampar, who began writing his poem the same day with the object of completing it in the night itself fell asleep without writing anything at all. When Kampar awoke early in the morning he saw a divine form disappearing from his room, and exclaimed, "Oh! mother ! you have slipped away". To this the divine form replies, "Oh Kampar ! I have finished writing". And, then the divine form vanished completely.


When Kampar got completely out of sleep and looked about he found the Ramayana story fully written in verse on his desk. Kampar inferred that the poem was composed by Saradabhagavati, the presiding deity of learning and literature, and he was wonder-struck. He recited the poem in the royal assembly, and the King and others too were wonder-struck. And, afterwards, according to the orders of the King the story of the war (Yuddhakanda Katha) began to be exhibited as dollsplay in the presence of the idol of the Devi in the temple. Thus Siva incarnated himself as Kampar, recited the story of the Rama-Ravana war in the temple, and hearing it Bhadrakali danced.


The above is the chief legend about Kampar.


BHADRAKALIPPATTU. (Pattu=Song). Folk song very popular in Kerala temples. The practice is to sing songs in praise of Bhadrakali


BHADRAKARA. A king of ancient India; he once left his kingdom, in fear of Jarasandha, and took refuge in South India. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 26) .


BHADRAKARIYESVARA(M). A sacred place. He who visits this place conducts worship will never have to face ill fate. (Vans Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 39).


BHADRAMATA (BHADRAMANA). Daughter born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife, Krodhavasa. The ten daughters of Krodhavasa are: Mgi, Mrgamanda, Hari, Bhadramata, Matangi, $ardduli, Sveta, Surabhi, Surasa and Kadru. (Sarga 14, Aranya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


BHADRAMATI. A very poor brahmin. This brahmin had six wives and two hundred and fortyfour daughters. (Narada Puranam).


Once, hearing the glory of Bhudana (giving away land free to the deserved) he was much impressed and from then onwards he became filled with a strong desire to give land free to the poor. He had no land of his own. But he went to the king ofKausambi and begged for some land which when received was immediately given as gift ~o poor brahmins. After that he went and bathed in the Papanasana tirtha situated in the mount of Venkatacala. Bhadramati got salvation by this good deed. (Skanda 2,1,10).


BHADRASAKA. A name of Subrahmanya. It is the figure of Subrahmanya in the shape of a goat that is known as Bhadrasaka. (8loka 4, Chapter 228, Vana Parva, M.B. ).


BHADRASALA(M). A forest on the top of the Mountain Bhadrasvavarsa which lies to the east of Mahameru. There is a tree called Kalamra in this forest. This is a very sacred tree standing miles high above other trees and is being worshipped by the Vrddhacaranas. By worshipping this tree the men have become white and majestic and by drinking a juice prepared from its leaves the women keep themselves eternally young. Chapter seven of Bhisma Parva says like this about this tree: "Kalamra stands towering miles high bearing flowers and fruits at all times of the year. The Vrddhacaranas worshipping it are white, strong and majestic. The women drinking its juice are lotus-complexioned, beautiful, Moonfaced, well versed in music and dance and having a life-span of over a thousand years, remaining young all the tune."


BHADRASARA. A king in the region of Kasmira. His only son, Sudharman, was very much devoted to Siva and spent most of his time worshipping him. The father tried his best to withdraw his son from this excessive devotion but failed.


Then one day the great sage, Parasara, came to the King as his guest and the King then requested him to make his son withdraw from his $iva-worship. But Parasara then told him about the previous life of Sudharma and consoling him persuaded the King to do the `Rudrabhiseka' (uninterrupted pouring of cold water over an idol of Siva) by himself. The king then entrusted the state with his son and left for the forests accepting an ascetic life. (Skandha Purana, 3.3.20-21).


BHADRASENA. A king. Uddalaka Maharsi performed a demoniac gaga to destroy this king. (Satapathabrahmana).


BHADRARAVAS. A king whom the Puranas extol as having ruled Saurastra in Dvaparayuga. At the forest of Naimisa sage Suta told the following story to explain how Laksmi (goddess of wealth) took her abode in the houses of men.


Bhadrasrava (Bhadra'sravas) who was ruling Saurastra had seven sons and a daughter of his wife Suraticandrika. The daughter was named 8yamabala. Once truthful-Syamabala was sitting under a green-wood tree with her playmates playing with diamonds and gold sand when the goddess of wealth disguised as an aged Brahmin woman went to the gates of the palace and asked for permission to see the queen, Suraticandrika. The sentries pressed for details about her and then she said this: "My name is Kamala. My husband is a man named Bhuvanasva and we live in Dvaraka. Your queen in her previous birth was a Vaisya woman. One day she quarrelled with her husband and he beat her hard and then crying loudly she ran out of the house. I met her and when she told me her story I instructed her to observe a Punyavrata (Fasting to any particular deity). She did it willingly and as a result she acquired great wealth and happiness.


One day the husband and wife died. Yama, the king of Death, then sent his orderlies to bring before him that couple who had always quarrelled with each other while living. Bound by ropes the ghastly servants of Yama were about to drag them to their land when the angelic servants of Visnu with the insignia of `garhkhaCakra-Gada' on their lapels arrived there and those messengers of Laksmi headed by Svaprakasa cut off the ropes and carrying them in a Rajahamsa chariot took them through noble paths to the land of Laksmi. They lived there happily for a period calculated at the rate of a thousand years for one week of Punyavrata observed. In the end to complete the goodness remaining they were born as King and queen on earth with plenty of wealth and happiness. But they have now forgotten about the Punyavrata and I have come here to remind them of it."


The gate-keeper immediately went to her mistress and told her all that happened. But the queen, Suraticandrika got angry when she heard the story and ordered the old woman to be sent away from there with thrashes. The old woman ran away from the palace crying loudly and Syamabala on hearing the 'cry went and enquired about the incident. On hearing the story from the woman Syamabala got instructions regarding that Punyavrata from the old woman and started observing it. Within four weeks she got married and went to her husband's house. After Syamabala's departure from the palace the wealth of the King began to wane and they became so poor that at the request of the queen the King Bhadra'srava went to his daughter to ask for help. The daughter gave his father a block of solid gold drapped in a paper. But on his return to the palace when he opened the bundle he found there a block of charcoal instead of gold. On seeing the mishap the king burst into a cry.


Suraticandrika then went to her daughter and was well received and attended to. During her stay there the Punyavrata day of the month came and the daughter tried her best to make her mother also observe the same. But the poverty-stricken queen broke the fast without her daughter's knowledge by eating what remained in the dishes of the children. But the next month Syamabala compelled her mother to observe the fast strictly and so Suraticandrika took the Vrata successfully. A few days after that Suraticandrika returned home and to her amazement found everything in plenty there once more. (Chapter 11, Bhaga 2, Padma Purana).


BHADRASRENYA. A Hehaya King who was ruling a state with Mahismati as capital. He had fought many wars with Divodasa, king of KUL (See under Divod5sa).


BHADRASVA I. A king of Puruvarhsa. He was the son of Rahovadi. Bhadra'sva had ten sons: Rkseyu, Krseyu, Sannateyu, Ghrteyu, Citeyu, Sthandileyu, Dharmeyu, Sammiteyu, Krteyu and Matinara. (Chapter.278, Agni Purana).


Once Agastya went and stayed for seven days in the palace of Bhadra'sva and his wife Kantimati. Everyday Agastya used to speak in glowing terms about Kantimad and asked about the reason for it he replied


"In her previous birth Kantimati was a servant girl in a wealthy house. The master of the house once entrusted her with the task of seeing that none of the temple lights went out on the night of Dvadasi in the month of Tula (Asvina-October). She did her duty so willingly and sincerely that she was born as a queen and you a King". Then Agastya gave them instructions about that Vrata which both Bhadrasva and Kantimati observed sincerely, receiving as a result benediction from Visnu. (Vayu Purana).


BHADRASVA II. Agnidhra, son of Priyavrata and grandson of Mann, got nine sons of his wife Purvacitti, a celestial maiden. One of the sons was Bhadrasva. His brothers were Nabhi, Kimpurusa, Hari, Ilavrta, Ramyaka, Hiranmaya, Kuru and Ketumala. The country ruled by Bhadrasva was called Bhadraisva lying to the east of the mountain Gandhamadana. (Pancama Skandha, Bhagavata).


BHADRASVA. An island near the mountain of Meru. Dharmaputra was ruling this land and Sanjaya once described this land to Dhrtarastra. (Chapter 14, Sand Parva and Chapter 7, Bhisma Parva).


BHADRATANU. An immoral brahmin. On the advice of Danta be became a devotee of Visnu and attained salvation. (Padma Purana, Kriya, Chapter, 17).


BHADRATUIVGA. A sacred place; a dip -in ?Ihe holy


waters of this place would entitle one to Brahmaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 80).


BHADRAVATA. The abode of Parvati and Paramesvara. The glory of it is described in Chapter 82, Vana Parva, M.B.


BHADRAYU. A king who was a devotee of Siva. He was a leper and in his life he sufered much, even the pangs of death. His wife was the dutiful and good natured 1ady, Kirtimalini.


On the sixteenth birthday of Bhadrayu Siva appeared before him in the name of Rsa.bha and blessed him after instructing him on the precepts of Rajadharma. He further gave him a dagger and a conch as weapons and twelve thousand elephants. With the might of all these, Bhadrayu became unconquerable. (Siva Purana, gatarudrasarnhita).


One day, while Bhadrayu was ruling the country, Siva came in the guise of a tiger and carried away the wife of a brahmin. Bhadrayu, a firm protector of his subjects gave his own wife to the brahmin and prepared himself to give up his life in fire. Siva greatly pleased at this' selfless act of Bhadrayu befitting a true King appeared before him and blessed him and gave back the brahmin his wife.


Bhadrayu in his previous birth was a King called Mandara and Kirtimalini in her previous birth was Pirigala, queen of Mandara. (Skanda Purana, 3.3.12; 9.14).




1) General. One of the twelve Adityas born as sons of Ka'syapa prajapati by his wife, Aditi. Visnu, Sakra, Aryaman, Dhata, Tvasta, Pusa, Vivasvan, Savita, Mitra, Varuna, Am'su and Bhaga-these are the Dvadasadityas, and they were Devas famous as Tusitas in the last Caksusamanvantara.


2) Other information. (1) Bhaga married Siddhi, and the couple begot three sons called Mahiman, Vibhu and Prabhu and three daughters called Suvrata, Vararoha, and Asis.


(2) Bhaga participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 66).


(3) At the time of Khandavadaha (burning of the Khandava forest) Bhaga, as a supporter of Indra, who was fighting Arjuna and Sri Krsna, sprang upon the enemies with sword in hand. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 236, Verse 36) .


(4) Bhaga shines forth in Indra's assembly. (M.B., Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 22).


(5) Bhaga was also present at the installation of Subrahmanya as commander of the fighting forces. (M.B., Salya Parva, Chapter 45) .


(6) After Devayuga (Deva age), the Devas asembled together and decided upon the share of yajnas due to each of them, and in thus fixing shares they left out Rudra. Enraged at this neglect Rudra made a bow and 'ought against the Devas. During the fight Rudra, with the point of his bow, extracted the hands of Savita, the eyes of Bhaga and the teeth of Pusa. Ultimately the Devas satisfied and pleased. Rudra, who returned to Bhaga and others the eyes etc. which had been extracted. (M.B., Sauptika Parva).


BHAGA II. Certain Puranas refer to Bhaga as one of the eleven Rudras. But, this view is not universally accepted.


BHAGA III. A vedic god considered to be the lord of wealth, prowess and happiness. Bhaga is also one of the six Adityas mentioned in the Rgveda, viz. Bhaga, Mitra, Aryama, Varuna, Daksa and Arh'sa. (Rgveda, 2.27) .


BHAGADA. An attendant (woman) of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 26) .


BHAGADATTA. Bhagadatta was King of Pragjyotisapura. Mahabhdrata furnishes the following information about him.


1) Bhagadatta was born from a limb of the asura called BASkala. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 9).


2) He was present at the wedding of Pancali. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 12) .


3) Known also as 1ord of the Yavanas (Yavanadhipa). Bhagadatta was a friend of Pandu, and that friendship was transferred to Yudhisthira too. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 14).


4) The triumphal tour of Arjuna in connection with the Rajasuya yajfia performed by Yudhisthira evoked feelings of jealousy in the heart of Bhagadatta, and he fought against Arjuna. The courage and prowess Arjuna exhibited in the fight astonished Bhagadatta, who congratulated Arjuna on his supreme courage and admitting defeat yielded to Arjuna.


Chapter 26, Verse 7) .


5) Bhagadatta, along with the Yavanas was present at the Rajasaya of Yudhisthira. He also made presents of horses of very high pedigree and very costly gems etc. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 14) .


6) Karna once defeated Bhagadatta in fight. (Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Verse 5).


7) In the great war he, with his army, fought on the side of Duryodhana. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 15).


8) During the first day of the war Bhagadatta fought a duel with the King of Virata. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 49) .


9) He was defeated in his fight with Ghatotkaca. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6,4, Verse 59).


10) In the fight which took place after the above defeat Bhagadatta caused Bhimasena to faint in the field. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 13).


11) And after that he defeated Ghatotkaca in fight. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 40).


12) Next ensued the combat with King Dasarna in which the King was defeated. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 48) .


13) It was not long after this that Bhagadatta cut off the hands of the Ksatradeva. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 73).


14) Vi'soka, the charioteer of Bhima-sena, hit by the arrows of Bhagadatta fell down and fainted. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 76).


15) Bhagadatta and Satyaki fought against each other. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 111, Verse 7).


16) Chapters 113 and 114 of the Bhisma Parva describe the combats fought by Bhagadatta with BhYmasena and Arjuna.


17) Bhagadatta and Drupada fought with each other. (Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 40).


18) Bhagadatta killed king Dasarna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 38) .


(Sabha Parva,


19) Bhagadatta killed Ruciparvan. (Drona Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 52) .


20) He shot the Vaisnavastra (arrow given by Visnu) on Arjuna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 17).


21) Aijuna killed Bhagadatta. (Drona Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 48).


22) After his death, his son, Vajradatta became King of Pragjyotisa. Arjuna killed Vajradatta also. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 76) .


23) King gailalaya, who was Bhagadatta's grandfather, attained Indraloka on account of the greatness of his tapas. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 10) .


BHAGANANDA. An attendant woman of Subrahmanya. (8alya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 11) .


BHAGAVADDHYANAPARVA. A sub-parva of UdyogaParva. It comprises chapters 72-150 in Udyoga Parva.


BHAGAVATA. One of the eighteen famous Puranas. Gayatri is the main theme of this Purana and based on it it dwells on the greatness of Dharma (duty) and states about the dharmas of Sarasvatakalpa. (See under Purana).




1) General. The Bhagavad Gita is a poem consisting of 650 verses divided into eighteen chapters. The Gita covers chapters 25-45 in the Bhisma Parva of the Mahabharata, and it is in the form of a talk or discussion between Arjuna and Lord Krsna. The mighty armies of the Pandavas and the Kauravas were arrayed on opposite sides for mortal combat on the field of Kuruksetra when Arjuna, overcome by grief at the prospect of fathers, brothers, preceptors and other Kinsmen fighting and killing one another expressed to his charioteer, Sri Krsna his aversion to fighting. But, the Lord pointed out to the unwilling Arjuna, by unique and various arguments, his imperative duty, under the circumstance, to fightandfight in heroic earnestness with the result that Arjuna shed his disinclination to fight and entered the fray, which ended in the ultimate victory of the Pandavas. And the dialogue between Arjuna and Krsna, and especially the great teaching of Krsna on the field form the theme of the Gita. The Gita contains three spheres or fields of teaching; the karma yoga (philosophy of action), jnana yoga (philosophy of knowledge) and Bhaktiyoga (philosophy of devotion). The three yogas are treated each in six chapters.


The theme of the Gita is philosophy, and it is revered as one of the most sublime philosophical texts of the Hindu religion. Many a great thinker and philosopher like Acarya Sankara, Ramanujacarya and Madhvacarya have, annotated, and written commentaries on the Gita. There is a school of thought which believes that the Gita was taught to Arjuna by Krsna himself on the battle-field in something like tabloid form and that Vyasa eleborated the mighty teaching in its present form. The poet, Bana, who flourished in the 7th century A.D., and the great 8ankara, who lived in the 8th century believed that the Gita was sung by Krsna himself. But there are some modern thinkers, who argue that the Gita was composed some time between the third and fourth centuries B.C. and it was interpolated into the Mahabharata in the second century A. D.


The Gita has translations in all the languages of the world. The whole world has acclaimed it as a very weighty and valuable contribution in the sphere of philosophy.


2) Theme of the Qitd. It has been mentioned above that the Gita forms chapters 25-45 in the Bhisma Parva of the Mahabharata. The subject-matter of each chapter of the Gita is given below.


Chapter 25. ArJunavisdda yoga:-Both the armies take positions in Kuruksetra. At the sound of the conches Aijuna becomes dejected and sorrowful at the prospect of killing relations, preceptors and Kinsmen.


Chapter 26. Sdriekhya yoga :-The greatness and majesty of the Sariikhya and the Karma yogas.


Chapter 27.- Karma yoga :-The need for action according to the Jnana and the Karma yogas.


Chapter 28. Iyadnakarma Vibhaga yoga :-Power of Saguna Brahma (Brahma with attributes), Niskama-karma yoga (Action without an eye on the result) spiritual greatness of various yajnas.


Chapter 29. Sannyasa yoga :-S amkhya yoga, Niskamakarma yoga, Jfidna yoga, Jnana yoga with Bhakti.


Chapter 30. Atmasarryama yoga :-Niskamakarma yoga, Atmodharana, Jnanayoga.


Chapter 31. Yndna yoga _ Jnanavijnanas, origin of the world, the Daiva and Asura aspects of Lvara, worship of other Devas.


Chapter 32. Tarakabrahma yoga :-Seven questions of Arjuna about Brahma, Atmatatva and Karma. Sri Kr,sna's answers thereto. Bhakti yoga, the Sukla and -the krsna margas.


Chapter 33. Rajardja gulya yoga : Jnana and Vijnana, origin of the world, Isvarasvarupa, Sakamaniskamopdsana, Bhagavadbhakti.


Chapter 34. Vibhuti yoga : -Bhagavan's Vibhuti (Divine attributes) , Bhakti yoga.


Chapter 35. Irisvarupadar~ana yoga :- Arjuna's prayer to be shown Visvarupa (cosmic form), description of visvarRpa by Sri Krsna and Sanjaya, Sri Krsna reveals visvarupa to Arjuna; fear-stricken at the sight, Arjuna sings the praise of Krsna.


Chapter 36. Bhaktiyoga :- The great benefits of worshipping God with form and without form.


Chapter 37. Ksetraksetrajrta hibhaga yoga :-Description of Ksetraksetrajfia with Jrfiana, and of Prakrti and Purusa.


Chapter 38. Gzrnatrayavibhaga yoga:- The greatness of Jfiana; world's origin from Prakrti and Purusa, the three gunas, sattva, rajas and tamas; means to attain god; marks of Yugatitapurusa.


Chapter 39. Parusottama yoga:- Essential principles of world and life, attainment of God, relationship between jivatma and:Paramd tma, principle and theory of ksara purusa and aksara purusa.


Chapter 40. Daivasura sampadvibhaga yoga:-Good actions, evil deeds, scientific actions and unscientific actions.


Chapter 41. 9raddhdtrayavibht7ga yoga:--Descriptions of Scientific tapas, diet, yajfiatapas and dana. Interpretation of Om.


Chapter 42. Moksasannydsa yoga:- Ty5gam, Samkhya theory, Varnadharmas, jndnanistha, Niskamakarmayoga with bhakti and the greatness of the Gita.


(For another story about the greatness of the Gita see Dussasana II).


BHAGAVATT. The words Bhagavan and Bhagavati mean Paramatma (universal self) and Prakrti (Nature and its modifications) respectively. Prakrti is also called by the name Sakti. The following elucidation once given by Mahavisnu about Bhagavan and Bhagavati is greatly illuminating.


Time, space, atmosphere and the universe (Brahmandam) are, just like Paramatma, eternal. This is the truih and reality. Below this eternal Gokula exists Vaikunthaloka, which also is, like the former, eternal. Just like this, Prakrti, which is a sport to Brahma and is also without beginning or end (Sanatani) too is eternal. In the same manner as flame exists in fire inseparable from it, moonlight in moon, beauty in the lotus flower and brightness in the sun, so does nature exist in soul inseparable therefrom. In the same way as the goldsmith cannot make gold ornaments without gold and the potter cannot make pots without clay, the Paramatma will not in the least be able to function unaided by Prakrti. Prakrti (Nature, Devi) is al1 powerful. 'Para' becomes powerful enough to do everything when he joins the Devi.


The sound `ga' means welfare and good fortune, and the sound °kti' means prowess. Hence "Sakti" means the embodiment of welfare and prowess or she, who is the giver of welfare and prowess. Bhagavati combines in herself knowledge, affluence, riches, fame and strength. As the Paramatma is always with and inseparable from such Bhagavati he is called Bhagavan also. When Prakrti and Paramatma remain combined it is called Parabrahma, which possesses neither form nor attributes. And, when Prakrti and Purusa separate, of their own accord, they assume forms and attributes.


The above is Saiva doctrine in a nut-shell. The Vaisnavas do not accept this position. They ask, "How is it possible to have brightness or effulgence without there being an effulgent one ?" Therefore, the Vaisnavas believe in the existence, at the centre of an effulgent sphere, of a thing possessing the utmost effulgence and brightness equal to that of Brahma. This `thing'Deva-is very efficient and effective to remedy sorrows due to birth, death, disease etc. and to him the lifetime of Brahma is just one minute only. This Deva is called Paramatma, Parabrahma and Krsna by the Vaisnavas. `Krs' means maximum devotion (love) towards Paramatma, and `na' means he who becomes slave to such devotion. Hence Krsna means he who becomes a slave to the love of his devotees. There is another meaning also for the word Krsna. Krs means all and `na' means seed or root; and thus Krsna means he, who is the root of everything. In the very beginning there was only this Krsna ; and this Lord, subject only to his own will and pleasure, divided himself into two, the left side becoming woman and the right side man. (Devi Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


BHAGINI. A word used in addressing women. Verse 129 in chapter two of the Manusmrti lays down that the wife of another person and women who are not one's relatives should be addressed either as Bhavati, Subhage or Bhagini.




1) Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus: BrahmaMarici - Kasyapa-Vivasvan-Vaivasvata manu-IksvakuVikuksi-gasada -Kakutstha-Anenas-Prthulasva-Prasenajit-Yuvanasva - Mandhata - Purukutsa - TrasadasyuAnaranya-Haryasva-Vasumanas - Sudhanva - Traiyyaruna-Satyavrata or TrAanku - Hariscandra-Rohitasva- Harita - Cuncu - Sudeva - Bharuka - Bahuka - SagaraAsamanj as-Ariiguman *-Bhagiratha.


2) Recluse. Many years had not lapsed after his coronation as King when, in the heart of Bhagiratha spiritual thoughts began to crop up. A great sage ca1led Tritula was his guru. Once Bhagiratha asked the guru what was the means to get rid of worldly sorrows, and the guru replied as follows:-


The ego will be annihilated when the tendencies and cravings towards objects of the senses are absolutely suppressed and the whole and perfect truth is realised through knowledge, the practice of concentration etc. The ego will not disappear as long as one does not become one's real self by completely overcoming the sense of pride, shame etc. which form the outer case of worldly life. The egoless state is the ultimate achievement and most supreme state. Oh ! Bhagiratha ! if you would get rid of sentiments like pride etc., give up all attachment to material objects, become fearless and gift away, with thoughts concentrated on the inner seif, all your wealth to enemies, and then move among those enemies, without any sense of ego and pride about this material body, and take alms from them (enemies) and also give up me, who am your preceptor in the matter of knowledge ; then you will become the most sublime Brahma". This advice of the guru affected him so much that Bhagiratha, holding his duties firmly in mind, engaged himself in spiritual practices, and after spending some time thus he performed, according to rules, the Agnisloma yajfia aimed at gifting away everything. All wealth like cows, land, horses, gold etc. were distributed in gifts to noble brahmins and the poor folk according to their eligibility for the same. Within three days he had gifted away everything except the clothes he was wearing. And, then he invited his neighbouring enemy king and gave to him, without the least hesitation, the kingdom which had been bereft of all wealth. The ministers and other citizens felt very sorry about the whole thing. But, Bhagiratha left the country at once for other places having with him only the clothes he was wearing. He spent his days in various places and forests where he was not known even by name. Ere long, Bhagiratha attained ultimate spiritual solace. And, then he accidentally came to his former kingdom, which was then being ruled by the enemy King. The ministers and other citizens to whose houses he went begging for alms recognised him, and with sorrow unbearable they appealed to him to accept the throne again and rule the country. Bhagiratha rejected their request, and, after staying there for some time, he started for other places. During this wandering of his he met his old preceptor, Tritula, and both of them, in company, toured for some time cities and forests. They felt it very painful to keep on to their body like that. They thought like this : "Why should the body be kept like this. What if this material object continues to exist or perishes ? But let it (the body) continue as long as it exists without in any way being against the order of things and ethical practices". And, in this frame of mind they traversed the forests. Now, the minister of a distant kingdom who was on the look out for a


*According to verse ia, Chapter 25, of Vana Farva, Bhagiratha is the son of Amsuman.


successor to the King who had died heirless, persuaded Bhagiratha to accept the Kingship of that country. The ministers of $hagiratha's former Kingdom also now requested him to resume his old kingship, especially since its new ruler had already expired. Bhagiratha obliged them, and became once again King of his own country.. (Jnanavasistham).


3) Bhagirathabrayatnam. (Himalayan or Herculean effort). Sagara, an old predecessor of Bhagiratha had two wives called Kesini and Sumati. Kesini had one son named Asamanjas and Sumati 60,000 sons. Sagara once conducted an Asvamedha yajna in the IndoGangetic plane, when Indra stole away the sacrificial horse and kept it quite near to sage Kapila who was doing tapes in Patala. The 60,000 sons of Sagara set out in search of the horse and found it out in Patala. At the sight of the horse they shouted themselves hoarse. Enraged at this sage Kapila reduced those sons of Sagara to ashes in the fire which emanated from his eyes.


After entrusting Asamanjas with the duty of performing the funeral rites of his 60,000 sons Sagara expired. Asamanjas transferred that duty on to Amsuman, and he to Bhagiratha. Bhagiratha did penance on the seashore concentrating his mind on Garigadevi. The Devi appeared before Bhagiratha and asked him to choose what boon he would, and he requested the Devi to perform the funeral rites of 60,000 sons of Sagara remaining in the form of ashes in Patala. To this Gatigadevi replied that the earth will not be able to withstand the impact of her powerful flow, but she shall, if S`iva permits, flow into his matted hair. And, Gairgadevi asked Bhagiratha to first get that permission. This did not dishearten Bhagiratha, who went to mount Kailasa to do penance so that Siva might grant him his prayer. He thus did penance for 1000 years. Siva appeared to him and agreed to receive the rushing flow of Gafigd water on his matted head. And, accordingly Siva stood in position to receive the rushing waters of Ganga, and Gafigd flowed on to his head. Even the most powerful flow of Gafigd water on his head did not cause diva to move from his position even by a hair's breadth. This awakened the conceit in Gangadevi ~ understanding which diva contained her on his head. Without finding any outlet the waters of river Ganga flowed along the matted hairs of Siva for thousand years. So, Bhagiratha had once again to please diva. Thus pleased again Siva shook his matted head and one drop of water fell on the ground, and that is the river Ganges in North India. The Gafigd flowed along plane ground to Patala and performed the funeral rites of Sagara's sons. (M.B. Vane Parva, Chapter 108 ; Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Canto 42; Brahmanda purana, Chapter 97 ; Bhagavata, Navama Skandha, Kampa Ramayana (Tamil), Yuddha Kanda; Padma Purana, Part 4, Chapter 21) .


4) Other Information.


(1) Bhagiratha is a, member of Yama's assembly and serves him. (M.B., abha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 11). (2) diva bestowed boons on him. ( Vana Parva, Chapter 180, Verse 1) .the son of Dilipa. But most of the Puranas refer to him a (3) Bhagiratha had faith in the great efficacy of making 25 gift of cows. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 76, Verse


(4) He married his daughter to Kautsa. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 131, Verse 25).


(5) Once Bhagiratha made a gift of one lakh of cows with calves to Maharsi Kohala, and attained Uttamaloka. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 27) .


Another name of Ganges. (See under BHAGIRATHI. Ganges ) .


BHAGNARATHA. A synonym of Citraratha. (See Citraratha ).


BHAGURI. A man of great erudition, Bhaguri was noted for his proficiency as a Sarvasastra Par dit (scholar of all sciences), Vyakaranakara (grammarian), Kosakara (etymologist), Jyotissastrajna (Astronomer) and Smrtikara (authority on Smrti).


BHAIRAVA I. A naga belonging to the Dhrtaraslra Vamsa. There is a reference to this naga in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 17. He was burnt up at the Sarpasatra performed by King Janamejaya.


BHAIRAVA II. A Parsada of Siva.


1) General. Immediately after his birth, this terrible monster subdued all the Devas without getting the permission of Siva. Enraged at it, diva turned him into a tree by a curse. But Siva was soon pacified and lifted the curse by declaring that those who offered puja to the gods would get the full reward for their worship only if they offered puja to Bhairava also.


Bhairava became a tree as soon as he was cursed. He became a tree because he subdued the gods. Therefore that tree came to be called "DAMANAKA" tree (Damana=Subdue). Ithas another name, ,TATIRI11 tree. Even now, pious people offer puja to this tree. (Agni Purana, Chapters 52-80) .


2 ) Birth. Once Brahma and Visnu became swollen with pride. In his haughty way, Brahma insulted Siva. Under the insult, diva was infuriated and out of the fire of his'fury was born Bhairava with his black form. (Linga Purana 1.90) .


3 ) Brahmahatya. As soon as he was born, Bhairava rushed towards Brahma and pinched off his "fifth head which had insulted diva. By this, he incurred the sin of Brahmahatya. For the expiation of this sin, as ordered by diva, Bhairava started on a journey to go abegging, with Brahma's severed head in his hand. Siva then created a woman named "Brahmahatya" and asked her to follow Bhairava.


Although Bhairava visited many holy places, he was not able to liberate himself from the sin of Brahmahatya. At last, at the suggestion of diva, he went to Varanasi and washed off his sin. Brahma's head which he carried, was also deposited there and the place became famous under the name of "Kapalamocana tirtha". (diva Purana, Satarudra Samhita).


4) Family. In Kalika Purana there is an elaborate account of the family of Bhairava. According to this Purana, Vijaya, the reputed King of Varanasi was born in the family of Bhairava. Kalika Purana also says that Vijaya destroyed the Khandavi city and set up the Khandava forest in its place.


According to Kalika Purana, Bhairava and Vetala were, in their previous births, two givaparsadas named Mahakala and Bhrngi. It was by the curse of Parvati.


that they were born as mortals in their next birth. ( Kalika Purana 53 ) .


The Puranas mention eight Bhairavas called Asitarhga, Ruru, Canda, Krodha, Unmatta, Kapali, Bhisana and Samhara.


5) Shape. Bhairava has a terrible shape. He wears the crescent moon and plaited hair on his head. His weapons are, sword, arrow, dagger, bow, trident, rope etc. At times he is dressed m elephant-skin. He has five faces. Serpents are his ornaments. (Agni Purana, Chapters 52-80 ) .


BHAIRAVI. One of the eight Ambas. They are


Rudrarcika, Rudracandi, Nalesvari, Mahalaksmi, Siddhacamundika, Siddhayogesvari, Bhairavi and Rupavidya. All these are the eight different forms of Devi. ( See the word DEVI).


BHAJAMANA. A Yadava King, whose father was Satvata and mother Kausalya, and they had, beside Bhajamana, another son called Satvata or Andhaka. Bhajamana married the two daughters of S njaya, named Bahyaka and Upabahyaka by whom he got six sons. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


BHAJYA. An acarya in the line of the Rk disciples of Vyasa. Bhajya studied Valakhilyasamhita at the feet of his guru Baskali. (Bhagavata, Dvadasa Skandha).


BHAKSAKA. A Sudra sinner. In Padma Purana the following story is related about this Sudra.


Bhaksaka who was once going aimlessly somewhere felt extremely thirsty, and quenched his thirst by drinking water which was found near the small platform raised for the holy Tulasi shrub. The sanctity of the water thus drunk washed away all the sin attached to him. Some time later he was killed by a forestdweller, and he attained svargaloka (heaven). Bhaksaka, in his previous birth, was a king who led a voluptuous life, and he, once, robbed a very beautiful woman of her chastity, and it was as a punishment for the sin that the King had to be born, in the next birth, in the womb of a udra woman. ( Padma Purana, Brahma Kanda, Chapter 22 ) .


BHAKTI. A Devi born in Dravida desa (Southern India). Once Devi, along with her two sons, Jnana and Vairagya, started on a walking tour to Gokula and Vrndavana via Karnataka, Maharastra and Gurjara (Gujarat). During the long tour the mother and her sons became aged. But, as soon as they set foot on Gokula and Vrndavana old age quitted Bhakti and she became young again. But, her sons remained old. So the mother requested Narada to turn them young again. Narada read out to them the Vedas, the Vedanta (Upanisads) and the Bhagavad Gita, all to no purpose. Bhakti's sons still remained old. Then Sanaka, Sananda and Sanatkumara asked Narada to read out the Bhagavata to them. Narada did so, and the sons of Bhakti Devi became young again. ( Padma Purana).


BHALANDANA. A king. Though by birth he was a brahmin he became a Vaisya because of doing things belonging to the Vaisya community like trade and commerce. (Markandeya Purana). According to the Bhagavata, Visnu Purana and Vayu Purana Bhalandana was the son of Nabhaga.


BHALLATA. A king. of the line of Bharata. He was the son of ding Visvaksena and father of King B,rhadasva. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata).


BHALLATA(M). A place of habitation in ancient India. Bhimasena conquered this land during his victory march. (91oka 5, Chapter 30, Sabha Parva, M.B.).


BHALUKI I. A Rsi, who was a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15) .


BHALUKI II. A maharsi. He also accompanied the Pandavas to Dvaitavanq. (Vana Parva, Chapter 27).


BHALUKI III. An acarya. He was a disciple of Lairgali, a member of the Sama line of disciples of Vyasa. (Vayu Purana).


BHAMAHA. A critic who lived in the sixth century A.D. He was one of the top critics in the Sanskrit language. His important work is `Kavyalarfkara'. This is also called Bhamahalamkara by a few. There are six chapters in this. The first chapter deals with Kavyasarira, the second and third with Alamkara, the fourth with Kavyadosa the fifth with Nyaya and the sixth with Sabdasuddhi. As against Dandi Bhamaha separates `Katha' from `Akhyayika'. According to him the requisites of a good Kavya are sweetness, pleasantness and liveliness. Dandi prescribes ten attributes for a good Kavya. Bhamaha is of opinion that Vakrokti is no alariakara at all. In a wider sense it is `atisayokti' (exaggeration). But Bhamaha admits it has a place in Kavya.


BHAMINI. Wife of Aviksit, King of Vaigali. The famous Marutta is the son born to this couple. The Markandeya Purana states that Bhamini once went to Nagaloka to give refuge to the serpents there.


BHANAVI. A river. Sri Rama and Laksmana on their way to the forests from Citrakuta crossed this river, Bhanavi. (Sarga 52, Ayodhya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana) .


BHANI)AYANI. A maharsi. This sage sits in Devaloka and worships Indra. (Sloka 12, Chapter 7, Sabha Parva, M.B.)


BHANDIRA(M). An ancient forest. It was in this forest situated in Arhbadi that Sri Krsna with his cowherd chums conducted his childhood exploits. There was a very huge tree of name Bhandira in this forest and it was under this great tree that Krsna and his friends met daily for their play. This forest is on the northern bank of Ganga in front of Kesighatta in Vrndavana. The PUranas proclaim that it was here that Brahma conducted the marriage of Krsna with Radha. (Chapter 38, Sabha Parva, Daksinatya Patha, M.B.).


BHANGA. A serpent born in the Taksaka dynasty. Bhanga was burnt to ashes at the Serpent Yajna performed by King janamejaya. (M.B., Chapter 57, Verse 9) .


BHANGAKARA I. A king, son of Aviksit and grandson of King Kuru of the Lunar dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 53 ).


BHAN'GAKARA II. A king of the Yadu dynasty. He attended the grand celebrations held at Mount Raivata. (Adi Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 11) .


BHANGASURI I. Another name of King Rtuparna.


BHANGASVAN (BHANGASVANA). A king in ancient India. For the story of his transformation into a woman refer to para 42 under `Indra'.


BHANU I. A son born to Krsna of Satyabhama. (Dasama Skandha, Bhagavata) .


BHANU II. Son of Dyau; this Bhanu was a guru of Surya. (Sloka 42, Chapter 1, Adi Parva, M.B.).


BHANU III. A devagandharva born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife Prtha. (Sloka 47, Chapter 65, Adi Parva, M.B.).


BHANU IV. He is the son of an agni called Pancajanya. He is born of the spiritual essence of Angiras and Cyavana. This Bhanu is called Manu and Brhadbhanu. (Chapters 220 and 221, Vana Parva, M.B.).


BHANU V. A king of ancient Bharata. This king took a flying tour of Kuruksetra in Indra's aeroplane to witness the battle between Arjuna and Drona. ($loka 9, Chapter 56, Virata Parva, M.B.).


BHANU VI. A yadava. He learnt the art of archery from Pradyumna. Sahadeva married the daughter of this Bhanu called Bhanumati. (Vana Parva, 180, 27 and Harivarnsa 2.20.12).


BHANUDATTA. A brother of 8akuni. In the Mahabharata battle he fought against Bhima and died. (Sloka 24, Chapter 157, Drona Parva, M.B._).


BHANUDEVA. A warrior of Pancala state. Karna killed him in battle. (Sloka 15, Chapter 48. Karna larva).


BHANUKOPA. A demon. He fought against Subrahmanya. (Asura Khanda, Skanda Purana).


BHANUMAN I. A king of the dynasty of Sri Rama. He was the father of a King called Sakradyumna. (Navama Skanda, Bhagavata).


BHANUMAN II. A son born to Krsna of Satyabhama. (Dasama Skandha, Bhagvata).


BHANUMAN III. A prince of Kalifiga. He fought on the side of the Kauravas and was killed by Bhimasena. (Chapter 54, Bhisma Parva, M.B. )


BHANUMATI I. The daughter of Bhanu, a leader of the Yadavas. When Sri Krsna went with his retinue of Yadavas to visit the holy palace called Pindaraka the Yadavas conducted a wine festival. During that festival a demon of the name Nikumbha carried away Bhanumati. This was because of a curse to Bhanumati from Durvasas whom Bhanumati did not respect once when they met at the garden of Raivata. Durvasas had after the curse consoled her by assuring her that she Would be saved and married by Sahadeva, one of the Pandavas. True to this, Bhanumati was married to Sahadeva in the presence of Narada and Krsna. (Vis4u Parva, Chapter 90) .


BHANUMATI II. Daughter of Krtavirya. She was the wife of Aharhyati, a king of the Puru line of monarchs. They had a son named Sarvabhauma.


BHANUMATI III. Daughter of Arigiras. She was extraordinarily beautiful. (S`loka 3, Chapter 218, Vana Parva, M.B.).


BHANUSENA. A son of Karna. He was killed in the battle by Bhimasena. (Sloka 27, Chapter 48, Karna Parva, M.B.).


BHARADVAJA I. Another name of Dirghatamas.


** Dirghatamas is also called Bharadvaja. But the Bharadvaja of puranic fame is not Dirghatamas. Dirghatamas is the son whom Brhaspati illegitimately got of Mamata, his brother's wife. There was then another legitimate child in the womb of Mamata. Knowing this the devas told her `Bharadvaja' meaning `bear the brunt of two' and so the son of Brhaspati got the name of Bharadvaja also. The real name of this son was Dirghatamas or Vitatha.. Dirghatamas is not the Bharadvaja who was the father of Dro4a. The famous Bharadvaja was the son of Atri. Dirghatamas or Vitatha was the adopted son of Eharata, son of Dusyanta. (Bhagavata and Kampardmayana. For details see under Bharata I and Dirghatamas.


BHARADVAJA II. The sage Bharadvaja of Puranic fame.


1) General information. Ayodhya Kanda of Kampa Ramayana states that this sage was the son of Atri Maharsi. He lived for many thousands of years. He is connected with Valmiki and the story of Sri Rama. Bharadvaja was for many years a disciple of Vahniki. He was present with Valmiki when the hunter killed one of the couple of Kraunca. When Valmiki and Bharadvaja reached the shores of the river, Tamasa, that day Valrriiki told Bharadvaja thus : "Look, Bharadvaja, what a clean ghat this is. The water is pure and clear. Place your water jug here and give me my valkala. We will get down here in this sacred water". Then Valmiki taking the valkala from the disciple walked along the shore admiring the beauty of the forest trees and found on his-way the historic Kraunca couple. (Sarga 2, Bales Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


2) Bharadvaja and the study of Vedas. Bharadvaja gave himself untiringly to the study of the Vedas. He obtained from Indra a boon to extend his term of life on earth to many thousands of years by different stages, each stage covering a span of a thousand years of life.. All these years he devoted to an incessant study of the Vedas. Finding the term not sufficient for completing the study of the Vedas he appealed to Indra again for extension and Indra appearing in person took him before three mountains and giving him three handfuls of sand told him thus, "What you have studied about Vedas till this time is equivalent to the amount of sand I have now given and what is yet to be studied about the Vedas is as big as the three mountains before you". Any other mortal being would have been disheartened by this revelation made by Indra, but not Blaaradvija. Undaunted he continued his studies. (Bhagavata).


3) Bharadaaia in the role of Bharadvaja was in Citrakuta and Sri Rdma and Laksmana in the beginning of their exile went to his asrama accepting his blessings. Bharata on his return from Kekaya knew about the exile of his brothers and hoping to bring them back to Ayodhya went in search of them with a big retinue of soldiers and men. Keeping the retinue outside, Bharata went to the aisrama of Bharadvaja. The latter decided to give Bharata and his people a grand reception and calling Visvakarma to his side asked him to arrange a royal banquet that night. Devas, Gandharvas, Apsarases, As£adikpalas and all such people were invited for the night. Renowned dancers from devaloka like Ghrtaci, Hem5,, VAvaci Misrakesi and Alambusa appeared for entertainment. Even Vanaraji took part in the dance. Dishes of food came to the guests of their own accord. The night came to an end wonderfully and at daybreak everything vanished and all were amazed at the magic of the sage. (Sarga 91, Ayodhya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


4) Drona's origin. Drona was the son born to Bharadvaja of the celestial woman, Ghltaci. (see under Droaia).


5) How Bharadaaja died once but was born again. See under Arva vasu.


6) The name Bharadvaja. This is how the connotation of the word is explained.


Bliare'sutan bhare 'sisyan Bhare devan bhare dvijan magician. The asrama of  Bhare ca bharyamavyajad Bharadvajo'smi sobhane  ( I protect even those who are not my sons, I protect  my disciples, I protect devas and the Brahmins. I  protect my wife and all these I do with ease and so I  am named Bharadvaja). (Blzagavata)  7 ) Other details.


(1) Bharadvaja once gave refuge in his asrama to Manorama, daughter of the King of Kaliriga and her son. (See under Manorama).


(2) The sixth mandala of 1Rgveda contains the songs o£ Bharadvaja.


( 3) He was among the sages who once went to Dvaraka and cursed Samba. ( See under Samba).


(4) Bharadvaja had a daughter Devavarnini whom Vi°sravas married and got the son, Kubera. (see under Kubera).


(5) Once Bharadvaja was travelling through an uninhabited forest with his son when he became exhausted by hunger and he then begged of a sudra, Prthu, several cows. (9loka 10'x, Chapter 1,. Manusmrti) .


(6 ) This sage took part in a birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Sloka 57, Chapter 122, Adi Parva, M.B.).


(7) Because of the blessing of Bharadvaja Bharata got a son named Bhumanyu. (SIoka 22, Chapter 94, fldi Parva, M.B.).


(8) Bharadvaja taught the secret of the missile Agenya to Agnivesa. (9loka 39, Chapter 129, Adi I'arva, NLB. ).


(9) He worshipped Brahma sitting in the council of Brahma. (8Ioka 22, Chapter 11, Sabha Parva, M.B.).


(10) This sage came to the battlefield during the Mahabharata battle and requested Drones to lay down his missile. (Sloka 35, Chapter 196, Drones Parva, M.B. ).


(11) Once Bhrgu Maharsi asked him some questions on the creation of this universe and Bharadvaja gave him satisfactory answers. ( Chapter 182, anti Parva, NLB.).


( T2) This sage performed the sacrifice Putrakamesti, and gave a son to Divodasa. (Chapter 30, Anusasana Parva, M.B. ) .


BHARADVAJA III. The eldest son of the Agni, Samyu. (Sloka 5, Chapter 219, Vanes Parva, M.B.).


BHARADVAJA IV. A renowned sage. Bharata, a King of the Puru line of kings, had no sons and as he was spending his days in sorrow Marutta gave Bharata this Bharadvaja as a son. Bharadvaja who was by birth a Brahmin from then onwards became a Ksatriya.


(Matsya Purana 49. 27-39 and Vayu Purana 99. 152-158).


BHARADVAJA VI. A brahmarsi who lived in the Purvamanvantara. He was living on the shore of Ganges doing rigorous penance. One day desirous of conducting a special type of Yajna he went to bathe in the river along with other sages. There he saw the celestial beauty, Ghrtaci, standing in all splendour after her bath. Bharadvaja had seminal emission and from that was born a daughter, Srutavati, to him. (Chapter 47, Salya Parva, M.B.).


BHARADVAJA VII. A great scholar well-versed in all the gastras. He is the author of `Dharmasutra' and °8rautasutra'. (The Visvavidyalaya of Bombay keeps a hand written copy of his work Srautasutra written in Pandu script).


BHARADVAJA I. A Maharsi. It was he who convinced Dyumatsena, father of Satyavan that he (Satyavan) would be endowed with long life. (Vana Parva, Chapter 288, Verse 16) .


BHARADVAJA II. The collective name of a particular sect of preceptors mentioned in the Upanisads. The Brhadaranyaka Upanisad refers to this sect of preceptors as disciples of Bharadvaja, Parasarya, Valaka, Kausika, Aitareya, Asurayana and Baijavapayana.


BHARADVAJA III. A grammarian. According to the Rktantra, pratisakhya of Samaveda, it was Brahma, who first composed the science of grammar. This science was taught by Brahma to others in the following order : Brahma to Brhaspati, he to Indra, Indra to Bharadvaja and he to his disciples.


Panini has discussed the grammatical concepts of Bharadvaja. Rkpratisakhya and Taittiriya have quoted the opinions of this grammarian.


BHARADVAJA(M). A place of habitation in ancient Bharata. (Sloka 68, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva, M.B.).


BHARADVAJATIRTHA. One of the five sacred places (bathing ghats in sacred rivers). (See Varga).


BHARADVAJI. A famous Indian river mentioned in the Puranas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 29).


BHARADVAJIPUTRA. A preceptor, who was a disciple of Parasariputra. In the Brhadaranyakopanisad he is referred to in many contexts as Vatsimandaviputra.


BHARANI. One of the twentyseven constellations. Punya is assured if one gives as gift a cow to a Brahmin on that day. (~loka 35, Chapter 64, Anusasana Parva, M.B. ).


BHARATA I. Son of Dusyanta born of gakuntala.


1 )Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu - BrahmaAtri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa - Yayati -Puru janamejaya - Pracinva - Pravira-Namasyu- Vitabhaya-Suridu-Bahuvidha- Sarhyati - Rahovadi - RaudraAva-Matinara-Santurodha-Dusyanta-Bharata.


2) Birth. Dusyanta was once hunting in the forests when he hit a fawn with his arrow. The fawn fled to the Asrama of Kanva Muni and the king followed it. On reaching the Asrama grounds he saw S`akuntala watering the plants helped by her companions Anasuya and Priyamvada. Dusyanta and gakuntali fell in love with each other at first sight. Kanva was absent from the Asrama and they married according to the Gandharva rites and 8akuntala became pregnant soon. The king gave her his signet ring as a sign of faith and left for his palace. When Dusyanta left her Sakuntala fell into a deep reverie and she never knew about the arrival of the arrogant sage, Durvasas to the asrama. Durvasas mistook her as disrespectful and cursed her saying that she would be forgotten by the man of whom she was thinking then. Sakuntala never knew about the curse also.


Kanva Muni when he returned to the Asrama and knew everything, sent gakuntala to the palace of Dusyanta. But King Duyanta never recognised her and when Sakuntala was' returning deeply grieved Menaka her mother, took her and left her in the a'srama of Kasyapa. There Sakuntala delivered a, son. The boy grew brave and fearless and he could subdue even the wildest of animals around there. Kasyapa, therefore, named him Sarvadamana.


Once when Dusyanta was returning home after visiting Indra he saw l;akuntala, recognised her, and took her and the boy to his palace. This was the boy who later on became known as Bharata. (Chapter 73, Adi Parva, M.B.).


3) Marriage and reign.


Bharata was a partial incarnation of Mahavisnu. Even while he was young he became a ruler and conquering the world destroyed the wicked. Bharata had three wives. All the sons born to them were bad and so the mothers killed them all. Aggrieved over the loss of his sons he worshipped the devas to get a son for him. At that time the great preceptor Brhaspati forcibly married Mamata the wife of his brother. Mamata was pregnant then and when she conceived from Bx'haspati also she bore two children. On delivery she threw the child of Brhaspati in the forests and went away with the other son.


The Devas took care of the discarded child and named him Bharadvaja and gave the child to Bharata. Bharata gave the boy, the name Vitatha (Dirghatamas) . Bharata ruled over has land for twentyseven thousand years and the land was, therefore, called Bharata. (Sloka 96, Chapter 2, Adi Parva, M.B.).


After ruling the land ideally he left for the forests entrusting the land to his son, Vitatha. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata).


Vitatha also was called $harata and he had five sons: Suhotra, Suhota, Gaya, Garbha and Suketu. (Chapter 278, Agni Purana).


BHARATA II. Son of Dasaratha.


1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu-BrahmaMarici-Kasyapa-Vivasvan - Vaivasvatamanu - IksvakuVikuksi-Sasado-Kakutstha-Anenas-P,rthulasva -Prasenajit - Yuvanasva - Mandhata - Purukutsa - TrasadasyuAnaranya-Haryasva-Vasumanas-Sudhanva-TrayyarunaSatyavrta-(Trisanku)-Hariscandra-Rohitasva - HaritaCuncu-Sudeva-Bharuka - Bahuka - Sagara - AsamanjasArnsuman-Bhagiratha-grutanabha-Sindhudvipa - Ayutayus-Rtup,irna-Sarvakama-Sudas - Mitrasaha (Kalmasapada)-Asmaka-Mulaka-Khatvanga (Dilipa, Dirghabahu) -Raghu-Aja-Dasaratha-Bharata.


2) Birth. Daiaratha, King of Ayodhya, had three wives


Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. Kausalya gave birth to Sri Rama, Kaikeyi to Bharata and Sumitra to Laksmana and Satrughna. Kaikeyi, mother of Bharata, was the sister of Yudhajit, Raja of Kekeya. Bharata was born on the day of Puya. (Sloka 14, Sarga 18, Valmiki Ramayana)


Dasaratha remained in sorrow without children for a very long time and then he performed a Putrakamesti yoga (A sacrificial ceremony to get children) with the Maharsi Rsyasrnga as the officiating priest. From the sacred fire arose a divine figure carrying a pot of pudding and it was after taking that pudding that the wives of DaSaratha became pregnant. ( Sarga 15, Balakanda, Valmiki Ramayana).


3) Till the end of .Sri Rama's forest life. The sons of Da°saratha married the daughters ofJanaka, King of Mithila. Sri Rama married Sita, Bharata, Mandavi, Laksmana, Urmila and Satrughna, Srutakirti.


Da'saratha made arrangements to crown Rama as King and then leave for the forests and lead an ascetic life. At that time Bharata and Satrughna were in the country of Kekaya with their uncle, Yudhajit. When the day of coronation was drawing near Kaikeyi demanded of Da'saratha the execution of two boons which were once promised by Dasaratha to her long ago during a battle between the devas and asuras. One of them was to crown her son, Bharata, as king and the other to send Rama to the forests for a period of fourteen years. Dasaratha was shocked to hear that. But, without any hesitation, Rama and Laksmana accompanied by Sita went to the forests and Dasaratha overcome with immense grief caused by this unpleasant turn of events fell down dead. Messengers were sent then to Kekaya to bring Bharata and after travelling for three days Bharata and Satrughna reached Ayodhya. Though they were not informed of the death of their father they were worried all the way because of the several bad omens which they saw. On entering Ayodhya they were shocked to find all the roads desolate and arriving at the palace they found it silent and gloomy. Kaikeyi then told him all that had happened and when Bharata knew that his mother was at the root of all this calamity his rage knew no bounds. Forgetting himself he drew from the sheath the glittering sword and stood before his mother with the drawn sword wavering to strike or not to strike and mused to himself "No, Not a woman and not one's own mother, No, it should not be done". Immediately after this was decided, he swung the sword straight to his throat. But adroitly 8atrughna intervened and swept away the sword before it fell at its aim. This strong move of Satrughna brought Bharata to his senses and he looked at his mother so fiendishly that at his stare his mother turned pale like a flower brought near a burning flame. Bharata immediately changed into the dress of a Sannyasi and started to go to the forests. Satrughna followed his brother. Vasistha also started. The news spread like wildfire and people began to crowd at the palace eager to follow the brothers. Very soon a huge procession was seen moving towards the forests. Vasistha and Arundhati in a chariot in the front, Kausalya and Sumitra in another next to it and Bharata and gatrughna closely following the chariots, walking. People joined the procession from behind. The great crowd of people reached the banks of the river Gariga. Guha coming to know of the great exile of people from Ayodhya through spies went and saw Bharata, at first in disguise, and later as himself made his acquaintance. He then took Bharata and gatrughna across the river to the presence of Sri Rama at Citrakuta.


When they reached Citrakuta only Bharata-Satrughna, Vasistha and Arundhati, Kausalya and Sumitra entered the asrama of Sri Rama , all the others remaining outside. When Rama and Laksmana were told about the death of their father they were filled with grief. All the sons, then, Vasistha officiating, performed the obsequies of their father. Rama and Bharata then discussed the future. Sri Rama persisted in his vow and said he would return to his country only after fourteen years


and insisted that Bharata should rule the country during that period. Bharata accepted the arrangement saying that if his brother did not come back after fourteen years he would give up his life by jumping into the fire. Sri Rama then gave his sandals to Bharata who accepting the same with due respect returned home followed by others. On reaching Ayodhya Bharata did not go to the royal palace which he considered as empty because of the absence of his brother, Rama and abhorrent because of the presence of his mother, Kaikeyi. Instead, he went to a nearby village called Nandi and installing the sandals there lived there and ruled the country.


4) Return of Sri Rama. Sri Rama when he came back to Ayodhya after fourteen years was crowned King. Bharata got two sons of his wife Mandavi, Subahu and Surasena. While they were thus living happily in Ayodhya, message was sent through an ascetic by Yudhajit from Kekaya that some gandharvas were creating trouble in that country. It was the state of Sindhu in Kekaya which was .subjected to this molestation and on the advice of Rama Bharata went and subdued the trouble, killing the gandharvas. He then created two small states on either side of Sindhu and made his two sons the Kings of those states. When Sri Rama gave up his life in Sarayu river and rose to heaven as Visnu Bharata and Satrughna also gave up their lives and took the forms of the conch and the wheel which adorn the hands of Visnu. (Uttara Ramayana).


BHARATA III. A son of Rsabha.


1) Genealogy and birth. Descending in order from VisnuBrahma - Svayambhuvamanu - Priyavrata - AgnidhraNabhi-Rsabha-Bharata.


Emperor Priyavrata partitioned his empire to his eight children. Agnidhra got Jambudvipa. Agnidhra had nine sons: Nabhi, Kimpurusa, Harivarsa, Ilavrta, Ramya, Hiranvan, Kuru Bhacfrasva and Ketumala. On the death of the father Jambudvipa was divided into nine states and Nabhi got the land called Hima. Nabhi married Merudevi and got a son, Rsabha. Rsabha had a hundred sons and Bharata was the eldest. (Chapter 1, Arh$am 2, Visnu Purana).


2) Marriage, administration and entry into 1srama life.


Bharata took over the administration of the kingdom at the death of his father, Rsabha. He married Pancajani daughter of Vi'svarupa. They had five sons, Sumati, Rastrabhrt, Sudarsana, Avarana andDhumraketu. The Pancama Skandha of Bhagavata contains a statement to the effect that India got the name Bharata from this king. (It is worthwhile remembering at this juncture a previous statement that the name Bharata was obtained from Bharata, son of Dugyanta): Bharata like his forefather was very erudite and affectionate and always respected his duties. He always meditated on Brahma and in his heart there shone the Paramapurusa in the figure of Vasudeva adorned with Srivatsa, Kaustubha, Vanamala, Sarhkha, Cakra, Gada and Padma. He ruled the country for a crore of years and after that dividing the country among his sons went to the a9rama of Pulaha Maharsi to spend the rest of his life there. On the rocks lying in the river flowing in front of the Asrama were the marks of Cakra on one side and Nabhi on the other and the river therefore came to be known as Cakranabhi. Bathing in this river and doing puja Bharata lived there oblivious of the world outside. (Paficama Skandha, Bhagavata).


3) Bharata and the deer. Bharata led a purely ascetic life performing everyday the rites laid down by scriptures and muttering the mystic formula of Brahm<zksara. One day a thirsty pregnant deer went to drink water in a nearby pond. As it was drinking it heard the loud roar of a lion nearby. Frightened the poor animal without even waiting to quench its thirst ran into the forest and on its way delivered a child and the deer-babe fell into the river. The deer exhausted and tormented by fear ran into a cave and fell down dead. Bharata happened to see the new-born deer floating on the river and took it to his 5srama. From then onwards Bharata's mind was diverted from the spiritual to the mundane effort of taking care of the young deer. The deer followed him wherever he went and if it did not turn up in time in the evening after grazing Bharata went about in search of it weeping. Years went by and Bharata became old and died with the name of the deer on his lips. (Paficama Skandha, Bhagavata) . 4) Rebirths of Bharala. Because he died with the thought of the (leer in his mind he was reborn as a deer. The deer was aware of his previous birth and regretted that he spent the life of a man .for the sake of a deer. The deer, therefore, left the house of his mother in the mountain of Kalafijara and went to the ,,srama of Pulaha. The pious animal daily bathed in the river and died there on the bank of that river. So in its next life the deer was born as the son of a brahmin in the line of Angiras. That brahmin had two wives and got nine sons of his first wife. and one of the second. The son born to the second wife was none other than Bharata. In due course the brahmin died and his second wife jumped into the funeral pyre and endedher life. Thrown an orphan Bharata became a puppet in the hands of his brothers. Bharata was asked to look after the cattle and fields of his brothers for his living. With great forbearance Bharata did all he was told.


One day Bliarata was keeping watch over the fields of his brothers. It was midnight.. In the neighbourhood the Candalas were making merry over the birth of a child to one of the women. Some of them were bringing a man bound- by ropes to be given as `Narabali' to the goddess Kali. (Narabali is the offering of a human being with his head cut off to propitiate a deity). On the way the man escaped and the disappointed Candalas were roaming about in search of a .substitute when they came across Bharata keeping watch over the fields. Immediately he was bound by ropes and taken before the idol of Kali. The effulgence of the brahmin astounded Kali and getting angry for bringing such a pious brahmin for sacrifice she devoured the Candalas and allowed .the brahmin to go free.


Escaping from there Bharaxa reached a village walking all the way. That village was being ruled over by a king called Rahugana and that king was going to see Bhagavan Kapila Maharsi along the banks of the river Iksumati in a palanquin. The palanquin had not enough


bearers and so the brahmin was asked to join the team of bearers. As they were moving the palanquin shook because of the wrong steps kept by Bharata. The king reprimanded Bharata and Bharata then gave the king fitting replies based on the ethics of Vedanta. The erudition of Bharata greatly impressed the king and he stepped down from the palanquin and bowed to Bharata.


Bharata went from there to the forests singing devotional songs in praise of Visnu and at last attained salvation. (Paficama Shandha, Bhagavata).


BHARATA IV. A sage and the famous author of Natyasastra. He was a critic who lived around the year 400 B.C. His book on Naty~sastra (Histrionics) is world famous. Kalidasa in the second act of his drama, Vikramorvasiya states that this Bliarata used to coach the devas in the art of acting. Natya'sastra is a book comprising thirtyseven chapters dealing with the art of dance and music. He has written in detail about the four Alariakaras, Upama, Dipaka, Ritpaka and Yamaka and also about the ten requisites of a Kavya. He has not forgotten to write about the defects and demerits of Kavya also. Commentaries on Natyasastra have been written by lions in the profession : Mitragupta, Harsavardhana, Sankuka, Udbhata, Bhattanayaka and Abhinavagupta. Of these 'Abhinavabharati' the commentary written by Abhinavagupta is the only one freely available now.


BHARATA V. The Mahabharata speaks about a few other Bharatas who were sons of Agni. Samyu is a son of Agni known as Bharata. This Bliarata has got another name, -as (9loka 6, Chapter 219. Vana Parva, M.B.) . There is an Agni of name Bharata with a son named Bharata. When this Agni is propitiated one gets healthy and strong and so this Agni is called Pustiman also. (Sloka 7, Chapter 219, Vana Parva, M.B.). There is another Bharata son of an Agni called Adbhuta. It is this Agni that burns dead bodies. As this Agni lives permanently in Agnistoma Yajfias; it gets the name of Niyata also. (~loka 6, Chapter 222, Vana Parva, M.B.).


BHARATA (MAHABHARATA). An epic written by Vyasa.


1) General information. The Mahabhdrata is an epic. Bharata is acclaimed as the first emperor of Bharata. The theme of this great epic is the fight between the two lines of princes belonging to the dynasty of Bharata. That is why the book is called Mahabharata. The great size of the volume and the greatness of the wisdom contained therein have contributed much to its getting the name, Mahabharata. Once the devas put the Mahabharata in one pan of a balance and the Vedas in the other pan. Then the devas were convinced that the Mahabharata weighed more than all the Vedas put together. (Slokas 269-271, Chapter 1, Adi Parva, M.B.).* This book contains over a lakh of verses. There is no subject on earth which is not dealt with in the Mahabharata. None of


* Pura kila suraih sarvaih sametya tulaya dhrtarn Caturbhyah sarahasyebhyo Vedebhyo hyadhikarn yada Tada prabhrti loke'smin mahabharatamucyate Mahatve ca gurutve ca dhriyamanarim yaso'dhikam Mahatvad bharavatvac ca Mahabharatamucyate.




the world's epics is so big as Mahabharata. In size the Mahabharata is double that of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey put together. The following poem about it is worth mentioning now Mahabharata is not a mere epic. It is a whole literature in itself containing a philosophy which has been an unfailing and perennial source of spiritual strength to the people of India. Above all it has for its core the Gitc which is perhaps the noblest of scriptures.


The Mahabharata comprises eighteen books, each book being called a Parva. There are 21(79 chapters in it, the chapters differing in size. Besides, there is an annexe called Harivarh'sa which deals with the life and history of Sri Krsna.


2) Contents. The contents of each Parva are succinctly given below: The Parvas are so named as to give a hint of their central theme.


(1) fldi Parva. (Adi-beginning) . Pandu and Dhrtarastra, king of the Candra dynasty, are brothers. Bhisma brought them up. Dhrtarcgtra was born blind and he got a hundred children of his wife Gandhari. They were called the Kauravas. Pandu had two wives Kunti and Madri and got of them five sons called the Pandavas headed by the eldest Yudhisthira.


(2) Sabha Parva (Sabha=court). The Pandavas and. Kauravas lived together in the court at Hastinapura. There, the Kauravas entered into a game of dice with Yudhisthira and through the deceitful tactics engineered by the keen-witted Sakuni, Yudhisthira was defeated and he lost everything he possessed. The PandavaS were then compelled to go into exile to the forests for twelve years and spend another year after that incognito. If they were found out during that period of incognito they were to go into exile for another term of twelve years. The Pandavas accompanied by Paficali left for the forests.


(3) VanaParva (Vana=forest). This is one of the longest of Parvas and describes the life of the Pandavas in the forest Kamyaka. The well known stories `Nala Carita' and `Kiratarjuniya' are told in this Parva'.


(4) hirdta Parva. (Virata =name of a King). The Pandavas after completing their term of exile in the forests sper_t the year of their life in incognito at the court of King Virata. Many wonderful events took place during their stay there and this Parva deals in detail about then.


(5) Bhisrma Parva (Bhisma=The first Generalissimo" of the Kauravas). The great Mahcbharata war was fought in the vast expanse of Kuruksetra lying to the northwest of Delhi. Bhisma was the first generalissimo of the Kauravas and Dhrstadyumna of the Pcndavas. Vyasa describes the events of the battle classifying it according to the generalissimos of the Kaurava army giving the four generalissimos a Parva each. Bhisma fought for ten days and was struck down on the tenth day by an arrow from Arj una.


(6) Drona Parva (Drona =The second Generalissimo). When Bhisma fell Drona took charge as the supreme commander. This Parva deals with the fight under his command. Drona was killed in the end by Dhr'~tadyumna.


(7) Karna Parva. (Karna=The third generalissimo). This Parva deals with the war under the command of Karna. Karna fell in the end at the hands of Arjuna.


(8) Salya Parva. (Salya=The fourth and last of the Generalissimos). When Karnafell Saiya took over charge of the Kaurava army. As the war was coming to an end most of the big warriors of the Kaurava army were killed. In the end Bhima and Duryodhana met in a grim fight with maces in which Duryodhana was killed. This Parva deals with the final stage of the battle.


(10) Sauptika Parva. (Sauptika=pertaining to sleep). This Parva tells us the tragic story of how Krpacarya, Krtavarma and Asvatthama who were the only three left with Duryodhana after the great battle went into the camp of the Pandavas at night and killed all the brave warriors of the Pcndava array, excepting the Pandavas, who were sleeping in their camp unaware of the foul play lying ahead.


(I1) Stri Parva. (Stri=woman). This Parva deals with the great lamentation in the battlefield, after the war, of Gandhari and other women.


(12) Sdnti Parva. Yudhisthira was crowned king and even at that time Bhisma was lying on his bed of arrows awaiting death. Before taking up his duties of the state Yudhisthira went to where the grandsire lay dying and took his blessing and instruction in dharma. This instruction of Bhismacarya to King Yudhisthira of the three dharrnas, Rajadharma, Apaddharma and Moksadharma is tire famous Sand Parva.


(13) AnuSdsana Parva. (Anusasana = Instruction). Bhisma still on his death-bed continues his instructions on several topics, like duty, freedom and fasting, giving entertaining stories to illustrate the essence of his teaching. This Parva is devoted to this.


(14) ASvamedhika Parva. (Asvamedha=yaga conducted by emperors). This Parva deals with the yaga conducted by'Yudhisthira when he became the emperor of Bharata.


(15) ASramavasika Parva. (Agrama v~ sa = life in a hermitage). Dhrtarastra, the blind and his wife Gcndhari accompanied by Kunti left for the forests and lived there for two years in a hermitage. One day the forest caught fire and the three without trying to escape sat on the ground facing eastwards in yoga posture and calmly gave up themselves to the flames. This is dealt with in this Parva.


(16) Mausata Parva. (Mausala=N-T:ce). This Parva gives the story of how the Yadavas fought against each other with maces and were destroyed and, how Dvaraka sank down into the ocean. It describes the death of gri Krsna and Balarama also.


(17) Mahaprasthanika Parva. (Mahaprasthana =Death). Dharmaputxa entrusts his kingdom to his successor and alongwith his four brothers and wife Pcficah sets out on a long journey to Mahameru never to return. This journey to death is detailed in this Parva.


(18) Svargdrohana Parva. (Svarga = Heaven) . This Parva describes the entry of the Parzdavas and their relatives into Svarga, heaven.


3) Mode of Narration. Most of the verses in the Malrabhcrata are in the Anustup metre. At certain places other metres also have beer. used. There are prose pieces also in it. There are twenty notable pieces, three in Adi Parva, seven in Vana Parva, seven in Santi Parva and three in AnUAdsana Parva. All the pieces are statements by realised souls. The style of the poetry is simple and the method of presentation lively. At times the imagination of the poet extends up to the horizon. Though there is a flow of spiritualism throughout the matter is purely mundane.


Lf-) Authorship. Bhagavan Vyasa is believed to be the author of Mahabharata. He was a contemporary of the PandavaS and the Kauravas. Many of the events of the Mahabharata were personally witnessed by Vydsa. He a took three years to write dais book. The following s1okas will support the above:


(8loka 55, Chapter 62, Adi Parva).


The Varaha Purina states that Vyasa composed the I°vtahabharata at a period when the end of Dvdpara yuga merged with the dawn of the Kaliyuga. The Bhagavata states that Sri Krsna passed away on the first day of Kaliyuga. The Bhagavata is devoted to admire and praise the life of Sri Krsna. This book also is written by Vyasa. This sloka found in the first Chapter of Adi Parva clears the doubt:


The original name of the Bharata which Vyasa composed was 'Jaya'. In the first Chapter of Adi Parva is this sloka to support this statement


After the death of the Pandavas and the Kauravas the disciples of Vyasa, Surnaratu, Jaimini, Paila, guka and Vaisampayana gave this book great publicity. They wrote books based on this story of Bharata of which only the `Bharata' of Vaisampayana and the Asvamedha Parva of jaimini are now available.


Vyasa's Bharata was first expounded by Vaisampayana at the Sarpa-satra of janamejaya. At the request of janamejaya, Vaisampayana added some more facts to the original work known. then as 'Jaya'. Jaya with the


a (a) Jayo nametihaso'yarh t;rotavyo vijigi~una (91oka 22, Chapter 62, Adi I'arva).


(b) Caturvimsati sahasrim Cakre bharatasamhitam Upakhyanairvina tavad Bharatam procyate budhaih


(Sloka 78, Chapter r, Adi larva).


Refer to the flaka given in para i.accretions came to be known as Bharatasarimhita. S5ta who narrated this story to 8aunaka and others at the forest of Naimisa added some more matter to the Bliaratasaarihita and made it larger. The present Mahabharata is this expanded edition.


The following facts prove that the y-fah;Ibharata has thus passed through three stages of evolutlon:


1) This book is ,known by three names= Jaya, Bftaratasaxiahitd and Mahabharata.l


2) There is a reference to the three parts of the boob in 9ioka 66, Chapter 1 of ,kdi Parva.2


3) There are three different opinions regarding the total number of slo%as in the Mahiblaarata. Accordinh to Ugra`sravas there are 8800 verses, according to Vyasa 24000 verses and according to another statement a lakh of verses .3


4) The narration appears to be of three different kinds, descriptive, philosophical and oratorical, indicative of three different authorships.


5) Suta and Vaisampayana have made accretions to the original work 'Jaya' of Vydsa.


Viewed with these facts we are led to believe that Vyasa has composed only the very essence of Mahabharata comprising 8800 stokas and that work eras known as 'Jaya' as referred to in the first invocatory verse of the epic. Vai'sampayana added a few verses of his own and brought the number to 24,000 and gave the book the name of tBharatasariiliita'. It was Suta who made many more additions and made the book so big as to fetch it the name of `Mahabharata'. The epic which is now current among us contains a lakh of verses and it took perhaps centuries to get this transformation of the book from 'Jaya' to 'Malidbildrata'.


6) Period of publication. The Kali Varsa starts frown 3102 B.C. The great Maliabharata war was fought at a period when the end of Dvapara yuga merged into tile dawn of Kali yuga as could be gathered from the following verse from the epic:


Antare caiva samprapte


Kalidvaparayorabhut / Samantapancake yuddharh Kurupandavasenayoh. /i (Sloka 13, Chapter 2, Adi Parva) .


So it can be deduced that the great war was fought round about 3102 B.C. Dhrtarastra lived for eighteen years after the great battle and the Pandavas ruled the country for 36 years. (Stri Parva, M.B.). It was when Sri Krsna died that the Pandavas ended their rule and commenced the Mahaprasthana. So it can be surmised that Sri Krsna lived for 36 years after the war.




Sri Krsna died on the first day of Kali yuga, 3102 B.C. Therefore it is clear the Mahabharata battle was fought in 3138 B.C. There are indications in other puranas to support this theory. There was that rare phenomenon of a Saptagraha yoga (Combination in astronomical position of seven planets) while King Pariksit, son of Arjuna, was ruling the country.' This happened in a month of Magha (January) and a probe into the dates of such previous occurrences revealed that a similar one had happened in the month of Magha in the years 3177 and 477 B.C. (The next one is to happen in 2223 A.D.). This phenomenon repeats itself in every hundred years and so it is to be believed that one of the kind happened in 3077 B.C. precisely during the period of Pariksit. It is therefore confirmatory to the statement that the great war occurred in 3138 B.C.


The Pandavas ruled the country for 36 years after the war and Vyasa wrote this divine epic after the death of the Pandavas. Vyasa took three years to complete his work. Therefore it can be well concluded that Vyasa wrote the epic in 3100 B.C. The Pandavas commenced their Mahaprasthana after entrusting the administration of the state into the hands of Pariksit. This must have happened in 3102 B.C. Parikgit ruled the country for 60 years and so his son Janamejaya became King in 3042 B.C. It was after two years of his becorhing King that lie conducted the Sarpasatra and it was at this Sarpasatra that Vaisampayana first expounded 'Jaya' (Mahabharata) to the sages assembled there.


This fixing of the date of Mahabharata is based on the conclusions arrived at by the pandits of Bharata, but foreign chronologists differ from us. They argue that it was in the 10th century B.C. that the Mahabharata battle took place on the strength of the following:


The theme of the Maliabharata is a fight between Kurus and Paficalas. After the war the two join and there is a statement in the Yajurveda of a people formed by the merger of the two. Therefore the great war should have happened in the 10th century B.C. It was a period of hero-worship and songs on the heroic deeds of the Kurus and Pandavas were sung and handed over from one generation to the other and gradually those songs took shape in the form of the Mahabharata.


There is another school of thought. In the Mahabharata, Brahma is given great prominence. But in Vedic times Brahma was not counted at all. During the golden period of the Buddhists Brahma had a conspicuous hold on Hinduism. Therefore it should be deduced that the Mah'dbharata was written during the 6th century B.C. Then there were about 8,000 verses in the Mahabharata.


Towards the second stage of Mahabharata the epic grew in size bringing into its fold about 24,000 slokas. It was at this stage that the Mahabharata got a vaisnavite colour and Sri Krsna was adored as an incarnation of Visnu. Megasthenes who visited India in 300 B.C. records that the majority of Hindus were vaisnavites at that period. There are references in certain parts


of the Mahabharata to Greeks and Buddhists. Therefore a set of foreign chronologists conclude that those portions of the Mahabharata could have been written only after Buddha and after the attack on Bharata by the Greeks i.e. by 300 B.C.


The third stage of the Mahabharata is its present form and it was at this stage that it included new philosophy in it. The Dharmasarizhita of Manusmrti became popular in the fifth century A.D. and therefore the third stage of the Mahabharata must have started before that, in the 3rd century A.D.


BHARATA II. (Bbaratavarsa. India).


The puranas describe the Earth to be constituted of seven continents: Jambtadv ipa, Plaksadvipa, Salmalidvipa, Kusadvipa, Kratrfacadv1pa, Sakadvipa and Puskaradvipa. Of these India is jambudvipa..


The Bharatavarsa was constituted of nine islands at that time in the following positions : In the centre was Ilavrta and to the east was Bhadravarsa. To the south-east was Hiranyaka and to the south was Bharata. To the southwest was Hari and to the west was Ketumala. To the north-west was cambaka and to the north was Kuruvarsa. Beautiful Kirhpurusa varsa stood to the north-east of Ilavrta. There was neither the passage of time nor the fear of ageing or death in any of these continents excepting Bharatavarsa.


This Bharatavarsa itself is a group of nine islands each separated from the other by oceans and thus made not easily accessib1e between each , other. Indradvipa, Kageruman, Tamraparna, Gabhastiman, Nagadvipa, Kataha, Sirirhala ano Waruna are the eight others and the ninth is this island of Bharatavarsa. This island is called Kumara also. On the eastern boundary of this island live Kiratas, on the western side, Yavanas, on the southern boundary Andhras and on the north Turuskas. In the Centre live the Brahmins, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas and gudras. The eight sacred mountains of this place are Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, guktiman_ ie~l-,:aparvata, Vindhya and Pariyatra. There are several other mountains also in Madhyapradesa.Theyare: Kolahala, Vaibhraja, Mandara, Durddhara, Vatadhuma, Vaidyuta, Mainaka, Sarasa, Tuhgaprastha, Nagagiri, Govardhana, Ujjayanta, Puspagiri, Arbuda, Raivataka, Rsyamuka, Gomanta, Citrakula, Krtasmara, Sriparvata and Koirkana. This place is inhabited by Aryas and Mlecchas. The rivers which they use for drinking water are the following:


Sarasvati, Pancarupa, Kalindi, Hiranvati, f;atadru, Candrika, Nila, Vitasta, Iravati, Kuhu, Madhura, Hararavi, Usira, Dhataki, Rasa, Gomati, Dhutapapa, Bahuda, Drsadvati, Nisvara, Gandaki, Citra, Kau~iki, Vadhusara, Sarayu and hohitya. All these rivers originate from the base of Himavan. Those originating from Pariyatra are: Vedasmrti, Vedasvani, Vrtraghni, Sindhu, Parnasa, Nandini, Pavani, Mahi, Sara, Carmmanvati, Lirpi, Vidisa, Venumati, Citra and Oghavati. Those flowing down from the Rksaparvata are: Bona alias Mahanada, Narmada, Surasa, Kriya, Mandakini, Dasarna, Citrakrlta, Devika, Citrotpala, Tamasa, Karatoya, Pisacika, Pippalasreni, Vipasa, Vanjjulavati, Satsantaja, Suktimati, Cakrini, TridiV3, Vasu, Valguvahini. From the base of V indhya flow down the follow-


r. (a) Saptarsayo maghayuktah kale p5ariksite gatam (Matsva purana 271.4.6).


(b) Te to nariksite kile magliasvasan dvijottama (Visnu purana 4, 24, to6).




ing rivers: Siva, Payosni, Nirvindhya, Tap!, Vend, Nisadhavati, Vaitarani, Sinibdhu, Kumudvati, Toyd, Revd, Mahagauri, Durggyd and Antassivd. Those originating from the base of Sahya are the following great rivers


Godavari, Bhimarathi, Krsna, Venyd, Saridvati, Visamadri, Suprayoga, Vahya, Kdveri, Dugdhoda, Nalini, Varisena, and Kalasvand. Those arising from Suktimdn are the following: Krtamald, Tdanravarni, Vanjjula, Utpalavati, Sun! and Sudamd. All these rivers are very sacred and are considered to be absolvers of sins, mothers of the universe and wives of oceans. There are bad rivers also besides these.


The Madhyapradesa comprises the following states: Matsya, Kus Cdra, Kundala, Pancdla, Kosala, Vrka, 8aka, Barbara, Kaurava, Kaliriga, Vahga, Afiga and Marmaka. The states lying to the north are the following: Abhira, Sathyadhanaka, Bdhlika, Vdtadhana, Abhira, Kdlatoyada, Apardnta, Sudra, Pahlava, Khetaka, Gandhdra, Yavana, Sindhu, Sauvira, Bhadraka, Satadrava, Lalittha, Pdravata, Musika, Mdthara, Urukadhara, Kekaya, Darhsana, Kamboja, Darada, Ariga, Lokika, Vena, Tusdra, Bahya, Todara, Atreya, Bharadvdja, Prasthala, Dase.raka, Lambaka, Tavakdrama, Cudika, Tarhgana, Alasa, Alibhadra, Kirata, Tdnaasa, Harizsamdrga, Suparsva, Ganaka, Kuluta, Kurhika, Curna, LTrnapada, Kukkuta, Mdndavya and Pdnaviya. Those lying to the east are the following


Anga, Vahga, Madgurava, Antarggiri, Bahirggiri, Pravarizga, Vanzgeya, Marizsada, Baladantika, Brahmottara, Prdvrjaya, Bhargava, Angeya, Marsaka, Prdgjyotisa, Vrsaddhra, Videha, Malla, Tamraliptaka, Magadha and Ananda. The states lying to the south are the following: Pundra, Kerala, Cola, Kulya, Jdnuka, Musikada, Kumarada, Mahdsaka, Maharastra, Mdhisika, Kalinga, Adira, Vaisikya, Aranya, 8abara, .Pulinda, Vindhyasaileya, Vidarbha, Dandaka, Paurika, Sarika, Asmaka, Bhogavardhana, Naimika, Kuntala, Andhra, Udbhida and Nalakaraka. The western states are


Surpparaka, Varidhana, Durga, Cdlikata, Puliya, Sunila, Tdmasa, Tapasa, K5.raskara, lilzfimi, Ndsikdnta, Sunarmmada, D-rukaccha, Sumaheya, Sdrasvata, Vatsiya, Surastra, Avantya and Arbuda. The follwoing states lie adjacent to Vindhya: Karrisa, Ekalavya, Mekala, Utkala, Uttamarrza, Dasarna, Gopta, Kikarava, Tosala, Kosala, Traipura, Khellisa, Turaga, Tudzbara, Vahela, Nisadha, Anupa, Tundikera, Vitihotra and Avanti.


There are a few more states which lie attached to mountains : Nirahdra, Harhsamdrga, Kupatha, Tarirgana, Khasa, Katha, Pravarana, On xa,. Aplasta, Suhuhuka, Trigartta, Kirdta, Tomara, Sasikha and Adrika. (Chapter 13, Vamana Purana).


(See the map of Pauranika Bharata).


BHARATASAMHITA. Another title of the Mahabhdrata. (See Bharata !) .


BHARATHA famous river mentioned in the Puranas. It is stated in Verse 25, Chapter 222 of the Vana Parva that Agni (fire) originated in this river.


BHARATI Daughter of the Agni called Bharata. (Sloka 9, Chapter 21.9, Vana Parva, M.B.).


BHARAVI. A Sanskrit poet who flourished in the 6th century A.D. He is the author of the mahakdvya called Kiratdrjuniya. Raghuvadisa, Kumarasambhava, Kirdtarjuniya, Sisupdlavadha and Naisadha are the five


r. Yenayoji na ve'sma sthiram arthavidhau vivekina jinaveixna/ Sa


Mahdkdvyas in Sanskrit with established reputation, In the 1_;hoie records of A.D. 634 Bhdravi is held up in praise along wah Kalidasa.= The theme of Kiratdrjuniyais Siva, in the guise of a hunter, attacking Arjuna immersed in penance. Blzdravi's literary style is simple sand sweet. In the use of similes he i; second only to Kdlidasa. Among his books only Kirdtdrjuniya has been found out yet.


BHARGA I. Grandson of Divoddsa, a King of the Puru line. Divoddsa got a son reamed 1'ratardana. Bharga and Vatsa were the sons of Pratardana. (Chapter 278, Agni Purana).


BHARGA II. A synonym of Siva.


BHARGA( M). A village of ancient India. (Sloka 51, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva, M.B.).


BHARGAVA. One who belongs to the Bhx'gu dynasty. (See s3hrgu).


BHAGAVA (?wI). A city in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 50).


BHARMYASVA. A famous king of Pdncala Desa. He had five heroic sons headed by Mudgala. (Navama Skandha, Bhagavata)


BIIARTRHARI. A famous Sanskrit poet.


! ) Birth. He was the son of Vidyasdgara, a great Brahmin scholar, who lived in Pdtaliputra. There is a legend abort the birth of Bhartrhari in Uttara Bharata.


Vidyasdgara while young learnt the Vedas from his guru. But he was not satisfied with that study and wanted to learn more about all sdstras and so he started on a tour to find out a guru who would teach him all he wanted. On his way he met several great scholars but none came up to his standard of a guru. One day tired after a long journey lie reached a mountain valley. Washing his hands and feet in a nearby river and quenching leis thirst he went and sat down under a banyan tree to rest. The cool breeze sent the tired Brahmin to sleep and he slept.


A Brahmardksasa who was living on the top of the banyan tree when it became midday descended from the tree to perlorrn the sacred rites of the day and found a near lying asleep. By the sacred thread on his body the Brahnraraksasa surmised that the man was a Brahmin and woke him up. Waking up Vidyasagara found to his surprise the bearded Brahmaraksasa standing before him and after mutual enquiries Vidyasagara told him of his mission. The Brahmardksasa told him thus


"Boy, let your name Vidydsdgara (ocean of learning) be true in your life. I am acquainted with many sdstras and I shall teach you everything I know. But there are certain conditions for the same which you have to observe. You must live with me for six months and should fast during that period behaving -yourself as one under a vow. I shall, however, teach you a mantra which would help you to remain unaffected by hunger, thirst or sleep. If you are prepared to accept these terms and become my disciple I shall quench your thirst for knowledge. Vidyasdgara willingly agreed to his terms and became his student:


Both of them then climbed on the banyan tree and the Brahmardksasa sat in his usual place on a branch on the tree and Vidyasdgara on a branch just below it. The instructions started and continued for six months. Vidydsdgara never felt thirst or hunger during that period. When die teaching was complete the Brahma-Vidydsdgara then got down from the tree and performed the obsequies of his guru. Vidydsdgara while he was learning used to note down the instructions of the guru on the leaves of the banyan tree. It had come to a huge bundle on completion. Taking the bundle along with him Vidyasagara left for his country. By the time he left the forest-area the power of the mantra faded and Vidyasagara began to feel the pangs of hunger and thirst. By dusk he reached Kalifiga and there he carne to the door of a dancing girl named Mandakini. The door was locked as the owner was away in a 8iva temple nearby. Exhausted by the journey, hungry and thirsty, Vidyasagara lay down on the doorstep and soon fell asleep with the leaf-bundle as a pillow. Mandakini when she returned from the temple at about ten at night saw a brahmin sleeping on the doorstep, tired and exhausted. She- soon asked her servants to get him inside and sent for a doctor. By the clever treatment of the doctor and the expert nursing of Mandakini, Vidydsdgara survived. When he was fit for travel he started to go but Mandakini objected and requested him to marry her. Vidyasagara did not agree to it and she took him to the King and told him all that had happened. Finding Vidydsdgara to be one with great erudition and good manners 'he decided that Vidydsdgara should marry his daughter (a Ksatriya), daughter of his minister (a Brahmin), daughter of Kulapati (a vai'sya), and also Mandakini, (a Sudra). There was an injunction in those days that a brahmin should marry a S udra only after having married from all the higher castes. The decision of the King surmounted this difficulty for Vidydsdgara to marry the stldra girl, Mandakini. Marriages were all conducted in order. The King's daughter bore the name Kalavati, the minister's Malati and Kulapati's Sumangali. Each delivered a son. The brahmin boy was named Vararuci, the Ksatriya boy, Vikramaditya, the Vaisya boy, Bhatti and the 8udra boy, Bhartrhari.


2) Kingship. When the King ofKalifiga became old he gave the kingdom to Vidydsdgara and when Vidyasagara died all his other sons made Bhartrhari the King. Bhartrhari gave his father on his death-bed a promise that he would see that no .sons were born to him.' So though Bhartrhari married three wives he was careful enough not to produce any children by them.


3) Bhartrhgri becomes a sannydsii. Bhartrhari was living happily with his wife when one day a yogi of divine disposition came to his house and giving him a ripe mango said: "If you eat this mango you will never become old. It is because you who are perfect in education and fortune should live long for the benefit of the people that I am giving you this." So saying he gave the mango arid left the place. When the sannyasi left him Bhartrhari thought thus: "After some years my wife would become old and die. What is the use of my remaining alive after she is gone. So this mango should be given to her. Let her live long." He, therefore, gave the mango to his wife explaining to her the greatness of the fruit. That wife whom poor Bhartrhari accepted to be very loving and chaste had a lover. He was none other than the horse-groom of her husband and that prostitute thought thus: "Of what use is my life when my lover is dead. Let him live for ever". So thinking she sent for her lover and giving him the mango explained to him the greatness of the thing. But the horse-groom was well devoted to his wife and desiring that his wife should remain young always he gave it to her. The groom's wife was a servant-maid of the palace and it was at the time of her departure from the palace after her day's work that she was given the mango by the horse-groom and so she carried it home in her hand. Bhartrhari who was returning from somewhere to the palace saw the woman carrying the mango and questioned her and knew how she got it. On coming to the palace he sent for the horse-groom and though at first the horse-groom tried to shield the queen, he was compelled to tell the truth in the end. The truth pained him much "Phew! It was this wretched and unfaithful woman whom I was believing to be very chaste and loving. Woman can never be believed. Look, she has fallen in love with an uglylooking servant of mine and unless he was her lover she would not have given this mango to him. It is better that this matter is not pursued any further now. We will decide about the future course of action later". Thinking thus, he sent away the horse-groom and went to his bed-chamber and lay there immersed in thoughts. The horse-groom immediately informed the. queen of everything that took place and the queen felt sorry that her secret had come to light. She knew that besides the punishment that her lover would get her name would also be blackened and so decided to kill her husband before the affair became public. At once she made an ottala (flat bread made of wheat or rice) with poison in it and bringing it to the bed-room told her husband thus with much pretended affection. "It will take some time for your lunch to be ready. Let not you lie with an empty stomach. Eat this now". So saying she placed the bread in the hands of Bhartrhar i and left the room.


Bhartrhari suspected foul play and mused "This bread has been prepared by her with poison to kill me. It is better to give up living with her. There is no doubt about it. Of the four asramas the fourth, Sannyasa, is the best. It is pleasant anal sorrowless. Therefore gradually that asrama should be accepted". Thinking thus he came out from his room with the bread and placed it hidden somewhere in the lower end of the roof of the house remarking "Ottappam Vitteccutum" ('The attata will burn the house). Then taking an earthern bowl. for begging he left the house unnoticed by any. The moment Bhartrhari left the house the house caught fire and everything in it was burnt to ashes.


Bhartrhari renouncing all and changing himself into the robes of a sannyasi went about living by begging. After some time he decided that he would never beg but would eat only that which others gave him voluntarily. He had by that time reached a big templet in south India where in one of the entrances to the temple, the east one, was sitting the famous sannyasi Pattanatt Pillayar. Bhartrhari, therefore, went and sit at the western entrance with his bowl before him. Whatever food fell into the bowl was eaten by him. Sometimes for days together he went without food. But he never was sick or felt weak.


z. There is a belief that if a son is born to a $udra who was himself born of a Brahmin the Brahmin father would go to bell a. This temple is believed to be the Chidambaram Temple.


One day a beggar went to the eastern gate and asked Pattanatt Pillayar for alms. Pillayar said, "I am also a beggar like you. I have nothing in my hand to give you. But there is a man sitting in the western gate. He is a rich man and he may give you something". The beggar went to Bhartrhari and asked for alms. Bhartrhari also expressed his helplessness in the matter. But then the beggar said "The man sitting at the opposite entrance told me that you were a rich man." Bhartrhari smiled. He knew thenwhy Paltanatt Pillayar said so.A manwho has renounced everything need not keep even a bowl to beg. The bowl was a luxury and a sign of wealth. Bhartrhari threw away the bowl and remained at the temple entrance till the end of his life. It was while sitting there that he wrote his famous poems.


4) His well-known works are: (1) The Niti 8ataka (2) The 8rngara ~ataka (3) The Vairagya Sataka and (4) The Subhasitas.


lMARTRSTHANA (M). A very holy place in ancient India. It is said that even those who merely visited this place would get the benefit of performing an A-,vamedha yajna. The place got its importance because Lord Subrahmanya lived there. (S.loka 76, Chapter 84, Vana Parva, M.B. )


BHARU. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. The prajapati, at one stage begot sixty girls of Vairini and gave them to Kasyapa, who distributed them among several Devas. Bharu was the woman so given to the Visvadevatas.


(Hari Varizsa, Chapter 3).


BHARUKA. A king of the Solar dynasty. He was the son of Sudeva and father of Bahuka. (Navama Skanda, Bhagavata).


BHARUKAKSA(M). A vil1age of ancient India. Sadras lived there. At that time of the Rdiasuya of Dharmaputra these gudras brought gifts to the King. (Chapter 51, Sabha Parva).


BHARUNDA. A particular kind of bird found in the Kingdom called Uttarakuruvarsa. These; birds carry in their strong beak corpses to their caves and eat them. (Bhismaparva, Chapter 7, Verse 12).


BHARYA. Wife. Bhisma points out the sanctified importance of Bliarya (-wife) as follows

Without her even the palace will prove itself to be just a forest. She will be- a great support (to the husband) in the matter of dharma (duty) artha (wealth) and Kama (enjoyment of material comforts).., (These three precede the ultimate state of Moksa (salvation) and the wife will be a great support in fulfilling the conditions during the first three stages.) While on tour in foreign places she will remain faithful to him and instil confidence in him. Bharya is great wealth to man.


In his forlorn lice on earth the wife is of great help to man. -To him, who' is suffering from diseases and is otherwise in distress there is no remedy (medicine) like a good wife. There is no relative like a wife. In the matter of practising dharma there is no other support to match the wife. If one has no good wife to take care of domestic affairs one will be driven to the forest; the home will be like a forest. (anti Parva, Chapter 144).


BHASA. A very prominent dramatist in Sanskrit. As Bana and Kalidasa have noticed him in their works, it may safely be assumed that Bhasa lived in an earlier period. Since Pratima nataka and Abhiseka nalaka, which are, universally admitted to have been composed by Bhasa, depend for their themes on the Valmiki


Ramayana, it is clear that Bhasa lived after Valmiki. Kalidasa's period has riot yet been fixed beyond doubt. It is almost settled that Bana lived sometime between the sixth and seventh centuries A.D. Prof. Keith has been of the view that Valmiki lived before the 4th century B.C. In the light of all such factors it could be presumed that Bhasa lived in the period between the 4th century B.C. and 6th century A.D.


Though Bhasa has so many glories to his credit he does not fully match Kalidasa, and this might have been the reason why Indians did almost forget Bhasa with the advent of Kalidasa on the literary arena.


We are not in a position to name with unerring definiteness the works of Bhasa. The general belief is that he has written nearly twenty three dramas. In 1922, Pandit Ganapati Sastri unearthed from various sources thirteen dramas of Bhasa. Three out of them, viz. Pratiinayaugandharayana, 8vapnavasavadatta and Avimaraka owe their themes to the Brhatkatha, while Pratima nalaka and Abhiseka nalaka have Ramayana as their basic inspiration. Out of the eight remaining dramas six, viz. Madhyama vyayoga, Pancaratra, Dutavakya, Dutaghatotkaca, Karnabhara and >"Jrubhanga owe their themes to the Mahabharata, while the last two dramas, Balacarita and Carudatta are dependent for their themes on anecdotes about Sri Krsna and on yakga stories.


Though Dr. Ganapati 8astri has strongly contended that all the above thirteen dramas were written by Bhasa himself, his view has not yet received universal acceptance. Whatever that be, it is an admitted fact that Svapnavasavadatta is by far the best among the thirteen dramas. It is a continuation of the story of Pratijnayaugandharayana. The wedding of king Udayana and Vasavadatta is the subject matter of Svapnavasavadatta.


With his killing of the Raksasa `Avi' the Sauvira king comes to be known as Avimara, and Avimara's falling in love with Kurarigi, daughter of Kuntibhoja forms the theme of the drama, Avimaraka. In Pratima nataka is told the story narrated in Ramayana from Ayodhyakanda to Pattabhiseka. Abhiseka na.taka codifies the stories in the Kiskindha Kanda and Sundara Kanda of the Ramayana and describes the coronations of Sugriva and of Sri Rama. Though the characters in Pancaratra are borrowed from Mahabharata the story is entirely Bhasa's. Madhyama vyayoga, Dutavakya, Dutaghalotkaca, Karnabhara and Urubhanga are one-act plays. These five plays have as their basis some of the anecdotes in the Mahabharata. In Carudatta is treated the love story of Carudatta and Vasantasena.


Indisputable evidence is still lacking to credit Bhasa with the authorship of all the thirteen plays referred to above.


BHASAS. (See Bhasi ) .


BHASAKARNA. A military captain of Ravana. Hanuman killed him in fight. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sundara Kanda 46, 47).


BHASI. Daughter of Tamra, Daksa's daughter. Kasyapa prajapati married the following daughters of Daksa: Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kalika, Tamra, Krodhavasa, Manu and Anala. Tamra had five daughters, viz. Kraunci, Bhasi, 8yeni, Dhrtara.stri and Su'ici. And, the sons of Bhasi are the Deva sect called the Bhasas. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aran ya Kanda, Canto 14).


BHASKARA. One of the Dvadasadityas born of KaSyapa prajapati and Aditi. (AnuLasana Larva, Verse 150).


BHASKARACARYA. A master astronomer of ancient India. It was he who declared, much earlier than western experts, that the earth is round in shape.


BHASKARI. An old maharsi of India. He accompanied the Rsis who visited Bhisrna on his bed of arrows. (anti Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 12 ).


BHASMA. (Sacred ash). To know a story about the greatness of Bhasma see under the word Durjaya.


BHASMASURA. A demon. There is no mention about this demon in any of the Sanskrit puranas but 'Siva1lldmrta' in Marathi contains the following story about him.


Bhasmasura was born of the Bhasma dust (ashes ) on the body of diva. Pleased at the great devotion of the demon towards him diva asked him to name any boon he wanted. Bhasmasura said that he wanted the power to burn to ashes anybody on whose head he placed his hand. Bhasmasura became arrogant with the boon and he became a nightmare to the whole world. Then Mahavisnu appeared before him in the form of Mohini, an attractive dancer and alluring him by her charm started on a dance called Muktanrtya. During the course of this dance Bhasmasura was forced to place his hand on his own head and the moment his head touched his head he was burnt to ashes.


BHASVARA. One of the two attendants presented by Surya to Subrahmanya; the other was named Subhraja. (daly a Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 31).


BHATTANARAYANA. A Sanskrit poet who flourished near about A.D. 700. Venisamhara, a drama in six acts is the only composition of his found out, yet. He is also known by another name, Mrgarajalaksma. Certain scholars opine that he might have lived before Bana and after Vamana.


BHA'I'TANAYAKA. A literary critic who flourished in the 10th century A.D. in India. He composed a critical study on the science of dance (Nalya) named Hrdayadarpana based on the Natya sastra of Bharata. But, the book has not been found out, yet. Contesting the dhvanivada (the rhetorical theory that in poetry suggested or implied meaning is superior to the exp1icit meanning ) of Anandavardhanaca.rya, he established the rasavada (that sentiment is supreme in poetry). Abhinavagupta also has supported the rasavada. Hence, it may be inferred that Bhattanayaka lived in the period after Anandavardhana and anterior to Abhinavagupta. Bhatxanayaka's theory is that Abhidha, Bhavakatvam and Bhojakatvam should be the three excellences of good poetry.


BHATTI. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 7th century A.D. His most important composition is the Mahakavya, Ravanavadha, which has become very popular and famous by the name Bhaltikavya. This mahakavya deals with the story of Ramayana in its twentytwo Kandas (cantos). The kavya is believed to have been composed at Valabhi in obedience to the request of King Sridharasena.


BHAUMA I. The fourteenth Manu. In the time of this Manu, the person called guci will be Indra. Under his control there will be five groups of Devas. These groups are called Caksusas, Pavitras, Kanislhas, Bhrajikas and Vapavrddhas. The Saptarsis (seven sages) of that Manvantara are Agnibahu, guci, Sukra, Magadha, Agnidhra, Yukta and Jita. At that time, the sons of Manu who will be protecting the earth will be Uru, gaxhbhirabuddhi and other Kings. (Visnu Purana, 3rd Fart, Chapter 2).


BHAUMA II. Another name of Narakasura, (See the word Narakasura).


BHAUMA III. A Raksasa born to Simhika by Vipracitti. Parasu-Rama killed him. (Brahmanda-3-6-18-22).


BHAU'I'YA. See the word Manvantara.


BRAVA I. One of the eleven Rudras. He was the son of Sthanu and grandson of Brahma. (Chapter 66, Adi Parva, M.B. ).


BRAVA II. A sanatana Visvadeva. (Chapter 60, Adi Yarva, M.B. ).


BRAVA III. One of the sons born to Kasyapa of Surabhi.


BRAVA (M) I. A famous forest mentioned in the Puranas. Bhava was near the Venumanda mountain, which was close to Dvaraka. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 38 ).


BRAVA. One of the twelve Devas born to Blarguvaruni IZsi of his wife Divya.


BHAVABHUTI. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 7th century A.D. His important works are the three dramas, Malatimadhava, Mahaviracarita and Uttararamacarita. Bhavabhuti was a Brahmin of the Kasyapagotra. He was the son of one Nilalcantha and one Jatukarni. He was a great devotee of diva and he got his name Bhavabhuti later because of this. His original name was Nilakantha. Bhavabhuti was born in Padmapura in the state of Vidarbha. But Bhavabhuti spent most of his life in the palace of Yaodharma, king of Kannauj.


Bhavabhuti's first drama is believed to be Mahaviracarita. There are seven acts in this. The theme is based on the story of Sri Rama. But there are some variations from the original Ramayana in this drama. Bhavabhuti states that even at the time of the svayamvara of Sita, Ravana was a suitor. There is an opinion among certain critics that Bhavabhuti did write only up to the 46th verse in the fourth act and the rest was written by another poet named Subrahmanya.


Malatimadhava is a drama of ten acts. It is a love-story of Malati and Madhava. Malati was the daughter of the minister of Ujjayini and Madhava was the son of the minister of Vidarbha. It was while 1Vadhava was having his education in Ujjayini that he came to love Malati. It was Kamandaki who was a classmate of both the ministers and who became a sannyasini later who pulls the strings of this love story. The king of Ujjayini wanted Malati to marry Nandana, a friend of his. But Malati did not love him. Yet afraid of getting the displeasure of the King, Malati's father decided to give her in marriage to Nandana. In despair Madhava was about to commit suicide when from the temple nearby Madhava heard an agonised weeping. He rushed to the site of the sound and found to his bewilderment the gruesome sight of Malati being dragged for sacrifice by a sorceress named Kapalakundala helped by her guru Aghoraghanta. Madhava killed Aghoraghanta and saved Malati. Disappointed Kapalakundala swore that she would seek revenge on Madhava and disappeared. Malati went back to her palace. At this time Madayantika, sister of Nandana and Makaranda, a friend of Madhava became lovers. Once Madayantika was attacked by a tiger in a diva temple and Makaranda saved her from the wild beast, and they became lovers thereafter. The proposal to give Malati in marriage to Nandana was still pending then. The marriage day was fixed and a day before that by a clever ruse played by the keenwitted Kamandaki Malati and Madhava eloped together. Makaranda, friend of Madhava, was disguised and dressed in bridal robes and Nandana little suspecting the trick played on him married the substitute. Before they went to the bridal chamber for the night Nandana's sister came to see her new sister-in-law and the moment she put her eyes on her she understood who it was and that night they also eloped. Thus poor Nandana was left alone.


Kapalakundala by her sorcery separated Malati from Madhava but luckily Saudamini a disciple of Kamantaki saved her froth Kapalakundala. Later Malati married Madhava with the permission of the King. This is the story of Malati-Madhava.


Uttararamacarita is a play of seven acts. The theme is the story of Rama after his return to Ayodhya after the exile. It begins with the renouncement of Sita by Rama and ends with the vanishing of Sita.


All these three dramas used to be enacted during the festival of `Kalapriyanatha ' at Ujjayini. The predominant emotion in Mahaviracarita is `Vira', in MalatiMadhava, `Sriigara' and in Uttararamacarita `Karuna'. In expressing and elaborating the emotion of `Karuna' Bhavabhuti excels Kalidasa. The one draw-back which keeps him second ;o Kalidasa is his lack of humour and wit. The sanskrit poet Dhanapala in his book' `Tilakamanjari' speaks about Bhavabhuti thus


BHAVADA. A follower of Skandadeva. (Chapter 45, Salya Parva).


HAVANMANYU. A king of PFAruvari-lSa. He had five B sons: Brhatksatra, Nara, Garga, Mahavirya and Jaya. (Caapter 19, Amsa 4, Visnu Purana).


BHAVANIKA. A companion of princess Mrgarhkavati. (See Sridatta).


BHAVATI. The word prescribed by Manu to be used while addressing women. Not all women should be addressed like that. All women who are not your relatives and the wives of others should be addressed using any one of the following words: Bhavati, Subhag,-, or Bhagini.


Parapatni to yd stri syad asambaddha ca yonitah Tam bruyad bhavatityevarit Subhage bhaginiti ca. //


(Manusmrti, Chapter 2 ).


BHAVAYAVYA. A muni, whose glories are sung in. the Rgveda. He married Romasa, daughter of Bhrhaspati. Once she approached her husband with the request for coition, and the husband laughed at her. (I2 gveda, Mandala 19, Anuvaka 19, Sukta 127).


BHAVIN1. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (8alya Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 11).


BHAVISYA PURANA. This purana contains the instructions given by the god Surya to Manu. There are about fourteen thousand books in this puranaand they deal


x. Since much information about Bhima is given under the captions Dharmaputra, Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadeva and Paacali only


a brief description of Bhima is attempted under the present heading.


with almost all subjects on earth including such important ones like, Srsti (creation), Kalamana (time), Garbhadhana (conception), Godana (gift of cows), Asramadharmas (duties of a hermit) Litiga Sastra (science of sex), Visacikitsa (treatment of poisoning) and .Ayurveda (Medical science). (Chapter 272, Agni Purana ) ..


BHAVISYARAMAYA A. The part after Uttararamayana. Uttararamayana states about Bhavisyaramayana being sung by Kusa and Lava in the presence of Sri Rama.


BHAVUKA. A Icing of the solar dynasty. He was the son of Raviya and father of Cakroddhata. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


BHAVYA I. A son ofDhruva. He got ofhis wife 8ambhu two sons, Sisti and Bhavya. (Chapter 13, Atitsa 1, Visnu Purana).


BHAVYA II. A clan of devas in Raivatamanvantara. Parimiti, Priyaniscaya, Mati, Maria, Vicetasa, Vijaya, Sujaya and Syoda are some of the prominent devas of the clan. (Brahmanda Purana, 2.36, 71-72).


BHAVYA III. One of the Saptarsis (seven sacred saints) of Daksasavarni Manvantara.


BHAYA. A demoness, sister of Kala who presides over the land of death. She was married to Heti, son of Brahma and brother of Praheti. Vidyutkesa was their son and he married Salakantaka, daughter of Sandhya. (U ttara Ramayana ) .


BHAYA (M ) . Himsa is the wife of Adharma. They got a son named Anrta and a daughter named Nikrti. From them were born Bhaya, Naraka, Maya and Vedana. Of these Maya produced Mrtyu, destroyer of matter. Vedana got of her husband Raurava son named Duhkha. From Mrtyu were born Vyadhi, Jara, Soka, Trsna and Krodha. (Chapter 20, Agni Purana) Another version about the birth of Bhaya is found in Sloka 54, Chapter 66 of Adi Parva, M.B. Adharma married Nirrti and to them were born Bhaya, 'Mahabhaya and Mrtyu, three sons of demoniac disposition. These three sons led a sinfu1 life.


BHAYANKARA I. A prince of the country of Sauvira. He was a dependant ofJayadratha. It was this Bhayaitkara who followed Jayadratha with his flag when he was trying to kidnap Paitcali. Arjuna killed him. (Chapter 265 and 271, Vana Parva, M.B.).


BHAYANKARA II. A sanatana Visvadeva. (Chapter 91, Anusasana Parva, M.B.).


BHAYAIVKARI. A follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 4, Cha ter 46, Salya Parva, M.B. ).


BHED A female attendant of Subrahmanya (M.B. S`a(ya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 13).


BHELA. A disciple of Punarvasu Atreya who was an Aytarveda acarya. He was a contemporary of Agniveca and has composed a work on Ayurveda, entitled `Bhelasatithit=~'.


BHERISVATA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva,, Chapter 46, Verse 26).


BHIMA. Bhimasena, one of the five Pandavas.t I ) Genealogy. (See genealogy of Arjuna).


2 ) Birth and childhood. King Vicitravirya of Candra varitsa (lunar dynasty) had two sons called Dhrtarastra and Pandu. The Kauravas (Duryodhana etc.) were sons born to Dhrtarastra of his wife Gandhari, and the Pandavas were the sons of Pandu and his wives Kunti and Madri. Dharmaputra, Bhima and Arjuna were the sons of Kunti, and Nakula and Sahadeva of Madri.i


Kunti directed a mantra gifted to her by Durvasas towards Vayubhagavan (the wind-god) and the result was the birth of Bhima. Hence he is called Vayu-putra (son of the wind-god). At the time of his birth a celestial voice announced that the boy would grow up to be the strongest among the strong. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 14). On the tenth day after birth the child Bhima fell from his mother's lap on a rock. Bhima was not injured in any manner by that fall, although it crushed the rock into power. (This story is told in the southern texts of the Mahabharata in Chapter 132 of Adi Parva). The naming ceremony of the child was performed by the Mahar sis, who stayed at Satasrfiga. Kasyapa Maharsi, family priest of Vasudevaperformed the ceremonies like wearing of the sacred thread. Bhima learned fighting with the gad.i (club or mace) from Suka, the famous Rajarsi.


The Kauravas and the Pdndavas spent their childhood in Hastinapura. Dronacarya taught them fighting with weapons. The Kauravas and the Pandavas often engaged themselves in children's games. In all such games Bhima used to hurt and defeat the Kauravas, .and to this fact the unending hatred of the Kauravas towards Bhima owed its origin. Once they administered poison to Bhfma who fell down unconscious, and then they threw him into the depths of the Ganga (Ganges). Going deeper and deeper in the waters Bhima, at last, reached the Nagaloka, where the nagas (serpents) bit him which neutralized the effects of the poison in his body. There he got acquainted with a naga called Aryaka, who introduced him to Vasuki, king of the nagas, and Vasuki presented him with much wealth and other costly gems. But, what use was all this wealth to Bhima ? Then Vasuki agreed to give him a divine drink, which would give the user of it the strength of thousand elephants. Bhima drank at one draught eight pot-fulls of that divine drink, and thus became tremendously strong. But, he had to wait in Nagaloka for eight days so that the drink might be thoroughly assimilated, and on the ninth day the nagas saw him off in all pomp and splendour. Bhima returned to his mother and brothers and consoled them, who were terribly anxious at his absence.


When the training of the princes in the use of weapons was over a competition or test was conducted. Duryodhana and Bhima entered into a `club-fight', and when Karna tried to intervene in the fight his nobility was questioned by Bhima. Duryodhaiia then insulted Bhima. Arjuna agreed to present King Drupada before Dronacarya as gurudaksina to him. In the fierce war the Pdndavas fought with Drupada, Bhima annihilated the elephant division of the latter's army. And, afterwards Bhima underwent higher training in club-war at the hands of Balabhadrarama. (Adi Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 4).


3) The Pdndavas left Hastinafiiera. As enmity between the Kauravas and the Pdndavas began growing stronger and stronger, Duryodhana, with his father's permission, removed the Pdndavas to varanavata and settled them there. They were put up there in a palace specially i The Panqavas were not in fact direct issues of Fan0u. For details see Kunti.


made of lac. The Pdndavas divined the secret of it and escaped from the fire, when the palace was set fire to. Verse 10, Chapter 147 of the Adt Parva states that it was Bhima, who set fire to the palace. Escaping thus through a tunnel the Pdndavas travelled a great distance in the forest. Kunti and four of her sons got tired by the exertions of the travel and were forced to sit down for rest on the way. Bhima, continued the journey carrying the mother and his four brothers on his shoulders. With their entry into Hidiiiiba forest the weakness left them, and they became their former selves.


4) Hidarizba killed. Kunti devi and four sons slept under the shade of a tree at dusk, and Bhima kept guard over them. There dwelt in the forest a Raksasa called Hidimba with his sister, Hidimbi. Hidimba looked around that particular day from the top of a tree, and detecting Bhima his mouth watered. He deputed Hidimbi to bring Bhima over to him. Hidimbi approached Bhima, whose fine figure kindled feelings of love in her. She desired to have him as husband. Hidiriibi having not returned even after a long time Hidimba went over to the spot, and there finding Hidimbi in love-talks with Bhima he got terribly angry. He wanted to kill Hidimbi. Bhima, who could not suffer the killing of a woman in his presence rushed against Hidimba, The noise of the fight awakened the other Pdndavas from sleep, and at the instance of Arjuna, Bhi,na killed Hidimba. Thus rendered helpless and forlorn again craved Bhima for love. On the suggestion of Kunti, whose heart melted at the sight'of Hidiiiibi'shelplessnessBhima took her as his wife. But, one condition was stipulated for their enjoying the honey-moon. The condition was that they might enjoy honey-moon, from dawn to dusk in the sky and on mountain tops, Hidiriibi, who was endowed with magic powers carrying Bhima with her. And, after dusk Bhima was to be returned to Kunti. Accordingly Bhima and Hidimbi spent one year, and to them was born a son called Ghatotkaca. Promising that he shall return when wanted, Ghatotkaca with his mother went into the forest. The Pdndavas also left for the village called Ekacakra. (Adi Yarva, Chapters 147-154 ) .


5 ) Killing of Baka and the wedding of Pancali. While at Ekacakra Bhima killed the Raksasa called Baka and freed the people of the village from their distress. Afterwards the Pdndavas attended the Svayamvara (free choice of the husband by woman) of Pancali, who became their wife. There Bhima defeated Salya in fight. And, the Pdndavas duly returned to Hastinapura. (For details see Baka, Pancali and Arjuna).


6) Again to forest. On their return to Hastinapura the Pandavas took their residence in the palace built by Maya. There Maya presented a magnificent club to Bhima. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 18). It was Sri Krsna, lord of Dvaraka who served as the right hand of the Pandavas. Jarasandha, who was then King of Magadha fought with Krsna eighteen times and got defeated. Yet he did not yield, and at last Krsna decided to do away with him. Krsna, Arjuna and Bhima, in disguise, set out for Magadha. They entered Jarasandha's palace and challenged him to a duel. Bhima and Jar& sandha clashed, and at the instance of Krsna Bliiixia rent the latter in two and threw him on the ground. Though Jarasandha was alive again, Bh-ima rent him in two and threw away the two parts to two places. (M. B. Sabha Parva, Southern Text, Chapter 24).


The main impediments and thorns in their way thus having been removed, Dharmaputra decided to perform Rajasuya. Bhhna was deputed to conquer all the kingdoms in the eastern part of India. Bhima achieved the object and returned with great wealth to Indraprastha. Though Bhirna got ready to kill Si~upala, who alone refused to acknowledge the suzerainty of Yudhisthira, he. also yielded on the tactful advice of Bhisma. The Rajasuya Yajna went off quite successfully. It was Bhima, who, after the Yajfia was over, took Bhisma and Yudhisthira to Hastinapura. Afterwards, in the contest in the game of dice played between Dharmaputra and Duryodhana, the Pandavas lost everything. The Kauravas brought Pancali into the assembly hall and attempted to strip her naked in public. Bhima who got enraged at this shouted that the hands of Yudhisthira who played dice should be burnt in fire. (Adi Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 6) . And, Bhima took then and there the terrible pledge that he would, with his hands stained by blood from the chest of Dussasana, who tried to rip Paticali naked, tie up Paficali's hair which got untied in the scuffle. He also swore that he would break the thigh-of Duryodhana. In uncontrollable rage Bhima also shouted that he would turn into ashes all those who took part in the game of dice. Bhima took also the vow that all the Kauravas would be killed.


According to the terms and conditions laid down with regard to the contest in the game of dice the Pandavas went into the Kamyaka forest to live there for twelve years and then to live incognito for one year.


7) Life in forest and life incognito. There lived in Kamyaka forest a Raksasa called Kirmira, brother of Bala, whom Bhima had killed on an earlier occasion. Kirmira, who was awaiting an opportunity to avenge the murder of his brother, now clashed with Bhima in the forest. Bhima did very easily kill him. (For details see Kirmira).


Thus the Pandavas spent their days once again in the Kamyaka forest under the spiritual leadership of sage Dhaumya. They thought about their lost kingdom. Should they go to war against the Kauravas or should they spend the rest of their lives in the exercise of dharmic injunctions ? At one time Bhima advised Yudhisthira against war; but on another occasion he pleaded Vehemently in favour of war. It was during this time that Arjuna went to the Himalayas to please Siva by penance and get from him the Pasupatastra. (Arrow called Pasupata). The Pandavas naturally got nervous and upset at the rather long absence of Arjuna; Bhima was more anxious and sorry than the others. Then the Pandavas set out in search of Arjuna, and travelled upto Mount Gandhamadana. Then the party got so tired that they could not proceed any further. Pancali fell down fainting. Then Bhima remembered Ghatotkaca, who appeared before his father (Bhima) at once. As directed by Bhima Ghatotkaca mounted the Pandavas on his shoulders and the journey continued. They reached the Asrama of Naranarayanas, and rested there for six days. One day the wind blowing from the north- east dropped near Pancali a Saugandhika flower. And,  Bhima set out in the north-cast direction to fetch saugan  dhika flowers for Pancali, who felt a special liking for  them. _  Walking and walking Bhima entered Kadalivana.

 Hanuman; his skin wrinkled and hair grey due to old  age, was living in this forest. He obstructed the path of  Bhima. Hanuman awoke from sleep and raised his tail  with a terrific sound. Bhima walked upto the place  whence the sound was heard.' (Vanaparva, Chapter  146). In the clash that ensued between Hanfiman and  Bhima the former came out victorious. Hanuman,  however, congratulated Bhima and directed him on the  path to the saugandhika forest.  Bhimasena reached the saugandhika forest, which was being guarded by the Raksasas called Krodhavasas. Bhima overcame them, collected the flowers and returning with them stayed in the Badarikasrama with his brothers and Paficali. Here it was that Bhima killed Jatasura. (For details see Jatasura II).


Four years were thus spent; yet Arjuna had not returned. The Pandavas continued their journey northward. On the 17th day they came to the Asrama of Vrsaparva in the Himalayas. They were duly received by the maharsi,, who directed them in their onward journey. Continuing the journey they reached the Asrama of Arstisena whence, after crossing variousmountain peaks and still walking they reached Kubera's Alakapuri when a Yaksa called Maniman obstructed their further progress. Bhima killed Maniman and the other Yaksas who rushed to his support. 1 inally Kubera himself saw Bhima and blessed the Pandavas.


While they were returning from Kubera's palace Bhima was caught by a python. But, it was really Nahusa transformed into a python on account of a curse. Bltima killed it and it assumed its original form as Nahusa.


(See Agastya, Para 8 . By this time Arjuna had obtained Pasupatastra from Siva and he duly returned to his brothers, and the Pandavas continued their journey in the forest.


Meantime, knowing that the Pandavas were put up in Dvaitavana, the Kauravas started for their dwelling place in a procession led by Duryodhana with the army and camped nearly two furlongs away from a pool in Dvaitavana. While thus camping Duryodhana clashed with a Gandharva called Citrasena, who with a number of his comrades came to the pool for water games, and in the encounter the latter made Duryodhana prisoner. Bhimasena who witnessed the scene very much laughed at Duryodhana. But, Arjuna intervened and set free Duryodhana and others.


The Pandavas again entered the Kamyaka forest, and it was at that time that Jayadratha abducted Paticali. Bhima killed Kotikasya who acted on behalf of Jayadratha. (See Kotikasya). Moreover Bhima captured Jayadratha, got his head shaved clean and declared that he was a slave of Dharmaputra. It was here at Dvaitavana that Dharmadeva tested the Pandavas, who had gone to a nearby pool to fetch water; all the Pandavas except Yudhisthira died at the pool, but were brought back to life again. (See Dharmaputra, Para 7). The


t . When raised, Hanuman's tail was as high in the sky as the flag of Indra, and produced a thunderous sound. As though the mountains were vomitting through their mouth, the sound produced by the raising of the tail shook the mountains. Drowning the trumpeting of excited elephants the sound reverberated all around the mountains. Hearing the sound Bhima, his whole body horripilated entered the forest in the direction of the sound. In the middle of Kadalivana, on a mighty rock, Bhima saw Hanuman.Twelve years' forest-life of the Pandavas now came to an end.


According to the advice of Dharmadeva the Pandavas selected the Virata palace for their life incognito, Bhimasena assuming the name Vallava (Valala). And, her.. Bhima killed in a duel jimuta, the pugilist. (See jimuta 11). It was also here that Bhima killed Kicaka and the Upakicakas. (See Kicaka). On another occasion, at the instance of Yudhisthira Bhima took Sudharma, King of Dasarna to Yudhisthira captive; but he was later set free. Next year the Pandavas defeated Duryodhana in the fight in connection with the theft of the cows of the Virata King, and then they declared that their forest life and life incognito were over.


8) Bhima in the great war. Even after the return of the Pandavas after the forest life and life incognito the Kauravas refused to give them half of the kingdom. So, both the parties began preparations for war. Given h.ereunder is the main incident relating to Bhima from this period to the Svargarohana (going to Heaven) of the Pandavas after relinquishing the kingdom in favour of Pariksit, including their victory in war and the administration of the country.


(1) Safijaya described to Dhrtarastra the prowess and achievements of Bhima. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 50). (2) Sri Krsna before leaving for the Kaurava assembly for compromise talks asked for the views of Bhima about the whole problem, and Bhima opined that peace was preferable to war. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74).


(3) When Sri Krsna admonished Bhimahe opted for war and waxed eloquent about his heroism and prowess. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 76).


(4) Bhima wanted 8ikhandi to be appointed chief of the army. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 161).


(5) Bhima sent back with an insulting reply Ulirka, who was sent by Duryodhana to the Pandavas with a message. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 163).


(6) Bhima questioned Dharmaputra who, when the armies had taken position on opposite sides, went on foot to the Kaurava assembly without bow and arrows. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 17).


(7) The world shuddered at the war cry of Bhima. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 44; Verse 8).


(8) On the first day of the war Bhima fought a duel with Duryodhana. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 19). (9) In the fight with the Kalirigas Bhima killed Sakradeva. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 24).


(10) Bhima killed Bhanuman. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 39).


( 11) He killed Satyadeva and 8alya, who guarded the chariot wheels of Srutayus, King of Kalinga. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 76).


(12) Killed Ketuman. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 77).


( 13) Annihilated the elephant division of the Kaurava army, and rivers of blood flowed. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 103) .


(14) Defeated Duryodhana. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 16).


(15) Fought against Bhisma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 1).


(16) Fought against the whole lot of Kauravas, and in this fight eight sons of Dhrtarastra viz. Sen5.pati, jarasandha, Susena, Ugra, Virabahu, Bhima, Bhimaratha


and Sulocana were killed. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 32).


(17) Fought a fierce war against Bhisma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 21).


(18) Fought with Duryodhana. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 17).


(19) Defeated Duryodhana the second time. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 11).


(20) Defeated Krtavarma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 60).


(2 1) Killed Bhisma's charioteer. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 12) .


(22) Killed eight more sons of Dhrtarastra. (Chapter 88, Verse 13, Bhisma Parva). '


(23) Struck by the arrow of Bhima, Droriacarya fell down unconscious. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 18) . (24) Killed nine more sons of Dhrtarastra. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 23).


(25) Defeated Balhika. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 104, Verse 18).


(26) Fought a duel with Bhurisravas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 10).


(27)Killed ten maharathis (heroes in chariot war) of the Kaurava army. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 113).


(28) Dhrtarastra applauded the prowess of Bhima. (Drona Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 13).


(29) Bhima fought with Viviriisati. (Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 27).


(30) Defeated $alya in club fight. (Drona Parva, Chapter 15, Verse 8).


(31) Fought with Durmarsana. (Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 5).


(32) Killed Anga, king of the Mleccha tribe. (Drona Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 17) .


(33) Fought with the elephant of Bhagadatta, was defeated and ran away. (Drona Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 19).


(34) Attacked Karna and killed fifteen warriors of his. (Drona Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 32) .


(35) Fought with ViviriiWi, Citrasena and Vikarna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 31).


(36) Fought with Alambusa and came out victorious. (Drona Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 16).


(37) Fought with Krtavarma. (Drona Parva, Chapter 114, Verse 67).


(38) Consoled Yudhisthira who was in great perplexity. Drona Parva, Chapter 126, Verse 32) .


(39) Defeated Drona again. (Drona Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 42).


(40) Killed Kundabhedi, Susena, Dirghalocana, Vrndaraka, Abhaya, Raudrakarma, Durvimocana, Vinda, Anuvinda, Suvarma and Sudarsana. (Drona Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 60).


(41) Threw off Dronacarya along with his chariot eight times. (Drona Parva, Chapter 128, Verse 18) .


(42)Defeated Karna in fight. (Drona Parva, Chapter 122).


(43)'Killed Dussala. (Drona Parva, Chapter 129).


(44) Defeated Karna again. (Drona Parva, Chapter 131).


(45) Killed Durjaya, son of Dhrtarastra. (Drona Parva, Chapter 133, Verse 13) .


(46)Killed Durmukha, son of Dhrtar5.s.tra. (Drcria Parva, Chapter 134, Verse 20).


 (47) Killed Durmarsana, Dussaha, Durmada, Durdhara (Duradhara) and jaya. (Drones Parva, Chapter 135, Verse 30) .


(48) Defeated Karna again. (Drones Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 17).


(49) Killed Citra, Upacitra, Citraksa, Carucitra, Sarasana, Citrayudha and Citravarman. (Drones Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 20)


(50) Killed Satrufijaya, Satrusaha, Citra (Citrabana) Citrayudha (Agrayudha) Drdha (Drdhavarman) Citrasena (Ugrasena) and Vikarna. (Drones Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 29).


(51) Defeated Kama again. (Drones Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 9).


(52) Destroyed many bows of Kama. (Drones Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 19) .


(53) To capture Kama bereft of his arrows, Bhima jumped into his chariot. (Drones Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 74) .


(54) Bhima tumbled to the ground unconscious at the blows of Karna. (Drones Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 91). (55) Gave directions to Arjuna to kill Kama. (Drones Parva, Chapter 148, Verse 3).


(56) Killed the prince of Kalinga by thrashing and kicking him. (Drones Parva, Chapter 155, Verse 24). (57) Killed Jayarata, Dhruva, Durmada and Duskarna by pushing and beating them. (Drones Parva, Chapter 155).


(58) Rendered the great hero Somadatta unconscious by thrashing him with his club. (Drones Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 10).


(59)Killed Balhika. (Drones Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 11).


(60) Killed Nagadatta, Drdharatha (Drdhasvan) Mahabahu, Ayobhuja (Ayobahu) Drdha (Drdhaksatra ) Suhastha, Viraja, Pramathi, Ugra (Ugrasravas) and Anuyayi (Agrayayi). (Drones Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 16).


(61) Killed Satacandra. (Drones Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 23).


(62) Killed Gavaksa, brother of 8akuni, as also Sarabha, Vibhu, Subhaga and Bhanudatta. (Drones Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 23). ,


(63) Defeated Duryodhana again. (Drones Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 43) .


(64) Engaged himself in a fierce fight with Halayudha. (Drones Parva, Chapter 177). (65) Got defeated in the fight with Kama. (Drones Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 10) .


(66) Killed the elephant named Asvatthama and spread the false news that Asvatthama (son of Drones) was killed. (Drones Parva, Chapter 190, Verse 15).


(67) Fought against narayanastra. (Drones Parva, Chapter 199, Verse 45) .


(68) In the fight with Asvatthama Bhima's charioteer was killed. (Drones Parva, Chapter 199, verse 45).


(69) Killed Ksemadhurti, the King of Kalata. (Kama Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 25).


(70) Fought with Asvatthama and fell down unconscious by the blows dealt by him. (Kama Parva, Chapter 15).


(71') Killed Bhanusena, son of Kama. (Yarna Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 27).


(72) In the next fight killed Vivitsu, Vikata, Sama, Kratha (Krathana) Nanda and Upananda. (Karna larva, Chapter 51, Verse 12 ).


(73) Defeated Duryodhana again. (Kama Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 53).


74)Taking upon himself all the responsibilities of the war deputed Arjuna to guard Dharmaputra. (Kama parva, Chapter 65, verse 10).


(75) Defeated Sakuni. (Kama Parva, Chapter 81, Verse 24).


(76) Fought fiercely with Duryodhana. (Kama Parva, Chapter 82 and 83) .


(77) Kii1ed Du~Sdsana in accordance with his (Bhima's) old pledge and drank the blood from his (Dussasana's) chest. (Kama Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 28).


( 78) Killed ten sons of Dhrtarastra, viz. Nisangi, Kavaci, Pasi, Dandadhara, Dhanurgraha, Alolupa, 8ala, ~andha (Satyasandha) Vatavega and Suvarcas. (Karna Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 2).


( 79) Next, sing1e-handed Bhima killed 25000 infantry men. (Kama Parva, Chapter 93, Verse 28) .


(80) Defeated Krtavarma (Salya Farva, Chapter 11, Verse 45).


(81) Did club-fight with 8alya. (8alya Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 12).


(82) Defeated Duryodhana again. (8alya Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 42).


(83) Killed the charioteer and horses of 8alya. (Salya t arva, Chapter 17, Verse 27).


(84) Killed another 25,000 infantry men, single-handed. (Salya Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 49).


85) Killed 11 sons of Dhrtarastra, viz. Durmarsana, rutanta (Citranga) Jaitra, Blhuribala (Bhimabaia) Ravi, Jayatsena, Sujata, Durvisaha (Durvisaha). Durvimocana, Duspradharsa (Duspradharsana) and Srutarva.


(86) After that killed Sudar'.ana, son of Dhrtarastra. (Salya Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 49).


(87) In the club fight that ensued between Duryodhana and Bhima, Duryodhana's thigh was broken by the blows with Bhima's club. (Salya Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 47).


(88) Then Bhima kicked Duryodhana on the head. (Salya Paeva, Chapter 59, Verse 4).


( 89) Bhima rushed forward to get hold of Asvatthama, who was then sitting with Vyasa on the Ganges shore. Bhima challenged him. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 16).


(90) Consoled PdACal! by giving to her Asvatthama's gem. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 26).


(91) Bhima apologised to Gandhari. (Stri Parva, Chapter 15 ) .


(92) Bhima made Yudhisthira to retract from his intention to renounce the world and become a Sannyasin. (anti Parva, Chapter 19) .


(93) Yudhisthira installed Bhlma, as crown prince. (anti Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 9).


(94) Yudhisthira settled Bhima down in the palace of Duryodhana killed in war. (anti Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 6).


(95) As directed by Vyasa, Nakula and Sahadeva were put in-charge of protecting the Kingdom. (Asvamedha Yarva, Chapter 72, Verse 19).


(96) It was Bhima who, along with the brahmins, measured the yajfiabhumi, in connection with Yudhisthira's Asvamedhayajna: (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 6) .


(97; During one of those days Babhruvahana visited Bhima, who sent the former back loaded with money and foodgrains. (As vamedha Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 6).


(98) It was Bhima who held the umbrella to Sri Krsna in the chariot on his way back from the company of the Pandavas to Dvaraka. (Asvamedha Parva, Southern Text, Chapter 92) .


(99) Bhima opposed Dhrtarastra's demand for money to perform the rituals of those who had died in war. (ASramavdsika Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 7) .


( 100) After Dhrtarastra, Kunti and Gandhari retired into the forest Bhima visited them once. (ASramavdsika Parva, Chapter 23) .


8) Bhima's conceit put down. While, after the great war, the Pandavas and Sri Krsna were discussing several matters all the Pandavas except Bhima said they owed their success in war to Krsna. But, Bhima, in all haughtiness claimed the credit for victory to his persona1 prowess. With the object of putting down this conceit on the part of Bhima, Sri Krsria, with Bhima seated along with him on Garuda, set out on a journey to the south. After crossing the sea and Mount Subela Sri Krsna, pointing out to Bhima a lake twelve yojanas wide and lying near Lanka, asked him to find out the source of the lake and return with the information. Though Bhima walked some distance he could not find out its source. Not only that, all the warriors there jointly attacked Bhima, and finding himself impotent to counter the attack he ran back to Sri Krsr:a for refuge. Then Sri Krsna with his ring clipped and threw away the lake, and said to Bhima as follows :-"This is the skull of Kumbhakarna killed by Sri Rama in the Rama-Ravana war. The warriors who attacked you are the asuras called `Sarogeyas' .'' Thes~°. words of the lord put down Bhima's conceit, and he apologised to Krsna. (Skanda Purana, 1.2.66). 9 ) Death. After entrusting matters of administration of the country to Pariksit the Pandavas set out on their great journey. Yudhisthira walking in the front, they started for Kailasa. During the course of their journey Pdficali, Sahadeva, Nakula and Arjuna orie after the other fell down dead. Bhima asked Yudhisthira the reason for the deaths and he was given suitable answers by the latter. At last when Bhima too was about to fall down and die he.asked the reason thereof, and Yudhisthira replied that Bhima's over-eating was the reason. Afterwards when Dharmaputra entered Heaven he found his brothers had already their seats there. (See Arjuna, Para 31).


10) Other information. (1) Bhima had a son named Sutasoma by Pancali: (Atli Parva, Chapter 95, Verse75).


2) A son called Sarvaga was born to Bhima of Balandhara., daughter of the King of KdS!. (Atli Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 97).


3) The following names are found used in the Mahabharata as synonyms for Bhima. Acyutanuja, Anilatmaja, Arjunagraja, Arjunapurvaja, Vallava, Bh1ma- dhanva, Jaya, Kaunteya, Kaurava, Kusasardula, Maru-  t'tmaja, Maruti, Pandava, Partha, Pavanatmaja, Pra-  bhanjanasuta, Raksasakantaka, Samiranasuta, Vayu-  putra, Vayusuta, Vrkodara.


BHIMA II. The Mahabharata makes mention of another Bhima, son of King Pariksit and brother of Janamejaya. (Atli Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 1). It was this Bhima who, at the yajna conducted at Kuruksetra attacked, without reason, the son of Sarama,,a dog of the Devas.


BHIMA III. A Deva gandharva delivered by Muni, the wife of Ka~yapa prajapati. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 42) . He took part in the birthday celebrations of Aajuna. (Adi parva, Chapter 122, Verse 55).


BHIMA IV. Yet another Bhima, grandson of King Aviksit of the Lunar dynasty and son of Pariksit is mentioned in Chapters 94 and 95 of Atli Parva. His mother was Suyasa. He married Kumari, daughter of Kekaya Raja and they had a son called Pratisravas.


BHIMA V. Father of Divodasa, king of Kasi. (Udyogaparva, Chapter 117, Verse 1).


BHIMA VI. A giidra who attained Svarga as on his head fell water with which the feet of a Brahmin were washed. The following story about him occurs on page 619 of the Padmapurana.


In the dvapara yuga there lived a 8udra called Bliima, who engaged himself in the profession of Vaisyas. An outcaste from practices pertaining to 8u.dras he enjoyed life with a Vaisya woman. He was a terrible fellow, who had killed many brahinins, and also enjoyed the wives of many elderly people including his teachers. He was a robber as well. Once he went to a brahmin house, and with the object of robbing his wealth spoke to him in a pathetic tone as follows:-"Respected sire, you will please listen to my grievance. You appear to be kindhearted. Please give me some rice, or else I will die this very moment."


Brahmin:-"Oh hungry guest ! There is no one here to cook food. I shall give you daily some rice, which you may cook yourself. I have neither father, mother, son, brothers, wife nor any other relatives. All of them are dead and gone. The unfortunate fellow that I am, I am staying here alone. No servants or others here." Bhim~:-"Oh revered brahmin ! I too am a lonely person. I shall live here for ever serving you. I am a 8udra."


These words of Bhima pleased the Brahmin so much that he cooked some food quickly and served the 8udra with it. He stayed with the Brahmin from that day onwards. His idea was to rob the brahmin of his wealth at some convenient time and get away. But, since he used to pour on his head everyday the water with which the brahmin's feet were washed he got redemption from all his sins.


One night a thief got into the brahmin's room to steal his earnings. Seeing the thief Bhima rushed at him to give him a. good thrashing. But, the thief, in the twinkling of an eye, cut off Bhima's head and escaped from the scene. At once there came down the attendants of Lord Visnu to lead Bhima to Vaikuntha. A divine chariot drawn by Rajahamsas (swans) also came down. Bhima got into the chariot and reached the abode of Visnu.


BHIMA VII. Father of Damayanti. (See Damayanti)


BHIMA VIII. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed by Bhima, one of the Pandavas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 86).


BHIMA IX. Verse 17, Chapter 94 of Adi Parva, Mentions about one Bhima born to King Din of his wife RathandhaC. This Bhima had four brothers, viz., Dusyanta, hSUra, Pravasu and Vasu.


BHIMA X. One of the five attendants given to Subrahmanya by the Deva called Amsa. Parigha, Vata, Dahati and Dahana were the other four. (alya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 34).


BHIl\/lA XI. A king of ancient time. He sits in yama's assembly worshipping yama. There are hundred kings in yama's assembly, having the name Bhima. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 24). It is on account of the penance of the hundred Bhimas that the difficulties of people are lifted. (Vana Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 11). These one hundred persons were kings in ancient days. Owing to several adversities they left their kingdoms for the assembly of yama. (anti Parva, Chapter 227, Verse 49).


BHIMA XII. A yadava king, the father of Andhaka. This Bhima was a contemporary of Sri Rama. He conquered Madhurapuri founded by Satrughna after killing the Daitya called Madhu.


BHIMA XIII. A friend of Ravana, king of Lanka. It was on the top of Bhima's house that Hanuman rested for the first time after arriving at Lanka. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sundara Kanda, Canto 6).


BHIMABALA I. (BHURIBALA). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra killed by Bhima. (Salya Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 14).


BHIMABALA II. One of the five Vinayakas born from the asura called Pancajanya. These Vinayakas cause difficulties and obstructions to the yajnas of Devatas. (Yana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 11).


BHIMABHATA. A gandharva. The following story has reference to his ,past life.


On the death of Srutadhara, king of Ekalavyanagara the younger of his two sons, Satyadhara drove out of the kingdom the elder brother, Siladhara. Thus ousted from his kingdom Siladhara did due penance and got from Siva the boon that Satyadhara be killed white he himself be made a gandharva. Owing to the blessing of Siva Satyadhara died, and he was born again as Samarabhata, son of Ugrabhata, King of Radhanagara, and Siladhara was born as Bhimabhata, brother of Samarabhata. On the death of Ugrabhata Bhimabhata, after killing Samarabhata ascended the throne. And, on one of those days, he was transformed into a wild elephant as the result of the curse of a muni. But, he iremembered his previous existence, and, though turned into elephant could speak like men. Bhimabhata became a gandharva because he received and treated well once a traveller and related to him his (Bhimabhata's) own story. (Kathasaritsagara gasaritkavat'larnbaka).


BHIMAJANU. A king in ancient India. He remained in the assembly of yama serving the latter. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 21) .


BHIMAKSA. A Raksasa, who used to attack the kingdoms of Kas i and Kosala often. Finally the above kings jointly encountered him. He was killed by King Haryasvan. (Brahmanda Purana).


BHIMARATHA I. A king of the family of Visvamitra. His father was Ketum4n and Divoddsa his son. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha),


BHIMARATHA II. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra killed in the war by Bhima. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 36).


BHIMARATHA Ill. A hero who fought on the Kaurava side. It was this Bhimaratha who stood at the centre of the garuda vyuha (army formation in the form of the


bird garuda, Kite) set up by Drona. (Droa Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 12). He killed Salva, the* Mleccha king and a supporter of the Pandavas. (Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 26). When Yudhisthira was king at Indraprastha Bhimaratha sat in Pandava assembly as a comrade of the Pandavas. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 26) .


BHIMARATHI (BHIMA). A river in the South extolled in the puranas. Sins of those who bathe in this river wil1 vanish. On its shore is a sacred place called Pandharapura. (Vana Parva, Chapter 88, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9 )


BHIMASARA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 99).


BHIMAVEGA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 99).


BHIRU. A son born to Manibhadra and his wife Punyajani.


BHISAN. A. Sort of Baka. From the day his father was  killed by Bhima Bhisana was impatiently waiting for  revenge. When the .Pandavas began the Asvamedha  yajna he obstructed it at a place near Ekacakra. Arjuna  fought and killed him. (Jaimini Mvamedha Parva,  Chapter 22) .




1) Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in the following order-Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha - Pururavas -Ayus - Nahusa - Yayati - Puru - Janamejaya - PracinvaPravira - Namasyu - Vitabhaya - Sundu - Bahuvidha -Sarityati - Rahovadi - Raudrasva - Matinara - Santurodha-Dusyanta-Bharata-Suhotra-Suhota -Gala-Gardda -Suketu-Brhatksetra-Hasti - Ajamidha - Rksa - Samvarana - Kuru- Jahnu-Suratha-Viduratha - SarvabhaumaJayatsena-Ravyaya-Bhavuka-Cakroddhata - Devatithi -Rksa - Bhima-Pratipa-Santanu-Bhisma.


2) Birth and Boyhood. Bhisma's name in his boyhood was Devavrata. He was the eighth son of 8antanu, a king of the lunar dynasty and Gangadevi. This boy was the human embodiment of Dyau, one of the Astavasus. Santanu, his father was the re-birth of another king, Mahabhiseka. The story concerning this, as given in the Mahabharata is as follows:-


King Mahabhiseka after his death, attained Visnuloka. Once he went to visit Brahma at Satyaloka. At that time Garigadevi was also present in Brahma's assembly. In that pious atmosphere, a gentle breeze began to blow and Gangadevi's clothes were slightly deranged. Just at that moment, Mahabhiseka took a stealthy glance at her and she also returned that glance. This was noted by Brahma who turned both of them into human beings by a curse. Gaitgadevi begged pardon and Brahma lifted the curse and blessed her that the Astavasus would come to the earth to be born as her sons and that afterwards she could come back to Heaven. After that Gaitgadevi was born as a mortal woman in the world under the name Ganga and she spent her days in the forests near the Ganga river valleys.


In those days the ruler of the Lunar dynasty was a king named Pratipa. Having no children, he went to the bank of the river Gariga and performed tapas there. Gaitgadevi who was moving about in the forests nearby, saw the King deeply absorbed in his tapas. She approached him and sat on his right thigh. She wanted the King to be her husband. He explained to her that the right thigh is the proper seat of a daughter-in-law and so she would become his son's wife in due course. In course of time, Pratipa had a son, Santanu, born to him. When Santanu grew up into a young man, one day he went for a hunt to the Gangs-valley and there he met Gatigadevi. He fell in love with her at first sight and courted her. Gaitgadevi agreed to become his wife on condition that he should not say anything to displease her and if he violated that condition she would leave him. The king accepted the condition and they became man and wife.


At about that time, the wife of Dyo, one of the Astavasus, happened to see the sacrificial cow of the sage Vasistha and wished to have it. She expressed her desire to her husband, Dyo. Dyo, with the other seven vasus went and took away by force, V asistha's cow. Vas; stha in his anger cursed the Astavasus to be born as mortals. They repented and begged pardon from Vasistha. The sage told them that all of them would be born as the sons of Gafigadevi and all except Dyo, who actually stole the cow, would return to Heaven at the time of birth itself. As for Dyo, he would continue to live in the world for a long time, as an adventurous hero.


Gangadevi became pregnant and gave birth to her first child. She carried the child to the river Gafiga and threw it into the river. Santanu who followed her up to the river bank, did not say anything against her, remembering his promise.


Seven children were born to her and she threw all of them into the river in this way. When she gave birth to the eighth child, Santanu insisted that he would not allow her to throw away that child into the river. As he had violated the condition, the, angry Gangadevi left the palace with her child. She named it Devavrata and brought him up in the forest. The sage Vasistha and Gafigadevi taught him all branches of knowledge. Thirtytwo years later, the king went to the same forest for hunting. He saw a handsome boy stopping the flow of the river Gangs. Getting interested in the boy, the King approached him. But by that time he had disappeared. The King prayed to Gangadevi to give back the child. She appeared with the child and after handing over the child to him vanished. The king returned to the palace with the child. (M.B. Atli Parva, Chapters 95-100).


3) The name Bhisma. Devavrata was anointed, as heir-apparent. One day King Santanu reached the forest near the Gangs river valley, for hunting. As he was hunting, absorbed in the beauty of the forest scenery, he felt the perfume of musk fi1ling the air in the forest. He wondered from where it could come. He went on arid on trying to find out the source of this smell until he reached the cottage of a fisherman. The fisherman had a daughter named Satyavati. It was from her that the fragrance of musk spread all around.' The king fell in love with her at first sight. He asked the fisherman to give the girl in marriage to him. But the brave fishrman did not yield to the king's demand immediately. He laid down several conditions, one of which was that Satyavati's sons should succeed to the throne of Santanu. The king was in a fix. Devavrata was the eldest son and heir-apparent. To deny kingship to his sons would be highly improper. Unable to find a solution to this difficult problem, the king returned to the palace, much depressed and gloomy. There he avoided all company and took to his bed, passing his time in sadness and solitude.


When Devavrata knew about his father's condition, he called the Ministers and asked them about it. They told him everything in details. At once, without informing even his father, Devavrata went to the fisherman's cottage on the bank of the river Ganges and begged for °Satyavati on behalf of his father. The fisherman repeated his former condition. Devavrata agreed that Satyavati's son shall be given the right :of Kingship. The fisherman pointed out that disputes were likely to arise between Devavrata's sons and Satyavati's children regarding the right of succession to the throne. At once Devavrata stood up and made a solemn pledge that he would remain a bachelor for life. The fisherman gave Satyavati to Devavrata to be taken to the King. Devavrata took her to the palace and presented her to his father. The King, when he came to know of the part played by his son in the matter, rose from his bed and embraced Devavrata with tears of joy and gratitude. The gods showered flowers on the scene. Because he had taken such a solemn oath, it was declared that henceforth he would be known by the name "BHISMA". The loving father Santanu also gave him a boon that Bhisma would die only when he wished. (M.B., Adi Parva, Chapter 100).


4) Affairs of the Kingdom in crisis. Two sons named Vicitravirya and Citrangada were born to Satyavati by ~antanu, who died shortly afterwards. As desired by Satyavati, Bhisma crowned the boy Citrafigada as king. Although Citrangada's reign was a prosperous one, it could not last long. Once a Gandharva named Citrangada attacked him at Kuruksetra and after a battle which lasted for three years, the Gandharva Citrahgada killed the King Citraiigada. It was Bhisma who performed the funeral rites of the King Citrangada. After that Vicitravirya was crowned King.


It was at that time that the Svayamvara of the three daughters of the King of Kasi, Amba, Arhbika and Ambalika, was held. Bhisma thought that it would be good if Vicitravirya married them. So Bhisma attended that function. The presence of Bhisma who was an old man, at the Svayaxhvara, frightened the girls. The other kings who were present, stopped him from entering the place, since he had taken an oath to remain a lifelong bachelor. The old Bhisma stood up and spoke at length about the eight different forms of marriage and after defeating several kings like Salves, he seized the three daughters of the King of Kasi and took them with


i. Satyavati's original name was Kali. The fisherman got her from the stomach of a fish. (See the word Adrika). Since she had the smell of fish she got the name of "Matsyagandhi." She used to assist a fisherman in his work as a ferryman in the river Gangs. Once the sage Parasara happened to get into her boat and he fell deeply in love with her. The sage removed the smell of fish from her and gave her the perfume of musk instead. By this mystic power he created a mist at noon and under its cover, he had asexual union with her. As a result of it the child Krsna (Vyasa) was born. The child immediately left the mother to perform tapas in the forest after promising to return to her whenever she wished for his presence. Although she gave birth to a child, Para'sara blessed that she would again remain a virgin. The whole episode remained a secret. As usual, Satyavati returned to the fisherman's cottage in the evening and continued to live with him. It is at this stage that gantanu was attraced by the perfume of musk and came to the cottage where he met Satyavati.

him in his chariot to Hastinapura. Preparations were made for the marriage of Vicitravirya with the three princesses. Then Amba approached Bhisma and told him that she had already dedicated her heart to the king of Salva. Bhisma generously a1lowed her to return home. (For the rest of Amba's story, see the word "Amba".


Vicitravirya married Ambika and Ambalika. He ruled over the country for seven years at the end of which he died of consumption. The dynasty faced a crisis, as there was no one to succeed him. Satyavati approached Bhisma with a suggestion to beget children by Vicitravirya's wife. But Bhlsma stood firmly on his solemn oath to continue as a life-long bachelor. (M.B. Adi Parva, Verse 100-104).


5) Bha~ma's Wire Pulling. After that Satyavati summoned Vyasa to Hastinapura and sons were born to Ambika, Ambalika and their maid by him. Ambika gave birth to Dhrtarastra, Ambalika gave birth to Pandu and the maid gave birth to Vidura. They grew up and Dhrtarastra married Gandhari and Pandu married Kunt! and Madri. Duryodhana and his brothers were born to Dhrtarastra, while the Pandavas were born to Pandu. Pandu died at the Satasrxiga vana and Madri observed sat! by jumping into his funeral pyre and burning herself alive. After that, the Kauravas and Pandavas who lived in the palace at Hastindpura, split up into two blocs. When the palace made of lac was destroyed by fire, the Pandavas went into the forest and came back to the country after their marriage with Paficali. They ruled over the country with Indraprastha as. their capital. In the gambling contest between Dharmaputra and Duryodhana, the Pandavas lost their kingdom and everything and so they went to the forest again. They 1ived for twelve years in the forest and spent one year incognito in the palace of the King of Virata. At that time the Pandavas reappeared in the battle which took place as a result of the theft of King Virata's cows by the Kauravas. Duryodhana asserted that he would not give so much land to the Pandavas as to put a dot with a needle. With the failure of Sri Krsna's mediation, the Kauravas and Pandavas encamped- on the opposite sides of the field of kuruksetra, preparing for a grim battle.


Bhlsma was the chief protagonist in all these events relating to the Kauravas and Pandavas. At every stage in the story we see Bhlsma's influence. The main events in which this superman who used to give shclter to Kauravas and Pandavas alike, played a decisive role, are given below:-


(1) Bhisma sent a messenger to Subala, king of Gandhara, to ask for the hand of Gandhari, to be married to Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 11).


(2) He went to the palace of Salya, king of Madra and secured Madr! to be married to Pandu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 112).


(3) He brought about the marriage between Vidura and the daughter of Devaka. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 113, Verse 2).


(4) The Maharsis who were the inhabitants of Satasrfiga told Bhisma about the birth of the Pandavas. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 22).


(5) Bhisma offered `Jalanjali' (worship with holy water) to Pandu at his death. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 126, Verse 27).


(6) He performed the death anniversary of Pandu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 1).


(7) He engaged Dronacarya to teach archery to the


princes. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 77).


(8) He burst into tears and wept bitterly on hearing that Pandavas were burnt to death in the palace of lac and was about to offer them `Jalanjali'. Just then, Vidura came to him and secretly informed him that the Pandavas were not dead. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 149, Daksinatya Patha).


(9) He advised Duryodhana to give half the kingdom to the Pandavas. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 202).


(10) He had taken part in Dharmaputra's Rajasuya Yajna. Dharmaputra had entrusted to Bhisma, the arrangements for that yajna. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 6).


(11) He advised Yudhisthira to give the highest place of honour in that yajna to Sri Kr: na. (M.B. Sabha harva, Chapter 36, Verse 28)


(12) Bhisma ridiculed Sisupala (Sabha Farva, Chapter33).


( 13) Sisupala insulted Bhisma. (Sabha Parva, Chapter41).


(14)Bbisma stopped Bhlma who rushed out to kill Sisupala. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 42, Verse 13).


( 15) It was Bhisma who narrated the life story of Sisupala. (Sabha Farva, Chapter 43).


( 16) In the battle against Sisupala, Bhlsma selected


powerful Kings to help Sri Krsna. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 41).


( 17) Once Bhlsma asked the sage Pulastya about the value and importance of pilgrimage. (Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 4) .


( 18) Bhisma advised Duryodhana to be on friendly


terms with the Pandavas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 253, Verse 4).


( 19) In the battle which was fought by Kauravas against King Virata, Bhlsma arranged the regiments in order,


after sending Duryodhana to Hastinapura. (Virata Farva, Chapter 52, Verse 16).


(20) A grim fight took place between Arjuna who went to help the Virata army and Bhlsma. At last, it was the charioteer who removed Bhisma, (who had fallen down unconscious) from the battlefield. (Virata Parva, Chapter 64).


(21) When the Kauravas were contemplating to fight against the Pandavas who= had returned after their


incognito life, Bhisma ridiculed Karna and praised Arjuna. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 16).


(22) At that time, he explained to Duryodhana, the greatness of Sri Krsna and Arjuna. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 49, verse 2).


(23) Duryodhana proposed to bind the hands and feet of Sri Krsna who was expected to come as the envoy of the Pandavas. Hearing this, Bhisma in great anger,


walked out of the council hall. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter, 88, Verse 19).


(24) Bhisma strongly advised Duryodhana to make a treaty of peace with the Pandavas. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 2 ).


(25) He declared that he would not kill the Pandavas but would kill 10,000 soldiers of the Pandavas everyday. Udyoga Parva' Chapter 156, Verse 21).


 (26) As desired by Duryodhana, Bhfsma declared the Rathis and Maharathis who belonged to the Kaurava side. (Udyoga Parva, Chapters 165-168).


(27) Bhisma described all the Maharathis of the Pandava side to Duryodhana. (Udyoga Parva, Chapters 169172) .


(28) Bhisma told Duryodhana that Sikhandf and the Pandavas should not be killed. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 172, Verse 20).


(29) Bhisma offered piija to Parasgurama. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 123, Verse 27).


(30) Athba who was allowed by Bhisma to marry her lover, King 8alva, was rejected by him and returned to Bhisma again. But he did not accept her. Although Parasurama pleaded with him on behalf of Aruba, Bhisma did not marry her. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 178, Verse 32).


(31) In connection with Amba's case, a duel was fought on the field of Kuruksetra between Bhisma and Parasurama. Bhisma started the duel after asking for the permission of Parasurama. Pleased with the fight, the Vasus presented to Bhisma, the Prasvapana arrow. But he did not use that arrow against Parasurama, since the gods and Narada prevented him from doing so. At the request of the gods, pitrs and Gafigadevi, Bhisma stopped the fight and prostrated at the feet of ParaWrama. (Udyoga Parva, Chapters 178-185) .


(32) Bhisma narrated to Duryodhana the story of Amba who was re-born as gikhandi. (Udyoga parva, Chapters 188-192) .


(33) Bh1sma himself told Duryodhana that he had the strength to annihilate all the Pandavas. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 14) .


(34) Before the beginning of the battle, Yudhisthira went to Bhisma and asked for his permission to start it. Bhisma granted him permission and blessed him.


(Bhisma Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 44). 6) Bhf,sma in Bhdrata Tuddha.


(1) On the first day of the battle a duel took place between Bhisma and Arjuna. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 8).


(2) In the battle Bhisma killed gveta, the son of king Virata. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 3).


(3) There was again a terrible fight with Arjuna. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 52).


(4) Satyaki killed Bhisma's charioteer. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 114).


(5) Seeing that the army of the Kauravas was being scattered in all directions by the violent strokes of Arjuna Bhisma ordered to stop the second day's battle. (Bliisma Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 42).


(6) Bhisma challenged Srikrsna for the fight. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 96) .


(7) Fought again with Arjuna. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 25).


(8) Bhisma gave orders to Dronacarya and Duryodhana to save Bhagadatta who fell in danger. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, verse 64).


(9) Bhisma told Duryodhana that Arjuna and Krsna were the incarnations of Nara and Narayana. (Bhisma Parva, Chapters 65-68) .


(10) Bhisma praised the greatness of Brahmapfta Stotra. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 2).


(11) Seeing Sikhandi rushing forward to oppose him, Bhisma put an end to the battle. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 29).


( 12) A terrible fight took place between Bhisma and Bhimasena. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 70).


(13) There was again a fight with Arjuna. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 71).


( 14) Bhisma wounded Bhimasena and defeated Satyaki. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 21).


(15) Bhisrna wounded King Virata. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 73, Verse 2).


(16) Duryodhana who was frightened by Bhimasena's deeds of valour, was encouraged by Bhisma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 80, Verse 8).


(17) He deprived Dharmaputra of his chariot. (Bhisma parva, Chapter 86, Verse 11).


(18)When Bhimasena killed Bhisma's charioteer, the horses turned round and ran away, dragging the chariot with them. .(Bhisma Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 12).


( 19) He ordered Bhagadatta to fight with Ghatotkaca. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 17) .


(20) He swore that all except 8ikhandi would be killed. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 98, Verse 4).


(21) Satyaki and Bhisma fought again. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 104, Verse 29).


(22) Bhisma killed 14,000 Maharathis who belonged to the Cedi, Kasi and Karusa countries. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 18 ) .


(23)Bhisma explained to Dharmaputra, the method by which he (Bhisma) could be killed. (Bhisrna parva, Chapter 107, verse 76).


(24) He declared that he would not fight with Aikhandi, who was neither man nor woman. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 108, Verse 43).


(25) He allowed Yudhisthira to launch an attack on himself (Bhisma). (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 13).


(26) Bhisma, shot by Ariuna's arrow, fell down unconscious. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 64).


(27) Bhisma who recovered and rose again, killed atanika, brother of King Virata. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 118, Verse 27).


(28) Bhisma routed the Paradava army most disastrously. (Bhisma Parva, Chapters 118, 119).


(29) He considered the misery of life and the sweetness of death. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 34).


(30) Bhisma who was wounded by Ar juna's arrows, described to Dussfisana, the heroism of Ariuna. (Bhisrria Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 56) .


(31) Arjuna shot his arrow at Bhisma and made him fall down from his chariot. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 87) .


(32) He told Harhsa that he would remain alive until the sun came to Uttarayana. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 104).


(33) Bhisma who fell and lay on a bed of arrows begged for a pillow to the Kings. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 34) .


(34) When he found that they were not paying any heed to his entreaties, he asked for a pillow to Arjuna. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter, 120, Verse 28).


(35) He exhorted the Kings to put an end. to the battle. (9hisma Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 51).


(36) Bhisma begged for water to Arjuna. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 18).


(3 7) He advised Duryodhana to end the battle. (Bhi sma Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 38).


(38) As Karna wished for `Virasvarga' (Heaven for the valiant) Bhisma permitted him to fight. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 122, verse 34).


(39) Vyasa sent Dharmaputra to Bhisma to learn the mysteries of "Dharma'„' from Bhisma before his (Bhisma's) death. (Sqnti Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 5).


(40) Bhisma said that Sri Krsna was more competent to give advice on "Dharma" than himself. (anti Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 2)


(41) When the frightened and ashamed Yudhisthira approached him, Bhisma cheered him up. (anti Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 19) .


(42)Bhisma explained to Yudhisthira, with the help of various examples and illustrations, "Rajya Dharma", "Apaddharma", and "Moksa Dharma". (Santi Parva, Chapter 56, to Anusasana larva, Chapter 165).


(43) After giving his advice to Yudhisthira Bhisma gave him permission to enter Hastinapura. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 166, verse 50).


(44) He gave advice to Dhrtarastra regarding his duties and responsibilities. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 30).


(45) He asked for Sri Krsna's permission to renounce his body. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 37).


(46) With Sri Krsna's permission, Bhisma renounced his body. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 2). (47) The Kauravas performed the funeral rites and jalaiijali (purification by sprinkling water) of Bhisma (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 10).


(48) Gafigadevi lamented that gikhandi, who was neither man nor woman, killed Bhisma. (AnuSasana Parva, 168, Verse 21).


(49) Vyasa and Sri Krsna told Gangadevi that Bhisma died by Arjuna's arrow. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 30).


(50) On a later occasion Vyasa invoked into the river Gafiga, those who died in the battle and among them Bhisma was also present. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 32, verse 7).


(51) After his death, Bhisma remained in Heaven as Dyau, one of the Astavasus. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 11).


Other names of Bhf~naa. Apageya, Apagasuta, Bhagirathiputra, Bharata, Pitamalia, Bharatarsabha, Bharatasattama, Bhismaka, Santanava, gantanuputra, Santanusuta, gantanuja, Devavrata, Garigasuta, Garigeya, Jahnaviputra, Kaurava, Kauravanandana, Kauravya, Kurmarddula, Kurusrestha, Kurudvaha, Kurukulasrestha, Kurukulodvaha, Kurumukhya, Kurunandana, Kurupati, Nadija, Prapitamaha, Sagaragasuta, Satyasandha, Taladhvaja, Vasu are other names of Bhisma used in the Mahabharata.


BHISMAKA. King of Vidarbha and born in the Bhoja dynasty, Bhismaka was the father of Rukmini, the wife of Sri Krsna. He had five sons. A friend '4 Bhisma, he conquered and ruled over a fourth of the world. He defeated the Krathas, Pandyas and Kaisikas. He was very much devoted tb jarasandha. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 21). Sahadeva, who was on a triumphal tour in connection with the Pandava's asvamedha yajfia fought and defeated Bhismaka at Bhojakatanagara. Bhismaka was also called Hiranyaroma. (Sabha Parva,


Chapter 31, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158, 8anti Parva, Chapter 4).


BHISMA PARVA. A sub parva in the Mahabharata.


BHISMA ASVARGAROHAHA PARVA. A sub division of Anusasana Parva. .Chapters 167 and 168 of Anusasana Parva are included in this.


BHISMAVADHA PARVA. A sub Parva of Bhisina Parva. It comprises Chapters 43-122 of.the Bhisma Parva.


BHO:-I. A term used for greeting elders. When sa1uting an elderly person, the terra "Bhoh" is used as a suffix to his name.


(Manusmrti, Chapter 2, verse 124)


BHOGAVAN. A mountain-Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 12 says that in the course of his triumphant over-running of the eastern lands, Bhimasena conquered this mountain also.


BHOGAVATI I. Nagaloka or Patala. When Sugriva sent monkeys in all directions in search of Sita, he gave instructions to them to go and search for her in Bhogavatipura. Valmiki Ramayatia, 41st Sarga, Kiskindhakanda describes the place as the city infested with serpents (ragas) and guarded by them. Vasuki, King of serpents, lives there.


BHOGAVATI II. Gafiga of Patala. (M. B. Sabha Parva, Daksinatya Patha, Chapter 38 )


BHOCAVATI III. A place of holy bath at Prayaga. It is better known as Vasuki tirtha. Mahabharata Vana Parva, Chapter 85 says that a bath at this tirtha is as efficacious as an Asvamedha yajfia.


BHOGAVATI IV. Another name for the river Sarasvati. (M. B. Vana Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 20).


BHOGAVATI V. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. ga1ya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 8).


BHOJA 1. A king of the ancient country named Marttikavata. In Mahabharata Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 6, we see that this king had attended the Svayarhvara of Draupadi. He was slain by Abhimanyu at the battle of Kuruksetra. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 8).


BHOJA II. A king of YaduvarMa. Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 79 says, that he died under the stroke of the sword of Maharaja Usinara. BhojavarWa takes its source from this king.


BHOJA III. A king who became renowned as a Sanskrit scholar. It is believed that he lived from 1018 to 1054 A.D. His capital city was Dhara. Bhoja is credited with the authorship of two scholarly books entitled, "Sarasvatikanthabharana" and "Srrigaraprakasa". Of these, the first is a compendious volume in five chapters, dealing with the merits and .defects of poetry, figures of speech, etc. Bhoja observes that besides the four styles (in poetry) laid down by Rudraka, there are two more styles, namely, "Avanti" and "Magadhi".


BHOJA IV. A follower of Sudas. In Rgveda, 3rd Mandala, 58th Anuvaka, 7th Sukta we find that this -Bhoja had given help to sage Visvamitra in performing his Asvamedha gaga.


BHOJA V. A king of Kanyakubja. Once this king Bhoja met a woman with a fantastic shape. Her body was of human shape while her face was that of a female deer.

 When the king asked her about her strange shape, she  related her past history as follows:-"In my previous  birth, I was a female deer. On one occasion the whole  of my body except my face, was plunged in a river and  those parts of the body under the water were transformed  into human shape. From that day, I have been changed  into this form."  On hearing her story, the king took her to the holy river  and immersed her again in it. She was at once trans  formed into an actual woman and the king married her.  (Skanda Purana, 7-2-2).


BHOJA. An exquisitely beautiful virgin of the country,  Sauvira. Mahabharata Drona Parva, Chapter 10,  Verse 33 says that Satyaki abducted her and made her  his wife.


BHOJA (M) . (BHOJAVAMSA). This is a branch ofYaduvarhsa. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 217, Verse 18).


BHOJAKATA. The capital of Vidarbha. Once Saha

 deva, one of the Pandavas conquered this city. It was  at this place that gel krgna defeated Rukmi, the brother  of Rukmini at the time of Rukmini's Svayamvara. The  original name of Bhojakata was "Kundinapura".  (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 31 and Udyoga Parva,

Chapter 158) .


BHOJIKA. A Brahmans. (See the word Pataliputra).


BHOJYA. A Bhoja princess. She was abducted by

 Jyamagha'of the Yadava family and married to his son,  Vidarbha. (See jyamagha).


BHOSA. A word meaning a comic, stupid or eccentric  person. Bhosas are of eight kinds. Those who feel  derided, those who babble, those who are obstinate,  sophists, those who indulge in hollow laughter, those  who pretend to be blind, those who pretend to be deaf,  and those who try to assert their self-importance-these  are the eight classes of "Bhosas".


BHRAMARA. A prince of the land of Sauvira. He was

 a comrade of Jayadratha. M.B. Vans Parva, Chapter  265 describes how Bhramara walked behind the.chariot  of Jayadratha with banner in his hand, when the latter  abducted Pancali. Bhramara was killed by Arjuna. 


BHRAMARI. A Raksasi who was the follower of Jart  bhasura. As directed by jarhbhasura, she took birth in  the house of Kasyapa to kill Ganesa. One day she  treacherously gave poisoned sweets to Ganesa. GaneSa  detected her treachery and fisted her to death. (Gavesa  2-21).


BHRASAKARNA. A Raksasa. He was the son of  Ketumati, by the Raksasa, Sumali. They had ten sons  Prahasta, Akampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumra  ksa, Danda, Suparsva, Sarhhrada, Prakvata, and  Bhrasakarna and four daughters-Veka, Puspotkala, Praaia  Dy I timan  Kaikasi and Kuriibhinasi. (Utters Ramayana).


BHRGU. 1) General. A ,sage, the son of Brahma. He was the founder of Bhrgu variisa. Members of the Bhrgu variisa are called `Bhargavas.' Bhrguvariisa has been reputed for many of its members who were Rsis of great sanctity and gtandeur. 2 ) Berth. "Utsarhgad Narado jajne Dakso 'rilgusthat svayaaiibhuvah / Pranadvasisthah samjato Bhrgustvacah karatkratuh".1


From these lines we see that Bhrgu was born from Brahma's skin (tusk ) . But in MR Adi Parva, 5th Chapter, we find another version regarding his birth. In that passage we read that Bhrgu was born from "Vahni" (fire). In the light of these two statements, we may examine Bhrgu's birth.


Bhrgu had two incarnations. The first time he was born from Brahma's skin. In course of time, the sage Bhrgu became famous. In the Daksayaga, this sage was present as one of the Rtviks(ofliciating priests). On that occasion, Satidevi who was in rage and grief because her husband (Siva) was not invited to the yaga, committed suicide by jumping into the sacrificial fire. Hearing about this, diva was enraged and the monster spirits who emerged from his matted locks caught hold of the Rtviks. Bhagavata caturtha skandha says that the Bhuta named Nandisvara, who emerged from diva's locks, caught hold of Bhrgu and killed him.


Therefore the Bhrgu who was born from Brahma's skin must be considered as having died at Daksayaga. Bhrgu was born again in Vaivasvata Manvantara. This second birth was at the famous Brahmayajna of Varuna. He was reborn from fire, as Brahma's son. This child who was born from Brahma's semen which fell in the sacrificial fire, was brought up by Varuna and his wife Carsani. Consequently Bhrgu is referred to as "Varunaputra" and "Carsaniputra" in some Puranas. Since he was born at Varuna's yaga he is sometimes called "Varun3 Bhrgu".


3 ) Bhrgu Tjariafa. (Bhrgu , family ) . Each birth of Bhrgu gave rise to a separate family. They are given below separately:-First birth: Bhrgu and his wife Khyati had a daughter Laksmi and three sons, Dhata, Vidhata and Kavi. Mahameru's daughters, Ayati and Niyati became the wives of Dhata and Vidhata, respectively. Two sons, Prana and Mrkandu were born to those two couples. Markandeya was born to M,rkandu and from Markandeya was born Vedasiras. Prana had a son, Dyutiman who had a son Rajavan. From that Rajavan, Bhrgu Vamsa multiplied. The family tree of this first Bhrgu Vamsa is given below:-(See Visnu, Part I, Chapter 10).


Second Birth: The second Bhrgu Vamsa is the family which took its origin from the second birth of Bhrgu as the son of Varuna. Varuna's son, Bhrgu married the woman, Puloma. They had six children who were, Bhuta, Cyavana, Vajrasirsa, Suci, 5ukra, and Savana. By his first wife Bhuta, he had his sons, "tkadasa Rudras" (eleven Rudras ) arid "Rudra Parsadas"


*Narada was born from Brahma's lap, Dakga from his Amgusha, Vasislha from his Prana, Bhrgu from his skin and Kratu from his arm.


(Attendants of Rudra) and by his second wife Sarupa he had a crore of Rudras. Cyavana had two wives, Sukanya and Arusi. Aurva, a son was born to Arusi. From Aurva was born Rcika, from Rcika Jamadagni and from Jamadagni, Parasurama. Cyavana had a son, Pravati, by his wife Sukanya. Ruru or Sunaka was the son of Pravati by the Apsara Ghrtaci. Ruru and his wife Pramadvara had a son, gaunaka. Suka, the son of Bhrgu had two sons, Caj,cla and Alarka and a daughter, Devayani. This is the second Bhrgu Vamsa.1 The family tree is given below.


4 ) Bhrgu cursed Mahaai,snu. Once a terrible war broke out between Devas and Asuras. In that war, not only were the Asuras defeated but many of them were also killed. Diti, the mother of the Asuras, with tears in her eyes, complained to Bhrgupati. Puloma, Mother of $ukra, promised to find a remedy far this somehow. She at once went to the forest and started a tapes for the annihilation of the Devas. As the tapes gained force, the Devas were alarmed and they sought the protection of Mahavisnu. Mahavisnu used his Vajrayudha (Vajra weapon) against Bhrgu's wife, Puloma. Under the stroke of Va3ra she fell down, a headless corpse. The enraged Dyiaharsi Bhrgu cursed Mahavisnu to be born as a mortal in this world and to suffer the patags of separation from his wife. When the curse was pronounced against Mahavisnu, he directed his weapon Cakra against the Maharsi. Bhrgu fled in panic and at last begged pardon and prayed for shelter to Mahavisnu himself an the ocean of milk. Visnu withdrew his Cakra. Bhrgu himself restored Puiorna to life. To fulfil the condition of Bhrgu's curse, Visnu agreed to incarnate in the world as Ari Rama, the son of Dagaratha and to experience the pain of separation from his wife. (Uttara Ramayana).


5 ) Bhrgu kicked Vim. Long ago all the Maharsis joined together to perform a yaga on the bank of the river Sarasvati. A dispute arose among them as to who was the most mighty among the Trtmurtis. Some of them voted for Brahma, others declared that Visnu was more mighty than the other two, while a third group stood for diva's superiority. They unanimously elected Bhrgu to ascertain and find out the truth of kite matter.


Varuna= Carsani


Varuni Bhrgtt---Puloma


Bhrgu set out to Dt:valoka. First he went to Brahma's assembly. There, in the presence of Brahma who was seated, in the midst of many Munis, Bhrgu took his seat on a stool. Brahma was provoked by thus act of disrespect. Bhrgu left the place without a word and went to diva's place. Siva rose from his seat and approached ,him to embrace and welcome him. Bhrgu, shrank bask saying, "Do 'not touch me ?" diva became angry and was about to hit him with his trident when Parvati stopped him.


There he saw Mahavisnu in a deep slumber. Seeing Mahavisnu whose task is the preservation of the world, sleeping like: an irresponsible person, Bhrgu gave him a kick on his breast. Visnu who sprang up suddenly, saw Bhrgu standing before him. He begged pardon of the sage. He declared that he would carry Bhrgu's footprint permanently on his chest as a sign of his repentance for having shown disrespect to the Maharsi. This foot-print still remains on Visnu's chest and is known by the name "8rivatsa". In this way, the Munis came to the conclusion that Mahavisztu is the noblest of the Trimurtis. (Bhagavata, Dasama Skandha).


6 ) The origin of Bhrgu Tirtha. There is a sacred spot called, "Bhrgu Tirtha" on the western side of Dasasvamedha. It is here that Bhrgu once offered tapes to diva. Owing to the austerity o£ his tapes, his hair became matted and discoloured. His body was completely covered with earth heaped up by termites. When S`iva was still not propitiated, Parvati interceded with him on behalf o£ Bhrgu, diva agreed to bless Bhrgu.


diva sent his bull to the place where Bhrgu was sitting. The hull in the course of its gambols broke up and destroyed the earthen covering on his body which was made by the termites. Bhrgu became angry and chased the bull. But he was stunned by the sight of the bull rising up to heaven through the air. A divine light spread there. Siva appeared before him and asked him what boon he wanted. Bhrgu prayed that the place where he was doing tapas,should become a holy spot. Siva granted his prayer and from that day, the place became famous under the name "Bhrgu Tirtha".


z . Devi I3hagavata, Saptama Skandha says that Bhrgu had married two daughters of Daksa. Mahabharata Anuiasana Parva Chapter 85, Verse 127 says that Bhrgu had seven sons, namely Cyavana Vajrasila, guci, Aurva, ~ukraa Varenya, and Savana.


Brahma and other Devas and the Kinnaras still worship this Bhrgu Tirtha. All sin is removed by a mere sight of this sacred Tirtha. Those who bathe in the holy water of this place attain Heaven and they will not be born again. Even by hearing about the greatness and glory of this Bhrgu Tirtha, one will be cleared of all sins and find an easy way to Sivaloka. (Padma Purana, Chapter 20.).


7) Other details. (1) It was Bhrgu who gave the boon for having progeny to Sagara., King of the solar dynasty. Sagara, with his two wives, Kesini and Sumati, performed tapas at Bhrgu prasravana in the Himalayas. After a hundred years, Bhrgu, who was pleased, blessed the king that he would have numerous children by one wife and one son who would be progenitor of a vain "a, by the other wife. (Vdlmiki Ramayana, Balakanda; 38th Sarga).


(2) Once when. some Munis went. to Dvaraka, Samba and other Yadavas mocked them and the Munis cursed them. Bhrgu was one of those Munis. (See the word Samba).


(3) Parasurama, after exterminating the Ksatriya kings, went to the Asrama of Bhrgu, the founder of the family and received his blessings. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 62).


(4) Bhrgu Maharsi was a prominent member,in Yudhislhira's assembly. (M.B. Chapter 4, Verse 16).


(5) He was also a member of Indra's assembly. It was by Bhrgu's brilliance that Indra's glory was heightened. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 29) .


(6) Bhrgu was at member of Brahma's assembly also. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 19).


( 7) Once Bhrgu blessed his son Rcika and his daughterin-law Satyavati that they would have children. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 116, Verse 35) .


(8) Sri Krsna who went as the messenger of peace to Hastinapura, travelled in Daksinavarta, along with the

slag a Bhrgu. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83, Verse


(9) Bhrgu entered the scene of battle between the Kurus and Pandavas and tried to persuade Dro~iacarya to withdraw from the fight. (M.B. Drona Parwa, Chapter 190, Verse 34) .


(10) Once Bhrgu lectured on the origin of the earth, Philosophy off life, etc. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 128).


(11)Bhrgu explained to Bharadvaja how the Paficabhutas except the sky originated (anti Parva, Chapter 183).


(12) Bhrgu discussed in a logica1 manner, the principle of life anti the transmtgration of the soul. (Santiparva, Chapter 187).


( 13) He made a critical examination of the merits and defects of racial discrimination. (Santi Parva, Chapter 187).


(14) Once Bhrgu bestowed Brahminhood on a King named Vitahavya. (M.B. Anusiasana. Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 57).


( 15) He got the name "Bhrgu" because he was born out of fire. (M.B. AnuSdsana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 105).


( 16) It was Bhrgu who gave the necessary advice to Agastya to depose Nahusa from Indra's post.


(17) There is a story that Nahusa kicked Agastya on the head while the latter was carrying Nahusa's palanquin and that Bhrgu, who was hiding in Agastya's locks of hair, cursed Nahusa and changed him into a python. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 100).


BHRGUTIRTHA. A place made sacred by the performance of tapas by Bhrgu. (For more details see the 6th para under Bhrgu).


BHRGUTUNGA. A peak on which the sage Bhrgu performed tapas. Rcika had lived there with his wife and children. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, 61st Sarga).


BHRIVGI. A Maharsi who was a devotee of Siva. Once he went to Kailasa and began to go round Siva to pay homage to him. But since Parvati and Siva were sitting together as one body, he could not go round Siva separately. He did not have much reverence for Parvati. So he took the form of a female beetle (Bhriigi) and bored his way through a hole made in the place where their bodies were united and thus went round Siva alone. Parvati was angry at this slight shown to her and cursed him to become physically weak. His legs became so weak that they were unable to support his body. So he prayed to Siva again and he blessed him with a third leg. In this way Bhrngi became a Maharsi with three legs. ; Maharsis) .


BHRSUNDI. A fisherman. He used to earn his living by theft.


Once when the Maharsi Mudgala was passing through a forest , Bhrsundi stopped him. But in the presence of the Brahmanic effulgence of the Maharsi, the fisherman was dazed. Mudgala took pity on' Bhrsundi and advised him to worship Lord Gai~eSa.


From that time Bhrsundi gave up his evil ways, and accepting the advice of Mudgala, started the worship of Gane'a with single-minded devotion. As a result of it, an elephant's trunk began to grow from the middle of his forehead. Bhrsundi who thus acquired a shape closely resembling Ganesa, was visited by Indra, mistaking him for Ganapati. (Ganesa : 1.67).


BHU (H). In the creation of the world, the Lord broke the beginningless "Anda" (the primal egg or seed) and from it the sound "Om" emerged. The first sound of it was "BHCH"; the second was "BHUVAH"; and the third was "SVAIj". So the combination "Bhur Bhuvah Svah" was formed. Then came the most adorable and superlative effulgence of the creator


(Savita). That radiance dried up all water. A little of the water became a highly viscous substance. This viscous matter gradually solidified and became the earth. Where the anda originally was became the source of that supreme effulgence. As it was the first radiant light, it came to be called Aditya (adi-first). The great procreator Brahma seemed to emerge from the centre of the anda. The garbhajala ( the water contained in the anda) became the oceans and rivers of the world. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 43).


BHUJAKETU. A king who fought on the side of Duryodhana in the Bharata Yuddha.


BHUJANGA. A son of Kadru by Kasyapa prajapati.


BHUJYU. A Rajarsi (royal sage), the son of Tugra.


King Tugra sent his son with an army across the sea to conquer the enemies in a distant island. When the boat in which they sailed had reached mid-ocean, it was caught in a storm and wrecked. The prince and the soldiers sank into the sea. At that time th° prince prayed to the Asvins who saved Bhujyu from drowning and carried him back to the palace in boats and chariots travelling through the air. This story is given in the Rgveda where the adventures of Asvins are described. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 17th Anuvaka, 116th Sukta. ).


BHUTKAMPA. (Earthquake). The cause of earthquake according to ancient belief is given below:The earth is being supported and held in its position by an elephant called Virupaksa. When he feels the burden too heavy he shakes his head and earth tremors follow. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, 40th Sarga).


BHULINGA (M). A bird which lived on the opposite side of the Himalayas. The cry of this bird resembles "MA SAHASA".i But this bird lived by pecking at and eating the flesh between the teeth of a lion. Sisupala mentioned this bird as an example to illustrate that Bhisma's advice was at variance with his practice. The bird exhorts people not to act in a rash way (Ma Sahasa) and at the same time acts rashly.


BHIJMANYU I. A king who was the grandson of King Dusyanta and the son of Bharata. From Mahabharata Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 19, we see that he was born by the blessing of Bharadvaja. His mother was Sunanda, daughter of Sarvasena, King of Kasi. When Bhumanyu grew up, his father Bharata entrusted him with the affairs of the Kingdom. Bhumanyu had six sons by his wife Puskarini; they were Diviratha, Suhotra, Suhota, Sukavi, Suyaju, and Rcika. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 33, we see that he had another son Suhotra by a woman Vijaya, a Dasarha maid.


BHUMANYU II. There is another Bhamanyu, grandson of Kuru, a King of the Lunar dynasty and son of Dhrtarastra, mentioned in Maha Bharata, Adi Parva, .Chapter 94, Verse 59.


BHUMANYU III. A Deva Gandharva. He participated in the celebrations connected with Arjuna's birth. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 35) .


BHUMI I. The earth.


1) General. The Puranas maintain that Bhami has a Dwi (goddess). The births of Bhumi and its basic goddess are in two different ways.


The Mahabharata, (Daksinatya Patha) says that the goddess Bhumi was the daughter of Brahma and that she was married by Mahavisnu. The earth on which we live is the Mrtpinda of which the basic deity is this Bhumidevi. Of the many versions given in the Puranas regarding the origin of earth, three are given below:1) Long ago, towards the end of the age of floods, the earth was in a liquid state. At that time, Siva cut open his thigh and let fall a drop of blood in the water. It assumed the form of an "anda" (egg). Siva took that anda and split it. A man came out of it. From him was made Nature (Prakrti) for the creation of the Universe. One half of the broken anda became sky and the other half became the earth. (Kathasaritsagara, Kathapithalambaka, 2nd Taranga).


(2) Mahavisnu lay on the surface of water which spread everywhere in the beginning. A lotus sprang up frrom

i Ma Sahasa = Do not act rashly.


the navel of Visnu and from its top Brahma was born. Liquid matter began to flow out of Visnu's ears on both sides. From it were born two Raksasas named Madhu and Kaitabha. They persecuted Brahma. Mahavisnu woke up and killed Madhu and Kaitabha. The thick fat of these Raksasas hardened into the earth. (Devi Bhagavata, Navama Skandlta),


3) In the beginning Mahavisnu (Mahavirat Purusa) spread everywhere. In every pore of that Mahavirat who was lying on the surface of the water, there was a Brahmanda. In course of time that Virat obtained mind. That mind stood connected with each of the pores equally. Later from it were formed the "Pancamahabhutas". From their combination was formed the Bhuta called "Maha Prthvi". It was cut into many pieces and each of the pieces was deposited in each pore. It was these Prthvi pieces which became "Bhumis" at the time of creation. At the time of the floods, these Bhumis sank again into those pores as before. In each of these Brahmandas, there are the earth, mountains, forests, oceans, the seven islands, Himavan, Meru, Sun, Moon, Stars and other planets. Also, each of them has its own Brahma, Visnu, Siva and other Devas. Since all the different Bhumis in all the Brahmandas had been formed artificially, they all perish in the floods. (Devi Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


3) Bhiimi Devi (Goddess Earth) is the wife of Maha Visnu. In Varaha Kalpa (Age of the Pig) the Asura Hiranyaksa carried the Earth and Submerged it under water. At once Maha visnu appeared in the form of a Pig and lifted up the Earth on its horns. When the Earth floated on the surface of water like a lotus leaf, Bhumi Devi who was pleased, stood up in her charming figure. Mahavisnu fell in love with her and with the brilliance of a crore of suns, had sexual union with her for the period of one Devavarsa. It is from that time that Bhumi Devi became Mahavisnu's wife. As a result of their union, a son named Mangala was born to them.


Ghatesa is the son of Mangala. Mangala has another name, Covva. After the birth of Mangala, at the behest of Lord Visnu, all people began to offer worship to Bhumidevi. Mahavisnu himself first worshipped her by reciting,the mantra-"Om Hrim-S`ridz-Krldi-Vasudhayai Svaha". After that this manta became popular for worshipping Bhumidevi. (Devi Bhagavata, Navama Skandha).


Narakasura was Bhumidevi's son by Hiranyaksa, the Asura. When Hiranyaka, in the form of a pig, carried Bhumidevi on his horns' to Patala, the horns came in contact with Bhumidevi and she became pregnant. In Bhagavata, Dasama Skandha we read that Narakasura was born as the result of this contact. (See the word Naraka I) .


Sita was the daughter of Bhumidevi, born on another occasion. Sita was married by the Kosala King S`ri Rama. When she was abandoned by her husband, she was at last accepted by Bhumidevi within her own self. (See the word Sita).


4) Bhumi and Prahlada. Since Bhutnidevi had been the wife of the Asura Hiranyaksa she has also been called the'mother of the Asura clan. Hiranyaksa's brother was Hiranyakasipu. Prahlada, the son of Hiranyakasipu, was a devotee of Visnu. The father did not like the son's devotion to Visnu. So he persecuted Prahlada in various ways. Once he threw down Prahlada from the top of a high building. At that time Bhumi devi appeared there and received him in her arms. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 24).


5) Bhumideai and Prthu. Once the Emperor Prthu turned Bhumidevi into a cow and milched all resources from her. (For details, see the word Prthu).


6) Pdraati's curse. Once Parvati and Siva indulged in their sexual act for many years. The earth began to shake to .its foundations. The gods approached Siva with a request to refrain and he agreed. Siva's semen was discharged and fell on the earth. Parvati who was angry at this, cursed Bhumidevi as follows:- "You Bhumidevi ! You will assume many forms and become the wife of many. Since you have prevented me from giving birth to a son, no children will be born to you in future." (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, 36th Sarga). 7) Other details.


(1) Narakasura has another name, "Bhauma". (M.B. Sabh5. Parva, Daksinatya Patha, Chapter 38).


(2) Bhdmidevi prayed to Sri KMrs and obtained Vaisnavastra for her son Narakasura. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 30).


(3) When Parasurama was carrying on the annihilation of Ksatriyas, Bhumidevi induced the sage Kasyapa to entreat ParaSurdma to stop his massacre of Bhixpalas. (Protectors of Bhumi=Ksatriyas). (M.B. 8anti Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 44) .


(4) Once she (Bhumidevi) described to Sri Kr sna, the greatness of Brahminhood. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 22).


(5) At another time she explained to Sri Krsna the nature of GrhasthdSrarnadharrna, (Duties of a householder). (M.B. AnuSiisana Parva, Chapter 97, Verse 5).


(6) On one occasion, when King Anga touched her, Bhumidevi lost her own form and vanished. At that time, Kasyapa prajapati paralysed her. (M.B. Anusa.sana Parva, Chapter 152, Verse 2).


( 7) Parasurama gifted the whole earth to the sage Kasyapa. From that time Bhumidevi has been called "Kasyapi" (daughter of Kasyapa). (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 154, Verse 7) .


BHUMI II. Wife of Dhruva. This Bhami devil, the daughter of SiSum~ira had two sons named Kalpa and Vatsala, by Dhruva. (Bhagavata, Caturtha Skanda).


BHUMI III. Another Bhumi, who was the wife of a king named Bhumipati is mentioned in M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 14).


BHIJMIRJAYA. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas. He took his position in the centre of the "Garuda Vyuha" (Name of a phalanx) formed by Drona. (M.B..Drona Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 13).


BHUMIPALA. A Ksatriya king of ancient India. He was born from a portion of an Asura called Krodhavasa. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 61).


BHUMIPARVA. A subdivision of Bhismaparva in Mahabharata. Chapters 11 and 12 of Bhisma Farva are included in this.


BHUMIPATI. A king of ancient India. There is a reference to this King in M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117,` Verse 14.


BHUMIPAYA. A king in ancient India. M.B. anti Parva, Chapter 166, verse 75 says that King Amurtarayas gave a sword to Bhtzmiwaya who gifted it to Bharata, the son of Dusyanta.


BHUPATI. A visvadeva. (M.B. Anu•.'~asana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 32).


BHURI I. A king of the Kuru dynasty. Somadatta, king of the Kuru dynasty had three sons, Bhtzri, Bhurisravas and Sala) In M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, we read that they had attended the Svayarimara of Draupadi and in Sabha Parva, Chapter 94 it is said that they had taken part in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya. In Drona Parva, Chapter 166, we read that this King Bhuri was slain by Satyaki during the war between Kauravas and Pandavas. After death, Bhuri obtained a place with the Visvedevas. (M.B. Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 16).


BHURI II. A son of the sage Suka. Vyasa's son, 8uka married Pivari, the daughter of Pitrs. She had four sons by gul>a, who were named Krsna, Gauraprabha, Bhuri and Devasruta, and a daughter named Kirti. (Devi Bhagavata,Prathama Skandha).


BHURIBALA. (BHIMABALA). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Mahabharata Salya Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 14 says that at the battle of Kuruksetra he was slain by Bhimasena.


BHURIDYUMNA I. A king in the assembly of Yama. He attained Heaven (Svargaloka) by virtue of his having performed godana (gift of cow). (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 76).


BHURIDYUMNA II. A Maharsi. This sage once went to Hastinap ura as a messenger of peace. On the way he met with Sri Krsna whom he reverently worshipped by doing "Pradaksina".


BHIJRIDYUMNA III. He was the only son of Viradyumna, a King. Bhuridyumna was lost somewhere in the forest. (M.B. anti Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 14)


BHURIHAN. A Raksasa. He was a king in ancient times. (M.B. anti Parva, Chapter 277, Verse 51).


BHURIKIRTI. A king. He had two daughters, Campika and Surnati who were married by Lava and Kusa respectively. (Ananda Rd mayana, Vivaha Kanda).




( 1) General. He was the son of Somada, a king of Kuruvam,_!a (Kuru dynasty).


( 2) Other details. Bhurisravas had two brothers named Bhuri and Sala. They were all present at the Svayamvara of Draupadi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 14).


( 3) He once described to Duryodhana, the heroic qualities of the Pandavas and advised him to maintain peaceful relations with them. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 199, Daksinatya Patha).


(4) He took part in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya yajtia with his father and brothers. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 8 ) .


(5) In the war between Kauravas and Pandavas, he arrived with an "Aksauhini" (A division of the army) in-order to give help to Duryodhana. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 16).


t In Agnipurana, Chapter 278, we see another statement that S`antanu, king of the Lunar dynasty, had three scns, Dcvapi, $alhika and Somada anti of them Balhika had four sons, Somadatta, Bhuri, Bhfiriiravas and gala.


(6) Bhisma once remarked that Bhurisravas deserved to be counted among the Rathis and Yuthapatis. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 29).


( 7) On the first day of the battle at Kuruksetra Bhfzrisravas fought a duel with Sariikha. (Bhisma larva, Chapter 45, Verse 35).


(8) He fought with Satyaki (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 33) .


(9) He killed the ten sons of Satyaki. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 25),


( 10) Defeated Dhfstaketu in battle. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 35).


(11) He fought a duel with Bhimasena. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 44).


( 12) A duel was fought with Sikhandi. (Drona Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 45).


( 13) Bhurisravas fell down under the stroke of Satyaki. (Drona Parva, Chapter 142, Verse 59).


( 14) Arjuna cut off the left arm of Bharisravas. (Drona Parva; Chapter 141, Verse 72).


(15) Enraged by Arjuna's action, BhfiriSravas squatted on th° ground to attain Svarga (Heaven). (Drona Parva, Chapter 143, Verse 33).


( 16) Satyaki killed Bhurisravas. (Drona Parva, Chapter 143, Verse 54).


(17) After death Bhurisravas became a Visvadeva. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 16).


( 18) Some of the other names of Bhurisravas given in Mahabharata are:-Bhuridaksina, Salagraja, Kaurava, Kauraveya, Kauravya, Yupaketana, Yupaketu, 8ardula, Kurusrestha, Kurudvaha.


BHURITEJAS. A king in ancient India. He was born from a portion of the Asura Krodhavasa, according to Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 63).


BHU8UNDA. A dispassionate and large-hearted crow. The residence of this crow was a Kalpavrksa standing on a beautiful peak surrounded by luxuriant vegetation in the north-eastern, corner of Mahameru. There were numerous bird-nests on the southern branch of that Kalpavrksa. In one of them lived this centuries-old bird.


Once when the sage Vasistha went to Devaloka, he happened to hear about this crow. He went to see Bhusunda in its nest. The crow recognised Vasistha at once. They exchanged greetings. The sage opened the conversation as follows:-"Oh, King of birds ! when were you born ? How did you become a great soul ? How old are you ? Have you recollections of the past ? Who was the prophet who suggested this residence for you?"


The bird calmly replied as follows :- "If you are interested in hearing my past history I shall tell you. Lord $ankara the Almighty lives in this world. He has numerous attendant spirits. Besides these spirits who have hoofs on their head, hands in the hoof, teeth in the hands and atoynach in the face, and who have faces resembling those of monkeys, camels, and elephants, he has also hordes of Matrs in his retinue. The Matrs, attended by spirits continue their dance in the presence of the Lord. Mountain peaks, the sky, the different worlds, deep pits, cremation grounds, etc. are their haunts. Chief among these Ma.trs are eight sisters named, Jaya, Vijaya, Jayanti, Aparahita, Siddha, Rakta, Alambusa and Ulpala. They have other followers also. Alambusa's vehicle is the crow named Canda.


All these Matrs assembled together on one occasion to celebrate a festival in the sky. There was a display of many kinds of entertainments at that time. Disputations in spiritual matters, music, dancing, drinking and other forms of hilarious activities were freely indulged in. In another part of the sky, their vehicles were also enjoying themselves with similar celebrations of drinking, dancing, and merry-making. The swans who were the vehicles of Brahmidevi were dancing in one place, intoxicated by drink. Canda, the crow, who was Alambusa's vehicle, also joined their company. Completely absorbed in their delirious raptures, the intoxicated swans indulged so freely in their amorous pleasures with Canda that they became pregnant. At last when the merry-makings ended and all of them dispersed, the swans became aware of their plight and informed Brahmi about it. The gracious goddess (Brahmi) told them that in their present state they were unable to discharge their duties in drawing her chariot and so they were allowed to go and enjoy themselves wherever they liked. After this she entered into a trance. The swans in the fullness of time, gave birth to twentyone sons. We, the twentyone brothers, are those children. We, and our mothers went to Brahmidevi and offered woship to her for a long time. As a result, the Devi woke up from hei trance and pleased with us, gave us her blessing. After that, we went to our father (Canda) and off red our devoted services to him and prostrated before him and Alambusadevi. They blessed us. We asked our father to suggest a most suitable place for a secluded life. This Kalpa Vrksa is the secluded place recommended by him. We paid obeisance to our father and Alambusadevi and came to settle down here. Many ages have passed since then. Now your visit and holy presence here, have liberated me from all worldly bonds and ennobled my life. My twenty brothers lived for many Kalpas and yugas at the end of which, convinced of the meaninglessness of worldly life, renounced their bodies and attained f;ivaloka.


On hearing this, Vasistha asked BhuSunda to tell him more about his past life. Bhusunda resumed his story:"Long long ago, the whole earth was full of big rocks, without trees, forests or mountains. After a great flood the surface of the earth was covered with ashes. In one caturyuga (a period equal to the length of the four yugas, Krta, treta, dvapara and Kali) the earth was filled with forest trees and in another Caturyuga, mountain ranges appeared. I have seen an age in which Brahmanas were drunkards, Sudras were virtuous and women of noble families committed adultery. You have now been born in the eightieth "Janma" as the son of Brahma. You were born once from the sky, at another time from water, then from the mountain and again from fire. I can remember this earth sinking into the ocean five times and Lord Visnu taking the form of a tortoise, lifting it up, above the water. I have seen the ocean of milk being churned twelve times. I know that Hiranyaksa had taken the earth three times to Patala (underworld). The Lord has incarnated six times as Bhargava Rama. Incarnation of Buddha has taken place in six Kaliyugas. Tripuradahana (burning of the Tripurasuras) has taken place thirty times. Daksa yaga was broken up twice. Lord Siva has slain ten Indras. He fought seven times with Sri Krsna for the sake of Bana. I also remember another epic entitled "Ramayana", containing one lakh of verses and dealing with metaphysical problems. I have seen the customs of Krtayuga being followed in Kaliyuga and the customs of Kaliyuga being followed in Krtayuga."


Having heard the whole story, Vasistha gave his blessing to Bhw;unda and left the place. (Jfiana Vasistha, Bhu undopakhyana).


BHUTALIHAMA. An Indra. This Indra is different from the actual Indra. There is reference to this Indra in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 28.


BHLTTAJYOTI. A king who was the father of Vasu and son of Sumati.


BHUTAKARMA. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas in the battle at Kuruksetra. He was killed by Satanika, the son of Nakula., (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 22, Verse 25).


BHUTALAYA (M). A famous village in the puranas. It was a resort of thieves and robbers. Dead bodies were often thrown into the river which was flowing through this village. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 129, verse 9 says that it was against 8astras to bathe in this river.


BHUTAMATHANA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M. B. Salya Parva., Chapter 45, Verse 69).


BHUTASANTAPANA. One of the sons of Hiranyaksa. (Bhagavata, Saptama Skandha).


BHU TASARMA. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas against the Pandavas. He had taken his position in the "Garudavyuha" (name of a phalanx) formed by Dronacarya. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 6).


BHIJTAS. (A set of beings created by Rudra).


1) General. A Manava class or sect in ancient India. In the Puranas, this Manava sect is classified into four subdivisions. (1) Dh armapraja (2) 19varapraja (3 ) Kasyapiyapraja (4) Pulahapraja.


2) Birth. In the Brahmanda Purina there is the following story about the birth and shape of BhGtas:-


Bhutas are one of the subdivisions of Pulaha's creations. Long. ago, Brahma asked the Rudra, Nilalohita, to perform the function of creation. Accordingly he begot thousands of Bhutas in the womb of his wife Sad. All the issues were the exact replica of his own figure. Lean limbs, long ears, thick hanging lips, red eyes, bushy eyebrows, long, pointed and protruding teeth, long nails, matted dirty hair etc. were the grotesque features of these Bhutas. These music-haters used serpents as their Yajfiopavitas (sacred threads). These spirits who loitered in giva's assembly were, as a rule, naked and carried skulls on their heads. But at times they wore fantastic dress with elephant skin. Their chief weapons were, trident, bow, sword, etc.


3) Bhuta Chief. In the Puranas, Rudra is acknowledged as the Bhuta chief. That is why Rudra is known by such names as "Bhutaniyaka", "Gananayaka", "Rudranucara", "Bhavaparisada" etc. But since the common name Rudra is used for the ruler (king) of all the Bhutas,. Vamana Purina declares that Rudra is not an individual. Both Vamanapurana and Matsyapurana represent Virabhadra and Nandikesvara as two Rudras who are the masters of Bhutas. (Matsyapurana 181, 2 ; Vamanapurana 4, 17) .


In Vamana Purina, the number of Bhutas is given as 11 crores. Skanda, Sakha, Bhairava are the chief among them. Under them are innumerable Bhurm, Ashes


and Khatvamga etc. are their weapons. The emblem on the banner is a cow or a bird. That is how the Gananayakas have got the titles like "Mayuradhvaja", "Mayuravdhana". (Vamana Purina 67, 1-23).


4) War with Asuras. In the war between 8iva and Andhakasura, the Bhutas fought on the side of Siva. It was Vindyaka, the master of the Bhuta hordes who first came into conflict with the Asura. .In that battle Andhaka defeated Vinayaka. After that, Nandi, another leader of the Bhutas, attacked Andhaka jointly with Vinayaka and defeated him. At last, Andhaka approached 8iva himself for protection, and Siva received him and appointed him as commander of one of his hordes of Bhutas. It is this Andhakasura who later became famous under the name of Bhrrigi.


In this way, the Bhutas had fought many battles with the Asuras, joining the party of the Devas. But at the time of Daksa's yajfia, they joined the party of the Asuras and opposed the' Devas.


Although the Bhfitas won all the battles they fought both on the side of the Devas and on the side of the Asuras, in the end they had to leave north India and to come and settle down in south India. By the time of Vaivasvata manvantara they had already become South Indians.


BHOTIVARMA. A Raksasa who was the friend of Kanabhuti. (Kathasaritsagara).


BHUVANA I. A Maharsi who visited Bhisma when he was lying on the verge of death. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 81):


BHUVANA II. A sanatana ViSvadeva. There is a reference to him in M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 35.).


BHUVANA II. A sanatana Visvadeva. There is a reference to him in M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 35.).


BHUVANA. Brhaspati's sister. She was married to Prabhasa, one of the Astavasus. A son named Vi4vakarma was born to them. (Brahman.da Purina, 3-3-2129) .


BHUVANESA. See the word Bhadrasravas.


BIBHATSU. One of the ten names of-Arjuna. He got this name because he desisted from doing loathful acts. "I will never resort to loathful deeds in war. Therefore the devas and men call me Bibhatsu". (Mahabharata, Virata Parva, Chapter 44, Stanza 18).


BIDALA. A minister of Mahisasura. (Devi Bhagavata).


BIDALOPAKHYANA. See the word Dimdika.


BIDAUJAS. A son born to Aditi by the blessings of Visnu. (Padina Purina, Bhumikanda, Chapter 3).


BILVA. (VILVA). A devotee of Visnu. There is a story in Skanda Purana about Bilva who lived as a Vaisnavite first aid then was converted to a Saivite.


In the beginning Brahma created many things among which Vilva (tree) (Crataeva religiosa) also was created. Under that tree an anonymous man began to live. Brahma gave him the name Vilva. Being pleased at the behaviour and devotion of Bilva, Indra asked him to turn the wheel of administration of the earth. Accepting the offer Bilva requested Indra to give him the Vajra (diamond) for the smooth running of the administration of the earth. Indra told him that vajrayudha (diamond-weapon) would be at his disposal, when he thought about it, if the occasion required it.


Once Kapila a Saivite reached the palace of Bilva. After a long conversation both became fast friends, One

day there was a debate between Bilva and Kapila as to whether penance or Action (doing one's duty) was appreciable. In this discussion Bilva lost the equilibrium of his mind and thinking of the diamond-weapon of Indra cut off the head of Kapila. In Kapila there was the power of penance as well as the power of Siva. So through Siva Kapila got immortality. In the meanwhile Bilva went to Visnu and got a boon that every living thing in the earth should fear him. But the boon was futile. This was a turning point for Bilva. The mind of Bilva changed to devotion for Siva. He concentrated his attention on the worship of Sivalinga at the forest of Mahakala. One day Kapila came by that way and was greeted by Bilva with honour and regard, and they again became fast friends.


BILVAKA. A famous serpent born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife Kadru. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 12).


BILVAKATSRTHA. A holy place in Haradvara. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, AnuSdsana Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 13 that those who bathe in this holy Bath will attain heaven.


BILVAPANDURA. A serpent. The father of this serpent was Kasyapa and mother, Kadru. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 12).


BILVAPATRA. A serpent born in the family of Kasyapa prajapati. (M.B. Udyoga Parya, Chapter 103, Stanza 14).


BILVATEJA. A serpent born in the family of Taksaka. This serpent was burnt to death by falling in the sacrificial fire of Janamejaya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 9).


BINDUGA. A Brahmana who lived in the village of Baskala. Being a frequenter of the houses of harlots and of various other mean habits, he had led his wife Cancala also to lead an immoral life. Once Binduga called his wife and told her thus: "You may continue the life of a harlot; but all the money acquired must be handed over to me." Thus they continued their lives and after their death both were reborn as devils in the mountain of Vindhya. In the midst of their life as devils, once it chanced for Caficala to hear the Siva Purana recited and she got her shape of devil changed. She requested Parvati to change the shape of her husband also. Parvati sent her attendant Tumburu to Binduga to tell him the story of Siva and thus he also got his form changed. (Siva Purana Mahatmya).


BINDUMATI. The queen of the great King Mandhata. Bindumati was the daughter of the King Sasabindu. Purukutsa and Mucukunda were the two sons born to her from Mandhata. (Devi Bhagavata, Skaridha 7).


BINDUSARAS. A holy place famous in the Puranas. The following information is obtained from the Puranas about this holy place.


( 1) Bindusaras lies on the north of the Mount Kailasa. (Mahabharata Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 2).


(2) It was at Bindusaras that Bhagiratha did penance to bring down Ganga to the earth (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 10).


(3) Devendra performed hundred sacrifices at this place. (Maha Bharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 3) .


(4) Once Siva performed a sacrifice at Bindusaras. (gabha Parva, Chapter 3).


( 5) Sri Krsna did penance here for several years to get righteousness. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 11).


(6) At this place, Maya, the asura gave Arjuna the famous conch known as Devadatta and to Bhimasena the famous club of Vrsaparva. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3).


BODHA. A king. In the Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 20, mention is made that this King fled to South India with his brothers and relatives fearing the attack of Jarasandha.


BODHA(M). A place in ancient India. It is famous in the Pura:ias. Mention is made about this place in Mahabharata. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 39.


BODHAYANA. An individual of the lineage of teachers. (See the word Guruparariapara).


BODHISATTVA. A good-natured husband generally quoted in Sanskrit works. The following is the story given about him in Kathasaritsagara, Taranga 9.

 Once there lived a wealthy Vai 'Iya, who had a son named  Bodhisattva. When the childhood of the boy was at an  end his mother died. The Vaisya married again and got  his son also married. Because of the ear-buzzing of his  wife, the Vaisya drove his son out of the house. Bodhi  sattva left the house of his father, with his wife. By  and by they reached a desert. Not a drop of water was to  be had. There was not even the shoot of a grass. It was a  sandy place with nothing else in sight. He walked for  seven days carrying his wife on his shoulders. His wife  grew weary and worn with hunger and thirst. Seeing  that she was about to die he gave her his flesh and blood.  The wicked woman took them and saved herself from  death. On the eighth day they reached the jungles of a  hilly place full of fruit-trees and with a river with grassy  banks, flowing down to the valley. With fruits and cool  water he appeased the hunger and thirst of his wife.  Then he got down to the river to take a bath. He saw  a man with his limbs cut off, coming afloat. Now and  then he was producing pitiable sounds. The kind son of  the Vaisya, without minding his weakness due to fast for  the last seven days, swam to the man and brought him to  the bank of the river. He did all services possible for him.  Then he asked him who had cut off his limbs. He rep  lied that his enemies had done so, with the intention that  he might die suffering severe pain for a long time. The  VaiSya's son stood still for a little while. Then he took  his bath. With his wife he lived in the forest doing  penance. The wounds of the man he saved had been  healed. The Vaisya's son, one day, went out to the  forest to gather fruits and roots for their food. At that  time his wife grew lustful and had coition with the man  without limbs. Gradually she began to dote on him. She  decided to kill her husband who was an impediment on  her way. She pretended to be ill. The Vaisya's son began  to treat her. One day she took her husband to the edge of  a very deep well and said: "See, there is a divine herb at  the bottom of this well. I will be cured if I could eat it.  This is what a goddess told me in a dream yesternight".  Hearing this her husband made a rope, and tied it to a  tree. Then he began to go down the well by the rope.  She cut the rope and the man fell into the well. There  was a passage from the well to the river. The current  took him through that passage to the river. He got out of  the river, and sat under a tree thinking of the wickedness  of women. There was a city close by. At that time the  King of the city was dead and there was no heir left. The  subjects of the city brought an elephant and said, "whom  ever this elephant takes and places on his back shall be  our king". They sent the elephant out. The elephant was pleased at the virtuous character of the son of the Vaisya. So taking him, as if he was God, placed him on its back and walked to the city. The people gathered round him and anointed him as their King. The son of the Vaisya became King. He never even thought of women who are generally fickle and wicked.


The wicked wife of the Vaisya's son took the limbless man on her shoulder and wandered about saying, "The enemies of my husband have put him in this plight. Because of my conjugal fidelity I carry him thus and earn our daily bread. Please give us alms". In this manner- she spent her days in begging. Thus wandering from place to place she reached the city where the Vaisya's son was the King. The people, seeing her loyalty to her husband, honoured her and spoke highly of her. Hearing that a very loyal wife had reached his city the King sent for her. The King recognized her instantly. But she did not know him. The King reminded her of her deeds of the past one by one and began to tease and scold her. Finally when she understood that the King was her husband she was dumb-founded. The amazed ministers looked at each other. The King revealed everything to them. The ministers disfigured her and drove her away.


BODHYA. A famous teacher-priest. Once there was a discussion between Nahusa and Bodhya on Philosophy. The summary of what Bodhya said is as follows:-


Before I advise others, I do it myself first. I am the teacher of none. I take the world as my teacher. I learned the lessons of harmlessness from snakes, disappointment from Pingala the harlot, self-sacrifice from animals, concentration from the archer, and loneliness from a maid, who is a spinster. (M.B., ganti Parva, 171, 56, 61).


This hermit came to the King Yayati and taught him philosophy and ethics. The whole of the Chapter 171 of Mahabharata, ganti Parva, comprises the exhortations of this hermit, which are known by the famous name Bodhya-Gita (Song of Bodhya).


BRADHNASVA. A king. Agastya once approached this King to request him for some wealth. (See the word

' Agastya).




One of the trimiirtis of the Hindu Pantheon. The trimtirtis are Brahma, Visnu and giva.


1) General information. God who is the creator of the Universe. It is mentioned in the Puranas that Brahma creates, Visnu preserves and Paramasiva destroys the universe.


2) The birth of Brahmd. The birth of Brahma is from the nave of Visnu. It is mentioned in Devi Purana, Skandha 1, about the birth of Brahma as follows:In the beginning Mahavisnu lay on a banian leaf in the shape of a baby and began to think, "Who am I ? Who created me ? What for ? What is my work ? Where to work ?" and so on. At that time an ethereal voice said :"Sarvarh khalvidamevaham nanyadasti sanatanam".* Mahavisnu was amazed at this ethereal voice. He did not know whose oracle it was. Still He lay meditating upon the words. Then Mahadevi, with four hands and weapons such as Aallkha (conch)', Cakra (wheel), Gada (club), Padma (lotus) and maids who are prosperities and having worn glorious clothes and ornaments, and accompanied by the gaktis


(powers) named Rati, Bhuti, Buddhi, Mati, Kirti, Dhrti, Smrti, graddha, Medha, Svadha, Svaha, Ksudha, Nidra, Daya, Gad, Tusti, Pusti, Ksama, Laija, Jrrhbha and Tandra, appeared before Mahavisnu, who was struck with wonder. Mahadevi said, "Oh, Visnu, what is there to wonder at ? Every time the universe is subjected to creation, preservation and destruction, you are born thus due to the great power of the supreme spirit. It seems that you have forgotten those matters. Know that the supreme power is beyond qualities. We are all with qualities. Your main quality is Sattva. From your nave Brahma will be born. His attribute is Rajoguna (activity, passion or motion). From the middle of the eyebrows of Brahma, will be born Rudra, whose attribute will be Tamasaguna (darkness). Brahma, with the power of penance, will acquire the ability of creation and by his attribute of Rajoguna will create the world in the colour of blood. You will be the preserver of that world. The same world will be destroyed by Rudra at the end of the Kalpa (world age)".


Accordingly from the nave of Visnu a lotus grew up and in that lotus flower Brahma took his form. The same Brahmadeva did penance before Mahavisnu and Jagadamba, who were pleased at his penanc ° and gave him all the boons he wanted. After that Brahma began the work of creation. He created with his mind the Saptarsis, (seven sages) and then the Prajapatis (the lords of emanation). From them all the movables and the immovables in the universe came into existence. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7).