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Fifth Wave



1946. In the Gautamiya Tantra it is said:







     "I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Krishna, who sits on a jewel throne under a kalpa-vrksa tree under a golden pavillion on a jewel mountain."


     1947.  Lord Govinda's sweetness makes the whole world wild with bliss. Seeing Him only once, a person will not be attracted to anyone or anything else.

     2948.  In Shrila Rupa Gosvami's Shri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu Eastern Part, Second Wave, Text 111, it is said:


     "My dear friend, if you are indeed attached to your worldly friends, do not look at the smiling face of Lord Govinda as He stands on the banks of the Yamuna at Kesi-ghata.  Casting sidelong glances, He places His flute to His lips, which seem like newly blossomed twigs. His transcendental body, bending in three places, appears very bright in the moonlight." *


     1950.  Standing silent and motionless, the handsome and charming Deity two-handed Lord Govinda has a form of eternity, knowledge and bliss.


     1951-53.  In the Shri Gopala Tapani Upanisad, Part One, Text 13, it is said:


     "One becomes free from this world of birth and death by meditating on Lord Krishna, whose eyes are lotus flowers, who is splendid like a raincloud, whose garments are like lightning, who has two hands, who is manifest a silent and unmoving Deity form, who wears a garland of forest flowers, who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is surrounded by gopas, gopis, and cows, who sits undera sura-druma tree, who is decorated with glistening ornaments, who stands in the midst of a jewelled lotus, and who is served by cooling breezes coming from the Yamuna's waves."


     1954.  In the Shri Gopala Tapani Upanisad, Part One, Text 35 it is said:


     "Lord Govinda is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, His form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss."


     1955.  O Shrinivasa, who will not offer obeisances to Lord Govinda's feet in the charming land of Vrindavana?

     1956.  The feet of the Deities Shri Govinda, Shri Gopala, and Shri Madana-mohana are the be-all and end-all of all the devotees.

     1957.  Shri Madana-mohana is also called Shri Madana-Gopala.  This everyone knows.

     1958.  In Shri Gopala-tapani Upanisad, Part One, Text 37 it is said:


     "I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Govinda, who is also known as Gopala, Govardhana, and Gopinatha."


     1960.  O Shrinivasa, I have no power to describe the Lord's glories.  The Lord's glories are described in these words of Shri Urdhvamnaya Tantra:


     1961.  "Shri Parvati said: O Siva, who is this Govinda you have mentioned?  What are His glories?  What is His form?

     1962.  "Shri Mahadeva said: Lord Govinda is a cowherd boy. He stays in the yoga-pitha of Vrindavana eternally.  Sometimes He is visible and sometimes He is not.

     1963.  "During all four yugas He is king of Vrindavana. Nanda and the cowherd people worship Him.  He even worships Himself.

     1064.  "Stealing the gopis' garments He fulfills the gopis' vow. His form is eternal and blissful, His pastimes fill the land of Vraja.

     1965.  "Day after day He is a glorious teenager always. Betel nuts are in His mouth, He is Shri Radha's life's Deity

     1966-1967.  In Vraja is a lake named Brahma-kunda, a lake filled with swans and lotuses, a lake decorated with jewels on its four sides.  To the south of that lake is a jewel pavilion surrounded by a grove of mandara trees, in the middle of that pavillion is the yoga-pitha filled with glory and opulence.

     1968.  Shri Krishna is delighted by the nectar opulence of Vrindavana's Queen Radha, He is conquered by proudly smiling Radha.

     1969.  In the east is Goddess Vrinda, who is also known as Lilavati, who makes everything possible, and who is the personified glory of Lord Krishna's form.

     1970. In the south is Goddess Syama, who enjoys pastimes with Lord Krishna. In the west Goddess Bhagini always stays.

     1971. In the north Goddess Siddhesi stays eternally. In the east Lord Siva stays. In the south Lord Sankarshana stays.

     1972-1973. In the west Lord Brahma stays. In the north Lord Ananta Shesha stays.  Radha's dear friend Madan-mohana always carries a golden stick. She brings Radha to proud Krishna under a tree.

     1974. Madanamadini makes for the divine couple a palace of amorous pastimes, a palace charming with glistening sapphires.

     1975. There Shri Krishna becomes a second Kamadeva. There Shri Krishna is worshiped with the 12 syllable mantra beginning with Govindaya and ending with Svaha. In the course of time is maha mantra of Lord Govinda brings purva-raga (the beginning of spiritual love).

     1976. Now I will describe the Govinda yugalatmaka mantra. First one the Lakshmi-bija and Kama-bija syllable. Then come the words "Radha-Govindabhyam namah."


     1977. Simply by knowing this mantra one attains the mercy of Radha-Krishna. Of this mantra the rishi (sage) is Kamadeva, and the chanda (meter) is virat.


     1078. The devata (Deity) is eternal Govinda and Radha-Govinda. The shakti (potency) is Radha, the goddess of the yoga-pitha. In this way the mantra of six parts, which begins with the Kama-bija, is described.


     1979. One should meditate on Lord Govinda, who is charming like a dark raincloud, who dances in His glorious pastimes, who sometimes enjoys wrestling pastimes, who holds a flute and a jeweled stick in His hands, who wears a yellow cloth draped over His shoulder, who is decorated with flowers, who is perfect and complete, who is the king of all who are charming and whose feet are crossed as He dances.


     1980-18. Meditating on Lord Govinda in this way, one should chant the mantra 400,000 times, then after offering a tilajya-havana yajna, with offering of camphor, asoka, tulasi, kabhara and kamala flowers one should worship Radha and Krishna, the king and queen of the Yoga-pitha. Then with one's eyes one will see Shri Shri Radha Govinda directly.


     1982. The Deity Shri Madana Gopala is very glorious. The Deity Shri Gopala is manifests as kishora (young teenager) form. The Deity Shri Govinda has a praudha (older teenager) form.


     1983. Of these two Deities, Gopinatha is more handsome. He is dhiroddhata in nature. Shri Gopala is dhirodatta in nature.


     1984. Govinda and Gopinatha are dhira-lalita. Gopala has a lionlike waist.  His graceful form bends in three places.


     1985. Govinda and Gopinatha have broad chests. Morning, noon and night Their glorious sweetness is manifest on Govardhana Hill.

     1986. At a cave's entrance on Govardhana Hill, in a place glorious with many flowers and leaves, the Lord is manifest as He has just recently left childhood and entered His teenager years.

     1987. More glorious than Kamadeva, Lord Govinda is splendidly manifest in the yoga-pitha, which is as charming with many jewels.

     1988. The perfection attained after many years at the holy places is manifest at once at this yoga pitha.

     1989. In the morning Vrindavana's yoga pitha is glorious with the light of the rising sun.

     1990. At midday it is as glorious with the light of the youthful sun. In the afternoon it is like a lotus petal. In the evening it is as splendid with moonlight.

     1991. On the dark moon night, it is splendid like sapphires. In the monsoon season it glistens like emeralds.

     1992. In the autumn it is splendid like the circle of the moon. In winter (hemanta) it is like rubies. In second winter (shishira) it is splendid like diamonds. In springtime it is reddish with new buds and sprouts.

     1993. In summer it glistens with a flood of nectar. it is glorious with sweetness. It is filled with vines and ashoka flowers.

     1994-1996. Above, below and everywhere it is filled with great jewels. This place is known as Candravali-dvadharsha (difficult for Candravali to enter), Radha saubhagya-mandira (the palace of Radha's good fortune) Shri Ratna- mandapa (the jewelled pavillion), Sringara-mandapja (the pavillion for amorous pastime), Saubhagya-mandapa (the pavillion of good fortune), Maha-madhurya-mandapa (the pavillion of great sweetness), Samrajya-mandapa (the pavillion of royal power) and Surata-mandapa (the pavilion of amourous pastimes). O Parvati, please hear these eight names of the yoga-pitha.

     1997. A person who in the morning chants these eight names of the yoga-pitha conquers Lord Govinda. That person attains pure spiritual love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead."


     Thus ends the Shri Urdhvamnaya Tantra, Nineteenth Patala, entitled Manifestation of the Yoga-pitha.


     1998. After speaking these words, with a happy heart, Shrila Raghava Pandita Gosvami gradually departed from the holy place Bhojana-tila.

     1999. After walking a short distance Shrila Raghava Gosvami sweetly said: In this place Saurabha Muni performed austerities.

      2000.  Look, there on the Yamuna's bank is the very secluded place everyone calls Sanorakha-grama.

     2001. Look, O Shrinivasa. There is Kaliya Lake, where Lord Krishna enjoyed very wonderful pastimes.

     2002. Climbing a keli kadamba tree on the Yamuna's bank, Lord Krishna jumped into the Yamuna's waters.

     2003. In the Yamuna's waters Lord Krishna defeated Kaliya.  Everyone watched Lord Krishna dance on the Kaliya serpent's heads.

     2004. Lord Krishna gave the mercy to the Kaliya serpent and sent him to Ramanaka-dvipa.

     2005. Anyone who bathes and performs other devotional activities at Kaliya Lake easily becomes free of all sins.

     2006. When he leaves his material body he goes to Vishnuloka. This the Puranas say, they say he attains many other benefits also.

     2007. In the Adi-Varaha Purana it is said:


     "O earth goddess, a person who goes to Kaliya Lake, enjoys the visit, and simply bathes there becomes free from all sins.


     2008. A person who goes there goes to My spiritual abode.

     2009. In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.16.32) it is said:


          "If one takes a bath in the Kaliya Lake where My cowherd boy friends and I have bathed, or if one, fasting for a day, offers oblations to the forefathers from the water of this lake, he will be relieved from all kinds of sinful reactions."*


     2010. In this place Lord Krishna climbed a kadamba tree and jumped into the lake. The scriptures reveal the glory of that tree.

     2011-2012. In the Adi-Varaha Purana it is said:


     "The kadamba tree on the eastern shore of Kaliya Lake is very glorious. The wise saints have seen many wonders in that tree. O goddess with beautiful large eyes, that sacred tree has a hundred branches, it is very sweetly fragrant. It bears many flowers in all twelve months.  It has very pleasing shade.  It fills the ten directions with light."


     2013. Holy Kaliya Lake destroys all sins. By bathing in Kaliya Lake one attains success in many endeavours.

     2014.  In Saura Purana it is said: "Holy Kaliya Lake where Lord Krishna as a boy danced on Kaliya's heads, destroys sins.


     2015. "One who bathes there and worships Lord Vasudeva attains Krishna-sayujya liberation, which is difficult for other less fortunate souls to attain."


     2016. "Look, there is Dvadashaditya-tirtha. One who visits this place attains what he desires. This the Puranas affirm.

     2017. In the Adi-Varaha Purana it is said:


     "O earth goddess, a person who bathes at Dvadasaditya-tirtha and sees the Aditya deities attains the world of the Adityas. He becomes successful and happy.

     2018. "O earth goddess, a person who bathes here on a Sunday or on the sankranti day attains what his heart desires. Of this there is no doubt.


     2019. In the Saura Purana it is said:


     "Simply by seeing purifying Dvadasaditya-tirtha one destroys all his sins."


     2020. O Shrinivasa, after defeating Kaliya, Lord Krishna left Kaliya Lake and came to this place.

     2021. Understanding that Krishna was suffering because of cold, the host of surya deities came here and, manifesting great warmth, drove away the sensation of coldness from Lord Krishna.

     2022. In Vraja-vilasa-stava, (text 82) of Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami's Shri Stavavali, it is said:


     "Once, accompanied by the gopas, gopis and loving surabhi cows, the supremely opulent, noble and magnanimous Lord Krishna felt very uncomfortable in the winter cold. Twelve suns then appeared at that place and with great devotion warmed the Lord with intense shining.  I eternally take shelter of this sacred place, which bears the name Dvadashasurya-tirtha (the place of the twelve suns)."


Swapne Sanatana Prabhuke Mahaprabhura kripa

In a dream Lord Mahaprabhu gives mercy to Shrila Sanatana Gosvami.


     2023. O Shrinivasa, by Lord Mahaprabhu's command, Shrila Sanatana Gosvami went to Vraja and resided there.

     2024. "Lord Mahaprabhu will come here." This information was given to Shrila Sanatana Gosvami, who selected a secluded place for the Lord's residence.

     2025. Seeing him very anxious to make these arrangements, on the pretext of a dream Lord Gaura-Hari mercifully appeared before Shrila Sanatana Gosvami.

     2026. Lord Gaurachandra sat on a divine throne. Shrila Sanatana Gosvami fell to the ground before his feet.

     2027. The Lord tightly embraced Sanatana. Satisfying him in every way, the Lord then disappeared.

     2028. Who has the power to understand the Lord's pastimes. As He likes, He enjoys pastimes in Vrindavana eternally.

     2029. Look, there is Praskandana-kshetra sins flee from a person who bathes there. A person who dies there goes to Vishnuloka.

     2030. In the Adi-Varaha Purana it is said:


     "Now I will tell you something else. Please listen. O earth goddess.  The holy place named Praskandana-kshetra removes all sins.

     2031. "A person who bathes there becomes free of all sins. A person who dies there goes to My spiritual world."

     2032. O Shrinivasa, when the many suns warmed Him, Lord Krishna, His feeling of coldness now gone, perspired.

     2033. The sun god's daughter gathered the Lord's perspiration into this lake, which for that reason was called Praskandana-kshetra.

     2034. In the Shri Vraja-vilasa-stava (Text 83) of Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami's Shri Stavavali it is said: 

     "When the twelve suns shone from every direction, perspiration fell from Lord Krishna's transcendental body, and from this perspiration came a charming, splendid, clear lake bearing the sweet fragrance of the Lord's delicate, supremely handsome, and supremely opulent transcendental limbs. Bowing down, I worship this lake known as Prakandana-sarovara."

     2035. After showing Praskandana-ghata to Shrinivasa, Shrila Raghava Gosvami overcome with spiritual love, very sweetly said:



Shrila Advaita Prabhura Janmadi-Brttarta

The Story of Shrila Advaita Prabhu's Birth and Other Pastimes.


     2036. Lord Advaita who is the Personality of Godhead Himself, and who is not different from Shri Krishna Chaitanya, after some days came to this forest.

     2037.  Under this banyan tree He worshipped Lord Krishna. Who has the power to know the secrets of His heart?

     2038. Please hear, O Shrinivasa, of Lord Advaita's birth and pastimes. I will tell them in brief.

     2039. When Lord Advaita became manifested in this world, Madhavendra Puri, Isvara Puri, Shaci-devi, and Jagannatha Mishra were also manifest.

     2040. To the living entities Lord Advaita was merciful without end. On the pretext of taking birth there, He made the land of Bengal fortunate.

     2041. In Bengal, near Shri Hatöa, is the village of Nava-grama. There Kuvera Pandita, the son of Nrisimha Pandita, resided. 

     2042. Very fortunate Kuvera Pandita walked on the path of devotional service. He thought only of Lord Krishna's lotus feet, He thought of nothing else.

     2043.  His saintly wife, Nabha-devi, was devoted to her husband. She was worshipped by all the world. She became Lord Advaita's mother.

     2044. This couple came to the side at Shantipura, by the Ganga's banks. They were always plunged in talking of Lord Krishna.

     2045. One day, hearing a Vaishnava blasphemed, Shri Kuvera and Nabha decided to give up their lives.

     2046. Seeing them on the verge of dying, one fortunate soul, by the Supreme Lord's wish, pacified them.

     2047. Sadly they lay down and fell asleep. In a dream they saw a great wonder.

     2048. They saw an effulgent handsome man, His form defeating the splendor of mother gold.

     2049. Grasping another man's hands, the handsome man sweetly said:


     2050. "To relieve the conditioned souls of their own sorrows please quickly descend to the earth.

     2051. "You will attract Me there, stay here I will have no power. Accompanied by My elder brother quickly I will be manifest there."

     2052. Hearing these words, the second person became joyful at heart. Then, at an auspicious moment, He entered Nabha-devi 'womb.

     2053. Watching all this, the brahmana Kuvera was filled with bliss. His dream broke. Now his heart was wild.

     2054. That brahmana very learned in the scriptures thought in his heart, "manifesting the form of a guur, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will become manifest in this world."

     2055.The brahmana and his wife gave this much thought. They were overwhelmed. They had no power to check the tears that flowed from their eyes.

     2056. From that day Nabha was pregnant. She returned to Nava-grama. There she stayed.

     2057. When Lord Advaita was manifest, the whole world became blissful at heart.

     2058. Suddenly a voice declared, "Now Shri Krishna Chaitanya will be manifest on this earth.

     2059. "He will bring Nityananda-Rama. He will enjoy pastimes with His associates.

     2060. "The living entities' sorrows He will break into pieces. No one will sorrow. From house to house He will preach devotional service and spiritual love.

     2061. "He will make the flooding ocean of the bliss of sankirtana overflow its shores. This Kali-yuga is so fortunate! No one will be cheated of that bliss of sankirtana.

     2062. Hearing these words, everyone became joyful. Kuvera Pandita's home became an abode of great auspiciousness.

     2063. Day by day Lord Advaita-Shiva grew. With joy in their hearts the fortunate people watched Him.

     2064. The child Advaita would always hide Himself. Only Lord Chaitanya's will was He openly manifest.

     2065. When they found the hiding child Advaita, the people of Nava-grama would float in bliss, they would forget all their sorrows.

     2066. Kamalaksha and Advaita were the Lord's two names. Still, everyone always called Him Advaita.

     2067. The fortunate people saw Lord Advaita's very wonderful childhood pastimes. Who has the power to describe those pastimes?

     2068. Lord Advaita was like a star shining in every person's eyes. Even when they lay down on their beds and slept, every person sang of Lord Advaita's glories.

     2069. All the people were fortunate and glorious. This I say again and again. Glorious is the land of Bengal, where the Lord descended to this world.

     2070. Saintly Shri Kuvera Pandita, who was filled with spiritual love, told everyone: "I will go to the Ganga's banks.

     2071. Accompanied by his friends and kinsmen, Kuvera Pandita went fromn Nava-grama to Shantipura.

     2072. With a happy heart he made his residence in Santipura. Sometimes he would meet friends and kin in Navadvipa.

     2073. Carefully he taught the scriptures to the boy Advaita. In this way Lord Advaita, the purifier of the fallen, became a learned pandita.

     2074. Although Advaita's mother and father knew their son's true identity, because of their love for Him, they could not remember that truth in Their hearts.

     2075. Seeing young Advaita's activities, the great panditas of Santipura were all filled with wonder.

     2076. One person said, "Advaita is not a mere human being. How can a human being being attracted every person's heart?

     2077. The brahmana Kuvera is very fortunate to have such a son, a son who brings auspiciousness to all. This I think."

     2078. In this way the people spoke. Lord Advaitacandra was every person's life.    

     2079. Who has the power to understand Lord Advaita's desires? In many ways He brought happiness to His father and mother.

     2080. After some days Lord Advaita's father and mother were no longer seen in this world. Then Lord Advaita began a pilgrimage to Gaya.

     2081. On the pretext of going to Gaya, Lord Advaita visited many holy places. At this time Lord Advaita accepted initiation (diksha) from Shrila Madhavendra Puri.

     2082. The devotees in older times have said:


                 prema-bhakti-pradam shriman-

                  madhavendra-puri priyam

                 shriladvaita-prabhum vande



     "I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Advaita, who gives the great gift of prema-bhakti. He is dear to Madhavendra Puri Gosvami. He is a part of Shri Madhva-sampradaya."


     2083. Who has the power to understand Lord Advaita's activities? Wild in the ecstasy of spiritual love, He wandered without stop.

     2084. Wandering and wandering, He came to Mathura-mandala. Seeing the splendor of Vraja, He overflowed with bliss.

     2085. After seeing all the holy places, He came to Vrindavana. The people of Vraja took care of His needs.

     2086. Sparingly He ate some fruit and roots and drank some milk.  Seeing His splendor, the people became filled with wonder.

     2087. Wild with the ecstasy of spiritual love, He roared. Asking "Will I ever see Krishna?", He wept.

     2088. Moment after moment He felt various ecstasies of spiritual love. On the Yamuna's banks He worshipped Lord Krishna.

     2089. Aware that Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya would soon be manifested in this world, Lord Advaita left Vraja and returned to Gauda-desha.  

     2090. O Shrinivasa, only fortunate persons can relish Lord Advaita's pastimes, pastimes sweet like nectar.

     2091. Under this vaöa tree Lord Advaita stayed. Therefore this tree is known as Advaita-vaöa.

     2092. By seeing this Advaita-vaöa tree a person destroys all his sins and attains very rare spiritual love and devotion.

     2093. Look. On the Yamuna's banks the trees and vines are very beautiful and always filled with new blossoms.   

     2094. Under this old tintidi tree Radha and Krishna and the gopis enjoyed many pastimes.

     2095. Sitting under this tree and remembering the pastimes He enjoyed in the past, Lord Krishna Chaitanya felt happiness without limit.


          To Shrinivasa Shrila Raghava Gosvami describes Lord Gaurasundara's Pastimes.


     2096. Overcome with spiritual love. to Shrinivasa Shrila Raghava Gosvami described Lord Chaitanya's pastimes.

     2097. He said: Lord Gaurasundara is the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is the master of Navadvipa. He is Vraja's Prince Krishna.

     2098. Because of Advaita's loud calls, Lord Chaitanya descended to this world in Navadvipa, in the home of Shaci and Jagannatha Mishra.

     2099. In Navadvipa Lord Gauragana enjoyed very wonderful pastimes. With His thousand mouths even Lord Ananta has no power to describe all those pastimes.

     2100. Some days after His father's departure from this world, Lord Chaitanya, following ordinary custom, went to Gaya.

     2101. Seeing very glorious Isvara-Puri there, Lord Gaurachandra felt as if He had regained his life.

     2102. Lord Gaurasundara, who is the very life of the devotees, was very respectuf to Ishvara Puri.

     2103. Lord Gaurasundara first spoke the initiation mantra into Isvara Puri's ear. Then, falling to the ground to offer respects, He received that same mantra from Isvara Puri.

     2104. Thus accepting Isvara Puri as His spiritual master, Lord Gaura Raya floated in the flooding river of tears that flowed from His eyes.

     2105. Attaining Lord Vishvambhara, the purifier of the worlds, as his disciple, Isvara Puri became wild with spiritual love and bliss.

     2106-2107. If someone says, "Lord Gaurachandra is the spiritual master of all the worlds. When I hear that He has accepted someone else as His spiritual master, I become puzzled," Then I reply: Lord Gaurachandra did this to teach the people of the world. By His own personal example He showed how one should follow the rule of religion.

     2108. Who can understand Lord Gaurachandra's extraordinary pastimes. By accepting initiaion, He made the Madhva-sampradaya glorious.

     2109. A person who has entered a genuine sampradaya will be successful in his spiritual endeavours. Without accepting initiation, a person will find his mantra-chanting brings no result. That is certain.

     2110. The sampradayas are four: Shri, Brahma, Rudra, and Sanaka-kumara, this the Puranas declare.

     2111-2112. In the Shri Padma Purana it is said:

     "If one is not actually connected with a bone-fide disciplic succession, whatever mantra he chants will not bring the desired result.*  In Kali-yuga there will be four disciplic successions, coming from Shri, Brahma, Rudra, and Sanaka-kumara, will purify the world."

Sampradaya-namena Utpatti-vivarana

 Description of the Origin of the Sampradaya's Names


     2113. There are four devotional sampradayas. Now I will briefly explain their names.

     2114. Lord Krishna Chaitanya is like a kalpa-vriksha tree, in His form of Narayana He is the spiritual master of everyone.

     2115. Shri, the goddess of fortune, is Lord Narayana's beloved and disciple.  All the scriptures glorify her wonderful activities.

     2116. Shri is a name of Goddess Lakshmi. Her sampradaya has many branches and sub-branches. Who can write of them all?

     2117. In her sampradaya Ramanuya is famous as the acarya. Therefore Her sampradaya is also called the Ramanuya-sampradaya.  

     2118. Ramanuyacarya was personally called Lakshmanacarya, but everyone very respectufully call him Ramanuyacarya.

     2119. He wrote the Ramanuya-bhasya commentary. The brances and sub-branches of his sampradaya fill the world.

     2120. O Shrinivasa, now I will briefly describe the Madhva sampradaya.

     2121. Lord Narayana's merciful disciple Brahma filled the universe with his disciples and grad-disciples.

     2122. Among those disciples Madhva is important. From first he wrote a commentary on Vedanta-sutra.

     2123. For this reason he is called Madhva-acarya-sampradaya.

     2124. Lord Narayana's merciful disciple Rudra had disciples and grand-disciples without end.

     2125. Among his disciples Vishnu Swami is important. He and his disciples became as intoxicated by tasting the nectar of pure devotional service.

     2126. He was very powerful and learned in all the scriptures, because of him that sampradaya is called the Vishnu-svami-sampradaya.

     2127. O Shrinivasa, now please hear the Sanaka-sampradaya, which came from Lord Narayana's pastimes as the Hamsa-avatara.

     2128. The Hamsa-avatara's disciples are the four Kumaras, headed by Sanaka-kumara. No one can write of all their disciples and grand-disciples.

     2129. Amongst those disciples Nimbarka is important because of him the sampradaya is called the Nimbarka-sampradaya.

     2130. Nimbarka was wonderfully powerful. His disciples and grand-disciples filled the world.

     2131. The Shri, Brahma, Rudra, and Sanaka sampradayas thus divided to become many groups. That was their power.

     2132. Amongst Ramanuyacarya's disciples Ramanandacarya was honoured by all.

     2133. He had many disciples and grand-disciples who became known as the Ramananda-sampradaya.

     2134. In the same way, in the Vishnu-Svami sampradaya Shri Vallabhacarya, who wrote an Anubhasya commentary, was glorious in every way.

     2135. Therefore his branch of the sampradaya became known as the Vallabha-sampradaya. What shall I say? In this way there are many sampradayas.


Madhva-sampradayera Guru-parampara

Disciplic Succession in the Madhva-sampradaya


     2136. The Supreme Lord made the Madhva-sampradaya glorious in the Kali-yuga. Now I will give the names of the past spiritual masters in that sampradaya.

     2137. First of all is Lord Narayana, the master of the spiritual sky. His disciples was merciful Shri Narada Muni, Narada's disciple was Vyasa, who was the guru of Sukadeva Gosvami.

     2139. Another Vyasa disciple was saintly Shri Madhva, who became glorious without limit by writing the commentary that bears his name.

     2140. From him the Madhvacarya-sampradaya has come. His disciple was Shriman Padmanabhacarya.

     2141. Padmanabha's disciple was Narahari. Narahari's disciple was Shri Madhava, Shri Madhava's disciple was Shri Aksobhya, who preached everywhere.

     2142. Shri Aksobhya's disciple was Jayatirtha. Jayatirtha's disciple was Jnanasindhu. Jnanasindhu's disciple was Mahanidhi, who was the friend of the poor and fallen.

     2143. Mahanidhi's disciple was Vidyanidhi, Vidyanidhi's disciple was Rajendra. Rajendra's disciple was Jayadharma Muni, whose activities were wonderful.

     2144. Jayadharma's disciple was Vishnupuri, who wrote the book Bhakti-ratnavali.

     2145. Another disciple of Jayadharma was saintly Shri Purusottama-brahmanya.

     2146. Purusottama's disciple was greatly learned Vyasatirtha, who wrote the book Shri Vishnu-samhita.

     2147. Vyasatirtha's disciple was Lakshmipati, who was the abode of virtues. Lakshmipati's disciple was Madhavendra, who was a risin moon of devotion.

     2148. Madhavendra's disciple was Isvara Puri, the abode of mercy. Isvara Puri's disciple was Lord Gaurachandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

     2149-2162. In Shri Kavi Karnapura's Shri Gaura-ganodesa-dipika (texts 21-25) it is said:


     "In the Kali-yuga there are four Vaishnava-sampradayas, known as the Shri, Brahma, Rudra, and Sanaka sampradayas. This is described in the following statement of the Padma Purana:


     'In the Kali-yuga four Vaishnava sampradayas, the Shri, Brahma, Rudra, and Sanaka sampradayas, will purify the earth. I shall now begin this book by describing the disciplic succession descended from Shripada Madhvacarya. Lord Brahma, the creator of the universe, became the disciple of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana. Brahma's disciple was Narada. Narada's disciple was Vyasa, Vyasa then transmitted transcendental knowledge to his disciple Sukadeva. Sukadeva taught the same knowledge to his many disciples and grand-disciples in this world. The famous Madhvacarya received initiation from Vyasa personally. Madhvacarya carefully studied all the Vedas from Vyasa, and later wrote his book Mayavada-sata-dusani, where he proved that the Absolute Truth is the Supreme Person, fully of all transcendental qualities, and not the qualityless impersonal Brahman. Madhvacarya's disciple was the exalted Padmanabhacarya, Padmanabhacarya's disciple was Narahari. Narahari's disciple was Madhava Dvija. Madhava Dvija's disciple was Aksobhya. Aksobhya's disciple was Jayatirtha, Jayatirtha's disciple Mahanidhi, Mahanidhi's disciple was Vidyanidhi. Vidyanidhi's disciple was Rajendra, Rajendra's disciple was Jayadharma Muni. Among Jayadharma's disciples was Shriman Vishnupuri, the famous author of the book Bhakti-ratnavali. Another disciple of Jayadharma was Brahmana Purusottama, Puruosottama's disciple was Vyasatirtha, who wrote the famous book Shri Vishnu-samhita, Vyasatirtha's disciple was Shriman Lakshmipati, who was like a great reservoir of the nectar of devotional service, Lakshmipati's disciple was Madhavendra Puri, a great preacher of devotional service. Madhavendra Puri was the incarnation of a kalpa-vrksa tree in the abode of Vraja. This tree bears on its fruits the mellows of servitude to Lord Krishna, friendship with Lord Krishna, parental love for Lord Krishna, and conjugal love for Lord Krishna. Madhavendra Puri's disciple was Shriman Isvara Puri, Isvara Puri carefully understood the mellows of conjugal love for Lord Krishna, and was able to distribute that fruit to others. Shri Advaita Acarya displayed the sentiments of servitorship and friendship for the Lord, and Shriman Ranga Puri manifested the sentiment of parental love for Lord Krishna, Lord Chaitanya accepted Shriman Isvara Puri as His spiritual master. The Lord proceeded to flood the entire world with spontaneous transcendental love for Krishna."

     2163. Isvara Puri's disciple was Lord Gaura Raya, with his own mouth Lord Gaura Raya described Isvara Puri's glories.

     2164. Who has the power to understand the wonderful devotion Lord Gaura felt? From Lord Gaura was manifest the Nimananda-samprada.

     2165. One of Lord Gaura's names was Nimai Pandita. Lord Nityananda was especially fond of this name.

     2166. Seeing the Vaishnava followers of Lord Gaura, even today the people call them the Nimai-sampradaya.

     2167. Because Nimai Pandita brought great bliss (ananda) to the world, His sampradaya is famous in the world as the Nimananda-sampradaya.

     2168. As it was previously explained that sampradayas are sometimes known by other names, in the same way, by the power of Lord Nimai, the Madhva-sampradaya is also known as the Nimananda-sampradaya.

     2169-2172. In a book by Vakresvara Pandita's disciple Shri Gopala Guru Gosvami, it is said:


     "The disciplic succession is Shri Narayana, Brahma, Narada, Vyasa, Shri Madhva, Padmanabha, Nrihari, Madhava, Aksobhya, Jayatirtha, Jnanasindhu, Mahanidhi, Vidyanidhi, Rajendra, Jayadharma Muni, Purusottama, Brahmanya, Vyasatirtha Muni, Shriman Lakshmipati, Shriman Madhavendra Puri and then Isvara Puri, then comes Shri Krishna Chaitanya, who is like a kalpa-vriksa tree of spiritual love manifest in this earth. Lord Chaitanya's  sampradaya is famous on this earth as the Nimananda-sampradaya."

     2173. O Shrinivasa, after giving Him mercy to Isvara Puri, Lord Gaura Hari departed from Gaya.

     2174. Previously Lord Gaura hid Himself from the devotees in Navadvipa. Now, when He wished to hide Himself, He had no power to hide.

     2175. A few days after His return to Nadiya, by the dear devotees wish Lord Gaurachandra revealed His true identity.

     2176. Lord Advaita and the other devotees found their hearts blossoming with bliss.

     2177. When Lord Gaura met Lord Nityananda, the devotees bliss increased even more. Even with a hundred thousand mouths who has the power to describe the bliss the devotees felt?

     2178. In Nadiya performed sankirtana with Nityananda, Advaita, and a host of devotees, Lord Gaura became wild with bliss.   

     2180. Giving His mercy to the conditioned souls, Lord Gaura, who is the master and enchanter of all the worlds, accepted sannyasa.

     2181. When He accepted sannyasa, Lord Gaura was overcome with the ecstasy of spiritual love. Then Lord Nityananda took Him to Lord Advaita's home.

     2182. At that time the people ran to see Lord Gaurachandra, the crest jewel of sannyasis. No one could remain peaceful.

     2183. Many demigods came and mingled with that crowd. Thousands and millions of people surrounded Lord Advaita's house.

     2184. Everyone called out "Hari! Hari!" without stop.  Wonder filled the Svarga, Martya, and Patala worlds.

     2185. Then Lord Krishna Chaitanya the crest jewel of the sannyasis, allowed the people to see Him. Everyone there became fortunate and glorious.

     2186. Then Lord Gaura-Hari danced in sankirtana, His limbs anointed with sandal paste, He was glorious with wonderful sweetness.

     2187. Surrounding the Lord on four sides, the devotees sang a very sweet kirtana.

     2188. Their hearts filled with joy, Nityananda, Advaita, Shrivasa, and Gadadhara would not leave Lord Gaura's side.

     2189. Raising His graceful arms, Lord Gaura called out "Hari! Hari!" Overcome by the bliss of sankirtana, Lord Gaura floated in the tears that flooded from His eyes.

     2190. Gazing at Lord Chaitanyacandra, the people were overwhelmed. For a moment they did not know their own identities.

     2191. Later, in secluded places, the people talked among themselves. One person said: "The Vedas say the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear inthe form of a brahmana.

     2192. In the Atharva Veda it is said:


     "One who sees that golden colored Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Lord, the supreme actor, who is the source of the Supreme Brahman, is liberated."*


     2193. Someone else said: "Visvambhara Misra is the Supreme Lord in the form of a devotee, He manifests all auspicious signs. He is supreme over all."

     2194. In the Atharva Veda, Third Khanda, after the Brahma-vibhaga portion, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares:


     "When four-thousand to five thousand years of the Kali-yuga have passed I will descend to the earth in a place by the Gange's shore. I will be a tall, fair, and saintly brahmana devotee of the Lord, I have all the signs of an exalted person, I will be renounced, free from all material desire, I will accept the order of renunciation (sannyasa). I will be a devotee advanced in bhakti-yoga, I will chant the holy names of the Lord. I will taste the sweet mellows of My own devotional service. Only the great devotees will understand Me."


     2195. Another person said: "Lord Gaurachandra is the Supreme Lord. By His own potency He is now manifest in the just sandhya of Kali-yuga.

     2196.In the Purusa-bodhini Upanisad of the Atharva Veda it is said:


     "In the seventh manvatara, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will, accompanied by His associates, descend in a golden form to the earth. He will teach the chanting of His own holy names."


     2197. Another person said, "Look! His body glistens like gold! Ah! How wonderfully He is decorated with sandal paste.!"

     2198. In the Vishnu sahasra-nama stotra it is said:


     "In His early pastimes He appears like a householder with a golden complexion, His limbs are beautiful, and His body, smeared with the pulp of sandalwood, seems like mother gold."


     2199. Another person said, "Lord Gaura has stolen every person's heart. His activities have charmed all the world.

     2200. In this fortunate Kali-yuga the Lord has come with a fair complexion. In the Satya, Treta, and Dvapara yugas the Lord had manifested froms with a white, red, or black complexion.

     2201. In Shrimad Bhagavatam (10.8.13) it is said:


     "This boy (Krishna) has three other colors-white, red, and yellow--as He appears in different ages. Now He has appeared in a transcendental blackish color."*


     2202. Another person said: "Within His complexion is black. Eternally His complexion is fair and charming.

     2203. Accompanied by Nityananda, Advaita, and a host of companions, He enjoys pastimes in sankirtana.

     2204. In Shrimad Bhagavatam (11.5.32) it is said:


     "In the age of Kali intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the name of Krishna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krishna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions."*


     2205. Another person said, "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the protection of all. No one is merciful like Him.

     2206. "In Kali-yuga the proper dharma is chanting of the holy names. Descending to this world, the Supreme Lord easily establishes the dharma of the holy name."

     2207. In Bhagavad-gita (4.8) Lord Krishna declares:


     "To deliver the pious and annihilate the miscreants as well as to establish the principles of religion, I myself appear, millenium after millenium."*


     2208. Another person said, "Who can describe all of the Supreme Lord's pastimes? By accepting sannyasa, the Lord has made this Kali-yuga glorious.

     2209. In Shri Vishnu-sahasra-nama-stotra it is said:

     "In His later pastimes He accepts the renounced order, and He is equipoised and peaceful. He is the highest abode of peace and devotion, for He silences the impersonalists non-devotees."*

     2210. Another person said, "The conditioned souls in Kali-yuga are very fortunate. Accepting sannyasa, the Supreme Lord destroys all their sinful desires.

     2211. In the Upapuranas Lord Krishna tells Vyasa: "O learned brahmana, sometimes I accept the renounced order of life to induce the fallen people of the age of Kali to accept devotional service to the Lord."*

     2212. Another person said, "By giving them the maha mantra of Lord Hari's holy names, the Lord personally breaks into pieces the conditioned souls' terrible sufferings."

     2213. This maha-mantra is: Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare, Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare.

     2214. Another person said, "This maha-mantra consists of the words Hari, Krishna, and Rama. A wise person relishes the wonderful import of these words.

     2215. Shri Gopala Guru Gosvami has written the following verses:   "When he understands the true nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form is eternal and blissful, the conditioned soul becomes free of ignorance and sin. For this reason the Supreme Personality of Godhead is called Hari (He who takes away).

     2216. "Because She enchants Lord Krishna's heart and because She is pleasure personified for Lord Krishna, Shri Radha is called Hara (She who enchants).

     2217. "Because He is the master of all spiritual bliss, because His complexion is dark, because His eyes are lotus flowers, because  He brings bliss to Gokula, and because He is Nanda's delightful son, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is called Krishna.

     2218. "Because He is the be-all and end-all for the rasika devotees, because He is the origin of a host of divine forms and pastimes, and because He delights Shri Radha eternally, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is called Rama."

     2219. All the people spoke many words like these. They were completely surrendered at Lord Chaitanya's feet.

     2220. Lord Gaura Raya, the crest jewel of sannyasis, joyfully stayed at Lord Advaita's home.

     2221. In many ways Lord Gaura delighted the hearts of the people that had come to Santipura from Navadvipa.

     2222. In many ways He consoled Mother Shaci, on His head He placed the dust from her lotus feet.

     2223. Saci Thakurani was overcome with a mother's love, "Stay in Nilacala", She commanded her son.

     2224. On His mother's command Lord Gaura went to Nilacala, who can describe the devotees' condition then?

     2225. Pretending to be an ordinary human who has accepted sannyasa, Lord Gaura travelled in many places. Then He entered Mathura-mandala.   

     2226. Accompanied by a Sanodiya brahmana, the Lord filled with the ecstasy of pure devotion, wandered in Vraja.

     2227. Feigning ignorance, He asked everyone about the pastimes He had enjoyed there long ago.

     2228. Hearing these pastimes from other mouths, Lord Gaura became very pleased. In this way Shaci's son became wild with bliss.

     2229. Wandering in many forests and groves, Lord Gaura came to Mathura and then Vrindavana.

     2230. On the Yamuna's banks Lord Gaura was overcome with ecstasy. Even if I had a hundred thousand mouths I could not describe all the Lord's pastimes then.

     2231. Numberless numberless people ran there from the four direcitons. Wild with ecstatic spiritual love, they sang of Lord Gaura's glories.

     2232. Fearing such great crowds, the Lord went to Akrura-ghata. There He begged some alms. In a secluded place He ate.

     2233. From time to time He would sit under the tintidi tree, overcome with spiritual bliss, He would float in the tears that flowed from His eyes.

     2234. Under this Amli-tala tree Lord Gaura felt great bliss. There He gave mercy to Krishna-dasa Rajaputa.

     2235. O Shrinivasa, the Lord then left this Amlitala tree. By the devotees' wish, He returned to Nilacala.

     2236. Anyone who sees this tintidi tree will attain the fulfillment of all his desires. That is certain.


Shringara-bata ba Nityananda-bata-prasange Shriman Nityananda Prabhura Lila-vivarana

Description of Lord Nityananda's Pastimes at the Tree Known as Shringara-vaöa, or Nityananda vaöa.


     2237.  Look at that wonderful banyan tree on the Yamuna's banks. Everyone calls that tree Shringara-vaöa.    

     2238. Here Lord Krishna enjoyed pastimes of decorating Himself with various garments and ornaments. In this way He delighted Subala and His other friends.

     2239. Some people call this tree Nityananda vata, I will tell you why what they say is also right.'

     2240. Lord Nityananda came to this place. Please listen. I will tell of this in brief.

     2241. Lord Chaitanya and Lord Nityananda Rama are one and the same body. Lord Nityananda was born in the village of Ekacakra.

     2242. Hi mother was Padmavati, His father was Hadai Pandita. Who can describe the love they felt for their son? He was their breath of life.    

     2243. Padmavati's blissful son enjoyed many pastimes in Ekacakra-grama.

     2244. Filled with ecstasy, Lord Nityananda showed the people the pastimes os Lord Krishna's avataras.

     2245. The people of Ekacakra was very fortunate. For all of them Lord Nityananda was a treasure more dear than life.

     2246. Their love for Lord Nityananda grew and grew. For twelve years Lord Nityananda stayed in that village.

     2247. Who has the power to understand Lord Nityananda's heart? Without Shri Krishna Chaitanya's association Lord Nityananda could not remain peaceful.

     2248. One day Lord Nityananda thought in His heart, "At this moment it is not right that I got Him.

     2249. "At this moment Shri Krishna Chaitanya is manifest in Navadvipa. Concealing His true identity, He enjoys pastimes as a child.

     2250. "When He openly manifest His true identity and enjoys pastimes with the devotees, then I will go and meet Him.

     2251. "For now I will go on pilgrimage." Thinking in this way, Lord Nityananda smiled.


     2252. At that time a sannyasi came to that village and asked the people for directions to Hadai Pandita's house.

     2253. Informed by the people, he went to Hadai Pandita's house.  Seeing the sannyasi, Hadai Pandita became joyful.

     2254. In a moment he placed many foods before the sannyasi. He requested the sannyasi to eat.

     2255. The sannyasi said, "O brahmana, promise you will fulfill my request, and I will eat."

     2256. Attaining that promise, the sannyasi ate. Then, at the time of his departure, the sannyasi asked that Nityananda be given to him.

     2257. Consoling His father and mother, with a peaceful heart Lord Nityananda departed with the sannyasi.

     2258. In this way Lord Nityananda left home. Who has the power to understand His wonderful pastimes?

     2259. He is in the full bloom of youth. His handsomeness charms all the worlds. A single glimpse of Him brings cooling bliss to the eyes.

     2260.Wherever Lord Nityananda, who was filled with spiritual love, went, the people, their hearts wild with spiritual bliss, ran to see Him.

     2261. Showing great mercy to everyone, Lord Nityananda, the Personality of Godhead Himself, walked like a great king of the elephants.

     2262. Lord Nityananda visited the same holy places He visited as Lord Balarama in Dvapara yuga.

     2263. Travelling south, He went to Pandura-pura. There Lord Nityananda saw the Deity Lord Viööhalanatha.

     2264.In that town lived a gentle brahmana who was a godbrother of Madhavendra Puri.

     2265. Inviting the Lord to his home, the brahmana respectfully offered fruits, roots, milk, and other foods for Lord Nityananda to eat.

     2266. Gazing at Lord Nityananda, the fortunate people of Pandura-pura felt their life's breath filled with cooling bliss.

     2267. Who can understand the desires in Lord Nityananda's heart? After seeing the Deity Viööhalanatha, Lord Nityananda stayed in a secluded place.

     2268. Coming from afar, that brahmana's spiritual master, Shri Lakshmipati, suddenly came to that village, the brahmana was very excited.

     2269. Surrounded by his disciples, that spiritual master was learned in all the scriptures, who can describe the father's love he felt for his disciples?

     2270. He was very old. His glorious activities were beyond description. His fame was everywhere. He was a great saint that walked on the path of devotional service.   

     2271. Who has the power to describe Lakshmipati's glories? His disciple was Madhavendra Puri. His glories were the greatest.

     2272. Madhavendra Puri was filled with the nectar of spiritual love and devotion. Simply by remembering his name everyone attained spiritual perfection.

     2273. Madhavendra Puri's disciples, headed by Shri Isvara Puri and Ranga Puri, were all as if intoxicated by tasting the nectar of pure devotion.

     2274. Madhavendra Puri had many disciples in Gauda-desa, Orissa, and other places. They were all devoted to Lord Krishna, they were rapt in spiritual love and devotion.

     2275. Madhavendra Puri was very famous in the Madhva-sampradaya. He was an ocean of spiritual virtues. He was very dear to Lakshmipati.

     2276. At that brahmana's disciple's house Lakshmipati took his meal. Eagerly he spoke of Lord Krishna.

     2277. Again and again Lakshmipati said, "I see great auspiciousness has come to your house.

     2278. "Many times I have come to your house, but never has such bliss taken birth in my heart.

     2279. "I think a great devotee must be staying here." To this the brahmana replied. "Your mercy is very powerful."

     2280. By Lord Nityananda's wish the brahmana did not reveal the Lord's presence in the house. The day was passed in talking of Lord Krishna.

     2281. Sitting down at night in his private room, the glorious sannyasi Lakshmipati sang songs praising Lord Balarama's pastimes, pastimes that enchant the heart.

     2282. Filled with unflinching devotion to Lord Balarama, Lakshmipati wept. To Lord Balarama he prayed:

     2283. "O Lord Balarama, I am very fallen and ill-behaved. Please be merciful to me. In all the world I shall sing Your glories."

     2284. Speaking these words, Lakshmipati could not remain peaceful. He rolled on the ground.  Tears streamed from his eyes.

     2285. He was very elderly. He lamented bitterly. Overcome, he did not speak.

     2286. He was very agitated. He could not be peaceful. Then, suddenly, by Lord Nityananda's will he was drawn into sleep.

     2287. On the pretext of a dream, to Lakshmipati Lord Nityananda happily revealed Lord Balarama's form.

     2288.  How glorious was Lord Balarama! Kamadeva's pride was suddenly cast far away. Lord Balarama's very charming form rebuked the glistening silver mountain.

     2289. His arms reached His knees, His chest was broad. Reaching almost to His ears, His large graceful eyes charmed the heart.

     2290. A single earring on His ear charmed the hearts of all the world. A charming horn-bugle was tucked into the left side of the sash at His waist.

     2291. His body was decorated with many ornaments. No metaphor or simile of this world could describe Him.

     2292. The circle of His face conquered the full moon. On the pretext of speaking words, He created a flood of nectar.

     2293. Gently, gently He said to His dear devotee Lakshmipati, "When I heard your lament, My heart broke.

     2294. "Krishna is the master of My life. Birth after birth you are His servant."

     2295. Grasping Lord Balarama's feet, Lakshmipati said, "I pray that in my heart I will never think You are different from Lord Krishna."

     2296. Hearing Lakshmipati's words, Lord Balarama smiled and said:

     2297. Wearing an avadhuta's garment, a brahmana's son has come to this village. He will become your disciple.

     2298. "With this mantra make Him your disciple." After speaking these words, Lord Balarama spoke a mantra into Lakshmipati's ear.

     2299. Receiving the mantra, Lakshmipati became joyful. After giving His mercy in this way, Lord Balarama disappeared.

     2300. Waking on the following morning, the sannaysi Lakshmipati thought and thought in his heart, at that moment Lord Nityananda arrived.

     2301. Seeing Lord Nityananda's effulgence, the sannyasi Lakshmipati thought, "How wonderful is His effulgence! He is no mere human being."

     2302. Thinking in this way, with unblinking eyes the wise sannyasi gazed at Lord Nityananda's handsome face.

     2303. Falling to the ground, Lord Nityananda offered respects at the sannyasi's feet. Hurriedly Lakshmipati picked Him up and hugged Him.

     2304. Again and again Lord Nityananda said to the sannyasi, "Please give mantra-diksa (initiation) to Me and deliver Me."

     2305. Hearing Lord Nityananda's sweet words, the sannyasi floated in the tears from his eyes. He could not remain peaceful.

     2306. Lakshmipati could not jump over Lord Balarama's command. That same day Lakshmipati gave mantra diksa to Lord Nityananda.

     2307. After giving mantra diksa, he hugged Lord Nityananda. He was overcome. His heart overflowed with bliss.

     2308. Merciful Lord Nityananda was very dear to Lakshmipati. Lord Nityananda had the power to do whatever He wished. What had He not the power to do?

     2309. In this way Lord Nityananda, who loves the devotees and who is the root of all transcendental bliss, filled the Madhva-sampradaya with bliss.

     2310. By the elder devotees it is is said:

     "I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Nityananda, who loves the devotees, who is dear to Shri Lakshmipati, and who filled the Madhva-sampradaya with bliss."

     2311. Thus becoming Lakshmipati's disciple Lord Nityananda was filled with wonderful bliss.

     2312. Lord Nityananda departed at once. No one has the power to understand the Lord's wonderful pastimes.

     2313. In Lord Nityananda's absence, the sannyasi Lakshmipati became filled with sorrow. He did not speak a word to anyone. In his heart he lamented.

     2314. As night was ending he was drawn into sleep. On the pretext of a dream, Lord Nityananda appeared before him.

     2315. Seeing Lord Nityananda, saintly Lakshmipati could not stop the tears flowing from his eyes.

     2316. In a moment Lord Nityananda manifested the form of Lord Balarama. Seeing this, Lakshmipati at once fell before the Lord's glorious feet.

     2317. He was splashed by the tears from his eyes. Again and again he said, "Only to trick me have You descended to this world.

     2318. "Brahma and all the demigods do not know You. Others have no power to know You. Only if You reveal Yourself does anyone have the power to know You.

     2319. Why do You trick a fool like me, a fool worthless like a pile of ashes? O Lord, please be merciful to me. I take shelter of You."

     2320. Hearing Lakshmipati's words, the Lord at once manifested His form of Nityananda.

     2321. Gazing at the sweet glory of Lord Nityananda's form, a glory that eclipsed a host of glistening lighting flashes, Lakshmipati became wild with bliss.

     2322. Then Lord Nityananda Rama gave His mercy to Lakshmipati. Lakshmipati's desires were now fulfilled.

     2323. Forbidding Lakshmipati to tell anyone of what had happened, and conforting him again and again, Lord Nityananda disappeared.

     2324. When the Lord was no more visible, Lakshmipati became sorrowful. His sleep fled far away. He saw that night had ended.

     2325. To whom could he tell anything of this? He could not be peaceful. From that day his life was filled with wonders.

     2326. Seeing his condition, his disciples became worried. Leaving the world behind, Lakshmipati suddenly left the field of their vision.

     2327. Who knows how to describe Lakshmipati's glorious character and activities? In the world he is famous as a devotee especially dear to Lord Nityananda.

     2328. No one can describe the great devotion the people of Pandura-grama felt. Even today, by Lord Nityananda's mercy, the people of that village feel very strong devotion to the Lord.

     2329. By His own wish, and with a joyful heart, Lord Nityananda visited many holy places.

     2330. After some days the Lord met Madhavendra Puri near Pratici-tirtha.

     2331. Who can describe the great spiritual love they felt when they met? No person who saw them meet can know anything of it. 2332. Madhavendra Puri thought Lord Nityananda as his friend, Lord Nityananda thought of Madhavendra Puri as His guru.

     2333. This is described in the following words. Madhavendra Puri in Shri Chaitanya-Bhagavata (Adi.9.183):

     "Now I know that Lord Krishna has affection for me. Now I have a friend like Nityananda.

     2334. In Shri Chaitanya-Bhagavata (Adi 9.188) "Lord Nityananda considered Madhavendra Puri His spiritual master. He did not think of anyone else in this way."

     2335. Seeing this relationship, Shri Isvara Puri and the other became filled with deep love for Lord Nityananda.

     2336. For some days Lord Nityananda and Madhavendra Puri were both plunged in the nectar of love for Lord Krishna. With blissful hearts they passed together many days and nights.

     2337. Then, bidding farewell to Madhavendra Puri, Lord Nityananda departed. He went to Setubandha to see the Deity of Rameshvara.

     2338. Taking Isvara Puri and His other disciples with him, Madhavendra Puri went to Sarayu-tirtha.

     2339. Separated from each other, Lord Nityananda and Madhavendra Puri nearly died. They were saved only by the ecstasy of love they both felt for Lord Krishna.

     2340. Although He was by nature saintly and peaceful, Lord Nityananda could not be peaceful as He travelled everywhere.

     2341. After some days Lord Nityananda came to Mathura. Filled with the emotions of a small boy, the Lord played games with the local boys.

     23342. Anyone who saw Him even only once could not bear to be separated from Lord Nityananda for even a single sesame seed's worth of time.

     2343. Lord Nityananda Raya's form was supremely sweet. Numberless people ran there to see Lord Nityananda.

     2344. Lord Nityananda would not stay in any one place. Wandering here and there in Vraja, He was filled with bliss.

     2345. From time to time He entered Gokula and Mahavana. Gazing at the Deity Madana-Gopala, He happily stayed there.

     2346. Gazing at Nanda Maharaja's home, how much bliss arose within His heart? Weeping in ecstasy, He visited many holy places there.

     2347. In Shrila Vrindavana dasa Thakura's Shri Chaitanya Bhagavata (Adi 9.112) it is said:

     2348. "Gazing at Nanda's home in Gokula, Lord Nityananda sat down and wept many tears.

     2349. "Then the Lord offered obeisances to the Madana-Gopala Deity. Then He went to Hastinapura, the Pandavas' capital city."

     2350. One moment Lord Nityananda sat under this wonderful banyan tree. The next moment He would roll in the dust.

     2351. Another moment He would ask, "Where is Krishna, who is My very life?"

     2352. Filled with the ecstasy of spiritual love, Lord Nityananda would tremble, tears would fill His large eyes.

     2353. In this way Lord Nityananda enjoyed pastimes in Vrindavana. Who has the power to understand Lord Nityananda's activities?

     2354. Lord Nityananda knew that Lord Gaurasundara was already manifest in Navadvipa, concealing His identity, Lord Gaura was enjoying many pastimes there.

     2355. Thinking of this, Lord Nityananda-Balarama smiled. The hairs of His body stood erect.

     2356. Thinking in this way, Lord Nityananda became restless. Feeling drawn to Lord Gaura's company, Lord Nityananda travelled to Navadvipa.

     2357. For twenty years Lord Nityananda went on pilgrimage to many holy places. Who can describe all the pastimes He enjoyed in this way?

     2358. Anyone who sees the places of Lord Nityananda's pastimes becomes very fortunate.

     2359. O Shrinivasa, here is Cira-ghaöa, which some people call Cayana-ghata.

     2360. One day, after enjoying the rasa dance and other pastimes, Radha and Krishna, accompanied by Their gopi-friends, bathed here.

     2361. Leaving their garments under this kadamba tree, and keeping only their undergarments, they entered the water.

     2362. Fatigued from other pastimes, they played in the water. The Yamuna's water's touch pacified their fatigue.

     2363. Playing in the water, they felt great joy take birth within themselves. Then they all entered a forest of lotus flowers.

     2364. Playing a practical joke, Lord Krishna went to the kadamba tree and hid the garments resting there. Then He again entered the water.

     2365. After some moments of playing in the water, the gopis emerged onto the riverbank. Not seeing their garments, they all worried.

     2366. Gazing at that time on the gopis' wonderful beauty, joking Lord Krishna returted their garments.

     2367. In this way Lord Krishna stole the garments of the gopis when their fatigue was pacified, Lord Krishna also enjoyed many other pastimes at this place.

     2368. O Shrinivasa, accompanied by their gopi friends, Radha and Krishna enjoyed many amourous pastimes here in Nidhuvana.

     2369. Look, O Shrinivasa, this is Kesi-tirtha, the glories of this place are revealed in many Puranas.

     2370-71. In Adi-Varaha Purana it is said:

     "O earth goddess, Kesi-tirtha, where the demon Kesi died, is a hundred times more sacred than the Ganga. By offering pinda here one attains the result of offering pinda at Gaya."

     2372. After killing Kesi, Lord Krishna very happily washed His hands here in the Yamuna.

     2373. In Shri Vraja-vilasa-stava (text 85) of Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami's Shri Stavavali, it is said:

     "With his mad neighing Kesi made the three worlds tremble, and with the wild rolling of his eyes he set the entire universe in flames. Krishna killed this demon as easily as one splits a blade of grass and then He washed the blood from His hands at a place known now as Kesi-tirtha, I worship that sacred place."

     2374. O Shrinivasa, here, at Dhira-samira, Lord Krishna enjoyed pastimes in the forest.

     2375. The gopis relished great bliss when Radha and Krishna enjoyed wonderful pastimes of meeting at this place.

     2376. In Shrila Jayadeva Gosvami's Shri Gita-Govinda (Sarga 5. song 2) a gopi-messenger tells Shri Radhika:


purvam yatra samam tvaya rati-pater asadilah siddhayes

     tasminn eva nikunya-manmatha-maha tirtha punar madhavah

dhyama tam anisam japann api tavaivalapa-mantraksaram

     bhuyas tvat-kuca-kumbha-nirbhara-parirambhamrtam vanchati


     2377. In the song that follows (Gita Govinda 5.2) it is said:


rati-sukha-sare gatam abhisare madana-manohara-vesam

na puru nitambini gamana-vilambaram anusara tam hrdayesam

dhira-samire yamuna tire vasati vane vana-mali


     2378. Look, There is Manij-karnika. in this forest Lord Krishna enjoyed many pastimes. in this place He broke Shri Radhika's jealous anger onto pieces.

     2379. O Shrinivasa, here, near the Yamuna, is wonderfully beautiful Vamshi-vata.

     2380. The shade of this Vamsi-vata tree removes all the world's sufferings. Here Lord Gopinatha enjoys blissful pastimes eternally.

     2381. His garments and motions graceful, with the sound of His flute Lord Gopinatha attracts the hearts of all the world.

     2382. In Shrila Krishnadasa Kaviraja's Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita (Adi 1.17) it is said:

     "Shri Shrila Gopinatha, who originated the transcendental mellow of the rasa dance, stands on the shore of Vamsi-vata and attracts the attention of the cowherd damsels with the sound of His celebrated flute. May they confer upon us their benediction."*

     2383. One time the Yamuna flooded and the Vamsi-vata tree disaapeared into the Yamuna.

     2384. From that tree a gosvami took a branch and planted it near the tree's original site.

     2385. Look, O Shrinivasa, this place is delightful. A gentle, gentle cooling breeze always blows here.

     2386. When Lord Krishna plays His flute, the gopis become restless at heart. Leaving all else behind, they go to meet Him.

     2387. The gopis swim in the ocean of Krishna's glorious handsomeness. Gazing at them, Krishna cannot remain peaceful.

     2388. Somehow becoming peaceful, with a joyful heart Krishna asked about their welfare. Who knows Krishna's heart?

     2389.Then Krishna testes the gopis' love with many words He instructed them to return to their homes.

     2390. Glancing at the gopis, and seeing they were not Shri Radha's equals, at the rasa dance beginning Shri Krishna decided to disappeared with Radha.

     2391. Remaining invisible, Krishna happily listened to the gopis lament.

     2392. Separated from Krishna, with sorrowful hearts the gopis asked the trees adn vines for news of Him.

     2393. The gopis imitated Lord Krishna's pastimes. They praised Radhika's good fortune.

     2394. Here Lord Krishna delighted Radha, staying here for some time, He then disappeared.

     2395. Seeing Radha, with unsteady hearts the other gopis spoke to Her many words.

     2397. Here Krishna allowed the gopis to see Him again. The gopis were plunged into bliss.

     2398. The gopis carefully arranged a sitting place for Krishna. In this place they spoke many words with Him.

     2399. O Shrinivasa, look at this place on the Yamuna's banks. In this place Lord Krishna began the great rasa dance.

     2400. Surrounded by hundred and millions of gopis, Lord Krishnacandra enjoyed pastimes here in the rasa-dance circle.

     2401. The night of those rasa-dance pastimes was as long as a kalpa. Vyasa and others affirm this in many ways.

     2402. Surrounded by jewellike girls, Lord Krishna, the crown of rasikas intent on enjoying the rasa-dance, attracted every heart.

     2403. The rasa-dance is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.33.2-9):


     "There on the Yamuna's banks Lord Govinda then began the pastime of the rasa-dance in the company of those jewels among women, the faithful gopis, who joyfully linked their arms together.***

     2404-2405. "The festive rasa dance commenced, with the gopis arrayed in a circle, Lord Krishna expanded Himself and entered between each pair of gopis, and as that master of mystic power placed His arms around their necks, each girl thought He was standing next to her alone. The demigods and their wives were overwhelmed with eagerness to witness the rasa-dance and they soon crowded the sky with hundreds of celestial airplanes.***

     2406. "Kettledrums then resounded the sky while flowers rained down and the chief Gandharvas and their wives sang Lord Krishna's spotless glories.***

     2407 "A tumultuous sound arose from the armlets, ankle-bells and waist-bells of the gopis as they sported with their beloved Krishna in the circle of the rasa dance.***

     2408. "In the midst of the dancing gopis, Lord Krishna appeared most brilliant, like an exquisite sapphire in the midst of golden ornaments.***

     2409. "As the gopis sang in praise of Krishna, their feet danced, their hands gestured, and their eyebrows moved with playful smiles. With their braids and belts tied tight, their waists bending, their faces perspiring, the garments on their breasts moving this way and that, and their earrings swinging on their cheeks, Lord Krishna's young consorts shone like streaks of lightning in a mass of clouds.***

     2410. "Eager to enjoy conjugal love, their throats colored with various pigments, the gopis sang loudly and danced. They were overjoyed by Krishna's touch, and they sang songs that filled the entire universe.***

     2411. "One gopi, joining Lord Mukunda in His singing, sang pure melodious tones that rose harmoniously above His, Krishna was pleased and showed great appreciation for her performance, saying, 'Excellent! Excellent!" Then another gopi repeated the same melody, but in a special metrical pattern, and Krishna praised her also.***

     2412. In Shrila Jiva Gosvami's Gopala-campu (26.15) the rasa dance is described in these words:

     "(Refrain) O most virtuous Lord who descended to Gokula to give the best gift to the world, all glories to You! All glories to You!

     2413. "Brahma, Shiva, and Vaikunthesvara Narayana's wife Lakshmi meditate on You. O Lord, You shine in the playful rasa dance with Your beautiful gopi-beloved.

     2414. O Lord who enjoys graceful dancing with the gopis. O Lord who please them with affectionate words and embraces, and who removes their suffering....

     2415. "...O Lord who expanded into many forms to stand beside each gopi gazing at You in ecstasy, O Lord completely purchased by the young vraja-gopis' glances!

     2416. "The gopis gracefully moved their lotus feet, flower-petal-hands, and eyebrows as they danced, they bent their waists, their jewel earrings swung, the hairs on their bodies stood up, they perspired, and they displayed signs of ecstatic happiness.

     2417. "O Lord, You are like a dark raincloud, and all the gopis are like lightning flashes, this comparison is perfect.

     2418. "The gopis sing very sweetly and long to dance. Your advances are their only pleasure. The nectar of Your touch fills their hearts with bliss. They are purchased by Your love.

     2419. "As the gopis' singing fills the universe with happiness, You shine with joy, O Lord, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

     2420. "You become filled with wonder as a certain gopi sweetly sings with You, with the gopis She sings the praises of Your transcendental qualities.

     2421. "Her song brings You great happiness, You respond by worshipping her with great respect.

     2422. "Exhausted from the pastimes of the rasa-dance, and her jasmine-bracelet slipping, she gracefully places Her hand on Your shoulder, which is touched by Your glistening earrrings.!

     2423. "She playfully kisses Your arm and shoulder. She is very happy. Unknown to others, the hairs of her body stand up with joy.

     2424. "O Lord whose earrings swing to and fro! O Lord whose cheeks are splendid mirrors! On a pretext You touch Her. Giving Her a kiss, You both exchange the nectar of chewed betel nuts.

     2425. "This girl expert in singing and dancing, and Her moving ornaments tinkle in graceful rhythmns. O Ramanuya (younger brother of Balarama), pretending that Your hand is a peerlessly beautiful lotus flower, She places at to Her heart.

     2426. "O Lord who noticed the gopis' fatigue in the rasa dance, O Lord who made them rest, O happy, affectionate Lord.!

     2427. "O Lord whose splendid fame is recounted by the greatest poets and philosophers. O Lord splendid with flower garlands, O enjoyer of the rasa-dance, glory, glory, glory, glory, glory, glory, glory, glory, glory, glory, glory to You!"

     2428. O Shrinivasa, the glories of Lord Krishna's rasa dance by the Yamuna's banks are like a great ocean that has no shore.

     2429. Who has the power to describe the beauty of the Yamuna's waters glistening in the light of the full moon on that night?

     2430. in this place Lord Krishnacandra enjoyed water pastimes with His gopi-beloveds in the Yamuna.

     2431. In this place Lord Krishna enjoyed pastimes in the forest. Who can describe the bliss He felt?

     2432. At dawn Krishna and the gopis returned to their homes. Thus the wise say.

     2433-2435. In Shrila Jiva Gosvami's Shri Gopala-campu (1.29.40) this is described in the following words:

     "Awakened by seeing the splendid morning sunlight in the beautiful forest grove, Krishna breaks the sleep of His beloved as their gopi-friends gather around them. (Refrain) My consciousness is now absorbed in thinking of Kamsahara Krishna, who wears a peacock-feather crown.

     2436-2438. "The young gopis please Her again and again, and lead Her down the path through the dense forest. In the forest She was very happy, but at home Her eternal happiness is stolen away. At home She has become bitter by the poisonous snake of separation from Her lover, She is now stunned with the desire to meet Him."

     2439. In His maha-rasa dance pastimes Vraja's prince Krishna fulfilled the desires of all the gopis.

     2440. The rasa-dance pastimes are the abode of great pleasures. All who hear of them find their desires are fulfilled.

     2441. O Shrinivasa, Lord Krishna enchants all the worlds. He enjoys rasa-dance pastimes He is Shri Radha's life-treasure.

     2442. Shri Radha enchants all the worlds. She enjoys rasa-dance pastimes. To Lord Krishna She is more dear than life. She is the crest jewel of all beautiful girls.

     2443. She always acts to please Lord Krishna. In Radha's absence, Lord Krishna cannot be happy. Nothing pleases Him.

     2444. Accompanied by Her gopi-friends, Shri Radhika always enjoys blissful rasa dance pastimes in Vrindavana.

     2445. Now I wish to describe certain blissful pastime of a certain day. I will tell everybody of them.

     2446. On that day Vrinda-devi thought in her heart, "Today, because of my careful arrangements, I will see Radha and Krishna enjoy pastimes with their gopi-friends.

     2447. In this way accompanied by her followers, Vrinda-devi began the rasa dance pastimes.

     2448. She carefully arranged the dancing arena. Even the Natya-sastra does not know all the arrangements she made.

     2449. By her arrangement the dancing arena wonderfully glistened in the white moonlight.

     2450. How wonderfully beautiful were the gopis in the forest moonlight!

     2451. In the form of directions were peerless splendid flower-thrones. In the middle Vrinda arranged an especially glorious throne.

     2452. In a jewel-box she carefully kept some betel nuts with a fragrance that attracted every heart.

     2453. She made many flower-ornaments and other ornaments also. She made fragrant sandal paste and other fragrant pastes also. I cannot write of all the arrangements she made.

     2454. She brought thousands and millions of camara whisks that charm the heart. She brought mrdangas and many other musical instruments.

     2455. To the parrots, cuckoos, and other birds she gave the command, "Sing of Radha and Krishna's pastimes and glories."

     2456. To the peacocks she said: "You should dance"  to the bumblebees she said: "You should gentle buzz"

     2457. At that time one of Vrinda's gopi-followers gently, gently said to Vrinda:

     2458. When the divine couple's arrival was delayed you worried, when you commanded me, I went to find them.

     2459. "On hearing Paurnamasi's words Lord Krishna became jubilant. In a forest filled with flowers He watchs for Radha's arrival on the pathway.

     2460. "Leaving home with Her gopi-friends, Radha met Krishna in that forest of flowers.

     2461. "When the divine couple met, Paurnamasi became joyful. Now I shall report all these activities to you."

     2462. As the gopi spoke these words, the divine couple arrived. How charming were the motions of their lotus feet!


     2463. Their graceful arms rested on each others' shoulders. Tasting the nectar of love, they gazed at each other.

     2464. No one can describe the summit of their beauty and grace. All who gazed at Them threw far away any blinking of their eyes.

     2465. The effulgence of Their forms filled the three worlds with light. They eclipsed the glory of a dark raincloud and a lightning flash.

     2466. Surrounded by Their gopi friends headed by Lalita, they were very graceful and glorious. Every person's limbs glistened with great splendor.

     2467. With wonderful grace They walked in the forest grove. Without stop Their anklets softly softly jingled.

     2468. Accompanied by Their gopi friends, Radha and Krishna entered the forest grove. Joyfully they gazed at Vrindavana's beauty.

     2469. Smiling, the divine couple sat on a wonderful throne. In the four directions were Their gopi friends. Filled with bliss, the gopis forgot their own identities.

     2470. Thousands and millions of maidservants waves camara fans. Parrots, cuckoos, and other birds sang the divine couple's glories.

     2471. Sounding almost like a band of musicians, the bumblebees sweetly hummed. On all sides the peacocks and peahens dances.

     2472. On Vrinda-devi's command, these creatures revealed their graceful glories. On the pretext of manifesting the singing and dancing of the birds and other creatures, Vrinda-devi revealed her desire to the divine couple.

     2473. With a smiling glance from the corner of His eye, Lord Krishna, who is like the sweetest nectar personified, spoke to Vrinda-devi.

     2474. Vrinda-devi then decorated the divine couple with flower ornaments, sandal paste, and other glorious pastes. How wonderful was the divine couple's glory! No one has the power to describe it.

     2475. Opening a betel nut box, Lalita joyfully placed some betel nuts in Radha's hand.

     2476. Accepting the betelnuts, Radha happily placed in Lord Krishnacandra's graceful mouth.

     2477. Gently, gently, Lord Krishna smiled. His heart was not peaceful. Chewing the betel nuts He felt many kinds of pleasures.

     2478. In His heart He decided, "I will enjoy rasa-dance pastimes." With wonderful grace He glanced at Shri Radha's face.

     2479. Lord Krishna is spiritual bliss personified. He is the abode of nectar. His gracefulness defeats millions and millions of Kamadevas.

     2480. A peacock feather decorates His head. A flute is placed to His lips. How graceful and sweet He is!

     2481. To fulfill Vrinda-devi desire, Lord Krishna enjoys pastimes with Shri Radhika.

     2482. Of numberless gopi-beloveds, Radha is the best. She fulfills Lord Krishna's every desire.

     2483. Who can describe Radhika's glorious garments and ornaments? The garments and ornaments of Lalita and the other gopis do not compare to them.

     2484. I cannot write of Radhika's glories. Lalita and the other gopis are not Radhika's equals.

     2485. Surrounded by millions of gopis, Lord Krishna, His arm on Radha's shoulders, enjoys many pastimes.

     2486. The glory of the rasa-dance pastimes fills the worlds. Everyone is plunged into those glories.

     2487. What shall I say? The wonderful music attracted every heart. This everyone affirms.

     2488. O Shrinivasa, in ancient times the demigod Brahma extracted the Sangita Veda (Veda of music) from the other Vedas. This is known in the world.

     2489. It is said:

     "Extracting the essence of the four Vedas, the demigod Brahma wrote the fifth Veda, which is called the Sangita Veda (Veda of Songs)."

     2490. From the Sama, Atharva, and Yajur Vedas were born the scriptures describing gita (music) pathya (scholarship), rasa (mellows) and abhinaya (drama).

     2491. It is said:

     "From the Rg Vedas was born the pathya-sastra, from the Sama Veda was born the gita-sastra, from the Yajur Veda was born the abhinaya-shastra, and from the Atharva Veda was born the rasa-sastra."

     2492. Brahma, Shiva and the other teachers of sangita (music) filled all the worlds with sweetness.

     2493. It is said:

     "Brahma, Shiva, Nandi, Bharata, Durga, Narada, Kohala, Ravana, Vayu, Rambha, and others were famous teachers of sangita."

     2494. Sangita consists of three elements: gita (song), vadya (instrumental music), and nrtya (dance). Some say sangita consists of gita and vadya alone.

     2495. Gita, nrtya, and vadya are very glorious and powerful. They attract the hearts of demigods, humans, and other beings.

     2496. In Shri Sangita-paryata it is said:

     "Gita, vadya and nrtya are the tree elements of sangita. Because gita is the most important element, the three are called sangita."

     2497. In Shri Sangita-siromani it is said: "Gita, vadya and nrtya are the three elements of sangita. Some say sangita consists of gita and vadya alone. Sangita charms the hearts of demigods, humans, animals and other beings."

     2498. Sangita is of two kinds: marga and deshi, In Svargaloka marga-sangita is practices the demigod Brahma is the great acarya of marga-sangita.

     2499. In the various countries of the earth the many varities of deshi-sangita are practiced. Both marga and desi sangita are described in the scriptures.

     2500. In Shri Sangita-sara it is said:

     "Sangita is of two kinds: marga and desi. Marga-sangita is practiced in Svargaloka. Desi-sangita is practiced on the earth."

     2501. In Shri Sangita-paryata it is said:

     "Sangita is of two kinds: marga and desi. The demigod Brahma personally taught marga-sangita to the brahmana Bharata.

     2502. "Having learned marga-sangita from Brahma, the brahmana Bharata employed apsaras and gandharvas in sangita performances before Lord Sh_iva.

     2503. "It is said that desi-sangita is practiced in different ways in the different countries by the earth..

     2504. Sound is the origin of gita (song) and other things. Sound is Lord Hari Himself. Who understands the true nature of sound?

     2505. It is said:

     "Without sound there is no gita, without sound there are not notes (svara), without sound there are no ragas (melodies), the whole universe is filled with sounds."

     2506. In Shri Sangita-damodara it is said:

     "Without sound there is no knowledge. Without sound there is no auspiciousness. Sound is the Brahman effulgence. Sound is Lord Hari Himself."

     2507. in the Anjaneya it is said:

     "Even Goddess Sarasvati does not know where is the farther shore of the ocean of sound. Fearing they will drown in the ocean of sounds, even today musicians clutch the vina's sound to their chests."

     2508. From fire and air sound was born. From air, ether and the other elements sound was born.

     2509. Sound is originally created in the area below the navel. Rising up above the navel, at the end sound emerges from the mouth.

     2510. Thus sound is manifested by passing through many places. This is a brief description of the creation of sound.

     2511-2512. In the Sangita-sara it is said:

     "The syllable na comes from the life's breath. The syllable da comes from the fire in the belly. From them both nada (sound) is created. Therefore sound is born from breath and fire."

     2513. In Shri Sangita-mukstavala it is said:

     "Born from ether, fire and air, sound rises and is finally manifest from the mouth.

     2514. Sound is of three kinds: 1. prani (from a living entity), 2. aprani (not from a living entity), and 3. prani-aprani-yoga (from a mixture of living and non-living sources).

     2515. If the sound is manifest from a non-living source, it is called aprani, sound may also be manifest from a mixture of living sources  (prani-aprani).

     2516. When air touches the mouth or nose, sound is produced. Thus sound may be either prani or aprani.

     2517. It is said:

     "Sound is of two kinds: prani and aprani. The first (prani) is directly produced from the body. The second (aprani) is produced by a vina or other musical instrument. There is also a third kind of sound (a mixture of prani and aprani). Flutes and others like instruments produce this third kind of sound."  In this way there are three kinds of sound."

     2518. Prani sounds are of three kinds: 1. mandra, 2. madhya, and 3. tara. These three are produced in the chest, throat, and head respectively.

     2519. Madhya sounds are twice as high as mandra sounds and tara sounds are twice as high as Madhya sounds.

     2520. It is said: "The wise affirm that sounds are of three kinds, mandra sounds are produced in the chest, madhya sounds are produced in the throat, and tara sounds are produced in the head. Each of these is twice as high as the previous one."

     2521. During the rasa dance the gopis sang songs that employed these different kinds of sounds.

     2522. The songs that came from the gopis mouths delighted Lord Krishna. All the scriptures describe the great glory and power of music and song (sangita).

     2523. It is said:

     "A person may be learned in Sruti, Smrti, Sahitya (rhetoric) and many books and scriptures, but if he does not know the science of sangita (music, song and dance), then he is only a two-footed animal.

     2524. "Philosophy, yajnas, prayers and other like things bring only the three goals of life (piety, economic development, and sense gratification), Only knowledge of sangita brings all four goals of life (including liberation)."

     2525. It is said in Shri Sangita-Damodara:

     "Even an exalted man who does not  feel happiness in his heart from delightful sangita has been cheated by fate.

     2526. "Deer and birds are bound by enchantment because of Sangita. Sangita forces serpents to come. Sangita stops children from crying.

     2527. "Sangita brings great bliss. It brings the fulfillment of specific desires. It brings others under one's control. It charms every heart. The best kind of sangita carries with it the seed of liberation."

     2528. O Shrinivasa, Lord Krishna, who is the abode of nectar and the crest jewel of all. who know the science of music, thus enjoyed many pastimes in the rasa dance.

     2529. in the rasa dance circle Lord Krishna and the gopis enjoyed pastimes of singing wonderfully beautiful songs.

     2530. Gita (song) is of many kinds. Of these kinds Dhatu-gita and Matu gita are especially famous.

     2531. Dhatu-gita and Matu-gita create anuraga (delight). Gita with avayava is called Dhatu-gita, Gita with raga and other like elements is called Matu-gita.

     2532-2533. In Shri Sangita-sara it is said:

     "Dhatu-gita and Matu-gita both create delight. Dhatu-gita is with avayava. Matu-gita is with ragas and other like elements, this is said."

     2534. Many persons call Dhatu-gita nadatmaka-gita, which means the original nature (atmaka) of sound (nada).

     2535. In Shri Narada-samhita it is said:

     "Gita is divided into Dhatu and Matu. Some call Dhatu-gita by the name Nadatmaka-gita."

     2536.From the nadas are manifest the sh_rutis, svaras, murchanas, and gramas, which are called talas.

     2537. From the nadas are born many sh_rutis. From the sh_rutis are born the svaras, which begin with shadja.

     2538. From the svaras are born the murchanas. From the murchanas are born the talas, which are manifest from the gramas. This is known in all the worlds.

     2539. It is said:

     "From the nadas the shrutis are born. From the shrutis the svaras, which begin with shadja, are born, From the svaras the murchanas are born. From the murchanas the talas which are manifest from the gramas are born.

     2540. O Shrinivasa, now I will briefly explain all these, one after another.

     2541-2542. Now I will briefly explain the nadas, shrutis, svaras, murchanas, talas, varnas, grahasvaras, amsasvaras, nyasasvaras, and jatis, one after another.

     2543. It is said:

     "Now I will briefly explain the nadas, shrutis, svaras, murchanas, talas, varnas, grahasvaras, amsasvaras, nyasasvaras, and jatis, one after the other.

     2544. Now I will describe the nadas. I will describe the shrutis and other like things. During the rasa dance Lord Krishna and His gopi-beloved sang songs that contained shrutis.

     2545. O Shrinivasa, what shall I say? In the rasa dance circle the shrutis personified were manifest.

     2546. From the nadas the shrutis were manifest. From Lord Krishna the shrutis manifested a shoreless ocean of happiness.

     2547. The shrutis, which are sounds driven by moving air, are 22 in number. They arise from the heart and travel on the 22 nadis curving and travelling upwards.

     2548. There are as many shrutis as there are nadis, this is known everywhere. Gradually travelling upwards, the shrutis are manifested in the vina and other musical instruments.

     2549. In a throat choked with mucus, the shrutis are not manifest. Everyone gives these explanations.

     2550.-2551. The Srutis are described in these words:

     "The Srutis, which are sounds driven by moving air, are 22 in number. They arise from the heart and travel upwards on the 22 nadis. There are as many shrutis as there are nadis. This is said. Gradually travelling higher and higher, the shrutis are manifested in the vina and other musical instruments. In a throat choked with mucus, the shrutis are not manifested."

     2552. The Srutis are 22. The svaras, beginning with shadja, are seven. This the learned say.

     2553-2554. The madhyama, pancama, and shadja have four sh_rutis each. The rishabha and daivata have three sh_rutis each. The rishabha and daivata have three sh_rutis each. The gandhana and nishada have two sh_rutis each. In this way (4x3=12, 3x2=6, 2x2=4, 12+6+4=22) there are 22 shrutis. From the shrutis are born the svaras. This is well known.

     2555. This is described in the following words:

     "The madhyama, pancama, and shadja have four shrutis each. The rishabha and daivata have three shrutis each. The gandhara and nishada have two shrutis each."

     2556. The shrutis are called by different names in different places. Still, everyone agrees that the svaras, beginning with shadja, are born from the sh_rutis.

     2557-2565. It is said: "The four shrutis of shadja are 1. nandi, 2. vishala, 3. sumukhi, and 4. vicitra. The three shrutis of rsabha are 1.citra, 2.ghana, and 3. calanika. The two shrutis of gandharva are sarasa and mala. The four shrutis os madhyama are 1. madhavi, 2.shiva, 3. matangika, and 4. maitreyi. The four shrutis of pancama are 1. bala, 2. kala, 3. kalarava, and 4.sharngaravi. The three shrutis of dhaivata are 1. jaya, 2. rasa, and 3. amrita. The two shrutis of nishada are 1. matra, and 2. madhukari. In this way there are 22 sh_rutis. The svaras are like the children, and the shrutis are like the father. They are placed in the sasthi-vibhakti (possessive care) because their relation that of father and children, that is the meaning here."

     2566. In different places the shrutis are called by names.

     2567. For example, in the Kohaliya it is said: "The four shrutis of shadja are 1. siddhi, 2. prabhavati, 3. kanta and 4. subhadra. This instruction has come from Prajapati's mouth."

     2558-2569. It is said:

     "As a person looking at the waters cannot see the fish moving in the depths, so even the demigod Brahma cannot see how the svaras arise from the heart."

     2570. O Shrinivasa, who understands the true nature of the shrutis? In the beautiful song sang during the rasa dance the shrutis were manifest in their true nature.

     2571. At that time Lord Krishnacandra manifested the shrutis. Shri Radhika also manifested wonderful shrutis.

     2572. Lalita and the gopis were then filled with bliss. Filled with wonder, the demigods showered flowers.

     2573. Talking amongst themselves, the shrutis praised their own good fortune. Accompanied by the svaras, the shrutis attracted every heart.

     2574-2575. The svaras are described in these words:

     "Arising from the shrutis' abode in the heart, the svaras charm the hearts of all who hears them."

     2576-2581. It is said:

     "The seven svaras are 1.shadja, 2.rsabha, 3. gandhara, 4. madhyama, 5. pancama, 5. dhaivata, and 7. nishada. They are also called by the names 1. sa, 2. ri, 3. ga,,,  6.dha, and The seven svaras are manifested from three places, 1. mandra (the chest), 2. madhya (throat), and 3. tara (head). The madhya is twice as high as the mandra, and the tara is twice as high as the madhya."

     2582. Learned scholars of sangita very happily describe the places where the seven svaras, beginning with sadja, are produced.

     2583-2584. Of the shadja svara it is said:

     "Sadja is born by touching the following six places: 1. chest,  2.nose,  3.throat,  4. palate,  5.tongue, and 6.teeth."

     2585. Shri Sangita-Damodara, however, gives the following different explanation: "Shadja is born from the following six places:

     1.the navel,  2.the chest, 3 and 4. the two sides,  5.the nadis and 6.the head."

     2586. As the scriptures described the origin of shadja, so they also described the origin of the svara rishabha.

     2587. Rishabha-svara is described in these words: "The moving air that arises from the root of the navel creates a sound. That sound, like bellowing of a bull, is called rishabha svara."

     2588. Gandhara-svara is described in these words:

     "The moving air that arises from the navel, causes the nose and ears to vibrate, and exits as sound is called gandhara-svara."

     2589. Madhyama-svara is described in these words:

     "The madhyama svara  is the deep sound that arises from the navel and from the middle (chest) of the body."

     2590. Pancama svara is described in these words:

     "Pancama-svara is born from the combination of the prana, apana, samana, udara and vyana airs."

      2591. The places of these five airs are described in these words:

     "Prana is in the heart, apana is in the genitals, samana is in the navel, udana is in the throat, and vyana is everywhere in the body."

     2592. Dhaivata svara is described in these words:

     "The sound that goes from below the navel, to the lower abdomen, and them flows upwards to the throat is the dhaivata svara.

     2593. Nishada svara is described in these words:

     "When all the beautiful svaras, beginning with shadja, combine together, the result is called nishada svara in this world."

     2594-2596. The seven svaras are sung by different creatures. The peacocks sings shadja. This is famous in all the world. The cataka bird sings rsabha. The goat sings gandhara. The kraunca bird sings madhyama. The cuckoo sings pancama. The frog sings dhaivata. The elephant sings nishada. Some other thinkers attribute these svaras to other creatures.

     2597-2598. It is said:

     "The peacock sings shadja. The cataka bird sings rshabha. The goat sings gandhara. The kraunca bird sings madhyama. The cuckoo sings pancama. The frog sings dhaivata. The elephant sings nisada. This is the opinion of the demigod Brahma and other scholars."

     2599. In Sangita-Damodara it is said:

     "The peacock, bull, goat, cuckoo, horse, and elephant sing the respective svaras."

     2600. The seven svaras are of four kinds: vadi, samvadi, vivadi, and anuvadi.

     2601. When the ragas and other features are those in common use, the seven svaras are said to be vadi.

     2602. When the shrutis are like those of pancama-svara, the svaras are samvadi. The svaras are never samvadi when the shrutis are like madhyama.

     2603. The four svaras gandhara, nisada, rsabha and dhaivata are vivadi. The scriptures affirm that these four are vivadis, or enemies.

     2604. In some scriptures it is said that rsabha and dhaivata are vivadi (enemies) to gandhara and nisada.

     2605. The other svaras are all anuvdi. This the learned say.

     2606-2608. It is said:

     "The seven svaras are of four kinds, vadi, samvadi, vivadi, and anuvadi. When the ragas and other features are those in common use, the seven svaras are said to be vadi. When the shrutis are like those of pancama-svara, the svaras are samvadi. The svaras are never samvadi when the shrutis are like madhyama. Rsabha and dhaivata are vivadi (enemies) to gandhara and nisada. This is the opinion of Dambhila Acarya."

     2609. The vadi svaras are like a king. The samvadi svaras are like a king's minister. The vivadi svaras are like enemies. This is said by all.

     2610. The anuvadi svaras are like the followers of a king or prime minister. These natures cannot be seen directly.

     2611. It is said: "The vadi svaras are like a king. The samvadi svaras are like a king's minister. The vivadi svaras are like enemies. The anuvadi svaras are like the followers of a king or a prime minister."

     2612. O Shrinivasa, in His songs Lord Krishna, the crown of rasikas, manifested all these delightful svaras.

     2613. In Lord Krishna's presence Lalita would play the vina. She was very expert at the svaras and other features of music.

     2614. Hearing her play, the gandharvas became embarrassed.

     2615. The svaras personally worshipped her. The svaras' wonderful motions are the gramas. This is said:


The Gramas (scales)


     2616. The combinations of the subtle natures of the svaras are called the gramas (scales). The three gramas are 1.shadja, 2.madhyama, and 3. gandhara.

     2617. Sadja and madhyama gramas are known on the earth. Gandhara grama is famous everywhere in Devaloka.

     2618. of these three gramas shadja-grama is the best. The scriptures also describe murchana-grama and adhara-grama.

     2619. It is said: "The combinations of the subtle natures of the svaras are called the gramas (scales). The three gramas are  1.shadja,  2.madhyama, and 3. gandhara. Sadja amd madhyama gramas are known on the earth. Gandhara grama is famous in Devaloka."

     2620. It is also said: "A multitude of delightful notes is called a grama."

     2621. In Shri Sangita-parijata it is said: "It is said that the gramas, which are groups of svaras, are three: 1.shadja,  2.madhyama, and 3.gandhara. Of these three gramas shadja-grama is the best. Murchana-grama and adhara-grama are also counted among the gramas."

     2622. Now the seven-note scales that are the three gramas and murchanaj-grama will be described. Sadja-grama is sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-

     2623. Madhyama-grama is ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga. Gandhara-grama is ga-ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri.

     2624. The three forms of murchana-grama are:, 2. ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga, and 3. ga-ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri.

     2625. It is said by others: "Sadja-murchana grama is sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni. Madhyama-murchana-grama is ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri-ga. Gandhara-murchana-grama is ga-ma-pa-dha-ni-sa-ri."

     2626. Each grama has seven svaras. Still the sequences are different. Of these are 21 differente kinds.

     2627. These differences are described by Bharata Muni and other authors. The jatis, shrutis, svaras and other features are part of the gramas.

     2628. Kohala explains: "Accompanied by the jatis and shrutis, the svaras become the gramas."

     2629 and 2630. O Shrinivasa, in charming Vrindavana, in the blissful rasa-dance with His gopi-beloveds, Lord Krishna manifested many varieties of the three gramas. His music made wonder take birth within Shiva, Brahma, and other demigods.

     2631. Again and again Shri Radhika praised Lord Krishna, the master of Her life. Then, when she sang the gramas, She filled Lord Krishna with wonder.

     2632. Unable to remain peaceful, Lord Krishna embraced Radha. Then Lalita and other gopis became joyful.

     2633. Who has the power to describe the wonderful singing of Radha and Krishna? Murchana-grama is manifested in many ways in the three gramas.




     2634. Bharata Muni describe the origin of murchana-grama. He says that when the svaras are mixed together they become the ragas.

     2635. It is said: "When the svaras are mixed together they became the ragas. Bharata Muni called this by the name murchana. That is the origin of murchana-grama."

     2636. It is also said: "When the svaras are mixed together and become a raga, this is called murchana-grama by Bharata Muni.

     2637. The seven svaras are manifest in the three varieties of murchana-grama. In this way there are 7x3=21 varieties. The varieties of murchana-grama thus begin with 1.lalita,  2.madhyama and 3. citra.

     2638-2640. It is said: "Lord Sh_iva explains that the 21 varieties of murchana-grama are: 1.lalita,  2. madhyama. 3.citra, 4. rohini, 5.matangaja, 6. sauvira, 7.varnamadhya,  8. shadjamadhya,  9.pancami,  10.matsari, 11.mridumadhya, 12. shuddhanta, 13. kalavatii, 14. tivra, 15.. raudri, 16.brahmi, 17. vaishnavi, 18. khecari, 19. vara, 20. nadavati, and 21.vishala."

     2641. By listening to murchana-grama a person finds his happiness increase moment after moment. That is why Bharata Muni and other scholars called it by the name murchana.

     2642. It is said: "A person who performs murchna-grama in Lord Sh_iva's presence becomes free of sin, even of the sin of killing a brahmana."

     2643. O Shrinivasa, in this way murchana is manifest from the gramas. No one gives any different explanation.

     2644. With wonderful grace and a joyful heart Lord Krishna enjoys rasa-dance pastimes with His gopi-beloveds.

     2645. What shall I say? Lord Krishna, who is the great crown of all rasikas, manifested a great variety of charming melodies and rhythms.

     Tala (Rhythm)

     2646. Mu_rchana has pure tala (rhythm) and other pure features. Tala is born from the seven svaras. That is the description.

     2647. The scriptures affirm that there are 49 talas. They are each distinct and complex.

     2648. It is also said there are 5,033 talas. They are very glorious.

     2649. It is said: "The murchanas and talas are glorious and pure."

     2650-2652. In the Sangita-Damodara it is said: "The talas, which are born from the seven svaras and which take shelter of the murchanas, are 49 in number. From them are manifest the complex and difficult talas, which are each distinct in nature and which are very numerous. Who can describe them all? The gramas, murchanas, and talas are of many different kinds. Because to describe them all is impractical and because I do not know them all, I will not speak of them all."

     2653. Of the talas it is said: "The talas are 5,033 in number. A person who with the agnistomika-tala offers prayers to Lord Shiva one day attains the post of Shiva.

     2654. "The pure talas are of many different kinds, beginning with agnistomika-tala.

     2655. "Because it is not possible to do so, I will not describe them all."

     2656. The very fortunate and glorious talas personified are all playful and glorious in Lord Krishna's personal presence.

     2657. Lalita and the other prominent friends of Shri Radha, gopis who are the leaders of many other gopis, play many different talas.

     2658. In the company of their gopi friends, Radha and Krishna experience great bliss as They manifest many wonderful ganas (songs) and varnas.

     2659. Of the varnas it is said the first svara is a melody is called the varna, which is of four kinds.

     2660. The four kinds of varnas are:  1.sthayi-varna,  2.aroha-varna, 3. avarohi-varna, and 4. sancari-varna,

     2661. When the varna is repeated again and again, that is called sthayi-varna, this is accepted by all.

     2662. In aroha-varna the melody ascends from the varna. In avarohi-varna the melody descends from the varna. I sancari-varna the melody is a mixture of these three options.

     2663. It is said: "The first svara of a melody is called the varna. Sthayi, aroha, avarohi, and sancari are the four kinds of varnas."

     2664. The natures of each of these varnas are described in these words: "When the varna is repeated and repeated, this is known as sthayi-varna. The arohi and avarohi ascends from the varna and the avarohi descends from the varna."

     2665. In the Sangita-parijata it is said: "When the varna is repeated and repeated, that is sthayi-varna. When the melody ascends it is arohi-varna. When the melody descends it is avarohi-varna. When the melody is a mixture of these options, it is sancari-varna."

     2666. The seven svara-varnas are sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni. I addition to these there are many alankaras (ornaments).

     2667. It is said: "Many ornaments adorn the varnas."

     2668. Sthayi-varna has 26 alankaras. Arohi-varna has 12 alankaras, Sancari-varna has 12 alankaras.

     2669. All together there are 62 alankaras. They are of many different kinds. This is described in scripture.

     2670. It is said: "Sthayi-varna has 26 alankaras, Arohi-varna has 12 alankaras, avarohi-varna has 12 alankaras, and sancari-varna has 12 alankaras. Thus there are 62 alankaras all together."

     2671. Alankaras are of many kind and have many uses. Persons learned in the svaras use alankaras repeatedly. This the scriptures say.

     2672. It is said: "When knowledge of the svaras is present, repeated use of the alankaras brings delight. When knowledge of the varnas is present, use of the alankaras brings wonderful variety."

     2673. In the Sangita-parijata it is said: "The ragas are not used for long without the alankaras."

     2674. The sthayi-varnas are described in these words: The alankaras are used in sthayi-varna. In that varna they are used repeatedly from beginning to end.

     2675. Now I will explain the alankara named "Ghadra". In this alankara the notes are lightly taken one by one.

     2676. In Sangita-parijata it is said: "When the previous note is repeated, that alankara is called bhadra. So say the wise sage Hanuman. One by one these notes are lightly taken."

     2677. The following are some examples of bhadra-alankara: sa-ri-sa, ri-ya-ri, ga-ma-ga, ma-pa-ma, pa-dha-pa, dha-ni-dha, ni-sa-ni, and sa-ri-sa. Aroha-alankara is described in these words: "Aroha-alankara is an alankara that ascends. It is held long. It is manifest in the seven svaras.

     2678. In Sangita-parijata it is said: "Aroha-alankara is an alankara that ascends in murchana-grama or the other gramas. It is held with long svaras."

     2679. The following is an example of aroha-alankara: sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni-sa. When the first and second note are short and the third note is long, the charming alankara is called "Pracchadana."

     2680. In the Sangita-parijata it is said: "When the first and second note are short and the third note is long, all-knowing Hanuman Muni calls this ornament pracchadana".

     2681. The following are some examples of pracchadana-alankara: sa-ri-ga, ri-ga-ma, ga-ma-pa, ma-pa-dha, pa-dha-ni, and dha-ni-sa. In the alankara called udvahita-alankara, the first note is sounded four times, the second note is sounded two times, and the third and fourth notes are sounded once each.

     2682. In the Sangita-parijata it is said: "When the first svara sounded four times, the second svara is sounded two times, and the third and fourth svaras are sounded one time each, this alankara Hanuman Muni calls by the name udvahita-alankara."

     2683. Here are some examples of udvahita-alankara: sa-sa-sa-sa-ri-ri-ga-ma, ri-ri-ri-ri-ga-ga-ma-pa, ga-ga-ga-ga-ma-ma-pa-dha, pa-pa-pa-pa-dha-dha-ni-sa.

     Avaroha-alankara is described in these words: Avaroha-alankara is an ornament of descending notes. Much could be said about it, but I will not say anything more in this place.

     2684. In the Sangita-parijata it is said: "Avaroha-alankara is a descending figure of twelve kinds. Out of respect I will not write anything more about it".

     2685. Sancari-alankara is described in these words: in sancari-alankara the note may go in any direction, as the singer or musician like.

     2686. In this ornament the first two svaras are a unit that is repeated three times. After part one comes another two svaras unit that repeats the second svara of the first unit.

     2687. This ornament is called prasada-alankara. The scriptures happily describe all about this alankara.

     2688 and 2689. In the Sangita-parijata it is said: "In this alankara the first two notes are a unit that is repeated three times. After that comes another two-svara unti that repeats the second svara of the first unit. This is called prasada-alankara.

     2690. Some examples of prasada-alankara follows: sari-sari-sari-gari, riga-riga-riga-maga, gama-gama-gama-pama, mapa-mapa-mapa-dhapa, padha-padha-padha-ridha, and dhani-dhani-dhani-sani.

     2691. In Sangita-parijata it is said: "The wise call the figure of three ascending svaras by the name akshepa-alankara."

     2692. Some examples of akshepa-alankara follows: sa-ri-ga, ri-ga-ma, ga-ma-pa, ma-pa-dha, pa-dha-ri, and dha-ni-sa. The figure kokila-alankara is said to be like a lion's glance. The pattern of this figure is sariga-sarigama.

     2693. In the Sangita-parijata it is said: "The pattern of kokila-alankara is sariga-sangama."  Some examples of this alankara follows: sariga-sarigama, rigama-rigamapa, gamapa-gamapadha, mapadha-mapadhani, and padhani-padhanisa. 

     2694.All these varna-alankaras are sweet when they are sounded they make sorrows flee far away.

     2695. From the graceful moon of Shri Krishna Chaitanyacandra's mouth these varna-alankaras flowed like nectar.

     2696. in the company of Lalita and Her other friends, Shri Radhika sang songs with many very wonderful varna-alankaras.

     2697. Her singing crushed into powder the pride of the gandharvas and other great singers. Her singing was very sweet. It had not peer in all the worlds.

     2698. With a joyful heart Lord Krishna praised Her. With unblinking eyes He gazed at Radha's face.

     2699. The three svaras, 1.graha-svara,  2.amsa-svara, and 3.nyasa-svara, are the abode of Shri Krishna's sweetness.

     2700. About graha-svara it is said: Bharata Muni describes graha-svara, when seven svaras are placed in a melody.

     2701. It is said: "A song or melody is called graha-svara."

     2702. In Sangita-parijata it is said: "Svaras placed in a melody, are called graha-svaras."

     2703. The amsa-svara is described in these words: Present in a melody, the amsa-svara manifests anuraga (the beginning of love). Bharata Muni and other authorities say it has this power.

     2704. It is said: "The svara that manifests rakti (love), and that is the original graha-svara and nyasa-svara, and that is like a great king, the best of all svaras, is called amsha-svara or vadi-svara."

     2705. In Sangita-parijata it is said: "Amsa-svara is the life of all the ragas."

     2706. It is also said: "Amsa-svara is employed in many different situations."

     2707. Nyasa-svara is described in these words: When nyasa-svara is employed in a melody it brings bliss. It makes a melody's conclusion.

     2708. It is said: "Nyasa-svara brings a melody to its conclusion."

     2709. In Sangita-parijata it is said: "Nyasa-svara is employed to conclude a melody."

     2710. O Shrinivasa, graha-svara, amsa-svara, and nyasa-svara all manifest the nectar of Lord Krishna.

     2711. Svara-jati and other like musical patterns fill Shiva, Brahma, and the demigods with wonder.

     2712. Jati-svara is described in these words: Jati gives birth to raga. It is the mother of raga Jati is of three kinds.

     2713. The first of these is called shuddha. The second is called Vikrita. When these two meet the result is called sankirna. This the learned say.

     2714. It is said: "Jati gives birth to raga. It is the mother of raga. It is of three kinds. The first of these is called shuddha, the second is called Vkrita. When these two meet the result is called sankirna."

     2715. Suddha-jati-svara is of seven kinds according to the seven svaras beginning with shadja. When that svara is transformed it becomes Vikrita-jati-svara. This the wise say.

     2716. Vikrita-jati-svara is of eleven kinds. This the scriptures say. The last of these svaras sankirna-svara is a transformation of the other svaras.

     2717. Suddha-jati-svara and vikrita-jati-svara together have 18 kinds (7+11). This truth the learned scholars accept.

     2718. Suddha-jati-svara is of seven kinds beginning with shadja. Vikrita-jati-svara is of eleven kinds beginning with shadja.

     2719. Manifesting eleven varieties, beginning with shadja and gandhara, vikrita-jati-svara is famous everywhere.

     2720. It is said: "Suddha-jati-svara is of seven kinds, beginning with shadja-svara, vikrita-jati-svara is manifest from a transformation.

     2721. In Hari-nayanaka it is said: "The jati-svaras are suddha and vikrita. These have eighteen types, they are the mother of the ragas."

     2722-2726. The seven shuddha-jati-svaras are: 1. shadja,2.rsabhi,  3.gandhari,  4. madhyami,  5.pancami,  6.dhaivati, and 7. naisadi. The eleven vikrta-jati svaras are: 1. shadja-pasiki, 2. shadja-madhyama, 3. gandhara-pancamandhri, 4. shadja, 5. dhaivati,  6. parmavari, 7. nandayanti. 8. gandharodiccara, 9. madhyamodicara, 10. rakta-gandhari, and 11. kaisiki. This is said by Bharata Muni and other learned scholars. Now we will describe the origin of shuddha, siddha and vikrta.

 From the union of shadja and gandharika is born shadja-kaisiki. From the union of shadja and madhyama is born shadja-madhyama. From the union of gandhari and pancami is born gandhara-pancami."

     2727. These eleven and their relation to the gramas are elaboratedly described by Bharata Muni and other authors.

     2728. Beginning with the shruti and concluding with the jatis, I have briefly explained these topics. Please know that all these sounds are manifest on the vina.

     2729. It is said: "Beginning with the shrutis and concluding with the jatis, I have briefly explained these topics, these are manifested on the vina. This the wise know. It is not otherwise."

     2730. During the rasa dance jati personified, who is the mother of the ragas became manifest. In my heart I have no power to say where her glories end.

     2731. O Shrinivasa, the rasa-dance is the best of all pastimes. Who knows how to describe the sweetness of the music in that pastimes.

     2732. The sweetness of the songs that came from Shri Radha and Shri Krishna's throats defeated the music of the vina. The jatis their songs manifested delighted their gopi friends.

     2733. They sang many different ragas. Who has the power to describe the blissful wonders their songs manifested?

     2734. Now the ragas will be described. Bharata Muni and other scholars have described the natures of the ragas. The ragas bring delight to the hearts of the three worlds.

     2735. The scriptures affirm that there are 16,000 ragas. All these ragas enjoy pastimes on the four sides of Mount Meru.

     2736. Amongst all these ragas 36 ragas are prominent. These ragas are famous in the world. This the learned scholars say.

     2737. It is said: "Bharata Muni and other scholars describe the ragas that delight the hearts of the three worlds."

     2738. In the Narada-pancama-samhita it is said: "Lord Krishna played charming melodies on Hi flute, and the gopis responded by singing songs. From this music were manifested the 16.000 ragas."

     2739. It is also said: "Amongst all these ragas 36 ragas are especially famous in the world. All the ragas are manifest in the four directions around Mount Meru."

     2740. Amongst the 36 prominent ragas, six are ragas and the remaining 30 are raginis. Each raga has five ragini-wives. That is the proper understanding.

     2741-2744. In the Sangita-Damodara it is said: "Bhairava, Vasanta, Malava-kaishika, Shri-raga, Megha-raga, and Naöa-Narayana-raga are the six male ragas. Now I will describe the female raginis.

     Bhairavi, Kaushiki, Vibhasha, Velavali, and Rangali are the dear ragini wives of Bhairava-raga. Andolita, Sheshakhya, Lola, Prathama-manjari, and Mallari (Mandarii) are the five raginis that always follow Vasanta-raga.

     2745. Gauri, Gundakiri (Gunakari), Varadi, Kshamavati, and Kamala are the raginis dear to Malava-kaushika-raga.

     2746. Gandhari, Deva-gandhari, Malava-shri, Shavari, and Rama-kiri are the raginis dear to Shri-raga.

     2747. Lalita, Malasi, Gauri, Naöi, and Deva-kiri are the raginis dear to Megha-raga.

     2748. Taramani, Sudha-bhiri, Kamodi, Gurjari, and Kakubha are the raganis  dear to Naöa-Narayana-raga."

     2749. Some say the ragas number six and the raginis number 36. in this view each raga has six raginis.

     2750. In Shri Narada-pancama-samhita it is said: "The ragas are six in number and the raginis are 36 in number. The ragas are filled with Lord Shiva's potency. They are nectar oceans of spiritual love. Simply by hearing them from Lord Vishnu Himself melts in the ecstasy of spiritual love."

     2751. In this second version the ragas are described in these words: "The six male ragas are: 1.Malava,  2.Mallara,  3. Shri-raga,  4. Vasantaka,  5. Hindola, and 6.Karnata.

     2752. "Dhanasi, Malasi, Ramakeri, Sindhuda, Ashavari, and Bhairavi are the raginis dear to Malava-raga.

     2753. "Velavali, Puravi, Kanada, Madhavi, Koda and Kedarika are the raginis dear to Mallara-raga.

     2754. "Veloyari, Gauri, Gandhari, Subhaga, Kaumari, and Vairagis are the ragnis dear to Shri-raga.

     2755. "Todi, Pancami, Lalita, Paöha-manjari, Gurjari and Vibhasha are the raginis dear to Vastanta-raga.

     2756. "Mayuri, Dipika, Deshakari, Pahida, Varadi, and Marahaööa are the raginis dear to Hindola-raga.

     2757. "Naöika, Bhupati, Ramakeri, Gada, Kamodi, and Kalyani are the raginis dear to Karnata-raga."

     2758. Learned scholars debate the natures of the different ragas. Even at the kalpa's end they will not come to an agreement.

     2759. In county after county the ragas are called by different names. I have no power to list all these different names.

     2760. It is said: "In county after county the ragas are called by different names. No one has the power to list all those names. I cannot list them. Even Narada, who holds the vina in his hand, cannot list them all.

     2761. Scholars learned in sangita affirm that the ragas are of three kinds: 1.sampurna,  2.Shadava, and 3. Audava.

     2762. It is said: "The ragas are of three kinds: 1. Sampurna,  2.Shadava, and 3. Audava.

     2763. Scholars learned in gita affirm that ragas of seven svaras are sampurna.

     2764. It is said: "Ragas of seven svaras are called sampurna."

     2765. Ragas of seven svaras are called sampurna. These ragas are headed by Shri-raga, Naöa, and Karnata.

     2766-2768. It is said: "The sampurna ragas are headed by Sh_ri-raga, Naöa, Karnaöa, Gupta vasanta, Shuddha-Bhairava, Vangali, Soma-raga, Amra-pancama, Kamoda, Megha-raga, Dravida, Gauda, Varaöi, Gurjari, Todi, Malava-shri (Malasi), Saindhavi (Sindhuda), Devakri, Ramakri, Prathama-manjari (Paöhaj-manjari), Naöa, Velavali, and Gauri."

     2770. The result obtained from melodies of these sampurna-ragas is very great. This truth is known everywhere. Scholars learned in sangita describe it.

     2771. In the Kohaliya it is said: "From the sampurna-ragas are born long life, piety, fame, intelligence, happiness, wealth, and expansion of one's kingdom."

     2772. The sampurna-ragas are like nectar personified. What shall I say to describe them?

     2773. Amongst the sampurna-ragas are some ragas that, if purely sounded, will destroy the material universe.

     2774. Now the Shadava-ragas will be described. Scholars learned in sangita say the ragas that have six notes are called shadava.   

     2775. It is said: "The ragas of six svaras are called shaäva."

     2776. The sadava-rägas are headed by Gauda and Karnäta-gauda. Scholars learned in sangita say these rägas bring many results."

     2777 and 2778. It is said: "In the opinion of Hari-näyaka the sadava-rägas are headed by Gauda, Karnäöa-gauda, Deshi, Dhannäsikä (Dhanashri), Kolähalä, Valläli, Desha, Ashävari, Khambävati (Kshamävati), Harsha-puri, Malläri and Huncikä."

     2779. In Shri Sangita-sära it is said: "Prominent among the pädava-rägas are Shrikanöha, Bhauli, Tärä, Shälaga, Gauda, Shuddhabhiri, Madhukari, Chäyä and Nilotpalä."

     2780. Kohala describes the results that come from these rägas: "The saints of older times affirm that melodies n the sadava-rägas bring handsomeness, virtue, fame and heroism in battle."

     2781 and 2782. Now the Audava-rägas will be discussed. The rägas that consists of five svaras are the audava-rägas. All scholars describe the many audava-rägas in this way.

     2783. Headly Madhyamädi and Mallära, melodies in the audava-rägas bring many results.

     2784 and 2785. It is said: "The audava-rägas, which charm the people's hearts, are headed by Madhyamädi, Mallära, Desha-päla, Mälava, Hindola, Bhairava, Näga-dhvani, Gondakriti (Gunakiri), Lalitä, Chäyä, Todi, Velävali, and Pratäpa-sindhu.

     2786. In listing the names of the audava-rägas, Shri Sangita says: "The audava-rägas include Turaska, Gauda, Gändhära, Pulinda, and Megha-ranjaka."

     2787. Kohala describes audava-räga's results in these words: "Melodies in audava-räga destroy diseases, enemies, fear and sorrow. They also pacify unfavorable planets."

     2788. Now sankirna-rägas will be discussed. Rägas are called sankirna (mixed) by the learned. These rägas are beautiful to the ear.

     2789. Hari-näyaka explains: "The mixtures of various rägas have many different names. Beautiful to the ear, these rägas are called sankirna."

     2790. Sankirna-rägas are the mixture of two, three, or more rägas. The sankirna-rägas are headed by Pauravi and Kalyäni.

     2791. Now Pauravi-räga will be discussed. When parts of Desi-räga are mixed with parts of Mallan-räga, the resulting pleasant räga is called Pauravi-räga by the wise.

     2792. It is said: "Parts of Desha-räga join with parts of Malläri-räga to become Pauravi-räga."

     2793. Now Kalyäni-räga will be described. It is said: "Beautiful Kalyäni-räga is born from Väräti, Näöa, and Karnäta rägas."

     2794. Now Säranga-räga will be described. It is said: "Saranga-räga is born from Todi-räga and Dhannäsikä-räga."

     2795. Of Gauri-räga it is said: "From Shri-räga and Gauda-räga is born Gauri-räga."

     2796. Of Naöa-mallärikä-räga it is said: "Naöa-mallärikä-räga is born from Näöa-räga and Malläraka-räga."

     2797. Ballavi-räga is described in these words: "From Desha-räga and Ashävari-räga is born Ballavi-räga."

     2798. Of Karnätikä-räga it is said: "Karnätikä-räga is born from part of Karnäöa-räga and Bhairava-räga.

     2799. Of Sukävari-räga it is said: "Sukhavari-räga is born from the junction of Saindhavi-räga and Taudikä-räga."

     2800. Of Ashävari-räga it is said: "Ashävari-räga is born from the junction of Mallära-räga, Saindhavi-räga, and Todi-räga."

     2801. Of Rämakeli-räga it is said: "Rämakeli-räga is born from the touch of Gurjari-räga and Deshi-räga."

     2802. Many other sankirna-rägas are accepted by the learned scholars in the different countries.

     2803. In the sangita-shästras are described the proper times when the various rägas should be sounded.

     2804. A fault is created when the rägas are sounded at the wrong time. Sounding Gurjari-räga or another appropiate räga will destroy that fault.

     2805 and 2806. It is said: "When a räga is sounded at the wrong time, all is lost. However, if this occurs in the midst of playing a series of rägas, or on a king's command, or on a theater's stage, then there is no fault. However if, because of greed or bewilderment, someone sounds a certain räga at an improper time, it is said that sweet Guyari-räga may be sounded to kill the inauspiciousness."

     2807. The three rägas Vasanta, Ramakeli, and Gurjari may be sounded at any time. No fault is born from sounding them at a particular time.

     2808. In Shri Ratnamälä it is said: "Vasanta-räga, Rämakeli-räga, and sweet Gurjari-räga may be sounded at any time. No fault is born from sounding them at appropiate time."

     2809. Narada Muni explains: "After the tenth danda of the night any räga may be sounded."

     2810. All the rägas personified personally worshipped Lord Krishna in the räsa-dance circle.

     2811. O Shriniväsa, what shall I say? In the räsa-dance circle the various rägas manifested that made the ocean of bliss overflow its shores.

     2812. Nothing in the world was equal to their melodies. On each other the showered wonderful nectar.

     2813. How many wonderful melodies did the rägas manifest as they gazed at Shri Shri Rädhä and Krishna' lotus faces?

     2814. Previously I had described some of the characteristics of melodies. Now I will reveal the different kind of melodies.

     2815. The two kinds of melodies are called anibaddha melodies.

     2816. Ambaddha melodies are not bound. In them the räga is clearly manifest.

     2817. It is said: "The two kinds of melodies are anibaddha and nibaddha. In anibaddha melodies the räga is not bound."

     2818. It is also said: "Becuase their svaras are not bound, these melodies are called anibaddha (unbound)."

     2819. "This means the notes of the rägas are clearly manifest."

     2820. Here there are two kinds: 1. äläpa and 2. varnälankära. The first has the svaras ä-tä-nä-ri, and the second has the svaras beginning sha-ri-ga-ma.

     2821, By sounding the four svaras ä-tä-nä-ri one describes Hari, Gauri, Shiva, and Brahmä respectively.

     2822. In Shri Narada-samhita it is said: "As the Vedas' sacred syllable om is manifest from the syllable hum, so the svaras that begin with tä and rä are also manifest from the syllable hum. The syllable tä is Goddess Gauri. The syllable nä is Lord Shiva."

     2823. There it is also said: "The syllable ä is Lord Hari. The syllable ri is Lord Brahmä. From the syllable ä-tä-nä-ri all is manifest."

     2824. The varnälankäras relate to the seven svaras sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-dha-ni. The varnäläpas relate to the svaras beginning with shadja.

     2825. The alapas on the gamaka are variegated. They are charming and of many different kinds. this is taught.

     2826. As much as atäla enters äläpa, to that extent the learned scholars describe the different varieties of äläpa.

     2827. Hari-näyaka explains: "In the gamakas there are many kinds of varnälankära. The scholars say the charming varnäläpas are of many kinds."

     2828. There are two kinds of varnälankära. One relates to the meaningless humkära and the other to the svaras beginning with sa-ri-ga-ma.

     2829. The äläpas are of many different kinds. It is not possible to describe them all.

     2830. O Shriniväsa, in the räsa-dance circle all the äläpas were manifest.

     2831. Who is not filled with wonder by the alapas? The alapas make even the cuckoos' cooing seem worthless like a pile of ashes.

     2832. When the äläpas are manifest from very wonderful pastimes an artistic skill are manifest also.

     2833. Lord Krishna, the crown of rasikas, played on His flute alapas that made the world wild with bliss. What metaphors or similes can describe them?

     2834. Vrindävana's Queen Rädhä played many äläpas on the vina. Who has the power to describe those äläpas' sweetness?

     2835. Lalitä and the other gopis played äläpas on a variety of musical instruments. What words can describe that music. Hearing it, even the stones melted.

     2836. Who, with only one mouth, can describe all the glories of the äläpas? The äläpas are like a flooding wave-filled ocean of nectar.

     2837. Anibaddha songs are plunged in that ocean of nectar. Nibaddha songs are of many different kinds.

     2838. Now the nibaddhas will be described. Song bound by dhatus or angas are called nibaddha. There are of three kinds: 1. sh_uddha,  2. chäyä-laga and 3. kshudra.

     2839. It is said: "Songs bound by dhatus or argas are called nibaddha. These are of three kinds: 1.sh_uddha,  2.chäyäj-laga, and 3. kshudra."

     2840. Now sh_uddha-nibaddhas will be described. Nibaddha songs bound by äläpas, dhätus, and angas are called sh_uddha. In this context it is said that äläpa means "with meaningful syllables."

     2841. It is said: "Nibaddha songs bound by äläpas, dhätus and angas are called sh_uddha, the great traditional scholars affirm that there the world äläpa means. 'with meaningful syllables'"

     2842. Hari-näyaka explains: "The word äläpa means 'without syllables'

     2843. It is said that the nibaddha songs are of three kinds. Some say these three kinds are: 1.sh_uddha,  2.shäloga, and 3. sankirna.

     2844. In Sangit-sara it is said: "Melodies are of three kinds: 1. sh_uddha,  2. shälaga and 3. sankirna. Kshudra is here called sankirna. In this way these three are also called sh_uddha, chäyälaga, and kshudra."

     2845. Some others say, "The three kinds of nibaddha songs are: 1. prabaddha,  2. vastu, and 3. rupaka. This is well known.

     2846. "Songs very firmly bound by the four dhatus and six angas are called prabandha.

     2847. "Learned scholars also call prabandha songs by the name sh_uddha. Now we will discuss the nature of vastu and rupaka melodies.

     2848 and 2849. "Songs bound by the three dhatus and five angas are called vastu. Songs bound by two dhatus and two angas are called rupaka.

     2850 and 2851. Hari-näyaka explains: "Nibaddha songs are of three kinds: 1. prabanda, 2. vastu and 3. rupaka. Songs bound by four dhatus and six angas are called prabanda.

     2852. "Prabanda songs are also called shuddha. Melodies bound by three dhatus and five angas are called vastu. Melodies bound by two dhatus and two angas are called rupaka."

     2853. Now the dhatus will be described. The dhatus are said to be limbs (avayava) of prabandha. The word "limb" here means "part".

     2854. Some say: Dhatus are of four kinds: 1. udgrahaka,  2.melapaka,  3. dhruva, and 4.abhoga.

     2856 and 2857. It is said: "Dhatus are limbs of prabandha. Dhatus are of four kinds: 1. ugrahaka,  2. melapaka,  3.dhruva, and 3. abhoga."

     2858. Some say prabandha melodies have only three dhatus: udgraha, dhruva and abhoga.

     2859. The first part of the melody is udgrahaka, the middle part is dhruva, and the final parts is abhoga. This they say.

     2860. It is said in the Shiromani: "The ancient sages say the first part is dhruva, and final part is abhoga."

     2861. Learned scholars say that between dhruva and abhoga is another dhatu called antara.

     2862. Hari-nayaka explains: "Between dhruva and abhoga is the dhatu called antara."

     2863. Abhoga is also called by the name "kavi" and "nayaka".

     2864. It is said: "Abhoga is also called by the names 'kavi' and 'nayaka'."

     2865. This is the nature of the dhatus in prabandha songs. Learned songwriters write a great variety of songs of this type.

     2866. The following song in Paöha-manjari is an example:


udita-purana nishi nishäkara

kirana karu tama duri,

bhänu-nandini-pulina paresara

shubhra shobhata bhuri. (this is the udgrahaka part)


     "Rising at night, the full moon chases the darkness far away. It makes the Yamuna's banks glisten with glorious light.


   2867. manda manda sugandha shitala

calata malaya samira

bhramara-gana ghana jhankaru

kata kuhare kokila kira


     "Gently, gently the cooling fragrant malay breeze blow. Swarms of black bees hum. How many cuckoos and parrots coo! (This is the melapaka part)


     2868. bihare barajaj-kishora

madhura brindä-bipina-mädhuri

'pekhi parama bibhora  (This is the dhruva, or refrain)


     "Lord Krishna, the teenager of Vraja, enjoys pastimes. Gazing at Vrindävana forest's sweetness, He is filled with bliss.


     2869. deba dulaba su-räsa-mandale

bipula kautuka äja

bamshi-kara grähi' adhara-parashata

moda bharu hiyä-mäjha


     "Great bliss fills the great räsa-dance circle, a circle even the demigods cannot easily enter. Krishna places the flute to His lips. Now His heart is filled with bliss.


     2870. rädhikä-guna-carita-maya bara

buaciba bahu-bedha gita

gäna-rata ratinätha-madana-bhara-

harana nirupama nita


(the two verses comprise the antarä part)


     "On the flute Krishna plays many different songs praising Rädhikä's virtues and pastimes. His peerless songs eclipse even Kamadeva's glory."


     2871. kanja-locana lalita abhenaya

barishe räsa janu meha

bhanaba ki e ghanashyäma prakaöo

jagate atulita leha.


(This is the abhoga part)


     "His lotus eyes playfully dance. He showers a monsoon of nectar. What shall Ghanashyäma däsa say? All the worlds tasted the peerless nectar of His songs."


     2872. Now the angas will be described. The dhatus of prabhandha songs are five in number. This is described in the scriptures. The angas of prabandha songs are six in number. This is known everywhere.

     2873. In sweet songs the angas are these six: 1. svara,  2. viruda,  3. pada,  4. tenaka,  5. päöha, and 6. täla.

     2874. Svara is described as the musical notes beginning with sa-ri-ga-ma-padha. Viruda is described as endowed with guna and näma.

     2875. Pada means words (väcaka). Tenaka means words for evoking auspiciousness.

     2876. Päöha means syllables manifested from musical instruments, such as the syllables dhä-dhä-dhilanga. Täla means rhyhms, such as caccat-puöa.

     2877. The äcäryas of ancient times describe the six angas in this way. Some mention only four angas, namely väkya, svara, täla and tenäka.

     2878. It is said: "Prabhandha songs have six angas, namely 1. svara,  2. viruda,  3.pada,  4. tenaka,  5. päöha, and 6. täla. Svara is the musical note beginning with sa-ri-ga-ma.

     2779. "Virudam is the description of virtues, other words are called pada.

     2880 and 2881. Tenaka is words meant for invoking auspiciousness. Päöha is syllables manifested from the sounds of musical instruments, syllables like dhäm dhäm dhuga dhuga. Täla is rhythms ädiyatya."

     2882. In Sangita-parijata it is said: "The wise say the six angas of songs are: 1. pada,  2. tala,  3. svara,  4. patha,  5 tenaka, and 6. viruda. 

     2883 and 2884. "Pada is words. Tala is rhyhms, such as caccat-puöa. Svara is the musical notes beginning with shadja. Patha is syllables manifest from the sound of musical instruments. Tenaka is words for invoking auspiciousness. Viruda is speaking names that describe a person's qualities.

     2885. In prabandha songs these jätis are five: 1. medini,  2.nandini,  3. dipani,  4. pävani,  5. tärävali. This the sages say.

     2886 and 2887. When the angas are six then the jäti is called medini. When the angas are five, the jäti is nandini, when the angas are four, the jäti is dipani, when the angas are three, the jäti is pävani and when the angas are two, the jäti is tärävali. This the scholars learned in song say. With only one anga a song cannot be properly made.

     2888. It is said: "The sages agree that in prabandha songs the jätis are five. these are: 1. medini,  2.nandani,  3. dipani,  4. pävani, and 5. tärävali.

     2889 "Now the natures of these five jätis will be described. When the angas are six, the jäti is called medini. When the angas are five, the jäti is nandani.

     2890. "When the angas are four, the jäti is dipani. When the angas are three, the jaöi is pavani. When the angas are two, the jäti is tärävali. This is affirmed by the ancient sages learned in song."

     2891 and 2892. In Sangita-parijata it is said: "In prabandha songs the jätis are five. When the angas are six the jäti is called medini. When the angas are five the jäti is called nandani. When the angas are four, the jäti is called dipani. When the angas are three, the jäti is called pavani. When the angas are two the jäti is called tärävali."

     2893. There is no end to the different varieties of pure prabandha songs. Scholars learned in sangita places these songs in many different categories.

     2894. It is said: "The various categories of pure prabandha songs are endless in number."

     2895. It is also said: "Expert poets write songs one täla and two vädyas. Or they may write songs with three vädyas, four vädyas, or many vädyas, as they like."

     2896 and 2897. It is also said: "Songs may be written with many tälas and many rägas. Or they may be written with only one räga. Who can completely categorize all the different ways songs may be written?"

     2898. It is also said: "No one in the world can completely describe all the various kinds of prabandha songs, the various kinds of rägas, the various kind of talas, or the various kinds of vadyas."

     2899. O Shriniväsa, along with His gopi-beloveds, in the räsa-dance Lord Krishna manifested pure prabandha songs, songs even Brahma and the demigods could not approach or understand.

     2900. Gazing at Rädhä and Krishna as They were plunged in song, Vrindä-devi could not contain the bliss that filled her heart.

     2901. The male and female parrots intently describe Shri Rädhä-Krishna's glories. 

     2902. On Vrindä-devi's command, the male and female parrots joyfully describe Shri Rädhä-Krishna's glories.

     2903. In the following sadanga medini song a male parrot says:


ghana-anjana-nibha naba-nägara ai ai


candra-badana guna-sägara ai ai


     "O youthful lotus-eyed hero dark like a raincloud or like a black anjana, O hero who delight the people! O O moon-faced ocean of glories! O hero who robs Gokula's saintly girls' peaceful composure!


     2904. nanda-taniya braja-bhushana rasamaya

manjula-bhuja muda-bardhana ai ai


madanäbuda-mada-mardana ai ai


     "O son of Nanda, O sweet ornament of Vraja, O delightful boy with graceful arms! O O treasure of Vrabhanu's daughter's heart! O boy who crushes millions of Kamadeva's pride!


     2905. gita-nipna nidhubana-nayanandita

nirupama tändaba-pulinängana-parisara-

ramani-nikara-mani-mandita ai ai


     "O expert singer! o learned pandita of amorous glances! O learned pandita o fpeerless dancing! O boy decorated with a host of jewels that are the beautiful gopis on the Yamuna's banks!


     2906. bamshi-dhara dharanidhara-krita-bandhura

adharäruna sundara ai ai

kunda-radana kamaniya-krishodara

brindä-bipina-purandara ai ai


     "O boy who holds a flute! O boy who enjoys graceful pastimes on a hill! O handsome boy with red lips! O boy with jasmine flower teeth and charming slender waist! O king of Vrindävana forest!


     2907. krishna-keli-kalahaika-dhurandhara

dha dha dhi dhi ta ga dhenna ai ai

sa-saugari narahaunätha e-i a iti

a-i a-i atenna ai ai


     "O. O, O, Krishna expert at lovers' quarrels! O, O, O, master of Narahari dasa! O! O! O!"


     2908. The female parrot sings the following medini song:


jaya jagata-bandini, bidita nripä-nandini

rädhikä candraj-badani, duhkha-mocani

shyäma-mano-ranjini, dhairya-bhara-bhanjini



     "Glory to You, O moon-faced Rädhä, O princess before whom all the worlds offer respectful obeisances, who takes away all sorrows who delight Lord Shyäma's heart, who breaks apart His peaceful composure, whose doelike eyes defeat the lotuses, kanjanan birds, and saphare fish.!


     2909. känti-jita-dämini, parama abhirämani

bhämini sindhu-kanyädi-madana-mardini

manju mrida-häsini, lalita-kala-bhäshini

bhubana-mohini lalitadi-muda-bardhini


     "O Rädhä whose splendor eclipses lightning, who are beautiful and delightful, who eclipse the amorous charms of Laksmi and all other goddesses, who gentle smile is graceful, who gentle words are playful, who charms the worlds, who delights Lalita and the gopis!


     2910. subhaga-shringärini, nala naba bihärini

brindäbipina-binodiri gaja-gämini

räsa-rasa-rangini, madhura-tarangini

sakala ramani-mani narahari-swämini


     "O beautifully dressed and decorated Rädhä, O newly newly playful one, o girl who enjoys pastimes in Vrindävana forest, O girl like a wave filled stream of sweetness, O jewel of all beautiful girls, O queen who commands Narahari dasa!


     2911. jhäntä jhäm jhänta tatthä bitakato thunnä

triga-o takata tä thaiyä

sari rigama pamaga masma gari säs säti a-i

tennä tennä tenäm ti a-i ai ä.   


     2912. The male parrot sings the following pancänga nandini song:


jaya jaya krishna kripämaya keshava

kamalekshana jana-nanjana ä

yubati kanja-bana kunjara manju-priyä-

hridi-panjara khanjanu ä


     "Glory, glory to You, O merciful Krishna, O Krishna, O lotus eyes delight of the people. O boy like an elephant playing in the lotus forest that is the assembly of teenage gopis, O boy like a trap that has caught the graceful gopis hearts!


     2913. bandhura-badana-candra-madhura-smita radha-

dhriti-bhara-bhanjanu ä

sundara naöa-bara nanda-tanija naba

naba-taruni-nayanänjanu ä


     "O boy whose hansome  moonlike face is sweet with smiles, O boy who breaks Rädhä's peaceful composure into pieces, O handsome best of dancers, O son of Nanda, O black anjana decorating the teenage gopis' eyes!


     2014. gari gama gama pama masma garisa

tennä tennete ati a-i iyä

a-i narahari-muda-bardhana ai ai

ä-i ati a-i tiyä


     "O! O! O delight of Narahari dasa!"


     2915. O Shriniväsa, with pure songs those birds sing in many ways of Shri Shri Rädhä and Krishna's glories.

     2916. No one can describe all the different kinds of songs. The scriptures describe shakti, varna, vishesha, and many other kinds.  

     2917. The scriptures reveal easy and different kinds of songs, there are 26 kinds of different songs beginning with elä.

     2918. The first of these is panca-täleshvara. Then come the four kinds of varna-svaras.

     2919. Then come the varna-svaras beginning with svara: Then come the varna-svaras beginning with päöha. Then come the varna-svaras beginning with pada. Then come the varna-svaras beginning with tena.

     2920. Then the svarartha malrka songs are described. In this way musical scholars describes the 26 kinds of songs.

     2921. It is said: "The sages say there are many kinds of difficult songs, songs that begin with elä. Saintly Hari-näyaka mentions 26 of these songs.

     2922. "He merely gives the namesof these songs, one after another. The names are: 1.panca-täleshvara, 2. varna-svara,  3. anga-cärini.

     2923-2927. "4. svarärthaj-mätrikä,  5. räga-kadambaka,  6. svarädya-karana, 7.tälärnava,  8. shri-ranga, 9. shri-viläsa,  10. panca-bhangi, 11. pancänana,  12. mätitilaka,  13. simha-nila, 14. tri-bhangi, 15. hamsa-nila,  16. hari-viläsa,  17. sudarshana,  18. svaränga, 19. shri-vardhana, 20. harsha-vardhana, 21. vira, 22. shri-mangala, 23. lähadi, 24. nava-ratna, 25. sarabha-nila, and 26. kanöhäbharana. these are the 26 kinds of songs. Beginning with candra-prakäshaka are six other kinds also."

     2928. To please the hearts of all, the scholars have described all these different kinds of songs.

     2929. By Vrindäj-devi's command, on the pretext of buzzing, the bees very joyfully sing svarärtha songs.

     2930. Svarartha songs begin with the svaras sa-ri-ga-ma. I will now describe them. They are of two kinds: 1. sh_uddha (pure) and mishra (mixed).

     2931. It is said: "When with the svaras of a song one expresses a desire, that song is called svarärtha. Such songs are of two kinds: 1. sh_uddha (pure) and mishra (mixed)."

     2932. Hearing the buzzing bees' svarärtha songs, Lalita and the other gopis felt joy arise within themselves.

     2933. The bees sang this song in Kedära-räga:


jaya rasika-shekhara krishna komala anga anjana-ghana-twishä



     "Glory to You, O Krishna, O crown of rasikas, O soft-limbed one, O boy splendid like black anjana, O boy whose face is anointed with nectar smiles, O boy who fills the directions with pure moonlight!


     2934. jita jalada manju vishäla locana taruni-ganä-dhriti-dhana-harä

brajaj-bijaye naba yuba-räja naöa-bara bamshi-dhara arunädharä


     "O boy whose splendor defeats the dark rainclouds. O boy with large eyes, O boy who rob the teenage gopis of the great treasure of their peaceful composure. O young prince glorious in Vraja, O best of dancers, O boy with red lips, O holder of the flute."


     2935. rati-natha-mada-hara madhura-räsa-viläsi sundara nirupamä

braja-ramani-mani-mukha-padma-parimala-lubdha banka ratana-samä


     "O boy who robs Kämadeva of his pride, O boy who enjoys sweet pastimes in the räsa-dance, O gracefully bending boy like a jewel, O boy filled who desire by the sweet fragrance from the lotus faces of Vraja's jewellike beautiful girls.!


     2036. naba-kunja-bhupa bhujanga-damana manojna-besha bibidha-bidhä

ghanashyäma-muda-bardhana pämagamasmagari mapadhanipadhanidhä


     "O young king of the newly blossoming forest groves, O boy who defeated a serpent, O boy glorious with charming garments and ornaments, O delight of Ghanashyäma däsa!


     2937. On Vrindä-devi's command the birds delighted everyone by singing various songs in this way.

     2038. O Shriniväsa, along with His gopi-beloveds, Lord Krishna manifested the most glorious sh_uddha songs inthe räsa-dance.

     2939. Amongst shuddha songs some are called shuda prabandha. Among chäyä-laga songs some are called shuda also.

     2940. Now chäyä-laga songs will be described. Songs that rest in the shadow (chäyä) of sh_uddha songs are called chäyä-laga. In these songs the täla, vädya, and other features are considered shuda.

     2941. The many tälas in these songs are also known by the name rasälaga.   

     2942. It is said: "Songs that rest in the shadow of sh_uddha songs are known as chäyä-laga. These songs are beautiful with täla, vädya, and other features created in the shuda way."

     2943. It is also said: "Songs that rest in the shadow of the previously described shuddha songs are called chaya-laga. Bharata Munia and other sages affirm this."

     2944. These songs are also known by the name sälaga. Hari-näyaka says: "Chäyä-laga shuda songs are also known by the name säloga."

     2945. There are many different kinds of saloga-suda songs. Now we will describe these songs, headed by dhruvaka songs.

     2946. In the Damodara and Pancama-sara-samhitas it is said: "The different kinds of sälaga-shuda songs are: dhruvaka, manöhaka, pratimanöha, nishäruka, väsaka, pratitäla, ekatäli. yati, and jhumari."

     2947-2950. The distinguishing features of dhruvaka and these other kinds of songs are described in these words:"Dhruvaka is of 16 kinds. Manöhaka is of 6 kinds. Pratimanöha is of 5 kinds. Nishäruka is of 7 kinds. Väsaka is of 4 kinds. Pratitäla is of 4 kinds. Ekatäli is of 3 kinds. Yati is of 4 kinds. Jhumari is of one kind. In this way the sälaga songs are described. Some say there are ten kinds of sälaga songs, kinds that begin with carcarika songs. In this way there are 19 kinds of sälaga songs.

     2951. It is very difficult to describe the characteristics of the sälaga songs beginning with dhruvaka. Nine tälas are known as shuda. These are delightful in every way.

     2952 and 2953. It is said: "Nine tälas are called shuda. These are: 1. Adi,  2. yati,  3. nasäru, 4. ajna. 5. tripuöa,  6.rupaka,  7. jhampaka,  8. manöha, and 9. ekatäli. In songs, dances, and instrumental music these tälas are delightful."

     2954. The scriptures describe the characteristics of many different kinds of shudas.

     2955. Gita (song) should have täla (rhythm). Gita without täla is not pure. It is like a boat without a helmsman.

     2956. The acaryas give many different descriptions of derivations of the word täla.

     2957 and 2958. It is said: "Songs, dancing and instrumental music are not pure without täla. We say they are like a boat without a helmsman. The acaryas give many different descriptions of the derivation of the word "täla".

     2959. Hari-näyaka explains: "That which establishes (tälayati) equal measures of time is called täla."

     2960. In Sangita-sära it is said: "The syllable ta is Lord Shiva. The syllable la is Goddess Pärvati. From the contact of Shiva and Pärvati the word täla is manifest. Or it may be that the word täla comes from the verb tal (to establish)."

     2961. In Ratnamälä it is said: "The letter t is Karttikeya. The letter a is Lord Vishnu. The syllable la is Märuta. These three reside in the word täla."

     2962. Vacäspati explains: "When the fingers are extended and the open palms brought together in clapping the measure time, that is called täla."

     2963. Now the tälas will be described. The tälas, which begin with caccatpuöa and cäcapuöa are 101 in number. This truth is confirmed everywhere.

     2964-2968. The 101 talas include: 1. caccatpuöa,  2.cacaputa,  3.sat-pita-putraka,  4. sampakvestaka,  5. udghatta, 6.adi-tala,  7. darpana, 8. carccari, 9. simhanila,  10.kandarpa,  11. simha-vikrama, 12. shri-ranga,  13. ranga-lila,  14. ranga-täla,  15.parikrama,  16. pratyanga, 17. gaja-lila,  18. tri-bhinna,  19. vira-vikrama,  20. hamsa-lila,  21. varna-lila. 22. räja-cudä-mani, 23. ranga-dyuta,  24. räja-täla,  25. simha-vikridita,  26. vana-mäli, 27. varna-täla,  28. ranga-pradipa,  29. hamsa-näda, 30. simha-näda, 31 mallikämoda,  32. sharabha-nila,  33. rangabharana, 34. turäga-lila, 35. simha-nandana,  36. jaya-shri,  37. vijayänanda,  38. prati-täla, 39. dvitiyaka,  40. makaranda,  41. kirti-täla, 42. vijaya, 43. jaya-mangala, 44. räjä-vidyädhara, 45. manöha, 46. jaya-täla, 47. kudukvaka, 48. nihshäruka, 49. kridä, 50. tri-bhangi, 51. kokila-priya, 52 shri-känta, 53. bindu-mäli, 54. sama-täla, 55. nandana, 56. udikshana, 57. mallikä, 58. öenkikä, 59. varna-manöhikä, 60. abhinanda, 61. antara kridä, 62.laghu-täla, 63. dipaka, 64. ananga-täla, 65. vishama, 66.sändikunda, 67. mukunda, 68. eka-täli, 69. kankäla, 70. catus-täla, 71. khankudi, 72. laghu-shekhara, 73. räja-jhankara, 74. laghu-shekhara, 75. pratäpa-shekhara, 76. jaga-jhampa, 77. caturmukha, 78. khankara, 79. pratimanöha, 80. tritiyaka, 81. parvati-locana, 82. säranga. 83. nandi-vardhana, 84. lila-vilokuta, 85. lalitä-priyä. 86. janaka, 87. lakshmisha, 88. räga-vardhana, and 89 utsava. These same tälas appear with different names in Sangita-Damodara and other books. In this way the sages affirm that the tälas are very numerous. How can the sages be in error?"

     2979. The scholars of sangita happily describe all the tälas in this way.

     2980. The tälängas are five kinds, beginning with anudruta. They are measured by soft and hard beats.

     2981. It is said: "The five tälängas are: 1. anudruta, 2. druta, 3. laghu, 4. guru, and 5. pluta. Except for anudruta, the tälängas are represented by the syllables da, la, ga and pa respectively.

     2982. "Laghu's duration is one matra, guru's is two mätras, pluta's is three mätras, druta's is half a mätra, and anudruta's is half of druta's duration. Anudruta is also known as viräma.

     2983. "The natures of the tälangas are thus determined by three features: 1. laghu (short) 2. guru (long), and 3. pluta (very long)."

     2984. Now the duration of the tälängas will be described. Druta is four angulas. Laghu, guru and pluta are eight, 16, and 24 angulas respectively.

     2985. It is said: "Laghu is said to be eight anguas, guru is 16 angulas, and pluta is 24 angulas. Druta is a hand-motion."

     2986. Now the dhäraäs will be described. The dhäranas are of two kinds: 1. sa-shabda täla (with sound) and 2. nihshabda täla (without sound). Nihshabda is present within guru and pluta only.

     2987. In guru the first part is sa-shabda and the second part if nihshabda. In pluta the first part is sa-shabda and the second and the third part are nihshabda.

     2988. Nihshabda is not present in laghu, druta, or anudruta. A single hand-clap is said to be sa-shabda.

     2989. It is said: "The täla dhäranas are of two kinds: 1. sa-shabda and 2. nihshabda. A hand-clap is sa-shabda. This duration is laghu.

     2990. "Guru is the duration of two hand-claps. The first part of guru is sha-sabda, and the second part is nihshabda. Druta is half the duration of laghu.

     2991. "Pluta is the duration of three hand-claps. The first of these is sa-sabda, while the following two are both nihshabda."

     2992. There is no end to the different kinds of tälas. The tälas personified were all manifest in the räsa-dance circle.

     2993. Clapping His hands, Lord Krishna manifested many sweet and graceful tälas. How can I speak metaphors or similes to describe them properly?

     2994. Shri Rädhikä manifested wonderfully graceful tälas, clapping Her hands, She gentle smiled.

     2995. As She clapped Her hands Her bracelets and other ornaments jingled. Who can describe the wonderful sounds manifested then?

     2996. During the songs She clapped many different tälas. Lakshmi and the other goddesses were all filled with wonder. What metaphors or similes can I speak to describe these sounds?

     2997. Rädhä's companions were all filled with wonder. Who can manifest gitas (songs) and tälas as She did?

     2998. Filled with joy, Lord Krishna gave Lalitä and the gopis permission to sing kshudra songs.

     3000. Kshudra-gita will now be described. When the väkya-mätras are endowed with täla-dhätu, that is kshudra-gita. The Dhätus, beginning with udgräta, have previously been described.

     3001. It is said: "When the väkyä-mätras are endowed with täla-dhatu, that is called kshudra-gita."

     3002. Ksudra-gita is very similar to sh_uddha-sälaga gita. The scriptures say final alliteration is prominent in kshudra-gita.

     3003. Ksudra-gita is of four kinds: 1. citra-padä, 2. citra-kalä, 3. dhruva-padä, and 4. pancäli.

     3004. It is said: "Ksudra-gita is of four kinds: 1. citra-padä, 2. citra-kalä, 3. dhruva-padä, and 4. pancäli."

     3005. These songs have many features. When the padas are variegated, then the song is called citra-pada.

     3006. It is said: "When it is seen that only the padas are variegated, and the dhätus and other features are not variegated, then the song is known as citra-pada.

     3007. Now citra-kala songs will be described. In citra-kalä songs the dhruva is shorter and the other parts are equal, and the padas may number from three to eight.

     3008. It is said: "If the ugräha and äbhoga are equal and the dhruva is shorter, and the padas number from three to eight, then the song is known as citra-kalä."

     309. The features of the dhruva and other parts of songs are known everywhere. Many different kinds of songs are sung in Sanskrit and in various local languages.

     3010. There are many famous songs in Sanskrit and other languages. Scholars of sangita describe these songs as divya songs or other kinds of songs.

     3011. It is said: "Songs are of two kinds: 1. divya, and 2. mänusha. Divya songs are composed in Sanskrit. Manusha songs are composed in the Prakrit languages.

     3012. "This divya and mänusha songs are composed in Sanskrit and Prakut respectively. Some accept that manusa songs may be composed in a variety of local languages.

     3013. Thus songs may be composed in the languages of Anga, Banga, Kalinda, or any other country."

     3014. Some scholars describe the way songs may be composed. the three kinds of songs are: 1. sama (equal), 2. ardha-sama (half-equal) and 3. vishama (unequal).

     3015. In the Kohaliya it is said: "The three kinds of songs are: 1. sama, 2. ardha-sama, and 3. vishama. When all four padas are equal, then the song is said to be sama.

     3016. When the first and thirds padas are equal to each other, and the second and fourth padas are equal to each other, then the song is said to be ardha-sama.

     3017. When all four padas are distinct and no one is like other, then the sages headed by Bharata Muni call that song vishama.

     3018. Who knows of another kind of song? In the räsa-dance pastime Lord Krishna manifested all of these kinds of songs.

     3019. How many times did Krishna praise the gopis' songs? With a joyful heart He embraced the gopis.

     3020. When Krishna embraced Her friends, Rädhä became very pleased. Who can understand the biss those songs brought to Lord Krishna.

     3021. What shall I say. Songs have many glorious features. All these features were gloriously manifest in the räsa-dance circle.

     3022-3025. Now the features (guna) of songs  will be described. Learned scholars say the features of songs are: 1. graha, 2. laya, 3. yati, 4. mäna-vicitra, 5. dhätu-puraruktatä, 6. nava-navatä, 7. mätu-väkya-naikärthatä, 8. räga-suramyatä, 9. gamaka, 10. artha-nairmalya. 11. tennä, 12. päöha  and 13 svara. These featutures are also divided in many different sub-feautures.

     3026.It is said: "The features of songs are: 1. graha, 2. laya, 3. yati, 4. mäna-vicitra, 5. dhätu-punaruktatu, 6. nava-navatä, 7. matu-vakya-naikärthatä, 8.räga-suramyata, 9.gamaka, 10. artha-nairmalya, 11. tennä, 12. päöha, and 13. svara. These features are also divided into many different sub-features."

     3027. It is also said: "When these features of songs are manifest, lyrics should have grace (guna) and poetic ornaments (alankära).

     3028. Learned scholars describe the many aspects of these features that begin with graha.

     3029. Now grahas will be described. The grahas are of three kinds: 1. anägata, 2. sama, and 3. atita.

     3030. It is said: "In the three grahas the tälas of a song are all equal. The three grahas are: 1. anagata, 2. sama, and 3. atita.

     3031. Now the anägatas will be described. When, before the song actually begins, the täla (rhythm) is established, such a song is called anägata-graha by everyone.

     3032. It is said: "When, before the song actually begins, two aksharas established the täla, such a song is called anägata-graha."

     3033. (When an extra akshana is present at the beginning of a song, the song is anägata, that extra aksana does not enter into the täla).

     3034. Now sama will be described. When the song (gita) and the täla begin simultaneously, then the song is called sama-graha by scholars.

     3035. It is said: "When the song and the täla begin simultaneously, that song is called sama-graha."


     3036. Now atita will be described. Scholars of sangita have given many different descriptions of many different kinds of atitaj-graha.

     3037. It is said: "If only part of the täla is manifest in the beginning, with the complete täla following later, that is known as täla-graha."

     3038. Now laya will be described: Laya is when graha and the other activities are all equal. Laya is of three kinds: 1. druta, 2. vilambita, and 3. madhya.

     3039. Väcaspati explains: "When gita (song) vadya (instrumental music) and pada-nyasa (dance-steps) are all equal, or when these three are equal to the täla (rhthm), then the result is called laya by the wise."

     3040. Hari-näyaka explains: "When a pause is manifest, the song is called laya. The wise say laya is of three kinds: 1. druta, 2. madhya, and 3. vilambita.

     3041. "Druta is a pause of one mätra. Vilambita is a pause twice the duration of druta. Madhya is a pause twice the duration of vilambita. These three are manifested with any tala."

     3042. Laya refers to a specific kind of song. It is said that laya songs may be used with any täla.

     3043. Now Yati will be described. When the activities of laya are checked, the song is yati. Yati is of three kinds: 1. srotovaha, 2. samä, and 3. gopucchikä.

     3044. It is said that in these three the pause takes on a specific character. Scholars have elaborately described the many varieties of this kind of song.

     3045. It is said: "When the activities of laya are checked, that is yati, Yati is of three kinds: 1. srotovaha, 2. samä, and 3. gopuccikä."

     3046. The scriptures describe the natures of yati is three divisions, which are srotovaha, samä, and gopuccikä.

     3047 and 3048. Now mäna will be described. When there is a pause in the täla, the song is said to be mäna. Mana is of two kinds: 1. ävartta-vardhamäna, and 2. ävartha-hiyamäna, the natures of these two kinds are easily understood.

     3049. It is said: "When there is a pause in the täla, the song is said to be mäna. Because the täla is interrupted, mana puts an end to the tala.

     3050. "When the pause is in the dhurva's second kalä, the täla is called ävartta-vardhamäna.

     3051. "When the pause is in the dhruva's third kalä, the täla is called ävartta-hiyamäna by the wise."

     3052. Now Dhätu-punaruklatä will be described. Dhatu-punaruklatä is when the avayaras (limbs) of the song are newly repeated again and again.

     3053. Now Mätu-väkya-naikärthatä will be described. When the lyrics do not have only one meaning, the song is said to be mätu-väkya-naikarthatä.

     3054. Dhatu and mätu have already been described. This kind of song is easily understood. Therefore I will not describe it in detail.

     3055. Now Räga-suramyatä will be described. When räga-suramyatä songs are manifest, sorrows perish. Scholars learned in rägas reveal the virtues of these songs, virtue that begins with pleasing the ears.

     3056. It is said: "The virtues of räga-samyato songs are: 1. karna-priya (pleasing to the ears), 2. yatistha, 3. bhangya-yukta, 4. sukhävaha (delightful), and 5. mandra-madhyama-tärädhya (rich with low, middle and high notes).

     3057. Now gamaka will be described. Gamaka is when the svaras are made to tremble. That sound makes happiness take birth in the hearers' heart.

     3058. Gamaka is of 15 different kinds. Now we will describe the nature of those 15 kinds, which begin with tiripa.

     3959 and 3960. It is said: "Gamaka is when the svaras are made to tremble. This sound brings happiness to the hearers's hearts. The 15 kinds of gamaka are: 1. tiripa, 2. sphurita, 3. kampita, 4. nila, 5. ändolita, 6. vali, 7. tri-bhinna, 8. kuvala, 9. ähata, 10. unnamita, 11. plävita, 12. hunkrita, 13. mudrita, 14. nämita, 15. mishrita.

     3061. The features of these are described in these words:"When the beautiful sound imitates the most gentle trembling sound of a damaru drum, and when the fourth part if swift, then the sound is called tiripa.

     3062. "When the third part is swift the sound is sphurita. When the measure is quick and the trembling half, then the gamaka is called kampita.

     3063. "When it is swift it is nila, when it is gentle it is ändolita. When because of the räga, it takes many turns, it is vali.

     3064. "When the intense sound gives in three places without stopping, it is tri-bhinna. When vali is sung with a gentle voice the sound is kuvala.

     3065. "When the first svara is at once silenced upon being struck, that is considered ähata. When svara after svara follow the initial svara, that is said to be unnämita.

     3066. "When many trembling pluta svaras are sounded, that is plävita. When a pleasing roar is sounded, that is hunkrita.

     3067. "When  svaras are sounded with the mouth closed, the gamaka is mudrita. When the svaras descend. That is called nämita by musical scholars.

     3068. "When these varieties meet in combinations of many different kinds, that is called mishrata. More of these will not be said, because it is not possible and because I do not know many details."

     3069. The practice of these is described in these words: "Standing in the water during the last prahara of the night during the month of Mägha and Pausha, the student should practice these gamakas."

     3070. Now artha-nairmalya will be described. When all the words are clearly pronounced, easily understood, and faultless, and when the meanings of the words are sweet like nectar. A song is called artha-nairmalya.

     3071. It is said: "When the words are clearly pronounced, easily understood, happy and faultless, that is artha-nairmalya.

     3072. "The words should be colorful and variegated. They should have been released, not spoken for the first time when they are performed."

     3073. "When virtues are absent, song is said to be faulty. Musical scholars have described these faults in detail. I will explain something of them now.

     3074. When the räga has no täla, or when the dhanakshaya has no dhätu, or when the song has no dhätu-mätu-pada, then the enemies of song are manifest.

     3075. It is said: "When räga has no tala, or when dhanakshaya has no dhatu, or when the song has not dhätu-mätu-pada, then the enemy of song is manifest."

     3076. Now gitä-dosha (the faults of song) will be described. The faults of song are of many kinds. I will briefly describe these faults, which begin with väni-skhalana (stumbking of the voice).

     3077 and 3078. It is said: "The faults of song, faults that begin with stumbling of the voice, rägas without tälas, harsh lyrics, songs without dhatu or matu, and songs that are not pleasing to the ear, are many. If these faults are not present in a song, the song may be heard."

     3079. A person who sings a song is called a gäyaka (singer). The qualities of a gayaka are many and variegated.

     3080. Now the qualities of a gäyaka will be described. Gäyakas are of three kinds: 1. uttama, (best), 2. madhyama (middle), and 3. adhama (lower). The scriptures describe the qualities of these three.   

     3081 and 3082. It is said: "Gäyakas are of three kinds: "uttama, 2. madhyama, and 3. adhama. A gayaka should have a sweet voice, good body, knowledge of the various rägas, knowledge of graha, mäna, laya, and täla, victory over fatigue, ability to easily traverse the three gamakas, skill in prabandha song, careful attention to his activities, a controlled voice, knowledge of sthayi, freedom from fault, and possession of intelligence. These are the qualities of an uttama and madhyama gäyaka. An adhama gäyaka does not have these virtues. Instead he has faults. This is said."

     3085. Gayakas are of five kinds, beginning with shikshäkära. These gayakas are learned in the art of song.

     3086. It is said: "The five kinds of singing learned in song are: "1. shikshäkära, 2. anukära, 3. rasika, 4. ranjaka, and 5. bhävaka.

     3087. "Singers who after much study become expert are called shikshäkära (study personified) by the wise, Anukara (imitations) are called so because they successfully follow the ways of great singers.

     3088. Rasikas are filled with rasa (nectar). Ranjakas delight the heavens. Singers who have a great wealth of skill in song are called bhävakas.

     3089. Other scholars divide singers into these three groups: 1.eka, 2. dvaya, and 3. bahutva.

     3090. It is said: "Singers are of three kinds: 1. ekala, 2. yamala, and 3. vrinda. An ekala singer sings alone. A yamala singer sings with one other. A vrinda singer sings with many others."

     3091. Now gäyana-dosha (the faults of singers) will be described. Singers faults are of many kinds, beginning with fear and unclear pronunciation. The scripture describe all these.

     3092. It is said: "Faults of singers include: "fear, unclear pronunciation, moving the head, shrieking, singing the various svaras, showing the teeth, closing the eyes, not styaing in the gräma, singing with a tilted neck, inability to sing sustained tones, mixing rägas, trembing of the body, inattentiveness, singing without sweetness, singing harshly, and singing without taste.

     3093. It is also said: "Faults of singers also include: "mistakes in the täla, artificially making a song longer, have a fearsome appearance, havin a voice like a goat's voice, restlessness, puffing out the cheeks and singing through the nose.

     3094. "Fearing this book will become too large, I will not describe the many other kinds of singers' faults. From other books one may learn of the singer's faults. I have not described here."

     3095. Music scholars describe in detail the many kinds of rägas, yakavas and others features of song.

     3096. Aprakrta (spiritual) songs have not the slightest fault. Now I will briefly describe spiritual songs.

     3097. Lord Krishna is the Supreme Person, He is free of all fault. His pastimes delight every heart.

     3098. Krishna is not like any person of this material world. The activities of this world's people are not like Lord Krishna's pastimes. Simply by seeing Lord Krishna or hearing about Him, the grass, wood, and stones all melt.

     3098. A person who shuns bad association and describes Lord Krishna's glories, attains Lord Krishna's feet.

     3100. O Shriniväsa, how shall I describe the songs Lord Krishna manifested with His gopi beloved in the räsa dance arena?

     3101. Bharata Muni and the other sages cannot come to the end of describing the nadas, shrutis, svaras, and other features of Lord Krishna's songs.

     3102. Lord Krishna's wonderful songs made great wonder take its birth within Brahmä and the other demigods.

     3103. Lord Krishna sang many different kinds of songs, some in graceful Sanskrit, and others in other languages.

     3104. One moment Lord Krishna sang a solo, and the next moment He sang a duet with Shri Rädhikä. Who has the power to describe those duets?

     3105. Another moment Lalitä and the other gopis sang. Their songs filled Rädhä and Krishna with wonder.

     3106. The sounds coming from their throats was the sweetest nectar. The various gamakas of their songs moved with wonderful grace.

     3107. Hearing these songs, who could remain peaceful and indifferent? In all the worlds no song may be compared to these songs.

     3108. As they sang, many instruments played very wonderful music. That music robbed the three worlds of its peaceful composure.

     3109. Now instrumental music will be described. When instrumental music is present, then songs (gita) and rhythm (täla) become more beautiful. Instrumental music (vadya) is of four kinds: 1. tala (string instruments), 2. änaddha (drums), 3. shushira (winds), and 4. ghana (percussion).

     3110. Täla instruments include the vinä and other like instruments. Anaddha instruments include the muraja drums and other drums. Shushira instruments include the flute and other like instruments. Ghana instruments include the bell and other like intruments.

     3111. It is said: "Without instrumental music, there is no beauty in song and rhythm. Therefore we will now describe the beauty and auspiciousness of instrumental music.

     3112. Music is of four kinds: 1 tala. 2. anaddha, 3. susira, and 4. ghana. Täla instruments include vina and other like instrument, Anaddha intrument include the muraja and other drums. Susira instrument include the flute and other like instruments. Ghana instrument include the bell and other perscussion instrument."

     3113. In the Sangita-Damodara it is said: "Instruments are of four kinds: 1. täla, 2. anaddha, 3. susira, and 4. ghana. Täla are string instruments. Susira are flutes and other like instruments. Anaddha are drums. Ghana are rhythm instrument."

     3114. I will merely give the names of these instruments. Music scholars describe the qualities of these instruments also.

     3115. The most prominent täla instrument are alävani, brahma-vinä, kinnari and laghu-kinnari.

     3116-3118. In the Sangita-Damodara it is said: "Included amongst the täla instruments are: alävani, brahma-vinä, kinnari, laghu-kinnari, vipanci, vallaki, jyeshöhä, citrä, ghoshavati, jayä, hastikä, kubjikä, kurmi, shärangi, parivädini, trishari, shatacandri, nakulaushöhi, kamsari, audumbari, pinäki, nibandha, pushkala, gadäväranahasta, rudra, shatamandala, kapiläsa, madhusyandi, and ghonä."

     3119. It is also said: "Also included amongst the täla instrument are the kacchapi-vinä and the rupavati-vinä."

     3120. Prominent amongst the anaddha instrument are the mandala, muraja, dhakka and paöaka.

     3121 and 3122. It is said: "Included amongst the änaddha instrument are the mandala, muraja, dhakka, paöaka, cängava, panava, kundali, bheri, ghanöävädya, jhajhara, damaru, öamika, mantha, hudukä, madòu, òinòima, upänga, and dardura.

     3123. The mardala, also known as mridanga, is the best of änaddha instruments. It is of two kinds:  Those made of wood and those made of clay.

     3124. The mardala is the best of all musical instruments. It enhances the beauty of all other instruments. This the scriptures teach.

     3125. In the mridanga always stay Brahma and the demigods. The mrdanga's sound is supremely auspicious. It charms every heart.

     3126. In Shri Sangita-darpana it is said: "The mardala is the best of drums."

     3127. The mardala is thus said to be the best of all musical instruments. When it is made of clay, the mardala is called the mridanga. It enhances the beauty of all other musical instruments.

     3128. In Shri Sangito-parijata it is said: "In the mridanga's middle part the demigod Brahma always resides. All the demigods who stay in Brahma's planet also stay in the mridanga. Because all the demigods reside within it, the mridanga is all auspicious."

     3129. Music scholars say the mrdanga and other musical instruments were created from the letters of the alphabet.

     3130. Some say the twenty letters were born from instrumental music. Others say the instruments were created from the sequence of the letter.

     3131. In Shri Sangita-parijata it is said: "Lord Shiva created the twenty letters of the alphabet."

     3132. Musicians who play mrdangas should have many qualities. Some say these qualities begin with saintliness and skill in playing the instrument.

     3133. It is said: "A musician who plays the mrdanga should be saintly, expert in playing the mrdanga, eloquent, expert in the tälas given in sequences of syllables (bolas), able to play all the gamakas, expert in playing with various other musical instruments and expert in accompanying dance performances, expert in accompanying songs, cheerful, easily proficient in playing his instrument, and quick-fingered."

     3134. Musical scholars have explained all these qualities in great detail. Now will be discussed the shushira instruments, which are sweet like nectar.

     3135. Now the susira instrument will be described. It is said there are many kinds of susira instruments, beginning with the vamshi, päri, madhuri, tittiri and shankha.

     3136 and 3137. It is said: "The ancient sages say the susira intruments include the vamsha, päri, madhuri, tittiri, shankha, kähala, toòahi, murali, bukka, shringikä, svaranäbhi, shringa, läpika-vamsha, and carma-vamsha."

     3138. The scriptures describe many qualities of the vamsha, qualities beginning with beauty, straightness, and the abscence of knots."

     3139 and 3140. It is said: "A flute should be beautiful, straight and free of knots. It may be made of bamboo, khadira wood, red sandalwood, white sandalwood, gold, or ivory. The holes should be the size of the smallest finger."

     3141. The size of a flute may range from six angulis (fingers) to 18 angulis. This the scriptures say.

     3142. It is said: "Five angulis is too small for a flute. Increasing anguly by anguli, a flute's size may range from six to 18 angulis."

     3143. A flute one anguli shorter is called a vamshi. The scriptures also describe many other flutes., beginning with mahänanda.

     3144 and 3145. It is said: "The four largest flutes are called mahänanda, nanda, vyaya, and jaya. Of this the sages agree. The mahänanda is 10 angulis, the nanda is 11 angulis, the vijaya is 12 angulis. the jaya is 14 angulis.

     3146. Scholars have described the various virtues and faults of the vamshi flute. Now we will describe the ghana group of musical instruments.

     3147. Now we will describe the ghana group of musical instruments. The ghana musical instruments are many. They begin with the karatäla, kämsyabala, jayabhanta, and shuktikä.

     3148 and 3149. It is said: "Bharata Muni, who is the king of the sages, gives the names of these 12 ghana instruments: karatäla, kämsyabala, jayabhanöä, shuktikä, kampikä, ghaöavädya, ghanöätodya, gharghara, jhaNjhätäla, maNjira, kartari, and unkura."

     3150. The scriptures describe the various qualities of these instruments, which begin with the karaöalas. Demigods and others are qualified to play these musical instruments, which begin with the täla instruments.

     3151. It is said: "Devas play the täla instruments. Gandharvas play the shushira instruments räkshasas play the ghana instruments."

     3152. From all these musical instruments great auspiciousness arises. They brought glorious beauty to the räsa-dance circle.

     3153. O Shriniväsa, how wonderful were the graceful activities in the räsa dance! In that dance, various musical instruments sounded music that charmed even Brahmä and the demigods.

     3154. Vraja's prince (Lord Krishna) is expert at every musical instrument. Surrounded by His gopi-beloveds, He is more charming than millions of Kämadevas.

     3155. How wonderfully does Lord Krishna plays the flute! In the three worlds nothing can compare with His flute music.

     3156. The mardra, madhya and svaräläpa portions of His melodies are all charming. Hearing Krishna's flute music, even Shiva is overcome with bliss.

     3157. Shri Rädhä, who is like nectar personified, and who enchants Lord Krishna, gloriously plays on an alävani musical instrument.

     3158. On that instrument, She plays melodies in three grämas: shaòja, madhyama, and gändhära.

     3159. Lalitä wonderfully plays the brahma-vinä. She is expert in the shrutis and other aspects of music.

     3160. Beautiful Vishäkhä very sweetly plays many melodies on the kacchapä-vinä.

     3161. Beautiful Suciträ plays the rudra-vinä. She plays graceful melodies with various svaras and jätis.

     3162. Campakalatikä joyously plays the vipanci. She expertly manifest the murchanä, täla, and other aspects of music.

     3163. Ranga-devi plays the yantraka viläsa. How wonderful are the gamakas she plays!

     3164. Beautiful Sudevi happily plays the särangi. She plays prabandha melodies in many different rägas.

     3165. Tungavidyä joyfully plays the kinnari. Her music is like a shadow of nectar falling on the räsa-dance circle.

     3166. Indulekhä joyfully plays the svara-manòala. With easy grace she plays melodies with many svaras.

     3167. In this way Shri Rädhikä's gopi friends played every musical instrument in every possible way.

     3168. Some gopis played the mardala-mridanga in many ways. They sounded many wonderful tälas, tälas that had never before been heard in this world.

     3169. Some played the muraja or upängavädya. Hearing this music, no heart could remain peaceful.

     3170. With great skill some gopis played the damaru. Shiva is fond of the damaru. This is known in all the world.

     3171. In the Sangita-parijäta it is said: The òamaru is two mushöis (fists) in size. It has two faces. It's middle and is slender. One face is one mushöi in diameter and is covered with a fine skin.

     3172. "On this face two kinds of string are sounded. Lord Siva always beautifully plays the damaru."

     3173. Some gopis played the karatälas or other instruments. The sound of bells filled the räsa-dance circle.

     3174. Who can describe all the beauties of the music Shri Rädhikä's gopi friends sounded or a great variety of musical instruments?

     3175. How wonderful was the harmonious meeting of the sounds of all these musical instruments! That sound was like a shower of nectar falling on the räsa-dance circle.

     3176. Shri Vrindä-devi's heart became filled with bliss. That wonderfull music was beyond anything described in the music scriptures.  

     3177. Plunged in the nectar of that music, with joyful hearts Rädhä and Krishna danced.

     3178. Lalitä and the other gopis blissfully danced. Now I will say something of the different kinds of dance.

     3179. Now dance will be described. Scholars of dance say three kinds of dance are described in the Vedas. There are: 1. naöya, 2. nritya, and 3. nritta.

     3180. It is said: "The three kinds of dance are naöya, nritya and nritta."

     3181. Now nritya will be described. Nritya is the kind of dance where various emotional states are represented by bodily gestures.

     3182. It is said: "The kind of dance where various emotional states are represented by bodily gestures is called naöya by the wise."

     3183. It is also said: "In the näöakas various states are dramatically expressed by väkyärtha and padärtha. Vakyartha expresses rasa, and padärtha expresses bhäva. The leaders of the sages employ these two in naöakas and other kinds of works.

     3184. Now nritya will be described. When the body gradually moves in dance and rhythms that follow local traditions, that is known as nritya.

     3185. It is said: "When the body gracefully moves with viläsa in dances and rhythms that follow local tradition, that is called nritya by the wise."

     3186. Viläsa is defined in these words: "When the heroine moves in an amorous way as the hero watches, that is called viläsa."

     3187. Now nritta will be described. In nritta there is not dramatic presentation of emotions, but only graceful movement of the body.

     3188. It is said: "Dance scholars know that in nritta there is no dramatic presentation of emotions, but only graceful movement of the body."

     3189. The three styles of dance, namely näöya, nritya, and nritta, are of two kinds: 1. märga, and 2. deshi. This is said in the scriptures.

     3190. It is said: "These three styles of dance are of two kinds: 1. märga, and 2. deshi."

     3191. Now märga will be described. It is said: "The songs, instrumental music, and dances Brahma and the demigods employ to honor Lord Shiva are märga. Bharata Muni and others also are engaged in this kind of performance."

     3192. Deshi is described in these words: "The local songs, instrumental music, and dances that please the local people in county after county are called deshi by the wise.

     3193. Kohala affirms that märga nätya is of 20 kinds, kinds that begin with näöaka and präkarana, bhäna, and prahasana.

     3194. Others affirm that märga näöya is of 10 kinds, kinds that begin with näöikä and präkaranikä.

     3195. Dantila and others say that deshi näöya is of 16 kinds, kinds that begin with saööaka, troöaka, goshöhi, and vrindaka.

     3196. In this way there are many different kinds of näöya. Of this I have given only a glimpse. These are elaborately described in the scriptures.

     3197. Nritya and nritta are both of two kinds: 1. tänòava, and 2. läsya. This scholars of dance affirm. These kinds of dance make happiness arise everywhere.

     3198. It is said: "Nritya and nritta are both of two kinds: 1. tänòava, and 2. läsya."

     3199. Tänòava dancing is primarily passionate and athletic in nature. Tänòava is danced by men. Läsya is danced by women.

     3200. It is said: "The passionate and athletic dancing practiced by Tanòu (Shiva) is known as tänòava."

     3201. In Närada-samhitä it is said: "Tänòava is said to be danced by men. Läsya is said to be danced by women."

     3202. Tänòava  is of two kinds: 1. prerani-tänòava, and 2. bahu-rupa-tänòava.

     3203. It is said: "Tänòava is of two kinds: 1. prerani, and 2. bahu-rupa."

     3204. Prerani is described in these words: "When there are many movements of the body but no attempt at dramatic presentation of emotion, that tänòava dance is called prerani.. In this world that kind of dance is deshi."

     3205. Bahu-rupa is described in these words of Shri Sangita-Dämodara: "Dancing where there are breaking, splitting, many faces, and passionate words is called bahu-rupa."

     3206. In other books prerani and bahu-rupa tänòava dancing are described in detail. Läsya dancing is amorous in nature. This is described in the scriptures.

     3207. Now täsya dancing will be described. Läsya nritya is of two kinds: 1. sphurita-läsya, and 2. yauvata-läsya. These two are described everywhere.

     3208. It is said: "Läsya is gentle amorous dancing. It is of two kinds: sphuruta and yauvata."

     3209. Now sphuruta läsya will be described. It is said: "When the hero and heroine dance together in a dance that dramatically represents rasas and emotions, and has features like kisses and embraces, that dance is called sphuruta."

     3210. Yauvata-läsya dancing is described in these words: "When many female dancers dance a dance of sweet pastimes, a dance filled with the knowledge of how to fascinate and bring the beholder under control is called yavata-läsya."

     3211. Now Nritta dancing will be described. Nritta dancing is of three kinds: 1. vishama, 2. vikaöa, and 3. laghu. In the scriptures there are described in detail.

     3212. It is said: "Nritta dancing is of three kinds: 1. vishama, 2. vrikaöa, and 3. laghu. When the dancer moves a rope or performs other like actions, the dance is called vishama.

     3213. "When the dancer wears various garments and moves his limbs in a variety of ways, the dance is called vikaöa. When the dancer employs subtle curved gestures and other like features, the dance is called laghu."

     3214. O Shriniväsa, in dance there are many motions. Rightly I say to you: Who has the power to describe all the motions of dance?

     3215. In the räsa-dance circle Lord Krishna, who is the crown of rasikas, manifested dancing beyond the knowledge of Shiva and Brahmä.

     3216. Who can remain peaceful when Lord Krishna's wonderful dancing is manifest? His dancing made Shri Rädhä and Her gopi friends float in an ocean of bliss.

     3217. Very joyfully the gopis danced. The movements of their bodies (anga-abhunaza) were wonderful and sublime.

     3218. Now anga-abhinaya (dramatic gestures) will be described. Anga-abhinaya is of three kinds: 1. anga, 2. upänga, and 3. pratyanga. These three are also divided in many sub-divisions.

     3219. It is said: "Anga-abhinaya is divided into anga, upänga, and pratyanga, Shärngadeva and others have described these as far as they were able."

     3220. In anga-abhinaya the head, shoulders, chest, sides, hands, hips, and feet are employed.

     3221. It is said: "In anga-abhinaya the following seven parts of the body are employed: head, shoulders, chest, sides, hands, hips and feet."

     3222 and 3223. Please know that pratyanga anga-abhinaya is very beautiful. When the neck, arms, shoulders, wrist, back, abdomen, thighs, legs, knees, and ornaments are employed, that dancing is called pratyanga-abhinaya by scholars of dance.

     3224. It is said: "In pratyanga-abhinaya the following nine parts of the body are employed: 1. neck, 2. arms and shoulders, 3. wrist, 4. back, 5. abdomen, 6. thighs, 7. legs, 8. knees, and 9. ornaments."

     3225. In upanga-abhinaya 12 parts of the body are employed, beginning with the head, pupils of the eyes, knitting of the eyebrows. and face.

     3226 and 3227. It is said: "Sarngadeva affirms that in upanga-abhinaya the following 12 parts of the body are employed: 1. head, 2. pupils of the eyes, 3. eyebrows, 4. face, 5. nose, 6. breast, 7. chin, 8. tongue, 9. cheeks, 10. teeth, 11. lips, and 12. color of the face."

     3228. Some say that in anga-abhinaya six parts of the body are employed, in pratyanga-abhinaya ten parts of the body are employed, and in upanga-abhinaya 23 parts of the body are employed.

     3229. To attract the attention of all I have here briefly described only some of the prominent parts of the body employed in abhinaya.

     3230. It is said: "Here only some of the prominent parts of the body are briefly described."

     3231. The first of these parts of the body , the head, will now be described. The head has 12 motions, beginning with dhuta, vidhuta, and avadhuta.

     3232 and 3233. It is said: "The 12 motions of the head are: 1. dhuta, 2. vidhuta, 3. ädhuta, 4. avadhuta, 5. kampita, 6. akampita, 7. udvähita, 8. parivähita, 9. ancita, 10. nikuncita, 11. parävritta, 12. utkshipta, 13. adhomukha, and 14. lolita."

     3234. Now dhuta will be described. When the dancer shakes his slightly tilted head, that is dhuta. Dhuta expresses sorrow, astonishment, and other like emotions.

     3235. It is said: "When the dancer shakes his slightly tilted head, that is dhuta. Dhuta expresses forbidden, absence of desire, sorrow, and astonishment."

     3236. Please know that the features of dhuta and the other gestures of the head are like this. Now amsa-abhinaya (gestures of the shoulders) will be described.  

     3237. Now amsa-abhinaya will be described. The five amsa-abhinayas are: 1. ucca, 2. lagna-karna, 3. ucchrita, 4. srasta, and 5. lolita.

     3238. It is said: "The five amsa-abhinayas are: 1. ucca, 2. lagna-karna, 3. ucchrita, 4. srasta, and 5. lolita.

     3239. Ucca is the gesture showing one has been struck by a fist or a lance. The gestures beginning with lagna-karna are all described in the scriptures.

     3240. It is said: "The gesture ucca indicate that one has been struck by a fist or a lance. The gesture lagna-karna indicates an embrace or the perception of coldness    

     3241. "Ucchrita indicate joy, pride, or other like emotions. Srasta indicates sorrow or exhaustion, Lolita indicates fainting, laughter, drunkeness, or the amorous gestures of a rake. This the scholars of dance say."

     3242. Now the urah-abhinayas (gestures of the chest) will be described. The five urah-abhinayas are: 1. sama, 2. äbhugna, 3. nirbhugna, 4. prakanpita, and 5. udvähita.

     3243. The five urah-abhinayas are: 1. sama, 2. äbhugna, 3. nirbhugna, 4. prakampita, and 5. udvähita."

     3244. Now sama will be described. When the chest's glory or other features are indicated, the gesture is called sama. Scholars learned in the scriptures describe äbhugna and the other gestures also.

     3245. It is said: "When glory, being the shelter of the four directions, or being situated in one's own nature are expressed, these are called sama."

     3246. Now the pärisva-abhinayas (gestures of the sides) will be described. The five parsva-abhinayas are: 1. vivartita, 2. apasuta, 3. prasärita, 4. nata, and 5. unnata.

     3247. It is said: "The wise say the five parsva-abhinayas are: 1. vivartita, 2. apasuta, 3. prasärita, 4. nata, and unnata."

     3248. Now the hasta-abhinayas (hand gestures) will be described. The three kinds of hasta-abhinayas are: 1. samyuta, asamyuta, and 3 nritya-hasta.

     3249. It is said: "The three kinds of hasta-abhinaya are: 1. samyuta, 2. asamyuta, and 3. nritya-hasta."

     3250. When one hand is employed the gesture is asamyuta. When two hands are employed, the gesture is samyuta.

     3251. When the hands do not indicate anything independently, but only in conjunction with the motions of other parts of the body, the gesture is nritya-hasta.

     3252. It is said: "When one hand is employed the gesture is asamyuta. When two hands are employed, the gesture is samyuta.

     3253. "When the hands do not indicate anything independently, but only in conjunction with the motions of the other parts of the body, the gesture is nritya-hasta."

     3254. Scholars learned in dance say hand motions are of three kinds: 1. uttäna, 2. pärshvaga, and 3. adhomukha."

     3255. It is said: "Hand motions are said to be of three kinds: 1. uttäna, 2. pärshvaga, and 3. adhomukha."

     3256. Some say these gestures are 15 in number. Now I will list the various kinds of asamyuta hasta-abhinayas.

     3257. Now the asamyuta hasta-abhinayas will be described. Some say there are 24 asamyutas, which begin with patäkä and tri-patäkä.

     3258. Others say these four more should be added. Still others say the true number of asamyutas is 30.

     3259. Learned scholars have described all the asamyutas and samyutas in great detail.

     3260-3262. It is said: "It is said the 24 asamyutas are: 1. patäkä, 2. tripatäkä, 3. ardhacandra, 4. kartarimukha, 5. arälamushöi, 6. shikhara, 7. kapittha, 8. kaöakämukha, 9. shukatunòa, 10. kängula, 11. padmakosha, 12. pallava, 13. sucimukha, 14. sarpashirä, 15. chatura, 16. märgashishaka, 17. hamsäsya, 18. hamsapaksha, 19. bhramara. 20. mukula, 21 urnanäbha, 22. sandamsha, 23 tämracuòa, and 24. kavi.

     3263. "Others scholars say upadhana, simhamukha, kadamba, and nikunjaka should be added to this list of asamyutas.

     3264. "Dämodara says the asamyutas are 30 in number. According to the meaning they express, the asamyutas may become samyutas."

     3265 and 3266. The scriptures describe the features of all these hasta-abhinayas, describe them in great detail. I have given here only a glimpse of them.

     3267. Now the patäläs will be described. When the bent thumb touches the base of the forefinger, and all others fingers are held straight and together, that is known as patäkä.

     3268. It is said: "When the bent thumb touches the base of the forefinger, and all the other fingers are held straight and together, that is known as patäkä."

     3269. This pataka-abhinaya may be placed in many different places. Scholars learned in dance describe these many positions.

     3270 and 3272. It is said: "Patäkä-abhinaya is manifest in the aparsha-sthäna and peöa-sthäna. In the jvalas, the pataka-tälikä and others like them, the fingers move downwards. In the dhäräs the fingers are down. In pakshipaksha the fingers are on the hip. In the ucchritas the fingers are up. In pushkara they are down. In utkshepa-abhinaya the fingers are up from the hip.

     3273-3274. "Shaking may be manifest when the pataka is placed in front of the face, at the sides, and in the nishedha sthäna. The patäkä may also be manifest as wiping or slowly rubbing. A stone or other object may be held or raised. An object may be raised or lowered.

     3275. "A finger may be raised or lowered, as if by the force of waves or the wind. A small lotus sign may be given to invoke auspiciousness.

     3276 and 3277. "When the svastika is broken up, then the pataka may be manifest. When the hands are place up or down on the chedana, gopana, ädarsha, väcana and pronchala sthänas, then the vela, vila, gräha, griha and guhä are shown.

     3278. Although we have not described these in detail, by following the instruction of a skilled dancer one may perform these abhinayas."

     3279. It is also said: "By following the instructions of a skilled dancer one may learn these hasta-abhinayas, such as the gharshana, chedana, ädarsha, and vibhäga sthänas."

     3280 and 3281. Scholars learned in dance have described the tripatäkä and other asamyuta hasta-abhinayas. How can I describe in this book all these glorious abhinayas? Now that the asamyuta abhinayas have been described, the  sanyuta abhinayas will be discussed.

     3282. The samyuta-abhinayas are said to be 13 in number, beginning with the aNjali, kapota, karkkaöa, and svastikä.

     3283 and 3284. It is said: The 13 samyuta hasta-abhinayas are: 1. aNjali, 2. kapota, 3. karkkaöa, 4. svastika, 5. dola, 6. pushpapuöotsanga, 7. khaöaka, 8. vardhamänaka, 9. gajadanta, 10. avahittha, 11. nisheddha, 12. makara, and 13. vardhamäna."

     3285. Now aNjali will be described. When the hands, both in patäkä-abhinaya, are joined together, that is aNjali. ANjali is employed in offering obeisances to the devas and others.

     3286-3288. It is said: "When the hands, both in the palaka-abhinaya, are joined together, that is aNjali. When aNjali is placed abode the head, it is employed for offering obeisances to the devas. When anjali is placed before one's face, it is employed for offering obeisances to one's gurus. When aNjali is placed upon one's chest it is employed for offering obeisances to the brähmanas. When obeisances are offered to other persons there is no fixed rule where the aNjali should be placed."

     3289. Kapota and the other abhinayas here have many features. Scholars of dance have described them all in great detail.

     3290 and 3291. Now nritya-hasta will be described. Nritya-hasta is employed only in the context of nritya. It is of 30 kinds. Some say is of 33 kinds. The 30 kinds begin with chaturasra and udvritta. The qualities of all these are described in the scriptures.

     3292. It is said: "The 30 kinds of nrtya-hasta begin with chaturasra and udvritta."

     3293. The hasta-abhinayas have no end. Of them I have given only a glimpse. Others have described them in detail.

     3294. It is said: "The hasta-abhinayas have no end. Of them I have given only a glimpse. Others have described them in detail."

     3295. Now kaöi (hips) will be described. The kaöi-abhinayas are five in number. They are: 1. kampita, 2. udvähita, 3. chinna, 4. vivritta, and 5. recita.

     3296. It is said: "The five kaöi-abhinayas are: 1. kampita, 2. udvähita, 3. chinna, 4. vivritta, and 5. recita."

     3297. Now the pada (feet) abhinayas will be described. Music scholars describe the 13 pada-abhinayas, which begin with sama, ancita, kuncita, and suci.

     3298-3300. It is said: "Music scholars affirm that the 13 pada-abhinayas are: 1. sama, 2. ancita, 3. kuncita, 4. sucyagratalasancara, 5. mardita, 6. udghäöita, 7. agraga, 8. pärshvaga, 9. pärshniga, 10. tädita, 11. udghaööita, 12. uccheda, and 13. udghäöita.

     3301. Dance scholars have elaborately described the abhinayas of every major and minor part of the body (anga + upänga.)

     3302. I shall not describe dance in any more detail in this place.

     3303. O Shriniväsa, in the räsa-dance Lord Krishna, the prince of Vraja, manifested dances beyond the knowledge of even Brahmä and the demigods.

     3304. His anga-abhinayas have no peer. His graceful gestures manifested a great variety of bhävas.

     3305. Who can describe the graceful dancing of Shri Rädhikä and Her gopi friends?

     3306. No one can describe their wonderful sublime beauty. In the gopis' midst Rädhä and Krishna enjoyed glorious pastimes.

     3307. How can I describe the divine couple's charming sweetness? The wise philosophers and saints have spoken many words to describe them in many ways.

     3308. In the following song Lord Krishna is described:


räsa-binodiyä shyäma räya

bhangite bhubana muruchäya


     The dark king Krishna enjoys pastimes in the räsa-dance. His graceful movements enchant all the worlds.


     3309. dalita aNjana ghana ghaöä

jini su-komala anga-chaöä.


     The splendor of His delicate limbs defeats black aNjana and the black monsoon clouds.


     3310. may/eira-candrikä shire sohe

yubati-ganera mana mohe


     A peacock feather decorates His head. He charms the teenage-gopis' hearts.


     3311. bicitra tilaka cäru bhäle

ke nä bhule alaka aräle


     Beautiful wonderful tilaka adorns His forehead. Who is not enchanted by His curly locks?


     3312. duöi bhuru kämera kämäna

ankhi-kone sharera sandhäna.


     His eyebrows are the archer Kämadeva's bows. In the corners of His eyes Krishna places the kämadeva-arrows of His glances.


     3313. cancala kunòala shruti-taöe

dolaye mukutä näsä-puöe    


     Earrings swing to and fro on His ears. A pearl graces His nose.


     3314. badana-candramä cäri-deshe

barishe amiyä häsi leshe


      The moon of His face fills the four directions with moonlight. His gentle smile showers nectar.


    3315. parisara bukera mädhuri

karaye dhairaja-dhana curi


     The sweet charm of His chest robs the gopis of the treasure that is their peaceful composure.


     3316. gale bilasaye bana-mälä

heri hiyä dhare ki abalä


     A garland of forest flowers gloriously rests on His neck. Seeing Him, what girl can remain peaceful?


     3317. bhujära balani präna hare

jagata mätäya krishodare


     The power of His arms takes away the gopis' breath. His slender waist makes the world wild with bliss.


     3318. basana bhushana säje bhäli

uru ninde ulaöa kadali


     He is gloriously adorned with garments and ornaments. His thighs rebuke inverted banana trees.


     3319. bäyaye nupura rängä päya

narahari nichani tähäya


      On His reddish feet anklets jangle, Narahari däsa worship Him.


     3320. Here is a song glorifying Shri Rädhikä:


räsa-biläsini rä-i räse

sakhi-mäjhe bilase shyämera bäma päshe.


     In the räsa-dance, in the midst of Her gopi-friends, at Lord Shyäma's left side, Shri Rädhä enjoys räsa-dance pastimes.


     3321. ähä mari rupera ki chaöä

älo kare jaga jini upamära ghaöä


     Ah! How effulgent is Her form! She fills the worlds with light. She defeats any comparison.


     3322. badane cändera mada näshe

amiyä garaba hare su-madhura häse


     Her face destroys the moon's pride. Her very sweet smile robs nectar's pride.


     3323. bhuru duöi bhramarera pänti

kamala-nayana-kone bhangi nänä bhäti


     Her eyebrows are a swarm of black bees. Many crooked glances glisten from the corners of Her eyes.


     3324. näsäya beshara bhäla säje

ki naba sindura-bindu lalätera mäjhe


     A glorious ornament adorns Her nose. A new sindura dot rests in the midst of Her forehead.


     3325. shrabane täòanka manoramä

kanaka-darpana ninde ganòera sushamä


     Charming earrrings adorn Her ears. Her beautiful cheeks rebuke the golden mirrors.


     3326. balaya-kankana kare shohe

känculi äncita kuca känu mana mohe


     Bracelets and armlets adorn Her wrists and arms. The bodice on Her raised breasts enchants Krishna's heart.


     3327. kinkini balita mäjä kshina

paridheya bicitra basana tanu lina


     A belt of bells jangles around Her slender waist. Colorful wonderful garments adorn Her slender form.


     3328. lalita nitamba uru-desha

ye gaòhila tä'ra ki rahila dhriti-desha


     Her hips and thighs are graceful. How can Krishna keep even a small fragment of peacefulness?


     3329. manimaya nupura carane

narahari nichani su-nakhera kirane


     Jewel anklets rest on Her feet. Narahari däsa worship the effulgence of Her toenails.


     3330. The desires of Rädhä, Krishna, Vrindä-devi, and their gopis friends were all fulfilled.

     3331. What bliss took birth in the räsa-dance circle! Mridangas and other musical instruments sounded together in graceful harmony.

     3332 Lord Shyäma Räya, the crest jewel of rasikas, danced. How many songs do the poets sing to praise the sweetness of His dancing!


     3333. A song in the kedära-räga:


nrityata braja-nägara rasa-sägara sukha-dhämä

jhamakata maNjira carana, nänä gati täla-dhärana

dhairaja-bhara-narana, bhuri bhangima nirupämä


     Krishna, who is Vraja's hero, who is an ocean of sweetness, who is the abode of bliss, dances. The anklets on His feet jangle. In many ways He moves to the rhythm. His gracefulness has no peer. He robs the gopis of their peacefulness.


     3334. lalanä-kula kautuka-dhrita, bibidha bhänti hastaka nata

mastaka abhinaya naba, shikhi-pincha balita bämä

maNju badana radanacchada, nirasa-i candra aruna mada

kunda radana damakata, madhura-smita jita-kämä


     He delights the gopis. As He dances He moves His head and hands in various graceful ways. His peacock feather is graceful. His face is handsome. His lips rob the reddish moon's pride. His teeth defeat the jasmine flowers. His sweet smile defeats Kämadeva.


     3335. cäru-päöha ughaöata kata, dhä dhä dhiki dhiki taka tata

tahi thai thai tho di drimiki, drimikaöa didi drämä

tättä taka thonga thonga, thari kuku kukudhä dhilanga

dhikkaöa dhidhi kaöa dhidhi kaöa, dhidhi dhilli lili lalamä


     3336. kaöi-bhushana dhwani rasäla, lambita ura puhapa mäla

dolata alakäli bhäla, bhälaya abhirämä

jhalakata shruti kunòala mani, cancala naba khaNjana jini

kaNja-nayana cähani, niramanchana ghanashyämä.


     His ornament-belt sweetly jangles at His hips. A flower garland rest on His chest. Curly locks of hair are tossed to and fro on His forehead. He is graceful and delightful. Jewel earrings glisten on His ears. He glances with lotus eyes that defeat the restless young khanjana birds. Ghanashyäma däsa offers ärati to Him.  


     3337. Another song in Kedära-räga:


shyäma rasamaya räsa-manòala-madhye lasata su-bhangite

lalita-besha biläsa atishaya nipuna naba naba sangite


     Nectar Lord Shyäma gracefully dances in the räsa-dance circle. His garments are graceful, His pastimes are very graceful. Expertly He sings newer and newer songs.


     3338. jäti shruti sura-gräma murachana täna sarasha prakäsha-i

thodita kata thaitä thai thai badata mridu mridu häsa-i


     He sings songs with jätis, shrutis and sura-gräma sweet like nectar. "Thodita kata thaitä thai thai!" the rhythm declares. Gently, gently Lord Krishna smiles.


     3339. maNju badana mayanka jhalakta madana mada-bhara bhänja e

lola locana kaNja cähani yubati-gana hridi raNja e


     His graceful, handsome, glorious face breaks apart Kämadeva's pride. His restless lotus eyes glance at  the teenage gopis. Joy fills His heart.


     3340. jhana nana nana shabda-krita

maNjira carane birajä-i

nichani narahari maòhura nritye mridanga

drimi drimi bäja-i


     "Drimi drimi! The mridanga declares. "Jhana nana nana!" declares the anklets on Lord Krishna's sweetly dancing feet, feet Narahari däsa worships.


     3341. A  song in Bhupäli-räga:


näcaye rasika shyäma räya

dekhi ke na paräna juòäya


     The rasika Shyäma Räya dances. Gazing at Him, who will not find his heart filled with cooling bliss?


     3342. ki madura chände mridu häse

yubati-dhairaya-dharma näshe


     How much sweetness rests in His gentle smile! his smile destroys the teenage gopis' peacefulness.


     3343. dolaye kunòala shruti-mule

ganòera chaöäya kena bhule


     Earrings swing to and fro on His ears. Who is not enchanted by the glory of His cheeks?


     3344. karaye kata na abhinaya

yähäte madana, paräjaya


     How graceful are His gestures! They defeat Kämadeva.


     3345. cancala dighala änkhi-kone

ki rasa òhälaye kebä jäne


     He casts restless glances from the corners of His large eyes. Who knows how much nectar His glances bring?


     3346. carana-kamale bhäla dhare

nupurera dhwani präna hare


     The jangling of the anklets on His lotus feet makes one breathless.


     3347. tä thai tä thai thai thaiyä

kahe ki bhangite raiyä raiyä


     "Tä thai tä thai thai thaiya!", the graceful rhythm sounds.


     3348. drimi drimi mädala bäjaye

narahari paräna nichaye


     "Drimi drimi! the mädala sounds. With his every breath Narahari dasa worships Lord Krishna.


     3349. O Shriniväsa, the poets cannot even briefly describe Rädhä's wonderful dancing.


     3350. A song in the Kedära-räga:


nrityati rädhä dhriti-bhara-bhaNjini gaja-gämini

mangalamaya hina malina komala kälin?ti-pulina

dhani dhani dhani nirmala bara sarasa pulina yämini


     Rädhä dances. She is graceful like a graceful elephant. Her motions break Lord Krishna's peaceful composure into pieces. The pure and soft banks of Yamunä are auspicious. The Yamunä's banks are pure and sweet like nectar. Glory! Glory! Glory!


     3351. bäjata mridutara mròanga dhigi dhigi dhigi taga dhilanga

dhä drigu jhendräm drimi, drimi drimi drimi drämini

jhunu jhunu paga nupura-dhwani, kinkini kaöi jhini nini nini

jhankrita kara balaya jhanana, jhanana ati-rämini


     "Dhigi dhigi dhigi bhaga dhilanga, dhä drgu drgu jhendram drmi drmi drmi drmi dramini, "the mrdangas sweetly declare. "Jhanu jhanu page," the anklets say. "Jhini nini nini," The belt of bells affirms "Jhanana jhanana," the bracelets say.


     3352. praphullita mukha kaNja basana, dashanäbali lalita hasana

nigadata taka thai thai thai taka sukha-dhämini

su-lalita mani-bhushana gana gima dhunata kautuka ghana

lola locanäncala bharu, alaka kula lalämini


     Her face is a blossoming lotus. She playfully smiles. Her teeth are splendid. "taka thai thai thai taka, Her delightful jangling jewel ornaments say. Her neck sways to and fro. She is filled with bliss. She casts restless sidelong glances. Her locks of hair and Her eyebrows are graceful. She is decorated with glorious ornaments.


     3353. cämikara garaba harana, parama madhura madhurima-tana

äbrita basanäncala cala, jhalakata anupämini

hastaka bahu-bhiti karata, shobhä-rasa-puNja jharata

narahari bahu nichani nirakhi, lajjita sura-kämini


     She robs gold's pride. She is most sweet. She moves the edge of Her garment. She is glorious without peer. With a gesture of Her hand She removes all fear. From Her comes a flood of the nectar of beauty. Gazing at Her, the demigoddesses become embarrassed at their own lack, Narahari dasa earnestly worship Her.


     3354. A song in karnaöa-räga:


nrityati rasa biläsini rädhä

bäjata mridanga dhiki dhiki dhä dhä


     Enjoying the räsa-dance pastime, Rädhä dances, "Dhiki, dhiki dhädhä, the mridanga declares.


     3355. jhalakata anga kirana manahara-i

mukha-shashi hasani amiya yanu jhara-i


     Her charming limbs glisten. The smiling moon of Her face is filled with nectar.


     3356. ughaöata thai thai dhiki taksha dhennä

ä-i ati a-i ati o-i-a tennä


     "Ughatata thai thai dhiki taksha dhennä ä-i ati a-i ati o-i-a tennä." The mridanga declares.


     3357. kaNja nayana gati khaNjana dalaye

abhinaya krita kara shobhita balaye


     Her eyes move like restless khanjana birds. Her bracelet decorated hands gracefully move.


     3358. kinkini mukhara balita-kaöi kshinä

pahirana basana tarala tanu-linä


     On Her slender waist a belt of links jangles. Her garment move to and fro on Her slender form.


     3359. jhanana balita mani nupura carane

narahari nichani lolita paga dharane


     The anklets on Her feet jangle. Gracefully She moves. Narahari worships Her.


     3360. A song in the Kämoda-räga:


näce rä-i ramanira mani

carane nupura bäje kaöite kinkini


     Rädhä, the jewel of beautiful girls, dances. The anklets on Her feet and the belt of links on Her hips jangle.


     3361. phani jini beni piöhe dole

gräbära bhangima tokiba rasera hillole


     Defeating the snakes, Her braids sway to and fro. How many waves of nectar flow from the graceful motions of Her neck.


     3362. ki madhura abhinaya kare

tathai tä tä thaiyä thaiya kahi täla dhare


     As the rhythm sounds, "tathai tä tä thaiyä thaiyä" how sweet are Rädhä's gestures!


     3363. badane cändrera mada näshi

häsite barishe ki amiyä räshi


     Her face destroys the moon's pride. How many monsoons of nectar fall from Her smile!


     3364. äkhi abhinaya kata chände

mätäya madana bhupa barajera cände


     Her glances make wild with passion a teenage boy who is ilke the moon of Vraja, a boy who is like King Kamadeva himself.


     3365. narahari ki dibä upamä

jagate karaye älo angera sushamä


     What similes or metaphors can Narahari däsa speak to describe Her? The beauty of Her form fills all the worlds with light.


     3366. O Shriniväsa, how many pastimes of wonderful dancing did Rädhä and Krishna enjoy in the company of Lalitä and the gopis!


     3367. A song in Kedara-räga:


äju räsa biläsa atishaya shyäma shohata parama rasamaya

radhikä-kara kaNjahi mahidhara carana raNjana

hasita badane supäöa ughaöata thai ta thai thai ta thai tatatho

didi digana hasta abhinaya, madana mada-bhaya bhaNjana


     Now charming Lord Shyäma enjoys the rasä-dance pastime. He takes Rädhä's lotus hand, He places His reddish feet on the ground of Govardhana Hill. He smiles, "Thai tathai thai tathai lalatho didi di!" The rhythm sounds. The gestures of His hands are graceful. He breaks Kamadeva's pride into pieces.


     3368. ramani-mani nija präna-priya-mukha, nirakhi bäòhata gäòha mana-sukha

bipula pulakita gäta pada tala. täla-dhrita gati cancale

bädata drimi drimiki drimidhä, thai tathai tata thai tathai to

thum num num rasa-puNja barashata lola locana ancale


     Lord Krishna gazes at the face of His beloved more dear than life, His beloved the jewel of beautiful girls. His heart is now filled with bliss. The hairs of His body stand up. His restless feet dance many graceful rhythms. "Drimi drmiki drimidha thai tathai tata thai tathai tha thum num num! His dancing feet declare. He casts restless glances from the corners of His eyes. His glances are a monsoon of nectar.


     3369. yugala chabi abaloki pramudita, nicha-i jaladhara taòita atulita

nritya-rata lalitäli lahu lahu gima dhunaöa su-bhangite

madhura sura kata bhänti ucarata, thai tathai thai drimiki drimi tatho

diga diga diga thai thai tathai prabinätishaya saha su-sangite


     Gazing at the divine couple's splendor, a splendor like monsoon clouds and lightning, Lalitä and the gopis dance, gently, gently, gracefully moving their necks. The expert gopi musicians sweetly play the rhythm "thai tathai thai drimiki drimi tatho diga diga diga diga thai tathai!"


     3370. bani subesha bishäkhikä dika naöana ghana ghana tädhika dhigiti raöala

dhigiti dhigi dhigi dhikha dhaikata, dhä dhi ni ni ni nini dhinni nä

drmiki drimi drimi mardala dhwani hara dhriti ghanashyäma bhani anibära

ti a-i a-iti a-i-ä, ä-i-ati a-i-a tinninä


     Graceful beautiful Vishäkhä dances "Ghana, ghana tädhika dhigiti raöata dhigiti dhigi dhigi dhikha dhaikaöa dhä dhi ni ni ni nini dhimi nä!" The mardala sounds. Narahari däsa says, "Now peaceful composers has been taken away. Again and again the rhythm sounds, "ti a-i a-iti a-i-ä ä-i-ati a-i-a tinninä!"


     3371. Another song in Kedära-räga:


äju ki naba punima nishi

yamunä pulina jhalakaha räse shashi ujora e dishä


     Now is the full moon night. Now the glistening moon shines on the Yamuna's banks.


     3372. rä-i känu ki madhura chände

näce duhu ange anga helä-iyä bhujä äropiyä kändhe


     How sweet are Rädhä and Krishna! Their arms about each other's shoulders, and Their bodies touching, They dance.


     3373. tile tile ki kautuka cite

domhe bäya bamshi, mishä-iyä mukha tära ki upamä dite


     Moment after moment Their hearts are filled with bliss. Their mouths touching, They both play the flute. What metaphors or similes can I speak to describe Them?


     3374. cäru nayane nayana niyä

adhare adhara parashaye rasa äbeshe uläsa hiyä


     Eye to eye They gracefully meet. Hips to lips They touch. They are filled with nectar. Their hearts are filled with bliss.


     3375. bäma dakshina yugala kare

prakäshaye kata, bhänti abhinaya madana dhairaya hare


     One on the left, the other on the right, They stay together. How many are Their graceful gestures? They rob even Kämadeva of his peaceful composure.


     3376. tä tä täthai tä thai kahe

anibära raba ladana-cände ki amiyä dhärä bahe


     "Ta ta tathai tathai!" the rhythm sounds without stop. What floods of nectar flow from the moons that are the divine couple's faces!


     3377. drimi drimiki mridanga bäje

mahi-tale täla dharaye carane ki naba nupura säje


     "Drimi drimiki!", the mridangas sound. Adorned with new anklets, the dancing feet touch the ground.


     3378. lalitädi dekhi se nä shobhä

naöana bhangite gäya nänä-mate narahari mana-lobhä


     Gazing at the glory and grace of these pastimes, Lalitä and the gopis sing and dance in many ways. In his heart Narahari däsa yearns to enter these pastimes. 


     3379. O Shriniväsa, many poets have described these räsa-dance pastimes, pastimes filled with limitless bliss.

     3380. A person who hears these pastimes destroys all inauspiciousness. Easily that person meets Shri Shri Rädhä and Krishna's lotus feet.

     3381. After enjoying glorious rasa-dance pastimes, Lord Krishna, who enchants all the worlds, for many moments enjoys pastimes in the Yamunä's waters.

     3382. Who has the power to describe these wonderful blissful pastimes? Lord Krishna enjoyed pastimes in a forest cottage.

     3383. Finally the divine couple joyfully fell asleep. As the night was ending the gopis awakened Them.

     3384. Then the divine couple and Their gopi friends returned each to his own home. Separated from each other, Rädhä and Krishna felt They could no longer remain alive.

     3385. In many ways the gopis consoled Rädhä and Krishna. Sleeping in Their own homes, Rädhä and Krishna met in Their dreams.


     3386. A song:


sakhi-saha rä-i syäma räya

bipila bilasa räse ulläsa hiyäya.


     Surrounded by Their gopi friends, with joyful hearts Rädhä and Krishna enjoy many pastimes in the räsa dance.


     3387. jala-keli karibära tare

prabeshi yamunä-jale kata bhangi kare.


     Entering the Yamuna's waters They enjoy many pastimes.


     3388. paraspara bäri barishaya

bhijaye basana tanu-lina shobhamaya


     They splash monsoons of water on each other. Their wet garments clinging to Their bodies, They are splendid and graceful.


     3389. läji dhani cähi shyäma päne

lukäya agädha jale kamalera bane


     Shyly glancing at dark Krishna, Rädhä hid in a lotus forest deep in the water.


     3390. käliyä se bibhala premete

cumbaye kamala rä-i mukhera bhramete


     Mistaking it for Rädhä's face, bewildered with love Krishna kissed a lotus flower.


     3391. lalitädi sakhi cäri-päshe

dekhiyä shyämera ranga mridu mridu häse


     Seeing this pastime of Krishna's, Lalitä and the gopis around Him on four sides gently gently smiled.


     3392. rä-i sakhi ingita pä-iyä

dänòäya shyämera ange anga helä-iyä


     Catching a hint from a gopi friend, Rädhä approached Krishna and pressed Her body against His.


     3393. bäòhaye kautuka tile tile

kari jala-keli uöhe yamunära kule


     Moment after moment Rädhä and Krishna enjoyed blissful pastimes in the water. Finally They rose from the water and stepped onto the Yamuna's banks.


     3394. piye madhu madane mätiyä

surata-samara-sukhe uthalaye hiyä


     Rädhä and Krishna drank madhu nectar. Now They were wild with amorous passion. The bliss of amorous combat arose and overflowed within Their hearts.


     3395. nishi sheshe nikuNja ha-ite

cale sa-cakita gati alakhita pathe


     When the night had ended Rädhä and Krishna anxiously left the forest grove, They walked unseen on the path.


     3396. domhe nija nija grihe giyä

sutaye bicchede-duhkhe byäkula ha-iyä


     They went to Their own homes and lay down in Their own beds. Their separation brought Them great sorrow.


     3397. swapane milaye moda cite

narahari nichani e domhära pirite


     With joyful hearts They met again in Their dreams. Narahari dasa worships these loving pastimes of the divine couple.


     3398. Again and again the divine couple enjoy pastimes in a forest cottage. The poets describe many different ways in which the divine couple enjoy these pastimes.

     3399. It is said: "May Lord Krishna, who at the end of night goes from the forest to Vraja, who in the morning milks the cows, enjoys breakfast, and enjoys other morning pastimes, who accompanied by His gopa friends, brings the cows home at sunset, who at midday, afternoon and night enjoys with Rädhä pastimes in the forest, who at sunset returns to Vraja, and who delights His friends, protect us."


     3400. A song:


rajani shesha, nikuNje shayana

braja-bhusana shyäma-gori naba-leha

kautuhe jäji, kaöhina guru-jana bhaye

calu ati turita sutahi sutahi puna geha


     At night's end Rädhä and Krishna, the fair and dark ornaments of Vraja awakened. Fearing Their harsh elders, They quickly returned to Their homes and lay down in Their own beds.


     3401. snänädika rata, präte dhani yashomati

griha gata-krita randhana sakhi-sanga

go-dohana karu, snäna känu sukhe

gana-saha bhuNji shayanera rahu ranga


     Glorious Yashodä rose in the morning, bathed, performed various duties and, helped by her friends cooked breakfast. Krishna milked  the cows, bathed, happily ate breakfast with His friends, and took a nap.


     3402. purbähne bana-gamana dhenu-saha

bilasi capala calu kunòaka-tira

priya adarshana sahi puna dhani nija

preshita duti-patha nirikhe athira


     In the morning Krishna went to the forest with cows. Playfully He went to the shore of a lake. Not seeing His beloved, He impatiently waited for a gopi-messenger sent by Her.


     3403. madhyähne sakhi-saha sundari nija

kunòa nikaöa priya milane uläsa

bamshi harana madhu-päna snäna rabi-

pujana aru kata bibidha biläsa


     At midday on the shore of Rädhä-kunòa, Krishna happily meets His beloved and Her gopi friends. She steals His flute. They drink madhu-nectar, bathe, worships the sun-god, and enjoy many other pastimes.


     3404. grihe calu gori, säji aparähnahi

sakhi-saha priya-patha raha-i nehäri

dhenu sakhä sane shyäma gamana griha

o mukha lakhi' braja-jana sukha bhari


     Then fair Rädhä returns to Her home. Nicely dressed and decorated, Rädhä and Her gopi-friends wait and look to the path for dark Krishna's return. As Krishna returns home with His gopa friends and cows, the people of Vraja gaze at Him and become filled with bliss.


     3405. säjhanu samaye, janani karu lälana

go-doha-ädika bahu ranga

rä ika preshita, bibidha drabya sukhe

bhuNja-i priya subalädika sanga


     Mother Yasoda is very affectionate to Krishna. As Krishna takes care of the cows Yasoda sends Rädhä with a lunch of many delicious foods. Accompanied by Subala and His other dear friends, Krishna happily eats the luch.


     3406. samaya pradoshe, shaji braja-nägara

shuni guni-gäna gamana karu kuNja

rä-i ramani-mani bani alakhita gati

sakhi saha shyäma milane sukha-puNja


     Hearing that Vraja's glorious hero Krishna has gone to the forest, Rädhikä, the jewel of beautiful girls, goes unseen into the forest. Accompanied by Her gopi-friends, with great joy She meets Krishna.


     3407. madhura nishä naba-nritya gita-rata

räsa-biläsa bhubane anupäma

kuNja-bhabane rati-keli-kalaha duhum

shayana seba-i sukhe sakhi ghanashyäma


     On a sweet night Rädhä and Krishna enjoy new dances and songs and a peerless räsa-dance. In a forest cottage They enjoy pastimes of Kämadeva's battle. As They enjoy pastimes of sleep, Ghanashyäma däsa, now become a gopi, happily serves Them.


     3408. O Shriniväsa, on the Yamunä's banks Lord Krishna enjoys wonderful pastimes on a swing with His beloved Rädhä.


     3409. A song in maltära-räga:


äju jhulata nägara-räja

mahä-maNjui nikuNjaki mäjha


     In a very charming forest grove, Krishna, the King of amorous heroes enjoys pastimes on a swing.


     3410. naba-nirmita ratnahi òora

tahi räjata ranga bibhora


     The swing glistens with new jewel-ropes, Krishna is filled with bliss.


     3411. bäma bhägete sundari shohe

shyämasundarera mana mohe


     A beautiful gopi stays at Krishna's left. She enchants handsome dark Krishna's heart.


     3412. duhu rupa nirupama chaöa

dure damini jalada ghaöä


     These two forms are splendid without peer. They cast far away the rival splendor of the lightning flash and monsoon cloud.


     3413. hema-mani bibhushana gäya

ati bicitra basana täya.


     These two forms are gloriously adorned with wonderful colorful garments and ornaments of gold and jewels.


     3414. gale dole su-lalita hära

netra-bhangi ki upamä tära


     Graceful necklaces sway to and fro on Their necks. To what shall I compare Their graceful crooked glances?


     3415. mukha-candre su-madhura häsi

anibära jhare sudhä-räshi


     On the moons of Their faces arise sweet smiles from which flow floods of nectar without stop.


     3416. dohe adhare adhara diyä

rahe ange anga mishä-iyä


     Lip to lip They meet. Limb to limb They embrace.


     3417. lalitädi-sakhi cäri-päshe

ranga dekhi' ki änande bhäse


     Gazing at Them from four sides, Lalitä and the gopis float in bliss.


     3418. häsi jhuläya-i manda manda

mili gäya-i gita su-chanda


     Gently, gently They move back and forth on Their swing. Together They sing beautiful songs.


     3419.. keha keha mridangädi bäya

caru cämara keha dhuläya


     Some gopis played mridangas or other musical instruments. Some gopis waved cämaras.


     3420. barashä ritu riti ashesha

bahe manda samira su-desha


     A monsoon breeze gently blows.


     3421. bedhi brksa-latä rucikäri

nänä pushpa prabhullita bhäri


     Many flowers gloriously bloom on the trees and vines.


     3422. bhrame bhringa-dhwani parateka

shikhi kokila pakshe aneka


     Humming bees wander about. There are many peacocks and cuckoos.


     3423. ghana dädura shabada bahu

rasa-bädara jhumi rahu


     The frogs croak. There are many sweet bädara fruits.


     3424. bahuko upamä nahe thora

ghanashyäma se kautuka bhora


     I can speak no metaphors or similes to describe this scene. Ghanashyäma däsa is filled with bliss and wonder.


     3425. Look, O Shriniväsa. In this place Rädhä and Krishna enjoyed wonderful Holi pastimes.


     3426. A song in Vasanta-räga:


äju parama, ranga harashe shyäma rasika-räja

besha biraci bilasata naba-kuNja-bhabana-mäjha


     Now dark Krishna, the gloriously decorated King of rasikas, enjoys blissful pastimes in the place of a new forest grove.


     3427. rädhä-bidhu-badani bani, ki upamä nahu thori

näha-samipa, bhangima sane. räjata rasa bhori


     What similes or metaphors can I speak to describe moon-faced Rädhä? Gracefully She stands by Her master. Sweet like nectar, She shines with glory.


     3428. òärata duhu, phägu duhuka, anga aruna bhela

mrigamada candana paräga kunkuma puna dela


     Rädhä and Krishna throw red powder on each other. Now Their bodies are reddish. Again and again They throw musk, sandal, kunkuna, and flower pollen.


     3429. sahacari-gana, heri duhuka, shobhä bahu bhänti

bäjata kata, yantra carita, gäyata muda mäöi


     Gazing at the divine couple's splendor, the gopis become wild with bliss. Blissfully They sing and play musical instruments.


     3430. cancala mana-mohana ghana, chäòata picakäri

bhigala tanu, basana lägi sa-cakita su-kumäri


     The restless charming delicate gopis spray each other with colored dyes from syringes. Now their garments and forms are wet.


     3431. lalitä dalitäNjana jala, nägara shire dhäle

ho ho ho, hori ucari biraca-i karatäli


     Krishna sprays Lalitä's head with colored water, Her mascara runs. "Ho, ho, ho, holi," He calls out and claps His hands.


     3432. keli-kalaha-paöu naöa-bara, kähuka gahi äni

cumbita badana, kähuka kuca-kamale dhara-i päni


     Krishna, the best of dancers, Krishna expert at playful quarrels, catches a gopi_ and kisses her. Then He catches another gopi_ and hold her lotus breasts in His hands.


     3433. kähuka parirambha-i bahu kahi su-madhura bäta

locana-shara, barishe parasha-para pulakita gäta


     Another gopi Krishna embraces many times. He speaks very sweet words. He showers her with a monsoon of Kämadeva's arrows from His eyes. Her touch makes the hairs of His body stand up with joy.


     3434. aiche phägu, khelä sukha, kona karaba anta

mäni sukriti, atishaya ritu-räja ritu basanta


     Now saintly Springtime, the king of seasons, thinks, "Who will bring to an end these blissful pastimes of colored dyes?"


     3435. mangalamaya, jaya jaya pika, kuhakäta anibära

bhanaba ki ghanashyäma bipula kautuka balihäri


     "Jaya! Jaya!" The cuckoos gloriously coo without stop. What words will Ghanashyäma däsa say now? Now he is speechless. He is stunned with wonder and bliss.


     3436. O Shriniväsa, in this place Rädhä, the forest goddess came by the gopis' wish.

     3437. A song in Vasanta-räga:


sundari sakhi-saha, kariyä yukati

shyäme milibäre calaye range

nikuNje prabeshi, baise eka sukhe

sucäru basana jhäpiyä ange


     With her girlfriends a beautiful gopi plans how to meet dark Krishna. Covering her limbs with very beautiful garments, she enters a forest grove and sit down alone.


     3438. nägara-bara taru-tale tarala

rä-i patha here premera bhare

kuNjete se dhani päne cä yä dhä'yä

yä'yä puche brindä debir dhire


     Overcome with love, Krishna, the best of heroes, sees Rädhä under a tree by the pathway. "Who is that beautiful girl I see in the forest?" Krishna asks saintly Vrindä-devi.


     3439. kaba kaha naba nikuNje ekäki

kebä basiyäche apurba beshe

hena shobhä kabhu nä dekhi bhu-mäjhe

umära murati upamä kise


     "Tell Me, Tell Me, who is that peerless wonderful girl sitting all alone in this forest grove? Never in all the world have I seen beauty like Hers. How can even Goddess Umä be compared to this girl?"


     3440. shuni brindä, braja-räja-suta prati

kabe iha e-i nikuNje debi

mora yata paräkrama tähä tumi

jäniha uhära carana sebi'


     Hearing this words, Vrindä-devi said to Vraja's prince, "This is the goddess of the forest. Her powers is greater than mine. Please know that You should serve Her feet."


     3441. shuni bäni bidagadha gati-para

paramädara darasha äshe

cancala-cita, cäru-kuNje giyä

däòäya o naba debira päse


     Hearing this words, intelligent Krishna very respectfully looks at the girl. With a restless heart He approaches. In that beautiful forest grove Krishna respectfully stands before that youthful goddess.


     3442. yuòi du-i kara, kabe äju saba

sädha sidhi habe tomäre sebi

bancanä nä kari, kara dayä sukha

habe nibediye shunaha debi


     Folding His hands, Krishna now says, "By serving You I will attain perfection. Please do not cheat Me. Please be merciful to Me. This I request of You. Please hear My words, O goddess.


     3443. mora piäna-priya hiyäya putali

brishabhänu-sutä ramani-mani

tä/mra adarasha, nä sähe paräne

kata shata yuga kshaneke gani


     "Vrishabhänu's daughter is the jewel of all beautiful girls. She is more dear to Me than life. My heart is a puppet in Her hands. If I cannot see Her, then I cannot bear to live. If I cannot see Her, then every moment seems like many hundreds of yugas.


     3444. temho kulabati, ati-mridu sadä

präna kampe guru-janera òare

tähe shubhankari, e-i ka-ro yena

tämre keho kichu kahite näre


     "This saintly girl is very gentle. Her life's breath trembles in fear of Her elders. Please make everything auspicious for Her. Make Her elders unable to sp[eak even a single word to criticize Her."


     3445. eta kahi känu pranamaye pada

parashe kusuma anjali diyä

tä' dekhi lalitädi, thäkiyä gipate

häse atishaya pulaka hiyä


     After speaking these words, Krishna offers His respectful obeisances. Offering a handful of flowers, He touches Rädhä's feet. Hiding nearby, Lalitä and the gopi_s watch all of this. They smile. Their hearts are joyful.


     3446. brindä-debi kahe, ki kara käliyä

e-rupa pujane ki phala pä'be

prati-anga diyä puja prati anga

tabe se e debi prasanna habe


     Then Vrindä-devi says, "O Krishna, what benefit will You get by this kind of worship? You should offer flowers to every one of the goddess' limbs. You should worship every one of her limbs. Only then will this goddess become merciful to You."


     3447. shuni shashi-mukhi, ghunaöe badana räkhi

mridu häse änande bhäsi'

netra-kone nibäraye ye brindäre

se prakäshaye puna ishata häsi


     Hearing these words, moon-faced Rädhä is agitated. She floats in bliss. Hiding Her face, She gently smiles. From the corner of Her eyes She glances at Vrindä-devi. Then She openly displays Her gentle smile.


     3448. madana-made, mätiyä nagara

heri häsi bhäsi änanda-jale

ä-isa ä-isa mora, präna-priya debi

iha buli tuli karaye kole


     Intoxicated with amorous desire, Rädhä glances at Hre lover. She smiles. She floats in an ocean of bliss. Saying, "Come. Come, O beloved kore dear than life", She picks up Krishna and embraces Him.


     3449. lalitä latä-mäjhe, tejoya nikaöe

äsi kahe kata bujhaba ämi

kuNja-debi bali, bhaya nähi karo

biparita rati-lampaöa tumi


     Abandoning her hiding place among the vines, Lalitä approaches and says, "I know You." The forest-goddess Rädhä then says, "O contrary rake Krishna, do not be afraid."


     3450. ithe dosha nä mäno shuniyä kahaye

yäbe dosha tuyä parasha gäyä

ehä shuni narahari saha sahacari

häse mukhe basara diyä


     Hearing the words, "This is a sin. Don't do it." Rädhä says, "O Krishna, by the touch of Your body all sins flee far away." Hearing these words Narahari däsa and the gopis, covering their mouths with their garments, smile.


     3451. O Shriniväsa, one day in this place Shri Krishna was very sorrowful in separation from Rädhä.

     3452. Hearing from a gopi_-messenger that Rädhä would soon come, Vraja's prince Krishna became wild with bliss.

     3454. His eyes stayed on the pathway where Rädhä would walk. Overcome with bliss, He did not remember His own identity.

     3454. Then by the wish of Rädhä's gopi-friends, a gopi-messenger from Candravali approached Krishna.


     3455. A song in Vasanta-räga:


rädhä sudhä-mukhi, sukhi sakhi-gane

räkhi katho-dur/e kautuka ati

präna-sama priyä, päshe cale ekä

alakhita candräbalira duti


     Krishna, who enjoys pastimes with nectar-faced Rädhä stays amongst the gopis. A little distance away, disguised and unnoticed, a messenger of Candrävali approached Shri Rädhä, who is Lord Krishna's beloved more dear than life.


     3456. nikuNje nägara gara gara rä-i

darashana äshe bibhora haiyä

kata manoratha, kare mane mane

piyä patha päne saghane cä'yä


     In the forest the lover Krishna is overwhelmed. He yearns to see Rädhä. How many desires fill His thought after thought. He looks to see if His beloved walks on the pathway.


     3457. tathä bhringa-gana, bhrame bhangi bhuri

range rahe kari guNjara chalä

candräbali-duti, phire bane kene

nä jäniyä shuni camake kälä


     Why does a messenger of Candrävali wander in the forest nearly, making sounds exactly like the humming of a host of black bees? Hearing the sound and not knowing its true origin, Krishna is startled.


     3458. hena-i samaya, se duti turita

upanita päshe cähi tä päne

bimarisha mukha malina bishama

sankaöa jäniyä byäkula mane


     At that moment the messenger quickly approached Krishna. Krishna looked at the messenger. The messenger's face was filled with sorrow. Aware that some calamity must have fallen, Krishna became worried at heart.


     3459. thira haiyä puna, cäturi prakäshi

 duti prati kahe ädara kari

yäha tuyä päche, päche yäba bege

duti kahe chäòi yä-ite näri


     The intelligent messenger comes there. To her Krishna respectfully says, "You go and I will quickly follow you." The messenger says, "I cannot leave You and go ahead.


     3460. tuyä binu candräbali nä jijaye

ki kara se dashä dekhaha yä'yä

uthe uthe ära nä sahe bilamba

eta kahi päye dharaye dhä'yä


     "Without You Candrävali will not live. You should go and see her sorrowful state. Rise, rise, tolerate no delay." Saying these words, the gopi-messenger grasps Krishna's feet.


     3461. parashe parama parashana duti

kata-rupe dhriti dharaye meno

duti-suparasha, pä-i shyäma-shashi

bibasha säpini da/mshaye yeno


     Having touched Krishna, how can that gopi-messenger remain peaceful? By that gopi's touch the dark moon Krishna is now overcome. It is as if a snake has bitten Him.


     3462. cancala locane, cähe brindä prati

kabe kaha iki ha-ila more

brindä kahe kene bhäbo bhäla habe

bäreka dutire karaha kore


     With restless eyes Krishna glances at Vrindä-devi, "Tell Me what happened." Vrnda says, "How will she become cured?" Vrindä hugs the gopi-messenger.


     3463. shuni su-chatura-mani anibära

duti kore kari änande bhäse

dure thaki tähä, dekhi sakhi saba

brindä-päne cä'yä ishata häse


     Hearing these words, that gopi, who is like a jewel of intelligence, again and again hugs Vrindä. The messenger floats in bliss. Then she stands back, glances at all the gopis, and gently smiling, glances at Vrindä-devi


     3464. lalitä lalita, malli-balli madhye

teji roshe kahe bhru-bhangi kari'

yäha yäha tathä, ethä brithä sthiti

riti anupama sahite näri


     Leaving her place amongst the jasmine vines, graceful playful Lalitä knits her eyebrows and angrily says, "Go! Go! it is useless to stay here. We cannot tolerate your unusual ways.


     3465. kata bä nä kara, o rati-lampaöa

se sakala kathä rahila dure

candräbali-saha, ye-rupa tomära

tähä jäniläma dutira diväre


     "O rake Krishna, how many times has Candrävali spoken in this way? All these words should be thrown far away. We know this girl is Candrävali's messenger.


     3466. ähämari tuyä, piriti e-rupa

pulaka kabhu nä dekhiye ange

ämä sabhäkare, kisera sankoca

candräbali-sudhä pibahe range


     "Aha! O Krishna, never have we seen such symptoms of love on Your body, Why should we discreetly go away? Go ahead! Taste the nectar of Candrävali."


     3467. shuni känu kahe, jini candräbali

e cända-badane amiyä räshi

pä-inu anumati, päna kari ebe

eta kahi mukha cumbaye häsi


     Hearing these words, Krishna says, I think the flood of nectar in this face defeats Candrävali. Now I will sip some of this nectar." Saying these words, Krishna smiles and kisses that gopi_.


     3468. cibuka pari dhari kara-pallaba

parihäsa kare rasena bhare

urupari räkhi' raciyä su-besha

bilasaye naba pälanka pare


     With His lotus hand He touches her chin, His joking words are nectar. He ties a splendid cloth about His thighs. On a new bed He enjoys glorious pastimes.


     3469. jäni su-samaya, priya sakhi du/mhu

shrama nibäraye yatama kari

pä-iyä ingita range narahari

karaye cämara o-rupa heri


     At the appropriate time the gopis act to relieve the fatigue the two lovers feel. On a specific signal Narahari däsa, gazing at the glorious couple, moves the cämara fan.


     3470. O Shriniväsa, who can describe all the pastimes Lord Krishna enjoyed in this nectar forest-grove?

     3471. With blissful hearts the gopis relish the nectar of many very wonderful pastimes with Lord Krishna.

     3472. When Krishna is separated from the gopis happines does not take birth in His heart, the gopis' glories are known everywhere.

     3473. In Shrila Rupa Gosvämi's Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Sakhi-bheda-prakarana, Text 1, it is said: "The sakhis assist Shrimati Rädhärani in Her transcendental amorous pastimes with Lord Krishna, They are like transcendental jewelry cases in which Shrimati Rädhärani places Her faith and trust. The following is an elaborately description of the sakhis (Shrimati Rädhärani's friends)."

     3474. O Shriniväsa, Lord Krishna is like nectar personified. How can I ever obtain the power to describe all the pastimes? He enjoys in all these places?

     3475. Of all heroes, Vraja's prince Krishna is the crest jewel.

     3476. In Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu it is said: "Lord Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the crest jewel of heroes.

     3477. In His various spiritual abodes the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests Himself as six kinds of amorous heroes (näyaka). In Vraja He is Krishna, that is His most perfect and most complete identity. Krishna's nature is that of a paramour (upapati).

     3478. Thousands and thousands of gopis are leaders (yutheshvari) of groups of other gopis. All these gopis enjoy pastimes with the amorous hero (näyaka) Krishna.

     3479. Of all the gopis Candravali and Shri Rädhikä are the best. Everywhere it is known that Shri Rädhikä is the best of all.

     3480. In Shrila Rupa Gosvämi's Shri Ujjvala-nilamani it is said: "Rädhikä and Candravali are the best of gopis. They each have millions of doe-eyed gopi followers.

     3481. Lord Krishna enjoyed the rasa dance with hundreds and millions of gopis. This is described in the scriptures.

     3482. "Of these two (Rädhikä and Candravali) Rädhikä is the best in every way. She is mahä-bhäva (ecstatic spiritual love) personified (svarupini). Her transcendental qualities are the most glorious.

     3483. Who has the power to describe all the pastimes Lord Krishna enjoys with Shri Rädhikä?

     3484. As a dhirodätta näyaka, Lord Krishna enjoys very wonderful pastimes.

     3485. A dhirodatta has qualities beginning with being highly qualified, grave, and humble.

     3486. In Shrila Rupa Gosvämi's Shri Bhakti-rasämrita-sindhu it is said: "A dhirodätta is a person who is naturally very grace, gentle, forgiving, merciful, determined, humble, highly qualified, chivalrous, and physically attractive.*

     3487. As a dhira-lalita nayaka Lord Krishna enjoys pastimes eternally in palaces in the forest groves.

     3488. As a dhira-lalita Lord Krishna is naturally very funny, expert in joking, free from all anxieties, blissful, and submissive to His lover.

     3489. In Shrila Rupa Gosvämi's Shri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu it is said: "A person is called dhira-lalita if he is naturally very funny, always in full youthfulness, expert in joking, and free from all anxieties, such a dhira lalita personality is generally found to be domesticated and very submissive to his lover."*

     3490 and 3491. As a dhira-prashänta nakaya, Vraja's prince Krishna is learned in the scriptures, in control of His senses, very religious, humble, and endowed with many other virtues. He enjoys wonderful pastimes with His gopi beloved in a forest cottage.

     3492. In Shrila Rupa Gosvämi's Shri Bhakti rasamrta-sindhu it is said: "A person who is very peaceful, forbearing, considerate, and obliging is called dhira-prashänta."*

     3493. Lord Krishna manifests the qualities of a dhiroddhata nayaka only to please His dear devotees.

     3494. These very wonderful qualities are headed by arrogant-self-praise, Lord Krishna does not manifests dhiroddhata qualities very extensively in His pastimes in Vraja's forest groves.

     3495. In Shrila Rupa Gosvämi's Shri Bhakti rasamrta-sindhu it is said: "A person who is very envious, proud, easily angered, restless, and complacetn is called dhiroddhata by learned scholars."*

     3496. O Shriniväsa, Lord Krishna is like nectar personified. He manifests the qualities of a faithful lover (anukula nayaka)

     3497. A anukula näyaka does not treat everyone the same. He passionately loves his beloved.

     3498. The anukula näyaka Krishna enjoys wonderful pastimes with Shri Rädhä.

     3499. In Shrila Rupa Gosvämi's Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, (najaka-pukani, text 22-23) it is said: "When a lover (näyaka) is so intensely attached to his beloved that he never desires any other woman, just as Lord Ramacandra was attached to Sitä-devi, then that lover is called faithful (anukula).

     3500. "Lord Krishna's faithfulness to Shrimati Rädhärani is very famous. He never looked at or thought of any other woman."

     3501. Lord Krishna is passionate in love with Rädhä. the poets describe the many different kinds of pastimes Rädhä and Krishna enjoy together.


     3502. A song in Pauravi-räga:


ohe präna-sama, sakhi sukhamayi

bikä-inu mu-i tomära gune

ebe kahe shuna, shyämasundarera

adhika piriti yähära sane


     O joyful gopi_-friend dear as life, I will sing of Your glories. Please hear. Handsome dark Krishna loves You the most.


     3503. candräbali braje bidita sundari

aparupa rupe lajjita ramä

nabina yaubani, rasikini dhani

se guna carite nähika sama


     In Vraja Candrävali is known as a great beauty. Still, Your wonderful beauty puts her to shame. You are youthful and sweet like nectar. Your virtues have no peer.


     3504. su-balita naba nikuNja-mandire

shyäma saha range bilase niti

shyäma rasamaya, mätaye temati

tä/mra premädhina ke bujhe riti


     Eternally You enjoy ever-new pastimes with dark Krishna in a forest palace. Sweet Krishna is intoxicated with love for You. He is overcome with love for You. Who understands His ways?


     3505. paränanda-sindhu mäjhe bhäse yabe

se dhani ratana parasha kare

mukha-shäsi-sudha-päne nimagana

takhana nägare kichu nä sphure


     O jewellike girl, when He touches You He floats in an ocean of bliss. When He dives into the nectar of gazing at the moon of Your face, He becomes stunned and motionless.


     3506. yadi se samaye rädhä tanu-gandha

kincita se räsä parashe giyä

takhani tähäre tejiyä cancala

kälädhäya yena pägala haiyä


     If the scent of Shri Rädhä touches His nostril, dark Krishna becomes restless. Like a wild man He runs to You O Rädhä.


     3507. ki ära baliba ithe jäno cite

yä sane känura adhika leha

narahari kena, premera nichani

gana-ite guna ke bändhe thehä


     What more shall I say? You know in Your heart that Lord Krishna loves You the most. With ecstatic spiritual love Narahari däsa worships You. Who has the power to describe all of Your glories?


     3508. A song in Kämoda-räga:


ki baliba ogo, jagate atrela

rädhä-mädhabera piriti-takhani

präna eka tanu bhina bhina kebä

gaòiyäche kata änanda mäni


     Ah, what shall I say? In all the world Rädhä and Madhava's love has no peer. They are one life. How did then become manifest as two forms? How great is Their bliss!


     3509. yadi balo du/mhu eka ithe kena

ha-ila dohära barana bhino

täha tuyä prati kahiye kincita

yatana kareyä se kathä shuno


     They are originally one. How did They become two? Why do they have different complexions? I will tell you something of this. Please listen carefully.


     3510. bibidha barana äche täthe syäma

gaura-barane adhika shobhä

tähära abadhi dekhä'yä jagate

häse jaga-jana nayana-lobhä


     Of all the different colors, the colors shyäma (dark) and gaura (fair) are very beautiful. With greedy eyes gazing at these colors, the people of the world smile.


     3511. ära bali ohe, käliyä cancala

yakhana dekhäya rangini rädhe

ätwra ha-iyä takhana du-bähu

pasäriyä kore karaye sädhe


     Gazing at beautiful Rädhä, restless Krishna was overcome with love. With His two arms He passionately embraced Her.


     3512. se samaye yadi bipaksha lokete

hathät nikaöe dekhe e riti

ghana taòitäde bhrame bhule keha

lakhite näraye kautuka ati


     If some non-devotee had somehow come there, he would have no power to see Them. He would think he saw only a raincloud and a lightning flash.


     3513. ära bali se-i su-kabi bidhätä

bahu-jane aneka änanda dite

nirakhiyä shyäma gaura rucira

upamä raciba aneka mate


     Gazing at dark Krishna and fair Rädhä, many poets, filled with bliss, speak many metaphors and similes to describe the divine couple.


     3514. se-i hetu kata, kata bhina nahe

ra-i preme gaòhä shyämera deha

rädhä-känu-tanu premamaya e-i

jagate bedita dehera leha


     For this reason They are sometimes manifest as two forms. Sometimes They are not separated. Rädhä passionately embraces dark Krishna. Rädhä and Krishna are filled with spiritual love. Their love is known in all the worlds.


     3415. edohara riti äne ki janiba

janaye kebala rasika jane

e rase bancita, ye ha-ila nara-

hari tähe pashu samäna gane


     The great rasikas know more about the divine couple. Alas! Narahari däsa, who is wretched like an animal, has been cheated. He knows no more than this.


     3516. O Shriniväsa, in this place Lord Krishna one day met peaceful Candrävali.

     3517. Krishna was eager to meet her. Here He met her and her gopi-friends.

     3518. Hearing that Rädhikä had come to that forest, Vraja's prince Krishna departed.

     3519. Restless, He went to Rädhikä. In this way Candrävali attempts to meet with Krishna are always thwarted.

     3520. O Shriniväsa, I do not know how to describe the pastimes Lord Krishna enjoyed with Rädhä in this place.

     3521. Krishna's actions are sweet like nectar. He is a gentle, polite and insincere lover. He is equally gentle, polite and insincere (dakshina) to all  His gopi-beloveds.

     3522. Who can describe the pastimes Lord Krishnacandra enjoyed here with His gopi_-beloveds?

     3523. In Shrila Rupa Gosvämi's Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayaka-prakarana, Text 29, it is said: "A lover who pretends to love his mistress with respect and awe, even though within his mind he thinks of another girl, is known as dakshina (an insincere lover)."

     3524. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayaka-prakaran, Text 31, it is said: "A dakshina lover may treat many mistresses with equal indifference."

     3525. As a friendly dakshina lover, Lord Krishna is like nectar personified in the räsa-dance.

     3526. In Shrila Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvämi's Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita, Madhya-lila, Chapter 8, Texts, 109-110 and 112-116, it is said: "Although Krishna was in the midst of hundreds of thousands of gopi_s during the räsa dance, He still kept Himself in one of His transcendental forms by the side of Shrimati Rädhärani.*

     3527. "Lord Krishna is equal to everyone in His general dealings, but due to the conflicting ecstatic love of Shrimati Rädhärani, there were opposing elements.*

     3528. "When Rädhärani, out of anger and resentment, left the räsa-dance, Lord Shri Krishna, not seeing Her, became very anxious.*

     3529. "Lord Krishna's desire in the rasa-lila circle is perfectly complete, but Shrimati Rädhärani is the binding link in that desire.*

     3530. "The rasa dance does not shine in the heart of Krishna without Shrimati Rädhärani, Therefore, He also gave up the circle of the rasa dance and went out to search for Her.*

     3531. "When Krishna went out to search for Shrimati Rädhärani, He wandered here and there. However not finding Her, He became afflicted by the arrow of Cupid and began to lament.*

     3532. "Since Krishna's lusty desires were not satisfied even in the midst of hundreds and thousands of gopi_s and He was searching after Shrimati Rädhärani, we can easily imagine how transcendentally qualified She is.*

     3533. Lord Krishna also enjoys pastimes as a shatha-näyaka (a cheating lover). As a shatha-nayaka He speaks sweet words when His beloved is present and criticizes her when she is absent.

     3534. In Ujjvala-nilamani Nayaka-prakarana, Text 33, it is said: "A lover who speaks sweet words glorifying his beloved when she is present and then repeatedly blasphemes her behind her back, is called shatha (a cheater) by the wise."

     3535. In this place Lord Krishna enjoys pastimes asa dhrishöa-näyaka (bold lover). In these pastimes He cheerfully comes before His beloved.   

     3536. Bearing the marks of having enjoy with some other girl, He fearlessly and expertly speaks many lies.

     3537. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani Nayaka-prakarana, Text 36, it is said: "When the hero is not cautious to hide from his mistress the signs of his enjoying with other young girls, and when he is expert at lying his way out the accusations levelled against him, he is called dhrishöa (a bold lover)."

     3538. Who has the power to describe the pastimes agitated Lord Krishna enjoyed here with Rädhä, who is more dear than life to Him?

     3539. The teenage gopi_ Rädhä is a jewel-mine of virtues. She is considered the crest-jewel of näyikäs (heroines)

     3540 and 3541. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Näyikä-prakarana, Text 102, it is said: "Just as Lord Krishna manifests

the consciousness of all the different kinds of heroes (näyakas)

in the same way Shrimati Rädhärani manifests different kinds of consciousness of the different kinds of heroines (näyikäs)."

     3542. Now I will describe the different kinds of parakiya näyikäs. These nayikäs are of 360 different kinds.

     3543. In Vraja Rädhä is the best of parakiya Näyikäs. The glories of the different kinds of näyikäs, which begin with the mudgha nayikäs, have no end.

     3544. O Shriniväsa, In this place Lord Krishna enjoys pastimes with the mugdha näyikäs.

     3545 and 3546. A megdha nayikä is controlled by her friends, is a young girl, is inexperienced in loving affairs, cannot tolerate a situation where her jealous anger is aroused, and is very happy when her gopi_-friend meets with Krishna.

     3547 and 3548. in Shri Ujjvala-nilamani nayikä-prakarana, Texts 13-14, it is said: "The qualities of a mugdha nayikä are: 1. she is a young girl, 2. she is inexperienced in loving affairs, 3. in loving affairs she acts in a contrary manner, 4. she is controlled by her friends, 5. in loving affairs she becomes very shy and makes a great endeavour to conceal her actions, 6. when her lover insults her, her eyes become stopped with tears, 7. she is fond of talking both sweetly and bitterly, 8. when her jealousy is aroused she spurns her lover."

     3549. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Text 24, it is said: "Two kinds of gopis spurn Lord Krishna when they become jealous of Him: 1. mridvi (the gopi who retains a sweet demeanor) and 2. akshamä (the gopi who becomes angry and intolerant)."

     3550. Look, O Shriniväsa, In this forest grove Lord Krishna enjoys pastime with His madhya gopi_-beloveds.  

     3551. In a madhya-näyika teenage youthfulness is manifested. Such a nayikä is expert in every way. In jealous anger she is of three kinds, beginning with dhira (peaceful).

     3552 and 3553. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayikä-prakrarana, Texts 26 and 27, it is said: "The madhya nayikä is situated in the age where she leaves childhood and maturity is just beginning to manifest. She is timid in amorous pastimes, just as the mugdha nayikä. (1) Sometimes her words show some signs of arrogance. She is eager to enjoy amorous pastimes up to the limit of faiinting from conjugal bliss. In jealous anger one is (2) Sometimes gentle and (3) Sometimes harsh."

     3554. In this forest grove the dhira (gentle) madhya nayikäs rebuke Krishna with crooked words.

     3555. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Näyikä-prakarana, Text 34 it is said: "When the madhya-nayikä manifests the dhira quality she speaks crooked, offensive, biting satires aimed at her lover."

     3556. In this forest grove the adhira madhya nayikäs accompanied by their gopi friends, angrily and fearlessly speaks harsh words to Lord Krishna, the master of their lives.

     3557. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani Nayikä-prakarana, Text 36, it is said: "When the madhya-nayikä manifests the adhira quality, she angrily rejects her lover with many harsh words."

     3558. Glancing at their gopi-friends, the dhiradhira nayikäs shed tears as they speak crooked words to Lord Krishna in this forest grove.

     3559. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Text 37, it is said: "When the madhya nayikä manifests the dhiradhira or ubhaya quality, she sheds tears as she speaks crooked words to her lover."

     3560. Of all the nayikäs the madhya-nayikä possesses the most exalted mellow. As a madhya-nayikä, Rädhä gives great bliss to Lord Krishna.

     3561. In Shri Ujjvala nilaman, Nayikä-prakarana, Text 40, it is said: "Of these three kinds of nayikäs, the madhya-nayikä possesses all the most exalted virtues in the nectar of transcendental mellows. This is because the madhya-nayikä incorporates the virtues of both mudgha and pragabha."

     3562. In this forest grove the pragabha-nayikäs, who are expert, beautiful, and in full bloom of teenage youth, give great happiness to Lord Krishna.

     3563. It is said prababbha nayikäs are eager for amorous pastimes and also arrogant when their jealous anger is aroused. They are of three kinds, beginning with dhira.

     3564. In Shri Ujjvala nilamani Nayikä-prakarana, Text 41, it is said: "The pragabbha nayikä is 1. situated in the stage of fully manifest youthfulness, 2. blinded by passion, 3. filled with yearnings to enjoys amorous pastimes. 4. manifesting the simultaneous presence of many symptom of ecstasy. 5. able to overwhelm her lover with  the nectar  of transcendental mellows, 6. her words are those of a mature, proud woman, 7. her actions are those of a mature proud woman, 8. in jealous anger she is extremely harsh and bitter."

     3565. In this forest grove stay the dhira pragabbha näyikas, who either conceal their anger, or are not interested in amorous pastimes.

     3566. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, nayikä-prakarana, Text 51, it is said: "The dhira pragabbha features may again be divided into tow parts: 1. the nayikä is not interested in enjoying  amorous pastimes, 2. the nayikä pretends to treat her lover with respect, while she actually burns with jealousy."

     3567. In This forest grove the adhira pragabbha nayikäs angrily strike Krishna with lotus flowers.

     3568. In Shri Ujjvala nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Text 54, it is said: "In the adhira feature of jealous anger, the pragabbha nayikä angrily attacks her lover with abusive language.

     3569. In this forest grove the dhirädhira pragabbha nayikäs sometimes conceal their anger and sometimes crookedly rebuke Krishna.

     3570. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Text 56, it is said: "When a nayikäs manifests both dhira and adhira qualities in jealous anger, she is said to be dhiradhira."

     3571. Look, O Shriniväsa. In this forest grove passionate Shri Rädhä meets with Lord Krishna.

     3572. Shri Rädhikä secretly meets with Krishna at the appropriate time She meets with Lord Krishna.

     3573. Accompanied by a gopi_-friend, Rädhä sometimes meets Krishna in this way. In this way Rädhikä becomes an abhisärikä-näyika.

     3574 and 3575. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, nayikä-prakarana, Texts 68 and 69, it is said: "A girl who meet her lover or arranges that he meet her at the place of rendevous is known as abhisarika. The abhisarika may be considered in two features: 1. When the girl travels on a moonlit night, and 2. When she travels on a dark moonless night. The abhisarika wears garments suitable for a journey. To silence her tinkling ornaments she timidly? unties them. Accompanied by a single affectionate gopi…-friend, the abhisärikä goes to meet her lover."

     3576. In a cottage in this forest grove the vasaka-sajja nayikäs, accompanied by their gopi_-friends happily prepare the bed and make other arrangements.

     3577. They watch the path where Krishna will walk. Again and again they watch for a gopi-messenger.

     3578. Beautiful Rädhikä is such a vasaka-sajja nayikä. I have no power to describe all Her glorious activities.

     3579 and 3580. In Shri Ujjvalaj-nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Texts 73 and 74, it is said: "A girl who  decorate her body and home to attract her lover is called vasaka sajja. The vasaka sajja nayikä yearns to enjoy amorous pastimes with Lord Krishna. She gazes at the path, waiting for Lord Krishna's arrival. She enjoys telling her friends about her pastimes with Lord Krishna. She continually looks for the arrival of Lord Krishna's messenger. These are some of the activities of the vasaka-sajja näyika."

     3581. In this forest grove the gopis cannot bear even a moment's delay in their rendevous with Lord Krishna.

     3582. In Lord Krishna's absence these gopis' yearnings have no limit. Rädhikä is such a virohot kanthitä näyika.

     3583. The gopis think "Why has Krishna not come here?" I have no power to describe how these gopis' hearts burn with anguish.

     3584 and 3585. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Texts 76 and 77 it is said: "A girl who longs for her absent lover who has neither offended her nor quarreled with her, is called a virahot kanthita nayikä by those learned in the features of ecstatic love. This nayikä suffers within her heart, trembles, weeps, becomes listless, and proposes various theories to explain why her lover has not come to meet her. These are some of the activities of the utkanthita nayikä."

     3586. Bearing the marks of having enjoyed with another girl, Krishna enters this forest grove.

     3587. The jilted gopi angrily gazes at her bold lover. Shri Rädhä is such a khanòita näyikä.

     3588. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Text 80, it is said: "When a lover does not arrive at the appointed rendevous to meet his beloved, but instead spends the time enjoying with a different girl, later, at sunrise, he may chance to meet the girl he cheated, at that time He displays the clear signs of his amorous adventures. The cheated girl is known as khandita. She may become angry, sigh, or become silent, these are some of her responses.

     3589. Worrying and worrying, Shri Rädhä, separated from Krishna, does not meet Him in this grove of tamala trees.

     3590. Look, O Shriniväsa, In this tamäla grove the gopis are bereft of Lord Krishna's company.

     3591. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Texts 82 and 83, it is said: " A girl who dear lover fails, because of the hand of destiny, to keep his appointment with her, and who is thus very unhappy at heart, is called vipralabdha by the wise. The vipralabdha näyikä manifests despair, anxiety, anguish, weeping, fainting, and sighing. These are some of the ways she responds to her situation."

     3592. In this forest grove kalahantarita Rädhä filled with jealous anger in Her heart. Afterwards She burns with remorse.

     3593. She talks nonsense and manifests various activities. Watching Her, and speculating in various ways, Her gopi friends cannot explain Her actions.

     3594. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Text 85, it is said: "A girl who quarrels with her lover, and even when he falls at her feet and begs her to forgive him in front of all her friends, angrily rejects him, only to suffer afterwards, is called kalahantarita. She feels great remorse and suffering, becomes distress, sighs and talks nonsense. These are some of her symptoms."

     3595. In this place Rädhä become a proshita-bhartika nayikä. With Krishna now in a far away place, Rädhä cannot be peaceful.

     3596. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Nayikä-prakarana, Texts 87 and 88, it is said: "A girl whose lover has gone to a distant country is known as proshita-bhartrika. She praises her absent lover, is weak, dispiritied, emaciated, unable to sleep, miserable, unsteady, stunned, and filled with anxieties, these are some of her qualities."

     3597. After Akrura had taken Lord Krishna to Mathura, Rädhä's condition is described in the following words (Shrila Rupa Gosvämi's Shri Hamsaduta, Text 2):

     3598. "At the request of Akrura, Krishna and Balaräma left the house of Nanda Maharaja for Mathurä at that time Shrimati Rädhärani's mind was dispirited, and She became almost mad because of extreme separation from Krishna. She experienced great mental pain and agitation, which caused Her to drown in mental speculation in the river of anxiety.*

     3599. What shall I say? Akrura's reputation was not good in Vraja. Even today the Vrajavasis feel pain when they speak the word "Akrura".

     3600. Talking amongst themselves, they criticized Akrura again and again. Akrura did not understand the hearts of Vraja's people.

     3601. "Gandini gave birth to a son who brought us great pain." The Vrajavasis said.

     3602. The Vrajavasis could not bear to speak the word "Akrura". Speaking they swam in an ocean of sorrows.

     3603. Look. In this beautiful grove by the Yamunä's banks, Rädhä enjoyed many bissful pastimes.

     3604. After enjoying amorous pastimes with Him, Rädhä spoke with Lord Krishna. With Her love She brought Him under Her control.

     3605. Rädhä was a svadhina-bhartrka nayikä. No one can describe the wonderful pleasure She gave, moment after moment, to Lord Krishna.

     3606. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani Nayikä-prakarana, Text 90, it is said: "A girl who controls her lover is called svadhina-bhartrka, Her actiivities include picking flowers and enjoying pastimes with her lover in the forest and in the water."

     3607. O Shriniväsa, surrounded by their gopi_-friends, Rädhä and Krishna wander in this forest of flowers.

     3608. Here Rädhä's heart overflows with anuräga love. Here Her love brings Her to the called prema-vaicittya.

     3609. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Sthayi-bhava-prakarana, Text 134, it is said: "That love which, even though continaully experienced remains always dear and ever increasingly fresh and new is called anuräga."

     3610. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Sthayi-bhava prakarana, Text 137, it is said: "The activities of anuraga are: paraspara-vashi-bhäva, 2. prema vaicittyaka, 3. apränini janmaptyai, latasa-bhara, and 4. vipralambhe 'sya visphurti."

     3611 In the condition called prema-vaicittya, passionate Rädhä fears She will some day be separated from Her beloved.

     3612. Even though Krishna is nearly, She worries "Then I will call oout, 'Where is Krishna?' and tears will stream from My eyes."

     3613. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Sthayi-bhava-prakarana, it is said. "When, even though the beloved is present, the lover, because of the great intensity of pure love, fears that some day they will be separated, this emotion is called prema-vaicittya (the wonder of love)."

     3614. Prema-vaicittya is not different from sambhoga. It is a great treasure manifest in Lord Krishna's association.

     3615. Prema-vaicittya pastimes are supremely sweet. The poets affirm that these pastimes chase sorrows far away.


     3616. A song in Kämoda-räga:


rä-i känu rasera äbeshe

baise ekäsane sakhi-gana cäri-päshe


     Their gopi friends around Them on four sides, Rädhä and Krishna eat together. They are overcome with the nectar of love.


     3617. kibä anurägera taranga

nä dhare dhairaja dhani haila kshina anga


     Rädhä is tossed to and fro by waves of love. She cannot keep Her slender body peaceful.


     3618. sakhine sudhäya bäre bäre

präna mätha chädi rathä gelena ämäre


     Again and again She asks a gopi friend, "Will the master of My life abandon Me? Where will He go?"


     3619. ära ki pä-iba präna-näthe

eta kahi' karäghäta kare nija mäthe


     "Will I ever again attain My life's master?" Speaking these words, She strikes Her head with Her hand.


     3620. bhäse duöi nayanera jale

chäòi dirgha ni/hshväsa lotäya mahi tale 


     She floats in the tears from Her eyes. She lets out a long sigh. She roles on the ground.


     3621. rasika-shekhara shyäma räya

dekhiyä beshama-dashä prabhodhe rädhäya


     Seeing Her distress, dark Krishna, the crown of rasikas, reassures Rädhä.


     3622. prabhodhe paräna juòä-ila

ghucila biccheda-buddhi du/hkha dure gela


     Reassured by Krishna, Rädhä feels Her life's breath filled with cooling bliss. Her sorrowful fear of separation flees far away.


     3623. sakhi ki kahila änkhi-kone

pulake balita haiyä bilase gopane


     With a glance from the corner of Her eyes She speaks to a gopi friend. In a secluded place She enjoys many pastimes. The hairs of Her body stand erect with bliss.


     3624. kälä älingaye meli' bähu

läje nata-mukhi rä-i häse lahu lahu


     Dark Krishna holds Her in His arms. Embarrassed Rädhä lowers Her head. Gently, gently She smiles.


     3625. mädhaba dharite näre dhriti

mukhe mukha jhämpaye madana-made mäti


     In Krishna's embrace She cannot remain peaceful. Her face meet His face. She is wild with passion.


     3626. uca-kuca-yuge kara dite

nä jäne ächaye kothä kata uöhe cite


     His hands touch Her breasts. How much bliss overflows in Her heart? Rädhä does not know how to measure it.


     3627. häsi nibi-bandha khasä-iyä

rahaye kusuma-sheye anga gaòä-iyä


     Smiling, Krishna unties Her belt. She lies down on the bed decorated with flowers.


     3628. tanu tanu mishä shohe hena

nilamani kanaka dämini-ghana yena


     Their forms are glorious together. They are like sapphires and gold, or like a monsoon cloud and lightning.


     3629. bäòhaye kautuka atishaya

du/mhu besha biraciyä dohe nirikhaya


     The wonderful bliss They feel grows very great. They decorated each other. They gaze at each other.


     3630. samaya jänuyä sahacari

shrama-upashame kata kahe dhiri dhiri


     Aware that now is the appropriate time, a gopi_-friend gently, gently acts to remove the divine couple's fatigue.


     3631. narahari sakhira ingite

karaye su-bätäsa gharama nibärite


     On a gopi's signal Narahari dasa gently fans the divine couple and thus removes Their perspiration.

     3632. O Shriniväsa, in this forest by the Yamuna, Lord Krishna enjoys pastimes with five kinds of gopa friends.

     3633. These five kinds of gopa friends are: 1. ceöa, 2. viöa, 3. vidushaka, 4. piöha-marda, and 5. priya-narma.

     3634. These gopas help Krishna in many ways. Who can describe all their glories?

     3635 and 3636. In Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Sahaya-bheda-prakarana, Texts 1 and 2, it is said: "The sahäyas may be divided into five groups: 1. ceöaka, 2. viöa, 3. vidushaka, 4. piöha-marda, and 5. priya-narma sakhä.