Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Krishnadasa Kaviraja Goswami > Govinda Lilamrta 2 > Chapter-22

CHAPTER 22

"Night pastimes" (22.48 p.m. -3.36 a.m.)

(Summary description)

 

 

 

I remember Radha and Krishna at nighttime, Both very eager to meet Eachothei; being attended by Vrnda in so many ways. They play with Their dear girlfriends in the forest, singing and dancing. After many pastimes They go to sleep on a nice flowerbed, being attended by Their loving girlfriends.

 

 

Alternate readingI remember Radha and Krishna at night, having obtained Eachother's company and being worshipped by Vrnda with many paraphernalia and who enjoy joking riddles, nice talks, plays and Rasa- and Lasyadances along with Their most beloved girlfriends. They contemplate lovemaking and drink honeywine, being masters in different kinds of conjugal joy in the nikunja, which increases Their joy.

 

 

Vrnda and her group prayed to Radha and Krishna, taking Them to the veranda of the most beautiful jeweled temple, which was illuminated by the light of the full moon. There she made Them sit down on a golden flowerthrone which was covered with a fine in a pleasant spot cooled by a breeze from the Yamuna. Yrnda and her maidservants served Radha and Krishna with wonderful flower-ornaments, garlands, betelleaves, scents, fi~ns and nice water taken from the art-studio. (2-4)

 

 

Seeing Yrndavana, Shri Radha, the night, the Yamuna and her banks, the desire to play Rasa arose in Krishna's heart. (5)

 

 

One by one Krishna began all different items of His Rasa-festival with the gopis, like the play in the forest (vana vihara), wandering and dancing in a circle (cakra bhramana), ladies dancing in a circle (Hamsaka), mixed dances of ladies and men (yugma nrtya) , male dance (tandava), female dance (Iasya), single dance and essay-song with conjugal humours, dancing and watersports. (6-7)

 

 

jyoL~nolivaIam manda samfra vellitam sva sangamoddipta vasanta jrmbhita m nrtyan mayuram pika bhrna naditam vanam samiksyatra vihartum aicchat

 

The soft breeze caused the vines on the trees, that were illuminated by the full moon, to tremble. Krishna's presence and the spring season beautified the forest more and Krishna's desires for enjoyment were aroused by seeing the nice forest with its dancing peacocks and singing bees and Pika-birds. (8)

 

 

Then Krishna made His desires known to the gopis by playing His flute and the gopis consented in their reply by singing His names. (9)

 

 

kanane sudhamsu kanti subhra manju vigrahe

puspite samantvayadya me priyali varga he rantum atra vanchitani citta vrttir udvahe devam astu krishna ksna krishna krishna kanta he

 

Krishna said: "The lustre of the white moon is beautifying the forest and its flowers, carrying My desires to enjoy with you!" The gopis replied: "0 Krishna! Krishna! Krishna! l(rsna! 0 Lover! Let it be so!" (10)

 

 

Krishna got up with the gopis and Vrnda and softly sang, wandering around with them, circumambulating all the vines, trees and kunja's. (11)

 

 

mrdu malayanilay~ita lata taru patracayam sumadhura pancama dhvani ka7acana kokilam dhvanad ah barhinam pranayini gana gita guno vanam avagahya tat saramate harir atra muda

 

Joyfully Han rambled in the forest, where the leaves of the trees and the vines were moved by the soft Malayan breezes, where the cuckoos sweetly sang in the fifth note and where the bees hummed, peacocks meowed and the loving gopis sang songs. (12)

 

 

murcchotthita iva punar navatam ivapta snata ivamrta rasair madhu citrita va vrndavane taru lata mrga pa ksi bhrnga asan ha rer vana vihara viloka harsat

 

The trees, vines, bees, deer and birds of Vrndavana revived from their inertia, as if being showered by the nectarean vision of Han's enjoyment in the spring, which made them very happy, as if they had new life again. (13)

 

 

krtvagre dvija mrga cancarika vrndam krsneksutsukam atavi praharsiniyam candramsun karavalita maruccalarad ayantam tvaritam ivabhyupaiti krishnam

 

Vrndavana quickly came ahead to greet Krishna, bathing in moonrays, moved by the wind and keeping her deer; birds and bees in front of her in great joy (14)

 

 

gauranginam vapuh kanti mllitendu ruca vanam viliptam bhati dhautam va jalena kala dhautayoh

 

The forest was washed by the golden water of the gopis' splendour and the silver water of the moonlight. The mixtures of these colours was smeared on the scenery of Vrndavana. (15)

 

 

shri radhikanga dyuti vrnda sangamat krishnanga cancat dyutayo virejire sudhamsu muter dyuti punja ranjitas calat tamalagad ala layo yatha

 

The splendour of Shri Radhika's body, mixing with Krishna's sparking luster; was like the many moonbeams illuminating the restless leaves of a Tamala-tree. (16)

 

 

svagatah sthah sukhinah khaga mrga sarma vo lasati kim naga Jatah bhavyam avyavahitam madhupavastan aprcchad akhilan iti krishnah

 

Krishna asked all the forest creatures: "Welcome, 0 birds and deer! Are you all happy?" 0 Naga vines! Is all well? 0 Bumblebees! Is everything O.K.?" (17)

 

 

kisalaya kara bhak supuspitagre madhupa pikali ninada manju gana pavana guru vicalatataviyam harim avalokya nanarta nanartakiva

 

The blooming branches of the trees in the forest danced with the wind as their teacher; the budding twigs were its hands and the flowers were its fingertips. The bees and cuckoos sang charming songs when they saw Han.

(18)

 

 

radha krishnav anv anucalato'sankhyan bhrngan srantan matva payayitum iva svam madhvikam vatali vellat kisalaya hastenotphulla sasvat premardrahvayati muda vasantiya m

 

The Madhavi-vines thought that the innumerable greedy honeybees were very tired of following Radha and Krishna's fragrance, so they called them to drink their honey with their hand-like blooming buds, that swun in the wind with great joy, melting of love. (19)

 

 

n~ja kula dharmam apohya gopika sukhayati krishnam itiva siksaya api surabhau sphutitatha tan mude tam ah rutair iha nauti malati

 

The blooming Malati-vines praised Krishna with the humming of their honeybees in the springtime with the following teaching: "The gopis make Krishna happy by neglecting their household duties." (20)

 

 

cancan matta bhramara vilasitapangaloka kusuma vihasita nrtyantivanila cala vapusa ma lii valli han mudam tanoti

 

The Malli-vines that danced in the wind with their smiling flowers and restless intoxicated honeybees gave great joy to Ran with their glances and their moving bodies. (21)

 

 

sva savidham ayitam viksya krishnam latali pramudita vihagadhvona nandimukhiyam malayaja pavanollalasat pallavay~at kavari vrtanayair nrtyativa pra modat

 

Seeing Krishna approaching, all the birds in the vines recited auspicious welcome to Him. These happy vines danced in the wind, that made their blossom-like hands shiver. (22)

 

 

pranayati kunjavalir api gunja- tati krta citra kusuma vicitra nava dala talpa'ty ah pika jalpa sadayita krishnadika hrdi trsnah

 

The kunjas made playbeds with fresh flowerpetals and various wonderful gunja-beads where the bees and Pika-birds sweetly sang to increase Radha and Krishna's eagerness for love. (23)

 

 

radha sampalingita dehe'mrta varse mandradhvane krishna payode sphurite'gre

keka dhvanair unnata pinchaih sikhinibhi nrtyaty aran matta mayuravalir uccaih

 

The Krishna-cloud embraced the Radha-lightning, showering nectar and making deep rumbling sounds. Seeing this, the intoxicated peacocks danced with their peahens, spreading out their feathers and singing 'ke ka' out loud. (24)

 

dhvanad ah vihagam sitavater itam parinata phala yuk candrika rusitam vikaca kusuma sat saurabham shri harer

vanam idam atanod indriyanam mudam

 

Yrndavana pleased all of Han's senses. His ears with her singing birds and bees, His skin with her cool breeze, His tongue with her ripe fruits, His eyes with her moonbeams and His nose with the fragrance of Her blooming flowers. (25)

 

 

atha dara phullam asoka Jata stavaka yugam vrsabhanu suta

svayam avacitya ha reh sravasos capala ka rena dadhau sumukhi

 

Vrsabhanu's fairfaced daughter personally picked two slightly blooming Asoka-clusters and placed them in Marl's ears with shivering hand. (26)

 

 

tad anu ca calita svayam harina'py asau pranaya kalahe sada'py aparajita tad api sa ca tat karad apahrtya tat

stavaka yugalam priya sravasor nyadhat

 

Marl went out to pick some flowers Himself wanting to adorn Her ears with them. Although Radhika usually wins loving quarrels, this time She was defeated and Han put the clusters in Her ears. (27)

 

 

The sakhis, whose waists are as thin as those of lions, sang Krishna's glories with clear sweet voices and Krishna increased their lusty desires for Him by touching them on the pretext of adorning them with flowers in a lonely place, ornamenting them with moods like vivvoka, kila kinchita, vilasa and Jalita (see chapter nine).(28-29)

 

 

sva varnitabhir valfibhir alidhvani misad asau anugito'nandayat tah puspadana misat sprsan

 

The vines sang Krishna's glories through their honeybees and Krishna pleased them by touching them as if He wanted to pick their flowers. (30)

Krishna sang very attractive songs about the moon and the vines, and the gopis sang these songs again, now interpreting them to be about Radha and Krishna: (31)

 

 

jagad ahiadaka silah pramada hrdi varddhita manasUa pllah radhanuradhikantar vilasat susubhc kalanidhih so' yam

 

Krishna sang: "The beautiful moon (kalanidhi) pleases the world with his character and increases the girls' lusty desires, taking the Radha and Anuradha stars with him." (32)

 

 

jagad ahiadaka silah pramada hrdi varddhita manasu~a pilah radhanuradhikantar vilasat susubhe kalanidhih so' yam

 

The gopis sang: "Beautiful, artful Krishna (kalanidhi) pleases the world with His character and increases the girls' lusty desires, taking Radha and Anuradha (Lalita) with Him." (33)

 

 

san malatyam asyam malatyam malatibhih phullabhih samvestita iha paritah punnago' yam virajate gahane

 

Krishna sang: "The Punnagatree is embraced by the blooming Malativines in the moonlit (malati) nights (malati)!" (34)

 

 

San malatyam asyam malatyam malatibhih phullabhih samvestita iha paritah punnago' yam virajate gahane

 

The gopis sang: "Krishna (who is Punnaga, the best of men) is embraced by the blooming Radha (malati) vine in the moonlit nights!" (35)

 

 

madhavalingfta madhavi bhrajate madhavas canaya phullaya rajate visvam apyet tayoh sangamanandatas caksusi nandayan modate sarvatah

 

Krishna sang: "The Madhavi-vine blooms up when she is embraced by the spring season and the spring is also beautified by the Madhavi-vine. The eyes of everyone in the world are pleased by this!" (36)

 

 

madhavalingita madhavi bhrajate madhavas canaya phullaya rajate visvam apyet tayoh sangamanandatas caksusi nandayan modate sarvatah

 

The gopis sang: "Madhavi Radhika blooms up when She is embraced by Madhava Krishna and the eyes of everyone in the whole world are pleased by It!" (37)

 

 

samphulla samphullo milanan mitha iha vane sadalinam kancana va lii casau sukhada tapincha maulis ca

 

Krishna sang: "The blooming Tamala-tree (tapincha mauh) and the blooming golden vine (kancana valli) are always pleasing the honeybees (a Ii) with their meeting." (38)

 

samphulla samphullo milanan mitha iha vane sadalinam kancana va lii casau sukhada tapincha maulis ca

 

The gopis sang: "Krishna, who wears the crown of peacockfeathers (tapincha mauli) and Radhika, who is like a golden vine (kancana valli), please their girlfriends (ah) with their meeting." (39)

 

 

samsann iva madanajnam madayan hrdayam ka Jam gayan nava padminisu ratrau vilasati madhusudanas citram

 

Krishna sang: "In the night, the bumblebee (madhusudana) sings on the fresh lotusfiowers (padmini), pleasing the hearts of those who hear it, on Cupid's order. How amazing!" (40)

 

 

samsann iva madanajnam madayan hrdayam kalam gayan nava padminisu ratrau vilasati madhusudanas citram

The gopis sang: "At nighttime, the bumblebee (madhusudana) Krishna sings with the young lotus-like gopis (riava padminisu), pleasing the hearts of those who hear it, on Cupid's order. How amazing!" (41)

 

 

(Now follows a couple of verses that differ only in a few syllables:) rajani ramanas tamasam samano nalini kulam unmahasamapanut sitigur gagane sitibhe vighane suvabhau kumudavaka esa muda

 

 

Krishna sang: "The moon, who is the lover of the night (rajani ramana) destroys the darkness and the joy of the lotusfiowers (nalini kula). He is good fortune for the lilies (kumudavaka) in the cloudless (vighana) nights with its pleasing rays (sitigur gagane)." (42)

 

 

ramani ramanas tamasam samanah khalini ku Jam unmahasamapanut sitigur gahane sitibhe vighane vivabhau kumudakara esa muda

 

The sakhis sang: "The lover of the gopis, Krishna (ramani ramanah) destroys the darkness and the joy of the wicked (khalini kula). In the blue forest (5itigur gahane) where there are no birds (vighana) He gives joy to all people (kumudakara)." (43)

 

 

kamalini malini karane pat ur vidhurita dhuritaniha cakra van

nivi dadhad vidadhad bhagane dhrtim na sa mude samudeti vidhur mama

 

Krishna said: "The rising of the sweet moon gives Me no joy It gives great sorrow to the Cakravakas, it closes up the lotusfiowers and grasps the stars." (44)

 

 

sa s,udrsam sudrasam rucikrd rucir virahita rahita nija tarakah

suvidadhad vidadhat kumuda vanam vara mude sa mudeti vidhur hi nah

 

 

The gopis said: "That joy-giving Krishna, who relieves the pain of the fair-eyed gopis' separation from Him, giving pleasure to their eyes with His lustre and to the world destroying the demons, is just like the moon who rises to destroy all sorrow and bestows bliss to the world." (45)

 

While Krishna sang He was pleased with the sweetness of the forest and made the vines and the gopis bloom with the touch of His hands. Followed by the humming honeybees and gopis He came to a dais under the Yamsi vata tree. When He sat down there He saw that the Yamuna's desires increased by having His blissfull audience. She smiled at Him with the foam on her surface and sang with her birds, her senses becoming eager to unite with Krishna. (46-47)

 

 

sparsotsavayocchalad urmi hastam Jolabhja raktotpala phulla netram samucchalanna kramukoccha nasam

avarta gartotsuka karnapa Jim

 

She stretched out the arms of her waves out of eagerness to touch Krishna with restless red blooming lotus-eyes, her nose being the crocodiles that stick their noses out of the water and her ears being the spinning whirlpools that yearned to hear His music and His words. (48)

 

 

pulinani samiksy asau tatra rantu mana harih

krishnaparam gantu kamah samutthasthau priya ganaih

 

Seeing the bank of the Yamuna, Han became eager to enjoy there and wanted to go there with His beloved gopis. (49)

 

 

athagatanam sva jalantikam sa tesam padabjesu taranga hastaih

samarpya padmany atha tani krishna tais taih sprsantiva muhur vavande

 

When Krishna and the gopis came to her bank, Yamuna offered lotusflowers to their lotusfeet with her waves, repeatedly praising them as if touching them with these lotusflowers and waves. (50)

 

 

gati sinjfte mura ripor vanitanam drutam abhyasann iva ny~air gati nadaih tam ihabhyupaiti puratas tata kacchat

kalahamsikali valita kalahamsah

 

The swans and geese came from the shore of the Yamuna to learn from the swift movements of Murari's and the gopis' jingling anklebells how to coo. (51)

 

 

Seeing Krishna coming, Yamuna became very happy, stopped her current and increased her volume unlimitedly. But when she saw that Krishna was eager to cross her; she made her waters very shallow again. For Krishna's pleasure Yamuna became just kneedeep and the rivulets by her banks were just ankledeep. Han crossed one rivulet after the other; enjoying on the banks with I-us dear ones, increasing their lusty desires by eagerly smiling and looking at them, speaking and joking with them, embracing them, scratching their breasts with Mis nails and kissing them. (52-55)

 

 

Coming on the bank, Krishna danced a circle dance (cakra bhramana) with the gopis, eager to enjoy with them. This Rasa-cirele was just one hand high, standing on a disc on a stake stuck in the ground. Krishna stood in the middle with Radha, and three circles of gopis surrounded Them. In this way He looked like a Tamala tree entwined by a golden vine (Radhika's arms) and watered by three golden irrigation-canals (the concentric circles of gopis). (56-58)

 

 

On Radha and Mukunda's order Lalita and the other sakhis began the Hallisaka and Radha and Krishna danced in their midst; holding Their arms on Eachother's shoulders. (59)

 

This Rasa-circle rotated like a potter's wheel turned by the clever dancing steps of the Divine Couple and the gopis, that had nice buttocks. Aeyuta placed Radha between Lalita and Visakha, placing Her arms around their shoulders. The gopis all sang and danced around them, with Krishna sometimes joining them. The gopis in this Rasa-cirde sometimes moved slowly and sometimes quickly with light steps along with Manís pace. Then Krishna expanded Himself and came inbetween each two gopis, placing His arms on their shoulders, like a Tamala-tree dancing with golden vines. (60-63)

 

 

so'Jata cakravat kvapi Jaghu gaty abhra mat tatha hitva mam kvapy asau nagad iti ta menire yatha

 

Sometimes Krishna swiftly circled around the gopis like a firebrand, using light steps, and making each gopi think: "Krishna has not left me to go anywhere!" (64)

 

 

sa ekam mandaJi krtva prante sarva priya ganaih

tasam madhye sphuran nrtyan cakram ca bhramayan vabhau

 

Then the gopis formed one outer circle (the three circles merged into one) and Krishna did a rotating dance in their midst. (65)

 

 

sva sak tim darsayan cakrad yugapad va kramac caJat avaruhya muhus tat tat sthanam asvaruroha sah

 

Krishna showed His own capacity by bending down and getting up while dancing or repeatedly going down on the floor and then quickly getting up again while rotating. (66)

 

 

gopyas ca yuga pat sarvah kadapy ekaikasah kvacit avaruhyaramaruhya cakrur mandaJa bandhanam

 

The gopiswould also stoop down and get up again, sometimes one alone and sometimes all together; remaining in a circle. (67)

 

 

After enjoying the circle-dance with the gopis in this way Han came down from the dancingstage-disc for other; special Rasa dances. He took all the gopis to the Yamuna-bank named Anangollasa ranga (the arena of blissful conjugal sports) which was cleansed by Yamuna's soft, wave-like hands scented with lilies and sprinkled and anointed by the nectarean moonrays. (68-69)

 

 

The gopis surrounded Radha and Krishna, holding hands in a circle, like the full moon and the Visakhaconstellation (here Shri Radha) surrounded by their corona (the sakhis). (70)

 

 

The Rasa-circie looked just like a golden disc of rotating ladies turned around by Han's axle, directed to make pots for the potter-king Cupid on the potter's disc of the Rasa mandaJa. (71)

 

 

tan manda Jam bhati viJasa sagare roddhum mano minam ihaiva kim hareh kandarpa kaivarta vara prasaritam haimam maha ja Jam uroja tumbikam

 

Just as the fisherman spreads out his net in an ocean of play to catch fishes, attachin gourd to his net as a bait, similarly the fisherman Cupid spread a golden net of gopis with gourd-like breasts as a bait attached to them to catch the Man-fish. (72)

 

 

The gopis held eachothers hands and Krishna held His arms on each of their shoulders, blissfully wandering around and dancing different dances. (73)

 

 

In this Rasa circle Krishna's forms all placed their arms on the gopis' shoulders. This vision defeated the beauty of a rotating cloud in a whirlwind (Krishna's dance) with steady streaks of lightning around it. (74)

 

 

kadacid eka evayam sviyabhramana Jaghavat bhramann aJata cakrabhah sarvasam parsvago'sphurat

 

Sometimes Krishna danced alone, moving fast like a firebrand, showing Himself at each gopis' side. (75)

 

 

han han dayitanam vamsika kantha ganair milita vaJaya kanci nupuraJi svanaughah natana gati virajad pada taJanugami nija vara madhurimna vyanase'sau jaganti

 

The sweetness of Han's flutesong and the voices of the gopis, mixing with the jingling of their anklebells, bangles and waistbells, going along with the rhythms of their dancing feet, pervaded the world. (76)

 

 

They sang unaffixed and affixed tunes, separately with the sa ri ga ma pa dha ni notes. They blisfully sang both pure and undistorted tunes. The pure tunes had seven divisions and the distorted had eleven. (77-78)

 

 

There are three kinds of scales that are not perceived by mortals - sadja, madhyama and gandhara. They loudly sang the Gandharascale. Casually they sang the twenty-two srutis (marginal notes), the seven main notes, the fourty-nine keynotes and the twenty-one kinds of murcchana sancara (fading voices). They sweetly ang the fifteen kinds of thrills like the Tiripa and many kinds of fixed notes like the Dhala. They sang the two kinds of affixed tunes: Suddha and Alaga. This suddha is again three-fold: rupaka, vastu and prabaddha. There are many kinds of voice and recitation in sequence (prabandha) and ragas like nyasa, amsa and graha. They sang with seven kinds of full (sampurna) voices, six kinds of sadava-voices and five kinds of audava voices. (79-84)

 

 

They sang the Mallara, Karnataka, Natta, Sama, Kedara, Kamodaka, Bhairava, Gandhara, Desaga, Vasantaka, Raganagaya, Malava, Shri, Gurjjari, Ramakiri, Gauri, Asavari, Gondakiri, Todi, Velavali, Mangala, Gujjari, Varatika, Desa Varatika, Magadhi, Kausiki, Pali, Lalita, Patha manjari, Subhaga and Sindhudameta-tunes, one after the other. (85-87)

 

 

The gopis always played jingling instruments, percussion, stringed instruments and wind-instruments handed to them one by one by Vrnda. They played five kinds of drums: mrdanga, damaru (Siva's X-shaped drum), dampha, mandu (slapping the hands on the water) and mamaka, three kinds of flute: muraJi, pavika7 and vainsi, karataJas (hand cymbals) and seven kinds of stringed instruments: vipanci, mahati, vina, kacchapi, kara nasika, svara mandaJika and rudra vina. (88-90)

 

 

While dancing, the gopis made different forms with the shadows of their hands, imitating a flag, a triple banner; a goose head, the head of the scissors, a parrot's head, a deer's head, tons, a Khattaka's head, a needle pin, a half moon, a lotusbud a snake fang and other forms. (91-92)

 

They clapped many kinds of rhythms, like the Dhruva and the Mantha, or their opposites. In these rhythms there are three divisions: past (atita), not yet come (anagata) and sama, that have sama (same), gopucchika (a cow's tail) and srota pauses. There are three kinds of tempoes - fast, medium and slow - and two kinds of dharana - soundless and with soundThe gopis sang with two kinds of mana (measure) - varddhamana and hiyamana, and two kinds of rhythm - mana and avarta. Krishna and His sweethearts sang with Cancat, Puta, Rupaka, Simha nandana, Gajalila, Eka Tala, Nihsari, Addaka, Pratimantha, Jhampa, Triputa, Yati, Nalakuvara, Nudghutta, Kuttaka, Kokila rava, Upatta, Darpana, Raja kolahala, Sacipriya, Ranga vidyadhara, Yadaka, Anukula, Kankana, Shri Ranga, Kandarpa sat pita putraka,Parvati locana, Raja cudamani, Jaya priya, Rati lila, Tribbangi, Caccaran and Vara vikrama Ė rhythms. (93-101)

 

 

In the great poem Govinda Lilamrta, which was the result of service to Shri Rupa Gosvami, who is a honeybee at Shri Chaitanya's lotusfeet, the encouragement of Shri Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami, the association of Shri Jiva Gosvami and the blessing of Shri Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami, this was the twenty-second chapter; dealing with the Rasa pastimes.