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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Krishnadasa Kaviraja Goswami > Govinda Lilamrta 2 > Chapter-19


"Afternoon-pastimes" (15.36-18. p.m.)

 (Summary description of the afternoon pastimes)



I remember Shri Radha in the afternoon, cooking different dishes for Her lover after She returns home. She bathes and dresses nicely and is filled with joy from seeing Her lover's lotuslike face. 1 also remember Shri Krishna in the afternoon, returning home, followed by His cows and His friends. He is satisfied when He sees Shri Radha and is fondled by His mother when He meets His parents. (1)



Lotusfaced Han was very happy when He was served by all His friends who were expert in playing horns, flutes and vinas and that were eager to be with Him and to play with Him. They all showed their beautiful natures to please Krishna. (2)



These friends made Balarama and Kesava laugh with their alapa (various talks), anulapa (repeated topics), pralapa (nonsense talks), vipralapa (contradictory talks), samlapa (discussions with eachother), supralapa (beautiful words), vilapa (lamentations), apalapa (hidden talks), grasta vakya (talks with some syllables omitted), avispasta (unclear words), nirasta (rapid talks), avaina (meaningless wotds), vitatha (lies), Sangata (You should not have left us for so long!), sunrta (dear words), tiraskara (rebukes), sahasa (laughter), stuti garbha (praise on the pretext of criticism), ninda (criticism), narma (jokes), gudha kavya (secret poetry), praheli (riddles), dana bhasa (beautiful words), citra kavya (amazing poetry), and samasya puma (speaking with compound syllables or words). (3-6)



Madhumangala kept his eatables hidden from his friends in a scarf, like goods hidden by a thief, so Balarama asked him: "What do you have in that cloth?" Madhumangala said: "Prasada of the sungod!".Balarama:"Where did you get it?"   Madhumangala: "From sacrificing people". Balarama: "Who were they?" Madhumangala: "All the people of Vraja! Today is sunday, a very auspicious day for this kind of worship." Balarama: "Open it, let Me see what it is!" Madhumangala: "No! You and Your friends are greedy!" Balarama:"Give some to your friends! Divide it and eat some yourself too!" Madhumangala: "I don't feel like giving or eating now!" Balarama: "The boys want to take it by rorce!" Madhumangala: "I don't consider Your friends to be more important than blades of grass, nor do I think highly of You! I am a brahmana, a god on earth! Don't You know the power of celibate bralimanas like me?" (7-9)



Then, on Balarama's indication, the cowherdboys humbly surrounded Madhumangala and begged him for the prasada. But Madhumangala stayed silent and hid his loot. Then one boy came up to him from behind and covered his eyes with his hands, while another boy quickly took his scarf with the prasada away. They looted the prasada and Subala took Jatila's golden ring away. Another boy came up from behind Madhumangala and opened the backfold of his dhoti. Someone came up in front of him , laughed and opened the front fold of his dhoti also. Another boy came up to his side, knocked off his turban and loosened his hairknot, while other boys took away his flute and his stick. Madhumangala laughed, cried loudly, growled, scolded and cursed the boys. He took Krishna's stick and began to run after the boys. (10-15)



For some time they fought with sticks. Then Krishna stopped his friends from further mischief and embraced Madhumangala. Krishna took his stick and flute back from the boys and gave them to Madhumangala. Seeing that he didn't get his golden ring back, Madhumangala angrily cursed the boys, saying: "You're enjoying the property of a brahmana by force and you stole my ring! You are impure in all respects! Don't touch me, you whimsical lads! I'm going to Yraja and I'll tell everyone about this!" But when Madhumangala wanted to leave, Balarama quickly stopped him. (16-19)

Madhumangala told Balarama: "You are the instigator of these boys' sins! I will not speak with You until they have atoned for their sin!" (20)



In this way Shri Govinda played with His friends in the afternoon, being surrounded by His cows, at the foot of every tree and vine, giving joy to all the moving and nonmoving creatures of Yrndavana. Then He became eager to make all the people of Yraja happy by returning to His village. (21)



Han saw that His cows had wandered off far away and He began to play His flute, calling them by name, eager to gather them together. With love Lord Krishna called all His cows by name: "Padme! Hee hee! Harini! Rangini! Kanjagandhe! Rambhe! Hee hee! Camari! Khanjani! Kajjalaksi! Sande! Hee hee! Bhramarike! Sunade! Sunande! Dhumre! Hee hee! Sarah! Kali! Marali! Pali! Gange! Tungi! Hee hee! Pisangi! Dhavale! Kalindi! Vamsi priye! Syame! Hamsi! Hee hee! Kurangi! Kapile! Godavari! lnduprabhe! Sone! Syeni! Hee hee! Triveni! Yamune! Candralike! Narmade!" (hee hee is the sound Govinda uses to call His cows). (22-24)



Deluded by their divine love, each cow thought: "Krishna is walking behind us with His friends." Although they were satisfied with their grass, they kept on grazing. From hearing Krishna's flute, they thought that He must be far away. Although they moved slowly because of their full udders and their love for Krishna, the cows moved quickly when Krishna shouted at them. Their faces, tails and ears were raised, they kept bunches of grass in their mouths, and the blankets on their necks rocked when they ran towards Govinda. The cows, headed by Ganga, always drank the nectar of Han's beauty with their eyes and smelled the fragrance of this beauty with their noses. It was as if they embraced Govinda with their bodies and licked Him with their tongues. Mooing in great joy they surrounded Him. Overwhelmed by affection, Kesava scratched and carressed His cows with His nectarean hand and said: "Now You are satisfied with grazing, the day in Vraja is almost over now. 0 Mothers! Your calves are suffering from hunger! Let's go back to Vraja!" (25-30)



The cowherdboys carefully separated the cows, that were overwhelmed by love for Krishna and drove them back to Vraja. The cows had bells with different shapes and sounds around their necks and feeL Headed by their groupleaders, they went back to Yraja. The cows walked on Krishna's right side and the buffaloes on His left side.

The residents of heaven mistook them for the white Ganga (the cows) and the black Yamuna (buffaloes) stream.

Who will not be happy to see Krishna slowly walking behind His cows, showering them with nectarean flutesongs, His restless locks turned grey by the dust thrown up by their hooves?" (31-34)



There was no road that was not decorated by cowherdboys, there was no cowherdboy that did not play, there was no play without humour and there was no humour that did not give joy to Krishna. (35)



Krishna moved along with His friends, singing and playing His flute, waiting by every tree, happily playing and then moving on again. (36)



Brahma, Siva, all the demigods and sages praised Krishna with songs, dance, prayers, showers of flowers and music. Some worshipped Him while He moved freely and playfully down the paths. They shyly eulogised Him with humility and devotion and He mercifully looked and smiled at them. (37)



numas tvam suharam yasoda kumaram gunanam agaram krpoghair aparam virajad viharam pradane'ty udaram khafa sreni maram sada nirvika ram


They prayed: "0 son of Yasoda with Your nice necklace! 0 abode of all qualities! 0 endless ocean of mercy, who is enjoying here! 0 most generous giver! 0 Killer or the wicked, who is always devoid of transformation! We praise You!" (38)



numas tvam anantam nikunje vasantam prakasam vrajantam vasantam bhajantam

sakhin prinayantam sukundat sudantam tad asyc drg antam nudantam hasantam


"0 Unlimited One! 0 resident of the nikunja  who shows innumerable forms in the Rasa-dance, who always serves (enjoys) the spring-season, who is loved by His friends, whose teeth shine like Kunda-flowers, whose beautiful face always smiles from the corners of the eyes! We praise You!"



numas tvam sudhenum suvenum sulilam suhasam suvasam subhasam susilam suvesam sukesam suresam sucitram

sunrtyam subhrtyam sukrtyam sumitram


"We praise You with Your nice cows, nice flute, nice plays, nice smile, nice dress, nice words, nice behaviour; nice moods, nice hair; nice dancing, nice servants, nice activities and nice friends! You are the Lord of the demigods, so wonderful!" (40)



numas (vam prasantam sudantam sukantam dinante nisante vanantat prayantam samastan mahantam nitantam vibhantam kilalali krtantam sramaughe'py atantam

"We praise You, 0 peaceful, self-controlled, beautiful One! You go out of the forest at the end of the day and the end of the night, returning home after Your love-pastimes! You are the greatest of the great and You are very effulgent! 0 destroyer of the wicked! Although You do so much work, You are inexhaustible!" (41)



numas tvam aghare bakare murare sudhiram balarer nikaro'dri dhare nidanam purarer apare vihare pravinam surarer udare vidare


"0 enemy of Aghasura, Bakasura, and Mura! 0 calm subduer of king Indra! 0 holder of the mountain, 0 shelter of Siva with Your innumerable pastimes! 0 greatest One! 0 ripper of Hiranyakasipu's belly! We praise You!"(42)



numas tvam garistham mahimna mahistham visari pratistham suranam varistham asad dhrd davistam sumeror garistham

balibhyo balistham patubhyah patistham


"We praise You, who are heavier than the heavy, the greatest of the great! Your glories are great! You are the best of gods, far removed from the wicked! You are heavier than the Sumerumountain, the stronest of the strong and the smartest of the smart!" (43)



numas te caritram sutirthat pavitram khaIaJi lavitram bhavabdher vahitram satam hrt sucitram dvisam hrt khanitram natanam sumitram prabhavair vicitram


"We praise Your character, that is purer than the holiest water! 0 destroyer of the wicked, You are the boat to cross the ocean of birth and death! You wonderfully dwell in the hearts of the pious and destroy the hearts of the wicked! You are the good friend of the surrendered souls and Your power is wonderful!" (44)


svagas carayantam sulilam srjantam khalan marayantam trilokim avantam aho nah sudistam bhavantam sad istam sadalokayamah stumah samnamamah


"You herd Your cows as a nice pastime and You protect the three worlds by destroying the wicked. 01. We are so fortunate that we can always see Your lotusfeet! We offer our humble obeisances unto You!" (45)



In this way the demigods prayed and Krishna, being pleased, looked mercifully upon them. Being blessed like this, the demigods bowed down at Krishna's feet and disappeared, afraid that they may disturb His pastimes, returning to heaven. (46)



The cowherdboys said: "Look at these foolish demigods, praising Krishna like that! They don't know that Lord Vishnu gave the strength to Han to kill those demons, being pleased with Nanda Maharaja's worship of Him!"(47)



In this way the cowherdboys ridiculed the forms and the activities of the demigods, and imitated them for fun. Then they went back to Han to play with Him. (48)



Meanwhile, Haripriya Radhika returned home and took some rest, attended by Her maidservants for a while. Then She went to cook Her Lord's supper and to prepare His pan with Her girlfriends. (49)



She cooked banana-flowers, urad da4 squashed coconuts, black pepper; condensed milk, cardamom, cloves, nutmeg, sugar and camphor in ghi with sugar candy to make the Amrta Keli-pies that Krishna is so fond of. She made Karpura Keli pies with ground Sali-rice, yoghurt, black pepper, sugar; half squashed coconuts, nutmeg, cardamom, cloves, nectar-bananas and ground dal cooked in ghi and mixed afterwards with condensed milk and camphor. Krishna is very fond of this.(5O-5I)


She made Piyusa granthi palika-pie with the aforementioned ingredients and pancamrta kghi, honey, milk, sugar water and yoghurt). Then She made Ananga gutika with milk-cream, camphor, rice, coconut, nutmeg, cloves, black pepper; sugar and banas, fried in ghi. This preparation is very dear to Krishna. (52-53)



Then She made Sidhu Vilasa pie with banas, black pepper; milk and sugar in semolina with lots of nutmeg, adding fresh camphor and honey afterwards. Shri Radha intelligently made these five dishes that defeat the taste of nectar and that Krishna will eat with loving eagerness. The first three are known to everyone in Vraja, but the other two are meant for the night pastimes as snacks after drinking the honeywine. (54-56)



Then Radhika made Gangajala-laddus with cloves, cardamom, black pepper and sugar; and pancakes with cream, squashed coconuts and sugar and ghi. (57-58)



Then Radha was bathed, smeared with musk and dressed in a crimson sari. Her maidservants tied Her braid nicely, drew pictures on Her body, marked Her forehead with beautiful tilaka like a full moon of sindura, put a muskdrop on Her chin, hung a garland around Her neck, placed a playlotus in Her hand, hung a swinging pearl under Her nose, smeared Her eyelids with collyrium, hung a sash around Her waist, placed a jeweled crown on Her forehead, ornamented Her ears, tied Her braid with a ribbon, beautified Her lips with red pan, put flowers in Her hair; smeared brilliant lac on Her feet, hung bangles on Her wrsists, adorned Her temples with hoop-earrings, hung earrings on Her ears, armiets on Her arms and anklebells on Her feet, put toerings on Her toes, hung a graiveya-necklace, an amulet and different necklaces on Her neck, put rings on Her fingers and the rest of Her body with other jewel-ornaments. (59-60)

After She was thus bathed and ornamented by Her maidservants Shri Radhika climbed on the watchtower; or moontower; to look down the road if Krishna was coming. (61)



sva rudhotkanthi gopali vrnda vaktrendu mandalaih

asan yathartha namnyas ta vrajasthas candra salikah (63)


The Catakibird-like eyes of the gopis that climbed on this moontower were eagerly looking down the road, waiting for the time the Krishna-cloud would come. This watchtower in Vraja is justly called Candrasalika (moontower), because the anxious faces of the gopis that climbed it shone like moonglobes. (62-63)



Meanwhile mother Yasoda, seeing that the afternoon had come, become anxious for her son to return home. Her heart drowned in motherly love when she engaged her friend Rohini in cooking for Krishna. She called the wife of Nanda's younger brother Nandana, named Atula, to help Rohini with cooking. They prepared fruits, salad and vegetables from all the six seasons to complete Krishna's meal. (64-66)



Eagerly Nanda and Yasoda engaged gardeners in growing vegetables in gardens where all the six seasons were presenL These gardeners expertly irrigated these gardens. The Vrajavasis know these gardens, whose fruits grow in all the six seasons. (67-68)



These gardeners brought mother Yasoda the vegetables, fruits and roots in big baskets. She prepared half of this for the evening and had the other half kept apart by her maidservants for the next morning. The servants clipped the coconuts, peeled the ripe mangoes and all that was brought in for Krishna's and Balarama's supper. Han's mother constantly walked around to quickly engage her servants and her sisters-in-law in their cooking-service. Mother Yasoda was surrounded by her sisters-in-law, but she was very anxious out of separation from her son. Her dress was moistened with milk from her breasts and tears from her eyes. Then she went to the city gate with a happy face to look out for Krishna. (69-73)



Seeing that the sun was setting, Nanda Maharaja became eager to see his son. He looked out if he could see Krishna's face in between the cloud of dust thrown up by the hooves of the cows and listened if he could hear His flute, happily going to the barn with his relatives. The cowherders were eager to see the clouds of dust thrown up by the cows, so they went to a high place to look out for Him, like planets glittering in the evening sky. (74-75)



Han blissfully decorated His friends with flowers, and, pleasing them with nice words, He came to the forest near Vraja, His home. There was a nice lake where Han stopped His cows by playing His Murali-flute. There He divided them and made them drink. He playfully counted the cows' parties according to the colour of the different jewelstrings around their necks. When He had counted all His cows and His friends' cows without missing any, He was happy, and if any were missing He called them with His flutesong. When the cows heard their individual names they quickly rejoined their own groups. Then Krishna drove them all along, back to Vraja.(76-78)



Krishna entered the village with His close friends, attracting the young girls, making them dizzy with the sounds of His flute, sprinkling the eyes of the Vrajavasis, that were like Cakorabirds, with the nectarean luster of His body, that was tired of wandering in the forest. His body, His gunja- and forestflower garland, His dress, His curly locks of hair; His peacock feathers, His rope for binding the rearlegs of the cows, His Murali, His stick, His horn and the extended eyelids of His playful reddish eyes were all colored by the beautiful dust thrown up by the cows' hooves. Krishna showered the people of Vraja, that were burning in a forestfire of separation from Him, with the sweet cooling nectarsongs of His flute and illuminated the whole of Vraja with His deep cloudblue lustre.(79-81)



Krishna was like a king who returned home with His cowherdboysoldiers that were blowing their horns. The cows provided the king's flag with the dust they threw up, which was visible from afar. The dacoit-king of separation became afraid when he saw this and anxiously left the village with his generals: thinness, humility, thoughtfulness, dullness and anxiety (82)



The people of Vraja were like happy Cataka-birds, that saw Shri Han coming like the monsoon, whose cloud was the dust of His cows, whose shower was the nectarsong of His flute and whose rumbling was the mooing of His cows, so they came close to Him with raised faces. (83)



King Nanda and his brothers and mother Yasoda and her sisters-in-law quickly came and stretched out their arms from afar to embrace their boys. When Rohini and Atula heard that Krishna had come they left the cooking to their servants and happily came out to embrace the boys. (84-85)



When the moonfaced, fair teethed gopis heard Krishna's flute, they were overcome by lust, their voices faltered and their clothes loosened. Thus their sadness disappeared and they came out of their houses. (86)



udayati bata krsne citra bhano purastat vrajavasati jananam phullataksy utpale'bhut smita k umuda vikasah svinnatangendu kante viraha dahana taptam jivanam sfta Jam ca


When the wonderful Krishna-sun rose, the lotuseycs of the Vrajavasis bloomed up, their smiles bloomed like lilies, their bodies perspired like moonstones and made their lives cool off from the burning fire of separation. (Contrary to the normal effects of sunrise) (87)



udaya(i bata krsne nitya purne'dbhutendau vraja yuvati jananam phullam asin mukhabjam arati viyuti cinta ghukapali nilina milati ca tanu koki samhatih prana kokaih


When the wonderful, ever-full Krishna-moon rose, the lotusfaces of the young girls of Vraja bloomed up and the owls of their painful thoughts of separation hid themselves. The swans of their bodies met again with the geese of their life-airs (they came back to life again). (Contrary to the normal effects of moonrise) (88)



vrajangana drk trsitafi mala vllanghya lajja pratikula vatyam samucchalat kanti maranda Jubdham papata krishnasya mukharavinde


The bee-like eyes of the gopis were thirsty for the honey of Krishna's lustre, and, ignoring the unfavorable wind of their shyness, these bees fell on Krishna's lotusface. (89)



latantarala sthita vallabinam vaktrani matva vikacambujani hri vat yaya vambhramitapi fubdha papata saurer drg alidvayiha


The faces of the gopis were like blooming lotuses in a vine swinging in the wind of shyness until the greedy, bee-like eyes of Sauri (Krishna) fell on them. (90)



darsam darsam vadana kamalam tad vapuh sangi vatam sparsam sparsam tanu pa rima Jam shri harer gopikajyah

ghrayam ghrayam tad adhara madhu sphita vamsi nindadam svadam svadam pupusur adhikam svani pancendriyani


The gopis repeatedly gazed at Krishna's lotuslike face. Their bodies repeatedly touched the breeze that had touched His bods their noses repeatedly smelled His bodily fragrance, their ears heard the sound of His flute and their lips tasted the nectar of His lips as He played this flute. In this way the joy of their five senses increased. (91)



shri radhikapanga vijokanesuna samsprsta marma sa yatha kujo'bhavat nanyangana sreni kataksa patribhih

sambhinna sarvavayavo'py asau tatha


The arrow of Shri Radhika's glance pierced Krishna's heart much more than the arrows of all the other gopis' eyes would be able to afflict His whole body (92)



yadvat sunirvrtim avapa sa radhikaya

vaktrendu manda hasitamrta Jesa sekat

tadvan na gopa sudrsam vadanendu vrnda prodyat smita bhrta jhara prakaravagahat


Nor could the nectarstream from all the gopis' nice brightly smiling moonfaces quench Krishna's thirst for nectar as much as a mere ray of Radhika's slight nectarean smile could. (93)



gokulair gokulam ninyc goku Jam gokujair haran gokulam gokula strinam gokulair gokulesvarah


The Lord of Gokula drove His cows (go kula) as He entered Gokula, stealing the senes (go kula) of the young girls of Gokula and the eyes of the people of Gokula. (94)



Nandaraja and Yasoda felt as if they had found the lost jewel of the life of their lives back when Krishna returned from the distant forest. They kissed Him, held Him to their chests, joyfully looked at His lotusface and smelled His head, having all their desires fullfilled. Seeing Krishna's peacockfeather-crown and His locks greyed by cowdust, they happily swept it off with their scarves and moistened Him with their tears and (Yasoda's) breastmilk of love. (95-96)



Krishna's meeting with His parents is like His meeting with them in the morning, but it is devoid of the fear they have in the morning for His sojourn at midday. (97)



Kesava collected His cows and brought them in the barn, like the sun taking its net of rays (go) when it sets. He separated the cows that had newly calved, the older ones, those that were in season, those that had young calves and those that had many calves, the bullocks and their calves, the bulls and the buffaloes and He kept the calves that were to drink milk again elsewhere. (98-100)



Nanda and Yasoda were eager to take Krishna home to fondle Him, but despite their repeated requests, He did not want to go without milking the cows, so father said: "Let the cows rest for a while and let the calves drink now. I am here and the cowherdboys are eager to milk the cows themselves! Boys (Krishna-Balarama)! Go home now, You're tired! Mother will fondle You by bathing You and so on. After You have rested You may come back to help milking the cows!" (101-103)


Madhumangala pulled at Krishna and said: "We're hungry and thirsty! Krishna, come! Let's go  home! Save our lives with food and drink!" Being lovingly urged by Rohini and Nanda  again and again, and being taken by the hand by Yasoda, Krishna went home with His brother  and His friends. The mothers of Han's friends met Yasoda on the way and asked her if they  could take their boys home with them. The boys reluctantly went home with their motherL  Yasoda took Krishna and Balarama home with Madhumangala, and Rohini and Atula washed  their feet and returned to the kitchen. (104-107)



When the moon of Gokula (Krishna) rose, the affliction of the gopis was extinguished. They happily followed Him to Yraja for some distance. Then, when they went to their own home, Radhika and Her girlfriends again felt the pain of separation in their hearts.



The people of Yraja felt topmost bliss when Han returned in their midst, as if a son was born in a son less family, poor people were showered with gold or forestcreatures trapped in forestfire were saved by a great flood of nectar. (109)



In the great poem Govinda Lilmrta, which is the result of service to Shri Rupa Gosyami, who is a honeybee at Shri Chaitanya's lotusfeet, the encouragement of Shri Raghunatha Dasa Gosyami, the association of Shri Jiva Gosyami and the blessing of Shri Raghunatha Bhatta Gosyami, this was the nineteenth chapter; dealing with the afternoon pastimes.