Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Krishnadasa Kaviraja Goswami > Govinda Lilamrta 2 > Cahpter-21


"Pastimes at Nightfall" (20.24-22.48)

 (Summary descriptions of the pradosa lila)



I remember Shri Radha at nightfall, being dressed by Her girlfriends in white or dark clothes according to the lunar fortnight and who goes out to meet Krishna with Her messengers in the desiretree-grove in Yrndavana, on Vrnda's indication. I also remember Shri Krishna, who witnesses artful games in the assembly of cowherders at that time, and is then carefully taken to His bedroom by His affectionate mother, from where He goes to the solitary grove to meet Radhika. (I)



Han's father entered the outer assembly with his older brothers and his younger brothers, swimming in an ocean of bliss. All the qualified people of Vraja also came there, eagerly hoping to see beautiful Han. Along with the leading brahmana's and cowherders, the storytellers, clowns, dancers, singers and panegyrists, that were all expert in their arts of singing, playing, dancing and joking, blissfully came there to please Krishna. According to their positions, Nanda honoured his superior guests, affectionately treated his equal guests and bestowed mercy on his subjects. Their minds and eyes were eager to see Krishna. (2-4)



Nanda Maharaja thought: "My son is tired and is taking rest after taking His meal, but all the people like to see Him. What shall I do?" Just then Krishna suddenly came in their midst with His friends. (5)



svantambudhim netra cakora vrndam romausadhis ca smita kairavalim samphullayan ghosa krtalayanam sabhodayadrav udito harinduh


Suddenly the Han-moon rose on the mountain of Nanda Maharaja's assembly, making the ocean-like hearts of the Vrajavasis swell, giving joy to the Cakora-birds of their eyes, making the herbs of their hairs stand on end (as the moon nourishes the herbs) and the lilies of their smiles blossom (as the moon does every night).




Krishna folded His hands to offer His obeisances to the brahmanas and other superiors. Smilingly, He looked at His equals and He looked mercifully upon His subjects, speaking with them before sitting down with His friends. (7)



The artists began to sing 'jaya! jaya!', recited the Veda's, sang the glories of Krishna's ancestors, recited poetry of Krishna's pastimes, played many musical instruments and blissfully sang praises. In this way Vraja was justly called ghosa (pasturing fields, or where many sounds are). (8)



On Nanda Maharaja's order some doorkeepers quieted the crowd and asked everyone to sit down on their own places. After everyone sat down, Nanda Maharaja told all the qualified artists to show their own skills to please the assembly, that was eager to hear and see them. They expertly danced Chalikya-, Alasa-, and Tandava-dances, enacted the pastimes of Lord Rama and Lord Nrsimha, taking Their forms, juggled and danced on chords or sticks. Some recited the holy Puranas, some sang and some related the stories of Krishna's ancestors, someone pleased the ears of the assembly with four kinds of musical instruments and someone recited poetry about Krishna's birth and other pastimes. (9-14)



Nanda Maharaja rewarded all the artists with garments, wealth and many kinds of ornaments, but the artists were not interested in that. They were satisfied simply by seeing Krishna. Their Cakorabird like eyes drank the ambrosial moonbeam-smiles of Krishna's moonlike face, that came out of them in the form of their loving tears. Although they drank this nectar, they could not be satisfied Aho! How inconceivable are the ways of love! (15-16)



Mother Yasoda sent the servant Raktaka to Nanda Maharaja. He offered obeisances to Nanda and said: "Queen Yasoda is eager to see her beautiful son!" (17)



tato vrajendrena krtagrahotkarah sabhyan ny~aloka viyoga kata ran sincan sahardra smita viksyanamrtaih krishnah prapeda n~a matr mandiram


Nanda Maharaja anxiously told Krishna to go home. With sweet words Krishna consoled the people that were afflicted by fear of separation from Him, showering them with the nectar of His affectionate smile and glance. Then He went to His mother's quarters. (18)



Krishna and Balarama blissfully sat down on a nicely cleansed platform with Madhumangala and their friends, where mother Yasoda served Them slightly warm condensed milk with camphor and sugar, being moistened by her loving tears and her breastmilk. (19)



The cowherdboys went home and loving Yasoda and Rohini took Krishna to the bedroom where they put Him to rest, separate from Madhumangala and Balarama. Yasoda went to her own room to let Krishna fall asleep, leaving some servants behind with Him. With her mind melting of affection, Yasoda told her servants: "Don't let any noisy people come here! My boys are tired of wandering in the forest! Stay outside! They should sleep peacefully and alone until morning comes." (20-22)



Meanwhile, Shri Radhika became eager to see Her lover, seeing the bright moonlit night. She was quickly helped by Her clever girlfriends to meet Krishna in the moonlit trysting kunja. (23)



hamsamsuka sasasi candanalipta kaya mukta vibhusanacita dhrta mallika srak yatnena mukita sunupura kinkinika

radha yayau sva sadrsaliyuta nikunjam


In order not to expose Radhika to Her superiors when She sneaks out of the house at night, they adjusted Her ornamentation to the moonlight. They dressed Her in a swan-white sari, smeared Her body with white sandalpaste, hung a pearl necklace and a jasmine-garland around Her neck and carefully stifled Her anklebells. In this way She went to the nikunja. (24)



kadacit tamasyam asita vasana sa mrgamadair viliptangi kalaguru tilaka citrotpala kufaih krtottamsa nanasita mani krtalankrti yuta niravadya radha priyam abhisaraty ah sahita


And when the night is dark they dress Her in blue, smear Her limbs with musk, make aguru tilak on Her forehead and ornament Her with blue lotusflowers and ornaments. In this way Radha and Her friends could meet their beloved unhindered. (25)



vrksa cchaye pathi pathi bhiya vancayanti sva gamyam sthanam vamsvivata vitapinah sakhaya laksayanti

nyasya sviye hrdaya kamale sohyamana nigudham yantrakare vrajavana bhuva prapa krishna samipam


Radhika feared the shades of the trees as She walked down the road, She was hardly aware where to go to meet Krishna, but She recognised the branches of the tree called Vamsivata, so She went there. Vraja made Radhika swiftly cross the huge distance (of forty miles from Varsana to Vrndavana), thus She reached the bank of the Yamuna, travelling on the lotus of Her heart, as if walking on an electric staircase. (26)



She blissfully came to the trystingplace, which was like an island in the Yamuna where the water was kneedeep from the bank. This trystingplace (yoga pitha) on the spotless bank of the Yamuna is called Govinda sthali. It is on the summit of Vrndavana, which ascends gradually, like the back of a turtle, and looks like a thousand-petaled lotusflower, each petal being a kunja. The jeweled cottages are its whorl and the golden banana-trees its filaments. The Yamuna flows in its north, divided in a western and an eastern current, as if it kept the Yogapitha on her lap in her arms. (27-29)



This Yogapitha was full of greatly magnanimous trees embraced by vines. There were Sasta-, Palm-,Tamala-, Banyan-, Bakula-, coconut-, Rasala-, Kuddala-, Priyala-, Dadhiphala-, Sarala-, Bael-, Ulukha-, Uddala-, Kandarala-, Lakuca-, Tilaka-, Jambhala-, Pitasala-, Plaksa-, Tula-, Palasa-, Avaluguda-, Galava-, Granthila-, Golidha-, Kantaki-, Madhusthila-, Madhulaka-, Krtamala-, pine-, Kadamba-, Asoka-, Yanjula-, Kola-, KaripippalaDrumotpala-, Karparala-, Kulaka-, Devavallabha-, Kalpadruma-, Mandara-, Parijata-, Rangyadara-, Santanaka-, Sammadanaka-, and sandal-trees of yellow sandal to give joy to Han's body and mind. (30-34)



There were also Shri Vasanta-, Saptala-, Golden Yuthi-, Jati-, Yuthi-, Jasmine-, Mudgaradya-, Yisnukranta-, Krishnala-, Rhirubimba-, Kubjasphota-, clove-, Asoka-, Kunda- and mango - vines here and there with grapevines and betelvines. (35-36)



All the vines there are desire-vines and all the trees are desire-trees, fulfilling all the desires of Krishna and the gopis that other vines cannot ful fill. These beautiful vines are even purer than women, for they bloom without menstruating and are tender even after bearing children. (37-38)



Because the gopis enjoy with Krishna day and night they look like black vines and thus they become Syamalatas that are immobile and stunned out of ecstasy. The sakhis and maidservants become ecstatic when they see Radha's Lord and stand there stunned like Kantaki- vines, their hairs erect of joy. (39-40)



The Lord's Shri-, Bhu- and Lila-potencies become very eager to serve Krishna and through their abundant pious merit they can always live at the Yogapith as Jati-, Dhatri-, and Shri Tulasi-vines. (41)


Savitri and Parvati also become eager to see Krishna and they become a Somavalli (lunar vine) and Haritaki (Myrobalan)-vine in the Yogapitha. (42)


There were many lotusflowers both on the land and in the water of the Yamuna, both moving and nonmoving (A padmini on the land is an elephant, a nonmoving Rajiva is a kind of fish). Aho! These lotuses bloom day and night, in both the dark and the light fortnight! (The Jyotsni vine, or light quarter of the moon, also blossoms in the dark fortnight and the Rajani, vine or night, also blooms in the day). (43-44)

The Sarah (birds) move on the water and thc Sarah (rceds) stand on the land. The Jhasa (fish) move in the water and the Jhasa (deer) stand on the land. The Sala (fish) move in the water and the Sala (trees) stand on the land. The Rohita (fish) move in the water and the Rohita (tree) stands on the land. (45-46)

To please Krishna, Kamala (Laksmi or Radha) shines in the kunja, the Kamala-doe stands on the Yamunabank and the Kamala-lotus in its waters. (47)



Although Vrndavana is always devoid of red-eyed cruel creatures, there are red-eyed cranes, red-eyed pigeons and red-eyed Cakorabirds there. Although there are no quarrelsome (Kalikara) people in Vrndavana, there are Kalikara-trees there and although there are no terrible (bhima) people there, there are Bhimatrees. Although there are no cruel Kharjura-, Arista- and Palasa-demons there, there are Arista-trees there with dates (khaijura) and flowers (palasa). (48-50)



kanakacita bhuh kanakaih kanakaih kanakaih kanakaih kanakais ca vrta vivabhi vihasa kramukaih kramukaih

kramukaih kramukair api ya nicita


The golden soil is adorned with golden Campaka-, golden Kimsuka-, golden Naga Kesara-, golden Dhaturaand other golden trees. There are also Kramuka- (Lodhra), Kramuka- (Nagaramotha), Kramuka- (betel) and Kramuka (pine)-trees. (51)



priyakair jangamair yuktam priyakaih priyakaih sthiraih mayurair jangamais tadvan mayuraih sthavarair api


There are moving Priyaka's (deer) and non-moving Priyaka (Kadamba-, or Piyaltrees) moving Mayura's (peacocks) and non-moving Mayura's (trees). (52)



bakulais ca navakulais tamalair natamalakaih sadruma vidruma ceti vrtascaryasti yan mahi


There are new (navakula) Bakula-trees and bowing down kpatamala) Tamala-trees on this amazing soil, as well as coral (vidruma)trees (sadruma). (53)


Note: Navakula  No Bakula-tree; Na~amala = no Tama la-tree; Vidruma  no tree. This is an ornament of contradiction,


Viroda lanka ra. krishnasaraih krishna sarai rurubhir urubhis ca yat sambaraih sambarair vyaptam rohisai rohisa priyaih



There are Krishna-sara deer, who consider Krishna to be everything (sara), big (uru) Ruru-deer, Sambara-deer, that bestow happines (sambara) and Rohisa-priya deer, that are very fond (priya) of grass (rohisa). (54)



The Harita, Bharadvaja (larks), and Suka's (parrots) sing nicely, just as Harita, Bharadvaja and Suka muni's sing Krishna's glories in their hermitages and the sages Vatsa, Galava and Sandilya beautify the Yogapitha like the Kutaja (vaesa), Lodhra (galava) and Bael (sandifya)-trees. (55)



The basins for irrigating the trees have square, hexagonal, octagonal and round platforms surrounded by jeweled staircases that reach up to one 5 neck, chest, belly, navel, hips, knees or ankles. (56)



Some platforms are made of sapphire and ruby and have moonstone basins, others are made of moonstone and have sapphire and ruby basins. The whole Yoapith is beautified by blooming golden trees with sapphire platforms, sapphire trees with golden platforms, lapis lazuli-trees with diamond platforms, diamond trees with ruby platforms and moonstone trees with emerald platforms. Every tree has a different platform and is entwined by blossoming vines. Golden trees grow on sapphire soil, coral trees grow on chrystal soil, chrystal trees grow on golden soil, sapphire trees grow on ruby soil and ruby trees grow on emerald soil. (57-59)



The trees had white jeweled branches and golden trunks with beautiful sapphire sub-branches, some trees had emerald leaves, ruby buds, chrystal flowers and thick pearifruits, and there were all kinds of combinations of these features. These fruits, that were shaped like big jeweled baskets, fulfIl all desires. They make fitting clothes, ornaments, fragrant powder and scents for Krishna and His girlfriends. The flowers on these vines are naturally shaped like garlands and their fruits look like pumpkins and gourds that are all suitable for Krishna's plays. (60-62)



There are many jewelstudded pictures that decorate the jewelcottages in this kunja that has fragrant, ornamented flowerbeds with pillows and canopies. There are wineglasses and pots with pan, scents, fans, mirrors, sindura and colyrium. (63)



The blossoming vines are like walls and the branches and sub-branches of the trees, that are full of leaves and fruits form the roof of this kunja, that looks like a jeweled house. (64)



There are jeweled swings beautified by wonderful cloth and flowers tied to the branches of the desire-trees, that are very dear to Shri Han and Radhika. There are pleasant sounds and plays of the pigeons, cuckoos, Haritaka, Karpinjala, Tittibha's, peacocks, Cakora's, Casa's, Lava's, Syka's, Sari's, Cataka's, Kalinga's, Padayudha's, partridges, larks and Kaukubha's please everyone's ears and eyes. (65-67)



The middle of this golden place which is beautified by jewels is surrounded by circles of kunja's with desiretrees. In the middle of this golden circle is a great jeweled temple at the foot of a desiretree, surrounded by jeweled platforms with steps on all sides and a tree on each corner. To the northeast, south-east, southwest and north-west are Santanaka and Parijata-trees. (68-69)

In this temple is a golden lion-throne which appears to be flying like an eight-petalled lotus whose flapping wings are its luster. Its two backfeetcarry its weight and the two frontfeet are turned upwards, not touching the ground. It's body is made of sunstones and its eyes are jewels. It's ears and tails are turned upwards and the whole throne is shaded by a golden umbrella. The seat looks like an eightpetaled lotus with a golden trowel and jeweled filaments, covered by a nice cotton sheet. (70-72)



On eight sides of this temple are eight kunja's with desiretrees and small jeweled cottages entwined by desirevines. Outside of these desirevines are circles of other, very beautiful kunja's, constantly doubling in number. All these kunja's have desiretrees, entwined by vines. Outside of that is an empty golden place. There are pictures of jewels depicting mating deer, birds and other creatures. Outside of this is a circular banana-forest with different cool leaves and fruits, whose barks produce camphor. Outside of that are flowergardens

with many separate rows of flowers. Outside of that is an orchard, full of trees, that are bowing down from their heavy load of many kinds of fruits, standing in circles. On the outskirts of these gardens arc many cottages full of paraphernalia for service, kept thcre by Vrnda and her maidservants. Outside of that are innumerable circles of different tree entwined by different vines. Outside of that are circles of beteltrees, bearing green, yellow and red fruits and clusters at hand's reach. Outside of that are irrigated coconuttrees with nice fruits and twigs, whose crests are adorned with ornaments. Outside of that is the bank of the Yamuna, where there are many flowergardens with Campaka-, Asoka-, Nipa-, mango-, Punnaga- and Bakula-trees. The Yamuna-bank is surrounded by gardens of Asoka- and Vetasa-trees that are entwined by blooming Madhavi-vines and whose branches hang low over the water of the Yamuna. (73-84)

There are four jeweled paths going from this jeweled temple to the Yamuna's ghata's (bathingplaces), one from each direction, with rows of beautiful Bakula-trees on each side, shading them. (85)



In the north-eastern corner of the Yogapitha is the jeewel-studded bank of Brahmakunda. North-east of that is the ever blissfull Gopisvara Mahadeva. North of that is the famous Vamsi Vata-tree on the bank of the Yamuna, on whose jeweled pavilions Krishna called the gopis with His flute. (86)



Krishna very blissfully played in the water of the Yamuna with the gopis. This water sometimes reached up to one's shanks, knees, thighs, middle, navel, chest, neck or head. (87)



The Kahlara-, Kokanada (red lotus)-, Kairava-, Pundarika (white lotus)-, Indivara (blue lotus), Hallaka- and golden lotuses are blooming in the water, and their pollen scent the water, making the humming honeybees play. The swans, Cakravaka's, Madgu's, Sarah's, Tittibha's, Placa's, cranes, Kadamba's, Karandava's and wagtailbirds are singing and playing on the bank and in the water of the Yamuna. (88-89)



The Gokarna-, Rohisika-, Sambara-, Krishnasara-, Nyanka-, Ena-, Ranku prsata-, Gavaya-, Sasa-, Gandharva-, Rohita-, Samuru-, Camuru- and Cina-deer are playing in the outskirts of the forest on the bank of the Yamuna. On the subbank is a flowergarden where Krishna dances the Rasa on a beautiful Rasacircle, which is as round as the full moon, which is surrounded one one side by the Yamuna's current and on the other side by Atimukta-kunja's (90-91)



The sand of the Yamuna-bank defeats the cool splendour of camphor and is made twice as splendid by the rays of the full moon and the footprints of Krishna and the gopis when they dance there. Within the current of this beautiful Yamuna, that flows on the north of the Yogapitha with its beautiful forests and banks are many rivulets that embrace the RasamandaJa in a nice way (92-93)



kalpadrumadhah sthita ratna mandiram gopala simhasana yogapitham yam agamajnah pravadanti yam hareh priyaganah keli nikunjam aha ca


The jeweled temple under the desiretree, where Gopala's throne stands in the place which is called the Ycgapitha by the knowers of the Veda's, but is known by Krishna's dear devotees as Han's playground. (94)

Seeing this regal place, whose opulences remind one of Govinda and which was the blissfull abode of Cupid's sacrifice, Radha and Her girlfriends became very happy. (95)


Vrndadevi and her friends decorated the kunja's with different paraphernalia. When she looked down the road for Radha and Krishna to come she suddenly saw her mistress Radha coming. She quickly got up and went up to Her, joyfully ornamenting Her with Hallakaflowers that were worn before by Kesava. After showing Her the charming forests and kunja's she brought Radhika to Shri Krishna, the king of the kunja's. (96-97)


This beautiful forest was adorned with moonlight, that aroused natural feelings of love. When Radha saw these kunja's decorated by Vrnda, She became very eager to meet Han. Her mind became agitated, swept away by incitations of lust, like a piece of cotton blown away by the wind and thrust in a whirlpool of eagerness in the river of hopes for attaining Krishna. Again and again Radha entered the kunja, coming outside again when She saw anything extraordinary Sometimes She walked ahead to look out for Krishna, thinking that He had come, sometimes She thought Krishna when She heard the leaves falling from the trees, and sometimes She eagerly asked Vrnda whether Krishna had come or not. Sometimes She planned different pastimes, sometimes She lost hope that Han would come, sometimes She imagined that He stood before Her and She spoke to Him in that absorption. Sometimes She ornamented Herself for Him or made the bed, thinking a moment to be like a millennium, being so anxious to meet Her beloved (98-101)



Meanwhile mother Yasoda put Krishna to sleep and went to her bedroom, leaving servants there to watch Him. A short time after that Han got up and secretly closed the door outside of which the servants stood and went out of the side-door. He quickly went out, eager to meet Shri Radha in the nikunja. (102-103)

While walking along, Krishna thought: "The city gate is uncovered and bathing in moonilight. People are constantly going there. Let Me blissfully take the road behind the house which is shaded by trees!" (104)


While Krishna walked, the ground of Vraja kept Him on the engine of her lotusheart, so that He swiftly moved towards the nikunja-cottage with His mini (105)



Krishna quickly proceeded, anxiously thinking to Himself: "I left the moonlit path, taking the road which is shaded by trees. Has Priyaji come there yet or not?" (106)



When Shrimati saw a Tamala-tree with a golden platform under it, its leaves swinging in the wind and decorated by moonlight, She happily thought that Her lover had come. Then She decided to play a trick on Krishna and with the help of Her girlfriends She hid Herself in the grove-cottage between the golden statues attached to the wall that were carrying beautiful jeweled lamps. Sometimes She came out to see if Krishna had come and then She hid Herself again, thinking that Krishna had seen Her. (107-108)



When Krishna arrived there over the road which was shaded by trees, Vrnda came up to Him to decorate Him with Karnikara-flowers. (109)



Shri Radhika and Her girlfriends were filled with ecstatic love like Madhavi-flowers when they saw Madhava (the springtime) coming. Their ecstatic goosepimples were their blossoms, their loving tears were their honeydrops, their smiles were their flowers, surrounded by the honeybees of their faltering voices, and their bodies shivered (of ecstasy) along with the Malayan breezes. (110)



Seeing them, Krishna was also ornamented with ecstatic moods on His body His mind and eyes became restless because He did not see Radha among them, and He asked Her girlfriends: "Where is Your friend?" The sakhis said: "At home." Krishna said: "When did you come then, without Her?" The sakhis said: "To pick flowers for worshipping the Sungod!" Krishna said: "Then why do I smell Her fragrance here?" The sakhis said: "It stuck on our bodies when we left Her!" Krishna : "You're lying!" Sakhis: "Maybe!" Krishna said: "You would never come to the forest without Radhika, as the moonrays never appear in the sky without the moon!" The sakhis said: "This is not the moon, but the beauty of Vrsabhanu's daughter (or: the sun in the Taurus-sign)! Her splendour illuminates You and everything else, although She stands in one (hidden) place!" (111-114)



When they joked in this way, Vrnda gave a wink which was seen by Krishna, following which He eagerly entered a golden temple. Han saw that this whole temple was illuminated by Radha's golden splendour which met the all-pervading golden lustre of the temple itself. When this golden splendour mixed with Krishna’s lustre, the whole place was pervaded by an emerald-green effulgence. Shri Radhika could not see anything but that. (115-117)



Krishna looked for Radha between the statues again and again, but He could not find Her. He became almost stunned of joy and fear from seeing His own reflection in them. (118)



Radhika was eager to be with Krishna and this desire forced Her forwards, but Her friend unwillingness (that mood personified) pulled Her backwards. She was obstructed by Her ecstatic inertia as She saw Han before Her. She was touched by eagerness to see Krishna, but Krishna was also stunned by ecstatic inertia. His desires conquered that inertia, brought Him close to Her and placed His hand in Hers. (119-120)



When Radhika touched Govinda She shivered, horripilated, cried tears from Her wide, restless eyes, turned pale and perspired of ecstasy. Her vine-like eyebrows and Her eyes became crooked. Then She became unfavorable to Krishna and pulled Her hand out of His. (121)



Radhika's eagerly smiling face had reddish, crooked eyes with tear-sprinkled eyelids. Although She ignored Krishna, Her restless eyes expressed joy and slight laughter. Her throat made inarticulate sounds with shouts of admonishment. Seeing this, Han was very happy. (122)



Radha and Krishna's noses, tongues, ears, tear-filled eyes and skins were all greedy after their objects and They became very happy, plundering the objects of Eachother's senses. Radha plundered Krishna with different hidden (feminine) pretenses and Krishna plundered Radhika with His masculine force. (123)



Han's thief-like hands were like Cupid's goads that entered Radha's blouse to steal Her golden jug-like breasts. Shri Radha was unable to stop Him, although She tried to. (124)



In this way Radha and Krishna were immersed in an ocean or sweet pastimes, that softened Their minds and bodies. Just then the sakhis entered the kunja, wanting to see the pastimes of PriyaPriyatama, and Radha went out with them, sitting down on a dais, in a feigned unfavorable mood, actually feeling great joy. (125)


Han also approached Radha, floating on the waves of rasa, seeing which Radha fearfully hid Herself between Her girlfriends. Krishna searched Her out again from among the sakhis that had crooked, loving eyes, and He became happy from touching them. (126)



Although the desires in Radha and Krishna's hearts increased, Radha's very strong unfavorable mood stopped Her. Nevertheless Their joy increased for one floats in an ocean of bliss when the lady is unfavorable. (127)



In the great poem Govinda Lilamrta, which is the result of service to Shri Rupa Gosvami, who is a honeybee at Shri Chaitanya's lotusfeet, the encouragement of Shri Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami, the association of Shri Jiva Gosvami and the blessing of Shri Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami, this was the twenty-first chapter, dealing with the pastimes at nightfall.