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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Jiva Goswami > Six Sandarbhas > Priti-sandarbha 2

Anuccheda 171

 

 

     Another example of bhayanaka-rasa is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.10):

 

 

atah kshamasvacyuta me rajo-bhuvo

     hy ajanatas tvat-prithag-isha-maninah

ajavalepandha-tamo-'ndha-cakshusha

     esho 'nukampyo mayi nathavan iti

 

 

     "O infallible Lord, because I was born from the mode of passion, I was foolish, and because my eyes were blinded by the darkness of Your illusory potency, I foolishly thought I was a great controller independent of You. Please think of me in this way: `He is my servant. I should forgive him.' "*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by the demigod Brahma to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

Anuccheda 172

 

     Now bhibhatsa-rasa (horror) in relation to the Supreme Personality of Godhead will be considered. In this rasa of horror, Lord Krishna is, as in the previous rasas, themula (root) alambana because He is the object of the devotee's love. The adhara is the devotee. When the horror has someone else, and not Lord Krishna, as the object, the alambana it a bahiranga (external) alambana. Here the uddipanas are a series of horrible, unclean, and abominable things. The anubhavas are spitting and other like activities. The vyabhicaris are moroseness and other like emotions. The sthayi-bhava is horror impelled by love for Lord Krishna. An example of bhayanaka-rasa is seen in the following words spoken by Queen Rukmini to Lord Krishna in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.60.45):

 

 

tvak-shmashru-roma-nakha-kesha-pinaddham. . .

 

 

     "A woman who fails to relish the fragrance of the honty of Your lotus feet becomes totally befooled, and thus she accepts as her husband or lover a living corpse covered with skin, whiskers, nails, head-hair, and body-hair and filled with flesh, bones, blood, parasites, feces, mucus, bile, and air."***

 

     Now karuna-rasa (anguish) in relation to the Supreme Personality of Godhead will be considered. In this karuna-rasa, which is born from the idea that someting inauspicious is happening one's dear freind or kinsman, the vishaya is Lord Krishna. The adhara is the devotee. The uddipanas are Lord Krishna's form, qualities, and activities, and other things in relation to Him. The anubhavas are withering of the face, lamentation, and other like things. The vyabhicaris are becoming stunned, grieving, and other like things. The sthayi-bhava is grief impelled by love for Lord Krishna. The following example is seen in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.16.19):

 

 

antar hrade bhujaga-bhoga-paritam arat

     krishnam niriham upalabhya jalashayante

gopamsh ca mudha-dhishanan paritah pashumsh ca

     sankrandatah parama-kashmalam apur artah

 

 

     "As they hurried along the path to the bank of the Yamuna River, they saw from a distance that Krishna was in the lake, motionless within the coils of the black serpent. They further saw that the cowherd boys had fallen unconscious and that the animals were standing on all sides, crying out for Krishna. Seeing all this, the residents of Vrindavana were overwhelmed with anguish and confusion."***

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 173

 

 

     When the devotees, who dearly loev Lord Krishna, feel compassion and lament for the non-devotees who have not yeat attained Lord Krishna's mercy, that is also karuna-rasa. The following example is seen in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (7.5.31):

 

 

na te viduh svaritha-gatim hi vishnum

     durashaya ye bahirartha-maninah

andha yathandhair upaniyamanas

     te 'pisha-tantryam uru-dhamni baddhah

 

 

     "Persons who are strongly entrapped by the consciousness of enjoying material life, and who have therefore accepted as their leader or guru a similar blind man attached to external sense objects, cannot understand that the goal of life is to return home, back to Godhead, and engage in the service of Lord Vishnu. As blind men guided by another blind man miss the right path and fall into a ditch, materially attachd men led by another materially attached man are bound by the ropes of fruitive labor, which are made of very strong cords, and they continue again and again in materialistic life, suffering the threefold miseries."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shri Prahlada to a fellow student.

 

 

Anuccheda 174

 

 

     If adbhuta-rasa (wonder) and the other secondary rasas are felt by Lord Krishna and the object of His feelings is the devotees, then adbhuta-rasa nad other rasas are manifest with the devotrees as their object. An example of this is seen in these words spoken by Lord Krishna to Lord Balarama in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.15.5):

 

 

aho ami deva-vararcitam. . .

 

 

     "O greatest of Lords, just see how these trees are bowing down their heads at Your lotus feet, which are worshipable by the immortal demigods. The trees are offering You their fruits and flowers to eradicate the dark ignorance that has caused their birth as trees."***

 

     In this way adbhuta-rasa and the other secondary rasas may be manifest even in relation to living entities who have not yet developed ecstatic love for the Lord. In this verse the trees' activities are an imitation of human activities.

 

     Now rasabhasa (incompatible mixing of rasas), which should be avouided, will be considered. Rasabhasa is the rasas relating to Lord % should also be avoided. As rasabhasa should be avoided in the material vatsalya-rasa and other material rasas, so it should also be avoided in the five primary spiritual rasas. This wise and respectable people all accept. Mixtures of rasas that should be rejected in the material rasas should also be rejected in the spiritual rasas. What should nto be accepted in the material reasas should not be accepted in the spiritual rasas. Mixtures of rasa that are good and should be accepted in the material rasas are also good and should be accepted in the spiritual rasas. In this way the mixtures in shringara-rasa, vatsalya-rasa, and the other rasas should be considered.

     Now what is good, neutral, and to be avoided in the five primary and seven secondary rasas will be considered. In hasya-rasa (laughter) the four devotional rasas in relation to separation are incompatible, santa-rasa is neutral, and the other rasas are compatible.

     In relation to each other the secondary rasas are thus grouped into enemies, neutral parties, and friends. To hasya-rasa (laughing), karuna (anguish) and bhayanaka (fear) are enemies, adbhuta (wonder) is a friend, and the others are neutral. In this way amongst the twelve rasas the various sthayi-bhavas, sancari-bhavas, anubhavas, vibhavas, vishayas, and other bhavas are all grouped into compatible, incompatible, and neutral. In this way in people and poems that have a relationship with Lord Krishna the taste of rasabhasa (incompatible rasas) should be avoided. When the rasas are compatible, that is good. That is glorious. In certain special cases rasabhasa is also good and glorious. An example of good and acceptible rasabhasa is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.10.21 and 28):

 

 

sa vai kilayam purushah puratano

     ya eka asid avishesha atmani

 

 

     "They said: Here He is, the original Personality of Godhead as we definitely remember Him. He alone existed before the manifested creation of the modes of nature, and in Him only, because He is the Supreme Lord, all living beings merge, as if sleeping at night, their energy suspended."*

 

 

nunam vrata-snana-hutadineshvarah

     samarcito hy asya grihita-panibhih

pibanti yah sakhy adharamritam muhur

     vraja-striyah sammumuhur yad-ashayah

 

 

     "O friends, just think of His wives, whose hands He has accepted. How they must have undergone vows, baths, fire sacrifices and perfect worship of the Lord of the universe to constantly relish now the nectar from His lips [by kissing]. The damsels of Vrajabhumi would often faint just by expecting such favors."*

 

     This passage begins with a philosophical reflection in shanta-rasa and concludes with a description of shringara-rasa. This is incompatible in the same way a mixture of vatsalya-rasa and shanta-rasa is incompatible. However, in these two verses there is no true rasabhasa. That is because they are spoken by different groups of speakers. Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.10.21 is spoken by one group of speakers, and Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.10.28 is spoken by another group of speakers. That this is so and there was no rasabhasa in these speakers' words is confirmed by these words immediately following that passage (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.10.31):

 

 

evam-vidha gadantinam. . .

 

 

     "While the ladies of the capital of Hastinapura were greeting Him and talking in this way, the Lord, smiling, accepted their good greetings, and casting the grace of His glance over them, He departed from the city."*

 

     These words spoken by Shrila Suta Gosvami are glorious and blissful. Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.10.21 and 28 were spoken by the ladies in the capital city of the Kauravas.

 

 

Anuccheda 175

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (4.20.27-28):

 

 

athabhaje tvakhila-purushottamam

     gunalayam padma-karena lalasah

apy avayor eka-pati-spridhoh kalir

     na syat krita-tvac-caranaika-tanayoh

 

 

     "Now I wish to engage in the service of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and serve just like the goddess of fortune, who carries a lotus flower in her hand, because His Lordship, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the reservoir of all transcendental qualities. I am afraid that the goddess of fortune and I would quarrel because both of us would be attentively engaged in the same service.*

 

 

jagaj-jananyam jagad-isha vaishasam syat

 

 

     "My dear Lord of the universe, the goddess of fortune, Lakshmi, is the mother of the universe, and yet I think she may be angry with me because of my intruding upon her service and acting on the very platform to which she is so much attached. Yet I am hopeful that even though there is some misunderstanding, You will take my part, for You are very much inclined to the poor and You always magnify even insignificant service unto You. Therefore even though she becomes angry, I think there is no harm for You, because You are so self-sufficient that You can do without her."*

 

     Here it is seen that Maharaja Prithu's true rasa is dasya-rasa. Because his rasa is clearly not shringara-rasa, these words seem to be rasabhasa. Maharaja Prithu's rasa is dasya-rasa and Goddess Lakshmi's (padma-kerva lalasah) rasa is shringara-rasa. Here is the explanation: Maharaja Prithu's desire is not at all based on srngara-rasa. It is based only on dasya-rasa. The examples he gives are examples only of devotional service in dasya-rasa. His perception of rivalry with Goddess Lakshmi are not inappropriate for a devotee situated in vira-dasya-rasa (heroic servitorship), a devotee who has attained great mercy from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Others may say Maharaja Prtbu'd words show only his great love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is so merciful to the poor and fallen, and these words do not at all show any true rivalry with goddess Lakshmi. This kind of apreciation for the Lord's greeat mercy, thinking the Lord is more merciful to the devotee than He is even to Goddess Lakshmi, is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (8.23.6), where Prahlada Maharaja describes Lord Vamana's pastime of stepping on Bali Maharaja's head:

 

 

nemam virinco labhate prasadam. . .

 

 

     "O Supreme Personality of Godhead, You are universally worshiped. Even Lord Brahma and Lord Siva worship Your lotus feet. Yet although You are such a great personality, You have kindly promised to protect us, the demons. I think that such kindness never has been achieved even by Lord Brahma, Lord Siva, or the Goddess of fortune, Laksmi, what to speak of other dmeigods or common people."*

 

     That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is more merciful to the devotee than He is even to Goddess Lakshmi is seen in this prayer, where Prahlada Maharaja glorifies Lord Nrisimhadeva's mercy to him (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 7.9.26):

 

 

kvaham rajah-prabhava isha tamo 'dhike 'smin

     jatah suretara-kule kva tavanukampa

na brahmano na tu bhavasya na vai ramaya

     yan me 'rpitah shirasi padma-karah prasadah

 

 

     "O my Lord, O Supreme, because I was born in a family full of the hellish material qualities of passion and ignorance, what is my position? And what is to bge said of your causeless mercy, which was never offered even to Lord Brahma, Lord Shiva, or the goddess of fortune, Lakshmi? You never put Your lotus hand upon their heads, but You have put it upon mine."*

 

     Here Prahlada Maharaja says: "In the presence of Brahma and the demigods You placed Your hand on my head". He says: "Never was such mercyever given in any of Your other avataras." Shrimad-Bhagavatam 4.20.27-28 quoted in this anuccheda was spoken by Maharaja Prithu to Lord Shri Vishnu.

 

 

Anuccheda 176

 

 

     Now we will consider the vatsalya-rasa enjoyed by the Lord's father, Maharaja Vasudeva, and by others also, and which is sometimes properly manifested, and sometimes improperly manifested in the form of rasabhasa. Vösalya-rasa is seen in these words spoken by Maharaja Nanda (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.66):

 

 

manaso vrittayo nah syuh. . .

 

 

     "May our thoughts always take shelter of Krishna's lotus feet, may our words always chant His names, and may our bodies always bow down to Him and serve Him."*

 

     Lord Krishna's spiritual master also has a relationship in vatsalya-rasa. This is seen in these words spoken by Sudama brahmana in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.80.44):

 

 

kim asmabhir anirvrittam

     deva-deva jagad-guro

bhavata satya-kamena

     yesham vaso guror abhut

 

 

     "What could I possibly have failed to achieve, O Lord of lords, O universal teacher, since I was able to personally live with You, whose every desire is fulfilled, at the home of our spiritual master?"***

 

     Vatsalya-rasa is also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.80.6 and 27):

 

 

krishnasyasit sakha kashcit. . .

 

 

     "Lord Krishna had a certain brahmana friend (named Sudama) who was most learned in Vedic knowledge and detached from all sense enjoyment. Furthermore, his mind was peaceful and his senses subdued."***

 

 

kathayam cakratuh. . .karau grihya parasparam

 

 

     "Taking each other's hands, O King, Krishna and Sudama talked pleasantly about how they once lived together in the school of their guru."***

 

     In this way vatsalya-rasa is described. Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.80.44 quoted in this anuccheda was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 177

 

 

     Shringara-rasa is seen in the following words spoken by Queen Rukmini in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.60.39):

 

 

tvam nyasta-danda-munibhir gaditanubhava

     atmatma-dash ca jagatam iti me vrito 'si. . .

 

 

     "Knowing that the great sages who have renounced the sannyasi's danda proclaim Your glories, that You are the Supreme Soul of all the worlds, and that You are so gracious that You give away even Your own self, I chose You as my husband, rejecting Lord Brahma, Lord Shiva, and the rulers of heaven, whose aspirations are all frustrated by the force of time, which is born from Your eyebrows. What interest, then, could I have in any other suitors?"***

 

     In this verse the word "atma" means “paramatma", and "atma-dah" means "who reveals Himself to the liberated souls". Someone may say that in this vesre the mixture of shringara-rasa and shanta-rasa creat rasabhasa. This is not so. What seems to be santa-rasa here is simply devotional service, is Queen Rukmini's declaration that she is the maidservant ofher dear husband. Her words are appropriate because they show that she is the crest jewel of all faithful wives devoted to their hsubands. Although they eacvh had hundreds of maidservants, Lord Krishna's queens considered themselves the maidservants of Lord Krishna. This is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.59.45):

 

 

dasi-shata api vibhor vidadhuh sma dasyam

 

 

     "Although the Supreme Lord's queens each had hundreds of maidservants, they chose to personally serve the Lord.."***

 

     Queen Rukmini is Goddess Lakshmi herself. Her devotion to the Lord is mixed with knowledge of the Lord's supreme power and opulence. Therefore there is no rasabhasa is her prayers describing that opulence. Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.6.39 quoted in this anuccheda was spoken by Queen Rukmini.

 

 

Anuccheda 178

 

 

     Even the vraja-gopis, who think only of Lord Krishna's sweetness, are sometimes aware of His power and opulence. This is seen in the following words spoken by the gopiws in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.31.4):

 

 

na khalu gopika-nandano bhavan. . .

 

 

     "You are not actually the son of the gopi Yashoda, O friend, but rather the indwelling witness in the hearts of all embodied souls. Because Lord Brahma prayed for Yon to come and protect the universe, You have now appeared in the Satvata dynasty."***

 

     What here seems to be shringara-rasa mixed with shanta-rtasa is in truth only joking words spoken by the gopis. This will be explained later in this book. Therefore everything in this verse is proper and there is no rasabhasa. It is also said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.30.23):

 

 

baddhanyaya sraja kacit. . .

 

 

     "One gopi tied up her slender companion with a flower garland and said, ``Now I will bind this boy who has broken the butter pots and stolen the butter.'' The second gopi then covered her face and beautiful eyes, pretending to be afraid."***

 

     These words seem to be a mixture of vatsalya-rasa and shringara-rasa . In truth there is no mixture, nor any rasabhasa in these words. This will be explained later. An example of natural shringara-rasa is seen in these words describing the rasa-dance pastime (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.29.10):

 

 

duhsaha-preshöha-viraha. . .

 

 

     "For those gopis who could not go to see Krishna, intolerable separation from their beloved caused an intense agony that burned away all impious karma. By meditating upon Him they realized His embrace, and the ecstasy they then felt exhausted their material piety. Although Lord Krishna is the Supreme Soul, these girls simply thought of Him as their male lover and associated with Him in that intimate mood. Thus their karmic bondage was nullified and they abandoned their gross material bodies."***

 

     These words were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami, the king of sages. Then it is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.29.12):

 

 

krishnam viduh param kantam. . .

 

 

     "O sage, the gopis knew Krishna only as their lover, not as the Supreme Absolute Truth. So how could these girls, their minds caught up in the waves of the modes of nature, free themselves from material attachment?"***

 

     These words are a question posed by Maharaja Parikshit. In Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami's answer to this question may seem to be based on a description of liberation, a description of santa-rasa, a description that may seem to be rasabhasa in the context of srngara-rasa. Actually there is no rasabhasa here. This is explained in Krishna-sandarbha. What is seen as liberation (moksha) here is in truth merely the gopis' overcoming the obstacles that prevent them from meeting Lord Krishna. This is not a description of anything else. It is not a description of impersonal liberation (moksha). It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.32.8):

 

tam kacin netra-randhrena. . .yogivananda-sampluta

 

     "One gopi took the Lord through the aperture of her eyes and placed Him within her heart. Then, with her eyes closed and her bodily hairs standing on end, she continuously embraced Him within. Thus immersed in transcendental ecstasy, she resembled a yogi meditating upon the Lord."***

 

     In this verse the word "yogi" is in the neuter gender. Although they shyly embrace Lord Krishna in their hearts, the gopis in truth embraced Him very earnestly. In this way they attained His association (yogi). Thus there is no rasabhasa here. In whatever passaghes of Shrimad-Bhagavatam there may seem to be rasabhasa, there is no rasabhasa in truth. Everything in Shrimad-Bhagavatam is proper and right.

 

     Now seeming contardictions in relation to Lord Balarama and others will be considered. Many contradictions may seem to be manifest in Lord Krishna's many blissful pastimes with His devotees. None of these are contradictions in truth. This is so because of the action of the Lord's inconceivable spiritual potency (acintya-shakti). This is truew for all the devotees qualifiedto participate in the Lord's pastimes. Because He is Lored Krishna's elder brother, Lord Balarama is situated in vatsalya-rasa. Because He is identical with Lord Krishna and beacuse from childhood He enjoys pastimes with Lord Krishna, Lord

Balarama is situated in sakhya-rasa. Because He is aware of Lord Krishna's supreme power and opulence (aishvarya), Lord Balarama is a devotee of Lored Krishna. All these features are manifest at the time of Lord Krishna's pastimes with Lord Balarama. The two of Them acting together, Krishna and Balarama attacked Shankhacuda, enjoyed the holi-lila, sang, and enjoyed many pastimes. From Dvaraka Lord Balarama carried Lord Krishna's message to the gopis. There is nothing wrong in any of these activities. This truth is confirmed by the words of Shriman Uddhava and many others also.

 

     Now will be considered the rasabhasa present when a primary rasa is incompatible with a secondary rasa. It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.44.51):

 

 

devaki vasudevash ca

     vijnaya jagad-ishvarau

krita-samvandanau putrau

     sasvajate na shankitau

 

 

     "Devaki and Vasudeva, now knowing Krishna and Balarama to be the Lords of the universe, simply stood with joined palms. Being apprehensive, they did not embrace their sons."***

 

     Here someone may saty that the combination of vatsalya-rasa and bhayanaka-rasa (fear) in this verse is rasabhasa. The previous explanations have already shown that in this situation there is no rasabhasa.

 

     Now will be considered the rasabhasa present when two secondary rasas are incompatible. In the pastime when Lord Krishna entered Kaliya Lake it is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.16.16):

 

 

tams tatha kataran vikshya

     bhagavan madhavo balah

prahasya kincin novaca

     prabhava jno 'nujasya sah

 

 

     "The Supreme Lord Balarama, the master of all transcendental knowledge, smiled and said nothing when He saw the residents of Vrindavana in such distress, since He understood the extraordinary power of His younger brother."***

 

     Here Lord Balarama is fully aware of Lord Krishna's power and opulence, and the people of Vraja are plunged in karuna-rasa (grief). In this situation grief is appropriate, but someone may say that Lord Balarama's manifestation of hasya-rasa (smiling) is not appropriate, and therefore rasabhasa is present in this verse. The truth is that Lord Balarama manifests many different natures according to His different pastimes. This has already been explained. In this way He enjoys different pastimes. Here the cause of His smiling is His knowledge of Lord Krishna's supreme power. The people of Vraja, eager to protect Lord Krishna, are situated in a different mood in this situation. If they had known the secret truth of their dear Krishna, they would have smiled also. They would not have worried or lamented. An activity of Lord Balarama performed to benefit the people of Vraja is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.16.22):

 

 

krishna-pranan nirvisato

     nandadin vikshya tam hradam

pratyashedhat sa bhagavan

     ramah krishnanubhava-vit

 

 

     "Lord Balarama then saw that Nanda Maharaja and the other cowherd men, who had dedicated their very lives to Krishna, were beginning to enter the serpent's lake. As the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Balarama fully knew Lord Krishna's actual power, and therefore He restrained them."***

 

     At the end of this pastime the people of Vraja regained their Lord Krishna. This is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.17.16):

 

 

ramash caCyutam alingya

     jahasasyanubhava-vit

 

 

     "Lord Balarama embraced His infallible brother and laughed, knowing well the extent of His potency. Out of great feelings of love, He lifted Him up on His lap and repeatedly looked at Him. The cows, bulls and young female calves also achieved the highest pleasure."***

 

     In this verse Lord Balarama smiled because he regained Lord Krishna. In the pastime of the kidnapping of Rukimini and in manyother pastimes also, Lord Balarama's nature of being flooded with love for His brother Krishna is described. In all these pastimes nothing is inappropriate. Therefore Lord Balarama's smiling here is not rasabhasa. Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.16.16 quoted here was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 179

 

 

     Incompatible mixtures of sthayi-bhava in ecstatic love ofr the Supreme Personality of Godhead are called "prity-abhasa". Prity-abhasa is included within rasabhasa. Incompatible mixtures of sancari-bhava are also a kind of rasabhasa.It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.86.32):

 

 

sva-vacas tad ritam kartum

     asmad-drig-gocaro bhavan

yad atthaikanta-bhaktan me

     nanantah shrir ajah priyah

 

 

     "You have said: `Neither Ananta, Goddess Shri, nor unborn Brahma is dearer to Me than My unalloyed devotee.' To prove Your own words true, You have now revealed Yourself to our eyes."***

 

     This verse may seem to be an incompatible mixture (abhasa) of devotion (bhakti) and pride (garva). In truth there is nothing incompatible in this verse. This verse means: "Because I am Your unalloyed devotee, I am very dear to You. You said: `Lord Ananta is not dear to Me merely because He is the abode where I rest. Goddess Shri is not dear to Me merely because she is My wife. Unborn Brahma is not dear to Me merely because he is My son. However, he who is the best of My unalloyed devotees is most dear to Me.' To show that the words You spoke are the truth You have now appeared before my eyes. By coming before me You have given Your mercy to me." These words were spoken by the King of Mithila to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

Anuccheda 180

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.29):

 

 

tayor ittham bhagavati

     krishne nanda-yashodayoh

vikshyanuragam paramam

     nandam ahoddhavo muda

 

 

     "Uddhava then joyfully addressed Nanda Maharaja, having clearly seen the supreme loving attraction he and Yashoda felt for Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead."***

 

     In this verse is seen the grief Nanda and Yashoda felt in separation freom Lord Krishna. It would seem that their grief in separation and Uddhava's joy are incompatible. The truth is that they are not incompatible. Here the situation is like the previously described situation where Lord Balarama smiled as the people of Vraja grieved. Uddhava had come to console the people of Vraja. Therefore it would not have been appropriate for him to be morose in their presence. Therefore Uddhava's joy here is filled with a great wonder of the glories of appropriate ecstatic spiritual love. Udshava did succeed in consoling the people of Vraja. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 181

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.42.10):

 

 

ehi vira griham yamo

     na tvam tyaktum ihotsahe

tvayonmathita-cittayah

     prasida purusarshabha

 

 

     "Come, O hero. Let us go to my house. I cannot bear to leave You here. O best of males, please take pity on me, since You ahve agitated my mind."***

 

     Someone may say that it is not appropriate for a heroine to be very agitated, and therefore this verse presents an abhasa in shringara-rasa. The truth is there is nothing incmpatible in this verse, for even in ordinary affairs this kind of agitation is not inappropriate. This verse was spoken by Kubja to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

Anuccheda 182

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.35.14):

 

 

tava sutah sati yadadhara-bimbe. . .

 

 

     "O pious mother Yashoda, your son, who is expert in all the arts of herding cows, has invented many new styles of flute-playing. When He takes His flute to His bimba-red lips and sends forth the tones of the harmonic scale in variegated melodies, Brahma, Shiva, Indra and other chief demigods become confused upon hearing the sound. Although they are the most learned authorities, they cannot ascertain the essence of that music, and thus they bow down their heads and hearts."***

 

     The restlessness here is not like the restlessness felt by Kubja. In Shrimad-Bhagavatam is a passage where in groups of doble stanzas the gopis describe the sweetness of Lord Krishna's flute. The gopis, however, do not become bewildered by the sound of Lord Krishna's flute as the demigods do. The gopis say in that passage of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.35.17):

 

 

vrajati tena vayam. . .

 

 

 

     "As Krishna strolls through Vraja with His lotus-petal-like feet, marking the ground with the distinctive embIems of flag, thunderbolt, lotus and elephant goad, He relieves the distress the ground feels from the cows' hooves. As He plays His renowned flute, His body moves with the grace of an elephant. Thus we gopis, who become agitated by Cupid when Krishna playfully glances at us, stand as still as trees, unaware that our hair and garments are slackening."***

 

     There the gopis also say (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.35.3):

 

 

vyoma-yana-vanitah. . .

 

 

     "When Mukunda vibrates the flute He has placed to His lips, stopping its holes with His tender fingers, He rests His left cheek on His left arm and makes His eyebrows dance. At that time the demigoddesses traveling in the sky with their husbands, the Siddhas, become amazed. As those ladies listen, they are embarrassed to find their minds yielding to the pursuit of lusty desires, and in their distress they are unaware that the belts of their garments are loosening."***

 

     These words describe the expression of natural ecstatic love. The gopis say in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.35.20):

 

kunda-dama. . .

 

 

      "O sinless Yashoda, your darling child, the son of Maharaja Nanda, has festively enhanced His attire with a jasmine garland, and He is now playing along the Yamuna in the company of the cows and cowherd boys, amusing His dear companions. The gentle breeze honors Him with its soothing fragrance of sandalwood, while the various Upadevas, standing on all sides like panegyrists, offer their music, singing and gifts of tribute."***

 

     The gopis also say in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.29.31):

 

maivam vibho 'rhati bhavan. . .

 

 

     "O all-powerful one, You should not speak in this cruel way. Do not reject us, who have renounced all material enjoyment to render devotional service to Your lotus feet. Reciprocate with us, O stubborn one, just as the primeval Lord, Shri Narayana, reciprocates with His devotees in their endeavors for liberation."***

 

     Someone may say that the gopis' humble appeal for Lord Krishna's association in this verse is inappropriate, an example of rasabhasa. Itis not rasabhasa. In truth these words spoken by the gopis may be interpreted to be a series of puns that show a meaning very different from what seems to be an impassionaed appeal. This will be explained later. In  this way the sublime sweetness of the Lord's pastimes is established.

 

     Someone may say that rasabhasa is present in the following statement of Bali Maharaja in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (8.20.12-13):

 

 

yadyapy asav adharmena

     mam badhniyad anagasam

tathapy enam na himsishye

     bhitam brahma-tanum ripum. . .

 

 

     "Although He is Vishnu Himself, out of fear He has covered Hismelf in the form of a brahmana to come to me begging. Under the circumstances, because He has assumed the form of a brahmana, even if He irreligiously arrests me or even kills me, I shall not retaliate, although He is my enemy.*

     "If this brahmana really is Lord Vishnu, who is worshiped by Vedic hymns, He would never give up His widespread reputation. Either He would lie down having been killed by me, or He would kill me in a fight."*

 

     Someone may say that these impious words inspired by Shukracarya's trickery are improper and therefore bhakty-abhasa (incompatible with devotional service). However, because with His feet Lord Vamana directly touched Bali Maharaja and gave him devotion, these words are not truly bhakty-abhasa. These two verses were spoken by Bali Maharaja to Shukracarya.

 

 

Anuccheda 183

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.71.10):

 

 

jarasandha-vadhah krishna

     bhury-arthayopakalpate

 

 

     "O Krishna, the killing of Jarasandha, which is certainly a reaction of his past sins, will bring immense benefit. Indeed, it will make possible the scarificial ceremony You desire."***

 

     Here someone may say that because in this verse Uddhava directly addresses Lord Krishna by His name, these words are an example of dasyabhasa (incompatible with Uddhava's mellow of daysa-rasa).In truth there is no dasyabhasa in these words. Because Lord Krishna's names are filled with descriptions of His glories, it is not improper for the Lord's servants to speak His names directly. That the Supreme Lord's names are filled with His glories is described in these words of Shvetashvatara Upanishad (4.19):

 

 

yasya nama mahad-yashah

 

 

     "The Supreme Lord's names are filled with descriptions of His glories."

 

     Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.71.10 quoted here was spoken by Uddhava to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

Anuccheda 184

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.75.5):

 

 

satam shushrushane jishnuh

     krishnah padavanejane

 

 

     "Arjuna attended the respectable elders, and Krishna washed everyone's feet."***

 

     Here someone may say: "It is not right that Maharaja Yudhishöhira engaged Lord Krishna in washing everypne's feet. This is an example of bhakty-abhasa (incompatible with devotional service)." In truth there is no bhakty-abhasa in this verse. It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.75.3):

 

 

bandhavah paricaryayam

     tasyasan prema-bandhanah

 

 

     "At the Rajasuya sacrifice of your saintly grandfather his family members, bound by their love for him, engaged themselves in humble services on his behalf."***

 

     Here the family members were not assigned to various services by Maharaja Yudhisthira. Rather, but their own desire they performed these services. Therefore by His own desire Lord Krishna washed everyone's feet. It was not otherwise. In this situation Lord Krishna thought, "My kinsmen still have some past karmic reactions present in their bodies. I should remove all thos karmic reactions." Thus, by the power of Lord Krishna's unstoppable desire, He acted in that way. Lord Krishna also desired to show devotion to Narada Muni and the other brahmanas present there. Therefore He washed their feetto show the respect that should be offered to a brahmana. Lord Krishna Himself said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.69.40):

 

 

putra ma khidah

 

 

     "O brahmana, I am the speaker of religion, its performer and sanctioner. I observe religious principles to teach them to the world, My child, sop do not be disturbed."***

 

     Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.75.5 quoted here was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 185

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.15.20-21):

 

 

shridama nama gopalo

     rama-keshavayoh sakha

subala-stokakrishnadya

     gopah premnedam abruvan

 

 

     "Once, some of the cowherd boys-Shridama, the very close friend of Rama and Krishna, along with Subala, Stokakrishna and others-lovingly spoke the following words.***

 

 

rama rama maha-sattva

     krishna dushöa-nibarhana

ito 'vidure su-mahad

     vanam talali-sankulam

 

 

     "(The cowherd boys said:) Rama, Rama, O mighty-armed one! O Krishna, destroyer of the miscreants! Not far from here is a very great forest filled with rows of palm trees."***

 

     Someone may say that because the cowherd bosy approached Krishna and Balarama with awe and veneration, this passage is inappropriate for sakhya-rasa (sakhyabhasa). However, yhis passage is in truth not at all inappropriate, for although they were aware that Krishna and Balarama were both very powerful and heroic, the boys still though Krishna and Balarama were still their equals and not their superiors at all. Their awareness of the great power and heroism of Krishna and Balarama, only increased the boys' affection for Them in sakhya-rasa. It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.58.14):

 

 

salam krishnena sannaddho

     vihartum vipinam mahat

bahu-vyala-mrigakirnam

     pravishat para-vira-ha

 

 

     "Once Arjuna, the slayer of powerful enemies, donned his armor, mounted his chariot flying teh flag of Hanuman, took up his bow and his two inexhaustible quivers, and went to sport with Lord Krishna in a large forest filled with fierce animals."***

 

     As it was shown in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.15.20-21, the knowledge of Lord Krishna's heroic power enhancted Arjuna's affection for Him in sakhya-rasa. The same kind of situation, where the knowledge of Lord Krishna's heroic power enhances the love His friends feel for Him is also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.12.24):

 

 

asman kim atra grasita nivistan

     ayam tatha ced bakavad vinankshyati

 

 

     "Then the boys said, `Has this living creature come to swallow us? If he does so, he will immediately be killed like Bakasura, without delay.' Thus they looked at the beautiful face of Krishna, the enemy of Bakasura, and, laughing loudly and clapping their hands, they entered the mouth of the python."***

 

     Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.10.15.20-21 quoted here was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 186

 

 

     In the description of Lord Krishna's water-pastimes at Dvaraka it is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.90.22):

 

 

na calasi. . .vasudeva-nandananghrim

 

 

     "O magnanimous mountain, you neither move nor speak. You must be pondering some matter of great importance. Or do you, like us, desire to hold on your breasts the feet of Vasudeva's darling son?"***

 

     Here someone may protest that the queens' mention of their father-in-law's name in addressing their husband in the words "vasudeva-nandananghrim" (the feet of Vasudeva's son) is improper. It is kanta-bhavabhasa (improper in relation to the husband). This protest is without merit. In truth the word "vasudeva" here does not refer to Lord Krishna's father. Rather it means: "the worshipable Lord (deva) who is the great wealth (vasu) of the heart. Even if one argues that still, even if only by coincidence, the word "vasudeva-nandana" certainly soes mean "the son of Vasudeva" and is still improper, then the answer is given that the queens spoke these words in the impulse of wild ecstatic love and they should not be criticized for any fault they may commit by accident. This verse was spoken by Lord Krishna's queens.

 

 

Anuccheda 187

 

 

     It is also said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.33):

 

 

tam atmajair drishtibhir antaratmana

     duranta-bhavah parirebhire patim

niruddham apy asravad ambu netrayor

     vilajjatinam bhrigu-varya vaiklavat

 

 

     "The insuperable ecstasy was so strong that the queens, who were shy, first embraced the Lord in the innermost recesses of their hearts. Then they embraced Him visually, and then they sent their sons to embrace Him [which is equal to personal embracing]. But, O chief amongst the Bhrigus, though they tried to restrain their feelings, they inadvertently shed tears."*

 

     Here it is said that, filled with great love (duranta-bhavah), the queens wept (niruddham apy asravat). Here someone may claim that the queens' becoming filled with love for their husband as they watched Him embrace their sons is an improper response on their part. It is kanta-bhavabhasa (improper in relation to the husband). This is so because their making an connection between their sons' embracing their husband with the pleasures they enjoy in private with their husband is improper. This claim of impropriety has no basis. Their feeling their love for their husband increase as they watch Him embrace their sons is an increase of love only in a general sense. It has no relation to the private pleasures of husbands and wives. Therefore there is nothing improper with the queens' glances in this situation. This verse was spoken by Shrila Suta Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 188

 

 

     Now the abhasas in relation to the vibhavas will be discussed. In relation to the uddipanabhasas (improper manifestation of the uddipanas) it is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.38.8):

 

 

yad arcitam. . .yad gopikanam kuca-kunkumankitam

 

 

     "Those lotus feet are worshiped by Brahma, Shiva and all the other demigods, by the goddess of fortune, and also by the great sages and Vaishnavas. Upon those lotus feet the Lord walks about the forest while herding the cows with His companions, and those feet are smeared with the kunkuma from the gopis' breasts."***

 

     Here someone may complain that these signs indicating the Lord's confidential pastimes are not appropriate for a devotee who seeks to associate with the Lord in the mood of dasya-rasa, and therefore this verse is an example of dasya-bhavabhasa (incompatible with dasya-rasa). In truth there is fault in this verse. The speaker of this verse (Akrura) is thinking only that the Supreme Lord is easily attained by devotional service. The speaker of this verse does not desire to participate in the gopis' confidential pastimes with Lord Krishna. In his commentary on this verse Shrila Shridhara Svami says: "Here the words `yad-gopikanam' indicate that by serving Him with devotion the gopis easily attained association with Lord Krishna." Because the speaker in this verse aspired only to attain devotion to Lord Krishna in general way, there is no fault in this verse. In the same way there is no fault in these words (also spoken by Akrura) in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.38.17):

 

 

samarhanam yatra. . .

 

 

     "By offering charity to that lotus hand, Purandara and Bali earned the status of Indra, King of heaven, and during the pleasure pastimes of the rasa dance, when the Lord wiped away the gopis perspiration and removed their fatigue, the touch of their faces made that hand as fragrant as a sweet flower."***

 

     Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.38.8 quoted in this anuccheda was spoken by Akrura.

 

 

Anuccheda 189

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.55.40):

 

 

yam vai muhuh. . .

 

 

     "It is not astonishing that the palace women, who should have felt maternal affection for Pradyumna, privately felt ecstatic attraction for him as if he were their own lord. After all, the son exactly resembled his father. Indeed, Pradyumna was a perfect reflection of the beauty of Lord Krishna, the shelter of the goddess of fortune, and appeared before their eyes as Cupid himself. Since even those on the level of his mother felt conjugal attraction for him, then what to speak of how other women felt when they saw him?"***

 

     Here the truth that the palace women were agitated by feelings of amorous love for Pradyumna seems to be inappropriate. What seems here to be inappropriate is actually appropriate, as has already been explained in a previous passage of this book.

     Someone may say that innapropriate alambanas or inappropriate lovers (prity-adhara) bring rasabhasa situations in the descriptions of the yajna--patnis, pulinda girls, does, and others in Shrimad-Bhagavatam. This assertion will be refuted later in this book.

     Someone may claim that an inappropriateness in relation to the object of love (priti-vishaya) is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.21.7):

 

 

akshanvatam. . .vaktram vrajesha-sutayoh

 

 

     "The cowherd girls said: O friends, those eyes that see the beautiful faces of the sons of Maharaja Nanda are certainly fortunate. As these two sons enter the forest, surrounded by Their friends, driving the cows before Them, They hold Their flutes to Their mouths and glance lovingly upon the residents of Vrindavana. For those who have eyes, we think there is no greater object of vision."***

 

     Here someone may say that although Lord Krishna and Lord Balarama , still the form of Lord Balarama is not the same as the form of Lord Krishna, and therefore it is not appropriate for Lord's girlfriends to have feelings of amorous love for Lord Balarama, and therefore this verse has a rasabhasa of shringara-rasa. The truth, however, is that in this verse the gopis are hiding their amorous feelings for Lord Krishna. They are pretending that they have no amorous feelings for Lord Krishna. Therefore their praising Lord Krishna and Lord Balarama equally is in now way a statement of their amorous feelings for Lord Balarama. Therefore there is no rasabhasa in this verse. In his commentary on Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.65.17) Shrila Shridhara Svami states: "The gopis who enjoyed amorous pastimes with Lord Balarama were different from the gopis who enjoyed pastimes with Lord Krishna." Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.21.7 quoted in this anuccheda was spoken by the goddesslike gopis of Vraja.

 

 

Anuccheda 190

 

 

     Here someone may say that in Shrimad-Bhagavatam there are descriptions of love where the object of love is a person other than lord Krishna. This, they say, is sangaty-abhasa (improper object of love). They quote this verse describing Shrimati Devahuti in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.22.16):

 

 

kamah sa bhuyat. . .kshipatim iva shriyam

 

 

     "Let your daughter's desire for marriage, which is recognized in the Vedic scriptures, bew fulfilled. Who would not accept her hand? She is so beautiful that by her bodily luster alone she excels the beauty of her ornaments."*

 

     Somoeone may say that Devahuti's devotion to Kardama Muni is bhakty-abhasa (devotion directed to the wrong person). This criticism is not valid. Her union with Kardama Muni brought great glory and good fortune to the world. Therefore no one should find fault with it. This verse was spoken by Shri Kardama Muni.

 

 

Anuccheda 191

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.57.26):

 

 

uvasa tasyam katicin

     mithilayam sama vibhuh

manitah priti-yuktena

     janakena mahatmana

tato 'shikshad gadam kale

     dhartarashörah suyodhanah

 

 

     "The almighty Lord Balarama stayed in Mithila for several years, honored by His affectionate devotee Janaka Maharaja. During that time Dhritarashöra's son Duryodhana learned from Balarama the art of fighting with a club."***

 

     In this verse the word "vibhuh" (almighty) refers to Lord Balarama. The word "manitah" (honored) and other worlds like it are adjectives modifying Lord Balarama. Any claim that rasabhasa is present in this verse is not justified. There is no rasabhasa here.

 

 

Anuccheda 192

 

 

     These and other seeming examples of rasabhasa in Shrimad-Bhagavatam are thus shown to be free of any true rasabhasa. It is said: "Even if there is some seeiming rasabhasa, if the sthayi-bhava is very exalted and powerful, then there is no rasabhasa. Then then the rasas are properly manifest. An example of a very exalted and powerful primary rasa negating the possibility of rasabhasa is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.32):

 

 

aho bhagyam aho bhagyam

     nanda-gopa-vrajaukasam

yan-mitram paramanandam

     purnam brahma sanatanam

 

 

     "How greatly fortunate are Nanda Maharaja, the cowherd men, and all the other inhabitants of Vrajabhumi! There is no limit to their good fortune because the Absolute Truth (Brahman), the source of transcendental bliss, the eternal Supreme Brahman, has become their friend."*

 

     In this verse spoken by the demigod Brahma todescribe the people of Vreja there is a misture of jnana-bhakti (the santa-rasa mixture of devoption and philosophical speculation present here by the description of the Brahman feature of the Lord) and bandhu-bhava (love for Lord Krishna as one's friend or kinsman). This misture is not rasabhasa because the taste of the sentiment of thinking of the Lord is one's friend is so sweet and exalted that its glory eclipses the dry mellow of santa-rasa here. The description here of jnana-bhakti is done in the mood of wonder felt within the heart, in the mood of praising the gloriosu good fortune of Vraja's people. Therefore there is no rasabhasa and the rasas are properly manifest (rasollasa) in this description. A similar situation is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.21.11

 

 

ittham satam brahma-sukhanubhutya

 

 

     "All the cowherd boys used to play with Krishna, who is the source of the Brahman effulgence "*

 

     A similar situation is also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.49.9):

 

 

bhratreyo bhagavan krishnah

     sharanyo bhakta-vatsalah

paitri-shvasreyan smareati

     ramash camburuhekshanah

 

 

     "Does my nephew Krishna, the Supreme Personality and the compassionate shelter of His devotees, still remember His aunt's sons? And does lotus-eyed Rama remember them also?"***

 

     For Lord Krishna's paternal aunt devotion mixed with knowledge of Lord Krishna's supreme power and opulence (aishvarya-jnana-mayi bhakti) is not appropriate. For her vatsalya-rasa is proper and appropriate. Here the knowledge that Lord Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead is eclipsed by overwhelming feelings of vatsalya-rasa, feelinsg seen here in the words “bhratreyo", "paitri-shvasreyan", and “amburuhekshanah" Because vatsalya-rasa is so gloriosu and prominent in thisverse there is no rasabhasa. All is proper with the rasas (rasollasa). This verse was spoken by Queen Kunti.

 

 

Anucchedas 193 and 194

 

 

     In Lord Ramacandra's sweet pastimes Hanuman has pure dasya-rasa, a rasa still mixed with the knowledge that his master iss the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although initially it may seem that this is not an appropriate mixture, the sweetness of Hanuman's dasya-rasa eclipses his knowledge that his master is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus there is not rasabhasa and everything in these rasas is proper (rasollasa). The glory of this kind of mixture of madhurya (perception of the Lord's sweetness) and aishvarya (knowledge of the Lord's power and opulence) is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.19.3):

 

 

om namo bhagavate uttamashlokaya. . .

 

 

     "Let me please Your Lordship by chanting the bija-mantra omkara. I wish to offer my respectful obeisances unto the Personality of Godhead, who is the best among the most highly elevated personalities. Your Lordship is the reservoir of all the good qualities of Aryans, people who are advanced. Your character and behavior are always consistent, and You always control Your senses and mind. Acting just like an ordinary human being, You exhibit exemplary character to teach others how to behave. There is a touchstone that can be used to examine the quality of gold, but You are like a touchstone that can verify all good qualities. You are worshiped by brahmanas who are the foremost of all devotees. You, the Supreme Person, are the King of kings, and therefore I offer my respectful obeisances unto You."*

 

     In this verse the word "bhagavatah" shows the Lord's feature of aishvarya and the word "uttama-shlokaya" shows the Lord's feature of madhurya. The Lord's true nature is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.19.4):

 

 

yat tad vishuddhanubhava-matram ekam. . .

 

 

     "The Lord, whose pure form [sac-cid-ananda-vigraha] is uncontaminated by the modes of material nature, can be perceived by pure consciousness. In the Vedanta He is described as being one without a second. Because of His spiritual potency, He is un- touched by the contamination of material nature, and because He is not subjected to material vision, He is known as transcendental. He has no material activities, nor has He a material form or name. Only in pure consciousness, Krishna consciousness, can one perceive the transcendental form of the Lord. Let us be firmly fixed at the lotus feet of Lord Ramacandra, and let us offer our respectful obeisances unto those transcendental lotus feet."*

 

     In this verse the words "yat-tat" refer to Lord Ramacandra's celebrated form dark like durva grass. The word "matram" describes the Lord's wualities and form, a form manifest sometimes in a white color and sometimes in other colors, a form more effulgent and glorious than the sun and other luminaries. The Lord's nature and His internal potency have already been described in the Bhagavat-sandarbha and other books. Here the Lord's nature is described by the word "ekam". Here the words "sva-tejasa dhvasta-guna-vyavastham" mean "His internal potency throws far away the external potency consisting of three modes". Here the word “prasantam" means "he is never stopped by any obstacle", and "pratyak" means "He is seen only by spiritual eyes". This is described in the following words of Kaöha Upanishad (2.3.9 and 1.2.23):

 

 

na cakshusha pashyati rupam asya

 

 

     "With material eyes no one can see the Supreme Lord's form."

 

 

yam evaisha vrinute tena labhyas

     tasyaisha atma vivrinute tanum svam

 

 

     "The Lord is obtained only by one whom He Hismelf chooses. To such a person He manifests His own form."*

 

     What is the nature of the Supreme Lord's form? Shrimad-Bhagavatam declares: "anama-rupam" (His name and form are not material). Material names and forms are described in these words of Chandogya Upanishad 6.3.2):

 

 

etas tisro devata anena jivenatmananupravishya nama-rupe vyakaravani

 

 

     "In this way the individual spirit souls entered three kinds of material bodies and obtained various material names."

 

     The Supreme Personality of Godhead does not have material names and forms like those of the conditioned spirit souls. The reason the Lord has no material names or forms is given here in the word "niraham" (He is free of material false-ego). In the passage from Chandogya Upanisad the word "atma" refers to the individual spirit soul, who is part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (paramatma). The word “anena" (by him) here indicates that the individual soul is different from the Supreme Lord. That individual spirit soul then enters a material body  The word "devata" here refers to the various kinds of material bodies made of the elements fire, water, and earth. Because of material false-ego the individual soul enters a material body. Although He is present within thr material body as the Supersoul, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not affected by material false ego and thus remains always free from possessing a material name or material body. Free from material false ego, He does not accept a material name or material body. Here someone may ask: "Why does not everyone accept this idea that Lord Ramacandra's form is spiritual in nature?" To this Shrimad-Bhagavatam gives the answer: "sudhiyopalambhanam" (Only in pure consciousness, Krishna consciousness can one perceive the transcendental form of the Lord). The spiritual nature of the Supreme Lortd's form is also described by Lord Brahma in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.9.3):

 

 

natah param parama yad bhavatah svarupam. . .

 

 

     "O my Lord, I do not see a form superior to Your present form of eternal bliss and knowledge."*

 

 

Anuccheeda 195

 

 

     Here someone may ask: "If the Supreme Personality of Godhead has a spiritual form as you say, then why does He come and stay amongst the conditioned souls?" To this the answer is given: There ar many secondary reasons, bu the primary reason the Supreme Personality of Godhead comes to the material world is to show to His devotees the sweetness of His pastimes. It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.19.5):

 

 

martyavataras tv iha

 

 

     "It was ordained that Ravana, chief of the Rakshasas, could not be killed by anyone but a man, and for this reason Lord Ramacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appeared in the form of a human being. Lord Ramacandra's mission, however, was not only to kill Ravana but also to teach mortal beings that material happiness centered around sex life or centered around one's wife is the cause of many miseries. He is the self-sufficient Supreme Personality of Godhead, and nothing is lamentable for Him. Therefore why else could He be subjected to tribulations by the kidnapping of mother Sita?"*

 

     In this verse the word "tu" (but) is used to dispel doubt. Here "martyavatarah" means "He who incarnates in the world of mortals". Then the verse explains: "He does not come to the world of mortals only to kill the demons who trouble the saintly devotees, He comes also to teach the conditioned souls. He reveals to them the true goal of life." But these are only the external secondary reasons He appears in the world of mortals. He also comes to reveal the great sweetness of His pastimes to the devotees, devotees whose desire of the heart is to engage in devotional service, devotees whose heart melt in anguish in separation from the Lord. If the Lord had desired only to kill the demons, He could very easily have killed them by His expansion as the all-pervading Supersoul, and He Himself, in His original form, could have remained in the spiritual world enjoying His pastimes. Why did He come, then, to this world? His main purpose was not to kill the demons. His main purpose was the reveal the sweetness of His pastimes. That is the meaning here.

 

 

Anuccheda 196

 

 

     In this way the Supreme Lord's pastimes are filled with mercy and sublime sweetness. Lord Rama's distess at His separation from Goddess Sita, a distress foundwithin the sweetness of His pastimes, is not a defect in any way. WithiHis pastimes there is no attachment to lust or other faulty emotions, as there is in ordinary material activities. The Lord manifests these pastimes to give mercy to His devotees. This is seen in the following explanation in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.19.6):

 

 

na vai sa atmatmavatam. . .

 

 

     "Since Lord Shri Ramacandra is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva, He is not attached to anything in this material world. He is the most beloved Supersoul of all self-realized souls, and He is their very intimate friend. He is full of all opulences. Therefore He could not possibly have suffered because of separation from His wife, nor could He have given up His wife and Lakshmana, His younger brother. To give up either would have been absolutely impossible."*

 

     Here it is said that the Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva, is not attached to anything in this material world. The reason why He is not attached is given here in the word “atma", which means "the Supersoul", and the word “bhagavan", which means "He who is full of all powers and opulences", and the word "vasudeva", which means "the shelter of all". Furthermore, it is said here that He is the dearest friend (suhrittamah) of the devotees, who consider Him their master, and who think "the Lord is mine" (atmavatam). It is also said here that the Lord does not truly feel anguished (kaslamam) on separation from His wife. He only manifests this anguish to show His great love. Also,at the time of the devaduta Lord Ramacxandra did not in truth abandon Laksmana. He had not power truly to abandon Him. At the time when He ascended to His own abode in the spiritual world, Lord Ramacandra was reunited with His associates, who had all been waiting for Him. Even today Lord Rama, Sita-devi, and Their associates may be seen on Kimpurusha-varsa. Therefore those pastimes of Lord Rama were only an imitation of the activities natural to human society. That is the meaning here.

 

 

Anuccheda 197

 

 

     To confirm what was said before, the following two verses of Shrimad-Bhagavatam declare that devotion to the Lord is the only way one can attain the Lord's mercy, mercy that is the sweetest of the Lord's virtues. This is confirmed by the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.19.7):

 

 

na janma nunam mahato na saubhagam

     na van na buddhir nakritis tosha-hetuh

tair yad vishrishöan api no vanaukasash

     cakara sakhye bata lakshmanagrajah

 

 

     "One cannot establish a friendship with the Supreme Lord Ramacandra on the basis of material qualities such as one's birth in an aristocratic family, one's personal beauty, one's eloquence, one's sharp intelligence or one's superior race or nation. None of these qualifications is actually a prerequisite for friendship with Lord Shri Ramacandra. Otherwise how is it possible that although we un- civilized inhabitants of the forest have not taken noble births, although we have no physical beauty and although we cannot speak like gentlemen, Lord Ramacandra has nevertheless accepted us as friends?"*

 

     In this verse the word "janma mahatah" means “birth from the Supreme Personality of Godhead", “saubhagam" means "beauty", "akritih" means "birth", "yat" means "from which", “taih" means "birth and other like things", “vishrishöan" means "rejected", "nah" means “we who pleased the Lord with our devotional service of searching for Sita-devi and engaging in other kinds of devotional service also", "bata" means indeed", “lakshmanagrajah" the elder brother of Lakshmana, who is endowed with all virtues and who is Sumitra's son", “sakhye" means "made friendship, for in these pastimes friendship and not servitude was the appropriate rasa". This verse describes Sugriva.

 

 

Anuccheda 198

 

 

     The next verse declares (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.19.8):

 

 

suro 'suro vapy atha vanaro narah

     sarvatmana yah sukritajnam uttamam

bhajeta ramam manujakritim harim

     ya uttaran anayat kosalan divam iti

 

 

     "Therefore, whether one is a demigod or a demon, a man or a creature other than man, such as a beast or bird, everyone should worship Lord Ramacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appears on this earth just like a human being. There is no need of great austerities or penances to worship the Lord, for Me accepts even a small service offered by His devotee. Thus He is satisfied, and as soon as He is satisfied, the devotee is successful. Indeed, Lord Shri Ramacandra brought all the devotees of Ayodhya back home, back to Godhead [Vaikunöha]."*

 

     The previous verse described devotion to the Lord's humanlike transcendental form, devotion based on knowledge of the Lord's true nature and status. This verse describes devotion based on perception of the Lord's sweetness. In that situation the devotee worships the humanlike form of the Lord (manujakritim harim). Here the word "ramam" means "the form of Lord Rama, not the form of Kapila or any other form of the Lord". Here "uttamam" means "whose transcendental qualities have no equal ro superior", and "sukritajnam" means "He who is pleased by even a small quantity of devotional service". This verse was spoken by Shri Hanuman.

 

 

Anuccheda 199

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.23.29-32):

 

 

maivam vibho 'rhati. . .

 

 

     "The wives of the brahmanas replied: O almighty one, please do not speak such cruel words. Rather, You should fulfill Your promise that You always reciprocate with Your devotees in kind. Now that we have attained Your lotus feet, we simply wish to remain here in the forest so we may carry upon our heads the garlands of tulasi leaves You may neglectfully kick away with Your lotus feet. We are ready to give up all material relationships."*

 

     It is again said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.29.30):

 

 

preshöho bhavams tanu-bhritam kila bandhur atma

 

 

     "Our dear Krishna, as an expert in religion You have advised us that the proper religious duty for women is to faithfuIly serve their husbands, children and other relatives. We agree that this principle is valid, but actually this service should be rendered to You. After all, O Lord, You are the dearmost friend of all embodied souls. You are their most intimate relative and indeed their very Self."***

 

     Because they are filled with jokes and puns, these verses are very glorious and show perfectly compatible cominations of the rasas.

 

     Sometimes in a secondary way the rasas may be incompatibe and in the primary way the rasas are compatible. This is seen in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.60.45):

 

 

tvak-shmashru-roma-nakha-kesha. . .

 

 

     "A woman who fails to relish the fragrance of the honey of Your lotus feet becomes totally befooled, and thus she accepts as her husband or lover a living corpse covered with skin, whiskers, nails, head-hair, and body hair and filled with flesh, bones, blood, parasites, feces, mucus, bile, and air."***

 

     These words were spoken by Shri Rukmini. Here, although the presence of bibhatsa-reasa (horror) is incompatible, that incompatibility is eclipsed by Rukimini-devi's praise of her beloved husband, Lord Krishna. Therefore the result is glorious and in the final result the rasas are considered compatible. It is also said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.10.30):

 

 

etah param stritvam apastapeshalam

     nirasta-shaucam bata sadhu kurvate

yasam grihat pushkara-locanah patir

     na jatv apaity ahritibhir hridi sprishan

 

 

     "All these women auspiciously glorified their lives despite their being without individuality and without purity. Their husband, the lotus-eyed Personality of Godhead, never left them alone at home. He always pleased their hearts by making valuable presentations."*

 

     In this verse the word "stritvam" mweans “birth as a woman". Shri Rukmini and the other queens came from different classes of society. The word "apastapeshalam" here describes their situation. These words do not describe Shri Rukimini and the other queens born in higher classes. The other queens, born as lower-class women, may have had some faults, but by glorifying Lord Krishna they all became supremely purified. That is the way they became saintly, free of faults, and decorated with all virtues. Then this verses explains that Lord Krishna, giving apopropriate gifts to His beloved queens, touched their hearts.  At heart attached to them, Lord Krishna did not leave their homes. As in a previous example the presence of bibhatsa-rasas gave a superficial appearance of rasabhasa that in in the end was not atb all present, so in this verse any appearance of rasabhasa is not real. There is no rasabhasa in this verse. This verse was spoken by the ladies in Hastinapura, the city of the Kauravas.

 

 

Anuccheda 200

 

 

     As before, an example of what seems to be rasabhasa of a primary and secondary rasa, but in the end is understood to be a compatible mixture of rasas is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.16.20):

 

 

gopyo 'nurakta-manaso bhagavaty anante

     tat-sauhrida-smita-viloka-girah smarantyah

graste 'hina priyatame bhrisha-duhkha-taptah

     shunyam priya-vyatihritam dadrishus tri-lokam

 

 

     "When the young gopis, whose minds were constantly attached to Krishna, the unlimited Supreme Lord, saw that He was now within the grips of the serpent, they remembered His loving friendship, His smiling glances and His talks with them. Burning with great sorrow, they saw the entire universe as void."***

 

     Here the secondary rasa, karuna-rasa (lamentation), is compatible, and the primary rasa, shringara-rasa, seems to be incompatible. However, in this situation the gopis' remembrace of Lord Krishna's smiling glances acts to make their sorrow glorious. For this reason the mixture of these rasas is compatible, and there is no rasabhasa. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 201

 

 

     An example of what seems to be a sancari-bhava incompatible with a primary rasa is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.29.8):

 

 

ta varyamanah patibhih. . .

 

 

     "Their husbands, fathers, brothers and other relatives tried to stop them, but Krishna had already stolen their hearts. Enchanted by the sound of His flute, they refused to turn back."***

 

     Here it may at first seem that the gopis' restlessness (capalya) is incompatible with their being completely enchanted (moha) by Lord Krishna. Both, however, combine to nourish the gopis' exalted, guileless ecstatic love for Lord Krishna. Therefore the rasas here are compatible, and there is no rasabhasa. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 202

 

 

     Now some other similar examples will be given. Sometimes what at first seems to be rasabhasa in the end is found to be a perfectly compatible misture of rasas. An example of this may be seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.85.18):

 

 

yuvam na nah sutau sakshat

     pradhana-purusheshvarau

 

 

     "You are not our sons but the very Lords of both material nature and its creator (Maha-Vishnu). As You Yourself have told us, You have descended to rid the earth of the rulers who are a heavy burden upon her."***

 

     Someone may claim that in this verse Vasudeva's paternal vatsalya-rasa is incompatible with his devotion in awe and reverence. In truth these two sentiments are not incompatible here. This has already been described in our discussion of another verse, a verse describing Lord Balarama. In this way it is seen that the rasas are compatible in this verse. There is no rasabhasa here.

 

 

Anuccheda 203

 

 

     In this way the rasas of love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead are described. The rasa of devotional service mixed with knowledge (jnana-bhaktimaya-rasa) is also called by the name shanta-rasa. In this rasa of devotion mixed with knowledge the alambana (prime impetus of ecstatic love) and the vishaya (object of love) are both the transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (bhagavan) manifest as the Supreme Brahman (para-brahma). Here the adhara (lovers) are the great jnani-bhaktas who personally participate in the Supreme Lord's pastimes. The Supreme Personality of Godhead as He manifests in this rasa is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.15.37):

 

 

evam tadaiva bhagavan aravinda-nabhah

 

 

     "At that very moment, the Lord, who is called Padmanabha because of the lotus grown from His navel and who is the delight of the righteous, learned about the insult offered by His own servants to the saints. Accompanied by His spouse, the goddess of fortune, He went to the spot on those very feet sought for by recluses and great sages."*

 

     When they arrived in Vaikunöha, the four Kumaras saw this form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The jnani-bhaktas are described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.7.10):

 

 

atmaramash ca munayo

 

 

     "All different varieties of atmaramas [those who take pleasure in atma, or spirit self], especially those established on the path of seff-realization, though freed from all kinds of material bondage, desire to render unalloyed devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead. This means that the Lord possesses transcendental qualities and therefore can attract everyone, including liberated souls."*

 

     The four Kumaras and many others are atmaramas are described in this verse. Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami, who was attracted by the nectar sweetness of the rasas in the Supreme Lord's pastimes and who was rapt in reciting Shrimad-Bhagavatam, is also described in that verse.

     In shanta-rasa the uddipanas (secondary impetuses for ecstatic love) are primarily the Supreme Lord's qualities, activities, and paraphernalia. Here the Lord's qualities include His eternal form of knowledge and bliss, His form always being manifest, His being the master of all opulences, His being the all-pervading Supersoul, His being the master of the knoledge-potency, His being all-powerful, His giving liberation to the enemies He kills, His being dear to the devotees in shanta-rasa, His being equal to all, His being self-controlled, His being peaceful, His purity, and His manifesting wonderful forms. The Lord's activities being with His acting to protect His devotees and include a host of other activities also. His paraphenralia include His great Upanishads, the dust of the jnani-bhaktas' feet, His Tulasi-devi, His transcendental abodes, and many other things also.

     Now the anubhavas (activities of ecstatic love) will be described. Here the anubhavas include: praising the Supreme Lord's transcendental qualities and other features, chanting the holy names of the Lord in His forms as Brahman, Paramatma, and other forms, tasting the bliss of seeing the Lord in His Brahman feature, and yearning to see the Lord in His original feature as Bhagavan (the Supreme Personality of Godhead). Here the sattvika-bhavas include: staring at the tip of the nose, performing the actions of an avadhuta, assuming the jnana-mudra posture, yawning, observing silence, bowing down before the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and offering prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Most of these activities are material in nature. In this rasa the sancari-bhavas (symptoms of ecstatic love) include: being detached from material things, steadiness, joyfulness, thoughtfulness, meditation, gravity, eagerness, earnestness, and the philosophical search for the truth.

     The sthayi-bhava (continuous ecstasy) of the jnani-bhaktas is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.15.46):

 

 

yo 'ntarhito hridi gato 'pi duratmanam tvam

     so 'dyaiva no nayana-mulam ananta raddhah

 

 

     "Our dear Lord, You are not manifested to rascals, even though You are seated within the heart of everyone. But as far as we are concerned, we see You face to face, although You are unlimited. The statements we have heard about You from our father, Brahma, through the ears have now been actually realized by Your kind appearance."*

 

     The attainment of shanta-rasa is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.15.43):

 

 

tasyaravinda-nayanasya padaravinda-

     kinjalka-mishra-tulasi-makaranda-vayuh

antar-gatah sva-vivarena cakara tesam

     sankshobham akshara jusham api citta-tanvoh

 

 

     "When the breeze carrying the aroma of tulasi leaves from the toes of the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead entered the nostrils of those sages, they experienced a change both in body and in mind, even though they were attached to the impersonal Brahman understanding."*

 

     In this verse the lotus-eyed Lord (aravinda-nayanasya) is the alambana, the breeze is the uddipana, the change in body is the udbhasvara, sattvika-bhava, and anubhava, and the change in mind is the sancari-bhava, which consists of spiritual happiness. Even though they were situated in impersonal Brahman understanding, the sages attained devotional service mixed with knowledge (jnana-bhakti). That kind of devotional service was the sthayi-bhava (continuous ecstasy) they felt. All these together culiminate in jnana-bhakti (devotional service mixed with knowledge). That was the rasa they experienced.

     Now we will discuss the bhakti-rasa known as ashraya-rasa (the rasa of taking shelter of Lord Krishna). In this rasa Lord Krishna is the object of love and certain devotees who participate in Lord Krishna's pastimes are the lovers. In different situations sometimes Lord Krishna manifests His humanlike form and sometimes He manifests His form as the supreme controller. In the presence of the residents of Vraja He manifests His supremely sweet and glorious humanlike form.

     The devotees are of two kinds: 1. the external devotees who serve the Lord by performing specific duties in the material world, and 2. the confidential devotees for whom the shade of Lord Krishna's feet is their very life. In the first group the demigods Brahma, Shiva, and some others are considered confidential devotees because of their great devotion to the Lord. The second group is divided into three parts: 1. the devotees in general, 2. the residents of the cities of the Yadus (like Mathura and Dvaraka), and 3. the residents of Vraja. In the first of these groups are included the kings imprisoned by Jarasandha, the great sages, and many others, and in the second and third groups are included Janaka Maharaja (the king of Mithila) and many other devotees.

     Included among the uddipanas in this rasa are Lord Krishna's qualities. Included among His qualities are the following: 1. being the master of all opulences (bhagavattvam) in His relationship with the devotees who take shelter of Him as the supreme controller, 2. being the seed of all avataras (avataravali-bijatvam), 3. being the attractor of the self-satisfied sages (atmaramakarshitvam), 4. being the giver of ecstatic devotional service to Putana and others who only pretend to engage in devotional service, 5. manifesting numberless material universes from the pores of His skin, 6. being an ocean of mercy to the devotees who take shelter of Him as He is manifest in His humanlike form, 7. being the protector of anyone who takes shelter of Him, 8. possessing inconceivable potencies, 9. being the supreme object of worship, 10. being all-knowing, 11. being firm in vow, 12. possessing all wealth and all good fortune, 13. being naturally patient and tolerant, 14. being righteous, 15. being truthful, 16. being expert, 17. being all-auspicious, 18. being supremely powerful and glorious, 19. being the best follower of religion, 20. seeing through the eyes of the scriptures, 21. being the devotee's friend and well-wisher, 22. generosity, 23. power 24. fame, 25. strength, 26. tolerance, 27. ability, 28. being controlled by love, and many other transcendental qualities also.

     Now we will consider Lord Krishna's castes. The first group of devotees (the devotees in general) accept that Lord Krishna is a cowherd boy or a member of another caste (as a ksatirya in Dvaraka). This acceptance of caste by the Lord is only an imitation. Lord Krishna's dark complexion and many other things remind (smaraka) the devotees of Him. The devotees in the second group (the residents of Vraja, Mathura, and Dvaraka) thinkt hat Lord Krishna is the best of all gopas or the best of all ksatriyas. Now Lord Krishna's activities will be considered. For the first group of devotees (the devotees in general) Lord Krishna's creation and maintenance of the material worlds and His revelation of His universal form are prominent. For the second group of devotees (the residents of Vraja, Mathura, and Dvaraka) Lord Krishna's killing the dfemons, protecting His devotees, and casting His glance of mercy are prominent. Now Lord Krishna's paraphernalia will be considered. Lord Krishna's weapons, musical instruments, ornaments, abodes, footprints, and devotees are prominent among His paraphernalia. For the first group of devotees these are all clearly transcendental. For the second group of devotees these seem to be material even though they certainly are transcendental in fact. Now the time sequence of Lord Krishna will be considered. For both the first and second groups of devotees these begin with Lord Krishna's birth in this world and end with His departure for the spiritual world.

     Now the anubhavas in this rasa will be considered. The anubhavas include residing in places sacred to Lord Krishna, chanting the glories of Lord Krishna's holy names and qualities, and performing other like devotional activities.

     Now the sancari-bhavas in this rasa will be discussed. When the devotees associate with Lord Krishna the sancari-bhavas are joy, pride, and steadiness. When the devotees are separated from Lord Krishna the sancari-bhavas are sickness and exhaustion. In both association with and separation from the Lord are manifest the sancari-bhavas detachment, anxiety, moroseness, humbleness, worry, meditation, embarassment, thoughtfulness, and death. An example of meditation on the Lord even when the Lord is present before the devotee is seen in this description of Bhishmadeva's actions in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.9.31):

 

 

vishuddhaya dharanaya. . .

 

 

     "By pure meditation, looking at Lord Shri Krishna, he at once was freed from all material inauspiciousness and was relieved of all bodily pains caused by the arrow wounds. Thus all the external activities of his senses at once stopped, and he prayed transcendentally to the controller of all living beings while quitting his material body."*

 

     Unhappy that he may have offended Lord Krishna by attacking Him in battle, Bhishmadeva prays in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.9.34):

 

 

yudhi turaga-rajah. . .mama nishita-sharair vibhidyamana-tvaci

 

 

     "On the battlefield [where Shri Krishna attended Arjuna out of friendship], the flowing hair of Lord Krishna turned ashen due to the dust raised by the hoofs of the horses. And because of His labor, beads of sweat wetted His face. All these decorations, intensified by the wounds dealt by my sharp arrows, were enjoyed by Him. Let my mind thus go unto Shri Krishna."*

 

     Bhishmadeva again prays in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.9.38):

 

 

shita-vishikha-hatah. . .

 

 

     "May He, Lord Shri Krishna, the Personality of Godhead, who awards salvation, be my ultimate destination. On the battlefield He charged me, as if angry because of the wounds dealt by my sharp arrows. His shield was scattered, and His body was smeared with blood due to the wounds."*

 

     Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.9.31 quoted here was spoken by Shrila Suta Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 204

 

 

     Sthayi-bhava (continuous ecstasy) as manifested in ashraya-rasa is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.7):

 

 

bhavaya nas tvam bhava vishva-bhavana

     tvam eva ma-tatha suhrit-patih pita

tvam sad-gurur nah paramam ca daivatam

     yasyanuvrittya kritino babhuvima

 

 

     "O creator of the universe, You are our mother, well-wisher, Lord, father, spiritual master and worshipable Deity. By following in Your footsteps we have become successful in every respect. We pray, therefore, that You continue to bless us with Your mercy."*

 

     In this verse the vibhavas, udbhasvaras, anubhavas, sattvika-bhavas, and other kinds of ecstasy combine to make a wonderfully sweet rasa. It is said:

 

 

sad-bhavash ced vibhavader

     dvayor ekasya va bhavet

jhaöity anya-samakshepat

     tada dosho na vidyate

 

 

     "If the transcendental bhavas and vibhavas meet together and nothing incompatible arises, then there is no fault in the rasas."

 

     Here the word "anya-samakshepat" means “incompatible in that situation". Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.11.7 quoted here was spoken by the citizens of Dvaraka to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

Anuccheda 205

 

 

     Ashraya-rasa is of two kinds: 1. ashraya-rasa in separation from the Lord, and 2. ashraya-rasa in direct association with the Lord. Ashraya-rasa in separation from the Lord is again of two kinds: 1. initial separation, before meeting the Lord, and 2. separation when the Lord is far away. Ashraya-rasa in direct association with the Lord is also of two kinds: 1. eventually meeting the Lord again after one of the two kinds of separation, and 2. the regular direct association called by the names “siddhi" (perfection" and "tushöi" (happiness). Initial separation, before meeting the Lord, is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.70.31):

 

 

iti magadha-samruddha

     bhavad-darshana-kankshinah

prapannah pada-mulam te

     dinanam sham vidhiyatam

 

 

     "This is the message of the kings imprisoned by Jarasandha, who all hanker for Your audience, having surrendered to Your feet. Please bestow good fortune on these poor souls."***

 

     Here the words "bhavad-darshana-kankshinah" indicate that the kings yearned to become free of their imprisonment in order to see Lord Krishna. In this is seen the sthayi-bhava. Here the soles of the Lord's feet (pada-mulam) are the alambana, the kings' imprisonment is the uddipana, their surrender to the Lord is the udbhasvara, their eagerness and humility are the sancari-bhavas. From this the sattvika-bhavas and other bhavas are known. This verse was spoken by the kings' messenger to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

Anuccheda 206

 

 

     The "siddhi" kind of direct association with the Lord is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.73.2-7):

 

 

dadrishus te ghana-shyamam

    pita-kausheya-vasasam

shrivatsankam catur-bahum. . .

 

 . . .pibanta iva cakshurbhyam

     lihanta iva jihvaya

 

jighranta iva nasabhyam

     rambhanta iva bahubhih

pranemur hata-papmano

     murdhabhih padayor hareh

 

krishna-sandarshanahlada-

     dhvasta-samrodhana-klamah

prashashamsur hrishikesham

     girbhih pranjalayo nripah

 

 

     "The kings then beheld the Lord before them. His complexion was dark blue like the color of a cloud, and Hewore a yellow silk garment. He was distinguished by the Shrivatsa mark on His chest, His four mighty arms, the pinkish hue of His eyes, which resembled the whorl of a lotus, His lovely, cheerful face, His gleaming makara earrings, and the lotus, club, conchshell, and disc in His hands. A helemt, a jeweled necklace, a golden belt, and golden bracelets and armlest decorated His form, and on His neck He wore both the brilliant precious Kaustubha gem and a garland of forest flowers. The kings seemed to drink His beauty with their eyes, lick Him with their tongues, relish His fragrance with their nostrils, and embrace Him with their arms. Their past sins now eradicated, the kings all bowed down to Lord Hari, placing their heads at His feet.***

     "The ecstasy of beholding Lord Krishna having dispelled the weariness of theior imprisonment, the kings stood with joined palsm and offered words of praise to that supreme master of the senses."***

 

     These verses are an example of utpreksha, the fanciful kind of metaphor where one things is imagined to have become another. Here wide-opened eyes are imagined to be drinking, wide-opened mouths are imagined to be licking Lord Krishna's fragrant lotus feet, and blossomed-wide nostrils are imagined to be smelling the fragrance of all of Lord Krishna's limbs. UIn this way, because of their great devotion, the kings are attracted to Lord Krishna's feet. Overcome with ecstatic love, it is as if they embraced the lord's feet. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 207

 

 

     Separation when the Lord is in a distant place is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.9):

 

 

yarhy ambujakshapasasara. . .

 

 

     "O lotus-eyed Lord, whenever You go away to Mathura-Vrindavana or Hastinapura to meet Your friends and relatives, every moment of Your absence seems like a million years. O infallible one, at that time our eyes become useless, as if bereft of sun."*

 

     This verse describes the separation felt by the citizens of Dvaraka. The separation felt by the people of Vraja is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.35.25):

 

 

yadu-patir dvirada-raja-viharah. . .

 

 

     "With His cheerful face resembling the moon, lord of the night, the Lord of the Yadus moves with the grace of a regal elephant. Thus He returns in the evening, delivering the cows of Vraja from the heat of the day."***

 

     Here it is said that Lord Krishna deliughted the young and old cows. How much more did He give delight to the human beings?  The "tushöi" kind of association with the Lord is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.1):

 

 

anartan sa upavrajya

     svrddhan jana-padan svakan

dadhmau daravaram tesam

     vishadam shamayann iva

 

 

     "Upon reaching the border of His most prosperous metropolis, known as the country of the Anartas [Dvaraka], the Lord sounded His auspicious conchshell, heralding His arrival and apparently pacifying the dejection of the inhabitants."*

 

     The word "iva" (as if) used here is a rhetorical ornament. This verse was spoken by Shrila Suta Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 208

 

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.35.25 quoted above it was said that Lord Krishna delighted the people of Vraja  and delivered them from their sufferings. This is confirmed by the folloing words spoken by the goddesslike gopis of Vraja in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.21.10):

 

 

vrndavanam sakhi bhuvo vitanoti kirtim. . .

 

 

      "O friend, Vrindavana is spreading the glory of the earth, having obtained the treasure of the lotus feet of Krishna, the son of Devaki. The peacocks dance madly when they hear Govinda's flute, and when other creatures see them from the hilltops, they all become stunned."***

 

     TRe gopis also say in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.35.4):

 

 

hanta citram abalah shrinutedam. . .

 

 

     "O girls! This son of Nanda, who gives joy to the distressed, bears steady lightning on His chest and has a smile like a jeweled necklace. Now please hear something wonderful. When He vibrates His flute, Vraja's bulls, deer and cows, standing in groups at a great distance, are all captivated by the sound, and they stop chewing the food in their mouths and cock their ears. Stunned, they appear as if asleep, or like figures in a painting."***

 

     Now the devotional dasya-rasa (servitorship) will be considered. In this rasa the alambana is Lord Krishna in His feature as a master. The object of service is Lord Krishna, and the servitors are the glorious servants who directly participate in Lord Krishna's pastimes. As in the previous rasa, in this rasa Lord Krishna manifests two kinds of forms: 1. the form of the opulent supreme controller (parameshvara-akara), and 2. a glorious humanlike form (nara-akara). Some servants serve the forst of these forms, and other servants serve the other. Thus there are two kinds of servants. Again there are three kinds of servants: 1. servants who serve the Lord's body (anga-sevaka), 2. servants who act as the Lord's associates (parshada), and 3. servants the Lord sends on specific missions (preshya). The anga-sevaka servants anoint the Lord's body with fragrant ointments, offer the Lord betelnuts and fragrant scents, dress the Lord in exquisite garments, and serve Him in many other ways. The parshada servants become the Lord's advisor, chariot-driver, a general of His army, a judge in His judicial system, an administrator of parts of His kingdom, and they also assume many other like duties. With their great learning and expertise they delight the Lord's royal conclave. Because of his exalted position the Lord's priest is counted among His gurus. Thus the Lord's priest is amongst His associates (parshada). The preshyas include the Lord's chariot-driver, footsoldiers, artisans, and others. As were the previously mentioned servants, these servants are all very dear to the Lord. Shri Uddhava, Daruka, and others who very closely serve the Lord are the most dear of the Lord's servitors. Lord Krishna said to Uddhava in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.11.49):

 

 

tvam me bhrityah suhrit sakha

 

 

     "O Uddhava, you are my servant, well-wisher, and friend."

 

     In this rasa the uddipanas are the same as were previously described. For the anga-sevaka servants the Lord's qualitiese include His handsomeness, delicateness, and other qualities, the Lord's activities include His eating, sleeping, and other like activities, and the Lord's paraphernalia include the articles used to serve the Lord and the remnants of what has been enjoyed by the Lord. For the parshada servants the Lord's qualities include His status as the supreme master, and many other qualities. For the preshya servants the Lord's qualities include His power, glory, and other qualities. Here the anubhavas are primarily as were described before. Directly associating with the Lord, the servants perform their respective duties. If trembling, becoming stunned, or other ecstatic symptoms become manifest in them when they perform thir duties of serving the Lord, the servants lament. The Lord's servants are very extraordinary. For them ecstatic symptoms are both common and powerful. Even when the Lord is not present dasya-rasa is very powerful and exalted. When the Lord is not present His servants continue to perform their duties of serving Him. Here the sancari-bhavas are as previously were described. The sthayi-bhava is service with devotion. For Akrura and others like him knowledge of the Lord's power and opulence is prominent. For Uddhava and others like him knwoledge of the Lord's sweetness is prominent. The Lord's servants in Vraja know only the Lord's sweetness and nothing else. Their devotion is very great. They worship Lord Krishna because His is Vraja's prince, because He has a host of transcendental qualities, and because He is supremely glorious. About Akrura it is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.38.28):

 

 

dadarsha krishnam ramam ca

     vraje go-dohanam gatau. . .

 

 

     "Akrura then saw Krishna and Balarama in the village of Vraja, going to milk the cows. Krishna wore yellow garments, Balarama blue, and Their eyes resembled autumnal lotuses. One of those two mighty-armed youths, the shelters of the goddess of fortune, had a dark-blue complexion, and the other's was white. With Their fine-featured faces They were the most beautiful of all persons. As they walked with the gait of young elephants, glancing about with compassionate smiles, those two exalted personalities beautified the cow pasture with the impressions of Their feet, which bore the marks of the flag, lightning bolt, elephant goad and lotus. The two Lords, whose pastimes are most magnanimous and attractive, were ornamented with jeweled necklaces and flower garlands, anointed with auspicious, fragrant substances, freshly bathed, and dressed in spotless raiment. They were the primeval Supreme Personalities, the masters and original causes of the universes, who had for the welfare of the earth now descended in Their distinct forms of Keshava and Balarama. O King Parikshit, They resembled two gold-bedecked mountains, one of emerald and the other of silver, as with Their effulgence They dispelled the sky's darkness in all directions."***

 

     In this part of the Lord's pastimes Akrura saw the Lord's sweetness. Later Akrura saw the Lord's power and opulence manifest in a lake of the Yamuna. For Akrura seeing the Lord's wonderful power and opulence was more important that seeing His sweetness. For Shri Uddhava Lord Krishna's sweetness was most important. This is clearly seen in the words Uddhava spoke glorifying the good fortune of Gokula's residents. When the Lord's was absent, Uddhava meditated on the sweetness of Lord Krishna's humanlike pastimes. Thus he felt the pangs of separation from the Lord. Uddhava said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.16):

 

 

mam khedayaty etad ajasya janma-

     vidambanam yad vasudeva-gehe

vraje ca vaso'ri-bhayad iva svayam

     purad vyavatsid yad-ananta-viryah

 

 

     "When I think of Lord Krina-how He was born in the prison house of Vasudeva although He is unborn, how He went away from His father's protection to Vraja and lived there incognito out of fear of the enemy, and how, although unlimitedly powerful, He fled from Mathura in fear-all these bewildering incidents give me distress."*

 

 

Anuccheda 209

 

 

     Lord Krishna's glories are described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.12):

 

 

yan martya-lilaupayikam. . .

 

 

     "The Lord appeared in the mortal world by His internal potency, yoga-maya. He came in His eternal form, which is just suitable for His pastimes. These pastimes were wonderful for everyone, even for those proud of their own opulence, including the Lord Himself in His form as the Lond of Vaikunöha. Thus His (Shri Krishna's) transcendental body is the ornament of all ornaments."*

 

     Lord Krishna's supremely sweet pastimes are described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.25-28):

 

 

vasudevasya devakyam

     jato bhojendra-bandhane

cikirshur bhagavan asyah

     sham ajenabhiyacitah

 

 

     "The Personaiity of Godhead, Lord Shri Krishna, being prayed to by Brahma to bring welfare to the earth, was begotten by Vasudeva in the womb of his wife Devaki in the prison of the King of Bhoja."*

 

 

tato nanda-vrajam itah

     pitra kamsad vibibhyata

ekadasha samas tatra

     gudharcih sa-balo 'vasat

 

 

     "Thereafter, His father, being afraid of Kamsa, brought Him to the cow pastures of Mabaraja Nanda, and there He lived for eleven years like a covered flame with His elder brother, Baladeva."*

 

 

parito vatsapair vatsamsh

     carayan vyaharad vibhuh

yamunopavane kujad-

     dvija-sankulitanghripe

 

 

     "In His childhood, the Almighty Lord was surrounded by cowherd boys and calves, and thus He traveled on the shore of the Yamuna River, through gardens densely covered with trees and filled with vibrations of chirping birds."*

 

 

kaumarim darshayamsh ceshöam

     prekshaniyam vrajaukasam

rudann iva hasan mugdha-

     bala-simhavaloka nah

 

 

     "When the Lord displayed His activities just suitable for childhood, He was visible only to the residents of Vrindavana. Sometimes He would cry and sometimes laugh, just like a child, and while so doing He would appear like a lion cub."*

 

     Here the words "Sometimes He would cry and sometimes laugh" mean that in the presence of Mother Yashoda and others Lord Krishna acted like an ordinary child. These verses were spoken by Shriman Uddhava.

 

 

Anuccheda 210

 

 

     The residents of Vraja knew only the Lord's sweetness. This is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.15.17):

 

 

pada-samvahanam cakruh

     kecit tasya mahatmanah

apare hata-papmano

     vyajanaih samavijayan

 

 

     "Some of the cowherd boys, who were all great souls, would then massage His lotus feet, and others, qualified by being free of all sin, would expertly fan the Supreme Lord."***

 

     Here the word "mahatmanah" means "endowed with great virtues" and the word "hata-papmanah" means "free of any sins that might stop their good fortune". Speaking these humble words, Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami yearns to become like these cowherd boys. These words were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 211

 

    

     Dasya-rasa is also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.21.18):

 

 

hantayam adrir abala hari-dasa-varyah. . .

 

 

     "Of all the devotees, this Govardhana Hill is the best! O my friends, this hill supplies Krishna and Balarama, along with Their calves, cows and cowherd friends, with all kinds of necessities-water for drinking, very soft grass, caves, fruits, flowers and vegetables. In this way the hill offers respects to the Lord. Being touched by the lotus feet of Krishna and Balarama, Govardhana Hill appears very jubilant."***

 

     The menaing of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by the gopis.

 

 

Anuccheda 212

 

 

     Beginning with the vibhavas and culminating in sthayi-bhava, this rasa is fiilled with wonder. An example of a devotee at the time before His first meeting Lord Krishna is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.38.10):

 

 

apy adya vishnor manujatvam iyusho

     bharavataraya bhuvo nijecchaya

lavanya-dhamno bhavitopalambhanam

     mahyam na na syat phalam anjasa drishah

 

 

     "I am going to see the Supreme Lord Vishnu, the reservoir of all beauty, who by His own sweet will has now assumed a humanlike form to relieve the earth of her burden. Thus there is no denying that my eyes will achieve the perfection of their existence."***

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Akrura.

 

 

Anuccheda 213

 

 

     An example of a devotee seeing Lord Krishna for the first time is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.38.35):

 

 

bhagavad-darshanahlada-

     baspa-paryakulekshanah

pulakacitanga autkanöhyat

     svakhyane nashakan nripa

 

 

     "The joy of seeing the Supreme Lord flooded Akrura's eyes with tears and decorated his limbs with eruptions of ecstasy. He felt such eagerness that he could not speak to present himself, O King."***

 

     The words "he could not speak to present himself" mean "He could not say: I am Akrura. I offer my respectful obeisances to You.' " This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 214

 

 

     An example of a devotee feels separation in Lord Krishna's absence is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.1-3):

 

 

iti bhagavatah prishtah

     kshattra vartam priyashrayam

prativaktum na cotseha

     autkanöhyat smariteshvarah

 

 

     "When the great devotee Uddhava was asked by Vidura to speak on the messages of the dearest Lord Krishna, Uddhava was unable to answer immediately due to excessive anxiety at the remembrance of the Lord.*

 

 

yah panca-hayano matra

     pratar-ashaya yacitah

tan naicchad racayan yasya

     saparyam bala-lilaya

 

 

     "He was one who even in his childhood, at the age of five years, was so absorbed in the service of Lord Krishna that when he was called by his mother for morning breakfast, he did not wish to have it.*

 

 

sa katham sevaya tasya

     kalena jarasam gatah

prishto vartam pratibruyad

     bhartuh padav anusmaran

 

 

     "Uddhava thus served the Lord continually from childhood, and in his old age that attitude of service never slackened. As soon as he was asked about the message of the Lord, he at once remembered all about Him."*

 

     In these verses the word "Bhagavatah" refers to Shriman Uddhava and ksattra" refers to Vidura. The word “jarasam" means "twenty-five years old". This word does not mean that he had become old. True, he was of approximately the same age as Lord Krishna. Still, as Lord Krishna never became old and infirm, so Uddhava also never became old. This is described in Shri Krishna-sandarbha (Anuccheda 117). Lord Krishna personally glorified Uddhava in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.4.31):

 

 

noddhavo 'nv api man-nyunah. . .

 

 

     "Uddhava is not inferior to Me in any way because he is never affected by the modes of material nature. Therefore he may remain in this world in order to disseminate specific knowledge of the Personality of Godhead."*

 

     It is also said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.45.19):

 

 

tatra pravasayo 'py asan

     yuvano 'ti-balaujasah. . .

 

 

     "Even the most elderly inhabitants of the city appeared youthful, full of strength and vitality."***

 

     If the residents of Mathura were eternally youthful, then how much more so was Uddhava eternally youthful? Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.2.1-3 was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 215

 

 

     It is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.7):

 

 

krishna-dyumani nimloce. . .durbhago bata loko 'yam

 

 

     "My dear Vidura, the sun of the world, Lord Krishna, has set, and our house has now been swallowed by the great snake of time. What can I say to you about our welfare? The universe with all its planets is most unfortunate."*

 

     In these words Uddhava lamented his separation from Lord Krishna. However, after feeling ditsress in separation from Lord Krishna, Uddhava perceived Lord Krishna direct prwsence.and became joyful. It was as if Lord Krishna directly came before him. This is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.4):

 

 

sa muhurtam abhut tasnim

     krishna-nghri-sudhaya bhrsham

tivrena bhakti-yogena

     nimagnah sadhu nirvritah

 

 

     "For a moment he remained dead silent, and his body did not move. He became absorbed in the nectar of remembering the Lord's lotus feet in devotional ecstasy, and he appeared to be going increasingly deeper into that ecstasy."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 216

 

 

     To save the lives of the people of Vraja, who were plunged in despair because Lord Krishna was no longer amongst them, Lord Krishna sent Uddhava with a message. When he entered there,.Uddhava saw that Vraja was filled with spiritual bliss. This is described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.9):

 

 

vasitarthe 'bhiyudhyadbhih. . .

 

 

     "Gokula resounded on all sides with the sounds of bulls in rut fighting with one another for fertile cows, with the mooing of cows, burdened with their udders, chasing after their calves, with the noise of milking and of the white calves jumping here and there, with the liud reverberation of flute-polaying, and with the singing of the all-auspicipus deeds of Krishna and Balarama by the cowherd men and women, who made the village resplendent with their wonderfully ornamented attire. The cowherds' homes in gokula appeared most charming  with their abundant paraphernalia for worship of the sacrifical fire, the sun, unexpected guests. the cows, the brahmanas, the forefathers, and the demigods. On all sides lay the flowring forest, echoing with flocks of birds and swarms of bees and beautified by its lakes crowded with swans, karandava ducks, and bowers of lotuses."***

 

     It is also said in that chapter of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.45):

 

 

ta dipa-diptair manibhir virejuh. . .

 

 

     "As they puiled on the churning ropes with their bangled arms, the women of Vraja shone with the splendor of their jewels, which reflected the lamps' light. Their hips, breasts, and necklaces moved about, and their faces, anointed with reeddish kunkuma, glowed radiantly with the luster of their earrings reflecting from their cheeks."***

 

     Concerned for the welfare of His parents and His gopi-beloveds, Lord Krishna said to Uddhava in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.3):

 

 

gacchoddhava vrajam saumya. . .

 

 

     "Dear gentle Uddhava, go to Vraja and give pleasure to Our parents. And also relieve the gopis, suffering in separation from Me, by giving them My message."***

 

     Lord Krishna's parents and the other residents of Vraja felt only unhappiness. Without Lord Krishna present before them they found no happiness in anything. They said to Uddhava in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.18):

 

 

api smareati nah krishno

     mataram suhridah sakhin

gopan vrajam catma-natham

     gavo vrindavanam girim

 

 

     "Does Krishna remember us? Does He remember His mother and His friends and well-wishers? Does He remember the cowherds and their village of Vraja, of which He is the master? Does He remember the cows, Vrindavana forest, and Govardhana Hill?"***

 

     These words were spoken by Nanda Maharaja. Uddhava's visit to Vraja is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.47.54-56):

 

 

uvasa katicin masan

     gopinam vinudan shucah

krishna-lila-katham gayan

     ramayam asa gokulam

 

 

     "Uddhava remained there for several months, dispelling the gopis' sorrow by chanting the topics of Lord Krishna's pastimes. Thus he brought joy to all the people of Gokula.

 

 

yavanty ahani nandasya

     vraje 'vatsit sa uddhavah

vrajaukasam kshana-prayany

     asan krishnasya vartaya

 

 

     "All the days that Uddhava dwelled in Nanda's cowherd village seemed like a single moment to the residents of Vraja, for Uddhava was always discussing Krishna.

 

 

sarid-vana-giri-dronir

     vikshan kusumitan druman

krishnam samsmarayan reme

     hari-daso vrajaukasam

 

 

     "The servant of Lord Hari, seeing the rivers, forests, mountains, valleys, and flowering trees of Vraja, enjoyed inspiring the inhabitants of Vrindavana by reminded them of Lord Krishna."***

 

     In this verse the word "samsmarayan" means “reminding". Reminding them of Lord Krishna, Uddhava dispelled the sadness the people of Vraja felt. Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.54-56 was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 217

 

 

     The joy that comes from directly seeing Lord Krishna is described in these words spoken by Uddhava in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.29.47):

 

 

tatas tam antar hridi sanniveshya

     gato maha-bhagavato vishalam

yathopadishöam jagad-eka-bandhuna

     tapah samasthaya harer agad gatim

 

 

     "Thereupon, placing the Lord deeply within his heart, the great devotee Uddhava went to Badarikashrama. By engaging there in austerities, he attained the Lord's personal abode, which had been described to him by the only friend of the universe, Lord Krishna Himself."***

 

     Here the words "yathopadishöam gatim" refer to the Third Csnto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, where Lord Krishna said to Uddhava (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.4.11):

 

 

vedaham antar manasipsitam te

     dadami yat tad duravapam anyaih

 

 

     "O Vasu, I know from within your mind what you desired in the days of yore when the Vasus and other demigods responsible for expanding the universal affairs performed sacrifices. You particularly desired to achieve My association. This is very difficult to obtain for others, but I award it unto you."*

 

     Here Lord Krishna says to Uddhava: "You particularly desired to achieve My association. This is very difficult to obtain for others, but I award it unto you." Then Lord Krishna said to Uddhava in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.4.13):

 

 

pura maya proktam ajaya nabhye

 

 

     "O Uddhava, in the lotus millennium in the days of yore, at the beginning of the creation, I spoke unto Brahma, who is situated on the lotus that grows out of My navel, about My transcendental glories, which the great sages describe as Shrimad-Bhagavatam."*

 

     In these words Lord Krishna describes the gist of Shrimad-Bhagavatam. Uddhava describes his eagerness to hear Shrimad-Bhagavatam by speaking these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.4.15):

 

 

ko nv isha te pada-saroja-bhajam

     sudurlabho 'rtheshu caturshv apiha

tathapi naham pravrinomi bh uman

     bhavat-padambhoja-nisevanotsukah

 

 

     "O my Lord, devotees who engage in the transcendental loving service of Your lotus feet have no difficulty in achieving anything within the realm of the four principles of religiosity, economic development, sense gratification and liberation. But, O great one, as far as I am concerned, I have preferred only to engage in the loving service of Your lotus feet."*

 

     Uddhava then suddenly expresses his bewilderment. He tells Lord Krishna in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.4.16-17):

 

 

karmany anihasya bhavo 'bhavasya. . .

 

 

     "My Lord, even the learned sages become disturbed in their intelligence when they see that Your Greatness engages in fruitive work although You are free from all desires, that You take birth although You are unborn, that You flee out of fear of the enemy and take shelter in a fort although You are the controller of invincible time, and that You enjoy householder life surrounded by many women although You enjoy in Your Self.*

     "O my Lord, Your eternal self is never divided by the influence of time, and there is no limitation to Your perfect knowledge. Thus You were sufficiently able to consult with Yourself, yet You called upon me for consultation, as if bewildered, although You are never bewildered. And this act of Yours bewilders me."*

 

     Later Lord Krishna would reassure Uddhava with these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.4.31):

 

 

noddhavo 'nv api man-nyunah. . .

 

 

     "Uddhava is not inferior to Me in any way because he is never affected by the modes of material nature. Therefore he may remain in this world in order to disseminate specific knowledge of the Personality of Godhead."*

 

     Wishing to hear Lord Krishna's explanation of many topics, Uddhava spoke to Him these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.4.18):

 

 

jnanam param svatma-rahah-prakasham provaca kasmai. . .

 

 

     "My Lord, kindly explain to us, if You think us competent to receive it, the transcendental knowledge which gives enlightenment about Yourself and which You explained before to Brahmaji."*

 

     In the phrase "yad vrijinam tarema" (may cross over all difficulties) the word "vrijinam" may mean “the unhappiness of being separated from My direct service" or it may mean "the distress and bewilderment of residing in the material world". It is by confidential transcendental knowledge that once crosses over this difficulty. Then Uddhava said: "Lord Krishna then fulfilled my desire." Uddhava said to Shri Vidura (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.4.19):

 

 

ity avedita-hardaya

     mahyam sa bhagavan parah

adidesharavindaksha

     atmanah paramam sthitim

 

 

     "When I thus expressed my heartfelt desires unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the lotus-eyed Lord instructed me about His transcendental situation."*

 

     In this verse the words "transcendental situation" refers to the spiritual world of Vaikuntha, which the Lord revealed to the demigod Brahma in the Second Canto ofShrimad-Bhagavatam. These words also refer ot the transcendental realm of Dvaraka, as has been deascribed in Shri Bhagavat-sandarbha, Anuccheda 7. This spiritual world is described in the four nutshell verses of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.9.33-36). In wo derful pastimes like these, the Supreme Personality of Godhead reveals the truth that He is controlled by His devotees' love. By understanding these truths, Uddhava became again peaceful and composed. Then he himself entered that spiritual abode the Lord had described to him. Lord Krishna gives this same instuction in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.29.33):

 

 

jnane karmani yoge ca

     vartayam danda-dharane

yavan artho nrinam tata

     tavams te 'ham catur-vidhah

 

 

     "Through analytic knowledge, ritualistic work, mystic yoga, mundane business, and political rule, people seek to advance in religiosity, economic development, sense gratification, and liberation. But because you are My devotee, whatever men can accomplish in these multifarious ways you will very easily find within Me."***

 

     For Uddhava Lord Krishna was the supreme goal of life. This Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami had previously explained in Shrimad-Bhagavatam. Lord Krishna kept Uddhava on the earth so he could preach the science of devotional service. Later, when Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami was preaching the glories of the Lord's pastimes, there was no longer any need for Uddhava to stay on the earth. Then, in his original spiritual form, Uddhava attained the glorious spiritual land of Vraja. This was Uddhava's earnest desire, as he himself had said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.47.61):

 

 

asam aho carana-renu-jusham aham syam. . .

 

 

     "The gopis of Vrindavana have given up the association of their husbands, sons, and other family members, who are very difficult to give up, andf they have forsaken the path of chastity to take shelter of the lotus feet of Mukunda, Krishna, which one should search for by Vedic knowledge. Oh, let me be fortunate enough to be one of the bushes, creepers, or herbs in Vrindavana, because the gopis trample them and bless them with the dust of their feet."*

 

     Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.29.47 quoted in this anuccheda was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anucchedas 218 and 219

 

 

     Now the devotional mellow of prashraya-rasa (filial love) will be considered. In this reasa the alambana and visaya are Lored Krishna, the doting parent. The adhara (lovers) are Lord Krishna's children and other like kinsmen who are the objects of His parental affections. As before, in this rasa also Lord Krishna manifests two forms: 1. the form of the supreme controller, and 2. a humanlike form. The devotees who are thus the objects of Lord Krishna's parental affection are of three kinds: 1. the devotees who have a relationship with the Lord in His feature as the supreme controller, 2. the devotees who have a relationship with the Lord in His humanlike feature, and 3. the devotees who have a relationship with the Lord in both these two features. The demigod Brahma and other demigods have a relationship with the Lord in His feature as the supreme controller. The children in Gokula, which is revealed in the twelve-syllable mantra, have a relationship with the Lord in His humanlike feature. The Lord's children born to Him at Dvaraka have a relationship with the Lord in both these features. This filial relationship includes Lord Krishna's own children, nephews, nieces, followers, and other like persons.  Some of lord's Krishnas children have qualities like their father, and others have forms like their father. The Lord's children who have qualities like those of their father are described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.61.1):

 

 

ekaikashas tah krishnasya

     putran dasha-dashabalah

ajijanann anavaman

     pituh sarvatma-sampada

 

 

     "Each of Lord Krishna's wives gave birth to ten sons, who were not less than their father, having all His personal opulence."***

 

     Samba and others like him had glorious transcendental qualities like those of their father. This is described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.61.2):

 

 

jambavatyah suta hy ete

     sambadyah pitri-sammatah

 

 

     "Samba and the other sons of Jambavati were just like their father."

 

 

Anuccheda 220

 

 

     In the Eleventh Canto is a description of Samba's acting in an improper way (by teasing Narada Muni). It should be understood that those actions  were instigated by Lord Krishna Himself by His own wish to arrange for certain pastimes. Amongst all of Lord Krishna's sons, Shri Rukmini's ans were the best. This is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.61.9):

 

 

pradyumna-pramukha jata

     rukminyam navamah pituh

 

 

     "Rukmini's sons, headed by Pradyumna, were not less than their father."

 

     Again and again the superiority of those sons is described. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 221

 

 

     The great glory of Shri Pradyumna is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.55.33):

 

 

katham tv anena sampraptam

     sarupyam sharnga-dhanvanah

akrityavayavair gatya

     svara-hasavalokanaih

 

 

     "But how is it that this young man so much resembles my own Lord, Krishna, the wielder of Sharnga, in his bodily form and His limbs, in His gait and the tone of His voice, and in His smiling glance?"***

 

     The meaning of these words is clear. This verse was spoken by Shri Rukmini.

 

 

Anuccheda 222

 

 

     Pradyumna's glory is also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.55.40):

 

 

yam vai muhuh pitri-svarupa-nijesha-bhavas

     tan-mataro yad abhajan raha-rudha-bhavah

citram na tat khalu ramaspada-bimba-bimbe

     kame smare 'ksha-vishaye kim utanya-naryah

 

 

     "It is not astonishing that the palace women, who should have felt maternal affection for Pradyumna, privately felt ecstatic attraction for Him as if He were their own Lord. After all, the son exactly resembled His father. Indeed, Pradyumna was a perfect reflection of the beauty of Lord Krishna, the shelter of the goddess of fortune, and appeared before their eyes as Cupid himself. Since even those on the level of His mother felt conjugal attraction for Him, then what to speak of how other women felt when they saw Him?"***

 

     In this verse the word "yam" refers to Pradyumna. The words "tan-mataro yad abhajan rahah" mean “His mothers came to see Him. Shyly taking Him to a secluded place, they worshiped Him." The words "tat khalu ramaspada-bimba-bimbe" mean "He was like a picture of Lord Krishna, the place where the goddess of fortune enjoys pastimes". "Na citram" means "It was not surprising that the mothers felt maternal love for Him, for He was exactly like His father." The words "pitri-svarupa-nijesha-bhavah" mean "This was also not surprising because Pradyumna's body closely resembled that of His father, and therefore the queens thought Pradyumna was their master, Lord Krishna." Still, they did not think of Him as their husband, and therefore it was proper for them to take Him to a secluded place.  The same explanation was already given previously in that chapter where it was said (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.55.27-28):

 

 

tam drishöva jalada-shyamam. . .

 

 . . .krishnam matva striyo hrita

     nililyus tatra tatra ha

 

 

     "The women of the palace thought he was Lord Krishna when they saw His dark-blue complexion the color of a rain-cloud, His yellow silk garments, his long arms, and red-tinged eyes, his charming lotus face adorned with a pleasing smile, His fine ornaments, and His thick, curly black hair. Thus the women became bashful and hid themselves here and there."***

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.55.40 the words "rudha-bhavah" indicate that the queens thought Pradyumna was Lord Krishna, who is very dear to them. Because He very closely resembled His father, they thought He was their master, Lord Krishna. Still, they did not think of Him as their husband. Shri Rukmini thought of HIm as her son. She did not think He was her master, Lord Krishna. Because He so closely resembled Lord Krishna, Rukmini thought He must be her own son. This is seen in the following words spoken by Shri Rukmini in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.55.33-34):

 

 

katham tv anena sampraptam. . .

 

 . . .sa eva va bhaven nunam

     yo me garbhe dhrito 'rbhakah

amusmin pritir adhika

     vamah sphurati me bhujah

 

 

     "But how is it that this young man so much resembles my own Lord, Krishna, the wielder of Sharnga, in his bodily form and His limbs, in His gait and the tone of His voice, and in His smiling glance?***

     "Yes, He must be the same child I bore in my womb, sicne I feel great affection for Him and my left arm is quivering."***

 

          In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.55.40 the words “ramaspada-bimba-bimbe kame smare" mean the queens were bewildered into thinking Pradyumna was the spiritual Kamadeva who had now incarnated in the material world. The words “aksha-vishaye kim utanya-naryah" mean, if the queens saw Him in that way, then how enchanted must other women have become by seeing Him?" Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.55.40 quoted in this anuccheda was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 223

 

 

     In prashraya-rasa the uddipanas are Lord Krishna's transcendental qualities, beginning with His smiling glance filled with paternal love. Also included among the uddipanas are the glories of Lord Krishna's fame, intelligence, strength, and other attributes. Also included are Lord Krishna's noble birth, activities, and many other like things.

     The anubhavas are as follows. In childhood the anubhavas include: 1. again and again asking quaestions in a sweet voice, 2. grasping rthe arm and the fingers, 3. sitting on the lap, and 4. accepting the betelnuts chewed by the Lord. After childhood the anubhavas include: 1. following the commands, 2. imitating the activities, and 3. renouncing all independence. In both childhood and after the sons are followers of their father. All the sattvika-bhavas are manifest here. The vyabhicaris are also as before described. The sthayi-bhava is prashraya-rasa. In childhood hugging and dealing with great affection are the seed of prashraya-rasa. Those are the activities in childhood. The activities after childhood are described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.17-18):

 

 

nishamya preshtham ayantam. . .

 

 . . .pradyumnash carudeshnash ca

     sambo jambavatt-sutah

praharsha-vegocchashita-

     shayanasana-bhojanah

 

 

     "On hearing that the most dear Krishna was approaching Dvaraka-dhama, magnanimous Vasudeva, Akrura, Ugrasena, Balarama (the superhumanly powerful), Pradyumna, Carudeshna and Samba the son of Jambavati, all extremely happy, abandoned resting, sitting and dining.*

 

 

varanendram puraskritya

     brahmanaih sasumangalaih

shankha-turya-ninadena

     brahma-ghoshena cadrtah

pratyujjagmu rathair hrishtah

     pranayagata-sadhvasah

 

 

     "They hastened toward the Lord on chariots with brahmanas bearing flowers. Before them were elephants, emblems of good fortune. Conchshells and bugles were sounded, and Vedic hymns were chanted. Thus they offered their respects, which were saturated with affection."*

 

     In this verse the word "pranayah" means “great devotion". This verse was spoken by Shrila Suta Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 224

 

 

     In prashraya-rasa the vibhavas and other conditions are as previously described. In this rasa there is great devotion for the Lord.

 

     Now will be considered vatsalya-rasa, thr rasa of parental love. In that rasa the alambana is Lord Krishna, who is the object of His parents affection. The vishaya is Lord Krishna. the adhara (lovers) are Lord Krishna's parents and other superiors. In this reasa Lord Krishna manifests only His humanlike form. In this reas Lord Krishna's superiors are Shri Vasudeva, Devaki, Kunti, and others. Their devotion for the Lord is mixed (mishra-bhakti). Also included in this rasa are Shri Yashoda, Nanda, and their contemporary gopas and gopis, and others also. Their devotion for Lord Krishna is pure (shuddha). The devotees in vatsalya-rasa are expert in performing their parental duties in relation to Lord Krishna. This expertise is seen in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.6.21):

 

 

gopyah samsprishöa-salila

     angeshu karayoh prithak

nyasyatmany atha balasya

     bija-nyasam akurvata

 

 

     "The gopis first executed the process of acamana, drinking a sip of water from the right hand. They purified their bodies and hands with the nyasa-mantra and then applied the same mantra upon the body of the child."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. Included among the uddipanas are Lord Krishna's qualities. The first of these is His quality of being an adorable child (lalya-bhava). This quality is seen in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.4):

 

 

tam stanya-kama asadya

     mathnantim jananim harih

grihitva dadhi-manthanam

     nyashedhat pritim avahan

 

 

     "While mother Yashoda was churning butter, Lord Krina, desiring to drink the milk of her breast, appeared before her, and in order to increase her transcendental pleasure, He caught hold of the churning rod and began to prevent her from churning."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 225

 

 

     Vatsalya-rasa is also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.45.2-10):

 

 

uvaca pitarav etya

     sagrajah satvatarshabhah

prashrayavanatah prinann

     amba tateti sadaram. . .

 

 . . .iti maya-maushyasya

 

 

     "Lord Krishna, the greatest of the Satvatas, approached His parents with His elder brother. Humbly bowing His head and gratifying them by respectfully addressing them as `My dear mother' and `My dear father', Krishna spoke as follows.***

     " `Dear father, because of Us, your two sons, you and mother Devaki always remained in anxiety and could never enjoy Our childhood, boyhood, or youth.***

     " `Deprived by fate, We could not live with you and enjoy the pampered happiness most children enjoy in their parents' home.***

     " `With one's body one can acquire all goals of life, and it is one's parents who give the body birth and sustenance. Therefore no mortal man can repay his debt to his parents, even if he serves them for a full lifetime of a hundred years.***

     " `A son who, though able to do so, fails to provide for his parents with hsi physical resources and wealth is forced after his death to eat his own flesh.***

     " `A man who, though able to do so, fails to support his elderly parents, chaste wife, young child, or spiritual master, or who neglects a brahmana or anyone who comes to him for shelter, is considered dead, though breathing.***

     "Thus We have wasted all these days, unable as We were to properly honor you because Our minds were always disturbed by fear of Kamsa.***

     " `Dear father and mother, please forgive Us for not serving you. We are not independent and have been greatly frustrated by cruel Kamsa.'***

     "Thus beguiled by the words of Lord Hari, the Supreme Soul of the universe, who by his internal illusory potency appeared to be a human, His parents joyfully raised Him up on their laps and embraced Him."***

 

     In these verses the word "pitarau" (parents) refers to Shri Devaki and Vasdueva, and the word "prinan" means "delighting". These verses were spoken by Shri la Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anucchedas 226-229

 

 

     Lord Krishna's childhood restlessness is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.25):

 

 

shringy-angi-damshöry-asi-jala-dvija-kanöakebhyah

     krida-parav ati-calau sva-sutau nisheddhum

grihyani kartum api yatra na taj-jananyau

     sekata apatur alam manaso 'navastham

 

 

     "When Mother Yashoda and Rohini were unable to protect the babies from calamities threatened by horned cows, by fire, by animals with claws and teeth such as monkeys, dogs, and cats, and by thorns, swords, and other weapons on the ground, they were always in anxiety, and their household engagements were disturbed. At that time they were fully equipoised in the transcendental ecstasy known as the distreess of material affection, for this was aroused within their minds."*

 

     Lord Krishna's childhood restlessness is also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.28-29):

 

 

krishnasya gopyo ruciram

     vikshya kaumara-capalam

shrinvantyah kila tan-matur

     iti hocuh samagatah

 

 

     "Observing the very attractive childish restlessness of Krishna, all the gopise in the neighborhood, to hear about Krishna's activities again and again, would approach Mother Yashoda ans speak to her as follows."*

 

 

vatsan muncan kvacid asamaye. . .

 

 

     " `Our dear friend Yashoda, your son sometimes comes to our houses before the milking of the cows and releases the calves, and when the master of the house becomes angry, your son merely smiles. Sometimes He devises some process by which He steals palatavble curd, butter, and milk, which He then eats and drinks. When the monkeys assemble, He divides it with them, and when the monkeys have their bellies so full that they won't take any more, He breaks the pots. Sometimes, if He gets no opportunity to stral butter and milk from a house, He will be angry at the householders, and for His revenge He will agitate the small children by pinching them. Then, when they begin crying, Krishna will go away.' "*

 

     The word "gopyah" (gopis) here refers to Mother Yashoda's friends and Lord Krishna's aunts. In other situations in this rasa Lord Krishna manifests humility, shyness, speaking sweet words, honesty, generosity and other virtues. These virtues are seen in the following description of Lord Krishna's pastimes at the pilgrimage to Kurukshetra in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.82.34):

 

 

krishna-ramau parishvajya

     pitarav abhivadya ca. . .

 

 

     "O hero of the Kurus, Krishna and Balarama embraced Their foster parents and bowed down to them, bu Their throats were so choked up with tears of love that the two Lords could say nothing."***

 

     In His childhood Lord Krishna was very forceful and arrogant when He stopped the Indra-yajna. Still, His actions delighted His parents and superiors. Lord Krishna's handsomeness and auspicious features gradually increased until they reached their apex in His full-blown youth (purna-kaishora). The growing-up of Lord Krishna is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.21 and 26):

 

 

kalena vrajatalpena

     gokule rama-keshavau

janubhyam saha panibhyam

     ri\ngamanau vijahratuh

 

 

     "After a short time passed, both brothers, Rama and Krishna, began to crawl on the ground of Vraja with the strength of Their hands and knees and thus enjoy Their childhood play."*

 

 

kalenalpena rajarshe

     ramah krishnash ca gokule

aghrishöa-janubhih padbhir

     vicakramatur anjasa

 

 

     "O King Parikshit, within a very short time both Rama and Krishna began to walk very easily in Gokula on Their legs, by Their own strength, without the need to crawl."*

 

     The meaning of these verses is clear. These verses were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 230

 

 

     Lord Krishna's graudally growing-up is also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.15.1):

 

 

tatash ca pauganda-vayah-shritau vraje

     babhuvatus tau pashu-pala-sammatau

 

 

     "When Lord Rama and Lord Krishna attained the age of pauganda [six to ten] while living in Vrindavana, the cowherd men allowed Them to take up the task of tending the cows. Engaging thus in the company of Their friends, the two boys rendered the land of Vrindavana most auspicious by imprinting upon it the marks of Their lotus feet."***

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by  Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 231

 

 

     Lord Krishna's birth was already described. Lord Krishna's activities include His birth pastimes and His childhood pastimes. Lord Krishna's birth pastimes are described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.5.1):

 

 

nandas tv atmaja utpanne. . .

 

 

     "Nanda Maharaja was naturally very magnanimous, and when Lord Shri Krishna appeared as his son, he was overwhelmed with jubilation."*

 

     Lord Krishna's childhood pastimes are described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.22-24):

 

 

tav anghri-yugmam anukrishya sarishripantau

     ghosha-praghosha-ruciram vraja-kardameshu

tan-nada-hrishöa-manasav anushritya lokam

     mugdha-prabhitavad upeyatur anti matroh. . .

 

 

     "When Krishna and Balarama, with the strength of Their legs, crawled in the muddy places created in Vraja by cow dung and cow urines, Their crawling resembled the crawling of serpents, and the sound of Their ankle bells was very charming. Very much pleased by the spound of other people's ankle bells, They used to follow these people as if going to Their mothers, but when They saw that these were other people, They became afraid and returned to Their real mothers, Yashoda and Rohini.*

     "Dressed with muddy earth mixed with cow dung and cvow urine, the babies looked very beautiful, and when They went to Their mothers, both Yashoda and Rohini picked Them up with great affection, embraced Them, and allowed Them to suck the milk flowing from their breasts. While sucking the breast, the babies smiled, and Their small teeth were visible. Their mothers, upon seeing those beautiful teeth, enjoyed great transcendental bliss.*

 

 

yarhy angana-darshaniya-kumara-lilav

     antar-vraje tad abala pragrihita-pucchaih

vatsair itas tata ubhav anukrishyamanau

     pekshantya ujjhita-ghra jahrishur hasantyah

 

 

     "Within the house of Nanda Maharaja the cowherd ladies would enjoy seeing the pastimes of the babies Rama and Krishna. The babies would catch the ends of the calves' tails, and the calves would drag Them here and there. When thre ladiers saw these pastimes, they certainly stopped their household activities and laughed and enjoyed the incidents."*

 

     The meaning of these verses is clear. These verses were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 232

 

 

     In this context the word "adi" (beginning with) means "beginning with the pauganda years (six until ten). Here the parahpernalia of the Lord's pastimes include his garments, clay pots, and other things. Different specific times include Lord Krishna's birthday and other like times. Lord Krishna's birthday celebration is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.7.4):

 

 

kadacid autthanika-kautukaplave

     janmarksha-yoge samaveta-yoshitam

vaditra-gita-dvija-mantra-vacakaish

     cakara sunor abhishecanam sati

 

 

     "When Mother Yashoda's baby was slanting His body to attempt to rise and turn around, this attempt was observed by a Vedic ceremony. In such a ceremony, called utthana, which is performed when a child is due to leave the house for the first time, the child is properly bathed. Just after Krishna turned three months old, mother Yashoda celebrated this ceremony with other women of the neighborhood. On that day there was a conjunction of the moon with the constellation Rohini. As the brahmanas joined by chanting Vedic hymns and professional musicians also took part, this great ceremony was observed by mother Yashoda."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by  Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 233

 

 

     Among the anubhavas are the udbhasvaras. Among the udbhasvaras is lalana (doting parental love), which is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.15.44-46):

 

 

tayor yashoda-rohinyau

     putrayoh putra-vatsale

yatha-kamam yatha-kalam

     vyadhattam paramashishah

 

 

     "Mother Yashoda and mother Rohini, acting most affectionately toward their two sons, offered all the best things to Them in response to Their every desire and at the various appropriate.***

 

 

gatadhvana-shramau tatra

     majjanonmardanadibhih

nivim vasitva ruciram

     divya-srag-gandha-manditau

 

 

     "By being bathed and massaged, the two young Lords were relieved of the weariness caused by walking on the country roads. Then They were dressed in attractive robes and decorated with transcendental garlands and fragrances.***

 

 

janany-upahritam prashya

     svadv annam upalatitau

samvishya vara-shayyayam

     sukham sushupatur vraje

 

 

     "After dining sumptuously on the delicious food given Them by Their mothers and being pampered in various ways, the two brothers lay down upon Their excellent beds and happily went to sleep in the village of Vraja."***

 

     The meaning of these verses is clear. These verses were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 234

 

 

     The udbhasvara of shiro-ghrana (smelling the head) is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.6.43):

 

 

nandah sva-putram adaya

     pretyagatam udara-dhih

murdhny upaghraya paramam

     mudam lebhe kurudvaha

 

 

     "O Maharaja Parikshit, best of the Kurus, Nanda Maharaja was very liberal and simple. He immediately took his son Krishna on his lap as if Krishna had returned from death, and by formally smelling his son's head, Nanda Maharaja undoubtedly enjoyed transcendental bliss."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by  Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 235

 

 

     The udbhasvara of ashirvada (speaking blessings) is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.5.12):

 

 

ta ashishah prayunjanash

     ciram pahiti balake

haridra-curna-tailadbhih

     sincantyo 'janam ujjaguh

 

 

     "Offering blessings to the newborn child, Krishna, the wives and daughters of the cowherd men said, `May you become the king of Vraja and long maintain all its inhabitants.' They sprinkled a mixture of turmeric powder, oil, and water upon the birthless Supreme Lord and offered prayers."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by  Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 236

 

 

     The udbhasvara of hitopadesha-dana (giving auspicious advice) is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.11.15):

 

 

krishna krishnaravindaksha

     tata ehi stanam piba

alam viharaih kshut-kshantah

     krida-shranto 'si putraka

 

 

     "Mogher Yasoda said: My dear son Krishna, lotus-eyed Krishna, come here and drink the milk of my breast. My dear darling, You must be very tired because of hunger and the fatigue of playing so long. There is no need to play any more."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by  Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 237

 

 

     All these activitirs are performed by the many kinds of devotees in vatsalya-rasa, but they are especially performed by Lord Krishna's parents. For His benefit, Lord Krishna's parents also rebuke Him. An example of this is seen in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.32-34):

 

 

ekada kridamanas te

     ramadya gopa-darakah

krishno mridam bhakshitavan

     iti matre nyavedayan

 

 

     "One day while Krishna was playing with His small playmates, including Balarama and the other sons of the gopas, all His friends came together and lodged a complaint to Mother Yashoda. `Mother,' they submitted, "Krishna has eaten earth.'*

 

 

sa grihitva kare krishnam

     upalabhya haitaishini

yashoda bhaya-sambhranta-

     prekshanaksham abhashata

 

 

     "Upon hearing this from Krishna's playmates, mother Yashoda, who was always full of anxiety over Krishna's welfare,, picked Krishna up with her hands to look into His mouth and chastise Him. Her eyes fearful, she spoke to her son as follows.*

 

 

kasman mridam adantatman

     bhavan bhakshitavan rahah

vadanti tavaka hy ete

     kumaras te 'grajo 'py ayam

 

 

     "Dear Krishna, why are You so restless that You have eaten dirt in a solitary place? This complaint has been lodged against You by all Your playmates, including Your elder brother, Balarama. How is this?"*

 

     The meaning of these verses is clear. These verses were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 238

 

 

     An example of what happened to child Krishna after He broke the yogurt-pot is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.11-12):

 

 

kritagasam tam prarudantam akshini

     kasantam anjan-mashini sva-panina

udvikshamanam bhaya-vihvalekshanam

     haste grihitva bhishayanty avagurat

 

 

     "When caught by mother Yashoda, Krishna became more and more afraid and admitted to being an offender. As she looked upon Him, she saw that He was crying, His tears mixing with the black ointment around His eyes, and as He rubbed His eyes with His hands, He smeared the ointment all over His face. Mother Yashoda, catching her beautiful son by the hand, mildly began to chastise Him."*

 

 

tyaktva yashtim sutam bhitam 

     vijnayarbhaka-vatsa la

iyesha kila tam baddhum

     damnatad-virya-kovida

 

 

     "Mother Yashoda was always overwhelmed by intense love for Krishna, not knowing who Krishna was or how powerful He was. Because of maternal affection for Krishna, she never even cared to know who He was. Therefore, when she saw that her son had become excessively afraid, she threw the stick away and desired to bind Him so that He would not commit any further naughty activities."*

 

     The meaning of these verses is clear. These verses were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anucchedas 239 and 240

 

 

     Wishing only His welfare and happiness, the devotees in vatsalya-rasa discipline Krishna, give Him bitter-tasting medicine, and perform other like activities. An example of these activities is seen in the following wrds of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.5):

 

 

tam ankam arudham apayayat stanam

     sneha-snutam sa-smitam ikshati mukham

atriptam utshrijya javena sa yayav

     utsicyamane payasi tv adhishrite

 

 

     "Mother Yashoda then embraced Krishna, allowed Him to sit down on her lap, and began to look upon the face of the Lord with great love and affection. Because of her intense affection, milk was flowing from her breast. But when she saw that the milk pan on the oven was boiling over, she immediately left her son to take care of the overflowing milk, although the child was not yet fully satisfied with drinking the milk of His mother's breast."*

 

     These devotees are also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.35):

 

 

yad-dhamartha-suhrit-priyatma-tanaya-pranashayas tvat-krite

 

 

     "My Lord, sometimes I am puzzled as to how Your Lordship will be able to repay, in gratitude, the devotional service of these residents of Vrindavana. Although I know that You are the supreme source of all benediction, I am puzzled to know how You will be able to repay all the service that You are receiving from these residents of Vrindavana. I think of how You are so kind, so magnanimous, that even Putana, who came to cheat You by dressing herself as a very affectionate mother, was awarded liberation and the actual post of a mother. And other demons belonging to the same family, such as Aghasura and Bakasura, were also favored with liberation. Under the circumstances, I am puzzled. These residents of Vrindavana have given You everything: Their bodies, their minds, their love, their homes. Everything is being utilized for Your purpose. So how will You be able to repay their debt? You have already given Yourself to Putana! I surmise that You shall ever ever remain a debtor to the residents of Vrindavana, being unable to repay their loving service."*

 

     Here we see Mother Yashoda is eager to protect the wealth in her house. Cowherd people are naturally very determined to attain great wealth in milk and milk-products. Mother Yashoda was eager to protect her wealth of milk. Still, this eagerness only nourished her love for Lord Krishna in vatsalya-rasa. As waves increase the ocean, so these activities increased her love for her son. In her heart she did not think of protecting her own wealth. She only thought: "This is what I must do now". In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.9.5 the word "sneha-snutam" shows that she had deep love for her son. Even when her son broke the yogurt pots, she had only a dim reflection of anger. In her heart she was delighted and amused by her son's mischief. This is seen in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.7):

 

 

uttarya gopi sushritam payah punah

     pravishya sandrishya ca dadhy-amatrakam

bhagnam vilokya sva-sutasya karma taj

     jahasa tam capi na tatra pashyati

 

 

     "Mother Yashoda, after taking down the hot milk from the oven, returned to the churning spot, and when she saw that the container of yogurt was broken and that Krishna was not present, she concluded that the breaking of the pot was the work of Krishna.* Seeing this, she smiled."

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by  Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 241

 

 

     Even when he is in distress, a devotee in vatsalya-rasa may pretend to smile in order to reassure Lord Krishna. An example of this is seen in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.11.6):

 

 

ulukhalam vikarshantam

     damna baddham svam atmajam

vilokya nandah prahasad-

     vadano vimumoca ha

 

 

     "When Nanda Maharaja saw his own son bound with ropes to the wooden mortar and dragging it, he smiled and released Krishna from His bonds."*

 

     An alternate reading here is "prahasad-vadanam" (Lord Krishna weas smiling). This verse was spoken by  Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 242

 

 

     A devotee in vatsalya-rasa may fear that calamities brought by wicked people or other sources may harm Lord Krishna. An example of this is seen in these words spoken by Devaki in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.3.29):

 

 

janma te mayy asau papo

     ma vidyan madhusudana

samudvije bhavad-dhetoh

     kamsad aham adhira-dhih

 

 

     "O Madhusudana, because of Your apperance I am becoming more and more anxious in fear of Kamsa. Therefore, please arrange for that sinful Kamsa to be unable to understand that You have taken birth from my womb."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by  Shri Devaki.

 

 

Anuccheda 243

 

 

     This fear is also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.25):

 

 

shringy-angi-damshöry-asi-jala-dvija. . .

 

 

     "When Mother Yashoda and Rohini were unable to protect the babies from calamities threatened by horned cows, by fire, by animals with claws and teeth such as monkeys, dogs, and cats, and by thorns, swords, and other weapons on the ground, they were always in anxiety, and their household engagements were disturbed. At that time they were fully equipoised in the transcendental ecstasy known as the distreess of material affection, for this was aroused within their minds."*

 

     For Lord Krishna's welfare a devotee in vatsalya-rasa may worship the demigods or other exalted beings. An example of this is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.5.16):

 

 

tais taih kamair adinatma

     yathocitam apujayat

vishnor aradhanarthaya

     sva-putrasyodayaya ca

 

 

     "The great-minded Maharaja Nanda gave clothing, ornaments, and cows in charity to the cowherd men in order to please Lord Vishnu, and thus he improved the condition of his own son in all respects."*

 

     Here Nanda Maharaja thought: "By these activities Lord Vishnu will be pleased. When He is pleased then good will come to my son." Thinking in this way, Nanda properly performed these activities of worship. That is the meaning here. This verse was spoken by  Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 244

 

 

     Seeing a display of Lord Krishna's extraordinary power, a devotee in vatsalya-rasa may think the power came not from Krishna, but from some other source instead. An example of this is seen in the following words spoken by Lord Krishna's parents in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.7.31):

 

 

aho bataty-adbhutam esha rakshasa

     balo nivrittim gamito 'bhyagat punah

himsrah sva-papena vihimsitah khalah

     sadhuh samatvena bhayad vimucyate

 

 

     "It is most astonishing that although this innocent child was taken away by the Rakshasa to be eaten, He has returned without having been killed or even injured. Because this demon was envious, cruel, and sinful, he has been killed for his own sinful activities. This is the law of nature. An innocent devotee is always protecvted by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and a sinful person is always vanquished for his sinful life."*

 

     Lord Krishna's prents thought in this way. Lord Krishna's mother spoke these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.40):

 

 

kim svapna. . .

 

 

     "(Mother Yashoda began to argue with herself:) Is this a dream, or is it an illusory creation by the external energy? Has this been manifested by my own intelligence, or is it some mystic power of my child?"*

 

     After seeing Lord Krishna manifest the entire material universe within His abdomen, Mother Yashoda could not believe that this was a display of her son's great power. She assumed that He had no power to manifest this vision. (She assumed that the vision of the universal form was caused by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is different from her son.) She thought in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.41):

 

 

atho yathavan na vitarka-gocaram. . .

 

 

     "Therefore let me surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and offer my obeisances unto Him, who is beyond the conception of human speculation, the mind, activities, words, and arguments, who is the original cause of this cosmic manifestation, by whom the entire cosmos is maintained, and by whom we can conceive of its existence. Let me simply offer my obeisances, for He is beyond my contemplation, speculation, and meditation. He is beyond all of my material activities."*

 

     Here Mother Yashoda assumes that this vision of the universal form was caused by the Supreme Personality of Godhead (who is different from her son). To become free from seeing this fearful vision, she takes shelter of the Supreme Lord's lotus feet. Then she thought (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.42):

 

 

aham mamasau. . .

 

 

     "It is by the influence of the Supreme Lord's maya that I am wrongly thinking that Nanda Maharaja is my husband, that Krishna is my son, and that because I am the queen of Nanda Maharaja, all the wealth of cows and calves are my possessions and all the cowherd men and their wives are my subjects. Actually, I also am eternally subordinate to the Supreme Lord. He is my ultimate shelter."*

 

     With these words Mother Yasoda firmlytakes shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Speaking the words "Nanda Maharaja is my husband, that Krishna is my son," she refers to Lord Krishna, who was then before her eyes. Then she says: "I am bewildered (kumatih) by these many manifestations of the universal form (yan-mayaya)." Then she says: "the Supreme Personality of Godhead (sah) is the goal of my life (gatih). There Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami explained (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.43):

 

 

ittham vidita-tattvayam. . .

 

 

     "Mother Yashoda, by the grace of the Lord, could understand the real truth. But then again, the supreme master, by the influence of the internal potency, Yogamaya, inspired her to become absorbed in intense maternal affection for her son."*

 

     Here the word "tattva" reefers to her son. Here the words "sa ishvarah" refer to Lord Krishna's feature as the supreme controller.In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.42 the words "pranatasmi tat-padam" mean "Let me simply offer obeisances, for He is beyond my contemplation". In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.43 the words "vaishavim mayam" may mean "the Supreme Lord's internal potency", or they may also mean "the Supreme Lord's mercy". The it is explained in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.45):

 

 

trayya copanishadbhish ca. . .

 

 

     "The glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are studied through the three Vedas, the Upanishads, the literature of sankhya-yoga, and other Vaishnava literature, yet mother Yashoda considered the Supreme Person her ordinary child."*

 

     It is also said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.21):

 

 

nayam sukhapo bhagavan. . .

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, the son of mother Yashoda, is accessible to devotees engaged in spontaneous loving service, but He is not as easily accessible to mental speculators, to those striving for self-realization by severe austerities and penances, or to those who consider the body the same as the self."*

 

     It these words the Shrimad-Bhagavatam sings thre glories of Mother Yashoda. It is also said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.18-19):

 

 

api smarati nah krishnah. . .

 

 

     "Does Krishna remember us? Does He remember His mother and His friends and well-wishers? Does He remember the cowherds and their village of Vraja, of which He is thr master? Does He remember the cows, Vrindavana forest, and Govardhana Hill?***

 

 

apy ayashyati govindah. . .

 

 

     "Will Govinda return even once to see His family? If He ever does, we may then glance upon His beautiful face, with its beautiful eyes, nose, and smile."***

 

     After Nanda Maharaja had spoken these words, Uddhava, following the way of this world, to console him spoke these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.30):

 

 

yuvam shlaghyatamau nunam. . .

 

 

     "O respectful Nanda, certainly you and mother Yashoda are the most praiseworthy persons in the entire world, since you have developed such a loving attitude toward Lord Narayana, the spiritual master of all living beings."***

 

     Even as Uddhava spoke these words of praise, Nanda's remained convinced that Krishna was his son and not the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He could nto be moved from that idea. Then it is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.44):

 

 

evam nisha sa bhruvator vyatita

     nandasya krishnanucarasya rajan. . .

 

 

     "While Krishna's messenger continued speaking with Nanda, the night ended, O king. The women of the cowherd village rose from bed and, lighting lamps, worshiped their household deities. Then they began churning yogurt into butter."***

 

     In this way Uddhava spoke many words to console Nanda Maharaja, who was griving in separation from Krishna. No matter what Uddhava said, Nanda remained always convinced that Krishna was his son and not the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The truth of Uddhava's words, that Lord Krishna is indeed the original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is elaboratedly explained in the Krishna-sandarbha. Even at Kuruksetra, when a great host of saintly devotees affirmed that Lord Krishna is indeed the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nanda and Yashoda remained unconvinced. They continued to believe that Krishna was only their son. This is seen in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.82.35):

 

 

tav atmasanam aropya

     bahubhyam parirabhya ca

yashoda ca maha-bhaga

     sutau vijahatuh shucah

 

 

     "Raising their two sons onto their laps and holding Them in their arms, Nanda and saintly mother Yashoda forgot their sorrow."***

 

     It is also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.47.66):

 

 

manaso vrittayo nah syuh. . .

 

 

     "May our thoughts always take shelter of Krishna's lotus feet, may our words always chant His names, and may our bodies always bow down to Him and serve Him."***

 

     Even though the truth that Shri Krishna is the all-powerful Supreme Personality of Godhead was again and again proved to him, Nanda Maharaja continued to believe Krishna was only his son and nothing more. These words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.66) Nanda spoke to Uddhava mean: "We pray that birth after birth we may love Krishna." This prayer of love spoken by Nanda is filled with anuraga love. Loev is not absent from it. Then it is said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.47.65):

 

 

tam nirgatam samasadya

     nanopayana-panayah

nandadayo 'nuragena

     pravocann ashru-locanah

 

 

     "As Uddhava was about to leave, Nanda and the others approached him bearing various items of worship. With tears in their eyes they addressed him as follows."***

 

     In these verses it is seen that Nanda and Yashoda are filled with anuraga ecstatic love for Lord Krishna. Their devotion to the Lord is not in the mood of awe and veneration, the mood of appreciating Lord Krishna's supreme power and opulence. Here Uddhava thinks: "Although I am far from attaining this kind of good fortune, I still pray that someday I will attainj this kind of ecstatic love. I pray this love will nto be denied to me." With a voice choked with emotion Uddhava prays in this way. Praying that in some other lifetime he may some day attain this kind of anuraga ecstatic love, Uddhava says (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.67):

 

 

karmabhir bhramyamananam. . .

 

 

     "Wherever we are made to wander about this world by the Supreme Lord's will, in accordance to the reactions to our fruitive work, may our good works and charity always grant us love for Lord Krishna."***

 

     Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.66 may be interpreted in two ways. It may be interpreted to refer to vatsalya-rasa alone, or it may also be interpreted to refer to the other rasas also. Here the phrase beginning with the word "pada" (taking shelter of Krishna's feet) is considered appropriate in vatsalya-rasa because Nanda Maharaja feels great anguish because he cannto associate with Krishna who has gone to a faraway country. A similar situation in karuna-rasa is seen in the story of Maharaja Citraketu. Here the word "prahvana" means "bowing down". In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.67 the word "ishvare" is used, as it was used before, as an affectionate term used to address a child. It is sometimes used in that way in this world. These are included amongst the udbhasvaras. Now the sattvika-bhavas will be considered. Of these there are eight, as were described before. For Lord Krishna's mother there is a ninth sattvika-bhava, which is milk flowing from her breasts. Now the sancari-bhavas will be considered. These are: 1. those born from the pastimes Lord Krishna directly performs, and 2. those born from the pastimes of power and opulence manifest with thr aid of Lord Krishna's pastime potency. The first of these is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.34):

 

 

kasman mridam adantatman. . .

 

 

     "Dear Krishna, why are You so restless that You have eaten dirt in a solitary place? This complaint has been lodged against You by all Your playmates, including Your elder brother, Balarama. How is this?"***

 

     This is an example of Lord Krishna's restlessness. The second of these sancari-bhavas (those pastimes of power and opulence manifest with the aid of Lord Krishna's pastime potency) is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.37):

 

 

sa tatra dadrishe vishvam. . .

 

 

     "When Krishna opened His mouth wide by the order of Mother Yashoda, she saw within His mouth all moving and nonmoving entities, outer space, and all directions, along with mountains, islands, oceans, the surface of the earth, the blowing wind, fire, the moon, and stars. She saw the planetary systems, water, light, air, sky, and creation by transformation of akankara. She also saw the senses, the mind, sense perception, and the three qualities goodness, passion, and ignorance. She saw the time allotted for the living entities, she saw natural instinct and the reactions of karma, and she saw desires and different varieties of bodies, moving and nonmoving. Seeing all these aspects of the cosmic manifestation, along with herself and Vrindavana-dhama, she became doubtful and fearful of her son's nature."*

 

     In this passage is seen Mother Yashoda's wonder and doubt. Here the sthayi-bhava is vatsalya-rasa. This sthayi-bhava is seen in these owrds of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.23):

 

 

tan-matarau nija-sutau ghrinaya snuvantyau

     pankanga-raga-rucirav upagrihya dorbhyam

dattva stanam prapibatoh sma mukham nirikshya

     mugdha-smitalpa-dashanam yayatuh pramodam

 

 

     "Dressed with muddy earth muxed with cow dung and cow urine, the babies looked very beautiful, and when They went to Their mothers, both Yashoda and Rohini picked Them up with great affection, embraced Them, and allowed Them to suck the milk flowing from their breasts. While sucking the breast, the babies smiled, and Their small teeth were visible. Their mothers, upon seeing those beautiful teeth, enjoyed great transcendental bliss."*

 

     In this verse the word "tan-matarau" means “the mothers of Krishna and Balarama", and "ghrinaya" means "with compassion". Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.23 was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 245

 

 

     Vatsalya-rasa is wonderful with many vibhavas and other bhavas. Even before the devotees have seen Lord Krishna for the first time, these ecstasies are manifest. This is seen in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.5.9):

 

 

gopyash cakarnya mudita

     yashodayah sutodbhavam

atmanam bhushayam cakrur

     vastrakalpanjanadibhih

 

 

     "The gopi wives of the cowherd men were very pleased to hear that mother Yashoda had given birth to a son, and they began to decorate themselves very nicely with proper dresses, ornaments, black ointment for the eyes, and so on."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 246

 

 

     After the devotees attain Lord Krishna's direct association the ecstasies of vatsalya-rasa become perfectly manifest. They are seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.5.12):

 

 

ta ashishah. . .

 

 

     "Offering blessings to the newborn child, Krishna, the wives and the daughters of the cowherd men said, `May You become the king of Vraja and logn maintain all its inhabitants.' They sprinkled a mixture of turmeric powder, oil, and water upon the birthless Supreme Lord and offered their prayers."*

 

     When the devotees become separated from Lord Krishna, the ecstasies of vatsalya-rasa are also seen. An example is given in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.46.27-28):

 

 

iti samsmritya samsmritya

     nandah krishnanurakta-dhih

aty-utkanöho 'bhavat tushnim

     prema-prasara-vihvalah

 

 

     "Thus intensely remembering Krishna again and again, Nanda Maharaja, his mind completely attached to the Lord, felt extreme anxiety and fell silent, overcome by the strength of his love.***

 

 

yashoda varnyamanani

     putrasya caritani ca

shrinvaty ashruni avasrakshit

     sneha-snuta-payodhara

 

 

     "As mother Yashoda heard the descriptions of her son's activities, she poured out her tears, and milk flowed from her breasts out of love."***

 

     The meaning of Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.46.27-28 is clear. These verses were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anucchedas 247 and 248

 

 

     After being separated from Him, when they again meet Krishna, the devotees in vatsalya-rasa are very pleased. This is seen in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.82.35):

 

 

tav atmasanam aropya

 

 

     "Raising their two sons onto their laps and holding Them in their arms, Nanda and saintly mother Yashoda forgot their sorrow."***

 

     These ecstasies are also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.84.66):

 

 

nandas tu sakhyuh priya-krit

     premna govinda-ramayoh

adya sva iti masams trin

     yadubhir manito 'vasat

 

 

     "And on his part, Nanda was also full of affection for his friend Vasudeva. Thus during the following days Nanda would repeatedly announce, `I will be leaving later today' and `I will be leaving tomorrow'. But out of love for Krishna and Balarama he remained there for three more months, honored by all the Yadus."***

 

     In this verse it is said: "But out of love for Krishna and Balarama he remained there for three more months." For three months he would repeatedly announce, `I will be leaving later today' and `I will be leaving tomorrow'." Overcome with bliss, Nanda felt those three months apss as if they were only two days. Someone may ask: "What did he do as he resided there?" The answer is given here in the words: "Nanda was also full of affection for his friend Vasudeva." This means that when Vasudeva was present Nanda did not act as if Krishna were his son. Neither did he attempt to take Krishna back with him to Vraja. Then it is said here: "Nanda was honored by all the Yadus." Afterward Nanda was again separated from Lord Krishna. This is described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.84.67-69):

 

 

tatah kamaih puryamanah

     sa-vrajah saha-bandhavah

parardhyabharana-kshauma-

     nananarghya-paricchadaih

 

vasudevograsenabhyam

     krishnoddhava-baladibhih

dattam adaya paribarham

     yapito yadubhir yayau

 

 

     "Then, after Vasudeva, Ugrasena, Krishna, Uddhava, Balarama, and others had fulfilled his desires and presented him with precious ornaments, fine linen, and varieties of priceless household furnishing, Nanda Maharaja accepted all these gifts and took his leave. Seen off by all the Yadus, he departed with his family members and the residents of Vraja.***

 

 

nando gopas ca gopyash ca

     govinda-caranambuje

manah kshiptam punar hartum

     anisha mathuram yayau

 

 

     "Unable to withdraw their minds from Lord Govinda's lotus feet, where they had surrendered them, Nanda and the cowherd men and women returned to Mathura."***

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.84.67 the word "kamaih" means "with the desires that begin with the desire that Krishna would return to Vraja", and the word "puryamanah" means "satisfied by Lord Krishna". It was Lord Balarama who returned to Vraja. In describing that pastime Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.65.6):

 

 

krishne kamala-patrakshe

     sanyastakhila-radhasah

 

 

     "The cowherds had dedicated everything to lotus-eyed Krishna."***

 

     Shrila Shridhara Svami comments:

 

     "In this verse the word `krishne' means `for the purpose of attaining Lord Krishna's association', and `     sanyastakhila-radhasah' means `they renounced everything'."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.84.67-69 it is said: “With great love Vasudeva and the others gave gifts of many ornaments." Here the word "apitah" means “escorted by a great army". Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.84.69 describes the great love the people of Vraja felt for Lord Krishna. Whent hey had returned to Mathura, the cowherd people again yearned for Lord Krishna's association. Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.84.66-69 was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 249

 

 

     It was after these pastimes that the citizens of Dvaraka spoke these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.9):

 

 

yarhy ambujakshapasasara bho bhavan

     kurun madhun vatha suhrid-didrikshaya

 

 

     "O lotus-eyed Lord, whenever You go away to Mathura-Vrindavana or Hastinapura to meet Your friends and relatives, every moment of Your absence seems like a million years. O infallible one, at that time our eyes become useless, as if bereft of sun."*

 

     In Shri Krishna-sandarbha (Anuccheda 174) it was explained that Lord Krishna resides in Vraja eternally in His aprakaöa (unmanifest) form, and therefore they people of vraja are never truly separated from Him. Their desire to associate with Him is always satisfied. In this way vatsalya-rasa has been described.

     Now sakhya-rasa will be described. In this rasa the alambana is Lord manifest as a friend. The vishaya is Lord Krishna. The asraya is the friends who aprticipate in Lord Krishna's glorous pastimes. In this rasa the Lord sometimes manifests a form-armed form and other times manifests a humanlike form. The four-armed form is described by Arjuna in these words of Bhagavad-gita (11.46):

 

 

tenaiva rupena catur-bhujena

     sahasra-baho bhava vishva-murte

 

 

     "O universal form, O thousand-armed Lord, I wish to see You in Your four-armed form."*

 

     Afterward, when Lord Krishna's humanlike form was manifest, Arjuna said in Bhagavad-gita (11.51):

 

 

drishövedam manusham rupam

     tava saumyam janardana

idanim asmi samvrittah

     sa-cetah prakritim gatah

 

 

     "When Arjuna saw Krishna in His origina form, he said: O Janardana, seeing this humanlike form, so very beautiful, I am now composed in mind, and I am restored to my original nature."*

 

     Amongst the devotees in sakhya-rasa are the mitras, suhrits, and sakhas. Among the suhrits, Shri Bhimasena and Shri Draupadi are prominent. Among the sakhas, Shriman Arjuna and Shridama Vipra are prominent. In Gokula the gopa Shridama is prominent. These great devotees are glorified in Shrimad-Bhagavatam and other scriptures. In the Agama-sastras, Vasudama, Kinkini, and other devotees in sakhya-rasa are described. In the Bhavishya Purana's description of pastimes of wrestling, the names of some devotees in sakhya-rasa are given in these words:

 

 

subhadra-mandalibhadra-

     bhadravardhana-gobhaöah

yakshendrabhaöah. . .

 

 

     "Subhadra, Mandalibhadra, Bhadravardhana, Gobhaöa, and Yakshendrabhaöa participated in these pastimes."

 

     The gopas in sakhya-rasa are also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.12.2):

 

 

tenaiva sakam prithukah sahasrashah. . .

 

 

     "At that time, hundreds and thousands of cowherd boys came out of their respective homes in Vrajabhumi and joined Krishna, keeping before them their hundreds and thousands of groups of calves. The boys were very beautiful, and they were equipped with lunch bags, bugles, flutes, and sticks for controlling the calves."*

 

     These gopas were all Lord Krishna's equals. It is said in the scriptures:

 

 

gopaih samana-guna-shila-vayo-vilasa-vashaish ca

 

 

     "In their qualities, character, age, pastimes, and garments, the gopa boys were like Krishna."

 

     Of the gopas it is also said in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.18.11):

 

 

gopa jati-praticchanna. . .

 

 

     "O King, demigods disguised themselves as members of the cowherd community and, just as dramatic dancers praise another dancer, worshiped Krishna and Balarama, who were also appearing as cowherd boys."***

 

     This verse has been explained in Shri Krishna-sandarbha, Anuccheda 117. The gopas' great learning is seen in these words they spoke in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.23.8):

 

 

diksayah pashu-samsthayah. . .

 

 

     "Except during the interval between the initiation of the performer of a sacrifice and the actual sacrifice of the animal, O most pure brahmanas, it is not contaminating for even the initiated to partake of food, at least in sacrifices other than the Sautramani."***

 

     The gopas' expert artistic skill is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.18.13):

 

 

kvacin nrityatsu canyeshu. . .

 

 

     "While the other boys were dancing, O King, Krishna and Balarama would sometimes accompany them with song and instrumental music, and sometimes the two Lords would praise the boys, saying, ``Very good! Very good!' "***

 

     In these words Lord Krishna Himself praised the gopas' glorious qualities. The gopas are of three kinds: 1. sakha (ordinary friends), 2. priya-sakha (more confidential friends), and 3. priya-narma-sakha (intimate friends). The gopa Shridamaa and the other gopas enjoy very sweeet pastimes with Lord Krishna. They are described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.12.11):

 

 

ittham satam. . .

 

 

     "In this way, all the cowherd boys used to play with Krishna, who is the source of the Brahman effulgence for jnanis desiring to merge into that effulgence, who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead for devotees who have accepted eternal servitorship, and who for ordinary persons is but another ordinary child. The cowherd boys, having accumulated the results of pious activities for many lives, were able to associate in this way with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. How can one explain their great fortune?"*

 

     In this rasa lord Krishna is the alambana. Lord Krishna as the alambana is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.21.5):

 

 

barhapidam naöa-vara-vapuh. . .

 

 

     "Wearing a peacock-feather ornament upon His head, blue karnikara flowers on His ears, a yellow garment as brilliant as gold, and the Vaijayanti garland, Lord Krishna exhibited His transcendental form as the greatest of dancers as He entered the forest of Vrindavana, beautifying it with the marks of His footprints. He filled the holes of His flute with the nectar of His lips, and the cowherd boys sang His glories."***

 

     Mow the uddipanas in this rasa will be considered. Amongst these uddipanas are included the following transcendental qualities: loving friendship, straightforwardness, gratitude, intelligence, learning, glory, expert skill, heroism, strength, tolerance, mercy, and giving delight to the people. Also included amongst these uddipanas are youthful handsomeness, all-auspicious bodily features, and other qualities. For the suhrit friends the qualities beginning with straightforwardness are prominent. For the sakha friends the qualities beginning with handsomeness and skill are prominent. For the mitra friends the qualities beginning with straightforwardness, handsomeness, and skill are prominent. The suhrit, sakha, and mitra kinds of friendship are mentioned by lamenting Arjuna in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.15.4):

 

 

sakhyam maitrim sauhridam ca. . .

 

 

     "Remembering Lord Krishna and His well wishes, benefactions, intimate familial relations and His chariot driving, Arjuna, overwhelmed and breathing very heavily, began to speak."***

 

     Lord Krishna's friendly affection for the gopas is seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.13.13 and 16):

 

 

tan drisöva bhaya-santrastan

     uce krishno'sya bhi-bhayam

mitrany ashan ma viramate-

     haneshye vatsakan aham

 

 

     "When Krishna saw that His friends the cowherd boys were frightened, He, the fierce controller even of fear itself, said, just to mitigate their fear, `My dear friends, do not stop eating. I shall bring your calves back to this spot by personally going after them Myself.' "***

 

 

tato vatsan adrishövaitya

     puline 'pi ca vatsapan

ubhav api vane krishno

     vicikaya samantatah

 

 

     "Thereafter, when Krishna was unable to find the calves, He returned to the bank of the river, but there He was also unable to see the cowherd boys. Thus He began to search for both the calves and the boys, as if He could not understand what had happened."*

 

     The meaning of these verses (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.13.13 and 16) is clear. These verses were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 250

 

 

     Sakhya-rasa is also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.15.52):

 

 

anvamamsata tad rajan

     govindanugrahekshitam. . .

 

 

     "O King, the cowherd boys then considered that although they had drunk poison and in fact had died, simply by the merciful glance of Govinda they had regained their lives and stood up by their own strength."***

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 251

 

 

     Sakhya-rasa is again seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.13.5):

 

 

aho 'tiramyam pulinam vayasyah. . .

 

 

     "My dear friends, just see how this riverbank is extremely beautiful because of its pleasing atmosphere. And just see how the blooming lotuses are attracting bees and birds by their aroma. The humming and chirping of the bees and birds is echoing throughout the beautiful trees in the forest. Also, here the sands are clean and soft. Therefore, this must be considered the best place for our sporting and pastimes."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

Anuccheda 252

 

 

     Sakhya-rasa is again seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.15.16):

 

 

kvacit pallava-talpeshu

     niyuddha-shrama-karshitah

vriksha-mulashrayah shete

     gopotsangopabarhanah

 

 

     "Sometimes Lord Krishna grew tired from fighting and lay down at the base of a tree, resting upon a bed made of soft twigs and buds and using the lap of a cowherd friend as His pillow."*

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 253

 

 

     Sakhya-rasa is again seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.35.20):

 

 

kunda-dama. . .narma-dah pranayinam vijahara

 

 

      "O sinless Yashoda, your darling child, the son of Maharaja Nanda, has festively enhanced His attire with a jasmine garland, and He is now playing along the Yamuna in the company of the cows and cowherd boys, amusing His dear companions."***

 

 

Anuccheda 254

 

 

     Sakhya-rasa is again seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.35.18):

 

 

mani-dharah. . .pranayino 'nucarasya kadamse

     prakshipan bhujam agayata yatra

 

 

     "Now Krishna is standing somewhere counting His cows on a string of gems. He wears a garland of tulasi flowers that bear the fragrance of His beloved, and He has thrown His arm over the shoulder of an affectionate cowherd boyfriend. "***

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by the gopis.

 

 

Anuccheda 255

 

 

     When Lord Krishna enjoys pastimes as a kshatriya (at Mathura and Dvaraka), the suhrit friends are more numerous. When Lord Krishna enjoys pastimes as a gopa, the sakha friends are more numerous. For these suhrit friends Lord Krishna's pastimes as a heroic warrior and other like pastimes are prominent. For the gopa sakha freinds Lord Krishna's pastimes of joking, singing, conversing, calling the cows, playing the flute, showing artistic skill, and other like pastimes are prominent. Lord Krishna's pastimes of joking are seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.13.11):

 

 

bibhrad venum jaöhara-paöayoh. . .

 . . .tishöhan madhye sva-parisuhrido hasayan narmabhih svaih. . .

 

 

     "Krishna is yajna-bhuk-that is, He eats only offerings of yajna-but to exhibit His childhood pastimes, He now sat with His flute tucked between His waist and His tight cloth on His right side and with His horn bugle and cow-driving stick on His left. Holding in His hand a very nice preparation of yogurt and rice, with pieces of suitable fruit between His fingers, He sat like the whorl of a lotus flower, looking forward toward all His friends, personally joking with them and creating jubilant laughter among them as He ate. At that time, the denizens of heaven were watching, struck with wonder at how the Personality of Godhead, who eats only in yajna, was now eating with His friends in the forest."***

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 256

 

 

     Some of the other pastimes Lord Krishna enjoys with the gopa sakhas are seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.15.9-10):

 

 

evam vrindavanam shrimat

     krishnah prita-manah pashun

reme sancarayann adreh

     sarid-rodhahsu sanugah

 

 

     "Thus expressing His satisfaction with the beautiful forest of Vrindavana and its inhabitants, Lord Krishna enjoyed tending the cows and other animals with His friends on the banks of the river Yamuna below Govardhana Hill.***

 

 

kvacid gayati gayatsu

     madandhalishv anuvrataih

upagiyamana-caritah

     pathi sankarshananvitah. . .

 

 

     "Sometimes the honeybees in Vrindavana became so mad with ecstasy that they closed their eyes and began to sing. Lord Krishna, moving along the forest Path with His cowherd boyfriends and Baladeva, would then respond to the bees by imitating their singing while His friends sang about His pastimes. Sometimes Lord Krishna would imitate the chattering of a parrot, sometimes, with a sweet voice, the call of a cuckoo, and sometimes the cooing of swans. Sometimes He vigorously imitated the dancing of a peacock, making His cowherd boyfriends laugh."***

 

 

Anuccheda 257

 

 

     These pastimes are also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.13.12-13):

 

 

megha-gambhiraya vaca

     namabhir dura-gan pashun

kvacid ahvayati pritya

     go-gopala-manojnaya

 

 

     "Sometimes, with a voice as deep as the rumbling of clouds, He would call out with great affection the names of the animals who had wandered far from the herd, thus enchanting the cows and the cowherd boys."***

 

 

cakora-kraunca. . .

 

 

     "Sometimes He would cry out in imitation of birds such as the cakoras, krauncas, cakrahvas, bharadiajas and Peacocks, and sometimes He would run away with the smaller animals in mock fear of lions and tigers."***

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.

 

 

Anuccheda 258

 

 

     These pastimes are also seen in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.18.19):

 

 

tatropahuya gopalan

     krishnah praha vihara-vit

he gopa viharishyamo

     dvandvi-bhuya yatha-yatham

 

 

     "Krishna, who knows all sports and games, then called together the cowherd boys and spoke as follows: ``Hey cowherd boys! Let's play now! We'll divide ourselves into two even teams.''"***

 

     The meaning of this verse is clear. This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.