|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Jiva Goswami > Six Sandarbhas > Paramatma-sandarbha > Mangalacarana 2|
ata eva shuktitve rajatatvam iva tasyavyakta-rupatve jagattvam asan na bhavati. patavac ceti nyayena jagad eva hi sukshmatapannam avyaktam iti drishyatvena bhranti-rajata-kaksham api jagat-tad-vilakshana-sattakam tathatma-vada-parinatatvabhavena naikavastha-sattakam ity evam artha-siddhaye tad-anantaram evahuh
ata eva-therefore; shuktitve-the state of being a seashell; rajatatvam-the state of being silver; iva-like; tasya-of that; avyakta-unmanifested; rupatve-in the form; jagattvam-the state of being the universe; asan-unreal; na-not; bhavati-is; paöavac ca-Shri Vedanta-sutra 2.1.19; iti-thus; nyayena-by the example; jagat-the universe; eva-indeed; hi-indeed; sukshmata-subtlety; apannam-attained; avyaktam-unmanifested; iti-thus; drishyatvena-by being visible; bhranti-rajata-kaksham-the mistake of thinking to be silver; api-also; jagat-the material world; tad-vilakshana-different from that; sattakam-existence; tathatma-vada-parinatatva-the theory of transformation; abhavena-because of the non-existence; na-not; aikavastha-sattakam-oneness; iti-thus; evam-thus; artha-siddhaye-for understanding the meaning; tad-anantaram-after that; eva-indeed; ahuh-they said.
Another argument of the impersonalists is that the material world is unreal because it is like the silver mistakenly thought to be present in the silverlike glittering on a seashell's surface. This argument cannot be accepted. A very different example is given in the Vedanta-sutra (2.1.19):
"The material world is like a cloth, its threads woven on the Supreme Personality of Godhead."
When the material world enters a subtle state of existence, it is said to be unmanifested. At that time, however, it does not cease to exist and become an illusion like the silver imagined to glitter on a seashell's surface. Rather, the material world becomes transformed. The material world, after all, does not have only one state of existence. The following explanation is given in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.37):
na yad idam agra asa na bhavishyad ato nidhanad
anumitam antara tvayi vibhati mrishaika-rase
ata upamiyate dravina-jati-vikalpathair
vitatha-mano-vilasam ritam ity avayanty abudhah
na-not; yat-what; idam-this; agra-before; asa-was; na-not; bhavishyat-will be; atah-then; nidhanat-destruction; anu-after; mitam-considered; antara-within; tvayi-You; vibhati-is maniefsted; mrisha-false; eka-rase-in one mellow; ata-then; upamiyate-is considered; dravina-jati-vikalpathaih-with various material transformations; vitatha-mano-vilasam-an imagination; ritam-without; iti-thus; avayanti-think; abudhah-fools.
"The cosmic manifestation, because of the flickering nature of its impermanent existence, appears to less-intelligent men to be false."*
yad yadi idam vishvam agre shrishöeh purvam nasa nasid tada na bhavishyann abhavishyad eva. ad-agamabhava arshah. akasha-kusumam iveti bhavah. shrutayash casid eveti vadanti sad eva saumyedam agra asit. atma va idam agra asit ity adyah.
yat-yat; yadi-if; idam-this; vishvam-universe; agre-before; shrishöeh-created; purvam-before; na-not; asa-was; na-not; asit-was; tada-then; na-not; bhavishyann-will be; abhavishyat-would be; eva-indeed; ad-agamabhava-the affix aö; arshah-from the sages; akasha-in the sky; kusumam-flower; iva-like; iti-thus; bhavah-the meaning; shrutayah-the Vedas; ca-and; asit-was; eva-indeed; iti-thus; vadanti-say; sat-real; eva-indeed; saumya-O gentle one; idam-this; agra-before; asit-was; atma-self; va-indeed; idam-this; agra-before; asit-was; iti-thus; adyah-beginning.
Here the word "yat" means "if", “idam" means "the material universe", "agre" means "before the material universe was created", “na asa" means "was not", and "na bhavishyat" means "would not be". Here the absence of the prefix “a" in the word that should be "abhavishyat" is an example of the poetic license of the sages. Here the impersonalists claim that the material world is like a flower imagined to float in the sky. That the material world is real is confirmed by the following words of Chandogya Upanishad (6.2.1):
"O gentle one, before the material world was manifested, the Supreme Personality of Godhead existed."
This is also confirmed by the following words of Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (1.4.1):
"Before the material world was manifested, the Supreme Personality of Godhead existed."
tad evam sukshmataya tattvad atmyena sthitam karanavastham idam jagat vishritataya karyavastham bhavati. ato yan-nidhanan nasha-matrad dhetoh shuktau rajatam iva tvayi tad idam antara shrishöi-madhya eva. na tv agre cante ca vibhatity anumitam tan mrisheti pramana-siddham na bhavatity arthah.
tat-that; evam-thus; sukshmataya-subtly; tattvat-from the truth; atmyena-as created by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sthitam-situated; karanavastham-as thw cause; idam-this; jagat-universe; vishritataya-manifested; karyavastham-as the effect; bhavati-is; atah-then; yan-nidhanan-from the destruction ofwhich; nasha-matrat-from the destruction; dhetoh-from the cause; shuktau-in a seashell; rajatam-silver; iva-like; tvayi-in You; tat-that; idam-that; antara-within; shrishöi-madhya-in the creation; eva-inded; na-not; tv-but; agre-in the beginning; ca-and; ante-in the end; ca-and; vibhati-is manifested; iti-thus; anumitam-considered; tan-that; mrisha-false; iti-thus; pramana-siddham-proved by the evidence; na-not; bhavati-is; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Because the effect is also present within its cause, the material world, in its subtle form, is present in the Supreme Personality of Godhead before the time of material creation. Here the verse says, "O Lord, the idea that because at a certain point in time the material universe is destroyed, therefore the material world is unreal, like the silver imagined to exist on the glittering surface of a seashell, and the idea that although for a certain time the material universe is manifested within You, it does not exist before or after that manifestation, and therefore it is unreal, are conclusions not supported by the evidence of the scriptures."
tatra hetum aha eka-rase iti. anubhavantaravishayananda-svada iti. yasminn anubhute sati vishayantara-sphurtir na sambhavati. tasmims tvayi shukty-adi-nikrishöa-vastuniva vishayaropah katham syad ity arthah.
tatra-there; hetum-the reason; aha-said; eka-rase-eka-rase; iti-thus; anubhava-experience; antara-within; vishaya-the range of perception; ananda-bliss; svada-tasting; iti-thus; yasminn-in which; anubhute-perceived; sati-being so; vishayantara-sphurtih-manifested within the range of perception; na-not; sambhavati-is born; tasmimh-in that; tvayi-in You; shukty-adi-nikrishöa-vastuni- the seashell and other things; iva-like; vishaya-in the field of perception; aropah-an artifical imposition; katham-how?; syat-may be; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
The reason for this is given in the word "eka-rase", which means "in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who always experiences transcendental bliss". Therefore the verse declares: "the material universe rests within You, O Supreme Personality of Godhead". How, then, is it possible that the material world is unreal, like the silver mistakenly thought to exist in the glittering surface of a seashell?
dadhati sakrin manas tvayi ya atmani nitya-sukhe na punar upasate purusha-sara-haravasathan ity asmakam evokteh.
dadhati sakrin manas tvayi ya atmani nitya-sukhe na punar upasate purusha-sara-haravasathan iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.35; asmakam-of us; eva-indeed; uktehfrom the words.
Here the Personified Vedas hint: We have already said (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.35):
"A Krishna conscious being becomes disinterested in family life or opulent living conditions."*
ato 'cintya-shaktya svarupad acyutasyaiva tava parinama-svikarena dravina-jatinam dravya-matranam mril-lohadinam vikalpa bheda ghaöa-kundaladayas tesham panthano margah prakaras tair evasmabhir upamiyate. na tu kutrapi bhrama-rajatadibhih.
atah-then; 'cintya-shaktya-with inconceivable potency; svarupat-from His own form; acyutasya-of the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; tava-of You; parinama-transformation; svikarena-by accepting; dravina-jatinam-of material things; dravya-matranam-of material things; mril-lohadinam-made of clay, iron, etc.; vikalpa-imagination; bheda-different; ghaöa-kundaladayah-clay pots, earrings, and other like things; tesham-of them; panthanah-path; margah-path; prakarah-specific; taih-by them; eva-indeed; asmabhih-by us; upamiyate-is considered; na-not; tu-but; kutrapi-somewhere; bhrama-mistake; rajatadibhih-beginning weith silver.
Here the Personified Vedas say: "Therefore we think that by the Supreme Lord's inconceivable potency the various ingredients, like iron and earth, are transformed into the various objects of this world, like earrings and clay pots. Therefore these objects are not illusions. They are not like the silver mistakenly thought to exist on the glittering surface of a seashell."
yasmad evam tasmad vitatha mano-vilasa yatra tadrisham eva ritam tad-rupam brahmaivedam jagad ity abudha evavayanti manyante. tasya tad-adhishöhanatvasambhavad iti bhavah. rita-shabda-prayogas tatra mithya-sambandha-rahitya-vyanjanartham eva krita iti jneyam.
yasmat-from which; evam-in this way; tasmat-from that; vitatha-false; mano-vilasa-imagination of the mind; yatra-where; tadrisham-like that; eva-indeed; ritam-without; tad-rupam-that form; brahma-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; idam-this; jagat-universe; iti-thus; abudha-fools; eva-indeed; avayanti-think; manyante-think; tasya-of that; tad-adhishöhanatva-the state of being the creator; asambhavat-because of the impossibility; iti-thus; bhavah-the meaning; rita-shabda-prayogah-the use of the word "rita; tatra-there; mithya-false; sambandha-relation; rahitya-being without; vyanjana-manifestation; artham-for the purpose; eva-indeed; krita-done; iti-thus; jneyam-to be understood.
Here the verse says: "Fools think that the material world is an imagination, the playing of the mind, and the material world is actually the Supreme itself. This cannot be true." Here the word "ritam" means "it is not unreal".
atra sat-karya-vadinam ayam abhiprayah mrit-pindadi-karakair yo ghaöab utpadyate. sa sann asan va. adye pishöa-peshanam. dvitiye kriyaya karakaish ca tat-sambandhasya kha-pushpadharana-vada-sambhavat tena ca tesham anyathatvat katham tat-siddhir iti dik.
atra-here; sat-karya-vadinam-of they who say the material world is real; ayam-this; abhiprayah-the undertsanding; mrit-pindadi-beginning with balls of clay; karakaih-doing; yah-which; ghaöab-pot; utpadyate-is manifested; sa-that; sann-being so; asan-that; va-or; adye-in the beginning; pishöa-peshanam-useless labor; dvitiye-in the second; kriyaya-of acxtion; karakaih-by the doeer; ca-also; tat-sambandhasya-in relatrion to that; kha-in the sky; pushpa-flower; dharana-holding; vada-words; sambhavat-from the manifestation; tena-by that; ca-and; tesham-of them; anyathatvat-because of being different; katham-how; tat-siddhih-the proof of that; iti-thus; dik-the direction.
They who affirm that the material world is real say that as balls of clay are fashioned into clay pots, so the things of this material world are fashioned from the material elements. Thus there are two views: 1. that the material world is real, and 2. that the material world is not real. There is no need to elaborately discuss the first view. The second view affirms that actions, persons who perform actions, and what results from the actions are all unreal, like a flower imagined to float in the sky. How can anyone present any evidence to prove such a foolish idea? The preceding is thus the general idea of this verse.
tasman na prakaöam eva san na catyantam asat. kintv avyaktataya mrit-pinde eva sthito 'sau yatha karaka-tan-nishpanna-kriya-yogena vyajyate. tatha parama-karane tvayi sthitam vishvam tvat-svabhavika-shakti-tan-nishpanna-kriya-yogeneti.
tasman-therefore; na-not; prakaöam-manifested; eva-indeed; san-real so; na-not; ca-and; atyantam-great; asat-unreal; kintv-however; avyaktataya-as unmanifested; mrit-pinde-a ball of clay; eva-indeed; sthitah-situated; 'sau-that; yatha-as; karaka-the doer; tan-nishpanna-kriya-yogena-connected with thew action; vyajyate-is manifested; tatha-so; parama-karane-in the prime cause of all causes; tvayi-in You; sthitam-situated; vishvam-the material world; tvat-svabhavika-shakti-by Your personal potency; tan-nishpanna-kriya-yogena-in connection with the activity; iti-thus.
When it is not openly manifested, the material world does not cease to exist. Rather, it is exists in an unmanifested state. In that state it is like the shapeless balls of clay that a craftsman may later shape into pots and other objects. It is in this sense that the Personified Vedas say here: "O Lord, Your personal potency has created this material world."
atra sva-vedantitva-prakhyapakanam apy anyatha-mananam vedanta-viruddham eva. mana eva bhuta-karyam iti hi tatra prasiddham yukti-viruddham ca. mano-'hankaradinam manah-kalpitatvasambhavat. tatha hi sati veda-viruddho 'nishvara-vadash ca prasajyeta. sa ca ninditah padme
atra-here; sva-vedantitva-prakhyapakanam-of the proponents of Vedanta; api-also; anyatha-mananam-thinking in a different way; vedanta-viruddham-contradicted by Vedanta; eva-indeed; mana-mind; eva-indeed; bhuta-karyam-the action of the elements; iti-thus; hi-indeed; tatra-there; prasiddham-proved; yukti-viruddham-contradicted by logic; ca-also; mano-'hankaradinam-beginning with mind and flase ego; manah-mind; kalpitatva-imagination; asambhavat-because of not being so; tatha-so; hi-indeed; sati-being so; veda-viruddhah-contradicted by Vedanta; 'nishvara-vadah-the theory of atheism; ca-also; prasajyeta-is manifested; sa-that; ca-and; ninditah-criticized; padme-in the Padma Purana.
They who think otherwise, that the material world is not real, and who call themselves "Vedantists", embrace a view that is actually refuted by the words of the Vedanta-sutra. Their idea, that the material world is an imagination created by the mind, is also refuted by logic, for it is not logical to assume that the mind itself, along with false ego and the other elements, are an imagination of the mind. This being so, the theory of atheism, that there is no God, is also rejected by the Vedanta-sutra. This theory is also criticized by these words of Padma Purana:
shrutayah smritayash caiva
yuktayash ceshvaram param
vadanti tad-viruddham yo
vadet tasman na cadhamah. iti.
shrutayah-the Srutis; smritayah-the Smrtis; ca-and; eva-indeed; yuktayah-logic; ca-also; ishvaram-God; param-the Sypreme; vadanti-say; tad-viruddham-refuting that; yah-who; vadet-speaks; tasman-therefore; na-not; ca-and; adhamah-the lowest; iti-thus.
"The Shrutis and Smritis all affirm that the Supreme Personality of Godhead certainly exists. Anyone who tries to refute the existence of God is lowest of the low."
asatyam apratishöham te
jagad ahur anishvaram
kim anyat kama-haitukam
asatyam-unreal; apratishöham-without foundation; te-they; jagat-the cosmic manifestation; ahuh-is said; anishvaram-with nocontroller; aparaspara-by mutual lust; sambhutam-caused; kim anyat-there is no other cause; kama-haitukam-it isd due to lust only.
The view of the atheists is also described in these words of Bhagavad-gita (16.8):
"They say that this world is unreal, that there is no foundation, and that there is no God in control. It is produced of sex desire, and has no cause other than lust."*
iti shri-gitopanishad-adi-drishöyaivanishvara-vadina eva vyacakshate. asatyam mithya-bhutam satyasatyabhyam anirvacaniyatvenapratishöham nirdesha-shunyam sthanau purushatva-vat brahmanishvaratvasyajnana-matra-kalpitatvad ishvarabhimani tatra kashcin nastity anishvaram eva jagat aparaspara-sambhutam anady-ajnana-parasparasambhutam. aparasparah kriya-satatye. atah kama-haitukam manah-sankalpa-matra-jatam svapna-vad ity arthah.
iti-thus; shri-gitopanishat-of Shri Bhagavad-gita; adi-beginning; drishöya-by the view; eva-indeed; anishvara-vadina-the atheists; eva-indeed; vyacakshate-says; asatyam-unreal; mithya-bhutam-unreal; satyasatyabhyam-both real and unreal; anirvacaniyatvena-because it cannot be said; apratishöham-without foundation; nirdesha-shunyam-withotu description; sthanau-in situation; purushatva-vat-like a person; brahmani-in Brahman; ishvaratvasya-of the state opf the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ajnana-ignorance; matra-only; kalpitatvat-because of ebing an imagination; ishvara-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; abhimani-thinking; tatra-there; kashcin-someone; na-not; asti-is; iti-thus; anishvaram-atheism; eva-indeed; jagat-universe; aparaspara-sambhutam-mutually created; anady-ajnana-beginningless ignorance; paraspara-mutual; asambhutam-not created; aparasparah-not mutual; kriya-satatye-in the reailty of the action; atah-then; kama-haitukam-the cause is lust; manah-sankalpa-imagination of the mind; matra-only; jatam-produced; svapna-a dream; vat-like; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Thus, in these words of Bhagavad-gita and other scriptures, the philosophy of atheism is described. Here the word “asatyam" means "unreal". It cannot be said that the world is both real and unreal. Here "apratishtham" means "there is no foundation". Here the Bhagavad-gita verse says, "Because they think that God is created by the imagination, the atheists think that they are God themselves. Therefore they say that there is no God (anishvaram). They say that we have created the world (jagat) ourselves (aparaspara-sambhutam), because of our beginningless ignorance, and we have created it out of the desires in our minds (kama-haitukam), as one creates things in a dream." That is the meaning.
atra pravrittim ca ity adina tesham samskara-dosha ukteh etam drishöim ity adina tu gatish ca nindishyata iti jneyam. ebhir eva brahmana aishvaryopadhir mayapi jivajnana-kalpita. tayaiva jagat-shrishöir iti matam.
atra-here pravrittim ca ity adina-in Bhagavad-gita 16.7; tesham-of them; samskara-dosha-because of the fault of previous impious deeds; ukteh-from the statement; etam drishöim ity adina-in Bhagavad-gita 16.9; tu-indeed; gatih-goal; ca-and; nindishyata-is criticized; iti-thus; jneyam-to be understood; ebhih-by them; eva-indeed; brahmana-of the Supreme; aishvaryopadhih-the opulence; maya-maya; api-even; jiva-of the individual spirit souls; ajnana-by the ignorance; kalpita-imagined; taya-by that; eva-indeed; jagat-shrishöih-the creation of the material world; iti-thus; matam-considered
The atheists and demons are also described in these words of Bhagavad-gita (16.7):
"Those who are demonic do not know what is to be done and what is not to be done. Neither cleanliness, nor proper behavior, nor truth is found in them."*
The faults of the demons are also described in these words of Bhagavad-gita (16.9):
"Following such conclusions, the demonic, who are lost to themselves and who have no intelligence, engage in unbeneficial, horrible works meant to destroy the world."*
In this way the demons' activities are criticized. The demons say that the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are all an illusion (maya), that the Lord's glories are created by the imaginations of the living beings. They say that the Supreme Lord's creation of the material world is all mythology.
yad uktam tadiya-bhashye tad-ananyatvam ity adi sutre sarvajneshvarasyatma-bhute ivavidya-kalpite nama-rupe tattvatattvabhyam anirvacaniye samsara-prapanca-bija-bhute sarvajneshvarasya maya-shaktih prakritir iti shruti-smrityor abhilapyeta iti.
yat-what; uktam-said; tadiya-bhashye-in the commentary; tad-ananyatvam ity adi sutre-in the Vedanta-sutra 2.1.14; sarvajna-all-knowing; ishvarasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; atma-bhute-self-manifested; iva-like; avidya-ignorance; kalpite-imagined; nama-rupe-names and forms; tattva-truth; atattva-untruth; abhyam-valled; anirvacaniye-indescribable; samsara-prapanca-bija-the seed of the material creation; bhute-manifested; sarvajneshvarasya-of the all-knowing Supreme Personality of Godhead; maya-shaktih-the maya potency; prakritih-matter; iti-thus; shruti-smrityoh-by the Sruti and Smrti; abhilapyeta-said; iti-thus.
In his commentary on Vedanta-sutra (2.1.14), Shri Shankaracarya asserts:
"The names and forms of the all-knowing Supreme Personality of Godhead are a figment of the imagination. They cannot be described with words. No one can say whether they are real or not. They are created by the souls in the material world. They are manifested from the illusory potency maya. They are material. This is described in the Shruti and Smriti."
kintv atra vidyavidye mama tanu ity adi shri-bhagavad-vakyena tu viruddham iti.
kintv atra vidyavidye mama tanu ity adi-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.11.3; shri-bhagavat-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vakyena-by the words; tu-indeed; viruddham-refuted; iti-thus.
These ideas are refuted by the Supreme Lord Himself in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.11.3):
"O Uddhava, both knowledge and ignorance, being products of may, are expansions of My potency. Both knowledge and ignorance are beginningless and perpetually award liberation and bondage to embodied living beings."***
ato mayavadataya cayam vadah khyayate. tad evam ca padmottara-khande devim prati pashanda-shastram ganayata shri-mahadevenoktam
atah-therefore; mayavadataya-as the mayavada philosophy; ca-also; ayam-this; vadah-word; khyayate-is famous; tat-that; evam-thus; ca-and; padmottara-khande-in the Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda; devim-Goddess; prati-to; pashanda-shastram-the scriptures of the blasphemers; ganayata-considering; shri-mahadevena-by Lord Shiva; uktam-said.
This impersonalist and atheist philosophy is called “mayavada" (the philosophy of maya). In the Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda, in the course of describing the scriptures of the blasphemers and atheists, Lord Shiva tells Goddess Parvati:
mayavadam asac chastram
pracchannam baudham ucyate
mayaiva kathitam devi
mayavadam-the philosophy of mayavada; asac-chastram-false scriptures; pracchannam-covered; baudham-Buddhism; ucyate-is said; maya-by me; eva-only; kathitam-executed; devi-O goddess of the material world; kalau-in the age of Kali; brahmana-rupina-having the body of a brahmana.
"The mayavada philosophy is impious. It is covered Buddhism. My dear Parvati, in the form of a brahmana in Kali-yuga I teach this imagined Mayavada philosophy."*
vedante tu maha-shastre
mayaiva vakshyate devi
jagatam nasha-karanat. iti.
vedante-in Vedanta; tu-indeed; maha-shastre-the great scripture; mayavadam-mayavada; avaidikam-against the Vedas; maya-ny me; eva-indeed; vakshyate-is said; devi-O goddess; jagatam-of the worlds; nasha-karanat-causeing the destruction; iti-thus.
"Similarly, in explaining Vedanta, I describe the same mayavada philosophy in order to mislead the entire population toward atheism by denying the personal form of the Lord."*
tac casuranam mohanartham bhagavata evajnayeti tatraivoktam asti. tatha ca padma evanyatra shaive ca
tac-that; ca-also; asuranam-of the demons; mohana-bewilderment; artham-for the purpose; bhagavata-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; ajnaya-by the order; iti-thus; tatra-there; eva-indeed; uktam-said; asti-is; tatha-so; ca-also; padma-in the Padma Purana; eva-indeed; anyatra-in another place; shaive-in the Shiva Purana; ca-also.
In order to bewilder the demons, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself ordered Lord Shiva to preach the mayavada philosophy. This is confirmed by the following quote from both the Padma Purana and the Shiva Purana, where the Supreme Personality of Godhead tells Shiva:
dvaparadau yuge bhutva
svagamaih kalpitais tvam ca
janan mad-vimukhan kuru
dvaparadau yuge-after the Dvapara yuga; bhutva-becoming; kalaya-by a part; manushadishu-in human beings and others; svagamaih-by your own scriptures; kalpitaih-imagined; tvam-you; ca-and; janan-the people; mad-vimukhan-averse to Me; kuru-please make.
"In Kali-yuga, mislead the people in general by propounding imaginary meanings for the Vedas to bewilder them."*
iti shri-bhagavad-vakyam iti dik. ata evoktam shri-nrisimha-purane yama-vakye
iti-thus; shri-bhagavad-vakyam-the words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; iti-thus; dik-the direction; ata eva-therefore; uktam-said; shri-nrisimha-purane-in Shri Nrisimha Purana; yama-vakye-in the words fo Yamaraja.
These words were spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. The same truth is also described in the Shri Nrisimha Purana, where Yamaraja says:
mahad api su-vicarya loka-tantram
bhagavad-upastim rite na siddhir asti. iti.
visadhara-Patanjali; kanabhaksha-Kanada; sankara-of Shankara; uktih-the words; dashabala-Buddha; pancashikha-sankhya; akshapada-Gautama; vadan-philosophies; mahat-great; api-also; su-vicarya-carefully studying; loka-tantram-the materialistic Tantras; bhagavad-upastim-devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; rite-without; na-not; siddhih-perfection; asti-is; iti-thus.
"They who carefully study the philosophies of Patanjali, Kanada, Shankaracarya, Buddha, Pseudo-Kapila, Gautama, and other materialistic authors, and who neglect devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, do not attain perfection."
sarve 'tra vada-grantha eva nirdishöah. na tu mantra-grantha iti namaksaram eva sakshan nirdishöam iti ca nanyatha mananiyam. anandamayo 'bhyasat ity adishu vedanta-sutra-kara-matam tatra dushyata iti.
sarve-all; 'tra-here; vada-grantha-scriptures; eva-indeed; nirdishöah-indicated; na-not; tu-but; mantra-grantha-mantra scriptures; iti-thus; namaksaram-obeisasnces; eva-indeed; sakshan-directly; nirdishöam-indicated; iti-thus; ca-and; na-not; anyatha-otherwise; mananiyam-to be considered; anandamayo 'bhyasat ity adishu-in Vedanta-sutra 1.1.12; vedanta-sutra-of Vedanta-sutra; kara-of the author; matam-the opinion; tatra-there; dushyata-is refuted; iti-thus.
In this list the scriptures of all the different philosophies are mentioned. Only the mantra-scriptures and some other scriptures are excluded. In the following words (Vedanta-sutra 1.1.12), the author of Vedanta-sutra refutes all these philosophies:
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead is by nature full of joy."*
ato yat kvacit tat-tat-prashamsa va syat tad api nitanta-nastika-vadam nirjityamshenapy astika-vadah sthapita ity apekshaya jneyam. tasmat svatantra ishvara eva sarva-srashöa. na tu jivah. svajnanena sva-shaktyaivety ayatam.
atah-then; yat-what; kvacit-somewhere; tat-tat-prashamsa-praise of various scritpures; va-or; syat-may be; tat-that; api-also; nitanta-nastika-vadam-the great atheistic theories; nirjitya-defeating; amshena-with a part; api-also; astika-vadah-the religious philosophy; sthapita-established; iti-thus; apekshaya-in relation; jneyam-to be known; tasmat-from that; svatantra-independent; ishvara-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; sarva-srashöa-the creator fo all; na-not; tu-but; jivah-the individual spirit soul; svajnanena-by his own knowledge; sva-shaktya-by his own power; eva-indeed; iti-thus; ayatam-attained.
By the descriptions in various parts of the scriptures, the philosophy of atheism and impersonalism is soundly refuted, and the philosophy of theism and devotion is firmly established. In this way it is seen that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is creator of all. By his own knowledge and his own power the individual spirit soul does not have the power to create.
tad uktam shri-badarayanenapi bahutra samjna-murti-klptis tu tri-vritkurv ata upadeshat ity adishu.
tat-that; uktam-said; shri-badarayanena-by Shri Vyasadeba; api-also; bahutra samjna-murti-klptis tu tri-vritkurv ata upadeshat ity adishu-Vedanta-sutra 2.4.21.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the creator of the world is confirmed by Shri Vyasadeva in the following words of Vedanta-sutra (2.4.20):
samjna-murti-klptis tu tri-vritkurv ata upadeshat
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead created the world. That is the teaching of the scriptures."
atah tan-mano 'shrijata manah prajapatim ity adau manah-shabdena samashöi-mano-'dhishöhata shriman aniruddha eva bahu syam prajayeya tat-sankalpa eva va vacyah.
atah-then; tan-manah-the nind; ashrijata-created; manah-mind; prajapatim-Brahma; iti-thus; adau-beginning; manah-manah; shabdena-by the word; samashöi-mano-'dhishöhata-the oerigin of all minds; shriman-Shri ; aniruddha-Aniruddha; eva-indeed; bahu-many; syam-I will be; prajayeya-I will father children; tat-sankalpa-that desire; eva-indeed; va-or; vacyah-to be said
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the creator of the world is also described in these words of the scriptures:
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead created mind, and mind created the demigod Brahma."
Here the word "manah" (mind) refers to Lord Aniruddha, the presiding Deity who controls all minds.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the creator of the world is also described in these words of the Chandogya Upanishad (6.2.3):
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead then thought: Let Me become many. I will father the many living entities."
In this way it is said that the material world was created by the Supreme Lord's desire.
sa ca satya-svabhavikacintya-shaktih parameshvaras tuccha-mayikam api na kuryat. cintamaninam adhipatih svayam cintamanir eva va kuöa-kanakadi-vat.
sa-that; ca-and; satya-svabhavikacintya-shaktih-the inconceivable potency; parameshvarah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tuccha-insignificant; mayikam-maya; api-also; na-not; kuryat-may do; cintamaninam-of cintamani jewels; adhipatih-the king; svayam-personally; cintamanih-cintamani; eva-indeed; va-or; kuöa-kanakadi-vat-like false gold or other like things.
As the king of cintamani jewels does not create false gold, so the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is master of inconceivable transcendental potencies, does not directly create the insignificant illusory potency called maya.
tatha ca madhva-bhashya-pramanita shrutih athainam ahuh satya-karmeti satyam hy evedam vishvam ashrijata iti.
tatha-so; ca-and; madhva-bhashya-pramanita-quoted in Shri Madhva Acarya's commentary; shrutih-Sruti; atha-now; enam-Him; ahuh-say; satya-karma-whose actions are true; iti-thus; satyam-real; hi-indeed; eva-indeed; idam-this; vishvam-material world; ashrijata-created; iti-thus.
In his commentary, Shri Madhvacarya quotes the following words of the Shruti-shastra:
"the sages say that whatever the Supreme Lord creates is real. Therefore the material world is also a reality."
satya-vratam satya-param tri-satyam
satyasya yonim nihitam ca satye
satyasya satyam rita satya-netram
satyatmakam tvam sharanam prapannah
evam-thus; ca-and; satya-vratam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who never deviates from His vow; satya-param-whom is the Absolute Truth (as stated in the beginning of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, satyam param dhimahi); tri-satyam-He is always present as the Absolute Truth, before hte ceration of this cosmic manifestation, during its maintenance, and even after its annihilation; satyasya-of all relative worlds, which are emanations from the Absolute Truth, Krishna; yonim-the cause; nihitam-entered; ca-and; satye-in the five factors thatcreate this material world (namely the five elements - earth, water, fire, air, and ether); satyasya-of all that is accepted as the truth; satyam-the Lord is the original truth; rita-satya-netram-He is the origin of whatever truth is pleasing (su-nteram); satyatmakam-everything pertaining to the Lord is truth (sac-cid-ananda- His body is truth, His knowledge is truth, and His pelasure is truth); tvam-unto You; sharanam-offering full surrender; prapannah-we are completely under Your protection.
That the material world is real for it is created by the Lord is also affirmed by the following prayer (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.2.26):
"O Lord, You never deviate from Your vow, which is always perfect because whatever You decide is perfectly correct and cannot be stopped by anyone. Being present in the three phases of cosmic manifestation-creation, maintenance, and annihilation-You are the Supreme Truth. Indeed, unless one is completely truthful, one cannot achieve Your favor, which therefore cannot be achieved by hypocrites. You are the active principle, the real truth, in all the ingredients of creation, and therefore You are known as Antaryami, the inner force. You are equal to everyone, and Your instructions apply for everyone, for all time. You are the beginning of all truth. Therefore, offering our obeisances, we surrender unto You. Kindly give us protection."*
ity atra satya-sankalpatvam satya-parayanatvam shrishöy-adi-lila-trayeshu satyatvam. satyasya vishvasya karanatvam. satya eva vishve 'sminn antaryamitaya sthitatvam. satyasya tasya satyata-hetutvam. satya-vacanasyavyabhicari-drishöesh ca pravartakatvam. satya-rupatvam ity etesham arthanam akritam paripati ca sangacchate.
iti-thus; atra-here; satya-sankalpatvam-whose desires are always fulfilled; satya-parayanatvam-being devoted to the truth; shrishöy-adi-beginning with creation; lila-trayeshu-in three pastimes; satyatvam-truth; satyasya-of ther truth; vishvasya-of the universe; karanatvam-the state of being the cause; satya-truth; eva-indeed; vishve-in the universe; 'sminn-in this; antaryamitaya-as the antaryami; sthitatvam-situated; satyasya-of the truth; tasya-of this; satyata-of truth; hetutvam-the state of being the cause; satya-vacanasya-of the word "truth"; avyabhicari-withotu wavering; drishöeh-from the vision; ca-and; pravartakatvam-the state of being the creator; satya-rupatvam-the form of the truth; iti-thus; etesham-of them; arthanam-meanings; akritam-done; paripaöi-arrangement; ca-and; sangacchate-attains.
In this verse it is said that because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is devoted to the truth, and because all His desires are at once fulfilled, therefore the Lord's pastimes of creating, maintaining, and destroying the material worlds is a reality. It is the truth. In this verse the first “satyasya" means "of the material world, which is real because the Supreme Lord is its creator", "satye" means "in the material world, which is real because the Supreme Personality of Godhead stays within it as the Supersoul", and the second "satyasya" means "of the material world, which is real because the Supreme Lord is the origin from whence it has come". Thus it is said here that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the creator of the material world, which is again and again described here as real (satya). That is the meaning of these words.
anyatha satyasya yonim ity adau traye tatrapi nihitam ca satya ity atrakasmad ardha-jaratiya-nyayena kashöa-kalpanamayarthantare tu bhagavata sva-pratishrutam satya-kritam yat tat-tad-yuktam evety ato brahmadibhis tasya tatha stave svarasya-bhangah syat. prakrama-bhangash ca. tasmat satyam eva vishvam iti sthitam. shrutayah shri-bhagavantam.
anyatha-otherwise; satyasya yonim ity adau-beginning withthe words "satyasya yonim; traye-in three; tatrapi-still; nihitam-entered; ca-and; satya-truth; iti-thus; atra-here; akasmat-suddenly; ardha-jaratiya-nyayena-by the analogy of the half-old lady; kashöa-kalpanamayartha-in a difficult meaning; antare-in another; tu-indeed; bhagavata-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sva-pratishrutam-own promise; satya-kritam-made truth; yat-what; tat-tad-yuktam-with that; eva-indeed; iti-thus; atah-then; brahmadibhih-by the demigods headed by Brahma; tasya-of this; tatha-then; stave-in the prayer; svarasya-bhangah-breaking the suitableness; syat-is; prakrama-bhangah-breaking the sequence; ca-and; tasmat-from that; satyam-truth; eva-indeed; vishvam-the universe; iti-thus; sthitam-situated; shrutayah-the Personified Vedas; shri-bhagavantam-to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
The three words statements "satyasya yonim", “nihitam", and "satye" affirm that the material world is real. Only with a very labored and unnatural interpretation can one avoid accepting this truth. Also, one cannot accept the other statements of the scriptures and reject this statement. The scriptures must be accepted as a whole, without accepting some parts and rejecting others. This is explained in the example of ardha-jaratiya-nyaya. In this way it is affirmed that the Lord keeps His promise and the material world is a reality. To interpret this verse in any other way would break the logical and grammatical sense of this verse, which was spoken by Brahma and the demigods. In this way it is proved that the material world is real,. The verse quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda was spoken by the Personified Vedas to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
tad evam na yad idam agra asa ity anena prakrita-laye 'pi sat-karya-vade 'nugamitah. atyantike tu moksha-lakshana-laye na prithivy-adinam nashah. jiva-kritena tatha bhavana-matrena svabhavika-paramatma-shakti-mayanam tesham nashayukteh.
tat-that; evam-thus; na yad idam agra asa ity anena-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.37; prakrita-laye-in material destruction; 'pi-also; sat-karya-vade-in the philosophy that the material world is real; 'nugamitah-is accepted; atyantike-greatly; tu-indeed; moksha-lakshana-laye-in destruction characterized by liberation; na-not; prithivy-adinam-of the elements beginning with earth; nashah-destruction; jiva-kritena-done by the individual spirit souls; tatha-so; bhavana-matrena-simply by imagination; svabhavika-paramatma-shakti-mayanam-consisting of the natural potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tesham-of them; nasha-destruction; ayukteh-because of being illogical.
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.27) it is said:
"The cosmic manifestation, because of the flickering nature of its impermanent existence, appears to less-intelligent men to be false."*
In this way it is understood that even after the time of cosmic devastation, the material energy continues to exist. Here the word "cosmic devastation" refers to liberation from the material world. It does not describe the destruction of the element earth and the other material elements. Therefore it is not at all logical to say that the material elements, which are all potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, can be destroyed by the imagination or the whim of individual spirit souls.
labdha-moksheshu shri-parikshid-adisu tad-deha-sthanam api prithivy-ady-amsanam sthiteh shravanat tatha hiranyagarbhamsanam buddhy-adinam api bhavishyati. atas teshv adhyasa-parityaga evatyantika-laya ity ucyate.
labdha-obtained; moksheshu-liberation; shri-parikshid-adisu-beginning with Shri Pariksit; tad-deha-sthanam-the place of the body; api-also; prithivy-adi-beginning with earth; amsanam-of parts; sthiteh-from the situation; shravanat-by hearing; tatha-so; hiranyagarbhamsanam-of the parts of Hiranyagarbha; buddhy-adinam-beginning with intelligence; api-also; bhavishyati-will be; atah-then; teshv-in them; adhyasa-residence; parityaga-renunciation; eva-indeed; atyantika-great; laya-devastation; iti-thus; ucyate-is said.
In the scriptures' description of how King Parikshit and other great souls attained liberation it is said that the soul then leaves its home in the material body made of earth, intelligence, and a host of other ingredients that are part and parcel of the Hiranyagarbha (universal form). This departure of the soul from the material body is called "the great devastation".
ghaöe bhinne ghaöakasha
akashah syad yatha pura
evam dehe mrite jivo
brahma sampadyate punah. ity atra.
ata eva-therefore; ghaöe-pot; bhinne-broken; ghaöakasha-the sky within the pot; akashah-sky; syat-is; yatha-as; pura-before; evam-thus; dehe-the body; mrite-dead; jivah-the soul; brahma-spirit; sampadyate-attains; punah-again; iti-thus; atra-here.
This great devastation is also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.5.5 and 12.5.11-12):
"When a pot is broken, the portion of the sky within the pot remains as the element sky, just as before. In the same way, when the gross and subtle bodies die, the living entity within resumes his spiritual identity."***
evam samikshya catmanam
atmany adhaya nishkale
dashantam takshakam pade
na drakshyasi shariram ca
vishvam ca prithag atmanah
tatha-so; evam-thus; samikshya-seeing; ca-and; atmanam-self; atmani-in theself; adhaya-accepting; nishkale-pure; dashantam-biting; takshakam-Taksaka; pade-in the foot; lelihanam-licking; vishananaih-with poison mouths; na-not; drakshyasi-you will see; shariram-body; ca-and; vishvam-material universe; ca-and; prithag-different; atmanah-from the self.
"Thus resigning yourself to the Supreme Soul, who is free from all material misidentifications, you will not even notice the snake-bird Takshaka when he approaches you with his poison-filled fangs and bites your foot. Nor will you see your dying body or the material world around you, because you will have realized yourself to be separate from them."***
ity atrapy upadheh samyoga eva parityajyate. na tu tasya mithyatvam pratipadyate. tatha hi buddhindriyety adi prakaranam. tatra tad-ashrayatva-tat-prakashyatva-tad-avyatiriktatvebhyo hetubhyo buddhindriyadinam paramatma-svabhava-shakti-mayatvam aha
iti-thus; atra-here; api-also; upadheh-of the material designation; samyoga-contact; eva-indeed; parityajyate-is rejected; na-not; tu-but; tasya-of that; mithyatvam-falsity; pratipadyate-is accepted; tatha-so; hi-indeed; buddhindriyety adi-beginnignw ith intelligence and senses; prakaranam-explanation; tatra-there; tad-ashrayatva-the shelter of that; tat-prakashyatva-to be manifested; tad-avyatiriktatvebhyah-different from that; hetubhyah-from the causes; buddhindriyadinam-beginning with the intelligence and senses; paramatma-svabhava-shakti-mayatvam-consisting of the potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; aha-said.
Because the soul in this way leaves all contact with the material body, it is seen that the material body is not an illusion. In another place in Shrimad-Bhagavatam, where the intelligence, senses, and other aspects of the material body are discussed, it is said that the intelligence, senses, and other parts of the material body are all manifested from the potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for they have Him as their ultimate basis and their creator, and because they are, in one sense, not different from Him. This is described in the following words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 12.4.23):
jnanam bhati tad-ashrayam
ady-anta-vad avastu yat
buddhi-intelligence; indriya-senses; artha-rupena-sense objects; jnanam-knowledge; bhati-manifests; tad-ashrayam-shelter; drishyatva-making visible; avyatirekabhyam-non-difference; ady-anta-vat-possessing beginning and end; a-vastu-insubstantial; yat-what.
"It is the Absolute Truth alone who manifests in the forms of intelligence, the senses, and the objects of sense perception, and who is their ultimate basis. Whatever has a beginning and an end is insubstantial because of being an object perceived by limited senses and because of being non-different from its own cause."***
antahkarana-bahih-karana-vishaya-rupena paramatma-lakshanam jnanam eva bhati. tasmad ananyad eva buddhy-adi-vastv ity arthah. yatas tad ashrayam tesham ashraya-rupam taj jnanam. klibatvam arsham.
antahkarana-internal senses; bahih-karana-external senses; vishaya-rupena-with the range of perception; paramatma-lakshanam-characterized by the Supersoul; jnanam-knowledgd; eva-indeed; bhati-ios manifested; tasmat-from that; ananyat-without another; eva-indeed; buddhy-adi-vastv-beginning with intelligence; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning; yatah-from which; tat-that; ashrayam-shelter; tesham-of them; ashraya-rupam-as the shelter; taj-that; jnanam-knowledge;. klibatvam-neuter; arsam-the poetic license of the sages.
Here the words "jnanam bhati" means "the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests as the internal and external senses". This means that the Supreme Lord is, in one sense, not different from them. Here the word "tad-ashrayam" means that the Supreme Lord is the shelter in which they rest. The use of the neuter gender in this word is the poetic license of the sages.
tathapi raja-bhrityayor ivatyanta eva bhedah syat. tatra hetv-antare 'py aha drishyatvam tat-prakashyatvam. avyatirekas tad-vyatireke 'vyatirekas tabhyam.
tathapi-still; raja-of a king; bhrityayoh-and a servant; iva-like; atyanta-great; eva-indeed; bhedah-difference; syat-is; tatra-there; hetv-antare-in another reason; 'pi-also; aha-said; drishyatvam-drtsyatvam; tat-prakashyatvam-the manifestor of that; avyatirekah-not different; tad-vyatireke-different; 'vyatirekah-not different; tabhyam-by both.
As a king and a servant are very different, so the Lord is very different from these, His creations. Here the word “drishyatva" means "He who manifests", and “avyatirekah" means simultaneously one and different".
tasmat eka-desha-sthitasyagner jyotsna vistarini yatha ity adi vad buddhy-adinam tat-svabhavika-shaktimayatvam eva setsyatiti bhavah.
tasmat-therefore; eka-desha-sthitasyagner jyotsna vistarini yatha ity adi-Shri Vishnu Purana 1.22.55; vat-like; buddhy-adinam-beginning with the intelligence; tat-svabhavika-shaktimayatvam-being His own potency; eva-indeed; setsyatiti bhavah-is the meaning.
This described in the following words of Shri Vishnu Purana (1.22.55):
"Just as the illumination of a fire, which is situated in one place, is spread all over, the energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Parabrahman, are spread all over this universe."*
In this way it is seen that the intelligence, senses, and other ingredients of the material body are all manifested from the potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is the meaning.
yat khalv ady-antavad vanig-vithy-adau siddham shukty-adau kadacid evaropitam rajatam tat punar avastu tad-ashrayakatva-tat-prakashyatva-tad-vyatirekabhavat shukty-adi-vastu na bhavati. shukty-adibhyo 'nanyan na bhavatity arthah.tatash caika-vijnanena sarva-vijnana-pratijna virudhyeteti bhavah. evam asat-karya-vadantare 'pi jneyam.
yat-what; khalv-indeed; ady-antavat-possessing a beginning and an end; vanig-vithy-adau-beginning with the path of merhcnats; siddham-proved; shukty-adau-beginning with the seashell; kadacit-sometimes; eva-indeed; aropitam-artifical imposition; rajatam-silver; tat-taht; punah-again; avastu-insubstantial; tad-ashrayakatva-the shelter of that; tat-prakashyatva-the manifestor of that; tad-vyatireka-not different from that; abhavat-because of the non-existence; shukty-adi-vastu-things that begin with the seashell; na-not; bhavati-is; shukty-adibhyah-beginning with the seashell; 'nanyan-not different; na-not; bhavati-is; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning; tatah-then; ca-and; eka-vijnanena-with one knowledge; sarva-vijnana-pratijna-all-knowing; virudhyeta-is refuted; iti-thus; bhavah-the meaning; evam-thus; asat-karya-vadantare-different from the view that the materisl world is unreal; 'pi-also; jneyam-to be understood.
Here the words "ady-anta-vad avastu" indicate that the material world is not an illusion, like the illusion of silver that glitters on a seashell. The example of the seashell is not appropriate, for the seashell is not the shelter or manifestor of the world, nor is it, in one sense, non-different from the world. Therefore this example cannot be used to describe the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the material world. In this way the theory of they who assert that the material world is unreal is refuted.
ekasyapi vastuno ''msa-bhedenashrayashrayitvam svayam eva drishöantena spashöayati
ekasya-of mone; api-aslo; vastunah-in truth; amsa-a part; bhedena-with the difference; ashraya-shelter; ashrayitvamthe status of they who take shelter; svayam-personally; eva-indeed; drishöantena-by an example; spashöayati-clarifies.
That the Supreme Lord, who is the shelter of all, is in one sense not different from all of existence, which takes shelter of Him, is clearly explained by the following example given by Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.4.24):
dipash cakshush ca rupam ca
jyotisho na prithag bhavet
evam dhih khani matrash ca
na syur anyatamad ritat
dipah-lamp; cakshuh-eyes; ca-and; rupam-form; ca-and; jyotishah-of light; na-not; prithag-different; bhavet-may be; evam-thus; dhih-intelligence; khani-sky; matrah-the sense objects; ca-and; na-not; syuh-are; anyatamat-from what is different; ritat-different.
"A lamp, the eye that views by the light of that lamp, and the visible form that is viewed are all basically non-different from the element fire. In the same way, intelligence, the senses, and sense perceptions have no existence separate from the supreme reality, although that Absolute Truth remains totally distinct from them."***
dipash cakshu-rupanam maha-bhuta-jyotir-amsa-rupatvad dipadikam na tatah prithak. evam dipa-prabhritini ritat pramatmano na prithak syuh. tathapi yatha maha-bhuta-jyotir dipadi-doshena na lipyate. tatha buddhy-adi-doshena paramatmapi. tadvad asyapy anyatamatvad ity aha anyatamad iti.
dipah-lamp; cakshu-rupanam-of eyes; maha-bhuta-jyotir-amsa-rupatvat-because having the nature of a particle of light; dipadikam-beginning with the lamp; na-not; tatah-from that; prithak-different; evam-thus; dipa-prabhritini-beginning with the lamp; ritat-different; pramatmanah-from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na-not; prithak-different; syuh-are; tathapi-still; yatha-as; maha-bhuta-jyotih-the great light; dipadi-doshena-with thr defect of the lamps and other things; na-not; lipyate-is touched; tatha-so; buddhy-adi-doshena-with ther fault fo the things that begin with intelligence; paramatma-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; api-also; tadvat-in the same way; asya-of that; api-also; anyatamatvat-becauswe of being different; iti-thus; aha-said; anyatamat-different; iti-thus.
Here the words "na prithak" mean "A lamp, the eye that views by the light of that lamp, and the visible form that is viewed are all basically non-different from the element fire." "Na prithak" also means "In the same way, intelligence, the senses, and sense perceptions have no existence separate from the supreme reality." Still, the Supreme Lord is not touched by any of the defects present in the lamp, the intelligence, or any other like thing. That is why this verse declares that the Supreme Lord is also different from His creation (anyatamat).
tad evam dhi-prabhritinam paramatma-svabhavika-shaktimayatvam uktva tathapi tebhyo bahiranga-shaktimayebhyo 'ntaranga-shakti-taöastha-shakti-vishishöa-paramatmano 'nyatamatvena tesham ashuddhatva-vyanjanaya sadoshatvam uktva teshu dhi-prabhritishu adhyasam pratiyajayitum tisrsu dhi-vrittishu tavac chuddhasyaiva jivasya sakaranam adhyasam aha
tat-that; evam-thus; dhi-prabhritinam-beginning with intelligence; paramatma-svabhavika-shaktimayatvam-consisting of the potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; uktva-saying; tathapi-still; tebhyah-from them; bahiranga-shaktimayebhyah-made of the Lord's ecternal potency; 'ntaranga-shakti-the internal potency; taöastha-shakti-marginal potency; vishishöa-specific; paramatmanah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; 'nyatamatvena-by being different; tesham-of them; ashuddhatva-of impurity; vyanjanaya-manifesting; sadoshatvam-defect; uktva-saying; teshu-in them; dhi-prabhritishu-beginning with intelligence; adhyasam-residence; pratiyajayitum-to abandon; tisrsu-three; dhi-vrittishu-in the actions of the intelligence; tavac-to that extent; chuddhasya-pure; eva-indeed; jivasya-of the individual spoirit soul; sakaranam-with the senses; adhyasam-redience; aha-said.
Although it has been said that the intelligence and other ingredients of the material body are all manifested from the Supreme Lord's own potency, still these ingredients of the material body are the Lord's external potency, which is different from the Lord's internal potency and from the marginal potency, which is the individual spirit souls. The external potency is impure and full of faults. That is why the pure spirit soul leaves its home in the material body. The material body is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.4.25):
buddher jagaranam svapnah
sushuptir iti cocyate
maya-matram idam rajan
nanatvam pratyag atmani
buddheh-of intelligence; jagaranam-wakefulness; svapnah-dream; sushuptih-drwamless sleep; iti-thus; ca-also; ucyate-is said; maya-the maya potency; matram-alone; idam-this; rajan-O king; nanatvam-variety; pratyag-different; atmani-in the self.
"The three states of intelligence are called waking consciousness, dream, and dreamless sleep. O king, these various states are all manifested from the Lord's maya potency."
buddhi-vritti-rupam jagaranam svapnah sushuptir itidam pratyag atmani shuddha-jive vishva-taijasa-prajnatvakhyam nanatvam maya-matram maya-kritadhyasa-matrena jatam ity arthah.
buddhi-vritti-rupam-the activities of the intelligence; jagaranam-waking; svapnah-sleep; sushuptih-dreamless sleep; iti-thus; idam-this; pratyag-different; atmani-in theself; shuddha-jive-in the pure spirit soul; vishva-taijasa-prajnatvakhyam-called material consciousness; nanatvam-variety; maya-matram-made of the maya potency; maya-krita-made by maya; adhyasa-residence; matrena-only by; jatam-manifested; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Here the words "jagaranam svapnah sushuptir iti idam" describe the activities of the intelligence, “pratyag-atmani" means "in the pure spirit soul", “nanatvam" means "material consciousness", and “maya-matram" means "made of the maya potency". That is the meaning.
tatah paramatmani buddhy-adi-mayasya jagatah sato 'pi samparkah sutaram nastity aha
tatah-then; paramatmani-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; buddhy-adi-mayasya-made of the mateerial features that begin with the intelligence; jagatah-of the material universe; satah-real; 'pi-although; samparkah-union; sutaram-greatly; na-not; asti-is; iti-thus; aha-said.
Although the material world, which consists of the intelligence and many other like ingredients, rests within Him, the Supreme Personality of Godhead remains nevertheless untouched and unaffected by it. This is described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.4.26):
yatha jaladhara vyomni
bhavanti na bhavanti ca
brahmanidam tatha vishvam
yatha-as; jaladhara-clouds; vyomni-in the sky; bhavanti-are; na-not; bhavanti-are; ca-and; brahmani-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; idam-this; tatha-so; vishvam-material universe; avayavi-because of creation; udayapyayat-and destruction.
"As in the sky sometimes there are clouds and sometimes there are no clouds, so in the Supreme Personality of Godhead sometimes there is a material world and sometimes there is not. This is because sometimes the material world is manifested and sometimes it is dissolved."
yatha vyomni vyoma-karya-vayu-jyotih-salila-parthivamsha-dhuma-parinata jaladharah svesham evavayavinam udayad bhavanti drishyante. apyayan na bhavnti na drishyante ca. te ca tan na sprishantity arthah. tatha brahmanidam vishvam iti yojyam. avayavi sthula-rupam vishvam. udayah purushottama-drishöi-jatah spashöi-bhavah. apyayas tad-drishöi-nimilana-jatas tad-viparyayah. tatah sukshma-rupena tasya sthitir asty eva. jagac chakti-visishöa-karanastitvat.
yatha-as; vyomni-in the sky; vyoma-sky; karya-effect; vayu-wind; jyotih-light; salila-water; parthiva-earth; amsha-particles; dhuma-smoke; parinata-transformed; jaladharah-clouds; svesham-own; eva-indeed; avayavinam-whole; udayat-creation; bhavanti-is; drishyante-seen; apyayan-from destruction; na-not; bhavnti-is; na-not; drishyante-is seen; ca-and; te-they; ca-and; tan-to them; na-not; sprishanti-touch; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning; tatha-so; brahmani-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; idam-this; vishvam-universe; iti-this; yojyam-is appropriate; avayavi-the whole; sthula-rupam-the great form; vishvam-the universe; udayah-manifestation; purushottama-drishöi-jatah-born from the glance opf the Supreme Personality of Godhead; spashöi-bhavah-made clear; apyayah-dissolkution; tad-drishöi-nimilana-jatah-born from closing His eyes; tad-viparyayah-the opposite of that; tatah-then; sukshma-rupena-with a subtle form; tasya-of that; sthitih-continued existence; asti-is; eva-indeed; jagac-the universe; chakti-visishöa-karanastitvat-because of being one the the Supreme Personality of Godhead's potencies.
Here the words "yatha jaladhara vyomni" mean “as in the sky there are many clouds, which consist of wind, light, water, dust, and smoke manifested from the sky", “bhavanti" means "are seen to be manifested from the whole, and are thus visible", and "na bhavanti" means “are not manifested, and are thus invisible". In this way the clouds do not directly touch or affect the sky itself. that is the meaning. The words "brahmanidam tatha vishvam" are appropriate as part of this example. "Avayavi" means “the great form of the universe", "udaya" means “manifested from the Supreme Lord's glance", and “apyaya" means "dissolved when the Supreme Lord closes His eyes". Even after it is dissolved, the material world continues to exist in a subtle state. This is so because it is one of the Supreme Lord's potencies.
ittham evoktam sato 'bhivyanjakah kalah iti.
ittham-in this way; eva-indeed; uktam-said; sato 'bhivyanjakah kalah iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.24.19.
This is described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.24.19):
"Time thus manifests the material world, which is real and eternal."
tad evam vaktum karanastitvam drishöantena pratipadayati
tat-that; evam-thus; vaktum-to say; karanastitvam-as thw cause; drishöantena-with an example; pratipadayati-shows
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the cause of the material world is shown by the following example (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 12.5.27):
satyam hy avayavah proktah
satyam-truth; hi-indeed; avayavah-whole; proktah-said; sarvavayavinam-of all parts; iha-here; vina-without; arthena-with the manifestation; pratiyeran-perceived; patasya-of cloth; iva-like; anga-O dear one; tantavah-treads.
"the Absolute truth is the origin of all. As threads may be seen as separate from the whole cloth, so the creation may be seen to be separate from the Supreme Lord."
sarvesham avayavinam sthula-vastunam avayavah karanam satyam satyo vyabhicara-rahitah proktah. loke tatha darshanad ity aha vineti. arthena sthula-rupena patenapi vina.
sarvesham-of all; avayavinam-not the whole; sthula-vastunam-of great things; avayavah-the whole; karanam-the cause; satyam-truith; satyah-truth; vyabhicara-rahitah-without change; proktah-said; loke-in the world; tatha-so; darshanat-from seeing; iti-thus; aha-said; vina-without; iti-thus; arthena-arthena; sthula-rupena-with the gross form; paöena-by cloth; api-also; vina-without.
Here "sarvavayavinam" means of all the gross ingredients of the material world". "avayavah" means “the cause", "satyam" means "the Absolute Truth", and "proktah" means "is said to be changeless". Then an example from the material world is given. "Vina arthena" means "as the entire cloth is different".
tasmin kartastitvam api vyatirekena pratipadayati
tasmin-in that; kartastitvam-the status as creator; api-also; vyatirekena-with different; pratipadayati-shows.
That the Lord is the Supreme Creator is also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.4.28):
upalabhyeta sa bhramah
yat-what; samanya-the same; visheshabhyam-and different; upalabhyeta-is perceived; sa-that; bhramah-a mistake.
"It is a mistake to think in terms of the whole and the part."
ayam arthah. yady evam ucyate. purvam sukshmakarenapi jagan nasit. kintu samanyam kevalam shuddham brahmaivasit tad eva shaktya nimitta-bhutaya visheshakarena jagad-rupena parinatam iti. tad asat. yato yad eva samanya-visheshabhyam upalabhyeta sa bhramo vivarta-vada eva. tatra hi shuddham brahmaivajnana-rupaya shaktya jagat taya vivritam iti matam. na casmakam tad-abhyupapattih. parinama-vadasya sat-karyata-purvakatvad ity arthah.
ayam-this; arthah-the meaning; yadi-if; evam-thus; ucyate-is said; purvam-before; sukshmakarena-in a subtle form; api-also; jagan-the universe; na-not; asit-was; kintu-however; samanyam-equality; kevalam-only; shuddham-pure; brahma-Brahman; eva-indeed; asit-was; tat-that; eva-indeed; shaktya-with the potency; nimitta-bhutaya-the cause; visheshakarena-with a specific form; jagad-rupena-with the form of the universe; parinatam-transformed; iti-thus; tat-that; asat-asat; yatah-from which; yat-which; eva-indeed; samanya-visheshabhyam-the same and different; upalabhyeta-is perceived; sa-that; bhramah-mistake; vivarta-vada-the theory of transformation; eva-indeed; tatra-there; hi-indeed; shuddham-pure; brahma-Brahma; aeva-indeed; ajnana-of ignorance; rupaya-wioth the nature; shaktya-with the potency; jagat-the universe; taya-by that; vivritam-manifested; iti-thus; matam-thought; na-not; ca-and; asmakam-of us; tad-abhyupapattih-agreement; parinama-vadasya-of the theory of transformation; sat-real; karyata-the nature of the effect; purvakatvat-from before; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Here is the meaning. Someone may say: "Before the creation the material world did not exist in a subtle form. At that time only the pure Supreme Brahman existed. Then, by the agency of His own potency, the Supreme Brahman transformed Himself into the material world. Therefore the material world is not real. It is an illusion." This theory, called vivarta-vada (the theory of transformation), is expounded here in the words "samanya-visheshabhyam upalabhyeta sa bhramah". According to this theory the Supreme Brahman employs His potency of ignorance to manifest the material world. We do not accept this theory of transformation. the actual truth, that the material world is indeed real, has already been proved in this book.
nanv apurvam eva karyam arambha-vivarta-vadinam iva yushmakam api jayatam. tatraha
nanv-is it not so; apurvam-not before; eva-indeed; karyam-the effect; arambha-vivarta-vadinam-of they who say in the beginning there was a transformation; iva-like; yushmakam-of us; api-also; jayatam-is born; tatra-there; aha-said.
Here someone may protest: "The effect cannot exist before it is manifested. Therefore we agree with the vivarta-vada (theory of transformation)."
If this protest is said, then the following answer is given by Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.5.28):
anyonyapashrayat sarvam adyanta-vad avastu yat.
anyonya-mutual; apashrayat-because of dependence; sarvam-all; adyanta-vat-p"ossessing beginning and end; avastu-insubtsantial; yat-what.
"The whole and the part depend on each other for existence. Therefore all that has a beginning and an end is insubstantial."
yad ady-anta-vad apurvam karyam tat punar avastu nirupanasaham ity arthah. tatra hetuh anyonyapashrayat. yavat karyam na jayate. tavat karanatvam mric-chukty-ader na sidhyati. karanatvasiddhau ca karyam na jayata eveti paraspara-sapekshatva-doshat. tatah karanatva-siddhaye karya-shaktis tatravashyam abhyupagantavya. sa ca karya-sukshmavasthaiveti karyastitvam sidhyati. tathapi sthula-rupata-padakatvan mrd-adeh karanatvam api sidhyatiti bhavah.
yat-what; ady-anta-vat-possessing a beginning and an end; apurvam-not before; karyam-the effect; tat-that; punah-again; avastu-is said; nirupana-description; asaham-unable; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning; tatra-there; hetuh-the reason; anyonyapashrayat-because of mutual dependence; yavat-as far as; karyam-effect; na-not produced; jayate; tavat-to that extent; karanatvam-the status fo the cause; mric-chukty-adeh-beginning with the potency of earth; na-not; sidhyati-is proved; karanatva-of being the cause; asiddhau-in the lack of proof; ca-and; karyam-effect; na-not; jayata-is produced; eva-indeed; iti-thus; paraspara-sapekshatva-doshat-because of the defect of mutual dependence; tatah-then; karanatva-siddhaye-to prove the status as the cause; karya-effect; shaktih-potency; tatra-there; avashyam-unavoidably; abhyupagantavya-to be agreed; sa-that; ca-and; karya-effect; sukshmavastha-the subtle nature; eva-indeed; iti-thus; karyastitvam-the status as effect; sidhyati-is proved; tathapi-nevertheless; sthula-rupata-the gross form; padakatvan-becasue opf the manifestation; mrd-adeh-beginning wirth earth; karanatvam-the status as the cause; api-also; sidhyati-is proved; iti-thus; bhavah-the meaning.
Here the words "yad ady-anta-vat" mean "the effect, which does not exist before it is manifested", “avastu" means "which cannot be described". The reason for this is given in the word "anyonyapashrayat" (because of mutual dependence). This means that as long as the effect is not manifested, the cause of earth and the other material elements, is not really complete in its existence, and if the cause does not exist, then the effect cannot be manifested. therefore cause and effect are dependent on each other. Therefore, the Lord's potency, which is the effect, must be accepted to exist along with its cause, the Supreme Lord, in order for the Lord to exist in completeness. In this way it is proved that even after the material universe is dissolved, the material world continues to exist in a subtle form. In this way it is proved that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the original cause of the material world, which is made of the element earth and a host of other ingredients.
tad evam svabhavika-shaktimayam eva paramatmano jagad ity upasamharati
tat-that; evam-thus; svabhavika-shaktimayam-made of His opejn potenxcy; eva-indeed; paramatmanah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jagat-universe; iti-thus; upasamharati-withdraws.
That the material world is manifested from the potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is also explained in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.4.29):
vikarah khyayamano 'pi
pratyag atmanam antara
na nirupyo 'sty anur api
syac cec cit sama atma-vat
vikarah-transformation; khyayamanah-manifesting; 'pi-even; pratyag atmanam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; antara-without; na-not; nirupyah-to be described; asti-is; anuh-atom; api-even; syac-may be; cec-if; cit-spirit; sama-equal; atma-vat-like the Supreme.
"It cannot be said that anything, even the smallest particle, exists that was not manifested from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. if something were manifested not from him, then that something would be His spiritual equal. It would be just like Him."
yadyapi khyayamanah prakashamana eva tathapi svalpo 'pi vikarah pratyag atmanam paramatmanam vina tad-vyatirekena svatantrataya na nirupyo 'sti. tad uktam tad-ananyatva-vivarana eva. yadi ca tam vinapi syat tada cit-samah syac cid-rupena samah sva-prakasha evabhavishyat. atmavat paramatmavann ity aikavasthash cabhavishyat.
yadyapi-although; khyayamanah-khyamana; prakashamana-manifesting; eva-indeed; tathapi-still; svalpah-slight; 'pi-eveb; vikarah-change; pratyag atmanam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; paramatmanam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vina-without; tad-vyatirekena-different from Him; svatantrataya-independently; na-not; nirupyah-to be said; 'sti-is; tat-that; uktam-said; tad-ananyatva-vivarana-as different from Him; eva-indeed; yadi-if; ca-and; tam-Him; vina-without; api-aslo; syat-is; tada-then; cit-samah-eqaul toi spirit; syac-may be; cid-rupena-with a spiritual form; samah-equal; sva-prakasha-self manifested; eva-indeed; abhavishyat-may be; atmavat-like the Self; paramatmavann-like the Supreme Personality of Godhead; iti-thus; aikavasthah-one status; ca-and; abhavishyat-would be.
Here the word "khyayamanah" means “manifested", "vikarah" means "even a slight transformation", "pratyag atmanam antara" means “without the Supreme Personality of Godhead, different from Him, or independent of Him", and "na nirupyah" means “cannot be said". In this way it is said that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is, in one sense, not different from His creation. The words "syac cec cit sama atma-vat" mean "if something were manifested not from him, then that something would be His spiritual equal. It would be just like Him."
nanu yadi paramatmanam vina vikaro nasti. tarhi paramatmanah sopadhitve nirupadhitvam na sidhyati. tasmat sopadher nirupadhir anya eva kim ity atraha
nanu-is it not so?; yadi-if; paramatmanam-teh Supreme Personality of Godhead; vina-without; vikarah-transformation; na-not; asti-si; tarhi-then; paramatmanah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sopadhitve-the state of having a materrial body; nirupadhitvam-teh state of not having a material body; na-not; sidhyati-is proved; tasmat-from that; sopadheh-with a body; nirupadhih-without a body; anya-asnother; eva-indeed; kim-whether?; iti-thus; atra-here; aha-said.
Here someone may ask: "If no material changes occur unless they are begun by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then the transcendental Supreme Personality of Godhead and the material universe are identical. Can the transcendental Supreme Lord be different from the material universe?"
If this question is asked, a reply may be given in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 12.4.30):
na hi satyasya nanatvam
avidvan yadi manyate
nanatvam chidrayor yadvaj
jyotishor vatayor iva
na-not; hi-indeed; satyasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nanatvam-variety; avidvan-ignroant; yadi-if; manyate-thinks; nanatvam-variety; chidrayor-of the two openings; yadvaj-as; jyotishor-of the two lights; vatayor-of the two winds; iva-like.
"Nothing is separate from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Anyone who thinks the material world is separate from the Lord is a fool. The Supreme Lord and the material world are like two skies, two lights, or two winds."
satyasya paramatmano nanatvam na hi vidyate. yadi tasya nanatvam manyate. tarhy avidvan. yatas tasya nirupadhitva-sopadhitva-lakshanam nanatvam mahakasha-ghaöakashayor yadvat tadvad grihangana-gata-sarva-vyapi-tejasor iva bahya-sharira-vayvor iva ceti.
satyasya-satyasya; paramatmano-of ther Supreme Personality of Godhead; nanatvam-variety; na-not; hi-indeed; vidyate-is; yadi-if; tasya-of Him; nanatvam-variety; manyate-thinks; tarhy-then; avidvan-foolish; yatas-from whom; tasya-of Him; nirupadhitva-not having a form; sopadhitva-having a form; lakshanam-characterized; nanatvam-variety; mahakasha-of the great sky; ghaöakashayor-of the sky within a pot; yadvat-as; tadvad-so; grihangana-gata-in a house; sarva-vyapi-present everywhere; tejasor-of light; iva-like; bahya-external; sharira-within the body; vayvor-wind; iva-like; ca-and; iti.
Here the words "na hi satyasya nanatvam" mean “there is not a variety of Supreme Personality of Godheads". The verse then explains, "If someone thinks there are, then that person is a fool". The verse then explains: “The difference between the Supreme Lord and the material world is like the difference between the entire sky and small amount of sky within a clay pot, or like the great sun that shines everywhere and a small lamp shining in a room, or like the wind that blows through the sky and the breath in a single body."
yasmat vikarah khyayamano 'pi pratyag-atmanam antara na nirupyo 'sty anur api. tasmat sarva-shabda-vacyo 'pi sa eveti sa-drishöantam aha
yasmat-brcause; vikarah khyayamano 'pi pratyag-atmanam antara na nirupyo 'sty anur api-Shrimad-Bhagavatam12.4.29; tasmat-therefore; sarva-shabda-vacyah-to be said by all words; api-also; sa-that; eva-indeed; iti-thus; sa-with; drishöantam-an example; aha-said.
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.4.29) it is said:
"It cannot be said that anything, even the smallest particle, exists that was not manifested from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. if something were manifested not from him, then that something would be His spiritual equal. It would be just like Him."
This mean that all words ultimately refer to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. To explain this truth the following example is given in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.4.31):
yatha hiranyam bahudha pratiyate
nribhih kriyabhir vyavahara-vartmasu
evam vacobhir bhagavan adhokshajo
vyakhyayate laukika-vaidikair janaih
yatha-as; hiranyam-god; bahudha-in many ways; pratiyate-is known; nribhih-by people; kriyabhih-by deeds; vyavahara-vartmasu-on the pasths of actions; evam-thus; vacobhih-by words; bhagavan-th4e Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhokshajah-who is beyond thematerial senses; vyakhyayate-is called; laukika-ordinary; vaidikaih-and Vedic; janaih-by people.
"As gold is called by different names when it is fashioned into different objects, so the Supreme Personality of Godhead is called, in the Vedas and in ordinary speech, by many different names."
kriyabhis tat-tad-racana-bhedair bahudha kataka-kundaladi-rupena yatha svarnam eva racobhis tat-tan-namabhih pratiyate. tatha lauka-vaidikaih sarvair eva racobhir bhagavan eva vyakhyayate.
kriyabhih-by actrions; tat-tad-racana-bhedaih-by different kinds of creation; bahudha-in many ways; kataka-kundaladi-beginning with belts and earrings; rupena-with the forms; yatha-as; svarnam-gold; eva-indeed; racobhih-by creation; tat-tan-namabhih-by various names; pratiyate-is known; tatha-so; lauka-vaidikaih-ordinary and Vedic; sarvaih-all; eva-indeed; racobhih-by creations; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; vyakhyayate-is called.
This verse means: "As gold, when fashioned into belts, earrings, and other ornaments, is called by different names, so the Supreme Personality of Godhead is called by different names in the Vedas and in ordinary speech."
tad uktam sarva-namabhidheyash ca sarva-vededitash ca sah iti skande.
tat-that; uktam-said; sarva-namabhidheyah-called by all names; ca-and; sarva-veda-by all the Vedas; iditah-worshiped; ca-qand; sah-He; iti-thus; skande-in ths Skanda Purana.
This is also described by the following words of the Skanda Purana:
"Every word that exists may be used as a name for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is worshiped by all the Vedas."
tad evam jagatah paramatma-svabhavika-shaktimayatvam uktva tena ca jiva-kartrikena jnanena tan-nashanashamarthyam vyajya mokshartham tad-adhyasa-parityagam upadeshöum paramatma-shakti-mayasyapi tasyopadhy-adhyasatmakasyahankarasya jiva-svarupa-prakashavarakatva-rupam dosham sa-drishöantam upapadayati
tat-that; evam-thus; jagatah-of the universe; paramatma-svabhavika-shaktimayatvam-the stat eof being a potency of the p; uktva-saying; tena-by that; ca-and; jiva-kartrikena-as thecreator of the individual souls; jnanena-by knowledge; tan-nashanashamarthyam-able to destroy that; vyajya-manifesting; mokshartham-for the purpose of liberation; tad-adhyasa-parityagam-abandoning the home; upadeshöum-to teach; paramatma-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; shakti-mayasya-consisting of the potency; api-also; tasya-of that; upadhi-body; adhyasa-home; atmakasya-consisting of; ahankarasya-of flase ego; jiva-of the individual spirit soul; svarupa-own form; prakasha-manifestation; avarakatva-covering; rupam-form; dosham-fault; sa-drishöantam-with an example; upapadayati-teaches.
In this way it has been explained that the material world is a potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Merely by attaining transcendental knowledge, the individual soul cannot attain liberation from the material world, for even then he remains covered by the Lord's potency of false-ego. An example is given to explain this in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.4.32):
yatha ghano 'rka-prabhavo 'rka-darshito
hy arkamsha-bhutasya ca cakshusas tamah
evam tv aham brahma-gunas tad-ikshito
yatha-as; ghanah-cloud; arka-prabhavah-manifested from the sun; arka-darshitah-visible by the sun; hi-indeed; arkamsha-bhutasya-a part and parcel of the sun; ca-and; cakshusah-of the eyes; tamah-darkness; evam-thusd; tv-indeed; aham-false ego; brahma-gunah-a quality of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tad-ikshitah-visibly because of Him; brahmamshakasya-a part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; atmanah-of the soul; atma-bandhanah-bondage.
"Although a cloud is a product of the sun and is also made visible by the sun, it nevertheless creates darkness for the viewing eye, which is another partial expansion of the sun. Similarly, material false ego, a particular product of the Absolute Truth made visible by the Absolute Truth, obstructs the individual soul, another partial expansion of the Absolute Truth, from realizing the Absolute Truth."***
arka-rashmaya eva megha-rupena parinata varshanti
arka-rashmayah-rays of the sun; eva-indeed; megha-rupena-in the form of clouds; parinata-transformed; varshanti-shower rains.
Indeed, the sun's rays become transformed into clouds, and as clouds they shower rains. This is described in the following words of the scriptures:
agnau prastahutih samyag
adityaj jayate vrishöir
vrishöer annam tatah prajah
agnau-in fire; prastahutih-offered oblations; samyag-properly; adityam-the sun; upatishöhate-worships; adityaj-from the sun; jayate-is born; vrishöih-rain; vrishöeh-from rain; annam-food; tatah-from that; prajah-the people; iti-thus; vacanat-from the words.
"By offering oblations in the fire, one worships the sun-god, for from the sun come rains, from rains come food, and by food the people are nourished."
ayam arthah. yatharka-prabhavo 'rkenaiva darshitah prakashitash ca ghano nivido megho 'rkamsha-bhutasya cakshusas tamo divi bhumau ca mahandhakara-rupo bhavati. evam aham prakritahankaro brahma-gunah paramatma-shakti-karya-bhutas tad-ikshitas tenaiva paramatmana prakashitash ca. brahmamshakasya taöastha-shakti-rupatvat paramatmano yo hinamshas tasyatmano jivasyatma-bandhanah svarupa-prakashavarako bhavati.
ayam-this; arthah-the meaning; yatha-as; arka-prabhavah-born from the sun; arkena-by the sun; eva-indeed; darshitah-revealed; prakashitah-manifested; ca-and; ghanah-cloud; nividah-thick; meghah-cloud; arkamsha-bhutasya-a part and parcel of the sun; cakshusah-of the eye; tamah-darkness; divi-in the sky; bhumau-on the gorund; ca-and; mahandhakara-rupah-great darkness; bhavati-is; evam-thus; aham-false ego; prakrita-material; ahankarah-ego; brahma-gunah-the quality fo the Supreme Personality of Godhead; paramatma-shakti-karya-bhutah-created by a potency of tyhe Supreme Personality of Godhead; tad-ikshitah-seen; tena-by that; eva-indeed; paramatmana-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prakashitah-manifested; ca-and; brahmamshakasya-of a part and parcelk of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; taöastha-shakti-rupatvat-because of being the marginal pote cy; paramatmanah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yah-who; hinamshah-a small part; tasya-of him; atmanah-the soul; jivasyatma-bandhanah-the bondage of the individual spirit soul; svarupa-own form; prakasha-manifestation; avarakah-concealing; bhavati-is.
This is the meaning: The words "yatharka-prabhavah" mean "manifested from the sun", "ghanah" means "thick clouds", "arkamsha-bhutasya cakshusas tamah" means "darkness that obscures the vision of the eye, which is a partial expansion of the sun, on the ground and in the sky", "evam aham" means "material false ego", "brahma-gunah" means "manifested from a potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead", "ikshitah" means "manifested from the Supreme Personality of Godhead", "brahmamshakasya" means "the marginal potency, which is a tiny part-and-parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead", and "atmana atma-bandhanah" means "which covers the real identity of the individual spirit soul".
sa cadhyasa-parityagah svato na bhavati. kintu paramatma-jijnasaya tat-prabhavenaiveti vaktum purvavad eva drishöanta-paripaöim aha
sa-that; ca-and; adhyasa-home; parityagah-leaving; svatah-personally; na-not; bhavati-is; kintu-however; paramatma-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jijnasaya-by knowledge; tat-prabhavena-produced from that; eva-indeed; iti-thus; vaktum-to say; purvavat-as before; eva-indeed; drishöanta-example; paripaöim-method; aha-said.
By his own power, the individual spirit soul cannot become free of his entanglement in the material world. However, when a soul becomes eager to know the truth of the Supreme Lord, the Lord Himself frees the soul from material bondage. This is described in the following example (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 12.4.33):
ghano yadarka-prabhavo vidiryate
cakshuh svarupam ravim ikshate tada
yada hy ahankara upadhir atmano
jijnasaya nashyati tarhy anusmaret
ghanah-cloud; yada-when; arka-prabhavah-born from the sun; vidiryate-is torn apart; cakshuh-eye; svarupam-own form; ravim-sun; ikshate-sees; tada-then; yada-when; hi-indeed; ahankara-false ego; upadhih-material desitgnation; atmanah-of the soul; jijnasaya-with eagerness to know; nashyati-perishes; tarhi-then; anusmaret-he remembers.
"When the cloud originally produced from the sun is torn apart, the eye can see the actual form of the sun. Similarly, when the spirit soul destroys his material covering of false ego by inquiring into the transcendental science, he regains his spiritual awareness."***
ghano yadarka-prabhavo vidiryate iti drishöantamshe tad-vidaranasya na cakshuh-shakti-sadhyatvam. kintu surya-prabhava-sadhyatvam iti vyaktam. anena darishöantike 'py atmanah paramatmano jijnasaya jatena tat-prasadenahankaro nashyati palayata ity atramshe purusha-jnana-sadhyatvam ahankara-nashasya khanditam. ato vivarta-vado nabhyupagatah.
ghanah-cloud; yada-when; arka-prabhavah-born from the sun; vidiryate-is broken; iti-thusd; drishöantamshe-in part of the example; tad-vidaranasya-of the brwaking of it; na-bot; cakshuh-shakti-sadhyatvam-in the power of the eyes; kintu-however; surya-prabhava-in ther power of the sun; sadhyatvam-ability; iti-thus; vyaktam-manifested; anena-by this; darishöantike-in the example; api-also; atmanah-of the self; paramatmanah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jijnasaya-by the desire to know; jatena-born; tat-prasadena-by His mercy; ahankarah-false ego; nashyati-perishes; palayata-flees; iti-thus; atra-here; amshe-in the part; purusha-jnana-sadhyatvam-attainable by knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ahankara-nashasya-destruction of the false ego; khanditam-broken; atah-then; vivarta-vadah-the theory of transformation; na-not; abhyupagatah-supported.
In the example given here with the words "ghano yadarka-prabhavo vidiryate" it is seen that the eyes themselves are powerless to dispel the clouds. Only the sun has that power. In the second part of the example the word "atmanah" means "of the Supreme Personality of Godhead", “jijnasaya" means "when the desire to know is aroused, then the Supreme Lord gives His mercy", and “ahankaro nashyati" means "then the false ego flees". This means that the false ego perishes when one understands the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The impersonalists' theory of transformation is clearly not supported by this explanation.
atra copadhir iti visheshanena svarupa-bhutahankaras tv anya eveti spashöi-bhutam. evam yatha drishöante ghanamaya-mahandhakaravaranabhavat tat-prabhavena yogyata-labhac ca cakshuh kartri-bhutam svarupam karma-bhutam ikshate. sva-svarupa-prakasham astitvena janati. sva-shakti-prakaöyam labhata ity arthah.
atra-here; ca-and; upadhih-material designation; iti-thus; visheshanena-by the adjective; svarupa-bhuta-personal; ahankarah-false ego; tv-indeed; anya-another; eva-indeed; iti-thus; spashöi-bhutam-made clear; evam-thus; yatha-as; drishöante-in the exqample; ghanamaya-made of clouds; mahandhakara-darkness; avarana-covering; abhavat-because of the absence; tat-prabhavena-born from that; yogyata-suitability; labhac-because of the attainment; ca-and; cakshuh-eyes; kartri-bhutam-manifested as the doer; svarupam-own form; karma-bhutam-manifested as the deed; ikshate-sees; sva-svarupa-prakasham-manifested as the original form; astitvena-by the existence; janati-knows; sva-shakti-prakatyam-manifestation of His own potency; labhata-attains; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Here the words "ca upadhih" mean "the false ego covering the individual spirit soul". This example explains that when the darkness of the clouds is removed, then the eyes (cakshuh) can see (ikshate) the original form (svarupam) of the soul. By thus seeing the original form of the soul, one understands the true nature of the soul. In this way the soul's original power is again openly manifested. That is the meaning.
kadacit tad-ikshanonmukhah san ravim cekshate. tatha darishöantike 'py anusmaret. smartum anusandhatum yogyo bhavati. atmanam paramatmanam ceti sheshah.
kadacit-sometime; tad-ikshanonmukhah-eager to see; san-being so; ravim-the sun; ca-also; ikshate-sees; tatha-so; darishöantike-in the example; api-also; anusmaret-remembers; smartum-to remember; anusandhatum-to seek; yogyah-appropriate; bhavati-is; atmanam-atmanam; paramatmanam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ca-and; iti-thus; sheshah-the remainder.
Sometimes a person is so eager to see the sun that he sees the sun in his memory. Thus, in the second part of this example the word "anusmaret" (he remembers) means "seeing Him in his memory, a person searches for the Supreme Personality of Godhead".
nigamayati yadaivam etena viveka-hetina
tam ahur atyantikam anga samplavam
nigamayati-the scriptures declare; yada-when; evam-thus; etena-by this; viveka-hetina-with discrimination; maya-of illusion; maya-consisting; ahankarana-false ego; atma-of the soul; bandhanam-bondage; chittva-cutting; acyuta-of the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead; atma-self; anubhavah-perception; avatishöhate-remains; tam-that; ahuh-say; atyantikam-great; anga-O dear one; samplavam-devastation.
Seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead and attaining liberation from the material world are also described in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.4.34):
"By cutting the soul's bonds of false ego with the sword of intelligence, one can at last see the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead. The sages say this vision is final liberation."
etena purvokta-viveka-shastrena maya-mayeti visheshanam svarupa-bhutahankarasya vyavacchedartham. avatishöhate sva-svarupenavasthito bhavati. na kevalam etavad eva. acyutatmanubhavah. acyute 'cyuta-namny atmani paramatmany anubhavo yasya tatha-bhuta eva sann avatishöhate. shri-sukah..
etena-by this; purvokta-previously said; viveka-intelligence; shastrena-with ther weapon; maya-maya-consisting of maya; iti-thus; visheshanam-modifying; svarupa-bhuta-personal; ahankarasya-of false ego; vyavaccheda-cutting; artham-for the purpose; avatishöhate-stays; sva-svarupena-with one's original form; avasthitah-situated; bhavati-is; na-not; kevalam-only; etavat-like that; eva-indeed; acyuta-of the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead; atma-self; anubhavah-perception; acyute-infalluble; acyuta-namni-the name Acyuta; atmani-in the atma; paramatmani-in the Supersoul; anubhavah-perception; yasya-of whom; tatha-bhuta-int hat way; eva-indeed; sann-being so; avatishöhate-stays; shri-sukah-Shri Shukadeva Gosvami.
Here the word "etena" (by this) refers to the previously mentioned sword, and "mayamaya" is an adjective modifying "ahankarana"". The sword is meant for cutting the false ego. "Avatishöhate" means “situated in his original form". That is not all. There is also "acyutatmanubhavah" (direct perception of the Supreme Personality of Godhead). Here "acyuta" is a name of the Supreme Lord and "atma" means "the Supersoul". This verse was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.
atrayam apy ekesham pakshah. parameshvarasya shakti-dvayam asti. svarupakhya mayakhya ceti. purvaya svarupa-vaibhava-prakashanam. aparaya tv indrajalavattayaiva mohitebhyo jivebhyo vishva-shrishöy-adi-darshanam.
atra-here; ayam-this; api-also; ekesham-of some; pakshah-the opinion; parameshvarasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; shakti-dvayam-two potencies; asti-is; svarupakhya-called personal; mayakhya-called maya; ca-and; iti-thus purvaya-by the former; svarupa-personal; vaibhava-power and opulence; prakashanam-manifestation; aparaya-by the latter; tv-but; indrajalavattaya-like a mirage; eva-indeed; mohitebhyah-for the bewildered; jivebhyah-souls; vishva-of the material world; shrishöi-creation; adi-beginning; darshanam-sight.
Some philosophers assert that the Supreme Lord has two potencies: 1. His personal, internal potency, and 2. His maya potency. The former manifests the Lord's glory and opulence, and the latter creates, maintains, and destroys the material world, which is like a mirage to show the bewildered conditioned souls.
drishyate caikasya nana-vidyavatah kasyapi tatha vyavaharah. na caivam advaita-vadinam ivedam apatitam. satyenaiva kartra satyam eva drashöaram prati satyayaiva taya shaktya vastunah sphoranat loke 'pi tathaiva drishyata iti bhavatv apidam nama.
drishyate-is seen; ca-also; ekasya-of one; nana-vidyavatah-because of various kinds of knowledge; kasyapi-of someone; tatha-then; vyavaharah-action; na-not; ca-also; evam-thus; advaita-vadinam-of the monists; iva-like; idam--this; apatitam-attained; satyena-by the truth; eva-certainly; kartra-by the doer; satyam-truth; eva-indeed; drashöaram-to the seer; prati-to; satyaya-true; eva-indeed; taya-by that; shaktya-potency; vastunah-in truth; sphoranat-from the manifestation; loke-in the world; api-also; tatha-so; eva-indeed; drishyata-is seen; iti-thus; bhavatv-may be; api-also; idam-this; nama-indeed.
It is the view of one group of philosophers that even material activities are ultimately real. The idea of the impersonalists. In truth the doer in the material world is real, the seer is real, and the Lord's potency by which all this is manifested in the material world is also real.
satyam na satyam nah krishna-
jagat satyam asatyam va
ko 'yam tasmin duragrahah
yatah-from whcih; satyam-real; na-not; satyam-real; nah-of us; krishna-of Lord Krishna; pada-feet; abja-lotus; amodam-fragrance; antara-without; jagat-tbe material world; satyam-real; asatyam-ureal; va-or; kah-what?; ayam-this; tasmin-in this; duragrahah-foolishly obstinate.
This affirmed by the following words of the scriptures:
"Who is such a fool that he wastes his time thinking: `Is the fragrance of Lord Krishna's lotus feet real or unreal? Is the material world real or unreal?' "
tad etan-mate sata idam utthitam ity adi vakyani prayo yatha-öika-vyakhyanam eva jneyani. kvacit tat-kritanumanadau bheda-matrasyasattve prasakte vaikunöhadinam api tathatva-prasaktis tan-mate syad ity atra tu tesham ayam abhiprayah. vayam hi yal-loka-pratyakshadi-siddham vastu. tad eva tat-siddha-vastv antara-drishöantena tad-dharmakam sadhayamah.
tat-that; etan-mate-in this view; sata idam utthitam ity adi vakyani-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.36; prayah-mostly; yatha-öika-vyakhyanam-according to the explanation in the commentary; eva-indeed; jneyani-to be understood; kvacit-somewhere; tat-kritanumanadau-beginning with that inference; bheda-matrasya-of the difference; asattve-in the non-existence; prasakte-attached; vaikunöhadinam-beginning with the spiritual world; api-also; tathatva-being like that; prasaktih-attachment; tan-mate-in that view; syat-is; iti-thus; atra-here; tu-but; tesham-of them; ayam-this; abhiprayah-meaning; vayam-we; hi-indeed; yal-loka-of thsoe poeple; pratyaksha-direct perceotion; adi-beginning; siddham-proved; vastu-thing; tat-that; eva-indeed; tat-that; siddha-proved; vastv-thing; antara-drishöantena-with another example; tad-dharmakam-the natur eof that; sadhayamah-we attempt.
This is also explained in Shrila Shridhara Svami's commentary on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.36. Some thinks claim that not only is the material world is unreal, but even the spiritual world of Vaikunöha is also unreal. We, however, affirm that the spiritual world and the visible material world are both real. Later we will give an example to demonstrate this.
yat tu tad asiddham shastra-vidvad-anubhavaika-gamya-tadrishatvam tat punas tad drishöanta-parardhadinapy anyatha-kartum na shakyata eveti. tatha jiveshvarabheda-sthapana ca cid-rupata-matra eveti. atha svabhavika-maya-shaktya parameshvaro vishva-shrishöy-adikam karoti. jiva eva tatra muhyatity uktam. tatra sandeham prashnottarabhyam pariharaty ashöabhih
yat-what; tu-indeed; tat-that; asiddham-unrpoved; shastra-vidvat-like one who knows the scriptures; anubhava-direct perception; eka-one; gamya-to be attained; tadrishatvam-being like that; tat-that; punah-again; tat-that; drishöanta-example; parardha-parardha; adina-beginning with; api-also; anyatha-kartum-to make otherwise; na-not; shakyata-is able; eva-indeed; iti-thus; tatha-so; jiva-of the individual spirit soul; ishvara-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; abheda-non-difference; sthapana-proving; ca-also; cid-rupata-spiritual nature; matrah-only; eva-indeed; iti-thus; atha-now; svabhavika-maya-shaktya-by the internal potency and the maya potency; parameshvarah-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vishva-of the material world; shrishöi-creation; adikam-beginning; karoti-does; jiva-the individual spirit soul; eva-indeed; tatra-there; muhyati-is bewildered; iti-thus; uktam-said; tatra-there; sandeham-doubt; prashnottarabhyam-with question and answer; pariharati-removes; ashöabhih-with eight verses.
even if they give many millions of examples, the most learned impersonalists still cannot prove their theory, or make the truth anything other than it is. The truth is that the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the individual spirit souls are one only in the sense that they are all spiritual in nature. Otherwise, they are different. For example the Supreme Personality of Godhead creates the material world, and the individual spirit souls residing in the material world are bewildered. Any doubts about the truth that the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the individual spirit souls are different will be removed by the questions and answers in the following eight verses of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.7.2-9) quoted and explained in this and the following anucchedas. The first of these verses is given here (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.2):
brahman katham bhagavatas
lilaya capi yujyeran
nirgunasya gunah kriyah
shri-vidura uvaca-Vudra said; brahman-O brahmana; katham-how?; bhagavatah-of the Personality of Godhead; cin-matrasya-of the complete spiritual whole; avikarinah-of the unchangeable; lilaya-by His pastime; ca-either; api-even though it is so; yujyeran-take place; nirgunasya-who is without the modes of nature; gunah-modes of nature; kriyah-activities.
Shri Vidura said: O great brahmana, since the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the complete spiritual whole and is unchangeable, how is He connected with the material modes of nature and their activities? If this is His pastime, how do the activities of the unchangeable take place and exhibit qualities without the modes of nature?"*
he brahman cin-matrasya cin-matra-svarupasya svatah svarupa-shaktya bhagavatah shri-vaikunöhadi-gata-tadrishaishvaryadi-yuktasya ata eva nirgunasya prakrita-gunasprishöasyata eva cavikarinas tadrik-svarupa-shakti-vilasa-bhutanam kriyanam anantanam api sadaditvatvarananta-vidha-prakashe tasminn ity asiddhatvat tat-tat-kriyavirbhava-kartus tasyavasthantara-praptatvabhavat prakrita-kartur iva na vikarapattir iti.
he-O; brahman-brhmana; cin-matrasya-spiritual; cin-matra-svarupasya-whose form is spiritual; svatah-personally; svarupa-shaktya-by His personal potency; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; shri-vaikunöhadi-beginning with Shri Vaikuntha; gata-attained; tadrisha-like that; aishvarya-opulences; adi-beginning; yuktasya-endowed; ata eva-therefore; nirgunasya-without material modes; prakrita-guna-the material modes; asprstasya-untouched; ata eva-therefore; ca-also; avikarinah-unchangeable; tadrik-like this; svarupa-personal; shakti-potency; vilasa-pastimes; bhutanam-manifested; kriyanam-activities; anantanam-limitless; api-even; sadoditvara-quick manifestation; ananta-vidha-limitless; prakashe-manifestation; tasminn-in that; iti-thus; asiddhatvat-because of being unproved; tat-tat-kriya-of various activities; avirbhava-manifestation; kartuh-doing; tasya-of that; avastha-situation; antara-another; praptatva-atainment; abhavat-because of the absence; prakrita-material; kartuh-of the creator; iva-like; na-not; vikarapattih-possessing transformations; iti-thus.
Here the word "brahmna" means "O brahmana", "cin-matrasya" means "whose form is spiritual", "bhagavatah" means "whose powers and opulences are manifested by His own internal potency in the spiritual world of Vaikunöha and in other places", "nirgunasya" means “who is not touched by the material modes of nature", and “ca avikarinah" means "whose limitless forms, potencies, and pastimes are not subject to material changes, like those of the residents of the material world".
nirvikarasya ca katham sattvadayah prakrita-gunah. katham va tad-asanga-hetukah sthity-adayah kriyash ca yujyeran. tatash ca cin-matra-vastu-virodhad eva te ca tash ca n ayujyante. bhagavattve tu svaira-ceshöayapi na yujyerann ity aha lilaya vapiti.
nirvikarasya-changeless; ca-and; katham-how?; sattvadayah-beginning with goodness; prakrita-gunah-masterial modes; katham-how?; va-or; tad-asanga-hetukah-the reason for non-contact; sthity-adayah-beginning with maintenace; kriyah-actions; ca-and; yujyeran-tahe place; tatah-then; ca-and; cin-matra-spiritual; vastu-substance; virodhat-because of contradiction; eva-indeed; te-they; ca-and; tah-they; ca-and; na-not; yujyante-take place;. bhagavattve-in thes status of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tu-but; svaira-ceshöaya-with independent activities; api-even; na-not; yujyerann-take place; iti-thus; aha-said; lilaya-with pastimes va-or; api-also; iti-thus.
Here the question is asked: "How is it possible that the Lord, who is not subject to material changes, has some connection with the material modes of nature, which begin with goodness?" Then this question is asked: "If the Supreme Lord has no contact with the material modes, then how is the material universe created, maintained, and destroyed?" Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is spiritual in nature, it cannot be said that He is in contact with the material modes, for that contact would contradict His spirituality. Still, the material modes have no power to act independently, without the influence of the Supreme Lord. These questions are answered here with the words "lilaya vapi" (this is His pastime).
atravikaritva-nirgunatvabhyam saha cin-matratvam bhagavattvam cety ubhayam api svi-krityaiva purva-pakshina prishöam. tatash ca tasya cin-matrasvarupasya bhavatu bhagavattvam. tatrasmakam na sandehah. kintu tasya katham itara-gunadi-svikaro yujyata ity eva pricchata iti vakyarthah.
atra-here; avikaritva-the state of being changeless; nirgunatva-the state of being beyond the touch of the material modes; abhyam-with both; saha-with; cin-matratvam-spirituality; bhagavattvam-the status of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ca-and; iti-thus; ubhayam-both; api-also; svi-kritya-accepting; eva-indeed; purva-pakshina-by the opponent; prishöam-asked; tatah-then; ca-also; tasya-of Him; cin-matra-spiritual; svarupasya-nature; bhavatu-may be; bhagavattvam-the status of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tatra-there; asmakam-of us; na-not; sandehah-doubt; kintu-however; tasya-of that; katham-how?; itara-gunadi-beginnign weith other modes; svikarah-acceptance; yujyata-is; iti-thus; eva-indeed; pricchata-askign; iti-thus; vakya-of the words; arthah-the meaning.
Here the person asking the question accepts the truth that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is spiritual in nature, is free of material change, and is not touched by the material modes of nature. Here he says, "We have no doubt that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is spiritual and has a spiritual form. Still, how is it that He has some contact with the modes of material nature?" That is the meaning of his question.
tatash cin-matratve bhagavattve ca tasya tuccha gunah kriyash ca na sambhavanty eveti dvi-guni-bhuyaiva prashnah. kim carbhakaval lilapi na yujyate vaishamyad ity aha
tatah-then; cin-matratve-spiritual; bhagavattve-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ca-and; tasya-of Him; tuccha-insignificant; gunah-material modes; kriyah-activities; ca-also; na-not; sambhavanti-are possible; eva-indeed' iti-thus; dvi-guni-bhuya-becoming doubled; eva-indeed; prashnah-question; kim ca-furtherore; arbhakavat-like a child; lila-pastimes; api-also; na-not; yujyate-is endgaged; vaishamyat-because of being inappropriate; iti-thus; aha-said.
Because He is perfectly spiritual, the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not engage in ordinary insignificant material activities that are impelled by the modes of nature. This truth is repeated again in the following question, which asserts that it is illogical to assume that the Supreme Lord would play in the same way an ordinary material child would play (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.3):
kridayam udyamo 'rbhasya
svatas triptasya ca katham
kridayam-in the matter of playing; udyamah-enthusiasm; arbhasya-of the boys; kamah-desire; cakridisha-willingness to play; anyatah-with other boys; svatas-triptasya-for one who is self satisfied; ca-also; katham-what for?; nivrittasya-one who is detached; sada-at all times; anyatah-otherwise.
"Boys are enthusiastic to play with other boys or with various diversions because they are encouraged by desire. But there is no possibility of such desire for the Lord because He is self-satisfied and detached from everything at all times."*
udyamayati pravartayatity udyamah. arbhakasya kridayam pravritti-hetuh kamo 'sti. anyatas tu vastv-antarena balantara-pravartanena va tasya krideccha bhavati. bhagavatas tu svatah svenatmana svarupa-vaibhavena ca triptasya ata evanyatah sada nivrittasya ca katham anyato jivaj jagatash ca nimittat cikridisheti.
udyamayati-is enthusiastic; pravartayati-impells; iti-thus; udyamah-enthusiasm; arbhakasya-of a boy; kridayam-in playing; pravritti-hetuh-the cause of action; kamah-desire; asti-is; anyatah-others; tu-but; vastv-antarena-another thing; balantara-other boys; pravartanena-by the cause; va-or; tasya-of him; krideccha-the desire to play; bhavati-is; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tu-but; svatah-self; svenatmana-by Himself; svarupa-vaibhavena-by His own potencies; ca-also; triptasya-satisfied; ata eva-therefore; anyatah-other; sada-always; nivrittasya-detached; ca-and; katham-how?; anyatah-others; jivaj-individual spirit souls; jagatah-of the material world; ca-and; nimittat-from the cause; cikridisha-the desire to play; iti-thus.
Here the word "udyamah" means "what impels one to act". Here it is said that desire (kamah) is the cause of boys' playing (arbhakasya kridayam). "Anyatah" means either "other things" or "other boys". In this way there is a desire to play. The verse then says, “However, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is already satisfied (triptasya) with His own (svatah) glories and opulences and powers, and therefore He is always detached from all else. How (katham), then, is it possible that He could desire to play (cikridisha) with the conditioned souls residing in the material world (anyatah)?"
na ca tasya te gunas tah kriyash ca na vidyanta ity apalapaniyam. tatraiva prasiddher ity aha
na-not; ca-and; tasya-of Him; te-they; gunah-modes of nature; tah-they; kriyah-activities; ca-and; na-not; vidyanta-are; iti-thus; apalapaniyam-not to be said; tatra-there; eva-indeed; prasiddheh-from the proof; iti-thus; aha-said.
In this way it is affirmed that the Supreme Lord performs no material activities and is not influenced by the material modes. This is also confirmed by the following words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.4):
asrakshid bhagavan vishvam
taya samsthapayaty etad
asrakshit-caused to create; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vishvam-the universe; guna-mayya-endowed with three modes of material nature; atma-self; mayaya-by the potency; taya-by her; samsthapayati-maintainbs; etat-all these; bhuyah-then again; pratyapidhasyati-conversely dissolves also.
"By His self-sheltered potency of the three modes of material nature, the Lord has caused the creation of this universe. By her He maintains the creation and conversely dissolves it, again and again."*
guna-mayya traigunya-vyanjinya atmashritaya mayaya samsthapayati palayati pratyapidhasyati pratilaumyena tirohitam karishyati.
guna-mayya-guna-mayya; traigunya-vyanjinya-manifesting the three modes; atmashritaya-taking shelter of the Self; mayaya-by the maya potency; samsthapayati-establishes; palayati-protects; pratyapidhasyati-dissovles; pratilaumyena-with dissolution; tirohitam-dissoulution; karishyati-will do.
Here the word "guna-mayya" means consisting of the three modes", "atma-mayaya" means "by His own potency", "samsthapayati" means "He protects", and "pratyapidhasyati" means "He will dissolve".
jivasya ca katham maya-mohitatvam ghaöetety akshepantaram aha
jivasya-of the individual spirit soul; ca-also; katham-how?; maya-mohitatvam-the state of being bewildered by the illusoryu potency; ghaöeta-occurs; iti-thus; akshepa-hint; antaram-another; aha-said.
The question "How is it possible for the individual soul to be bewildered by the Lord's illusory potency maya?" is hinted in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.5):
deshatah kalato yo 'sav
avasthatah svato 'nyatah
sa yujyetajaya katham
deshatah-circumstantial; kalatah-by the influence of time; yah-one who; asav-the living entity; avasthatah-by situation; svatah-by dream; anyatah-by others; avilupta-extinct; avabodha-consciousness; atma-pure self; sa-he; yujyeta-engaged; ajaya-with nescience; katham-how is it so?
"The pure soul is pure consciousness and is never out of consciousness, either due to circumstances, time, situations, dreams, or other causes. How, then, does he become engaged in nescience?"
yo 'sau deshadibhir aviluptavabodha atma jivah. sa katham ajayavidyaya yujyeta. tatra desha-vyavadhanato desha-gata-doshato va cakshuh-prakasha iva. kalato vidyud iva. avasthatah smritir iva. svatah sukti-rajatam iva. anyato ghaöadi-vastv iva na tasyavabodho lupyate. avyahata-svarupa-bhuta-jnanashrayatvad evety arthah.
yah-who; asau-he; deshadibhih-beginning with place; aviluptavabodha-extinct consciousness; atma-atma; jivah-individual soul; sa-he; katham-how?; ajaya-ajnaya; avidyayaby nescience; yujyeta-is engaged; tatra-there; desha-vyavadhanatah-according to place; desha-gata-doshatah-because of the defect of the place; va-or; cakshuh-prakasha-the mainfestation of the eyes; iva-like; kalatah-from time; vidyut-lightning; iva-like; avasthatah-situation; smritih-memory; iva-like; svatah-personally; sukti-rajatam-seashell and silver; iva-like; anyatah-another; ghaöadi-vastv-beginning weith clay pots; iva-like; na-not; tasya-of him; avabodhah-consciousness; lupyate-is interrupted; avyahata-svarupa-bhuta-jnana-uninterrupted knowledge; ashrayatvadbecause of being the shelter; eva-indeed; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
This verse explains that the individual soul (yo 'sau atma) is never out of consciousness (aviluptavabodhah) in any kind of circumstances. The question is asked: "How (katham) does he (sah) become engaged (yujyeta) in nescience (ajaya)?" Here "deshatah" means because of bad circumstances, or because of situation not favorable for the eyes", "kalatah" means "because of time, which passes like lightning", "avasthatah" means “because of the various situations, such as the condition of the memory", "svatah" means "because of dreams and illusions, such as the illusion of thinking the glittering on a seashell's surface is genuine silver", and "anyatah" means "because of other causes, as are seen in the example of the clay pot and other like examples". In this way the individual soul's consciousness is never interrupted (aviluptavabodhah). That is the meaning.
tatraiva virodhantaram aha
tatra-there; eva-indeed; virodha-problem; antaram-another; aha-said.
Another problem is described in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.6):
bhagavan eka evaisha
amushya durbhagatvam va
klesho va karmabhih kutah
bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eka-alone; eva esha-all these; sarva-all; kshetreshv-in the living entities; avasthitah-situated; amushya-of the living entities; durbhagatvam-misfortune; va-either; kleshah-miseries; va-or; karmabhih-by activities; kutah-what for?
"The Lord, as the Supersoul, is situated in every living being's heart. Why then do the living entities' activities result in misfortune and misery?"*
esha eka eva bhagavan paramatmapi sarva-kshetreshu sarvasya jivasya kshetreshu deheshv avasthitah. tatra sati katham amushyaiva jivasya durbhagatvam svarupa-bhuta-jnanadi-lopah karmabhih klesash ca tasya va kuto nasti. na hy ekasmin jaladau sthitayor vastunoh kasyacit tat-samsargah kasyacin neti yujyata ity arthah.
esha-He; eka-one; eva-indeed; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; paramatma-the Supersoul; api-also; sarva-kshetreshu-in all living entities; sarvasya-of all; jivasya-living entities; kshetreshu-in the fields; deheshv-in the bodies; avasthitah-situated; tatra-there; sati-being so; katham-how?; amushya-of him; eva-indeed; jivasya-the individual spirit soul; durbhagatvam-misfortune; svarupa-bhuta-jnanadi-lopah-interruption of natural spiritual knowledge; karmabhih-by activities; klesah-suffering; ca-and; tasya-of him; va-or; kutah-from where?; na-not; asti-is; na-not; hi-indeed; ekasmin-in one; jaladau-beginning with water; sthitayoh-situated; vastunoh-of the substance; kasyacit-of something; tat-samsargah-creation of that; kasyacin-of something; na-not; iti-thus; yujyata-is engaged; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Here the words "bhagavan eka evaisha" refer to the Supersoul. "Sarva-kshetreshv avasthitah" means “situated in the material bodies of all conditioned souls". The verse then asks: "Why (kutah) then do the living entities'(amushya) activities (karmabhih) result in misfortune (durbhagatvam) and misery (kleshah)?" The meaning of this verse is: "As two things cannot occupy the same point in space, either in water or land, so these two propositions cannot both be true."
atra kevalam cin-matratvam na sambhavatiti bhagavattvam evangi-kritya shri-maitreya uvaca
atra-here; kevalam-only; cin-matratvam-spiritual nature; na-not; sambhavati-is possible; iti-thus; bhagavattvam-the nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; angi-kritya-accepting; shri-maitreya-Shri Maitreya; uvaca-said.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not only spiritual in nature. He is also the master of all opulences. Shri Maitreya accepts this when he says (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.9):
seyam bhagavato maya
yan nayena virudhyate
karpanyam uta bandhanam
sa iyam-such a statement; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; maya-illusion; yan-that which; nayena-by logic; virudhyate-become contradictory; ishvarasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vimuktasya-of the ever-liberated; karpanyam-insufficiency; uta-as also, what to speak of; bandhanam-bondage.
"Certain conditioned souls put forward the theory that the Supreme Brahman, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is overcome by illusion, or maya, and at the same time they maintain that He is unconditioned. This is against all logic."*
yaya vishva-shrishöy-adikam bhavati. seyam bhagavato 'cintya-svarupa-shakter mayakhya shaktih. yad ya ca nayena tarkena virudhyate. tarkatitataya seyam apy acintyety arthah.
yaya-by which; vishva-shrishöy-adikam-beginning with the creation of the material universe; bhavati-is; sa iyam-that; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; acintya-inconceivable; svarupa-personal; shakteh-0of the potency; mayakhya-called maya; shaktih-the potency; yat-what; ya-which; ca-and; nayena-by logic; tarkena-by logic; virudhyate-is contradicted; tarkatitataya-beyond logic; sa iyam-that; api-also; acintya-inconceivable; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Here the words "seyam bhagavato maya" mean “the Lord's potency that creates, maintains, and destroys the material worlds, a potency that is called maya and is manifested from the Lord's inconceivable internal potency". "Yan nayena virudhyate" means "This is against all logic". The meaning is that the Lord's inconceivable potency is beyond ordinary material logic.
yadyapy evam dvayor apy acintyatvam. tathapi bhagavato mayety anena vyaktatvat svarupa-shakter antarangatvad bahirangaya mayaya gunaih sattvadibhis tat-karyaih sthapanadi-lilabhish ca nasau sprishyata ity arthah.
yadyapi-although; evam-thus; dvayoh-of the two; api-even; acintyatvam-inconceivability; tathapi-still; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; maya-maya; iti-thus; anena-by this; vyaktatvat-because of being manifested; svarupa-shakteh-of the personal potency; antarangatvat-because of being internal; bahirangaya-external; mayaya-by maya; gunaih-by the modes; sattvadibhih-beginning with goodness; tat-karyaih-by their effects; sthapanadi-lilabhih-pastimes that begin with creation; ca-and; na-not; asau-this; sprishyata-is touched; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Although the internal and external potencies of the Lord are both inconceivable, for the external potency maya is itself manifested from the internal potency, nevertheless the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not touched by maya's three material modes, which begin with the mode of goodness, nor is He touched by maya's pastimes of creating, maintaining, and destroying the material worlds. That is the meaning.
tatra kevalam cin-matratvam na. tantrena cayam arthah. satyam parameshvare na te guna na ca tah kriyah. kintu yasyas te gunas tad-ashraya-balaya yaya ca kriyamanam karma tasminn aropyate. seyam tasya mayakhya bahiranga shaktih.
tatra-there; kevalam-only; cin-matratvam-spirit only; na-not; tantrena-by the arrangement; ca-also; ayam-this; arthah-the meaning; satyam-reality; parameshvare-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na-not; te-the; guna-modes; na-not; ca-and; tah-the; kriyah-material activities; kintu-however; yasyah-of which; te-the; gunah-modes; tad-ashraya-balaya-by taking shjelter of Him; yaya-by whuch; ca-and; kriyamanam-acting; karma-action; tasminn-in that; aropyate-is artifically imposed; sa iyam-this; tasya-of Him; mayakhya-called maya; bahiranga-external; shaktih-potency.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not only spirit. Here is the meaning: Neither material activities nor the material modes have any influence over the Supreme Personality of Godhead. However because maya's material modes and material activities ultimately find their shelter in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, it is imagined that they have influence over Him. Here the words "seyam" mean "the Lord's external potency, which is called maya".
tad uktam rte 'rtham yat pratiyeta ity adi.
tat-that; uktam-said; rte 'rtham yat pratiyeta ity adi-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.34.
The Supreme Lord describes the illusory potency maya in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.9.34):
"O Brahma, whatever appears to be of any value, if it is without relation to Me, has no reality. Know it as My illusory energy, that reflection which appears to be in darkness."*
tad eva vivrinoti yan nayeneti. yad ity avyayam. yad yaya tad-ashritayapi yena bhagavata saha na virudhyate. yaya bhagavan na virodha-vishayi-kriyata ity arthah.
tat-that; eva-indeed; vivrinoti-reveals; yan-what; nayena-by logic; iti-indeed; yat-what; iti-thus; avyayam-unchanging; yat-what; yaya-by which; tad-ashritaya-taking shelter of HIm; api-also; yena-by whom; bhagavata-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; saha-with; na-not; virudhyate-is contradicted; yaya-by which; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na-not; virodha-vishayi-kriyata-is contradicted; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
The words in this verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.9, which was quoted in text 2 of this anuccheda) may also be divided “yan na yena virudhyate" instead of "yan ayena virudhyate" Interpreted in this way the word "yan" means "the maya potency, which takes shelter of the Supreme Lord", "na" means "not", "yena" means "by the Supreme Personality of Godhead", and “virudhyate" means "is contradicted." Interpreted in this way, the words mean "This is not against all logic".
na hy abhasa-gatena kurvuratvadina calanadina va surya-mandalasya tat-tad-yogo viroddhum sakyata iti bhavah. etena vaishamya-patash ca parihritah.
na-not; hi-indeed; abhasa-gatena-attained the illusion; kurvuratvadina-beginning with variety; calanadina-beginning with tricks; va-or; surya-mandalasya-of the sun; tat-tad-yogah-contacting; viroddhum-to contradict; sakyata-is able; iti-thus; bhavah-the meaning; etena-by this; vaishamya-patah-inconsistency; ca-and; parihritah-is removed.
Here (in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.34 quoted in text 6 of this anuccheda) the word "abhasah" (reflection) indicates that the rays of sunligh, even if they create colorful rainbows or bewildering mirages, never contradict or obscure the shining of the sun globe, which is their source. Thus in this interpretation of Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.9, quoted in text 2 of this anuccheda) the idea of a contradiction or of illogic is denied.
tad etat sarvam abhipretya seyam bhagavato maya ity anena ittham-bhuta-guno harih itivat tat-tat-svabhavaiveyam iti dhvanitam.
tat-this; etat-that; sarvam-all; abhipretya-intending; seyam bhagavato maya ity anena-by Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.9; ittham-bhuta-guno harih iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.7.10; vat-like; tat-tat-svabhava-the nature of them; eva-indeed; iyam-this; iti-thus; dhvanitam-said.
In this way Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.9 may be interpreted according to these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.7.10):
"The Lord possesses transcendental qualities and opulences."
tad etad-arthasyanukulo 'yam api shabda-dhvani-lambhito 'rtha-visheshah sphurati. yatha nayena tarkena virudhyata iti. yat seyam bhagavato mayeti. yad yaya mayaya yena bhagavata saha na virudhyate. nasau virodha-vishayi-kriyata iti. yad va yena bhagavata na virudhyate. na sarvatha nirvishayi-kriyata iti ca.
tat-this; etat-that; arthasya-of the meaning; anukulah-favoravle; ayam-this; api-also; shabda-dhvani-lambhitah-depending on the sound of the word; artha-meaning; visheshah-specific; sphurati-is manifested; yatha-as; nayena-by logic; tarkena-by logic; virudhyata-is contradicted; iti-thus; yat-what; sa iyam-this; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; maya-maya; iti-thus; yat-what; yaya-by which; mayaya-maya; yena-by whom; bhagavata-Supreme Personality of Godhead; saha-with; na-not; virudhyate-is contradicted; na-not; asau-that; virodha-vishayi-kriyata-is in the realm of contradictions; iti-thus; yat-what; va-or; yena-by whom; bhagavata-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na-not; virudhyate-is contradicted; na-not; sarvatha-in all respects; nirvishayi-kriyata-not in the realm of perception; iti-thus; ca-also.
If these words are interpreted "nayena virudhyate", they may mean "the Supreme Personality of Godhead cannot be understood by material logic". If the words are interpreted "na yena virudhyate" they may mean "the Supreme Personality of Godhead cannot be understood by taking shelter of His maya potency".
evam eva shashöhe navamadhyaye duravabodha iva tavayam ity-adina gadyena tasya saguna-kartritvam virudhya punar atha tatra bhavan iti gadyenantaryamitaya guna-visarga-patitatvena jiva-vad bhoktritva-yogam sambhavya na hi virodha ubhayam ity adi gadyena tatra tatravitarkya-shaktitvam eva ca siddhante yojitam.
evam-thus; eva-indeed; shashöhe-in the sixth canto; navamadhyaye-in the ninth chapter; duravabodha iva tavayam ity-adina-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.34; gadyena-in prose; tasya-of Him; saguna-kartritvam-the material doer; virudhya-refuting; punah-again; atha-then; tatra bhavan iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.35; gadyenantaryamitaya-prose; guna-visarga-patitatvena-as fallen into the world created by the material modes; jiva-vat-like the individual spirit soul; bhoktritva-yogam-the enjoyer; sambhavya-creating; na-not; hi-indeed; virodha-contradiction; ubhayam-both; iti-thus; adi-beginning; gadyena-prose; tatra-there; tatra-there; avitarkya-inconceivable; shaktitvam-with the potency; eva-indeed; ca-also; siddhante-in the conclusion; yojitam-appropriate.
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (6.9.34) it is said:
"O Lord, You need no support, and although You have no material body, You do not need cooperation from us. Since You are the cause of the cosmic manifestation and You supply its material ingredients without being transformed, You create, maintain, and annihilate this cosmic manifestation by Yourself. Nevertheless,although You appear engaged in material activity, You are transcendental to all material qualities. Consequently, these transcendental activities of Yours are extremely difficult to understand."*
In this prose passage of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, it is clearly said that the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not perform material activities impelled by the material modes. In the next passage (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.35) it is said:
"These are our inquiries. The ordinary conditioned soul is subject to the material laws, and he thus receives the fruits of his actions. Does Your Lordship , like an ordinary human being, exist within this material world in a body produced by the material modes? Do You enjoy or suffer the good or bad results of actions under the influence of time, past work, and so forth? Or, on the contrary, are You present here only as a neutral witness who is self-sufficient, free from all material desires, and always full of spiritual potency? We certainly cannot understand Your actual position."*
In this prose passage of Shrimad-Bhagavatam the Lord's feature as the Supersoul is described and it is asked whether His presence in the material world of the three modes is like that of the conditioned souls who try to enjoy the material nature. In the next passage it is said:
"O Supreme Personality of Godhead, all contradictions can be reconciled in You. O Lord, since You are the Supreme Person, the reservoir of unlimited spiritual qualities, the Supreme Controller, Your unlimited glories are inconceivable to the conditioned souls. Many modern theologians argue about right and wrong without knowing what is actually right. Their arguments are always false and their judgments inconclusive because they have no authorized evidence with which to gain knowledge of You. Because their minds are agitated by scriptures containing false conclusions, they are unable to understand the truth concerning You. Furthermore, because of polluted eagerness to arrive at the right conclusion, their theories are incapable of revealing You, who are transcendental to their material conceptions. You are one without a second, and therefore in You contradictions like doing and not doing, happiness and distress, are not contradictory. Your potency is so great that it can do and undo anything as You like. With the help of that potency, what is impossible for You? Since there is no duality in Your constitutional position, You can do everything by the influence of Your energy."*
In this prose passage of Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has inconceivable potencies.
tatra svarupa-shakter avitarkyatvam bhagavati ity adibhir visheshanair mayayash catma-mayam ity anena darshitam.
tatra-there; svarupa-shakteh-of the internal potency; avitarkyatvam-inconceivaleness; bhagavati ity adibhih-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.36; visheshanaih-with adjectives; mayayah-of maya; ca-and; atma-mayam-atma-mayam; iti-thus; anena-by this; darshitam-shown.
That the Supreme Lord's potencies are inconceivable is confirmed by the descriptions that follow the word “bhagavati" in this prose passage of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (6.9.36).
tatra svarupa-dvayabhavat ity asya tathapy acintua-shaktya tat-kartritvam tad-antah-patitvam vidyata ity arthah.
tatra-there; svarupa-dvayabhavat iti-in the words svarupa-dvayabhavat; asya-of this; tathapi-still; acintua-shaktya-of the inconceivable potency; tat-kartritvam-the doer of that; tad-antah-patitvam-falling within; vidyata-is; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
That the Supreme Lord employs His inconceivable potency to personally enter the material world is confirmed here (in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.36) by the use of the word "svarupa-dvayabhavat".
sama-vishama-matinam iti tu gadyam tathapy uccavaca-buddhinam tatha tatha sphurasiti pratipatty-artham jneyam.
sama-vishama-matinam iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.37; tu-indeed; gadyam-prose; tathapi-still; uccavaca-high and low; buddhinam-who have intelligence; tatha-so; tatha-so; sphurasi-You manifest; iti-thus; pratipatty-artham-for the sake pf proof; jneyam-to be known.
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (6.9.37) it is said:
"A rope causes fear for a bewildered person who considers it a snake, but not for a person with proper intelligence who knows it to be only a rope. Similarly You, as the Supersoul in everyone's heart, inspire fear or fearlessness according to one's intelligence, but in You there is no duality."*
The gist of this prose passage is: "O Lord, You appear in this world in order to enlighten the intelligent and the unintelligent."
duravabodha iva iti praktana-gadye tu asharirah iti sharira-ceshöam vina. asharanah iti bhumy-ady-ashrayam vinety arthah.
duravabodha iva iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.34; praktana-previous; gadye-prose; tu-but; asharirah iti-teh word "asarirah"; sharira-ceshöam-activities of the body; vina-without; asharanah-without shelter; iti-thus; bhumy-ady-ashrayam-taking shetler of the earth or other things; vina-without; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.34, which was quoted here (in text 11 of this anuccheda), the word "asharirah" means “free of having to perform the activiies that must be performed by a material body", and "asharanah" means “not needing to take shelter of the earth or any other thing". That is the meaning.
atha tatra ity adau sva-krite 'pi tasyapi hetu-kartritvad yojaniyam. tasmad atrapi svarupa-shakter eva pradhanyam darshitam.
atha tatra ity adau-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.35; sva-krite-done; api-even; tasya-of Him; api-also; hetu-kartritvat-because of being the creator; yojaniyam-is appropriate; tasmat-from that; atra-here; api-also; svarupa-shakteh-internal potency; eva-indeed; pradhanyam-primary importance; darshitam-is revealed.
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.9.35 (quoted in text 11 of this anuccheda) it is hinted that the Lord employs His external potency to create the mterial world. For this reason the Lord's internal potency is superior to the external potency.
ata eva rte 'rtham yat pratiyeta ity adau mayaya abhasa-sthaniyatvam pradarshya tad asprishyatvam eva bhagavato darshitam tvam adyah purushah sakshat ity adau mayam vyudasya cic-chaktya ity anena ca tatha jnapitam. maya paraity abhimukhe ca vilajjamana ity anena ca.
ata eva-therefore; rte 'rtham yat pratiyeta ity adau-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.34; mayaya-of maya; abhasa-reflection; sthaniyatvam-situation; pradarshya-revealing; tat-that; asprishyatvam-untoucableness; eva-indeed; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; darshitam-shown; tvam adyah purushah sakshat ity adau-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.7.23; mayam-maya; vyudasya-vyudasya; cic-chaktya-cic-chaktya; iti-thus; anena-by this; ca-and; tatha-so; jnapitam-informed; maya paraity abhimukhe ca vilajjamana ity anena-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.7.47; ca-and.
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.9.34) the Supreme Lord explains:
"O Brahma, whatever appears to be of any value, if it is without relation to me, has no reality. Know it as My illusory energy, that reflection which appears to be in darkness."*
In this way it is shown that the Lord's external potency, maya, is like a reflection. That the maya potency does not directly touch the Supreme Lord is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.7.23):
"O Supreme Personality of Godhead, You have cast away the effects of the material energy by dint of Your spiritual potency."*
This also confirmed by these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.7.47):
"In the Supreme Personality of Godhead the illusory energy does not stand."*
tad evam bhagavati tad-virodham parihritya jive 'py avidya-sambandhatvam atarkyatvena darshitaya tan-mayayaiva samadadhati. ishvarasyeti yad ity anenaiva sambadhyate. artha-vashad atra ca tritiyaya parinamyate.yad yaya ishvarasya svarupa-jnanadibhih samarthasya. ata eva vimuktasya jivasya karpanyam tat-tat-prakasha-tirobhavas tatha bandhanam tad-darshita-gunamaya-jala-praveshash ca bhavatiti.
tat-that; evam-thus; bhagavati-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tad-virodham-in contradiction; parihritya-removing; jive-in the individual spirit soul; api-also; avidya-ignorance; sambandhatvam-relationship; atarkyatvena-because of being inconceivable; darshitaya-by revelation; tan-mayaya-by His maya potency; eva-indeed; samadadhati-accepts; ishvarasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; iti-thus; yat-what; iti-thus; anena-by this; eva-indeed; sambadhyate-is related; artha-meaning; vashat-by the power; atra-here; ca-and; tritiyaya-by the third; parinamyate-is transformed;.yat-what; yaya-by what; ishvarasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svarupa-own form; jnana-knowledge; adibhih-beginning; samarthasya-able; ata eva-therefore; vimuktasya-freed; jivasya-of the individual soul; karpanyam-lowly position; tat-tat-prakasha-tirobhavah-disappearance; tatha-so; bandhanam-bondage; tad-darshita-showing that; gunamaya-consisting of the three modes of material nature; jala-in the trap; praveshah-entrance; ca-and; bhavati-is; iti-thus.
In this way any seeming contradictions in the nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are resolved and the inconceivable maya potency's bewilderment of the conditioned souls is described. This is shown by the words "ishvarasya" and "yan" in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.9 (quoted here in the beginning of anuccheda 90). Here the word "yan" (yat) has the force of the instrumental case and it means "by the power of His transcendental knowledge and other opulences, the Supreme Personality of Godhead (ishvarasya) is perfectly able to remain always free of the influence of maya". On the other hand, even the liberated (vimuktasya) individual soul (jivasya) is in a much inferior (karpanyam) to the Lord, and may have to enter the trap of the three modes of material nature (bandhanam).
tad uktam tat-sanga-bhramsitaishvaryam iti.
tat-that; uktam-said; tat-sanga-bhramsitaishvaryam iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.5.15.
The state of the individual soul fallen into the material world is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (6.5.15):
"If one becomes the husband of a prostitute, he loses all independence. Similarly, if a living entity has polluted intelligence, he prolongs his materialistic life. Frustrated by material nature, he must follow the movements of the intelligence, which brings various conditions of happiness and distress. If one performs fruitive activities under such conditions, what will be the benefit?"*
tad etat sarvam abhipretya shrutayo 'py ahuh sa yad ajaya tv ajam ity adau apeta-bhagah iti ca.
tat-this; etat-that; sarvam-all; abhipretya-meaning; shrutayah-the Vedas; api-also; ahuh-said; sa yad ajaya tv ajam ity adau-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.38; apeta-bhagah iti-the word apeta-bhagah; ca-and.
The fate of the individual soul fallen in the material world is also described in these words spoken by the Personified Vedas (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.38):
"The illusory material nature attracts the minute living entity to embrace her, and as a result he assumes forms composed of her qualities. Subsequently, he loses all of his spiritual qualities and must undergo repeated deaths."***
atra mula-padye bhagavato mayety anena bhagavattvam tv amayikam ity ayatam. indrasya mayety atra yathendratvam. evam purvatrapi jneyam.
atra-here; mula-in the original; padye-verse; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; maya-maya; iti-thus; anena-by this; bhagavattvam-teh status of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tv-but; amayikam-free frokm the illusoryn potency; iti-thus; ayatam-attained; indrasya-of Indra; maya-illusion; iti-thus; atra-here; yatha-as; indratvam-the status of Indra; evam-thus; purvatra-previously; api-also; jneyam-to be understood.
In the verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.9) quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda the words "bhagavato maya" indicate that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is free from maya's touch. As the monarch who controls maya, He is free from her power. This has been explained previously.
punar api jivasya vastutah sviya-tat-tad-avasthatvabhave 'pi bhagavan-mayayaiva tat-tat-pratitir iti sa-drishöantam upapadayati
punah-again; api-also; jivasya-of the individual soul; vastutah-in truth; sviya-tat-tad-avasthatva-of those conditions of life; abhave-in the absence; api-also; bhagavan-mayaya-by the illusory potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; tat-tat-pratitih-knowledge of them; iti-thus; sa-drishöantam-with an example; upapadayati-affirms.
The conditioned soul in the material world who, bewildered by the Supreme Lord's illusory potency maya, does not understand his true nature, is also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.7.10):
yad arthena vinamushya
yat-thus; arthena-a purpose or meaning; vina-without; amushya-of such a one; pumsa-of the living entity; atma-viparyayah-upset about self-identification; pratiyata-so appear; upadrashöuh-of the superficial onlooker; sva-shirah-own head; chedanadibhih-cutting off.
"The living entity is in distress regarding his self-identity. He has no factual background, like a man who dreams that he sees his head cut off."*
yad yasya mayaya hetur arthena vinapi. yadyapi tasya tri-kalam eva so 'rtho nasti. tathapy atma-viparyaya atma-vismriti-purvaka-parabhimanenaham eva tad-dharmity evam-rupah so 'rthah syat.
yat-what; yasya-of which; mayaya-by maya; hetuh-the cause; arthena-with the meaning; vina-without; api-certainly; yadyapi-although; tasya-of that; tri-kalam-three phases of time; eva-indeed; sah-that; arthah-meaning; na-not; asti-is; tathapi-still; atma-viparyaya-upset about self-identification; atma-vismriti-forgetting the self; purvaka-previous; parabhimanena-by the conception; aham-I; eva-indeed; tad-dharmi-with those qualities; iti--thus; evam-rupah-with such aform; sah-that; arthah-the meaning; syat-is.
Here "yad" means "of maya" and "arthena vina" mean "without a purpose". Although he is eternal, always existing in the three phases of time (past, present, and future), the individual soul does not know this truth about himself. Here the word "atma-viparyayah" indicates that the conditioned soul has forgotten his true identity.
tatha hi upadrashöur jivasya. tritiyarthe shashöhi. svapnavasthayam jivena sva-shirash-chedanadiko 'tiva-sambhavo 'rthah pratiyate.
tatha hi-furthermore; upadrashöuh-of the seer; jivasya-of the soul; tritiyarthe-in the meaning of the instrumental; shashöhi-of the genetive case; svapnavasthayam-in a dream; jivena-by the individual spirit soul; sva-shirash-chedanadikah-the cutting off of his head; ativa-sambhavah-great creation; arthah-meaning; pratiyate-is believed.
Here the word "upadrashöuh" refers to the individual spirit soul. Although this word is in the genitive case, it has the force of the instrumental. "Sva-shirash-cedanadibhih" means "in a dream he believes that his head has been cut off".
na hi tasya shirash chinnam. na tu va sva-shirash-chedam ko 'pi pashyet. kintu bhagavan-mayaivanyatra siddham tad-rupam artham tasminn aropayatiti. maya-matram tu kartsnyenanabhivyakta-svarupatvat iti nyayena.
na-not; hi-indeed; tasya-of him; shirah-the head; chinnam-cut off; na-not; tu-indeed; va-or; sva-shirash-chedam-cutting off of his own head; ko 'pi-someone; pashyet-may see; kintu-however; bhagavan-maya-the Lord's maya poitency; eva-indeed; anyatra-in another place; siddham-established; tad-rupam-the form of that; artham-the purpose; tasmin-in that; aropayati-artifically imposes; iti-thus; maya-matram-only maya; tu-but; kartsnyena-completely; anabhivyakta-not manifested; svarupatvat-because of the original form; iti-thus; nyayena-by the Vedanta-sutra.
In truth the head is not really cut off. Indeed, it is not possible for anyone to sit in one place and see his own head being cut off in another place. The sight of this is only an illusion created by the Lord's maya potency. This is described in the following words of Vedanta-sutra (3.2.3):
"It is like a dream created by the maya potency."
ata eva shuddhasyapi sato jivasyaupadhikenaiva rupenopadhi-dharmapattir iti drishöantantarenopapadayati
ata eva-therefore; shuddhasya-pure; api-also; satah-eternal; jivasya-of the individual spirit soul; aupadhikena-by ten material designation; eva-indeed; rupena-by the form; upadhi-of the material designatrion; dharma-qualities; apattih-attainment; iti-thus; drishöanta-example; antarena-with another; upapadayati-explains.
In this way the pure spirit soul misidentifies with the material body. This is shown by another example given in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.7.11):
yatha jale candramasah
kampadis tat-krito gunah
drishyate 'sann api drashöur
atmano 'natmano gunah
yatha-as; jale-in the water; candramasah-o fthe moon; kampadih-quivering, wtc.; tat-kritah-done by the water; gunah-quality; drishyate-is so seen; asann api-without existence; drashöuh-of the seer; atmanah-of the self; anatmanah-of other than the self; gunah-quality.
"As the moon reflected on water appears to the seer to tremble due to being associated with the quality of the water, so the self associated with matter appears to be qualified as matter."*
yatha jale pratibimbitasyaiva candramaso jalopadhi-kritah kampadi-guno dharmo drishyate. na tv akasha-sthitasya tadvad anatmanah prakriti-rupopadher dharma atmanah shuddhasyasann api aham eva so 'yam ity aveshan mayayopadhi-tad-atmyapannahankarabhasasya pratibimba-sthaniyasya tasya drashöur adhyatmikavasthasyaiva yadyapi syat tathapi shuddho 'sau tad-abhedabhimanena tam pashyatity arthah.
yatha-as; jale-in the water; pratibimbitasya-of a reflection; eva-indeed; candramasah-of the moon; jalopadhi-kritah-on the water; kampa-quivering; adi-beginning with; gunah-quality; dharmah-nature; drishyate-is seen; na-not; tv-but; akasha-sthitasya-situated in the sky; tadvat-in that way; anatmanah-not of the self; prakriti-rupopadheh-of a material form; dharma-nature; atmanah-of the self; shuddhasya-pure; asann-being so; api-also; aham-I; eva-indeed; sah-he; ayam-this; iti-thus; aveshan-entering; mayayopadhi-of material designations; tad-atmya-idetity; apanna-attained; ahankara-false ego; abhasasya-of the reflection; pratibimba-sthaniyasya-situated in a reflection; tasya-of that; drashöuh-of the seer; adhyatmika-of the self; avasthasya-situation; eva-indeed; yadyapi-although; syat-may be; tathapi-still; shuddhah-pure; asau-this; tad-abheda-not different from that; abhimanena-with the conception; tam-that; pasyati-sees; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
This verse explains: "As the moon reflected on water appears to the seer to tremble due to being associated with the quality of the water, so the self associated with matter appears to be qualified as matter."* The soul then thinks: "I am this material body". Although what he is sees is only a false-ego reflection, the pure soul thinks he sees his actual self.
tad uktam ekadashe shri-bhagavata
nrityato gayatah pashyan
evam buddhi-gunan pashyann
aniho 'py anukaryate. iti.
tat-that; uktam-said; ekadashe-in the eleventh canto; shri-bhagavata-by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nrityatah-dancing; gayatah-singing; pashyan-seeing; yatha-as; eva-indeed; anukaroti-imitates; tan-them; evam-thus; buddhi-gunan-the quaolities of the intelligence; pashyann-seeing; anihah-not acting; api-even; anukaryate-is imitated; iti-thus.
The conditioned soul's misidentification with the material body is also described in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.12.53) spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself:
"As one may imitate singers and dancers, so the inactive spirit soul imitates the activities of the material intelligence."
tathaivoktam shuddho vicashöe hy avishuddha-kartuh iti.
tatha-so; eva-indeed; uktam-said; shuddho vicashöe hy avishuddha-kartuh iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.11.12.
A liberated soul does not mistakenly identify with the material body. This is described in the following words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.11.12):
"A person who is liberated in this life (jivan-mukta) can see all these things vividly."*
vi-shabdasya catra tad-avesha eva tatparyam. tasmad bhagavato 'cintya-svarupantaranga-maha-prabala-shaktitvad bahirangaya prabalayapy acintyayapi mayayapi na sprishöih. jivasya tu taya sprishöir iti siddhantitam. shri-shukah.
vi-vi; shabdasya-of the word; ca-and; atra-here; tad-avesha-entering that; eva-indeed; tatparyam-the meaning; tasmat-from that; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; acintya-svarupantaranga-maha-prabala-shaktitvat-because of the power of the internal potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bahirangaya-of the external potency; prabalaya-by the power; api-also; acintyaya-inconceivable; api-also; mayaya-maya; api-also; na-not; sprishöih-touching; jivasya-of the spirit soul; tu-but; taya-by that; sprishöih-touching; iti-thus; siddhantitam-concluded; shri-shukah-Shri Shukadeva Gosvami.
Here the prefix "vi" means "entering that". This means that because he is protected by the Lord's inconceivable internal potency, the liberated soul is not touched by the inconceivable external potency maya. That is the conclusion. The verse quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.
evam shrishöadi-lila-traye samanyato yojite 'pi punar visheshatah samshayya siddhantah kriyate sthunanikhanana-nyayena.
evam-thus; shrishöa-material creation; adi-beginning with; lila-pastimes; traye-in three; samanyatah-in general; yojite-ebgaged; api-even; punah-again; visheshatah-specifically; samshayya-doubting; siddhantah-the conclusion; kriyate-is done; sthunanikhanana-nyayena.-by the example of repeatedly pushing the post into the ground.
In this way it has been explained in a general way that the Supreme Personality of Godhead engages in pastimes of creating, maintaining, and destroying the material universes. Because some readers may still doubt that this is the truth, we will, as fence-maker will again and again push his fence-pots into the ground to make them secure, present more arguments to prove this truth beyond any doubts.
nanu palana-lilayam ye ye 'vataras tatha tatraiva sva-prasada-vyanjaka-smitabhaya-mudradi-ceshöaya sura-paksha-pato yuddhadi-ceshöaya daitya-samhara ity adika ya ya va lilah shruyante. te ca tash ca svayam parameshvarena kriyante na va.
nanu-is it not so?; palana-lilayam-in the pastime of maintaining; ye ye-whatever; avatarah-incarnations; tatha-so; tatra-there; eva-indeed; sva-own; prasada-mercy; vyanjaka-manifesting; smita-smile; abhaya-fearless; mudra-gestures; adi-beginning with; ceshöaya-by the action; sura-paksha-patah-taking sides with the demigods; yuddhadi-ceshöaya-with fighting and other like activities; daitya-samhara-diminishing the demons; iti-thus; adika-beginning with; ya ya-whatever; va-or; lilah-pastimes; shruyante-are heard; te-they; ca-and; tah-to them; ca-and; svayam-all; parameshvarena-by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kriyante-are done; na-not; va-or.
Here someone may ask: "In His pastime of protecting the material world, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, in the forms of His many incarnations, enters the material world again and again. At these times the Lord takes the side of the devotees and, by fighting great battles and performing other like activities, diminishes the power of the demons. At these times the Lord shows His mercy to the devotees by smiling at them, gesturing that they not be afraid, and in many other ways also. Are all these activities really performed by the Supreme Lord Himself, or does He not really perform them personally?
adye purva-pakshas tad avastha eva. praty uta paksha-patadina vaishamyam ca. ante tesham avataranam tasam lilanam ca na svarupa-bhutata sidhyatiti sampratipatti-bhangah.
adye-in the first; purva-pakshah-the first argument; tat-that; avastha-situation; eva.-indeed; praty uta-on the other side; paksha-pata-the argument; adina-beginning with; vaishamyam-difficulty; ca.-and; ante-at the end; tesham-of Them; avataranam-of the incarnations; tasam-of them; lilanam-the pastimes; ca-and; na-not; svarupa-bhutata-manifestations of the Lord's actual form; sidhyati-is proved; iti--thus; sampratipatti-of the proof; bhangah-the breaking.
"The first of these views, that these activities are indeed performed by the Supreme Lord Himself, is the actual truth. However, on the other hand, it is not logical to assume that the Supreme Lord would ally Himself with one group of conditioned souls against another group of conditioned souls. The second view asserts that these incarnations and pastimes are not the forms and activities of the Supreme Lord Himself. In this way this second view is different from the first view."
atrocyate satyam. vishva-palanartham parameshvaro na kincit karoti. kintu svena sahaivavatirnan vaikunöha-parshadan tathadhikarika-devady-antar-gatan tatha taöasthan anyamsh ca bhaktan anandayitum svarupa-shaktyavishkarenaiva nanavataran lilash casau prakashayati.
atra-here; ucyate-is said; satyam.-truth; vishva-palanartham-for the purpose of protecting the worlds; parameshvarah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na-not; kincit-anything; karoti.-does; kintu-however; svena-by His own; saha-with; avatirnan-descended; vaikunöha-from the spiritual world; parshadan-personal associates; tatha-so; adhikarika-devadi-beginning with the ruling demigods; antah-within; gatan-gone; tatha-so; taöasthan-marginal; anyan-others; ca-and; bhaktan-devotees; anandayitum-to please; svarupa-shaktya-with His personal potency; avishkarena-with the manifestation; eva-indeed; nana-various; avataran-incarnations; lilah-pastiems; ca-and; asau-He; prakashayati-manifests.
To these words the following reply may be given: Yes. That is the truth. The Supreme Personality of Godhead does not descend to the this world for the purpose of granting protection to the world. Rather, He manifests the forms of His many incarnations and His many pastimes to please His associates from the spiritual world, the demigods that rule over the planets, and His many other devotees.
tad uktam padme
shakto yadyapi danavan
karomi vividhah kriyah
tat-that; uktam-said; padme-in the Padma Purana; muhurtena-for a moment; api-even; samhartum-to destroy; shaktah-able; yadyapi-although; danavan-the demons; mad-bhaktanam-of My devotees; vinodartham-for the happiness; karomi-I do; vividhah-many; kriyah-activities.
This is also confirmed by the following words of the Padma Purana, where the Supreme Lord says:
"If I wish, I can kill all the demons in a single moment. The real reason I perform many activities is to give pleasure to My devotees.
svany apatyani pushnanti
tathaham api padmaja. iti.
darshana-dhyana-samsparshaih-by seeing, meditation, and touch; matsya-kurma-vihangamah-the fish, turtle, and birds; svani-own; apatyani-children; pushnanti-maintain; tatha-so; aham-I; api-also; padmaja.-O Brahma; iti.-thus.
"By vision, by meditation, and by touch only do the fish, the tortoise, and the birds maintain their offspring. Similarly do I also, O Padmaja."*
nityam ca purna-kamasya
janmani vividhani me
tasmat kim te priyam vada. iti.
hari-bhakti-sudhodaye-in the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaye; nityam-always; ca-and; purna-kamasya-fulfilled desires; janmani-birth; vividhani-various; me-of Me; bhakta-sarveshöa-danaya-to fulfill the desires of My devotees; tasmat-therefore; kim-what?; te-of you; priyam-dear; vada.-please tell; iti-thus.
In the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya, the Supreme Lord says:
"All My desires are at once fulfilled. It is to fulfill My devotees' desires that I take birth again and again in this world. Therefore, please tell Me: What is your desire?"
tatha shri-kunti-devi-vacanam ca bhakti-yoga-vidhanartham katham pashyema hi striyah iti.
tatha-so; shri-kunti-devi-vacanam-the words of Shri Kunti; ca-and; bhakti-yoga-vidhanartham katham pashyema hi striyah iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.8.20.
This is also described in the following prayer, where Queen Kunti tells the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.8.20):
"You Yourself descend to propagate the transcendental science of devotional service unto the hearts of the advanced transcendentalists and mental speculators, who are purified by being able to discriminate between matter and spirit. How, then, can we women know You perfectly?"*
atra bhakti-yoga-vidhanam tad-artham avatirnam tvam itk öikanumatam ca.
atra-here; bhakti-yoga-vidhanam-to give devotional service; tad-artham-for that purpose; avatirnam-descended; tvam-You; itk-thus; öikanumatam-according to the commentary; ca-also.
In his commentary on these words, Shrila Shridhara Svami confirms that the Supreme Personality of Godhead does indeed descend to the material world for the purpose of teaching the science of devotional service.
prapancam nishprapanco 'pi
sandoham prathitum prabho. iti.
shri-brahma-vacanam-the words of Shri -Brahma; ca-and; prapancam-material; nishprapancah-spiritual; api-also; vidambayasi-You imitate; bhu-tale-on the earth; prapanna-janata-of the surrendered devotees; ananda-bliss; sandoham-great; prathitum-to give; prabho.-O Supreme Personality of Godhead iti..
This is also confirmed by the following words, where Brahma tells the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.37):
"I can also understand that Your appearance as a small cowherd boy, a child of the cowherd men, is not at all a material activity. You are so much obliged by their affection that You are here to enthuse them with more loving service by Your transcendental presence. In Vrindavana there is no distinction between material and spiritual because everything is dedicated to Your loving service. My dear Lord, Your Vrindavana pastimes are simply to enthuse Your devotees. If someone takes Your Vrindavana pastimes to be material, he will be misled."*
svarupa-shaktyaivavishkarash ca shri-brahmanaiva darshitah. esha prapanna-varado ramayatma-shaktya yad yat karishyati grihita-gunavatarah ity adina.
svarupa-shaktya-by His internal potency; eva-indeed; avishkarah-manifested; ca-and; shri-brahmana-by Brahma; eva-indeed; darshitah.-revealed; esha prapanna-varado ramayatma-shaktya yad yat karishyati grihita-gunavatarah ity adina-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.9.23.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead incarnates through the agency of His in internal potency is confirmed by these words spoken by the demigod Brahma (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.9.23):
"The Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead, is always the benefactor of the surrendered souls. His activities are always enacted through His internal potency, Rama, or the goddess of fortune. I pray only to engage in His service in the creation of the material world, and I pray that I not be materially affected by my works, for thus I may be able to give up the false prestige of being the creator."*
grihita gunah karunyadayao yatra tatha-bhuto 'vataro yasyety arthah. tad evam bhaktanandartham eva tan prakaöayatas tasyananusamhitam api sura-paksha-patadi-vishva-palana-rupam tan-maya-karyam svata eva bhavati.
grihita-accepted; gunah-virtues; karunyadayaah-beginning with mercy; yatra-where; tatha-bhutah-like that; avatarah-incarnation; yasya-of whom; iti-thus; arthah.-the meaning; tat-that; evam-thus; bhaktanandartham-to give pleasure to the devotees; eva-indeed; tan-them; prakaöayatah-manifesting; tasya-of Him; ananusamhitam-unrelated; api-also; sura-paksha-pata-taking sides with the demigods; adi-beginning eith; vishva-palana-rupam-protecting the material world; tan-maya-karyam-done by His maya potency; svata-personally; eva-indeed; bhavati.-is.
Here the word "grihita-gunavatarah" means “the Lord's incarnations, which are merciful and have a host of other virtues". In this way it is declared that the Lord descends to the material world in order to give bliss to His devotees. He does not really descend to the world in order to take sides with the demigods and protect the world, for the protection of the world is easily accomplished by the Lord's maya potency.
loke yatha kecid bhaktah parasparam bhagavat-prema-sukhollasaya militas tad-anabhijnan api kamshcin mardangikadin sangrihya tad-guna-gananandenonmattavan nrityanto vishvesham evamangalam ghnanti. mangalam api vardhayantiti.
loke-in the material world; yatha-as; kecit-some; bhaktah-devotees; parasparam-mutually; bhagavat-prema-love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sukha-happiness; ullasaya-for arousing; militah-meeting; tad-anabhijnan-not understanding; api-even; kamshcin-some; mardangikadin-beginning with mrdanga players; sangrihya-accepting; tad-guna-gana-singing about His qualities; anandenonmattavan-wild with bliss; nrityantah-dancing; vishvesham-of all; eva-indeed; amangalam-inauspiciousness; ghnanti.-destroys; mangalam-auspiciousness; api-also; vardhayanti-increases; iti-thus.
In this world some devotees of the Lord may meet in order to taste together the bliss of pure love for the Supreme Lord. In that assembly some other persons, who do not understand the truth about the Lord's glories, may also participate in the chanting, play on the mridangas and other musical instruments, and even dance in ecstatic bliss as they sing the Lord's holy names.
tad uktam vag gadgada ity adau mad-bhakti-yogo bhuvanam punati iti.
tat-that; uktam-said; vag gadgada ity adau mad-bhakti-yogo bhuvanam punati iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.14.24.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself explains (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.14.24):
"My devotee who weeps, laughs, dances and cries out as without shame he chants My holy names in a voice choked with ecstasy, purifies the entire world."
shrishöy-adikam harer naiva
prayojanam apekshya tu
yatha mattasya nartanam. iti.
evam-thus; eva-indeed; uktam-said; shrishöi-creation; adikam-beginning; hareh-of Lord Krishna; na-not; eva-indeed; prayojanam-need; apekshya-in relation to; tu-but; kurute-does; kevalanandat-out of transcendental bliss; yatha-as; mattasya-maddened; nartanam.-dancing; iti.-thus.
This is also described in the following words of the scriptures:
"Ignoring the material world, a great devotee dances, wild with transcendental bliss as he chants the holy names of Lord Hari."
na ca vaktavyam svena tesham tair api svasyanandena svatas triptata-hanih syat. tathanyan parityajya ca tesham evanandena vaishamyantaram api syad iti.
na-not; ca-and; vaktavyam-to be said; svena-own; tesham-of them; taih-with them; api-also; svasya-own; anandena-with bliss; svatah-personally; triptata-satisfaction; hanih-destruction; syat.-may be; tatha-so; anyan-others; parityajya-abandoning; ca-and; tesham-of them; eva-indeed; anandena-with bliss; vaishamya-problem; antaram-another; api-also; syat-is; iti-thus.
Here someone may say that it is not possible for the devotees to be really happy, for they cannot ignore the sufferings of the non-devotees. Their troubles will stop the devotees' bliss.
tatradye vishuddhorjita-sattva-tanum ashrito 'pi muni-jane svatas tripti-parakashöham prapto bhakta-vatsalya-darshanat tad-anucara evasau guno na tu tat pratighatiti labhyate.
tatra-there; adye-in the beginning; vishuddhorjita-sattva-tanum-a pure spiritual form; ashritah-taken shelter; api-even; muni-jane-sages; svatah-personally; tripti-parakastham-the greatest bliss; praptah-attained; bhakta-vatsalya-darshanat-from seeing the love for the devotees; tad-anucara-following that; eva-indeed; asau-this; gunah-virtue; na-not; tu-but; tat-that; pratighati-contradicting; iti-thus; labhyate-is attained.
Their bodies' made of pure goodness, the great sages experience the greatest transcendental bliss. Seeing the love their Lord has for His devotees, the sages follow in His footsteps. In this way the sages are very merciful to the non-devotees. The sages' bliss and mercy are not mutually contradictory qualities.
yatha sarvan munin prati shri-parikshid-vakyam nehatha vamutra ca kashcanartha rte paranugraham atma-shilanam iti.
yatha-ass; sarvan-all; munin-the sages; prati-to; shri-parikshid-vakyam-the words of Maharaja Pariksit; nehatha vamutra ca kashcanartha rte paranugraham atma-shilanam iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.19.23.
The mercy of the sages is seen in the following words spoken by Maharaja Parikshit to all the great sages (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.19.23):
"You are naturally inclined to do good to others, and for this you have no interest, either in this life or in the next."*
tatha jada-bharata-caritadau sindhu-pataya atma-satttvam viganayatah paranubhavah parama-karunikatayopadishya ity adi.
tatha-so; jada-bharata-of Jada Bharata; carita-the activities; adau-in the beginning; sindhu-pataya atma-satttvam viganayatah paranubhavah parama-karunikatayopadishya ity adi-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.13.24.
The mercy of the sages is also described by these words in the beginning of Jada Bharata's story (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.13.24):
"Being a Vaishnava, he was naturally very kindhearted, and he therefore told the king about the constitutional position of the soul."*
shri-narada-purva-janmani cakruh kripam yadyapi tulya-darshanah sushrushamane munayo 'lpa-bhashini iti ca.
shri-narada-purva-janmani-in the previous birth of Shri Narada; cakruh kripam yadyapi tulya-darshanah sushrushamane munayo 'lpa-bhashini iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.5.24; ca-also.
The sages' mercifulness is also seen in these words from Shri Narada's description of his previous birth (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.5.24):
"Although they were impartial by nature, those followers of the Vedanta blessed me with their causeless mercy."*
kaivalya-pataye namah. iti.
tatha-so; shri-kunti-stave-in the prayers of Queen Kunti; namah-all obeisances unto You; akincana-vittaya-unto the property of the materially impoverished; nivritta-completely transcendental to the actions of the material; modes; guna-material modes; vrittaye-affection; atmaramaya-one who is self-satisfied; shantaya-the most engentle; kaivalya-pataye-unto the master of the monists; namah-bowing down; iti.-thus.
The glories of the Lord and His devotees are described in this prayer spoken by Queen Kunti to Lord Krishna (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.8.27):
"My obeisances unto You, who are the property of the materially impoverished. You have nothing to do with the actions and reactions of the material modes of nature. You are self-satisfied and therefore You are the most gentle and are the master of the monists."*
akincana bhakta eva vittam sarvasvam yasya iti öika ca.
akincana-poverty-stricken; bhakta-devotee; eva-indeed; vittam-wealth; sarvasvam-treasure; yasya-of whom; iti-thus; öika-the commentary; ca-and.
Shrila Shridhara Svami comments:
"Here the word `akincana-vitta' means `He who is the be-all-and-end-all of the materially impoverished devotees'."
tato 'nyatha cakritajnata-doshash ca nirdoshe bhagavaty apatati. tatah siddhe tathavidhasyapi bhakta-vatsalye bhaktanam duhkha-hanya sukha-praptya va svanando bhavatity ayatam eva.
tatah-then; anyatha-otherwise; ca-and; akritajnata-ingratitude; doshah-defect; ca-and; nirdoshe-faultless; bhagavati-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; apatati-entered; tatah-then; siddhe-perfect; tathavidhasya-like that; api-also; bhakta-vatsalye-affectionate to the devotees; bhaktanam-of devotees; duhkha-hanya-destroying the sufferings; sukha-praptya-attainment of happiness; va-or; svanandah-own bliss; bhavati-is; iti-thus; ayatam-atained; eva-indeed.
In this way it is proved that the Supreme Lord is not ungrateful to His devotees. He loves His devotees. He removes their sufferings and brings them transcendental bliss.
kim ca parama-sara-bhutaya api svarupa-shakteh sara-bhuta hladini nama ya vrittis tasya eva sara-bhuto vritti-vishesho bhaktih. sa ca raty-apara-paryaya hhaktir bhagavati bhakteshu ca nikshipta-nijobhaya-koöih sarvada tishöhati.
kim ca-furthermore; parama-sara-bhutaya-of the best; api-also; svarupa-shakteh-of His internal potency; sara-bhuta-the best; hladini-Haldini; nama-named; ya-which; vrittih-action; tasya-of that; eva-indeed; sara-bhutah-the best; vritti-visheshah-specific action; bhaktih.-devotional service; sa-that; ca-and; raty-apara-paryaya-the best love; hhaktih-devotional service; bhagavati-for the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhakteshu-in the devotees; ca-and; nikshipta-placed; nija-own; ubhaya-both; koöih-edge; sarvada-always; tishöhati-stays.
The best of the Supreme Lord's internal potencies is the potency called hladini. The best activity of this potency is devotional service. In this way the Lord and His devotees love each other eternally.
ata evoktam bhagavan bhakta-bhaktiman iti.
ata eva-therefore; uktam-said; bhagavan bhakta-bhaktiman iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.86.59.
This is described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.86.59):
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead loves His devotees."
tasmad bhakta-sthaya taya bhagavatas triptau na svatas triptita-hanih. praty uta shaktitvena svarupato bhinnabhinnaya api tasyah.
tasmat-therefore; bhakta-sthaya-staying with the devotees; taya-with that; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; triptau-in the satisfaction; na-not; svatah-personally; triptita-satisfaction; hanih-destruction; praty uta-on the contrary; shaktitvena-with the potency; svarupatah-from the form; bhinnabhinnaya-different and non-different; api-also; tasyah-of that.
Devotional service thus delights the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This, of course, does not mean that the devotees are not delighted also. As one of the Lord's potencies, devotional service is simultaneously one and different from the Lord.
ye yatha mam prapadyante tams tathaiva bhajamy aham iti nyayena.
ye yatha mam prapadyante tams tathaiva bhajamy aham iti nyayena-Bhagavad-gita 4.11.
This is confirmed by the Lord Himself in the following words (Bhagavad-gita 4.11):
"All of them, as they surrender unto Me, I reward accordingly."*
bhakta-citta-sphuritaya bheda-vrittir eva sphuranat. bhagavato mam hladayaty asya bhatir iti. ananda-camatkaratishayash ca bhavati.
bhakta-of the devotees; citta-in the hearts; sphuritayamanifested; bheda-vrittih-different action; eva-indeed; sphuranat.-from the manifestation; bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mam-Me; hladayati-delights; asya-of this; bhatih-manifestation; iti.-thus; ananda-of bliss; camatkara-wonder; atishayah-great; ca--and; bhavati-is.
Situated in the devotee's heart, devotional service manifests as many activities. Engaged in devotional service in this way, the devotee thinks, "my service to the Lord brings me great bliss". In this way devotional service brings a great wonder of transcendental bliss.
shakti-tadvator bheda-mate 'pi visishöasyaiva svarupatvam sampratipannam. tad etat sarvam abhipretya bhanitam durvasasam prati shri-vishnuna
shakti-tadvatoh-of the potency and the possessor of the potency; bheda-mate-in theopinion of difference; api-even; visishöasya-specific; eva-indeed; svarupatvam-the own form; sampratipannam-estabpished; tat-this; etat-that; sarvam-all; abhipretya-knmowing; bhanitam-spoken; durvasasam-Durvasa Muni; prati-to; shri-vishnuna-by Lord Shri Vishnu.
In this way it is seen that the potencies and the Lord, who is the master of all potencies, are different. All this is explained in these words spoken to Durvasa Muni by Lord Shri Vishnu (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 9.4.63-68):
hy asvatantra iva dvija
aham+I; bhakta-paradhinah-am dependent on the will of My devotees; hi-indeed; asvatantra--am not independent; iva-exactly like that; dvija-O brahmana; sadhubhih-by pure devotees completely free from all material desires; grasta-hridayah-My heart is controlled; bhaktaih-because they are devotees; bhakta-jana-priyah-I am dependent not only on My devotee but also on My devotee's devotee (the devotee's devotee is extremely dear to Me)..
"I am completely under the control of My devotees. Indeed, I am not at all independent. Because My devotees are completely devoid of material desires, I sit only within the cores of their hearts. What to speak of My devotee, even those who are devotees of My devotee are very dear to Me.*
naham atmanam asase
mad-bhaktaih sadhubhir vina
shriyam catyantikim brahman
yesham gatir aham para
na-not; aham-I; atmanam-transcendental bliss; asase-desire; mad-bhaktaih-with My devotees; sadhubhih-with the sainbtly persons; vina-without them; shriyam-all My six opulences; ca-also; atyantikim-the Supreme; brahman-O brahmana; yesham-of whom; gatih-destination; aham-I am; para-the ultimate.
"O best of the brahmanas, without saintly persons for whom I am the only destination, I do not desire to enjoy My transcendental bliss and My supreme opulences.*
pranan vittim imam param
hitva mam sharanam yatah
katham tams tyaktum utsahe
ye-those devotees of Mine who; dara-wife; agara-house; putra-children, sons; aptan-relatives, society; pranan-even life; vittim-wealth; imam-all these; param-elevation top heavenly planets or becoming one by merging into Brahman; hitva-giving up (all these ambitions and paraphernalia); mam-unto Me; sharanam-shelter; yatah-having taken; katham-how?; tamh-such persopns; tyaktum-to give them up; utsahe-I can be enthisatisc in that way (it is not possible).
"Since pure devotees give up their homes, wives, children, relatives, riches, and even their lives simply to serve Me, without any desire for material improvement in this life or in the next, how can I give up such devotees at any time?*
vashe kurvanti mam bhaktya
sat-striyah sat-patim yatha
mayi-unto Me; nirbaddha-hridayah-firmly attached in the core of the heart; sadhavah-the pure devotees; sama-darshinah-who are equal to everyone; vashe-under control; kurvanti-they make; mam-unto Me; bhaktya-by devotional service; sat-striyah-cahste women; sat-patim-unto the gentle husband; yatha-as.
"As chaste women bring their gentle husbands under control by service, the pure devotees, who are equal to everyone and completely attached to Me in the core of the heart, bring Me under their full control.*
mat-sevaya pratitam te
necchanti sevaya purnah
kuto 'nyat kala-viplutam
mat-sevaya-by being engaged fully in My transcendental loving service; pratitam-authomatically achieved; te-such pure devotees are fully satisfied; salokyadi-catushöayam-the four diffreent types of liberation (salokya, sarupya, samipya, and sarsti, what to speak of sayujya); na-not; icchanti-desire; sevaya-simply by devotional service; purnah-fully complete; kutah-where is the question?; anyat-other things; kala-viplutam-which are finished in the course of time.
"My devotees, who are always satisfied to be engaged in My loving service, are not interested even in the four principles of liberation (salokya, sarupya, samipya, and sarshöi), although these are automatically achieved by their service. What then is to be said of such perishable happiness as elevation to the higher planetary systems?*
sadhavo hridayam mahyam
sadhunam hridayas tv aham
mad-anyat te na jananti
naham tebhyo manag api. iti.
sadhavah-the pure devotees; hridayam-in the core of the heart; mahyam-of Me; sadhunam-of the pure devotees also; hridayah-in the core of the heart; tv-indeed; aham-I am; mad-anyat-anything else but Me; te-they; na-not; jananti-know; na-not; aham-I; tebhyah-than them; manag api-even by a little fraction; iti-thus.
"The pure devotee is always within the core of My heart, and I am always in the heart of the pure devotee. My devotees do not know anything else but Me, and I do not know anyone else but them."*
atra ye daragareti-trayam akritajnata-nivarane. sadhavo hridayam mahyam iti svatas triptita-hani-parihare. bhakteh svarupa-shakti-sara-hladini-saratve ca aham bhakta-paradhinah iti dvayam.
atra-here; ye-which; daragareti-trayam-the three beginning with dara and agara; akritajnata-ungratefulness; nivarane-refuting; sadhavo hridayam mahyam iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 9.4.68; svatah-personally; triptita-hani-parihare.-rejection of the loss of bliss; bhakteh-of devotional service; svarupa-shakti-sara-hladini-saratve-the best of hladini-salti, the best of potencies; ca-and; aham bhakta-paradhinah-Shrimad-Bhagavatam9.4.63; iti-thus; dvayam-two.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not ungrateful to His devotees is shown here in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 9.4.65-67 (quoted here in texts 32-34). The idea that the devotees to not taste transcendental bliss is refuted by Shrimad-Bhagavatam 9.4.68 (quoted here text 35). That the hladini-shakti is the best of the Lord's potencies is affirmed by Shrimad-Bhagavata 9.4.63-64 (quoted here in texts 30-31).
tatraiva bhakteshv api bhakti-rupena tat-praveshe sati visheshato mat-sevaya pratitam ity api jneyam.
tatra-there; eva-indeed; bhakteshv-among the devotees; api-also; bhakti-rupena-in the form of devotional service; tat-praveshe-entering; sati-being so; visheshatah-sepcifically; mat-sevaya pratitam iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 9.4.67; api-also; jneyam-to be understood.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is present as the devotional service in His devotees' hearts is described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 9.4.67 (quoted here in text 34).
tato na praktano doshah. dvitiye 'py evam acakshmahe. paranandane pravrittir dvidha jayate. parato nijabhishöa-sampattyai kvacit tad-abhishöa-matra-sampattyai ca.
tatah-from that; na-not; praktanah-the former; doshah-defect; dvitiye-second; api-also; evam-thus; acakshmahe.-we say; paranandane-transcendental bliss; pravrittih-activity; dvidha-twofold; jayate.-is manifested; paratah-from the other; nija-own; abhishöa-desired; sampattyai-for opulence; kvacit-somewhere; tad-abhishöa-matra-sampattyai-for the desired opulence; ca-also.
In the first of these statements it is seen that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has no faults. In the second of these statements the endeavor for happiness is seen in two ways: 1. a person may endeavor only for his own happiness, and 2. a person may endeavor to make others happy.
tatra prathamo natrapy upayuktah. svatmartha-matrataya kutrapi paksha-patabhavat. athottara-pakshe tu para-sukhasya para-duhkhasya canubhavenaiva paranukulyenaiva pravritticcha jayate. na tu yat kincij jnana-matrena cittasya para-duhkhady-asparshe kripa-rupa-vikarasambhavat
tatra-there; prathamah-the first; na-not; atra-here; api-even; upayuktah.-engaged; svatmartha-matrataya-for one's own self; kutrapi-somewhere; paksha-patabhavat.-because of not taking sides; atha-here; uttara-pakshe-in the other side; tu-indeed; para-sukhasya-of the other's happiness; para-duhkhasya-of the othjer's sufferings; ca-and; anubhavena-by experiencing; eva-indeed; paranukulyena-because of being very favorable; eva--indeed; pravritticcha-desire; jayate.-is born; na-not; tu-but; yat-what; kincit-something; jnana-matrena-simply by knowledge; cittasya-of the mind; para-duhkhadi-beginning with other's sufferings; asparshe-not being touched; kripa-mercy; rupa-form; vikara-transformation; asambhavat-because of the impossibility.
In the first of these two kinds of endeavors mercy is not possible, for in that situation a person thinks only of his own benefit and he does not care about the benefit of others. In the second of these kinds of endeavor one feels happy in others happiness and unhappy in others suffering. In that situation one will desire that others may be happy. However, a person who has never been touched by the sufferings that others feel cannot experience the emotion of compassion. This is described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.10.14):
jantor necchati tam vyatham
jiva-samyam gato lingair
na tatha viddha-kanöakah. iti nyayat.
yatha-as; kanöaka-viddhangah-a "erson whose body has been pinpricked; jantoh-of such an animal; na-not; icchati-desires; tam-a particular; vyatham-pain; jiva-samyam gatah-when he understands that theposition is the same for everyone; lingaih-by possessing a particular type of body; na-not; tatha-so; viddha-kanöakah.-a person who has notbeen pinpricked; iti-thus; nyayat.-by the example.
"By seeing their faces, one whose body has been pricked by pins can understand the pain of others who are pinpricked. Realizing that this pain is the same for everyone, he does not want others to suffer in this way. But one who has never been pricked by pins cannot understand this pain."*
tatash ca sada paramanandaika-rupe 'pahata-kalmashe bhagavati prakritasya sukhabhidha-duhkhasya prasiddha-duhkhasya ca surye pecaka-cakshur-jyotisha iva tamasa iva catyantabhavat tat-tad-anubhavo nasty eva.
tatah-then; ca-and; sada-always; paramanandaika-rupe-the form of transcendental bliss; apahata-kalmashe-free of impurity; bhagavati-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prakritasya-material; sukha-happiness; abhidha-called; duhkhasya-of suffering; prasiddha-duhkhasya-celebrated suffering; ca-and; surye-in the sun; pecaka-of an owl; cakshuh-eyes; jyotisha-light; iva-like; tamasa-of darkness; iva-like; ca-also; atyanta-great; abhavat-because of the non-existence; tat-tad-anubhavah-percieving various objects; na-not; asti-is; eva.-indeed
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is full of spiritual bliss and free of all material contamination. Therefore He does not make any distinction between material suffering and material so-called happiness, which is actually only a different kind of suffering. In this way the Lord is like the owl's eyes, which do not make any distinction between the light and the darkness.
yat tu bhagavati duhkha-sambandham parijihirshanto 'pi kecid evam vadanti. tasmin duhkhanubhava-jnanam asty eva. tac ca parakiyatvenaiva bhasate. na tu sviyatveneti. tad api ghaööa-kudyam prabhatam.
yat-what; tu-but; bhagavati-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; duhkha-sambandham-in relation to suffering; parijihirshantah-desiring to defeat; api-even; kecit-some; evam-thus; vadanti.-say; tasmin-in that; duhkhanubhava-the percpetion of suffering; jnanam-knowledge; asti-is; eva.-indeed; tat-that; ca-and; parakiyatvena-as belonging to another; eva-indeed; bhasate.-is manifested; na-not; tu-but; sviyatvena-as belonging to oneself; iti-thus; tat-that; api-also; ghaööa-kudyam prabhatam-the example of the toll-collecting station.
Some philosophers assert that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has no connection at all with any material sufferings. They say that, because He is all-knowing He is certainly aware of the sufferings of others, but still He does not suffer personally. This is like the example of the person who traveled a very circuitous route in order to avoid passing a toll-station, but all his efforts only brought him to the toll-station anyway.
duhkhanubhavo nama hy antahkarane duhkha-sparshah. sa ca sparshah svasmad bhavatu parasmad veti. duhkha-sambandhavisheshat. asarvajna-doshash ca surya-drishöantenaoiva parihritah. praty uta gunatvenaiva darshitash ca.
duhkhanubhavah-the perception of suffering; nama-indeed; hi-indeed; antahkarane-in the heart; duhkha-sparshah.-the touch of suffering; sa-that; ca-and; sparshah-touch; svasmat-personal; bhavatu-may be; parasmat-from another; va-or; iti-thus; duhkha-sambandha-in relation to suffering; avisheshat-because of being without distinction; asarvajna-doshah-the fault of not-being all-knowing; ca-and; surya-drishöantena-by the example of the sun; eva-indeed; parihritah.-refuted; praty uta-on the contrary; gunatvena-by the quality; eva-indeed; darshitah-revealed; ca-and.
They say that one perceives suffering when suffering touches the heart. The suffering may be one's own personal suffering or the suffering of others. There is no real distinction. Both are suffering. Any idea that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not all-knowing is refuted by the example that compares Him to the everywhere-shining sun. Also, in this way it is seen that the Lord does have transcendental qualities.
tasmat tasmin yat kincid duhkha-jnanam astu. duhkhanubhavas tu nasty eva. yata eva kartum akartum anyatha kartum samarthe parama-karunamaya-nicaya-shiro-manau tasmin virajamane 'py adyapi jivah samsara-duhkham anubhavantity atra nairghrinya-pariharash ca bhavati.
tasmat-from that; tasmin-in Him; yat-what; kincit-something; duhkha-jnanam-the knolwedge of suffering; astu.-may be; duhkhanubhavah-the perception of suffering; tu-nut; na-not; asti-is ; eva.-indeed; yata-because; eva-indeed; kartum-to do; akartum-not to do; anyatha-otherwise; kartum-to do; samarthe-able; parama-supremely; karunamaya-merciful; nicaya-of the multitudes; shirah-the crest; manau-jewel; tasmin-in Him; virajamane-being manifested; api-even; adya-now; api-even; jivah-the soul; samsara-duhkham-the sufferings of the material world; anubhavanti-experience; iti-thus; atra-here; nairghrinya-mercilnessness; pariharah-removal; ca-and; bhavati-is.
This idea, that the Supreme Personality of Godhead personally suffers is not the truth. The truth is that even though He is aware of all suffering that every occurs, the Supreme Personality of Godhead never feels suffering personally. This is because He is all-powerful. He has the power to do anything, to undo anything, or to change anything into anything else. It is also because He is by His very nature the crest-jewel of all compassionate persons. he does not require to suffer personally in order to feel compassion for others. Thus He is not like the conditioned souls, who require to suffer in the material world before they can feel compassion for others' suffering.
yat tu bhaktanam sukham tat tasya bhakti-rupam eva. tatha tesham duhkham ca bhagavat-prapty-antarayenaiva bhavati. tatra cadhika bhagavaty eva cittardrata jayate. sa ca bhaktir eveti.
yat-what; tu-but; bhaktanam-of devotees; sukham-happiness; tat-that; tasya-of Him; bhakti-rupam-the form of devotional service; eva.-indeed; tatha-so; tesham-of them; duhkham-suffering; ca-and; bhagavat-prapty-antarayena-by obstructing the attainment of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; bhavati.-is; tatra-there; ca-also; adhika-more; bhagavati-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; cittardrata-melting of the heart; jayate.-is born; sa-that; ca-and; bhaktih-devotional service; eva-indeed; iti-thus.
Devotional service brings happiness to the devotees. Obstacles that prevent them from meeting the Supreme Personality of Godhead bring the devotees suffering. When the Lord sees these obstacles, His heart melts with compassion for the devotees. That compassion takes the form of devotional service.
kvacid gajendradinam api prakrita eva duhkhe sa eva mama sharanam ity adina tathaiva bhaktir udbhuteveti. kvacid yamalarjunadishu shri-naradadi-bhaktanam bhaktih sphuöaiveti ca sarvatha dainyatmaka-bhakta-bhakty-anubhava eva tam karunayati. na tu prakritam duhkham. yogye karane satya-yogyasya kalpananaucityat. duhkhas-ambhavasyaiva karanatve sarva-samsarocchitteh.
kvacit-somewhere; gajendradinam-beginning with Gajendra; api-also; prakrita-material; eva-indeed; duhkhe-suffering; sa-that; eva-indeed; mama-of me; sharanam-the shelter; iti-thus; adina-beginning; tatha-so; eva-indeed; bhaktih-devotional service; udbhuteveti.-is manifested; kvacit-somewhere; yamalarjunadishu-beginning with the Yamalarjuna trees; shri-naradadi-bhaktanam-devotees beginning with Shri Narada; bhaktih-devotional service; sphuöa-manifested; eva-indeed; iti-thus; ca-and; sarvatha-in all respects; dainyatmaka-humble at heart; bhakta-devotees; bhakti-of devotional service; anubhava-perception; eva-indeed; tam-that; karunayati-is merciful; na-not; tu-but; prakritam-material; duhkham.-suffering; yogye-appropriate; karane-in doing; satya-yogyasya-appropriate for the truth; kalpana-concpetion; anaucityat-because of being unsuitable; duhkhas-ambhavasya-of the manifestation of suffering; eva-indeed; karanatve-as the cause; sarva-all; samsara-material existence; ucchitteh-of the destruction.
Many devotees, like Gajendra, turn to the Lord when they are troubled by material sufferings. In this condition they pray, "The Supreme Lord is my only shelter", and thus they attain devotional service. Others, like the Yamalarjuna trees, attain devotional service by the mercy of great souls, like Shri Narada. Still others attain devotional service because they are naturally humble. In these ways the Lord gives His mercy and frees them from material sufferings. He does not consider whether they are qualified to receive His mercy or not qualified to receive it. He gives His mercy without restriction. In this way He stops the sufferings of His devotees. He rescues them from the cycle of repeated birth and death.
atha tasya parampara-karanatvam asty eveti ced astu. na kapi hanir iti. tasmad ubhayatha bhaktanandane tad-bhakty-anubhava eva bhagavantam pravartayatiti siddham.
atha-now; tasya-of Him; parampara-of the series; karanatvam-the state of being the cause; asti-is; eva-indeed; iti-thus; cet-of; astu.-is; na-not; kapi-anything; hanih-destruction; iti.-thus; tasmat-therefore; ubhayatha-in both ways; bhaktanandane-in the happiness of the devotees; tad-bhakty-anubhava-the perception of devotional service; eva-indeed; bhagavantam-to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pravartayati-brings; iti-thus; siddham-proved.
If material sufferings had a different cause, they might never come to an end. In this way it is proved that material sufferings and material happiness are meant to bring the soul to the Supreme Lord and to the happiness of devotional service.
tata etad uktam bhavati. yady anyasya sukha-duhkham anubhuyapi tat-parityagenetarasya sukham duhkha-hanim va sampadayati. tadaiva vaishamyam apatati.
tata-therefore; etat-thus; uktam-said; bhavati.-is; yadi-if; anyasya-of another; sukha-duhkham-happiness and suffering; anubhuya-exoperiencing; api-also; tat-parityagena-by rejecting thatl; itarasya-of another; sukham-happiness; duhkha-hanim-destruction fo suffering; va-or; sampadayati-establishes; tada-then; eva-indeed; vaishamyam-problem; apatati-attains.
If the perception of happiness and suffering were something different from this description, then the attainment of happiness and the end of suffering would be attained in a way other than by engaging in devotional service. This conclusion is not at all logical or true.
shri-bhagavati tu prakrita-sukha-duhkhanubhavabhavan na tad apatati. yatha kalpa-tarau. tad uktam shrimad-akrurena
shri-bhagavati-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tu-but; prakrita-sukha-duhkha-of material happiness and suffering; anubhava-experience; abhavat-bercauae of the non-existence; na-not; tat-that; apatati-attains; yatha-as; kalpa-tarau.-a kalpa-vrksa tree; tat-that; uktam-said; shrimad-akrurena-by Shri Akrura.
Thus the conclusion is that the Supreme Personality of Godhead never experiences material happiness or material suffering. He is like a spiritual kalpa-vriksha that fulfills everyone's desires. This is confirmed by Shri Akrura in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.38.22):
na tasya kashcid dayitah suhrittamo
na capriyo dveshya upekshya eva va
tathapi bhaktan bhajate yatha tatha
sura-drumo yadvad upashrito 'rthadah. iti.
na-not; tasya-of Hiom; kashcit-anyone; dayitah-dear; suhrittamah-best friend; na-not; ca-and; apriyah-not dear; dveshya-to ber hated; upekshya-neglected; eva-indeed; va-or; tathapi-still; bhaktan-devotees; bhajate-reciprocates; yatha-ass; tatha-so; sura-drumah-a kalpa-vrksa tree; yadvat-as; upashritah-approached; arthadah.-fulfilling desires; iti.-thus.
"No one is Krishna's dearest friend. No one is His hated enemy. No one is rejected by Him. Still, He reciprocates His devotees' love. To them He is like a kalpa-vriksha tree that fulfills all desires."
atra bhaktad anya eva kashcid iti jneyam. kah panditas tvad aparam sharanam samiyad bhakta-priyadrita-girah suhridah kritajnat ity etat tad-vakyenaiva tat-priyatva-prokteh.
atra-here; bhaktat-from a devotee; anya-another; eva-indeed; kashcit-someone; iti-thus; jneyam-to be understood; kah panditas tvad aparam sharanam samiyad bhakta-priyadrita-girah suhridah kritajnat ity etat tad-vakyena-by the words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.48.26; eva-indeed; tat-priyatva-the dearness of Him; prokteh-said.
Here the word "kashcit" means "a person who is not a devotee". that the Supreme Personality of Godhead dearly loves His devotees is confirmed by these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.48.26):
"My dear Lord, You are very affectionate to Your devotees. You are also a truthful and grateful friend. Where is that learned man who would give You up and surrender to someone else? You fulfill all the desires of Your devotees, so much so that sometimes You even give Yourself to them. Still, You neither increase nor decrease by such activity."*
na hy asyasti priyah kashcin
napriyah svah paro 'pi va
shri-mahadevena-by Lord Shiva; api-also; uktam-said; na-not; hi-indeed; asya-of the Lord; asti-there is; priyah-very dear; kashcin-anyone; na-nor; apriyah-not dear; svah-own; parah-other; api-even; va-or; atmatvat-due to being the soul of the soul; sarva-bhutanam-of all living entities; sarva-bhuta-to all living entities; priyah-very, very dear; harih-Lord Hari.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is equal to all to also confirmed by these words of Lord Shiva (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.17.33-34):
"He holds no one as very dear and no one as inimical. he has no one for His own relative, and no one is alien to Him. He is actually the soul of the soul of all living entities. Thus He is the auspicious friend of all living beings and is very near and dear to all of them.*
tasya cayam maha-bhagas
citraketuh priyo 'nugah
sarvatra sama-drik shanto
hy aham caivacyuta-priyah. iti.
tasya-of Him (the Lord); ca-and; ayam-this; maha-bhagah-The most fortunate; citraketuh-King Citraketu; priyah-beloved; anugah-most obedient servant; sarvatra-everywhere; sama-drik-sees equally; shantah-very peaceful; hi-indeed; aham-I; ca-also; eva-certainly; acyuta-priyah-very dear to Lord Krishna, who never fails; iti-thus.
"The magnanimous Citraketu is a dear devotee of the Lord. He is equal to all living entities and is free from attachment and hatred. Similarly, I am also very dear to Lord Narayana."*
citram tavehita-maho 'mita-yoga-maya-
sarvatmanah sama-drisho 'vishamah sva-bhavo
bhakta-priyo yad asi kalpa-taru-svabhavah. iti.
tatha-so; uktam-said; shri-prahladena-by Shri Prahlada; api-also; citram-very wonderful; tava ihitam-all Your activities; ahah-alas; amita-unlimited; yoga-maya-of Your spiritual potency; lila-by the pastimes;.vishrishöa-bhuvanasya-of Your Lordship, by whom all the universes have been created; visharadasya-of Your Lordship, who are expert in all respects; sarvatmanah-of Your Lordship, who pervade all; sama-drishah-and who are equal toward all; avishamah-without differentiation; sva-bhavah-that is Your characteristic; bhakta-priyah-under the circumstances You become favoirable to the devotees; yat-because; asi-You are; kalpa-taru-svabhavah.-having the characteristic of a desire tree; iti-thus.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is equal to all and is like a desire tree that fulfills His devotees' desires is described by Shri Prahlada is these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 8.23.8):
"O Lord, Your pastimes are all wonderfully performed by Your inconceivable spiritual energy, and by her perverted reflection, the material energy, You have created all the universes. As the Supersoul of all living entities, You are aware of everything, and therefore You are certainly equal toward everyone. Nonetheless, You favor Your devotees. This is not partiality, however, for Your characteristic is like that of a desire tree, which yields everything according to one's desire."*
arthash ca yat tvam bhakta-priyo 'si. so 'si sama-drishas tava svabhavo 'vishamo vishamo na bhavati. tatra hetu-garbha-visheshanam kalpa-taru-svabhava iti. tasmad vishama-svabhavataya pratito 'pi tvayy avaishamyam ity ativa-citram iti.
arthah-the meaning; ca-also; yat-what; tvam-You; bhakta-priyah-dear ot the devotees; asi.-are; sah-He; asi-Youi are; sama-drishah-seeing equally; tava-of You; svabhavah-nature; avishamah-without differentiation; vishamah-differentiation; na-not; bhavati.-is; tatra-here; hetu-garbha-visheshanam-teh adjective; kalpa-taru-svabhava-the nature of a desire tree; iti.-thus; tasmat-from that; vishama-svabhavataya-by the nature of differentiation; pratitah-understood; api-even; tvayi-in You; avaishamyam-without differentiation; iti-thus; ativa-citram-very wonderful; iti-thus.
This verse means: "O Lord, You favor Your devotees (bhakta-priyo 'si), but still You are certainly equal toward everyone (sama-drishah). This is not partiality (avishamah), however, for Your characteristic is like that of a desire tree (kalpa-taru-svabhavah), which yields everything according to one's desire."*
athava paratrapi kalpa-vrkshadi-lakshane samane evashrayaniye vastuni bhakta-paksha-pata-rupa-vaishamya-darshanat tad-vaishamyam api samasyaiva svabhava iti labdhe tad-apariharyam eveti siddhantayitavyam.
athava-or; paratra-in another place; api-also; kalpa-vrkshadi-lakshane-with ther natuire of a desire tree or other like thing; samane-equal; eva-indeed; ashrayaniye-to be taken shelter of; vastuni-substance; bhakta-paksha-pata-taking sides with the devotees; rupa-in the from; vaishamya-paritalisty; darshanat-from seeing; tad-vaishamyam-partiality to them; api-a;lso; samasya-equal; eva-indeed; svabhava-nature; iti-thus; labdhe-attained; tad-apariharyam-not to be removed; eva-indeed; iti-thus; siddhantayitavyam-to be concluded.
In another interpretation of this verse it is understood that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is like a desire tree or other like things and for this reason one should take shelter of Him. Also, He is naturally partial to His devotees, and this partiality to them dopes not at all conflict with His natural impartiality to everyone.
tatash ca vishama-svabhava ity eva vyakhyeyam tatha purvatrapi bhaktan bhajata iti vaishamya eva yojaniyam iti. vastutas tu shri-bhagavaty acintyam aishvaryam eva mukhyas tad-avirodhe hetuh.
tatah-then; ca-and; vishama-svabhava-vishama-svabhava; iti-thus; eva-indeed; vyakhyeyam-to be explained; tatha-so; purvatra-in another place; api-also; bhaktan-the devotees; bhajata-reciprocates; iti-thus; vaishamya-partiality; eva-indeed; yojaniyam-appropriate; iti.-thus; vastutah-in truth; tu-but; shri-bhagavati-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; acintyam-inbconceivable; aishvaryam-opulence; eva-indeed; mukhyah-primary; tad-avirodhe-not contradicting that; hetuh-the reason.
In some readings the word "avishama-svabhavah" (He is naturally impartial) is replaced by "vishama-svabhavah" (He is naturally partial to His devotees). His partiality to them is appropriate because in this way He reciprocates with them (bhaktan bhajate). Because the Lord has inconceivable potencies His impartiality to all and His partiality to His devotees do not contradict each other.
yad uktam namo namas te 'stv rsabhaya satvatam ity adau dvitiyasya caturthe.
yat-what; uktam-said; namo namas te 'stv rsabhaya satvatam ity adau dvitiyasya caturthe-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.4.14.
That the Lord is partial to the devotees is also confirmed by these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.4.14):
"Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto He who is the associate of the members of the Yadu dynasty and who is always a problem for the nondevotees. He is the supreme enjoyer of both the material and spiritual worlds, yet He enjoys His own abode in the spiritual sky. There is no one equal to Him because His transcendental opulence is immeasurable."*
öikayam tad evam vaishamya-pratitav apy adoshatvayacintyam aishvaryam aha iti.
öikayam-in the commentary; tat-that; evam-thus; vaishamya-pratitav-in the knowledge of partiality; api-also; adoshatvaya-being free of fault; acintyam-inconceivable; aishvaryam-opulence; aha-said; iti-thus.
Shrila Shridhara Svami comments:
"Here there is no fault in the Lord's partiality to the devotees, for the Lord has inconceivable powers and opulences."
tad uktam shri-bhishmena
niravadyasya na kvacit
tat-that; uktam-said; shri-bhishmena-by Shri Bhimsa; sarvatmanah-of one who is present in everyone's heart; sama-drishah-of one who is equally kind to one and all; hi-certainly; advayasya-of the Absolute; anahankriteh-free from all material identity of false ego; tat-kritam-everything done by Him; mati-consciousness; vaishamyam-differentiation; niravadyasya-freed from all attachment; na-never; kvacit-at any stage.
That although He is equal to all, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is still partial to His devotees is confirmed by Shri Bhishma in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.9.21-22):
"Being the absolute Personality of Godhead, He is present in everyone's heart. He is equally kind to everyone, and He is free from the false ego of differentiation. Therefore whatever He does is free from material inebriety. He is equibalanced.*
yan me 'sums tyajatah sakshat
krishno darshanam agatah. iti.
tathapi-still; ekanta-unflinching; bhakteshu-unto the devotees; pashya-see here; bhupa-O king; anukampitam-how sympathetic; yan-for which; me-my; asumh-life; tyajatah-ending; sakshat-directly; krishnah-the Personality of Godhead; darshanam-in my view; agatah.-has kindly come; iti.-thus.
"Yet, despite His being equally kind to everyone, He has graciously come before me while I am ending my life, for I am his His unflinching servitor."*
tatha svayam shri-bhagavata
samo 'ham sarva-bhuteshu
na me dveshyo 'sti na priyah
ye bhajanti tu mam bhaktya
mayi te teshu capy aham. iti.
tatha-so; svayam-personally; shri-bhagavata-by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; samah-equally disposed; aham-I; sarva-bhuteshu-to all living entities; na-no one; me-Mine; dveshyah-hateful; asti-is; na-nor; priyah-dear; ye-those; bhajanti-render transcendental service; tu-yet; mam-unto Me; bhaktya-in devotion; mayi-unto Me; te-such persons; teshu-in them; ca-also; api-certainly; aham.-I; iti.-thus.
This partiality to the devotees is confirmed by the Lord Himself in these words (Bhagavad-gita 9.29):
"I envy no one, nor am I partial to anyone. I am equal to all. But whoever renders service unto Me in devotion is a friend, is in Me, and I am also a friend to him."*
tad evam tat-tad-adoshe bhakta-paksha-patasya svarupa-shakti-sara-bhutatve bhakta-vinodartham eva svarupa-shaktyaiva svayam eva ca tat-tad-avatara-lilah karoti bhagavan. tato vishva-palanam tu svayam eva sidhyatiti sthite. na vaidura-prashnas tad-avasthah.
tat-that; evam-thus; tat-tad-adoshe-in these faults; bhakta-paksha-patasya-taking the devotees' side; svarupa-shakti-personal potency; sara-bhutatve-in being the best; bhakta-vinodartham-for the sake of pleasing the devotees; eva-indeed; svarupa-shaktya-with His personal poetncy; eva-indeed; svayam-personally; eva-indeed; ca-also; tat-tad-avatara-lilah-His various incarnations and pastimes; karoti-does; bhagavan.-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tatah-therefore; vishva-palanam-protecting the material universe; tu-indeed; svayam-personally; eva-indeed; sidhyati-proves; iti-thus; sthite.-situated; na-not; vaidura-prashnah-the question of Vidura; tad-avasthah-that situation.
Thus the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not at fault for being partial to His devotees. Actually He manifests His various incarnations and pastimes by His transcendental potency for the purpose of pleasing His devotees. He does not descend to this world in order to protect the material world. That was already established by Vidura's question (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.7.2-7) previously quoted in this book.
atra devadinam prakritataya taih saha lilayam svatas triptata-hanis teshu tad-amshaveshadi-svikarenagre parihartavya. tatha bhakta-vinodaika-prayojanaka-svaira-lila-kaivalyena canyatra raga-dveshabhavan na vaishamyam api. praty uta pitta-dushita-jihvanam khanda vairasya iva tasman nigrahe 'py anubhuyamane tesham dushöatadi-kshapana-lakshanam hitam eva bhavati.
atra-here; devadinam-beginning with the demigods; prakritataya-material; taih-them; saha-with; lilayam-in pastimes; svatah-personally; triptata-satiation; hanih-destruction; teshu-in them; tad-amsha-His part; avesha-entrance; adi-beginning; svikarena-by accepting; agre-in the presence; parihartavya-to be refuted; tatha-so; bhakta-vinodaika-prayojanaka-only for the purpose of pleasing His devotees; svaira-independent; lila-pastimes; kaivalyena-exclusively; ca-also; anyatra-in another place; raga-dveshabhavat-because of the absence of attraction or hatred; na-not; vaishamyam-partiality; api.-also; praty uta-on the contrary; pitta-dushita-jihvanam-of tonguews afflictwed with jaundice; khanda-from sugar candy; vairasya-the absence of taste; iva-like; tasman-from that; nigrahe-in rejection; api-even; anubhuyamane-experiencing; tesham-of them; dushöata-wickedness; adi-beginning with; kshapana-defeating; lakshanam-nature; hitam-auspicious; eva-indeed; bhavati-is.
When He incarnates in the material world, the Lord associates with the material demigods. Because associating with them in His pastimes would ordinarily not be very pleasing to Him, He personally enters them and fills them with devotion. In this way they become acceptable companions for Him and He accepts them. When the Lord accepts the forms of His different incarnations by the agency of His internal potency, He does not lose or change His personality. He is the same person in each incarnation. The Lord incarnates only to please His devotees. Aside from His love for His devotees, He is impartial and equal to all, for He neither hates nor loves anyone. When a person has jaundice, sugar candy tastes bitter. However, eating sugar candy is the cure for jaundice. In the same way the Supreme Lord gives His association to the demons. That association is bitter for them, but it is also the cure for their continued existence in the world of birth and death. In this way the Supreme Lord acts for the demons' welfare.
na hy asya janmano hetuh
karmano va mahi-pate
parasya drashöur atmanah
atra-here; na-not; hi-indeed; asya-of Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); janmanah-of the appearance, or taking birth; hetuh-there is any cause; karmanah-or for the acting; va-either; mahi-pate-O king (Maharaja Pariksit); atma-mayam-His supreme compassion for the fallen souls; vina-without; ishasya-of the supreme controller; parasya-of the Personality of Godhead, who is beyond the material world; drashöuh-of the Supersoul, who witnesses everyone's activities; atmanah-of the Supersouyl of everyone.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead acts so that the conditioned souls may become liberated is confirmed by these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 9.24.57-58):
"O Maharaja Parikshit, but for the Lord's personal desire there is no cause for His appearance, disappearance, or activities. As the Supersoul, He knows everything. Consequently, there is no cause that affects Him, not even the results of fruitive activities.*
yat-whatever; maya-ceshöitam-the laws of material nature enacted by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pumsah-of the living entities; sthiti-duration of life; utpatti-birth; apyayaya-annihilation; hi-indeed; anugrahah-compassion; tan-nivritteh-the creation and manifestation of cosmic energy to stop the repetition of birth and death; atma-labhaya-thus going home, back to Godehad; ca-indeed; ishyate-for this purpose the creation is there.
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead acts through His material energy in the creation, maintenance, and annihilation of this cosmic manifestation just to deliver the living entity by His compassion and stop the living entity's birth, death, and duration of materialistic life. Thus He enables the living being to return home, back to Godhead."*
iti navamanta-stha-shri-shuka-vakyanusarena pralaye linopadher jivasya dharmady-asambhavad upadhi-shrishöy-adina. dharmadi-sampadanenanugraha iti tadiya-öikanusarena ca.
iti-thus; navamanta-stha-shri-shuka-vakyanusarena-according to Shri Sukadeva Gosvami's statement at the end of the ninth canto; pralaye-in annihilation; lina-,erged; upadheh-of the material designation; jivasya-of the individual spirit soul; dharmady-asambhavat-because of the non-manifestation of the material qualities; upadhi-shrishöy-adina.-beginning with ht ecreation of material designations; dharmadi-sampadanena-with the manifestation of material qualities; anugraha-mercy; iti-thus; tadiya-öikanusarena-according to the commentary; ca-also.
According to these words of Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami at the end of Shrimad-Bhagavatam's Ninth Canto, the periodic dissolution of the material cosmos, material forms, and material qualities, and their subsequent re-manifestation are all the mercy of the Lord. This is also confirmed in Shrila Shridhara Svami's commentary.
loke bhavan jagadinah kalayavatirnah
sad-rakshanaya khala-nigrahanaya canyah
kashcit tvadiyam atiyati nidesham isha
kim va janah svakritam icchati tan na vidmah
tatha-so; loke-in the world; bhavan-Your Lordship; jagadinah-the master of thew world; kalaya-with Your plenary portion; avatirnah-incarnated; sad-rakshanaya-to protect the devotees; khala-nigrahanaya-to crush the demons; ca-also; anyah-another; kashcit-someone; tvadiyam-Your; atiyati-transgress; nidesham-order; isha-O Lord; kim-how?; va-or; janah-person; svakritam-personally done; icchati-desires; tan-that; na-not; vidmah-we understand.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead comes to the material world to protect the devotees is confirmed by this prayer in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.70.27):
"My dear Lord, You are the proprietor of all the worlds and You have incarnated Yourself along with Your plenary expansion Lord Balarama. It is said that Your appearance in this incarnation is for the purpose of protecting the faithful and destroying the miscreants. Under the circumstances, how is it possible that miscreants like Jarasandha can put us into such deplorable conditions of life against Your authority? We are puzzled at the situation and cannot understand how it is possible."*
iti jarasandha-baddha-raja-vrinda-nivedane 'pi ishvare tvayi sad-rakshanartham avatirne 'pi ced asmakam duhkham syat tarhi kim anyah kashcid jarasandhadis tvad-ajnam api langhayati. kim ca tvaya rakshyamano 'pi janah sva-karma-duhkham prapnoty eveti na vidmah. na caitad ubhayam api yuktam iti bhavah.
iti-thus; jarasandha-baddha-raja-vrinda-nivedane-in the appeal made by the kinds imprisoned by Karasandha; api-also; ishvare-in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tvayi-in You; sad-rakshanartham-for the purpose of rescuing the devotees; avatirne-descended; api-also; cet-if; asmakam-of us; duhkham-suffering; syat-is; tarhi-then; kim-why?; anyah-another; kashcit-someone; jarasandhadih-beginning with Jarasandha; tvad-ajnam-Your order; api-also; langhayati.-disobeys; kim-why?; ca-also; tvaya-by You; rakshyamanah-protected; api-also; janah-perople; sva-karma-duhkham-the sufferings of their own karma; prapnoti-attains; eva-indeed; iti-thus; na-not; vidmah.-we know; na-not; ca-and; etat-this; ubhayam-both; api-also; yuktam-proper; iti-thus; bhavah.-the meaning
These words are a request sent to the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the kings imprisoned by Jarasandha. Shrila Shridhara Svami gives the following explanation:
"The gist of this verse is: `O Lord, if You have descended to this world to protect the devotees, then why do we suffer so painfully? Why do Jarasandha and others disobey Your orders? Even though You give them protection, why do the people continue to suffer the results of their past karma? We do not understand why this is so? These things are not right.' That is the meaning of this verse."
iti tadiya-öikanusarena ca lilayah svairatve 'pi durghaöa-ghaöani mayaiva tada tada devasuradinam tat-tat-karmodbodha-sandhanam api ghaöayati.
iti-thusd; tadiya-öikanusarena-according to the commentary; ca-and; lilayah-of pastimes; svairatve-in independence; api-also; durghata--ghatani-difficult to understand; maya-maya; eva-indeed; tada tada-thne; devasuradinam-beginning with the demiogds and the deomns; tat-tat-karma-karma; udbodha-sandhanam-seeiking; api-also; ghatayati.-causes.
In this explanation by Shrila Shridhara Svami it is seen that the Supreme Lord is supremely independent and can enjoy pastimes in any way He wishes, and it is also seen that it is very difficult to understand how the powerful maya potency awards to the demigods, demons, and other conditioned souls the results of their past fruitive actions.
yaya sva-sva-karmana prithag eva ceshöamananam jivanam ceshöa-visheshah paraspara-shubhashubha-shakunataya ghaöita bhavantity adikam loke 'pi drishyate.
yaya-by which; sva-sva-karmana-according to their own karma; prithag-specific; eva-indeed; ceshöamananam-acting; jivanam-of individual spirit souls; ceshöa-visheshah-sepcific action; paraspara-mutual; shubha-good; ashubha-and evil; shakunataya-by the omen; ghaöita-done; bhavanti-are; iti-thus; adikam-beginning; loke-in the world; api-also; drishyate-is seen.
By their own actions, the individual spirit souls in the material world bring upon themselves various kinds of good and bad results. That is clearly seen in this world.
yatra tu kvacid esha tal-lila-javam anugantum na shaknoti. tatraiva parameshituh svairata vyakti-bhavati.
yatra-where; tu-indeed; kvacit-somewhere; esha-the maya potency; tal-lila-javam-the force of His pastimes; anugantum-to follow; na-not; shaknoti.-is able; tatra-there; eva-indeed; parameshituh-of the supreme controller; svairata-independence; vyakti-bhavati-manifests.
The maya potency cannot imitate the Supreme Lord's pastimes. The Supreme Lord is completely independent and can do whatever He likes.
yatha guru-putram ihanitam
yatha-as; guru-putram-the guru's son; iha-here; anitam-brought; nija-karma-nibandhanam-the bondage of his own karma; anayasva-bring; maha-raja-O great king; mac-chasana-puraskritah.-by My order; iti-thus; yama-vishayaka-to Yamaraja; shri--bhagavat-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adesha-the order; adau-beginning.
That Yamaraja and his servants are bound to follow the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is seen in these words spoken by Lord Krishna to Yamaraja (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.45.45):
"Some time back you caused the drowning of the son of Our teacher. I order you to return him."*
tatash ca tasyati-virala-pracaratvan na sarvatra krita-hany-akritabhyagama-prasangash ca.
tatah-then; ca-and; tasya-of that; ati-virala-pracaratvat-because of being very rare; na-not; sarvatra-everywhere; krita-hani-departed; akritabhyagama-prasangah-not arrived; ca-and.
Because it is very rare that one will receive a direct order from the Supreme Lord in this way, Yamaraja is not at fault for acting in a way contrary to his ordinary duties.
atha yadi kecid bhaktanam eva dvishanti. tada bbakta-paksha-patantah-patitvad bhagavata seyam tad-dveshe 'pi na doshah. praty uta bhakta-vishayaka-tad-rateh poshakatvena hladini-vritti-bhutanandollasa-vishesha evasau.