|NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Jiva Goswami > Six Sandarbhas > Paramatma-sandarbha > Mangalacarana 1|
tau santoshayata santau
punar etad vivicyate
kritva likhati jivakah
tau-them; santoshayata-pleasing; santau-saintly; shrila-rupa-sanatanau-Shri Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis; dakshinatyena-from south India; bhattena-by Shri Gopala Bhatta Gosvami; punah-again; etat-this; vivicyate-is described; tasya-of him; adyam-original; granthana-lekham-writing; kranta-vyutkranta-various arguments; khanditam-refuting; paryalocya-considering; atha-now; paryayam-systematic arrangement; kritva-doing; likhati-writes; jivakah-Jiva Gosvami.
Shrila Gopala Bhatöa Gosvami, the great philosopher from the southern provinces who greatly pleased Shrila Rupa Gosvami and Shrila Sanatana Gosvami, left many valuable notes that defeat various philosophical misconceptions. Systematically arranging these notes, and considering their content, Jiva Gosvami writes this book.
atha paramatma vivriyate. yadyapi paramatmatvam vaikunöhe 'pi prabhor asti. tad api ca bhagavattangam tat syad ittham jagad-gatam vacyam. tatra tam jagad-gata-jiva-nirupana-purvakam nirupayati dvabhyam
atha-now; paramatma-th Supersoul; vivriyate.-is described; yadyapi-although; paramatmatvam-the nature of the Supersoul; vaikunöhe-in Vaikuntha; api-also; prabhoh-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; asti.-is; tad api-nevertheless; ca-also; bhagavatta-of the nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; angam--a part; tat-that; syat-is; ittham-thus; jagad-gatam-gone to the material world; vacyam.-to be said; tatra-there; tam-that; jagad-gata-gone to the material world; jiva-of the individual spirit soul; nirupana-description; purvakam-previous; nirupayati-dscribes; dvabhyam-with two.
Now the Supersoul will be described. Although the Lord's Supersoul feature is also manifested in the spiritual world of Vaikunöha, it is generally said to that the Supreme Lord's Supersoul expansion is present primarily in the material world. The individual spirit souls and the Supersoul, both present in the material world, are described in the following two verses (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.11.12-13):
kshetrajna eta manasa vibhutir
jivasya maya-racitasya nityah
avirhitah kvapi tirohitash ca
shuddho vicashöe hy avishuddha-kartuh
kshetrajna-the individual soul; eta-all these; manasa-of the mind; vibhutih-different activities; jivasya-of the living entity; maya-racitasya-created by the external material energy; nityah-from time immemorial; avirhitah-sometimes manifested; kvapi-somewhere; tirohitah ca-and not manifested; shuddhah-purified; vicashöe-sees this; hi-certainly; avishuddha-unpurified; kartuh--of the doer.
"The individual soul bereft of Krishna consciousness has many ideas and activities created in the mind by the external energy. They have been existing from time immemorial. Sometimes they are manifest in the wakening state and in the dream state, but during deep sleep (unconsciousness) or trance, they disappear. A person who is liberated in this life (jivan-mukta) can see all these things vividly.*
kshetrajna atma purushah puranah
sakshat svayam-jyotir ajah pareshah
narayano bhagavan vasudevah
kshetrajna-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; atma-all-pervading, present everywhere; purushah-the unrestricted controller, who has unlimited power; puranah-the original; sakshat-perceivable by hearing from the authorities and by direct perception; svayam-personal; jyotih-manifesting His bodily rays (the Brahman effulgence); ajah-never born; pareshah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; narayanah-the resting place of all living entities; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead with six full opulences; vasudevah-the shelter of everything, manifested and nonmanifest; sva-mayaya-by His own potency; atmani-in His own self, or in the ordinary living entities; avadhiyamanah-existing as the controller.
"There are two kinds of kshetrajna: the living entity, as explained above, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is explained as follows. He is the all-pervading cause of creation. He is full in Himself and is not dependent on others. He is perceived by hearing and direct perception. He is self-effulgent and does not experience birth, death, old-age, or disease. He is the controller of all the demigods, beginning with Lord Brahma. He is called Narayana and He is the shelter of living entities after the annihilation of the material world. He is full of all opulences and He is the resting place of everything material. He is therefore known as Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead."*
yah shuddho 'pi mayatah paro 'pi maya-racitasya vakshyamanasya sarva-kshetrasya mayaya kalpitasya manaso 'ntahkaranasyaitah prasiddha vibhutir vrittir vicashöe visheshena pashyati. pashyams tatravishöo bhavati. sa khalv asau jiva-nama sva-sharira-dvaya-lakshana-kshetrasya jnatritvat kshetrajna ucyata ity arthah.
yah-who; shuddhah-pure; api-although; mayatah-maya; parah-above; api-even; maya-racitasya-created by maya; vakshyamanasya-which will be explained; sarva-kshetrasya-of all fields; mayaya-by maya; kalpitasya-created; manasah-of the mind; antahkaranasya-of the mind; etah-they; prasiddha-proved; vibhutih-vibhutis; vrittih-actions; vicashöe-sees; visheshena-specifically; pashyati-sees; pashyamh-seeing; tatra-there; avishöah-entered; bhavati.-is; sa-he; khalv-indeed; asau-he; jiva-nama-called the jiva; sva-sharira-dvaya-lakshana-characterized by two bodies; kshetrasya-of the field; jnatritvat-because of being the knower; kshetrajna-the knower of the field; ucyata-is said; iti-thus; arthah.-the meaning.
This verse means: "Even though he is by nature pure (shuddhah), that is to say beyond the touch of the illusory potency maya, the individual spirit soul sees (vicashöe) the (etah) activities (vibhutih) of the mind (manasah), the mind having been created by the illusory potency maya (maya-racitasya). The mind sees all fields of activity. The mind will be further described later in this book. By seeing these activities, the individual soul, who is called the `jiva', enters into them. Because he thus has knowledge of two different material bodies, the soul is thus called `kshetrajna' (the knower of the field of action)."
yaya sammohito jiva
paro 'pi manute 'nartham
tat-kritam cabhipadyate. iti.
tat-that; uktam-said; yaya-by whom; sammohitah-illusioned; jiva-the living entities; atmanam-self; tri-gunatmakam-conditioned by the three modes of nature, or a product of matter; parah-transcendental; api-in spite of; manute-takes it for granted; anartham-things not wanted; tat-by that; kritam ca-reaction; abhipadyate-undergoes thereof; iti-thus.
The conditioned soul is also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.7.5):
"Due to this external energy, the living entity, although transcendental to the three modes of material nature, thinks of himself as a material product and thus undergoes the reactions of material miseries."*
tasya manasah. kidrishataya maya-racitasya. tatraha jivasya jivopadhitaya jiva-tadatmyena racitasya. tatash ca tat-tayopacaryamanasyety arthah. tatash ca kidrishasya. avishuddham bhagavad-bahirmukham karma karotiti tadrishasya. kidrishir vibhutih. nitya anadita evanugatah. atra ca kada kidrishir ity apekshayam aha jagrat-svapnayor avirbhutah sushuptau tirohitash ceti.
tasya-of that; manasah.-mind; kidrishataya-withwhat?; maya-racitasya.-created by maya; tatra-there; aha-said; jivasya-of the soul; jiva-the soul; upadhitaya-with the designation; jiva-tadatmyena-by the identity of the soul; racitasya.-created; tatah-then; ca-and; tat-that; taya-by that; upacaryamanasya-honored; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning; tatah-then; ca-and; kidrishasya.-like what?; avishuddham-impure; bhagavat-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bahirmukham-outside; karma-deeds; karoti-does; iti-thus; tadrishasya.-like that; kidrishih-like what?; vibhutih-actions; nitya-eternal; anadita-from time immemorial; eva-indeed; anugatah-followed; atra-here; ca-and; kada-when?; kidrishih-like what?; iti-thus; apekshayam-in this matter; aha-said; jagrat-svapnayoh-of waking and dream; avirbhutah-manifested; sushuptau-in dreamless sleep; tirohitah-disappeared; ca-and; iti-thus.
Here someone may ask: "How does the illusory energy maya create (maya-racitasya) the material mind (manasah)?" The answer is given in the word "jivasya", which means by making the individual soul think that the external material body is his true identity".
Then someone may ask: "What happens then?" The answer is that the soul then engages in impure material activities that have no relation to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Then someone may ask: "What are these material activities (vibhutih) like?" The answer is given in the word nityah", which means "they have been existing from time immemorial".
Then someone may ask: "When are these material activities manifested?" The answer is given that they are manifest in the wakening state and in the dream state, but during deep sleep (unconsciousness) or trance, they disappear (tirohitash ca).
yas tu purano jagrat-karana-bhutah purushah adyo 'vatarah purushah parasya ity-adina dvitiyadau prasiddhah.
yah-who; tu-indeed; puranah-ancient; jagrat-karana-bhutah-the creator of the waking state; purushah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adyo 'vatarah purushah parasya ity-adina-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.6.42; dvitiyadau-in the beginning of the Second Canto; prasiddhah-proved.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the creator of the waking state is explained in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.6.42):
"Karanarnavashayi Vishnu is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord, and He is the master of eternal time, space, cause and effects, mind, the elements, the material ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal form of the Lord, Garbhodakashayi Vishnu, and the sum total of all living beings, both moving and nonmoving."*
sakshad eva svayam-jyotih sva-prakashah. na tu jiva-vad anyapekshaya. ajo janmadi-shunayh. paresham brahmadinam apishah. naram jiva-samuhah sva-niyamyatvenayanam yasya sah. bhagavan aishvaryady-amsha-van. bhagavad-amshatvat. vasudevah sarva-bhutanam ashrayah.
sakshat-directly; eva-indeed; svayam-jyotih-self-manifest; sva-prakashah.-self-manifest; na-not; tu-but; jiva-vat-like the individual soul; anya-on others; apekshaya-dependent; ajah-unborn; janmadi-shunayh.-free fo birth and other material changes; paresham-of others; brahmadinam-beginning with the demigod Brahma; api-also; ishah-the master; naram-naram; jiva-samuhah-the aggregate of all spirit souls; sva-niyamyatvena-by controlling; ayanam-the resting place; yasya-of whom; sah.-He; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; aishvarya-opulences; adi-beginning; amsha-parts; van-possessing; bhagavad-amshatvat-becauyse of being a part and parcel fo the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vasudevah-Vasudeva; sarva-bhutanam-of all living entities; ashrayah-the shelter.
Here (in the verse quoted in text 3) the word svayam-jyotih" means "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is mnifested according to His own wish". This means that the Supreme Lord is not like the individual souls, who are dependent on others. The word "ajah" means that the Lord is free of material birth and other material transformations. The word "pareshah" means that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is master of Brahma and all other living beings. The word "narayanah" means that because He is the supreme controller, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is also the resting place (ayana) of all living entities (nara). The word "bhagavan" means that the Lord is the master of all opulences. The word "vasudevah" means that the Lord is the shelter of all living entities.
sva-mayaya sva-rupa-shaktya atmani sva-svarupe avadhiyamano 'vasthapyamanah. karma-kartri-prayogah. mayayam mayike 'py antaryamitvena pravishöo 'pi svarupa-shaktya svarupa-stha eva. na tu tat-samshakta ity arthah. vasudevatvena sarva-kshetra-jnatritvat so 'parah. maya-mohito jivo maya-rahitah shuddhah kshetrajna atma paramatmeti.
sva-mayaya-sba-mayaya; sva-rupa-shaktya-by His internal potency; atmani-atmani; sva-svarupe-in His own transcendental form; avadhiyamanah-avadhiyamanah; avasthapyamanah-being established; karma-kartri-prayogah-the instrumental case; mayayam-in maya; mayike-in the workd created by maya; api-also; antaryamitvena-as the Supersoul; pravishöah-entered; api-also; svarupa-shaktya-by His internal potency; svarupa-stha-situated in Himself; eva.-indeed; na-not; tu-but; tat-samsakta-attached to that; iti-thus; arthah.-the meaning; vasudevatvena-as Vasudeva; sarva-kshetra-jnatritvat-because of being the knower of all fields; sah-He; aparah-without superior; maya-mohitah-bewilderdd by maya; jivah-the individual spirit soul; maya-rahitah-without maya; shuddhah-pure; kshetrajna-knower of the firld; atma-the Soul; paramatmathe Supersoul; iti-thus.
The words "sva-mayaya atmani avadhiyamanah" mean "by His own internal potency (sva-mayaya) He has manifested (avadhiyamanah) the world within Himself (atmani)". Therefore in this passage the Lord is in the instrumental case. Thus the Lord enters the world created by the illusory potency maya and, by the power of His own internal potency, there He manifests His spiritual form of the Supersoul. However, He never becomes attached to that world of maya. That is the meaning. Here the Lord is called "vasudevah" because He is the knower of all fields of activities, and therefore no one is superior to Him. The individual spirit soul is bewildered by the illusory potency maya, but the Supersoul (kshetrajna atma) is never bewildered by maya. He is always pure.
tad evam api mukhyam kshetrajnatvam paramatmany eva. tad uktam sarvam puman veda gunamsh ca taj-jno na veda sarvajnam anantam ide iti.
tat-that; evam-thus; api-also; mukhyam-primary; kshetrajnatvam-the state oif being the knower of the field of activity; paramatmani-in the Supersoul; eva.-indeed; tat-that; uktam-said; sarvam puman veda gunamsh ca taj-jno na veda sarvajnam anantam ide iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.4.24.
Thus the primary meaning here is that the Supersoul is the knower of all fields of activity. This is described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (6.4.25):
"Nevertheless, the living being is unable to see the Supreme Being, who is omniscient and unlimited. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto Him."*
idam shariram kaunteya
kshetram ity abhidhiyate
etad yo vetti tam prahuh
kshetrajnam iti tad-vidah
tatha-so; shri-gitopanishatsu-in Shri Bhagavad-gita 13.2; idam-this; shariram-body; kaunteya-O son of Kunti; kshetram-the field; iti-thus; abhidhiyate-is called; etat-this; yah-anyone; vetti-knows; tam-him; prahuh-is called; kshetrajnam-knower of the body; iti-thus tad-vidah-one who knows.
This is also described in Bhagavad-gita (13.2-3), where the Supreme Personality of Godhead explains:
"This body, O son of Kunti, is called the field, and one who knows this body is called the knower of the field.*
kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi
yat taj jnanam matam mama. iti.
kshetrajnam-the knower; ca-also; api-certainly; mam-Me; viddhi-know; sarva-all; kshetreshu-in bodily fields; bharata-O son of Bharata; kshetra-field of activities (the body; kshetrajnayoh-the knower of the field; jnanam-knowledge; yat-that which is taught; taj-that; jnanam-knowledge; matam-opinion; mama.-My; iti-thus.
"O scion of Bharata, you should understand that I am also the knower in all bodies, and to understand this body and its owner is called knowledge. That is My opinion."*
atra khalu kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi iti sarveshv api kshetreshu mam ca kshetrajnam viddhi. na tu jivam iva sva-sva-kshetra evety artha iti. na ca jiveshayoh samanadhikaranyena nirvishesha-cid-vastv eva jneyataya nirdishati. sarva-kshetreshu ity asya vaiyarthyapatteh.
atra-here; khalu-indeed; kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi iti-the words "kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi"; sarveshu-in all; api-even; kshetreshu-fields; mam-Me; ca-and; kshetrajnam-the knower of the firld; viddhi.-know; na-not; tu-but; jivam-the individual spirit soul; iva-like; sva-sva-kshetre-their own fields; eva-indeed; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning; iti.-thus; na-not; ca-also; jiva-of the individual soul; ishayoh-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; samanadhikaranyena-by equality; nirvishesha-without variety; cit-spiritual; vastv-substance; eva-indeed; jneyatayaby what is to be known; nirdishati-indicates; sarva-kshetreshu-in all fields; iti-thus; asya-of Him; vaiyarthya-useless; apatteh-because of the improper conclusion.
Here the words "kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi", which in prose order become "mam ca kshetrajnam viddhi", mean "I am also the knower in all bodies". Thus the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not at all like the individual spirit soul, for the individual soul knows his own body only. That is the meaning. Therefore one should not accept the impersonalist theory, which states that the individual soul and the Supreme Personality of Godhead are equal. The impersonalist interpretation of the words sarva-kshetreshu" here is complete nonsense.
jneyam yat tat pravakshyami ity-adina. sarvatah pani-padam tat sarvato 'kshi-siro-mukham ity-adina ca sa-visheshasya nirdekshyamanatvat.
jneyam yat tat pravakshyami ity-adina-in Bhagavad-gita 13.12; sarvatah pani-padam tat sarvato 'kshi-siro-mukham ity-adina-in Bhagavad-gita 13.13; ca-also; sa-visheshasya-the personalist idea, that They are different; nirdekshyamanatvat-because it will be shown.
This is so because the personalist idea, that the individual soul and the Supersoul are different, will be affirmed in these words of Bhagavad-gita (13.12-13):
"I shall now explain the knowable. knowing which you will taste the eternal. This is beginningless and it is subordinate to Me. It is called Brahman, the spirit, and it lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.*
"Everywhere are His hands and legs, His eyes and faces, and He hears everything. In this way the Supersoul exists."*
amanitvam ity-adina jnanasya ca tathopadekshyamanatvat.
amanitvam ity-adina-Bhagavad-gita 13.8; jnanasya-of knowledge; ca-also; tatha-so; upadekshyamanatvat-because of what will be taught.
Further evidence that the personalist idea is correct is given by the Supreme Lord Himself when He defines the true meaning of knowledge in these words (Bhagavad-gita 13.8-12):
"Humility, pridelessness, non-violence, tolerance, simplicity, approaching a bona fide spiritual master, cleanliness, steadiness and self-control, renunciation of the objects of sense gratification, absence of false ego, the perception of the evil of birth, death, old-age, and disease, non-attachment to children, wife, home, and the rest, and evenmindedness amid pleasant and unpleasant events, constant and unalloyed devotion to Me, resorting to solitary places, detachment from the general mass of people, accepting the importance of self-realization, and philosophical search for the Absolute Truth-all these I thus declare to be knowledge, and what is contrary to these is ignorance."*
kim ca kshetrajnam capi ity atra tat tvam asi itivat samanadhikaranyena tan-nirvishesha-jnane vivakshite kshetra-kshetrajnayor jnanam ity evanudyate. na tu kshetra-kshetrajnayor jnanam iti.
kim ca-furthermore; kshetrajnam capi iti-these words; atra-here; tat-that; tvam-you; asi-are; iti-thus; vat-like; samanadhikaranyena-by equality; tan-nirvishesha-in the absence of distinction; jnane-in knowledge; vivakshite-desired to be said; kshetra-kshetrajnayor jnanam iti-these words; eva-indeed; anudyate-is said; na-not; tu-but; kshetra-kshetrajnayor jnanam iti-these words.
However, if in Bhagavad-gita 13.3 the Supreme Lord had wished to teach that the individual souls are not different from Him, and if this Gita passage were then like the Chandogya Upanishad's (6.8.7) declaration "tat tvam asi" (You are that), then the Lord would have said kshetrajneshvarayor jnanam" (to understand the two knowers of this body, who are both the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is called knowledge). He would not have said what He actually did say: "kshetrajnayor jnanam" (to understand this body and its owner is called knowledge).
kintu kshetra-kshetrajnayor ity asyayam arthah. dvi-vidhayor api kshetra-kshetrajnayor yaj-jnanam tan mamaiva jnanam matam. anyarthash ca paramarshah iti nyayena maj-jnanaika-tatparyakam ity arthah. jneyasyaikatvenaiva nirdishöatvad yogyatvac ca.
kintu-however; kshetra-kshetrajnayoh-of the field and the knower of the field; iti-thus; asya-of this; ayam-this; arthah.-the meaning; dvi-vidhayoh-of two kinds; api-also; kshetra-kshetrajnayoh-of the field and the knower of the field; yaj-jnanam-which knowledge; tat-that; mama-of Me; eva-indeed; jnanam-knowledge; matam.-the opinion; anyarthash ca paramarshah iti nyayena-by Vedanta-sutra 1.3.20; maj-jnana-knowledge of Me; eka-only; tatparyakam-the meaning; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning; jneyasya-of the object of knowledge; ekatvena-by being one; eva-indeed; nirdishöatvat-because of being taught; yogyatvat-because of the propriety; ca.-also.
Here is the true meaning of the words "kshetra-kshetrajnayoh": "To understand the two different persons who know this body is called knowledge. That is My opinion." This is also confirmed in the following words of Shri Vedanta-sutra (1.3.21):
anyarthash ca paramarshah
"The meaning here is that the individual soul is different from the Supreme."
Thus, ultimately, the Supreme Lord says here: "True knowledge is knowledge of Me". This is so because here a single object of knowledge is described. That is the proper understanding.
na ca nirishvara-sankhya-vat kshetra-kshetrajna-matra-vibhagad atra jnanam matam. mam ity aneneshvarasyapekshitatvat. na ca vivarta-vada-vad ishvarasyapi bhrama-matra-pratita-purushatvam. tad-vacana-lakshana-sa-veda-gitadi-shastranam apramanyat bauddha-vadapatteh. tasyam ca satyam bauddhanam iva vivarta-vadinam tad-vyakhyanayukteh.
na-not; ca-also; nirishvara-sankhya-vat-like thatheistic sankhya theory; kshetra-kshetrajna-of the field and the knower of the field; matra-only; vibhagat-because of the distinction; atra-here; jnanam-knowledge; matam.-considered; mam-Me; iti-thus; anena-by this; ishvarasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; apekshitatvat-because of being in relationto; na-not; ca-also; vivarta-vada-vat-like the impersonalist theory of transformation; ishvarasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; api-even; bhrama-bewilderment; matra-only; pratita-believed; purushatvam-the status of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tad-vacana-by those words; lakshana-characterized; sa-with; veda-the Vedas; gita-the Bhagavad-gita; adi-beginning with; shastranam-of scriptures; apramanyat-because of not prividing evidence; bauddha-vadapatteh-of the theory of the Buddhists; tasyam-in that; ca-also; satyam-truth; bauddhanam-of the Buddhists; iva-like; vivarta-vadinam-of the impersonalists; tad-vyakhyana-of that interpretation; ayukteh-becausze of being illogical.
The knowledge here is not like the atheistic sankhya theory, which accepts only the individual soul and the field of the soul's perception. The reason is given here in the word mam" (Me). With this word the Supreme Personality of Godhead affirms that He Himself is the proper object of knowledge. Nor is the knowledge described here like the impersonalists' theory that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is an illusion and only foolish people believe that the Supreme Personality of Godhead really exists. This idea of the impersonalists is not supported by the Vedas, Bhagavad-gita, and other scriptures, for this idea is the same as the idea of the Buddhists. The impersonalists and the Buddhists actually share the same philosophy, a philosophy that is wildly illogical.
na ca tasya satya-purushatve 'pi nirvishesha-jnanam eva moksha-sadhanam iti tadiya-shastrantaratah samaharyam. evam satata-yukta ye ity-adi purvadhyaye nirvishesha-jnanasya heyatvena vivakshitatvat.
na-not; ca-also; tasya-of that; satya-truth; purushatve-in personality; api-also; nirvishesha-jnanam-the impersonlist theory; eva-indeed; moksha-sadhanam-the way to attain liberation; iti-thus; tadiya-of that; shastra-scriptures; antaratah-from within; samaharyam-to be collected; evam satata-yukta ye ity-adi-Bhagavad-gita 12.1; purvadhyaye-in the previous chapter; nirvishesha-jnanasya-of the impersonalist theory; heyatvena-the status of being worthy to be rejected; vivakshitatvat-because of desiring to say.
Many quotes may be gathered from the scriptures to prove that the impersonalist idea of the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not lead to final liberation. For example, in the previous chapter of Bhagavad-gita it is said that the impersonalist theory should be rejected. There it is said (Bhagavad-gita 12.1-2):
"Arjuna inquired: Which is considered to be more perfect: those who are properly engaged in Your devotional service, or those who worship the impersonal Brahman, the unmanifested?*
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: He whose mind is fixed on My personal form, always engaged in worshiping Me with great and transcendental faith, is considered by Me to be most perfect."*
tatraiva ca ye tu sarvani karmani ity-adinananya-bhaktan uddishya tesham aham samuddharta mrityu-samsara-sagarat ity anena taj-jnanapekshapi nadriteti.
tatraiva ca ye tu sarvani karmani ity-adinananya-bhaktan uddishya tesham aham samuddharta mrityu-samsara-sagarat ity anena taj-jnanapekshapi nadriteti.
The impersonalist theory is also criticized in these words spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself (Bhagavad-gita 12.6-7):
"For one who worships Me, giving up all his activities unto Me and being devoted to Me without deviation, engaged in devotional service and always meditating upon Me, who has fixed his mind upon Me, O son of Pritha, for him I am the swift deliverer from the ocean of birth and death."*
tad uktam ekadashe svayam-bhagavata yat karmabhir yat tapasa ity adi.
tad uktam ekadashe svayam-bhagavata yat karmabhir yat tapasa ity adi-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.20.32-33.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead again criticizes it in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.20.32-33):
"Everything that can be achieved by fruitive activities, penance, knowledge, detachment, mystic yoga, charity, religious duties, and all other means of perfecting life is easily achieved by My devotee through loving service unto Me. If somehow or other My devotee desires promotion to heaven, liberation, or residence in My abode, he easily achieves such benedictions."***
ya vai sadhana-sampattih
taya vina tad apnoti
naro narayanashrayah. iti.
moksha-dharme-in the Moksa-dharma; ca-and; ya-which; vai-indeed; sadhana-sampattih-the result of religious practice; purushartha-the goal of life; catushöaye-fourfold; taya-by that; vina-without; tat-that; apnoti-attains; narah-a person; narayanashrayah.-who has taken shewlter of Lord Narayana; iti-thus.
This is also confirmed by the following words of Shri Moksha-dharma:
"A person who takes shelter of Lord Narayana attains the four goals of life. He does not need to perform any other spiritual activities other than taking shelter of the Lord."
atra tu purvadhyaya-vishlaghitam tad evavritha-kartum sa-visheshataya nirdishya
atra-here; tu-but; purvadhyaya-the previous chapter; vishlaghitam-praised; tat-that; eva-indeed; avritha-not useless; kartum-to make; sa-visheshataya-with the personalist idea of spiritual variety; nirdishya-indicating.
So the previous chapter's (Chapter 12 of Bhagavad-gita) praise of the personal conception of God shall not go in vain, the Supreme Personality of Godhead again praises the personalist idea in these words (Bhagavad-gita 13.8):
iti kshetram tatha jnanam
jneyam coktam samasatah
mad-bhakta etad vijnaya
iti-thus; kshetram-field of activities (the body); tatha-also; jnanam-knowledge; jneyam-knowable; ca-also; uktam-describe; samasatah-in summary; mad-bhaktah-My devotee; etat-allthis; vijnaya-after understanding; mad-bhavaya-My nature; upapadyate-attains.
"Thus the field of activities (the body), knowledge, and the knowable have been summarily described by Me. Only My devotees can understand this thoroughly and thus attain to My nature."*
ity antena bhakti-samvalitataya sukarartha-prayam kritam. ata evatra vyashöi-kshetrajna eva bhaktatvena nirdishöah. samashöi-kshetrajnas tu jneyatveneti kshetra-kshetrajna-jnanabhyam saha jneyasya paöhad anusmarya tad-anantaram ca tasya tasya ca jivatvam ishvaratvam ca ksharam neti darshitam.
iti-thus; antena-ending; bhakti-samvalitataya-mixed with devotional service; sukarartha-prayam-easily done; kritam-done; ata eva-therefore; atra-here; vyashöi-the individual; kshetrajna-knower of the field; eva-indeed; bhaktatvena-as a devotee; nirdishöah.-is indicated; samashöi-cumulative; kshetrajnah-knower of the field; tu-indeed; jneyatvena-as the object of knowledge; iti-thus; kshetra-kshetrajna-of the field and the knower of the field; jnanabhyam-both kinds of knowledge; saha-with; jneyasya-of the object of knowledge; paöhat-from the description of scripture; anusmarya-from the smrti-sastra; tat-that; anantaram-after; ca-also; tasya-of that; tasya-of that; ca-also; jivatvam-the nature of the individual spirit soul; ishvaratvam-the nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ca-also; ksharam-the fallible; na-not; iti-thus; darshitam-shown.
Thus it is explained that by engaging in devotional service one may easily understand all this. The knower of one field of activities (body) is the individual soul, the devotee of the Lord. The knower of all fields of activities (bodies) is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the object of knowledge for the individual souls. The truth about the field of activities (the body) and the knower of the field (the spirit soul) should be understood by studying the scriptures. The individual spirit soul is thus one person and the Supreme Personality of Godhead is a different person. The scriptures reveal that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is never fallible.
purushah prakriti-stho hi
bhunkte prakriti-sthan gunan
karanam guna-sango 'sya
yatah-because; purushah-the living entity; prakriti-sthah-being situated in the material energy; hi-certainly; bhunkte-enjoys; prakriti-sthan-produced by the material nature; gunan-modes fo nature; karanam-cause; guna-sangah-association with the modes of nature; asya-of the living entity; sad-asat-good and bad; yoni-species of life; janmasu-birth.
The fallible individual spirit soul who resides in the material world is described in these words of Bhagavad-gita (13.22):
"The living entity in material nature thus follows the ways of life, enjoying the three modes of nature. This is due to his association with the material nature. Thus he meets with good and evil amongst various species."*
iti jivasya prakriti-sthatvam nirdishya svatas tasyaprakritatva-darshanaya sphuöam evaksharatvam jnapitam
iti-thus; jivasya-of the individual soul; prakriti-sthatvam-the situation in the material world; nirdishya-describing; svatah-personally; tasya-of him; aprakritatva-the situation beyond the material world; darshanaya-to reveal; sphuöam-clearly; eva-indeed; aksharatvam-infallibility; jnapitam-taught.
In this way the individual soul in the material world is described. To reveal the truth about the world beyond the realm of matter, the eternal and infallible Supreme Lord is described in these words (Bhagavad-gita 13.23):
bharta bhokta maheshvarah
paramatmeti capy ukto
dehe 'smin purushah parah
upadrashöa-overseer; anumanta-permitter; ca-also; bharta-master; bhokta-supreme enjoyer; maheshvarah-the Supreme Lord; paramatma-Supersoul; iti-thus; ca-and; api-also; uktah-is said; dehe-in this body; asmin-this; purushah-enjoyer; parah-transcendental.
"Yet in this body there is another, a transcendental enjoyer, who is the Lord, the supreme proprietor, who exists as the overseer and permitter, and who is known as the Supersoul."*
iti jivat paratvena nirdishöasya paramatmakhya-purushasya tu kaimutyenaiva tad darshitam
iti-thus; jivat-to the individual soul; paratvena-superior; nirdishöasya-explained; paramatmakhya-called the Supersoul; purushasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tu-but; kaimutyenaiva-how much greater?; tat-that; darshitam-revealed.
Superior to the individual soul is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appears here in a form called "Paramatma" (the Supersoul). How much is the Supersoul superior to the individual soul? The Bhagavad-gita (15.16-17) reveals:
dvav imau purushau loke
ksharash cakshara eva ca
ksharah sarvani bhutani
kuöa-stho 'kshara ucyate
dvau-two; imau-in this (world); purushau-living entities; loke-in the world; ksharah-fallible; ca-and; akshara-infallible; eva-certainly; ca-and; ksharah-the fallible; sarvani-all; bhutani-living entities; kuöa-sthah-in oneness; akshara-infallible; ucyate-is said.
"There are two classes of beings, the fallible and the infallible. In the material world every entity is fallible, and in the spiritual world every entity is called infallible.*
uttamah purushas tv anyah
yo loka-trayam avishya
bibharty avyaya ishvarah
uttamah-the best; purushah-personality; tv-but; anyah-another; parama-the supreme; atma-Self; iti-thus; udahritah-said; yah-one who; loka-of the universe; trayam-the three divisions; avishya-entering; bibharti-maintaining; avyaya-inexhaustible; ishvarah-the Lord.
"Besides these two, there is the greatest living personality, the Lord Himself, who has entered into these worlds and is maintaining them."*
ity atra jivasyapy aksharatvam kanöhoktam eva. tatropadrashöa parama-sakshi. anumanta tat-tat-karmanurupah pravartakah. bharta poshakah. bhokta palayita. maheshvarah sarvadhikarta. paramatma sarvantaryamiti vyakhyeyam.
iti-thus; atra-here; jivasya-of the individual soul; api-also; aksharatvam-infallibility; kanöhoktam-personal testimony; eva-indeed; tatra-there; upadrashöa-upadrasta; parama-sakshi.-supreme witnes; anumanta-anumanta; tat-tat-karmanurupah-in relation to various activities; pravartakah-the instigator; bharta-bharta; poshakah.-the maintainer; bhokta-bhokta; palayita.-the protector; maheshvarah-mahesvara; sarvadhikarta-the controller of all; paramatma-paramatma; sarvantaryami-who resides in everyone's heart; iti-thus; vyakhyeyam.-to be explained.
In these words the Lord Himself declares that the individual spirit soul is also infallible. In Bhagavad-gita 13.23, upadrashöa" means "the supreme witness", anumanta" means "the permitter of various activities", "bharta" means "the maintainer", "bhokta" means "the protector", maheshvarah" means "the ruler of all", paramatma" means "the Supersoul who resides in the hearts of all".
uttara-padyayos tu kuöasthah eka-rupataya tu yah kala-vyapi sa kuöasthah ity amara-koshad avagatarthah. asau shuddha-jiva eva uttamah purushas tv anyah ity uttarat.
uttara-padyayoh-in the next two verses; tu-indeed; kuöasthah-kutastha; eka-rupataya-with one form; tu-indeed; yah-who; kala-time; vyapi-pervading; sa-he; kuöasthah-kutastha; iti-thus; amara-koshat-from Amara-kosa; avagatarthah.-the meaning is understood; asau-this; shuddha-pure; jiva-soul; eva-indeed; uttamah-superior; purushah-person; tv-indeed; anyah-another; iti-thus; uttarat-from the better.
In the following two verses (Bhagavad-gita 15.16-17) the word "kuöasthah" is defined by the Amara-kosha dictionary in these words:
"The word `kuöasthah' means `He whose form does not change in the course of time'."
The "kuöasthah" is thus the pure, liberated individual soul. The Lord then says "uttamah purushas tv anyah" (Above even the liberated soul is the greatest living personality, the Lord Himself).
tad evam atrapi kshetra-kshetrajna-sarva-kshetrajna uktah. atra cottarayor anya ity anena bhinnayor eva sator aksharayor na tat-tad-rupata-parityagah sambhaved iti na kadacid api nirvishesha-rupenavasthitir iti darshitam.
tat-that; evam-thus; atra-here; api-also; kshetra-kshetrajna-of the field and the knower ofthe field; sarva-kshetrajna-the knower of all fields; uktah.-said; atra-here; ca-and; uttarayoh-in the following two; anya-another; iti-thus; anena-by this; bhinnayoh-different; eva-indeed; satoh-of the two beings; aksharayoh-infallible; na-not; tat-tad-rupata-the various forms; parityagah-abandonment; sambhavet-may be; iti-thus; na-not; kadacit-ever; api-also; nirvishesha-rupenavasthitih-the situation of having a form without qualities; iti-thus; darshitam-revealed.
In this way the field of activities (the body), the knower of that field, and the knower of all fields (all bodies) are described. In the following two verses (Bhagavad-gita 15.16-17) the word "anyah" (another) indicates that there are two distinct infallible beings. Thus in liberation the individual soul does not become formless. Thus it is revealed that the Supreme and the individual soul are never formless.
tasmat mad-bhavayopapadyate iti yad uktam. tad api tat-sarishöi-prapti-tatparyakam. tad evam dvayor aksharatvena samye 'pi jivasya hina-shaktitvat prakrity-avishöasya tan-nivritty-artham ishvara eva bhajaniyatvena jneya iti bhavah.
tasmat-therefore; mad-bhavayopapadyate-"mad-bhavayopapadyate"; iti-thus; yat-which; uktam.-said; tat-that; api-also; tat-of Him; sarishöi-the liberation of possessing opulences like those of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prapti-attainment; tatparyakam-the meaning; tat-that; evam-thus; dvayoh-of both; aksharatvena-with infallibility; samye-in equality; api-even; jivasya-of the individual spirit soul; hina-without; shaktitvat-because of the nature of potency; prakriti-into matter; avishöasya-entered; tan-nivritty-artham-for the sake of renouncing that; ishvara-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; bhajaniyatvena-because of being the object of worship; jneya-to be known; iti-thus; bhavah-the meaning.
Although the Lord clearly says (Bhagavad-gita 13.19) mad-bhavayopapadyate" (the devotees attain to My nature), the meaning here is that the devotees attain transcendental opulences like those of the Lord Himself, not that they become the Lord. Although the Lord and the individual soul are both equally infallible, the individual soul is not as powerful as the Lord. That is why the individual soul is trapped in the material world and why, in order to become free of that trap of material existence, the individual soul must worship the Supreme Lord. That is the meaning.
tasmat idam shariram ity adikam punar ittham vivecaniyam. idam iti sva-svaparoksham ity arthah. sharira-kshetrayor ekaikatvena grahanam atra vyakti-paryavasanena jati-puraskarenaiveti gamyate sarva-kshetreshu iti bahu-vacanenanuvadat.
tasmat-therefore; idam shariram ity adikam-Bhagavad-gita 13.2; punah-again; ittham-thus; vivecaniyam-to be considered; idam-idam; iti-thus; sva-svaparoksham-visible; iti-thus; arthah.-the meaning; sharira-of the body; kshetrayoh-of the two fields; ekaikatvena-with oneness; grahanam-to be accepted; atra-here; vyakti-manifestation; paryavasanena-with the determination; jati-birth; puraskarena-placing first; eva-indeed; iti-thus; gamyate-is attained; sarva-kshetreshu-in all fields; iti-thus; bahu-vacanena-by the the plural number; anuvadat-from the statement.
Let us now consider again the statement of Bhagavad-gita 13.2 ("This body, O son of Kunti, is called the field, and one who knows this body is called the knower of the field."*). The word "idam" (this) means "this thing that is directly perceived". The word "sarva-kshetreshu" (in all bodies) in Bhagavad-gita 13.3 is plural because the conditioned soul in the material accepts many sets of two material bodies, one after another.
Note: The conditioned soul has two material bodies: 1. the subtle body of mind, intelligence and false ego, and 2. the gross body of senses and limbs.
etad yo vetti ity atra deho 'savo 'ksha manavah ity adau sarvam puman veda gunamsh ca taj-jnah ity ukta-disha kshetrajna eta manaso vibhutih ity ukta-disha ca janatity arthah.
etad yo vetti ity atra-in Bhagavad-gita 13.2; deho 'savo 'ksha manavah ity adau sarvam puman veda gunamsh ca taj-jnah ity ukta-disha-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 6.4.25; kshetrajna eta manaso vibhutih ity ukta-disha-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.11.12-13; ca-also; janati-knows; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
These statements of Bhagavad-gita 13.2 are confirmed by the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (6.4.25):
"Because they are only matter, the body, the life airs, the external and internal senses, the five gross elements, and the subtle sense objects (form, taste, smell, sound, and touch) cannot know their own nature, the nature of the other senses, or the nature of their controllers. But the living being, because of his spiritual nature, can know his body, the life airs, the senses, the elements, and the sense objects, and he can also know the three qualities that form their roots. Nevertheless, although the living being is completely aware of them, he is unable to see the Supreme Being, who is omniscient and unlimited. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto Him."*
These statements are again confirmed by these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.11.12-13):
"The individual soul bereft of Krishna consciousness has many ideas and activities created in the mind by the external energy. They have been existing from time immemorial. Sometimes they are manifest in the wakening state and in the dream state, but during deep sleep (unconsciousness) or trance, they disappear. A person who is liberated in this life (jivan-mukta) can see all these things vividly.*
"There are two kinds of kshetrajna: the living entity, as explained above, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is explained as follows. He is the all-pervading cause of creation. He is full in Himself and is not dependent on others. He is perceived by hearing and direct perception. He is self-effulgent and does not experience birth, death, old-age, or disease. He is the controller of all the demigods, beginning with Lord Brahma. He is called Narayana and He is the shelter of living entities after the annihilation of the material world. He is full of all opulences and He is the resting place of everything material. He is therefore known as Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead."*
kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi ity atra mam svayam bhagavantam eva sarveshv api samashöi-vyashöi-rupeshu kshetreshu. na tu purva-kshetrajna-vat nija-nija-kshetra eva kshetrajnam ca viddhiti.
kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi ity atra-in the words ksetrajnam capi mam viddhi; mam-mam; svayam-personally; bhagavantam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; sarveshv-in all; api-also; samashöi-vyashöi-rupeshu-in individual forms and in the totality of all forms; kshetreshu-in fields; na-not; tu-but; purva-kshetrajna-vat-like the previous knower of the field; nija-nija-kshetra-each in his own field; eva-indeed; kshetrajnam-the knower of the field; ca-and; viddhi-please know; iti-thus.
In Bhagavad-gita 13.3 the Supreme Lord's declaration kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi" (You should understand that I am also the knower in all bodies) means that the Supreme Personality of Godhead knows what is happening in every body and in the entire universe as a whole. In this way He is not like the individual spirit souls, who each know only what his happening within his own limited sphere of perception.
tad uktam vishöabhyaham idam kritsnam ekamshena sthito jagat iti.
tad uktam vishöabhyaham idam kritsnam ekamshena sthito jagat iti-Bhagavad-gita 10.42.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead again declares this in these words (Bhagavad-gita 10.42):
"With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire creation."*
yatra gaty-antaram nasti. tatraiva lakshanamaya-kashöam ashriyate. tathapi tena samanadhikaranyam yadi vivakshitam syat tarhi kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi ity etavad eva tam ca mam viddhity etavad eva va procyate. na tu sarva-kshetreshu bharatety adhikam api. kintu kshetrajna eta manaso vibhutih ity adi-vat kshetrajna-dvayam api vaktavyam eva syat. tatha ca brahma-sutram guham pravishöav atmanau hi tad-darshanat iti.
yatra-where; gati-goal; antaram-another; na-not; asti-is; tatra-there; eva-indeed; lakshanamaya-consisting of characteristics; kashöam-difficulty; ashriyate-is attained; tathapi-nevertheless; tena-by this; samanadhikaranyam-equality; yadi-if; vivakshitam-wished to be said; syat-may be; tarhi-then; kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi iti-the words ksetrajnam capi mam viddhi; etavat-like that; eva-indeed; tam-Him; ca-and; mam-Me; viddhi-please know; iti-thus; etavat-like that; eva-indeed; va-or; procyate.-is said; na-not; tu-but; sarva-kshetreshu-in all fields; bharata-O bharata; iti-thus; adhikam-beginning; api.-also; kintu-however; kshetrajna eta manaso vibhutih ity adi-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.11.12; vat-like; kshetrajna-dvayam-two knowers of the field; api-also; vaktavyam-to be said; eva-indeed; syat-may be; tatha-so; ca-and; brahma-sutram-Vedanta-sutra; guham-the cave of the heart; pravishöav-entered; atmanau-two souls; hi-indeed; tad-darshanat-from the description of the scriptures; iti.-thus.
In this passage (Bhagavad-gita 13.3) there is no object other than "mam" (Me). Therefore here it is difficult to reject the direct, literal interpretation and accept instead a secondary, allegorical, round-about interpretation of these words. If one insists on trying to interpret these words in such a way that they may affirm that the individual soul is identical with the Supreme, the only way he can do it is by re-writing the clear statement "kshetrajnam capi mam viddhi" (You should understand that I am also the knower in all bodies) so that it reads instead "kshetrajnam tam capi mam viddhi" (You should understand that the individual soul and I are the knowers in all bodies). However, it is not possible to thus re-write the words of scripture, and thus it is not possible to say that anyone but the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the knower in all bodies, as the words "sarva-kshetreshu bharata" declare. Therefore it must be said that two different persons are knowers of the field of activities This is confirmed by Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.11.12-13 (quoted here in text 37) and it is also confirmed by these words of Vedanta-sutra (1.2.11):
guham pravishöav atmanau hi tad-darshanat iti.
"Two persons reside in the heart, for that is the conclusion of scripture."
tad-vaividhyam eva copasamhritam purushah prakriti-stho hi ity-adina. tasmad upakramarthasyopasamharadhinatvad esha evarthah samanjasah. yathoktam brahma-sutra-kridbhih asad-vyapadean neti cen na dharmantarena vakya-sheshat iti.
tat-that; vaividhyam-variety; eva-indeed; ca-also; upasamhritam-concluded; purushah prakriti-stho hi ity-adina-in Bhagavad-gita 13.22; tasmat-therefore; upakrama-beginning; arthasya-of the meaning; upasamhara-conclusion; adhinatvat-because of dependence; esha-this; eva-indeed; arthah-the meaning; samanjasah-properly; yatha-as; uktam-said; brahma-sutra-kridbhih-by the distinguished author of Vedanta-sutra; asat-non-existence; vyapadeat-because of the teaching; na-not; iti-thus; cet-if; na-not; dharma-nature; antarena-by another; vakya-of the words; sheshat-because of the remainder; iti-thus.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the individual spirit soul are different persons may be inferred by this description of the conditioned soul (Bhagavad-gita 13.22):
"The living entity in material nature thus follows the ways of life, enjoying the three modes of nature. This is due to his association with that material nature. Thus he meets with good and evil amongst various species."*
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the individual spirit soul are different persons is explained again and again in all the scriptures, from the beginning to the end. For example, the author of Vedanta-sutra (Vedanta-sutra 2.1.17) declares:
"If someone says that the individual soul and the Supreme are not different, then I reply: No. That cannot be so, for all the scriptures declare that they have very different natures."
atha kshetra-kshetrajnayor jnanam ity atra yat kshetre jnanendriya-gatam tenagatam ca jnanam darshayishyate. yac ca purvatra-kshetrajne nija-nija-kshetra-jnanam darshitam. tat-tan-maj-jnanamshasya kshetreshu chaya-rupatvat kshetrajneshu yat kincid amshamshataya pravean mamaiva jnanam matam iti. tasmat sadhuktam mukhyam kshetrajnatvam paramatmany eveti.
atha-now; kshetra-kshetrajnayor jnanam ity atra-in Bhagavad-gita 13.3; yat-what; kshetre-in the field of activities; jnanendriya-to the knowledge-acquiring senses; gatam-gone; tena-by that; agatam-arrived; ca-and; jnanam-knowledge; darshayishyate-will be shown; yat-what; ca-and; purvatra-in the previous place; kshetrajne-in the knower of the field; nija-nija-each in his own; kshetra-field; jnanam-knowledge; darshitam.-is shown; tat-tat-various; mat-of Me; jnana-of knowledge; amshasya-of a part; kshetreshu-in fields of activity; chaya-rupatvat-because of having the form of a shadow; kshetrajneshu-among the knowers of the fields; yat-what; kincit-something; amsha-amshataya-as the part of a part; pravean-entrance; mama-of Me; eva-indeed; jnanam-knowledge; matam-opinion; iti.-thus; tasmat-therefore; sadhu-well; uktam-said; mukhyam-primary meaning; kshetrajnatvam-the state of being the knower of the field; paramatmani-in the Supersoul; eva-indeed; iti-thus.
The field of activities described in Bhagavad-gita 13.3 is the part of the world that is perceived by the knowledge-acquiring senses. The knowledge thus obtained will be further described later in this book. As was previously explained, each individual soul has direct knowledge only of his own small field of perception. Thus the knowledge obtained by the individual soul is only a shadow of the knowledge obtained by the Lord. The individual soul has only a very small part of a part of the knowledge possessed by the Supreme Lord. Therefore it is truly said that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the primary, the most important knower of the field of action.
atra shri-bhagavatah paramatma-rupenavirbhavo 'pi ajani ca yanmayam tad avimucya niyantri bhavet ity ukta-disha shakti-visheshalingitad yasmad evamshaj jivanam avirbhavas tenaiveti jneyam.
atra-here; shri-bhagavatah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; paramatma-rupena-in the form of the Supersoul; avirbhavah-appearance; api-even; ajani ca yanmayam tad avimucya niyantri bhavet ity ukta-disha-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.30; shakti-potency; vishesha-specific; alingitat-because of being embraced; yasmat-because; eva-indeed; amshat-because of a part; jivanam-of the individual spirit souls; avirbhavah-manifestation; tena-by Him; eva-indeed; iti-thus; jneyam-to be known.
The Supersoul described here is a direct manifestation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The individual spirit souls are potencies of the Lord. They are parts and parcels of the Lord. This is described in the following prayer of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.30):
"O Supreme eternal! If the embodied living entities were eternal and all-pervading like You, then they would not be under Your control. But if the living entities are accepted as minute energies of Your Lordship, then they are at once subject to Your supreme control. Therefore, real liberation entails surrender by the living entities to Your control, and that surrender will make them happy. In that constitutional position only can they be controllers. Therefore, men with limited knowledge who advocate the monistic theory that God and the living entities are equal in all respects are actually misleading themselves and others."*
tad uktam tatraiva vishöabhyaham idam kritsnam ekamshena sthito jagat ity adi.
tat-that; uktam-said; tatra-there; eva-indeed; vishöabhyaham idam kritsnam ekamshena sthito jagat ity adi-Bhagavad-gita 10.42.
That the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the individual spirit soul are different may also be inferred by these words spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself (Bhagavad-gita 10.42):
"With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire universe."*
vishva-shaktir iyam sthita
pranamama tam avyayam iti.
shri-vishnu-purane-in Shri Vishnu Purana; ca-also; yasya-of whom; ayuta-ayuta-of a thousands ofthousands; amsha-of a part; amshe-of a part; vishva-shaktih-the potency of the universe; iyam-this; sthita-situated; para-brahma-svarupasya-of the form fo the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pranamama-I bow down; tam-to Him; avyayam-eternal and unchanging; iti.-thus.
This difference may also be inferred from the following words of Shri Vishnu Purana (1.9.52):
"I bow down before the eternal and changeless Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form is spiritual. By a million-millionth part of His power the material world is manifested."
purna-shuddha-shaktis tu kala-kashöha-nimeshadi ity anena darshita.
purna-perfect; shuddha-pure; shaktih-potency; tu-indeed; kala-kashöha-nimeshadi iti-thus; anena-by this; darshita-revealed.
The perfect and pure potency of the Lord is also described in these words of Shri Vishnu Purana (1.9.44):
"Seconds, minutes, hours, and all other units of time are all manifested from the potency of t#e Supreme Personality of Godhead."
shuddha-sargam aham deva
jnatum icchami tattvatah
yah paratvena vartate
tatha-so; shri-narada-pancaratre-in Shri narada-pmacratra; shri-narada-Shri Narada; uvaca-said; shuddha-pure; sargam-creation; aham-I; deva-O Lord; jnatum-to understand; icchami-I desire; tattvatah-in truth; sarga-dvayasya-of the two worlds; ca-and; eva-indeed; asya-of that; yah-who; paratvena-by supriority; vartate-is.
In Shri Narada-pancaratra, Shri Narada Muni says:
"O Lord, I wish to understand Your pure spiritual realm. You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the spiritual and the material worlds rest in You."
tatraitat purvoktah pradhanikah shaktash cety etat sarga-dvayasyeti jneyam. shri-bhagavan uvaca
tatra-there; etat-this; purva-previous; uktah-said; pradhanikah-primary; shaktah-potency; ca-and; iti-thus; etat-this; sarga-dvayasya-of the two worlds; iti-thus; jneyam-to be known; shri-bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; uvaca-said.
In this part of Shri Narada-pancaratra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead answered Narada's question. After explaining that both spiritual and material worlds are manifested from His potency, the Supreme Personality of Godhead said:
yah sarva-vyapako devah
para-brahma ca shashvatam
cit-samanyam jagaty asmin
yah-who; sarva-vyapakah-all-pervading; devah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; para-brahma-the Supreme Spirit; ca-and; shashvatam-eternally; cit-samanyam-spirit; jagati-in the world; asmin-this; paramananda-lakshanam-the nature of bliss.
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead and the impersonal Brahman are both eternal. Spiritual and full of bliss, They are also manifested in the material world.
vasudevad abhinnam tu
vasudevo 'pi bhagavams
vasudevat-from Lord Vasudeva; abhinnam-not different; tu-indeed; vahny-arkendu-shata-prabham-splendid like hundreds of fires, suns, and moons; vasudevah-Lord Vasudeva; api-also; bhagavamh-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tad-dharma-His nature; parameshvarah-the supreme controller.
"Splendid like many hundreds of fires, suns, and moons, the impersonal Brahman is not different than Lord Vasudeva. Lord Vasudeva is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. His nature is that He is the supreme controller.
svam diptim kshobhayaty eva
tejasa tena vai yutam
acyutam cashrijad dvija
svam-own; diptim-effulgence; kshobhayati-agitates; eva-indeed; tejasa-with splendor; tena-by that; vai-indeed; yutam-endowed; prakasha-manifested; rupah-form; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; acyutam-infallible; ca-also; ashrijat-created; dvija-O brahmana.
"O brahmana, when He removes the covering of His own Brahman effulgence, the Supreme Personality of Godhead reveals His original, eternal, transcendental form.
so 'cyuto 'cyuta-tejash ca
svarupam vitanoti vai
ashritya vasudevam ca
khastho megho jalam yatha
sah-He; acyutah-infallible; acyuta-tejah-infallible power; ca-and; svarupam-form; vitanoti-manifests; vai-indeedtaking shelter; ashritya vasudevam-Vasudeva; ca-and; khasthah-staying in the sky; meghah-a cloud; jalam-water; yatha-as.
"He is all-powerful and invincible, and His potency is also all-powerful and invincible. As a cloud in the sky showers rain, so the Supreme Personality of Godhead reveals His original form.
kshobhayitva svam atmanam
utpadayam asa tada
samudrormir jalam yatha
kshobhayitva-agitating; svam-own; atmanam-self; satya-bhasvara-vigraham-spiritual and effulgent form; utpadayam asa-manifested; tada-then; samudrormih-waves in the ocean; jalam-water; yatha-as.
"As the ocean manifests many waves, so the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests many glorious and effulgent transcendental forms.
sa chinmayah prakashatma
purushakhyam anantam ca
sah-He; chinmayah-spiritual; prakashatma-manifest self; utpadyatmanam-of manifestatuions; atmana-by Himself; purushakhyam-called the Purusha; anantam-limitless; ca-also; prakasha-prasaram-manifestation; mahat-great.
"In this way the spiritual and glorious Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests His limitless form known as the Purusha-avatara.
sa ca vai sarva-jivanam
antaryami sa tesham vai
sah-He; ca-and; vai-indeed; sarva-jivanam-of all spirit souls; ashrayah-the shelter; parameshvarah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; antaryami-the Supersoul; sa-He; tesham-of them; vai-indeed; tarakanam-of stars; iva-like; ambaram-the sky.
"In this way He is the shelter and controller of all souls. He is the Supersoul residing in the hearts of all beings. As stars rest in the great sky, so everything rests in Him.
sendhanah pavako yadvat
tadvad esha parah prabhuh
sendhanah-with fuel; pavakah-fire; yadvat-as; sphulinga-nicayam-many sparks; dvija-O brahmana; anicchatah-without desiring; prerayati-sends; tadvat-in that way; esha-He; parah-supreme; prabhuh-Lord.
"As a blazing fire spontaneously manifests many sparks, so the Supreme Personality of Godhead spontaneously manifests the many individual souls.
bandhanam ca vimuktaye
tasmad viddhi tad-amshams tan
sarvamsham tam ajam prabhum. iti.
prak-previous; vasana-material desires; nibandhanam-bound; bandhanam-bound; ca-and; vimuktaye-for liberation; tasmat-from that; viddhi-please know; tad-amshan-His parts and parcels; tan-them; sarvamsham-fo whom everything is a part; tam-to Him; ajam-the unborn; prabhum-Lord; iti.-thus.
"Know that all living beings are part and parcel of the unborn Supreme Personality of Godhead. When the individual souls, trapped by their own past material desires, come to this material world, the Supreme Personality of Godhead follows them to set them free."
ata eva yat tu brahmadau shri-pradyumnasya. manv-adau shri-vishnoh. rudradau shri-sankarshanasyantaryamitvam shruyate. tan-nanamsham adayavatirnasya tasyaiva tat-tad-amshena tat-tad-antaryamitvam iti mantavyam.
ata eva-therefore; yat-what; tu-but; brahmadau-beginning with Brahma; shri-pradyumnasya.-of Shri Pradyumna; manv-adau-beginning with Manu; shri-vishnoh-of Shri Vishnu; rudradau-beginning with Shiva; shri-sankarshanasya-of Shri Sankarshana; antaryamitvam-the status of teh Supersoul residing in the hearts fo all living beinmgs; shruyate.-is heard in the scriptures; tan-nanamsham-various parts of Him; adaya-accepting; avatirnasya-incarnated; tasya-of Him; eva-indeed; tat-tad-amshena-by the various parts; tat-tat-various; antaryamitvam-the status of the Supersoul; iti-thus; mantavyam-to be considered.
Manifesting His form of Lord Pradyumna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead becomes the Supersoul of Brahma and others. Manifesting His form of Lord Vishnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead becomes the Supersoul of Manu and others. Manifesting His form of Lord Sankarshana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead becomes the Supersoul of Shiva and others. This is confirmed by the words of the scriptures. Thus descending to the material world in His different partial forms, the Lord becomes the Supersoul residing in the hearts of all living beings.
ata eva rudrasya shri-sankarshana-prakrititvam purusha-prakrititvam cety ubhayam apy amnatam prakritim atmanah sankarshana-samjnam bhava upadhavata ity adau. adav abhuc chata-dhritih ity adau ca.
ata eva-therefore; rudrasya-of Shiva; shri-sankarshana-prakrititvam-the nature of Lord Sankarshana; purusha-prakrititvam-the nature of the purusha-avatara; ca-and; iti-thus; ubhayam-both; api-also; amnatam-described in the scriptures; prakritim-nature; atmanah-of the self; sankarshana-samjnam-named Sankarshana; bhava-nature; upadhavata-attains; iti-thus; adau.-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.17.16; adau abhuc chata-dhritih ity adau-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.4.5; ca-also.
That Lord Shiva is manifested from the purusha-avatara Lord Sankarshana is confirmed by the following two quotes from scripture. In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.17.16) it is said:
"Lord Shiva knows that Lord Sankarshana is the original cause of his own existence, and thus he always meditates upon Him in trance."*
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.4.5) it is also said:
"In the beginning, the original Supreme Personality manifested the form of Brahma through the material mode of passion in order to create this universe. The Lord manifested His form as Vishnu, the Lord of sacrifice and protector of the twice-born brahmanas and their religious duties to maintain the universe. And when the universe is to be annihilated the same Supreme Lord employs the material mode of ignorance and manifests the form of Rudra. The created living beings are thus always subject to the forces of creation, maintenance, and destruction."***
bhutatma cendriyatma ca
pradhanatma tatha bhavan
atma ca paramatma ca
tvam ekah pancadha sthitah
ity adau vivritah.
eshah-He; eva-indeed; bhutatma-the soul of the material elements; ca-and; indriyatma-the soul of the senses; ca-and; pradhanatma-the soul of the primordial origin of matter; tatha-so; bhavan-You; atma-the soul; ca-and; paramatma-the Supersoul; ca-and; tvam-You; ekah-alone; pancadha-in five ways; sthitah.-manifested; iti-thus; adau-beginning; vivritah.-manifested.
In the Vishnu Purana (5.18.50) it is said:
"O Lord, You are the soul of the gross material elements, the soul of the material senses, the soul of matter's subtle origin, the soul, and the Supersoul. In these five ways You are manifested."
tasmat sarvantaryami purusha eva brahmeti paramatmeti ity adau paramatmatvena nirdishöa iti sthitam.
tasmat-therefore; sarvantaryami-the Supersoul present in the hearts of all; purusha-the ourusa-avatara; eva-indeed; brahmeti paramatmeti ity adau-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.2.11; paramatmatvena-as the Supersoul; nirdishöa-indicated; iti-thus; sthitam-situated.
The Supersoul, who is the purusha-avatara situated in the hearts of all, is also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.11):
"Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call the non-dual substance Brahman, Paramatma, and Bhagavan."*
Here the word "Paramatma" indicates the Supersoul.
vyakhyatam ca svamibhih tasmai namo bhagavate brahmane paramatmane ity atra varuna-stutau paramatmane sarva-jiva-niyantre iti.
vyakhyatam-explained; ca-also; svamibhih-by Shrila Shridhara Svami; tasmai namo bhagavate brahmane paramatmane ity atra-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.28.7; varuna-stutau-in the prayers of Varuna; paramatmane-to the Supersoul; sarva-jiva-of all individual souls; niyantre-the controller; iti-thus.
The Supersoul is also described in these prayers spoken by Varuna (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.28.7):
"I offer my respectful obeisances to the Absolute Truth, who is Brahman, Paramatma, and Bhagavan."
Shrila Shridhara Svami comments on this verse:
"Here the word `paramatmane' means `the controller of all individual souls'."
asya paramatmano mayopadhitaya purushatvam tupacaritam eva. tad uktam vaishnave eva
asya-of Him; paramatmanah-the Supersoul; maya-of maya; upadhitaya-by the designation; purushatvam-the status of the purusa-avatara; tu-but; upacaritam-honroed; eva.-indeed; tat-that; uktam-said; vaishnave-in the Vishnu Purana; eva-indeed
When He appears in the material world, the Supersoul is called the purusha-avatara. This is described in the following words of Shri Vishnu Purana (6.8.58-59):
nanto 'sti yasya na ca yasya samudbhavo 'sti
vriddhir na yasya parinama-vivarjitasya
napakshayam ca samupaity avikalpa-vastu
yas tam nato 'smi purushottamam adyam idyam
na-not; antah-end; asti-is; yasya-of whom; na-not; ca-and; yasya-of whom; samudbhavah-birth; asti-is; vriddhih-growth; na-not; yasya-of whom; parinama-transformation; vivarjitasya-without; na-not; apakshayam-dwindling; ca-and; samupaiti-attains; avikalpa-without doubt; vastu-substance; yah-whom; tam-to Him; natah-bowed down; asmi-I am; purushottamam-to the Supreme Person; adyam-origin; idyam-worshipable.
"I bow down before the purusha-avatara, who is the origin of all and the final object of worship. For Him there is no death, no birth, no growth, no change, no decay, and no doubt.
tasyaiva yo 'nu guna-bhug bahudhaika eva
shuddho 'py ashuddha iva murti-vibhaga-bhedaih
tasmai nato 'smi purushaya sadavyayaya. iti.
tasya-of Him; eva-indeed; yah-who; anu-following; guna-bhug-the master of transcendental opulences; bahudha-in many ways; eka-one; eva-indeed; shuddhah-pure; api-although; ashuddha-impure; iva-like; murti-vibhaga-bhedaih-with many forms; jnana-knowledge; anvitah-with; sakala-sattva-vibhuti-karta-the creator of all transcendental opulences; tasmai-to Him; natah-bowed down; asmi-I am; purushaya-to the Supreme Person; sada-always; avyayaya-eternal; iti.-thus.
"I bow down before the purusha-avatara, who is the master of transcendental virtues. who manifests many forms, who may seem to be impure although in truth He is completely pure, and who is the master of all transcendental knowledge and opulences."
atra tasyaiva anu purvoktat parameshvarat samantaram. bahudha brahmadi-rupena ashuddha iva shrishöy-adishv asakta iva murti-vibhaganam dakshadi-manv-adi-rupanam bhedaih sarva-sattvanam vibhuti-karta vistara-krit iti svami-padah.
atra-here; tasya-of Him; eva-indeed; anu-following; purva-previous; uktat-from the statement; parameshvarat-from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; samantaram-different; bahudha-in many ways; brahmadi-beginning with Brahma; rupena-with the nform; ashuddha-impure; iva-as if; shrishöy-adishv-beginning with creation; asakta-attached; iva-as if; murti-vibhaganam-of many forms; dakshadi-manv-adi-rupanam-beginning with Daksa and Manu; bhedaih-with difference; sarva-all; sattvanam-existences; vibhuti-opulences; karta-the creator; vistara-of extension; krit-the creator; iti-thus; svami-padah-Shrila Shridhara Svami.
Shrila Shridhara Svami comments:
"Here the word `anu' indicates that the purusha-avatara is manifested from the previously described Supreme Personality of Godhead, `bahudha' means `with the form of Brahma and many other forms', `ashuddha iva' means `as if He were attached to the material creation', `murti-vibhaga-bhedaih' means `in the form of Daksha, Manu, and many other forms', and `sakala-sattva-vibhuti-karta' means `who creates all the opulences manifested by the living entities'."
tatra guna-bhug iti sad-guny-ananda-bhedoktety arthah.
tatra-there; guna-bhuk-guna-bhuk; iti-thus; shad-six; guni-virtues; ananda-bliss; bheda-different; ukta-said; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Here the word "guna-bhuk" means "with the bliss of the six virtues".
Texts 68 and 69
yat tat sukshmam avijneyam
avyaktam acalam dhruvam
indriyair indriyarthaish ca
sarva-bhutaish ca varjitam
sa hy antaratma bhutanam
kshetrajnash ceti kathyate
purushash ceti kalpitah
iti moksha-dharme 'pi narayaniyopakhyane.
yat-what; tat-that; sukshmam-subtle; avijneyam-unknowable; avyaktam-unmanifested; acalam-unmoving; dhruvam-eternal; indriyaih-by the senses; indriyarthaih-by the purpose of the senses; ca-also; sarva-bhutaih-by all material elements; ca-and; varjitam-without; sa-He; hi-indeed; antaratma-the Supersoul within the heart; bhutanam-of the living entities; kshetrajnah-the knower of the field of action; ca-and; iti-thus; kathyate-is said; tri-guna-vyatiriktah-beyond the modes of nature; vai-indeed; purushah-the purusha-avatara; ca-also; iti-thus; kalpitah-considered; iti-thus; moksha-dharme 'pi narayaniyopakhyane-in the Moksha-dharma, Narayaniyopakhyana, the purusha-avatara.
In the Moksha-dharma, Narayaniyopakhyana (334.29-30), the purusha-avatara is described in these words:
"It is said that the purusha-avatara is very subtle, inconceivable, unmanifested, unchanging, and eternal. He is untouched by the material senses, material sense desires, and the material elements. He is the Supersoul present in the hearts of all living beings and He directly perceives all that happens everywhere and in every body. He is untouched by the modes of material nature."
shrutayo 'py enam shuddhatvenaiva varnayanti
shrutayah-the Sruti-sastra; api-also; enam-Him; shuddhatvena-with purity; eva-indeed; varnayanti-describe.
The Shruti-shastras also affirm that the purusha-avatara is completely pure. For example, in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.11 and 4.5) it is said:
eko devah sarva-bhuteshu gudhah
sakshi cetah kevalo nirgunash ca
ekah-one; devah-Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarva-bhuteshu-in all living entities; gudhah-hidden; sarva-vyapi-all-pervading; sarva-bhutantaratma-the Supersoul in the hearts of all living beings; karma-of actions; adhyakshah--the witness; sarva-bhuta-in all living beings; adhivasah-the residence; sakshi-the witness; cetah-the heart; kevalah-transcendental; nirgunah-beyond the modes of material nature; ca-and.
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests Himself as the all-pervading Supersoul, the witness present in the hearts of all living entities. He witnesses all activities of the living entity. He is the supreme living force, and yet He is transcendental to all material qualities."*
ajam ekam lohita-shukla-krishnam
bahvih prajah janayantim sa-rupah
ajo hy eko jushamano 'nushete
jahaty enam bhukta-bhogam ajo 'nyah. ity adyah.
ajam-unbron; ekam-one; lohita-shukla-krishnam-red, white, and black; bahvih-many; prajah-children; janayantim-givign birth; sa-rupah-like herself; ajah-unborn; hi-indeed; ekah-one; jushamanah-doing; anushete-follows; jahati-abandons; enam-here; bhukta-bhogam-finished enjoyment; ajah-unborn; anyah-another; iti-thus; adyah.-beginning.
"A unborn man enjoys an unborn red, white, and black woman who bears many children like herself. Another unborn man renounces this woman and will not enjoy with her."
Note: The unborn woman is the material nature. The colors red, white, and black are the modes of passion, goodness, and ignorance. The many children are the ingredients of the material universes. The first unborn man is the individual spirit soul trapped in material existence. The second unborn man is the Supersoul, who is always aloof from the material nature.
tasmat sadhu vyakhyatam kshetrajna etah ity adi padya-dvayam. shri-brahmano rahuganam.
tasmat-therefore; sadhu-well; vyakhyatam-explained; kshetrajna etah ity adi-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 5.11.12-13; padya-dvayam-two verses; shri-brahmanah-the brahmana; rahuganam-to King Rahugana.
The purusha-avatara was also nicely described in the two verses of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.11.12-13) quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda. Those verses were spoken by a brahmana to King Rahugana.
atha tasyavirbhave yogyata pragvad bhaktir eva jneya. avirbhavas tridha. yatha naradiya-tantre
atha-now; tasya-of Him; avirbhave-in the manifestation; yogyata-suitability; pragvat-as before; bhaktih-devotional service; eva-indeed; jneya-to be understood; avirbhavah-manifestation; tridha-so; yatha-as; naradiya-tantre-in the Narada Tantra.
Now will be explained the truth that the purusha-avatara reveals Himself in response to the soul's devotion. The purusha-avatara manifests three forms, which are described in the following words of the Narada Tantra:
vishnos tu trini rupani
purushakhyany atho viduh
prathamam mahatah srashöri
dvitiyam tv anda-samsthitam
tani jnatva vimucyate. iti.
vishnoh-of Lord Vishnu; tu-certainly; trini-three; rupani-forms; purushakhyani-celebrated as the purusha; athah-how; viduh-they know; prathamam-one of them; mahatah- srashöri-the creator of the total material energy; dvitiyam-the second; tu-but; anda-samsthitam-situated within the universe; tritiyam-the third; sarva-bhutastham-within the hearts fo all living beings; tani-these three; jnatva-knowing; vimucyate.-one becomes liberated; iti.-thus.
"Vishnu has three forms called purushas. The first, Maha-Vishnu, is the creator of the total material energy (mahat), the second is Garbhodashayi, who is situated within each universe, and the third is Kshirodashayi, who lives in the heart of every living being. He who knows these three becomes liberated from the clutches of maya."*
tatra prathamah yathagneh kshudra visphulinga vyuccaranti. sa aikshata ity ady ukto maha-samashöi-jiva-prakrityor ekatapannayor drashöety eka eva.
tatra-there; prathamah-the first; yatha-as; agneh-from fire; kshudra-tiny; visphulinga-sparks; vyuccaranti-are manifested; sa-He; aikshata-saw; iti-thus; adi-beginning; uktah-said; maha-samasti-jiva-prakrityoh-of the total of all individual souls and material nature; ekatapannayoh-oneness; drasta-the seer iti-thus; eka-one; eva.-indeed
The first purusha-avatara is described in these words of the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (2.1.20):
yathagneh kshudra visphulinga vyuccaranti
"As many tiny sparks are manifested from a great fire, so many individual spirit souls are manifested from the Supreme."
In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (1.2.5) it is also said:
"The Supreme Lord glanced and the material creation became manifested."
In this way it is explained that with His glance the first purusha-avatara manifested the material nature and the conditioned state of the individual spirit souls.
ayam eva sankarshana iti. maha-vishnur iti ca. brahma-samhitayam yatha tal-lingam bhagavan shambhur jyotih-rupah sanatanah. tasminn avirabhul linge maha-vishnur jagat-patih. sahasra-shirsha purushah ity arabhya
ayam-He; eva-indeed; sankarshana-Sankarshana; iti.-thus; maha-vishnuh-Maha-vishnu; iti-thus; ca.-also; brahma-samhitayam-in Brahma-samhita; yatha tal-lingam bhagavan shambhur jyotih-rupah sanatanah-Brahma-samhita 5.13; tasminn avirabhul linge maha-vishnur jagat-patih-Brahma-samhita 5.16. sahasra-shirsha purushah iti-Brahma-samhita 5.17; arabhya-beginning.
The first purusha-avatara is known as Lord Sankarshana and Lord Maha-Vishnu. He is described in the following words of Brahma-samhita (5.8, 5.10, and 5.11):
"The divine plenary portion of Krishna creates the mundane world. At creation there appears a divine halo of the nature of His own subjective portion (svamsha). This halo is divine Shambhu, the masculine symbol or manifested emblem of the Supreme Lord. This halo is the dim twilight reflection of the supreme eternal effulgence. This masculine symbol is the subjective portion of divinity who functions as progenitor of the mundane world, subject to the supreme regulatrix (niyati)."**
"The Lord of the world, Maha-Vishnu, is manifest in Shambhu by His subjective portion in the form of His glance."**
"The Lord of the mundane world, Maha-Vishnu, possesses thousands of thousands of heads, eyes, and hands. He is the source of thousands of thousands of avataras in His thousands of thousands of subjective portions. He is the creator of thousands of thousands of individual souls."**
narayanah sa bhagavan
apas tasmat sanatanat
yoga-nidram gatas tasmin
sahasramshah svayam mahan
narayanah-Narayana; sa-He; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; apah-water; tasmat-from Him; sanatanat-eternal; avirasit-manifested; karanarno-nidhih-the Causal ocean; sankarshanatmakah-Lord Sankarsana; yoga-nidram-divine sleep; gatah-attained; tasmin-in that; sahasramshah-a thousand parts; svayam-personally; mahan-great.
The first purusha-avatara is also described in these words of Brahma-samhita (5.13 and 5.14):
"The same Maha-Vishnu is spoken of by the name of `Narayana' in this mundane world. From that eternal portion has sprung the vast expanse of water of the spiritual Causal Ocean. The subjective portion of Sankarshana who abides in Paravyoma, above the supreme purusha with thousands of subjective portions, reposes in the state of divine sleep (yoga-nidra) in the waters of the spiritual causal ocean.**
bijam sankarshanasya ca
haimany andani jatani
maha-bhutavritani tu ity adi.
tad-roma-bila-jaleshu-in the many bodily pores; bijam-seed; sankarshanasya-of Lord Sankarsana; ca-also; haimani-golden; andani-eggs; jatani-born; maha-bhutavritani-covered with the five elements; tu-indeed; iti-thus; adi.-beginning.
"The spiritual seeds of Sankarshana existing in the pores of skin of Maha-Vishnu are born as so many golden sperms. These sperms are covered with five great elements."**
lingam iti yasyayutayutamshamse vishva-shaktir iyam sthita ity anusarena tasya maha-bhagavatah shri-govindasya purushotpadakatval lingam iva lingam yah khalv amsha-visheshas tad eva shambhuh. shambhu-shabdasya mukhyaya vritter ashraya ity arthah. linge bhagavata evanga-vishesha iti tat-prakarana-labdham.
lingam-lingam; iti-thus; yasya-of whom; ayuta-ten thousand; ayuta-ten thousand amsha-part; amse-of a part; vishva-shaktih-the potency of the universe; iyam-this; sthita-situated; iti-thus; anusarena-following; tasya-of Him; maha-bhagavatah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; shri-govindasya-Lord Govinda; purusha-the purusa; utpadakatval-from the manifestation; lingam-linga; iva-like; lingam-linga; yah-which; khalv-indeed; amsha-visheshah-a specific part; tat-that; eva-indeed; shambhuh.-Shiva; shambhu-shabdasya-of the word Sambhu; mukhyaya-primary meaning; vritteh-of the action; ashraya-the shelter; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning; linge-in the linga; bhagavata-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; anga-part; vishesha-specific; iti-thus; tat-prakarana-labdham-the explanation.
The word "linga" (masculine symbol) described in the passage from Brahma-samhita (5.8) quoted here in text 4, is explained in the following words of Shri Vishnu Purana (1.9.52, quoted in this book in anucceda 1, text 45):
"I bow down before the eternal and changeless Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form is spiritual. By a million-millionth part of His power the material world is manifested."
The "linga" is thus manifested from Lord Govinda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus Lord Shiva is a partial manifestation of Lord Govinda. The word "shambhu" here means "the resting place of activities". Thus it is explained that the "linga" is a partial manifestation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
atha dvitiya-purushah yat shrishöva tad evanupravishat ity ady uktah samashöi-jivantaryami tesham brahmandatmakanam bahu-bhedad bahu-bhedah.
atha-now; dvitiya-purushah-the second purusa-avatara; yat-which; shrishöva-creating; tat-that; eva-indeed; anupravishat-entered; iti-thus; adi-beginning; uktah-said; samashöi-all; jiva-souls; antaryami-the Supersoul residing in the heart; tesham-of them; brahmandatmakanam-the material universes; bahu-bhedat-many difference; bahu-bhedah-many different.
Now the second purusha-avatara will be described. In the Taittiriya Upanishad (2.6.2) it is said:
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead creates the material world and then enters it."
These words describe the Supreme Lord's becoming the Supersoul present in the hearts of all living entities. There are many different material universes, and the Lord enters all of them to become the Supersoul.
tatraiva sukshmantaryami pradyumnah sthulantaryamy aniruddha iti kvacit. anena maha-vaikunöha-sthah sankarshanadayas tad-amshinah. ye tu cittady-adhishöhataro vasudevadayas te tad-amsha evety adi vivecaniyam.
tatra-there; eva-inded; sukshma-subtle; antaryami-Supersoul; pradyumnah-Pradyumna; sthula-gross; antaryami-Supersoul; aniruddha-Aniruddha; iti-thus; kvacit.-somewhere; anena-by this; maha-vaikunöha-sthah-staying in Maha-Vaikunöha; sankarshanadayah-beginning with Lord Sankarshana; tad-amshinah.-His parts; ye-who; tu-indeed; cittady-adhishöhatarah-the presiding Deity of the mind and other senses; vasudevadayah-headed by Lord Vasudeva; te-They; tad-amsha-parts of Him; eva-certainly; iti-thus; adi-beginning; vivecaniyam.-to be said
Lord Pradyumna is the Supersoul presiding over the subtle elements. Lord Aniruddha is the Supersoul presiding over the gross elements. Lord Sankarshana and other expansions reside in Maha-Vaikunöha. Lord Vasudeva and other expansions preside over the mind and senses. In this way it is explained.
tritiyo 'pi purushah
dva suparna sayuja sakhaya
samanam vriksham praishasvajate
tayor anyah pippalam svadv atty
anashnann anyo 'bhicakashiti
tritiyah-third; api-also; purushah-purusa-avatara; dva-two; suparna-birds; sayuja-together; sakhaya-friends; samanam-the same; vriksham-tree; praishasvajate-reside; tayoh-of them; anyah-another; pippalam-pippala; svadv-delicious; atti-eats; anashnann-not eating; anyah-another; abhicakashi-watches; iti-thus.
The third purusha-avatara is also described in these words of Shvetashvatara Upanishad (4.6-7):
"In the individual spirit soul and the Supersoul, Supreme Personality of Godhead, are like two friendly birds sitting on the same tree. One of the birds (the individual atomic soul) is eating the fruit of the tree (the sense gratification afforded by the material body), and the other bird (the Supersoul) is not trying to eat these fruits, but is simply watching His friend.*
ity ady ukto vyashöy-antaryami. tesham bahu-bhedad bahu-bhedah. atra prathamasyavirbhavo yatha
iti-thus; adi-beginning; uktah-said; vyashöi-of the individual; antaryami-the Supersoul; tesham-of them; bahu-bhedat-because of manydifferences; bahu-bhedah-many different; atra-here; prathamasya-of the first; avirbhavah-manifestation; yatha-as.
These words describe the Supersoul as He appears in the hearts of the many living entities. Because there are many different living entities, the Supersoul appears many times in this way. The first purusha-avatara is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.6.42):
adyo 'vatarah purushah parasya iti.
adyo 'vatarah purushah parasya iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.6.42.
"Lord Karanarnavashayi Vishnu is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord, and He is the master of eternal time, space, cause and effects, mind, the elements, the material ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal form of the Lord, Garbhodakashayi Vishnu, and the sum total of all living beings, both moving and nonmoving."*
öika ca parasya bhumnah purushah prakriti-pravartakah. yasya sahasra-shirsha ity ady ukto lila-vigrahah sa adyo 'vatarah ity esha.
öika-commentary; ca-and; parasya-parasya; bhumnah-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; purushah-purusha; prakriti-pravartakah.-who puts rthe material nature into action; yasya-of whom; sahasra-shirsha ity adi-Rig Veda 10.90.1; uktah-said; lila-vigrahah-pastime form; sa-He; adyah-first; avatarah-incarnation; iti-thus; esha-it.
Shrila Shridhara Svami comments:
"Here the word `parasya' means `of the Bhuma-purusha' and `purushah' means `He who puts the material energy in motion'. This pastime form of the Lord, who is described here by the words `adyo 'vatarah', is also described in these words of the Rig Veda (10.90.1):
"In His form of the purusha-avatara, a form with thousands of heads, thousands of eyes, and thousands of feet, the Lord filled the universe and went ten fingers beyond it."
atra canyatra cavataratvam namaika-pada-vibhuty-avirbhavatvam jneyam. shri-brahma shri-naradam.
atra-here; ca-also; anyatra-in another place; ca-also; avataratvam-the status of an incarnation; nama-name; eka-pada-vibhuti-the opulence of one quarter; avirbhavatvam-manifestation; jneyam-to be known; shri-brahma-Shri Brahma; shri-naradam-to Shri Narada.
In other places in scripture are also described the Lord's incarnations within the material world, a world that bears the name "eka-pada-vibhuti" (the world that is one-fourth of the Supreme Lord's opulence). The verse quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda was spoken by Shri Brahma to Shri Narada.
kalena so 'jah purushayushabhi-
svayam tad antar hridaye 'vabhatam
apashyatapasyata yan na purvam
paryanka ekam purusham shayanam ity adi.
dvitiyasya-of the second; yatha-as; kalena-in due course of tiem; sah-he; ajah-the self born Brahma; purushayusha-by the sduration of his age; abhipravritta-being engaged; yogena-in meditation; virudha-developed; bodhah-intelligence; svayam-automatically; tad antar hridaye-in the heart; avabhatam-manifested; apashyata-saw; apasyata-did see; yat-which; na-not; purvam-before; mrinala-lotus flower; gaura-white all over; ayata-gigantic; shesha-bhoga-body of Shesha-naga; paryanka-on the bed; ekam-alone; purusham-the Supreme Person; shayanam-was lying; iti-thus; adi.-beginning.
The second purusha-avatara is described in these words (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.8.22-30):
"At the end of Brahma's one hundred years, when his meditation was complete, he developed the required knowledge, and as a result he could see in his heart the Supreme within himself, whom he could not see before with the greatest endeavor.*
"Brahma could see that on the water there was a gigantic lotuslike white bedstead, the body of Shesha-naga, on which the Personality of Godhead was lying alone. The whole atmosphere was illuminated by the rays of the jewels bedecking the hood of Shesha-naga, and that illumination dissipated all the darkness of those regions.*
"The luster of the transcendental body of the Lord mocked the beauty of the coral mountain. The coral mountain is very beautifully dressed by the evening sky, but the yellow dress of the Lord mocked its beauty. There is gold on the summit of the mountain, but the Lord's helmet, bedecked with jewels, mocked it. The mountain's waterfalls, herbs, etc., with a panorama of flowers, seem like garlands, but the Lord's gigantic body, and His hands and legs, decorated with jewels, pearls, tulasi leaves, and flower garlands, mocked the scene on the mountain.*
"His transcendental body, unlimited in length and breadth, occupied the three planetary systems, upper, middle, and lower. His body was self-illuminated by unparalleled dress and variegatedness and was properly ornamented.*
"The Lord showed His lotus feet by raising them. His lotus feet are the source of all awards achieved by devotional service free from material contamination. Such awards are for those who worship Him in pure devotion. The splendor of the transcendental rays from His moonlike toenails and fingernails appeared like the petals of a flower.*
"He also acknowledged the service of the devotees and vanquished their distress by His beautiful smile. The reflection of His face, decorated with earrings, was so pleasing because it dazzled with the rays from His lips and the beauty of His nose and eyebrows.*
"My dear Vidura, the Lord's waist was covered with yellow cloth resembling the saffron dust of the kadamba flower, and it was encircled by a well-decorated belt. His chest was decorated with the shrivatsa marking and a necklace of unlimited value.*
"As a sandalwood tree is decorated with fragrant flowers and branches, the Lord's body was decorated with valuable jewels and pearls. He was the self-situated tree, the Lord of all others in the universe. And as a sandalwood tree is covered with many snakes, so the Lord's body was covered by the hoods of Ananta.*
"Like a great mountain, the Lord stands as the abode for all moving and nonmoving living entities. He is the friend of the snakes because Lord Ananta is His friend. As a mountain has thousands of golden peaks, so the Lord was seen with the thousands of golden-helmeted hoods of Ananta-naga. And as a mountain is sometimes filled with jewels, so His transcendental body was fully decorated with valuable jewels. As a mountain is sometimes submerged in the ocean water, so the Lord is sometimes submerged in the water of devastation."*
ayam garbhodaka-sthah sahasra-shirsha pradyumna eva. purushayusha vatsara-shatena yogo bhakti-yogah. etad agre 'pi avyakta-mulam ity atra avyaktam pradhanam mulam adho-bhago yasyety arthah. bhuvananghripendram iti bhuvanani caturdasha tad-rupa anghripas tesham indram tan-niyantritvena vartamanam ity arthah. shri-maitreyo viduram.
ayam-He; garbhodaka-sthah-staying on the Garbha ocean; sahasra-shirsha-with a thousand heads; pradyumna-Pradyumna; eva.-indeed; purushayusha-purushayusha; vatsara-shatena-with a hundred years; yogah-yoga; bhakti-yogah.-devotional yoga; etat-this; agre-before; api-aslo; avyakta-mulam ity atra-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.8.29; avyaktam-avyakta; pradhanam-pradhana; mulam-root; adho-bhagah-below; yasya-of whom; iti-thus; arthah.-the meaning; bhuvananghripendram-bhuvananghripendram; iti-thus; bhuvanani-worlds; caturdasha-fourteen; tad-rupa-the forms; anghripah-trees; tesham-of them; indram-Indra; tan-niyantritvena-as the controller; vartamanam-being so; iti-thus; arthah.-the meaning; shri-maitreyah-Shri Maitreya; viduram-to Vidura.
These verses describe the thousand-headed Lord Pradyumna who resides on the Garbha Ocean. The word "purusayusha" means "for a hundred years", "and yogena" means "by practicing the yoga of devotional service". In Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.8.29 the word "avyakta-mulam" means "the root of pradhana, the unmanifested origin of matter", and "bhuvananghripendram" means because He is the Supreme Controller, He is like the king of the trees that are the fourteen material worlds". This verse was spoken by Shri Maitreya to Vidura.
pradea-matram purusham vasantam
gadadharam dharanaya smaranti. ity adi.
tritiyasya-of the third; avirbhavah-manifestation; yatha-as; kecit-others; sva-dehantah-within the body; hridayavakashe-in the region of the heart; pradea-matram-measuring only eight inches; purusham-the Personality of Godhead; vasantam-residing; catur-bhujam-with four hands; kanja-lotus; rathanga-the wheel of a chariot; shankha-conchshell; gadadharam-and with a club in the hand; dharanaya-conceiving in that way; smaranti.-do meditate upon Him; iti-thus; adi.-beginning.
The third purusha-avatara is described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.2.8):
"Others conceive of the Personality of Godhead residing within the body in the region of the heart and measuring only eight inches, with four hands carrying a lotus, a wheel of a chariot, a conchshell, and a club respectively."*
pradeam tarjany-angushöhayor vistaras tat-pramanam hridy apekshaya tu manushyadhikaratvat iti nyayena. shri-shukah.
pradeam-pradesa; tarjany-angushöhayoh-of the forefinger and thumb; vistarah-extent; tat-pramanam-that measurement; hridi-the heart; apekshaya-in relation to; tu-indeed; manushya-of a human being; adhikaratvat-because of the qualification; iti-thus; nyayena.-byu the Vedanta-sutra; shri-shukah-Shri Sukadeva Gosvami.
Here the word "pradesha" means "the distance between the forefinger and thumb. In the Vedanta-sutra (1.3.25) it is said:
hridy apekshaya tu manushyadhikaratvat
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead indeed appears in the hearts of human beings."
evam purushasyaneka-vidhatve 'pi drishöantenaikyam upapadayati
evam-thus; purushasya-of the purusa-avatara; aneka-vidhatve-in many ways; api-also; drishöantena-by an example; aikyam-oneness; upapadayati-teaches.
Although He appears in many forms, the purusha-avatara is one person. This is shown by the following example given in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (5.11.14):
atma-svarupena nivishöa ishet
evam paro bhagavan vasudevah
kshetrajna atmedam anupravishöah
yatha-as much as; anilah-the air; sthavara-of the nonmoving living entities; jangamanam-and of the moving living entites; atma-svarupena-by His expansion as the Supersoul; nivishöa-entered; ishet-controls; evam-thus; parah-transcendental; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vasudevah-the shelter of everything; kshetrajna-known as ksetrajna; atma-the vital force; idam- this material world; anupravishöah-entered within.
"He is full of all opulences, and He is the resting place of everything material. He is therefore known as Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By His own potency He is present within the hearts of all living entities, just as the air or vital force is within the bodies of all beings, moving and nonmoving. In this way He controls the body. In His partial feature the Supreme Personality of Godhead enters all bodies and controls them."*
atma-svarupena prana-rupena nivishöa ished ishita niyamayati. idam vishvam.
atma-svarupena-atma-svarupena; prana-rupena-in the form of the vital force; nivishöa-entered; ishet-controls; ishita-is the controller; niyamayati-controls; idam-this; vishvam.-universe.
Here the word "atma-svarupena" means "in the form of the vital force", "nivishöa ishet" means He enters and controls", and "idam" means this material universe".
vayur yathaiko bhuvanam pravishöo
rupam rupam pratirupo babhuva
ekas tatha sarva-bhutantaratma
rupam rupam pratirupo bahish ca
shrutih-the Sruti-sastra; ca-also; vayuh-air; yatha-as; ekah-one; bhuvanam-world; pravishöah-entered; rupam-form; rupam-form; pratirupah-in every form; babhuva-was; ekah-one; tatha-so; sarva-bhutantaratma-the Supersoul in the hearts fo all living beings; rupam-form; rupam-form; pratirupah-in every form; bahih-outside; ca-also; iti-thus; kaöhake--in the Katha Upanisad.
A similar example is given in these words of the Kaöha Upanishad (2.2.10):
"As the air that enters all living beings is one, so the Supersoul who enters the hearts of all living beings is a single person."
shri-brahmanah-a brahmana; rahuganam-to King Rahugana.
The verse quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda was spoken by a brahmana to King Rahugana.
eka eva paro hy atma
sarvesham eva dehinam
naneva grihyate mudhair
yatha jyotir yatha nabhah
tatha-so; eka-one; eva-indeed; parah-t; hi-indeed; atma-Supersoul; sarvesham-of all; eva-indeed; dehinam-embodied beings; nana-many; iva-as if; grihyate-is accepted; mudhaih-by fools; yatha-as; jyotih-light; yatha-as; nabhah-the sky.
That the many forms of the Supersoul are all one person only is also confirmed by the following example given in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.54.44):
"Bewildered fools think that the Supersoul, who resides in all embodied beings, is many different persons. The truth is that He is a single transcendental person. As the sky is one, and as a flame is one, so the Supersoul is a single person."
dehinam jivanam. atma paramatma. shri-baladevah shri-rukminim.
dehinam-dehinam; jivanam.-of the individal spirit souls; atma-atma; paramatma.-the Supersoul; shri-baladevah-Shri Baladeva; shri-rukminim-to Shri Rukmini.
Here the word "dehinam" means "of the individual spirit souls", and the word "atma" means the Supersoul". This verse was spoken by Lord Balarama to Shrimati Rukmini.
eka eva paro hy atma
bhuteshv atmany avasthitah
bhutany ekatmakani ca
evam-thus; eka-one; eva-indeed; parah-transcendental; hi-indeed; atma-Supersoul; bhuteshv-in the living beings; atmani-in the heart; avasthitah-situated; yatha-as; induh-the moon; uda-patreshu-in bodies of water; bhutani-elements; eka-one; atmakani--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ca-also.
That the Supersoul is a single person is also confirmed by the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.18.32):
"As the moon reflected in many bodies of water is a single moon, and as the entire material creation is the energy of the single Supreme Lord, so the Supersoul residing in the hearts of all living beings is a single person."
bhuteshu jiveshu eka eva para atma. na tv asau jiva-vat tatra tatra lipto bhavatity aha atmani sva-svarupa evavasthitah. bhutani jiva-deha api yena karana-rupenaikatmakaniti. shri-bhagavan uddhavam.
bhuteshu-bhuteshu; jiveshu-in the individual spirit souls; eka-one; eva-indeed; para-t; atma.-Supersoul; na-not; tv-but; asau-He; jiva-vat-like the individual soul; tatra-there; tatra-there; liptah-anointed; bhavati-is; iti-thus; aha-said; atmani-in the Supersoul; sva-svarupa-in His own form; eva-indeed; avasthitah-situated; bhutani-the material elements; jiva-deha-the body of the individual soul; api-even; yena-by which; karana-rupena-as the cause; eka-one; atmakani-self; iti-thus; shri-bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; uddhavam-to Uddhava.
Here the word "bhuteshu" means "in the individual spirit souls". The Supersoul residing in those souls is a single person (eka eva paro hy atma). However, the Supersoul is not like the individual souls, who are contaminated by the touch of material nature. "Atmani" means situated in His own form", and "bhutani" means the material bodies of the individual souls". Atmakani" indicates that the Supreme Lord is the creator of the material bodies.
evam ekasya purushasya nanatvam upapadya tasya punar amsha vivriyante. atra dvi-vidha amshah svamsha vibhinnamshash ca. vibhinnamshas taöastha-shakty-atmaka jiva iti vakshyate. svamshas tu guna-lilady-avatara-bhedena vividhah. tatra lilady-avatarah prasanga-sangatya shri-krishna-sandarbhe vakshyante.
evam-thus; ekasya-of one; purushasya-purusa-avatar; nanatvam-variety; upapadya-is explained; tasya-of Him; punah-again; amsha-parts; vivriyante-are explained; atra-here; dvi-vidha-two kinds; amshah-parts; svamsha-own parts; vibhinnamshah-separated parts; ca.-also; vibhinnamshah-separated parts; taöastha-shakty-atmaka-marginal potency; jiva-individual souls; iti-thus; vakshyate.-will be explained; svamshah-own parts; tu-but; guna-lilady-avatara-bhedena-with differences oif guna and lila avataras; vividhah.-various; tatra-there; lilady-avatarah-beginning with lila avataras; prasanga-sangatya-by contact; shri-krishna-sandarbhe-in Shri Krishna-sandarbha; vakshyante.-will be explained; gunavatara-guna avataras; yatha-as.
In this way it has been explained that although the purusha-avatara is a single person, He nevertheless expands in many different forms. The Supreme Personality of Godhead has two kinds of expansions: 1. svamsha (personal expansions), and 2. vibhinnamsha (separated expansions). The Lord's separated expansions are the individual spirit souls, who are all the Lord's marginal potency (taöastha-shakti). The Lord's personal expansions are His many incarnations, such as His guna-avatars and lila-avataras. The Lord's lila-avataras and other incarnations will be described later in the Shri Krishna-sandarbha.
adav abhuc chata-dhriti rajasasya sarge
vishnuh sthitau kratu-patir dvija-dharma-setuh
rudro 'py ayaya tamasa purushah sa adya
ity udbhava-sthiti-layah satatam prajasu
gunavatara-guna-avataras; yatha-as; adav-in the beginning; abhut-was; chata-dhriti-Brahma; rajasa-with passion; asya-of whom; sarge-in the creation; vishnuh-Lors Vishnu; sthitau-in the situation; kratu-patih-the Lord of sacrifice; dvija-dharma-setuh-the religious duties of the brahmanas; rudrah-Lord Siva; api-also; apayaya-for destruction; tamasa-with ignorance; purushah-th purusa avatara; sa-He; adya-transcendental; iti-thus; udbhava-creation; sthiti-maintenance; layah-and destruction; satatam-always; prajasu-in the living entities.
The guna-avataras are described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.4.5):
"In the beginning of creation the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifested the incarnation of Brahma to create the world through the mode of passion, Vishnu, the master of sacrifices and the object of the brahmanas' worship, to maintain the world through the mode of goodness, and Shiva to destroy the world through the mode of ignorance. In this way the residents of the material world are always subject to creation, maintenance, and destruction."
sa yugapat guna-trayadhishöhatadyah purushah prithak prithag api tat-tad-gunadhishöhana-lilayaiva adau rajasa asya jagatah sarge visarge karye shata-dhritir brahmabhut. sthitau vishnuh sattveneti sheshah.
sa-He; yugapat-at the same time; guna-trayadhishöhatadyah-beginning with the cotnrollers of the three modes; purushah-the purusa; prithak prithag-specific; api-also; tat-tad-gunadhishöhana-lilaya-by the pastime fo controlling the modes; eva-indeed; adau-beginning; rajasa-by passion; asya-of that; jagatah-universe; sarge-in creation; visarge-in ssecondary creation; karye-in action; shata-dhritih-Brahma; brahma-Brahma; abhut.-was; sthitau-in maintenance; vishnuh-Vishnu; sattvena-with goodness; iti-thus; sheshah-the remainder.
This verse means that the purusha-avatara (adyah purushah) is the controller of all three modes of nature. In His pastime of controlling the various modes, He first becomes Brahma (shata-dhritih) and with the modes of passion (rajasa) engages in the activities of secondary creation (sarge). Then He becomes Vishnu who employs the mode of goodness. In this way the remainder of the verse is to be understood.
tatra sakshad gunanuktish ca tasyati-rohita-svarupataya tat-sambandhopacarasyapy uööankanam ayuktam ity abhiprayena. palana-kartritvena kratu-patis tat-phala-data. yajna-rupas tu lilavatara-madhye eva shri-brahmana dvitiye ganitah.
tatra-there; sakshat-directly; guna-mode; anuktih-non-statement; ca-and; tasya-of that; ati-rohita-svarupataya-with an expanded form; tat-sambandha-in relation; upacarasya-of worship; api-also; uööankanam-binding; ayuktam-improper; iti-thus; abhiprayena.-the meaning; palana-kartritvena-by protection; kratu-patih-kratu-pati; tat-phala-data.-the giver of results; yajna-rupah-the form of yajna; tu-indeed; lilavatara-madhye-among the ilavataras; eva-indeed; shri-brahmana-by Brahma; dvitiye-in the second; ganitah-considered.
Note that in this verse the mode of goodness is not specifically stated in relation to Lord Vishnu. This is because Lord Vishnu is beyond all the modes of material nature and it is not really proper to say that He has contact with the material modes. Because He is the protector, Lord Vishnu gives the results of all sacrifices. That is the meaning of the word kratu-patih". This is explained by Lord Brahma in the Second Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam.
dvijanam dharmanam ca setuh palaka ity arthah. tamasa tasyapy apyayaya rudro 'bhud ity anena prakarenodbhava-sthiti-laya bhavantiti. atra brahma-rudrayor avataravasaro moksha-dharme vivikto 'sti. yatha
dvijanam-of the Brahmanas; dharmanam-of duties; ca-and; setuh-the bridge; palaka-the protector; iti-thus; arthah.-the meaning; tamasa-by ignorance; tasya-of Him; api-also; apyayaya-for destruction; rudrah-Rudra; abhut-was; iti-thus; anena-by Him; prakarena-by the way; udbhava-creation; sthiti-maintenance; laya-destruction; bhavanti-are; iti-thus; atra-here; brahma-rudrayoh-of Brahma and Siva; avataravasarah-the occasion of being incarnations; moksha-dharme-in the Moksa-dharma; viviktah-distinguished; asti-is; yatha-as.
The word "dvija-dharma-setuh" means "the protector of the brahmanas' duties". The Lord also becomes Shiva to destroy the universe by employing the mode of ignorance (tamasa apyayaya rudrah). In this way the creation, maintenance, and destruction of the universes is performed (udbhava-sthiti-layah). The position of Brahma and Shiva as guna-avataras is described in the following words of the Moksha-dharama:
brahme ratri-kshaye prapte
tasya hy amita-tejasah
brahme-of Brahma; ratri-kshaye-the end of the day; prapte-attained; tasya-of him; hi-indeed; amita-tejasah-limitless power; prasadat-from the mercy; pradurabhavat-was manifested; padmam-lotus; padma-nibhekshana-O lotus-eyed one.
"O lotus-eyed one, at the end of Brahma's day a lotus flower is manifested from the mercy of the limitlessly powerful Lord.
tato brahma samabhavat
sa tasyaiva prasada-jah
ahnah kshaye lalaöac ca
suto devasya vai tatha
rudrah samhara-karakah. iti.
tatah-from that; brahma-Brahma; samabhavat-born; sa-he; tasya-of him; eva-indeed; prasada-jah-born from the mercy; ahnah-of the day; kshaye-at the end; lalaöat-from the forehead; ca-and; sutah-son; devasya-of the Lored; vai-indeed; tatha-so; krodha-anger; avishöasya-entered; samjajne-is born; rudrah-Rudra; samhara-karakah.-the destroyer; iti.-thus.
"From this lotus is born Brahma. Thus Brahma is born from the Supreme Lord's mercy. At the end of his day Brahma becomes angry and from his forehead Shiva is born."
shri-vishnos tu tritiye drishyate
tal-loka-padmam sa u eva vishnuh
tasmin svayam vedamayo vidhata
svayambhuvam yam sma vadanti so 'bhut. iti.
shri-vishnoh-of Lord Vishnu; tu-indeed; tritiye-in ther third; drishyate-is seen; tat-that; loka-universal; padmam-lotus flower; sa-He; u-certainly; eva-factually; vishnuh-the Lord; pravivishat-entered into; sarva-all; gunavabhasam-reservoir of all modes of nature; tasmin-in which; svayam-in person; vedamayah-the personality of Vedic wisdom; vidhata-controller of the univesre; svayambhuvam-self-born; yam-whom; sma-in the past; vadanti-do say; sah-He; abhut-generated; iti.-thus.
Lord Vishnu is described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.8.15):
"into that universal lotus flower Lord Vishnu personally entered as the Supersoul, and when it was thus impregnated with all the modes of material nature, the personality of Vedic wisdom, whom we call the self-born, was generated."*
asyarthah tal-lokatmakam padmam. sarva-gunan jiva-bhogyan arthan avabhasayatiti tatha. tad yasmaj jatam sa shri-narayanakhyah purusha eva vishnu-samjnah san sthapana-rupantaryamitayai pravivishat. prakarshenalupta-shaktitayaivavishat. svarthe nic. tasmin shri-vishnuna labdha-sthitau padme punah shrishöy-artham svayam eva brahmabhut. sthitasyaiva mrd-ader ghaöaditaya shrishöeh.
asya-of that; arthah-the meaning; tal-lokatmakam-of that world; padmam.-the lotus; sarva-gunan-all modes; jiva-bhogyan-the soul's experience; arthan-meaning; avabhasayatimanifests; iti-thus; tatha.-so; tat-that; yasmat-from whom; jatam-born; sa-He; shri-narayanakhyah-named Shri Narayana; purusha-the purusa; eva-indeed; vishnu-samjnah-named Vishnu; san-being so; sthapana-rupa-the form of maintaining; antaryamitayai-to the Supersoul; pravivishat.-entered; prakarshena-pulling; alupta-not omitted; shaktitaya-with the potency; aivavishat-entered; svarthe-meaning; nic.-nic; tasmin-in that; shri-vishnuna-by Lord Vishnu; labdha-attained; sthitau-in maintenance; padme-lotus; punah-again; shrishöy-artham-for creation; svayam-personally; eva-indeed; brahma-Brahma; abhut-was; sthitasya-situated; eva-indeed; mrd-adeh-beginning with clay; ghaöaditaya-beginnign with a pot; shrishöeh-of creation.
Here the word "tal-loka-padmam" means "that lotus world", "sarva-gunavabhasam" means "the manifestation of the modes of nature experienced by the individual souls", "vishnuh pravivishat" means Lord Vishnu, who is known as Narayana, entered to become the maintainer and the Supersoul". The Lord entered by the power of His invincible potency. Here is used the grammatical form called nic. Then, in order to create the material world, Lord Vishnu entered this (tasmin) lotus flower and personally (svayam) became Brahma. Then, as a potter fashions pots and other things from clay, the Lord fashioned the material universe from the various material ingredients.
ata eva sthity-adaye hari-virinci-hareti samjnah ity anyatrapi.
ata eva-therefore; sthity-adaye hari-virinci-hareti samjnah iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.2.23; anyatra-in another place; api-also.
This is also described in the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.23):
"The transcendental Supreme Personality of Godhead is indirectly associated with the three modes of material nature, namely passion, goodness, and ignorance, and just for the material world's creation, maintenance, and destruction He accepts the three qualitative forms of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva."*
shri-dravidah-Shri Dravida; nimim-to Nimi.
The verse quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda was spoken by Shri Dravida to King Nimi.
evam yo va aham ca girishash ca vibhuh svayam ca ity adau tripat iti.
evam-thus; yo va aham ca girishash ca vibhuh svayam ca ity adau tripat iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.9.16.
This is also described in the following prayer addressed to Lord Vishnu (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.9.16):
"Your Lordship is the prime root of the tree of the planetary systems. This tree has grown by first penetrating the material nature in three trunks-as me, Shiva, and You, the almighty-for creation, maintenance, and dissolution, and we three have grown with many branches. Therefore I offer my obeisances unto You, the tree of the cosmic manifestation."*
öika ca yo vai ekas tripat trayo brahmadayah padah skandha yasya ity esha.
öika-commentary; ca-and yo vai ekas tripat-yo vai ekas tripat; trayah-three; brahmadayah-beginning with Brahma; padah-padas; skandhah-trunks; yasya-of whom; iti-thus; esha-it.
Shrila Shridhara Svami comments:
"The words `yo vai ekas tripat' mean `the guna-avataras headed by Brahma are three trunks from Him'."
vriksha-rupatvena tad-varnanad esham skandhatvam. brahma shri-garbhodashayinam
vriksha-rupatvena-with the form of a tree; tad-varnanat-from that description; esham-of them; skandhatvam.-the status of trunks; brahma-Brahma; shri-garbhodashayinam-to Shri Ga4rbhodakashayi Vishnu.
Thus they are described as trunks of a tree. This verse was spoken by Brahma to Shri Garbhodakashayi Vishnu.
tesham avirbhavo yatha
nirgatena muner murdhnah
samikshya prabhavas trayah
tesham-of them; avirbhavah-the manifestation; yatha-as; tapyamanam-while practicing austerities; tri-bhuvanam-the three worlds; pranayama-practice by breathing exercise; edhasa-fuel; agnina-by the fire; nirgatena-issuing out; muneh-of the great sage; murdhnah-the top of the head; samikshya-looking over; prabhavas trayah-the three great gods (Brahma, Vishnu, and Maheshvara).
The guna-avataras are also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (4.1.21-22):
"When Atri Muni was engaged in these severe austerities, a blazing fire came out of his head by virtue of his breathing exercise, and that fire was seen by the three principal deities of the three worlds.*
tad-ashrama-padam yayuh. ity adi.
apsarah-heavenly society women; muni-great sages; gandharva-the inhabitants of the Gandharva planet; siddha-of Siddhaloka; vidyadhara-other demigods; uragaih-the inhabitants of Nagaloka; vitayamana-being spread; yashasah-fame, reputation; tat-his; ashrama-padam-hermitage; yayuh.-wen; iti-thus; adi.-beginning.
"At that time, the three Deities approached the hermitage of Atri Muni, accompanied by the denizens of the heavenly planets, such as the celestial beauties, the Gandharvas, the Siddhas, the Vidyadharas, and the Nagas. Thus they entered the ashrama of the great sage, who had become famous by his austerities."*
muner atreh. shri-maitreyo viduram.
muneh-muneh; atreh.-of Atri; shri-maitreyah-Shri Maitreya; viduram-to Vidura.
Here the word "muneh" means "of Atri Muni". This verse was spoken by Shri Maitreya to Vidura.
sarasvatyas taöe rajan
rishayah satram asate
vitarkah samabhut tesham
trishv adhisheshu ko mahan ity adi itihasah.
yatha-as; va-or; sarasvatyah-of the Sarasvati; taöe-on the bank; rajan-O king; rishayah-sages; satram-sacrifice; asate-do; vitarkah-sipute; samabhut-arose; tesham-of them; trishv-in the three; adhisheshu-demigods; kah-who?; mahan-the greatest; iti-thus; adi-beginning; itihasah-the story.
This is also described in the story narrated in Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Canto Ten, Chapter Eighty-nine, which begins with this verse (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.89.1):
"Long ago there was an assembly of great sages on the bank of the river Sarasvati, and they performed a great sacrifice of the name Satrayajna. In such assemblies, the great sages present usually discuss Vedic subject matters and philosophical topics, and in this particular meeting the following question was raised: The three predominating deities of the material world, namely Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu, and Lord Shiva, are directing all the affairs of this cosmos, but who among them is the Supreme?"*
atra shri-vishnoh sthanam ca kshirodadikam padmottara-khandadau jagat-palana-nimittika-nivedanartham brahmadayas tatra muhur gacchantiti prasiddheh. vishnulokataya prasiddhesh ca. brihat-sahasra-namni ca kshirabdhi-mandira iti tan-nama-gane paöhyate. shvetadvipa-pateh kvacid aniruddhataya khyatish ca. tasya sakshad evavirbhava ity apekshayeti. shri-shukah.
atra-here; shri-vishnoh-of Lord Vishnu; sthanam-the position; ca-and; kshirodadikam-beginning with the milk ocean; padmottara-khandadau-beginning with the Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda; jagat-of thwe worlds; palana-protection; nimittika-cause; nivedana-request; artham-for the purpose; brahmadayah-headed by Brahma; tatra-there; muhuh-again and again; gacchanti-go; iti-thus; prasiddheh.-from the proof; vishnulokataya-as the planet of Lord Vishnu; prasiddheh-from the proof; ca.-also; brihat-sahasra-namni-in the Brihat-sahasra-namna; ca-also; kshirabdhi-mandira-in the abode mof the milk ocean; iti-thus; tan-nama-gane-in chanting His holy names; paöhyate-is read; shvetadvipa-pateh-of the master of Svetadvipa; kvacit-somwehere; aniruddhataya-as Aniruddha; khyatih-celebrated; ca.-and; tasya-of Him; sakshat-directly; eva-indeed; avirbhava-manifestation; iti-thus; apekshaya-in relation; iti.-thus; shri-shukah-Shri Sukadeva Gosvami.
This truth (that Lord Vishnu is the Supreme) is also proved by the fact that Brahma and the other demigods again and again go to the milk-ocean and the other abodes of Lord Vishnu to beg the Lord for protection, and also by the fact that the transcendental realm of Lord Vishnu is celebrated above all others. For example, the Lord's abode is glorified in the Brihat-sahasra-nama, which counts "kshirabdhi-mandira" (He whose palace is on the milk-ocean) among Lord Vishnu's names. In some places in the scriptures, Lord Aniruddha is called shvetadvipa-pati" (the master of Shvetadvipa). Lord Aniruddha is a direct incarnation of Lord Vishnu. The verse quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda was spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.
Anucchedas 12 and 13
evam parikshaya tatra tri-devyas taratamyam api sphuöam. tatha canyatra dvayenaha
evam-thus; parikshaya-by a test; tatra-there; tri-devyah-the three demigods; taratamyam-the various statuses; api-also; sphuöam.-clearly seen; tatha-so; ca-also; anyatra-in another place; dvayena-by two verses; aha-said.
In this story (Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Canto Ten, Chapter Eighty-nine) a certain test clearly determines the relative importance of the three Deities (Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva). The relative of importance of these three Deities is also explained in two verses of Shrimad-Bhagavatam. The first of these verses is given here (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.2.23):
sattvam rajas tama iti prakriter gunas tair
yuktah parah purusha eka ihasya dhatte
shreyamsi tatra khalu sattva-tanor nrinam syuh
sattvam-goodness; rajah-passion; tama-the darkness of ignorance; iti-thus; prakriteh-of material nature; gunah-qualities; taih-by them; yuktah-associated with; parah-transcendental; purushah-the personality; eka-one; iha asya-of this material world; dhatte-accepts; sthity-adaye-for the matter of creation, maintenance, and destruction, etc.; hari-Vishnu, the Personality of Godhead; virinca-Brahma; hara-Lord Shiva; iti-thus; samjnah-different features; shreyamsi-ultimate benefit; tatra-therein; khalu-of course; sattva-goodness; tanoh-form; nrinam-of the human being; syuh-derived.
"the transcendental Personality of Godhead is indirectly associated with the three modes of material nature, namely passion, goodness, and ignorance, and just for the material world's creation, maintenance, and destruction He accepts the three qualitative forms of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Of these three, all human beings can derive ultimate benefit from Vishnu, the form of the quality of goodness."*
iha yadyapy eka eva parah puman asya vishvasya sthity-adaye sthiti-shrishöi-layartham taih sattvadibhir yuktah prithak prithak tat-tad-adhishöhata. tathapi paras tad-asamslishöah san hari-virinci-hareti samjna bhinna dhatte. tat-tad-rupenavirbhavatity arthah. tathapi tatra tesham madhye shreyamsi dharmartha-kama-moksha-bhakty-akhyani sattva-tanor adhishöhita-sattva-shakteh shri-vishnor eva syuh.
iha-here; yadyapi-although; eka-one; eva-indeed; parah-supreme; puman-person; asya-of this; vishvasya-universe; sthity-adaye-beginning with maintenance; sthiti-shrishöi-laya-maintenance, creation, and destruction; artham-the meaning; taih-by them; sattvadibhih-beginning with goodness; yuktah-engaged; prithak prithak-separately; tat-tad-adhishöhata-the controller of them; tathapi-nevertheless; parah-supreme; tad-asamslishöah-not touched by them; san-being so; hari-virinci-hara-Brahma, Vishnu, a dn Siba; iti-thus; samjna-names; bhinna-different; dhatte.-places; tat-tad-rupena-in these forms; avirbhavati-manifests; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning; tathapi-still; tatra-theer; tesham-of them; madhye-in the midst; shreyamsi-the best; dharmartha-kama-moksha-bhakty-akhyani-called religion, economic development, sense gratification, liberation, and devotional service; sattva-tanoh-of the form of goodness; adhishöhita-manifested; sattva-shakteh-of the power of goodness; shri-vishnoh-of Lord Vishnu; eva-indeed; syuh.-are.
This verse means: "Even though (api) He employs goodness and the other modes of material nature (taih) to create, maintain, and destroy (sthity-adaye) the material universe, the one (ekah) Supreme Person (parah) remains always untouched by these three modes. In this way He appears as the three forms Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva (hari-virinca-hareti-samjnah). Nevertheless, the best results are obtained from Lord Vishnu, who is the master of the potency of goodness (sattva-tanoh). These best results are religion, economic development, sense gratification, liberation, and devotional service."
ayam bhavah upadhi-drishöya tau dvau sevamane rajas-tamasor ghora-vimudhatvat bhavanto 'pi dharmartha-kama nati-sukhada bhavanti. tathopadhi-tyagena sevamane bhavann api moksho na sakshan na jaöhiti. kintu katham api paramatmamsha evayam ity anusandhanabhyasenaiva paramatmana eva bhavita.
ayam-this; bhavah-the meaning; upadhi-drishöya-by the sight of designations; tau-they; dvau-both; sevamane-serving; rajas-tamasoh-of passion and ignorance; ghora-vimudhatvat-because of being horribly bewildered; bhavantah-being; api-even; dharmartha-kama-religion, economic development, and sense gratficiation; na-not; ati-great; sukhada-bringing happiness; bhavanti-are; tatha-so; upadhi-tyagena-by renouncing designations; sevamane-serving; bhavann-being so; api-even; mokshah-liberation; na-not; sakshat-directly; na-not; jaöhiti.-at once; kintu-however; katham api-in some way; paramatmamsha-a part of the Supersoul; eva-indeed; ayam-this; iti-thus; anusandhanabhyasena-bys earching; eva-indeed; paramatmana-of the Supersoul; eva-indeed; bhavita-will be.
Here is the meaning: One who worships Brahma or Shiva with the idea that they are the deities of the modes of passion and ignorance obtains only religion, economic development, and sense gratification, which bring only very little happiness, as his result. He obtains only this because he is completely bewildered by the modes of passion and ignorance. Even if he abandons the idea that Brahma and Shiva are the Deities of specific modes, such a person cannot at once attain true liberation. Only when he understands that Brahma and Shiva are partial expansions of the Supersoul, and when he strives to find the Supersoul, can that person attain true liberation.
tatra tatra sakshat paramatmakarenaprakashat tasmat tabhyam shreyamsi na bhavantiti. athopadhi-drishöyapi shri-vishnum sevamane sattvasya shantatvat dharmartha-kama api sukhadah.
tatra tatra-there; sakshat-directly; paramatma-of the Supersul; akarena-as a form; aprakashat-because of non manifestation; tasmat-from that; tabhyam-by them; shreyamsi-the best; na-not; bhavanti-are; iti-thus; atha-then; upadhi-drishöya-by seeing the designation; api-also; shri-vishnum-Lord Vishnu; sevamane-serving; sattvasya-of goodness; shantatvat-because of being peaceful; dharmartha-kama-religion, sense gratifcation, and liberation; api-also; sukhadah.-giving happiness.
If one does not see them as expansions of the Supersoul, one will not attain auspiciousness by worshiping Brahma and Shiva. However, even thinking Him only the Deity of the mode of goodness, if one worships Lord Vishnu, one will attain auspiciousness. Such a person will easily attain whatever happiness may be obtained from religion, economic development, and sense gratification. He obtains this because of the peaceful and auspicious nature of the mode of goodness.
tatra nishkamatvena tu na sevamane sattvat sanjayate jnanam iti. kaivalyam sattvikam jnanam iti cokter mokshash ca sakshat.
tatra-there; nishkamatvena-without material desires; tu-but; na-not; sevamane-serves; sattvat sanjayate jnanam iti-Bhagavad-gita 14.17; kaivalyam sattvikam jnanam iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.25.24; ca-and; ukteh-of the statement; mokshah-liberation; ca-and; sakshat-directly.
Thus by worshiping Lord Vishnu without any material desires one attains true liberation. This is hinted by the following words of Bhagavad-gita (14.17):
"From the mode of goodness, real knowledge develops."*
It is also hinted by these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.25.24):
"The mode of goodness brings spiritual knowledge."
ata uktam skande
bhava-pashac ca mocakah
kaivalyadah param brahma
vishnur eva sanatanah. iti.
atah-then; uktam-said; skande-in the Sakdna Purana; bandhakah-bondage; bhava-pashena-by the ropes of birth and death; bhava-pashat-from the ropes of birth and death; ca-and; mocakah-releasing; kaivalyadah-giving liberation; param-the Supreme; brahma-Absolute; vishnuh-Lord Vishnu; eva-indeed; sanatanah.-eternal; iti.-thus.
That the worship of Lord Vishnu brings liberation is also confirmed by the following words of the Skanda Purana:
"He binds the souls with the ropes of birth and death. He unties the ropes of birth and death that bind the souls. Eternal Lord Vishnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, brings liberation."
upadhi-parityagena tu pancama-purushartho bhaktir eva bhavati. tasya paramatmakarenaiva prakashat. tasmat shri-vishnor eva shreyamsi syur iti.
upadhi-parityagena-by abandoning the designation; tu-but; pancama-purusharthah-the fifth goal of life; bhaktih-devotional service; eva-indeed; bhavati.-is; tasya-of Him; paramatmakarena-as a form of the Supersoul; eva-indeed; prakashat.-fromk the manifestation; tasmat-from Him; shri-vishnoh-from Lord Vishnu; eva-indeed; shreyamsi-the best; syuh-are; iti-thus.
By giving up the idea that Lord Vishnu is merely the Deity of the mode of goodness one becomes eligible to attain devotional service, which is the fifth goal of life (superior to the other four goals: religion, economic development, sense gratification, and liberation). Such a person attains devotional service because he understands that Lord Vishnu is identical with the Supersoul. In this way all good things (shreyamsi) come from worshiping Lord Vishnu.
atra tu yat-trayanam abheda-vakyenopajapta-matayo vivadante. tatredam kramah yadyapi taratamyam idam adhishöhana-gatam eva. adhishöhata tu parah purusha eka eveti bhedasambhavat. satyam evabheda-vakyam tathapi tasya tatra tatra sakshattvasakshattva-bedena prakashena taratamyam durnivaram eveti sa-drishöantam aha
atra-here; tu-but; yat-which; trayanam-of the three; abheda-vakyena-by the declataionm of non-difference; upajapta-matayah-they who declare the idea; vivadante-debate; tatra-there; idam-thus; kramah-in sequence; yadyapi-although; taratamyam-relative importance; idam-this; adhishöhana-establishment; gatam-attained; eva.-indeed; adhishöhata-the establisher; tu-indeed; parah-superior; purusha-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eka-one; eva-indeed; iti-thus; bhedasambhavat-because of non0differentce; satyam-truth; eva-indeed; abheda-of non difference; vakyam-statement; tathapi-nevertheless; tasya-of Him; tatra-there; tatra-there; sakshattva-directly; aasakshattva-not directly; bhedena-by difference; prakashena-manifestation; taratamyam-relatuve importance; durnivaram-dififcult to prevent; eva-certainly; iti-thus; sa-drishöantam-with an example; aha-said.
Some philosophers, claiming that the three Deities Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are identical in all respects, may dispute these conclusions. Here is the explanation given in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.23): Although the three modes of nature are not equal, and are indeed situated in different levels of merit, nevertheless, they are all manifested and controlled by the one Supreme Personality of Godhead (parah purusha ekah). Therefore the controllers of the modes are not different from Lord Vishnu. These words are certainly the truth. However, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are still different in the sense that some are direct manifestations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and others are indirect manifestations of the Lord. Therefore one cannot reject the idea that the modes and their Deities are situated in different levels of importance. This is described in the following example given by Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.24):
parthivad daruno dhumas
tasmad agnis trayimayah
tamasas tu rajas tasmat
sattvam yad brahma-darshanat
parthivat-from earth; darunah-firewood; dhumah-smoke; tasmat-from that; agnih-fire; trayi-Vedic sacrifices; mayah-made of; tamasah-in the mode of ignorance; tu-but; rajah-the mode of passion; tasmat-from that; sattvam-the mode of goodness; yat-which; brahma-the Absolute Truth; darshanat-realization.
"Firewood is a transformation of earth, but smoke is better than the raw wood. And fire is still better, for by fire we can derive the benefits of superior knowledge (through Vedic sacrifices). Similarly, passion (rajas) is better than ignorance (tamas), but goodness (sattva) is best because by goodness one can come to realize the Absolute Truth."*
parthivan na tu dhumavad amshenagneyat. tata eva vedokta-karmanah sakshat pravritti-prakasha-rahitad daruno yajniyan mathana-kashöhat sakashad amshenagneyo dhumas trayimayah purvapekshaya vedokta-karmadhikyavirbhavaspadam. tasmad api svayam agnis trayimayah sakshat tad-ukta-karmavirbhavaspadam. evam kashöha-sthaniyat sattva-guna-vidurat tamasah sakashad dhuma-sthaniyam kincit sattva-sannihitam rajo brahma-darshanam. vedokta-karma-sthaniyasya tat-tad-avatarinah purushasya prakasha-dvaram.
parthivat-from earth; na-not; tu-but; dhumavat-like smoke; amshena-by a part; agneyat-frpm fire; tata-from that; eva-indeed; vedokta-spoken in the Vedas; karmanah-of duties; sakshat-directly; pravritti-action; prakasha-manifestation; rahitat-without; darunah-firewood; yajniyan-suitable ofr yajnas; mathana-kashöhat-by rubbing the wood; sakashat-in the presence; amshena-by a part; agneyah-possessing fire; dhumah-smoke; trayimayah-consisting of the three Vedas; purvapekshaya-in relation ot the previous; vedokta-spoken in the Vedas; karma-actions; adhikya-superiority; avirbhava-manifestation; aspadam-abode; tasmat-from that; api-even; svayam-personally; agnih-fire; trayimayah-the three Vedas; sakshat-directly; tad-ukta-karmavirbhavaspadam-the manifestation of the activities described there; evam-thus; kashöha-sthaniyat-the situation of wood; sattva-guna-vidurat-far from the mode of goodness; tamasah-of ignorance; sakashat-in the presence; dhuma-sthaniyam-the situation of smoke; kincit-something; sattva-sannihitam-with goodness; rajah-passion; brahma-the Absolute Truth; darshanam-seeing; vedokta-described in the Vedas; karma-actions; sthaniyasya-of the situation; tat-tad-avatarinah-incarnations; purushasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prakasha-dvaram-by the manifestation.
Firewood manifested from earth (parthivat) is not like smoke, for smoke has some fire within it. In the same way the mode of ignorance does not manifest the duties described in the Vedas, but in the mode of passion the duties described in the Vedas may be partially manifested. By rubbing two wooden sticks one may create some and then a fire that may be used to perform a yajna. In this way smoke may lead to performance of Vedic duties (tryimayah). In this way smoke, or passion, is considered to be a better resting place for the duties described in the Vedas. Better than smoke, however, is fire. In this way it is seen that in the mode of goodness the duties described in the Vedas are directly manifested. Therefore goodness is better than passion. As wood is far from actual fire, so ignorance is far from goodness. As smoke is not as far from fire, so passion is not as far from goodness. From the mode of goodness one may attain brahma-darshanam (the realization of the Absolute Truth). Thus by following the duties described in the Vedas one comes to have realization of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
tu-shabdena layatmakat tamasah sakashad rajasah sopadhika-jnana-hetutveneshat tad-guna-cchavi-pradurbhava-rupam kincid brahma-darshana-pratyasatti-matram uktam. na tu sarvatha. vikshepakatvat.
tu-shabdena-by the word tu; layatmakat-the nature of destruction; tamasah-of ignorance; sakashat-in the presence; rajasah-of passion; sa-with; upadhika-designation; jnana-knowledge; hetutvena-by the cause; ishat-from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tad-guna-of those modes; cchavi-light; pradurbhava-manifestation; rupam-form; kincit-something; brahma-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; darshana-the sight; pratyasatti-nearness; matram-only; uktam.-said; na-not; tu-but; sarvatha-in all respects; vikshepakatvat-because of throwing.
By the word "tu" (but) is hinted the truth that the mode of ignorance brings destruction. Because it brings some material knowledge, the mode of passion brings a little light to see the Supreme. In other words, in the mode of passion one comes closer to seeing the Supreme. However, because it is so agitating and troublesome, the mode of passion does not allow one to see the Supreme properly.
yad agni-sthaniyam sattvam. tat sakshad brahmano darshanam. sakshad eva samyak tat-tad-guna-rupavirbhava-dvaram. shanta-svaccha-svabhavatmakatvat. ato beahma-shivayor asakshattvam shri-vishnau tu sakshattvam siddham iti bhavah.
yat-what; agni-sthaniyam-the place of fire; sattvam.-goodness; tat-that; sakshat-directly; brahmanah-of the Supreme; darshanam.-the sight; sakshat-directly; eva-indeed; samyak-properly; tat-tad-guna-rupa-the nature of that mode; avirbhava-dvaram-by the manifestation; shanta-peaceful; svaccha-clear; svabhavatmakatvat-because of the nature; atah-then; beahma-shivayoh-of Brahma and Siva; asakshattvam-the nature of nnot being direct; shri-vishnau-in Shri Vishnu; tu-but; sakshattvam-directness; siddham-proved; iti-thus; bhavah-the meaning.
In this verse goodness is compared to fire. This is because in goodness one can directly see the Supreme. Because goodness is by nature peaceful and pure, goodness enables one to directly and properly see the Supreme. In this way it is proved that Brahma and Shiva are indirect incarnations and Lord Vishnu is a direct incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is the meaning.
tatha ca shri-vamana-purane
trini vishnor mahatmanah
brahmani brahma-rupah sa
shiva-rupah shive sthitah
prithag eva sthito devo
vishnu-rupi janardanah. iti.
tatha-so; ca-and; shri-vamana-purane-in Shri Vamana Purana; brahma-vishnv-isha-rupani-the forms of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva; trini-thre; vishnoh-of Vishnu; mahatmanah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; brahmani-in Brahma; brahma-rupah-the form of Brahma; sa-he; shiva-rupah-the from of Siva; shive-in Siva; sthitah-situated; prithag-separately; eva-indeed; sthitah-situated; devah-the Lord; vishnu-rupi-in the form of Vishnu; janardanah.-who rescues His devotees from troubles and sufferings; iti-thus.
The ruth that Lord Vishnu is directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead is also explained in these words of Shri Vamana Purana:
"The three forms of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are all manifested from Lord Vishnu, who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Brahma appears in the form of Brahma, and Shiva appears in the form of Shiva. Lord Vishnu, however, is different from either Brahma or Shiva, for Lord Vishnu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, the Lord who delivers His devotees from distress."
tad uktam brahma-samhitayam
bhasvan yathashma-sakaleshu nijeshu tejah
sviyam kiyat prakaöayaty api tadvad atra
brahma ya eva jagadanda-vidhana-karta
govindam adi-purusham tam aham6 bhajami
tat-that; uktam-said; brahma-samhitayam-in Brahma-samhita; bhasvan-splendid; yatha-as; ashma-sakaleshu-in all jewels; nijeshu-own; tejah-light; sviyam-own; kiyat-how much?; prakaöayati-manifests; api-even; tadvat-like that; atra-here; brahma-Brahma; ya-who; eva-indeed; jagadanda-vidhana-karta-the creator of the universe; govindam-Lord Krishna; adi-purusham-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tam-Him; aham-I; bhajami-worship.
The relative natures of Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu are also described in these words of Brahma-samhita (5.49, 5.45, and 5.46):
"I adore the primeval Lord Govinda from whom the separated subjective portion Brahma receives his power for the regulation of the mundane world, just as the sun manifests some portion of his own light in all the effulgent gems that bear the names of suryakanta etc.**
kshiram yatha dadhi-vikara-vishesha-yogat
sanjayate na tu tatah prithag asti hetoh
yah sambhutam api tatha samupaiti karyad
govindam adi-purusham tam aham6 bhajami
kshiram-milk; yatha-as; dadhi-vikara-vishesha-yogat-the transformastion of yogurt; sanjayate-is born; na-not; tu-but; tatah-then; prithag-separat; asti-is; hetoh-from the reason; yah-whom; sambhutam-born; api-even; tatha-so; samupaiti-attains; karyat-from trhe action; govindam-Krishna; adi-purusham-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tam-Him; aham-I; bhajami-worship.
"Just as milk is transformed into curd by the action of acids, but yet the effect curd is neither the same as, nor different from, its cause, viz. milk, so I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whom the state of Shambhu is a transformation for the performance of the work of destruction."**
diparcir eva hi dashantaram abhyupetya
yas tadrig eva hi ca vishnutaya vibhati
govindam adi-purusham tam aham6 bhajami. ity adi.
diparcih-the light of a lamp; eva-indeed; hi-indeed; dashantaram-another lamp; abhyupetya-expanding; dipayate-illuminates; vivrita-hetu-samana-dharma-the equally powerful expansion; yah-who; tadrig-like that; eva-indeed; hi-indeed; ca-also; vishnutaya-as Lord Vishnu; vibhati-is manifested; govindam-Lord Krishna; adi-purusham-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tam-Him; aham-I; bhajami-worship.
"The light of one candle being communicated to another candle, although it burns separately in them, is the same in its quality. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, who exhibits Himself equally in the same mobile manner in His various manifestations."**
na ca dadhi-drishöantena vikaritvam ayatam. tasya shrutes tu shabda-mulatvat iti nyayena muhuh parihritatvat.
na-not; ca-qand; dadhi-drishöantena-by the4 example of curd; vikaritvam-transformation; ayatam.-attained; tasya-of that; shruteh-of the Sruti; tu-indeed; shabda-mulatvat-because of being the root of the scriptures; iti-thus; nyayena-by the Vedanta-sutra; muhuh-again and again; parihritatvat-because of being refuted.
The example of curd given in this verse does not support the impersonalists' theory of transformation, for that theory is again and again refuted by the scriptures, and the scriptures' opinion should be accepted, as is declared by the Vedanta-sutra (2.1.27):
shrutes tu shabda-mulatvat
"The scriptures are the root of knowledge."
yathoktam yata udayastamayo vivriter mrd ivavikritat iti.
yatha-as; uktam-said; yata udayastamayo vivriter mrd ivavikritat iti-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.87.15.
An example of the scriptures refutation of the impersonalists' theory of transformation is given in these word of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.15):
"As many things may be created from clay and then again dissolved into the original clay, but the original clay itself remains unchanged, in the same way the Supreme Personality of Godhead creates and annihilates the worlds, but He Himself remains always unchanged."
drishöanta-trayena tu kramenedam labhyate. suryakanta-sthaniye brahmopadhau suryasyeva tasya kincit prakashah. dadhi-sthaniye shambhupadhau kshira-sthaniyasya na tadrg api prakashah. dasantara-sthaniye vishnupadhau tu purna eva prakasha iti. shri-sutah.
drishöanta-trayena-by three examples; tu-indeed; kramena-in sequence; idam-this; labhyate-is obtained; suryakanta-of suryakanta; sthaniye-in the place; brahmopadhau-the designation of Brahma; suryasya-of the sun; iva-like; tasya-of Him; kincit-something; prakashah.-manifestation; dadhi-sthaniye-in the place of curd; shambhupadhau-the designbation of Shiva; kshira-sthaniyasya-of the place of milk; na-not; tadrg-like that; api-even; prakashah-manifestation; dasantara-sthaniye-in the place of lamps; vishnupadhau-the designation of Vishnu; tu-but; purna-full; eva-indeed; prakasha-manifestation; iti-thus; shri-sutah-Shri Suta Gosvami.
The three examples given in the verses from Brahma-samhita may be understood in the following way. The example of the sun and the suryakanta jewels describes Brahma. In this way it is seen that Brahma is a very limited manifestation of the Supreme Lord. The example of milk and curd describes Shiva. In this way it is seen that Shiva is not like the Supreme Lord. The example of one lamp lighting other lamps describes Lord Vishnu. In this way it is seen that Lord Vishnu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself in all fullness. The verse quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda was spoken by Shri Suta Gosvami.
evam evaha tribhih
shivah shakti-yutah sakshat
vaikarikas taijasash ca
tamasash cety aham tridha
evam-thus; eva-indeed; aha-says; tribhih-by three; shivah--Lord Shiva; shakti-yutah-associated with material nature; sakshat-eternally; tri-lingah-in three features; guna-samvritah-covered by the modes of nature; vaikarikah-one is called vaikarika; taijasas ca-another is called taijasa; tamasas ca-as well as tamasa; iti-thus; aham-egotism; tridha-three kinds.
The relative status of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva is also described in these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.88.3-5):
"The truth about Lord Shiva is that he is always covered with three material coverings: vaikarika, taijasa, and tamasa. Because of these three modes of material nature, he always associates with the external energy and egotism itself.*
tato vikara bhagavan
sarvasam ashnute gatim
tatah-from that; vikara-transformations; abhavan-were; shodasha-sixteen; amisu-among them; kincana-something; upadhavan-pursuing; vibhutinam-of opulences; sarvasam-of all; ashnute-enjoys; gatim-goal.
"From egotism are manifested the sixteen elements. Pursuing these elements, the living entity enjoys various opulences.
harir hi nirgunah sakshat
purushah prakriteh parah
sa sarva-drig upadrashöa
tam bhajan nirguno bhavet
harih-the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vishnu; hi-certainly; nirgunah-transcendental to all material qualities; sakshat-directly; purushah-the supreme enjoyer; prakriteh-material nature; parah-beyond; sa-He; sarva-drik-the seer of everything; upadrashöa-the overseer of everything; tam-Him; bhajan-by worshiping; nirgunah-transcendental to material qualities; bhavet-one becomes.
"Shri Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is situated beyond the range of material nature. Therefore He is the supreme transcendental person. He can see everything inside and outside. Therefore He is the supreme overseer of all living entities. If someone takes shelter at His lotus feet and worships Him, he also attains a transcendental position."*
shashvac-chakti-yutah prathamatas tavan nityam eva shaktya guna-samyavastha-prakriti-rupopadhina yuktah. guna-kshobhe sati tri-lingo guna-trayopadhih. prakaöaish ca sadbhis tair gunaih samvritash ca.
shashvac-chakti-yutah-shashvac-chakti-yutah; prathamatah-first; tavan-then; nityam-always; eva-inded; shaktya-by the potency; guna-modes; samyaa-equality; avastha-situation; prakriti-of matter; rupa-form; upadhina-with the designations; yuktah.-with; guna-kshobhe-in agitation of the modes; sati-being so; tri-lingah-three features; guna-trayopadhih.-designatuions of the htree modes; prakaöaih-manifested; ca-and; sadbhih-being so; taih-by them; gunaih-by the modes; samvritah-with; ca-also.
The word "shashvac-chakti-yutah" means "In the beginning Lord Shiva is accompanied by his eternal potency." That is to say he is accompanied by the material feature where the modes of nature are balanced equally against each other, and no one of them dominates the others. The word "tri-lingah" means "when the modes are agitated, the equilibrium is broken, and the three material modes manifest their individual natures."
nanu tama-upadhitvam eva tasya shruyate. katham tat-tad-upadhitvam. tatraha vaikarika iti.
nanu-is it not so?; tama-upadhitvam-the designation of ignorance; eva-indeed; tasya-of that; shruyate.-is heard; katham-how?; tat-tat-various; upadhitvam-the state of having designation; tatra-there; aha-says; vaikarika iti-the word vaikarika.
Here someone may ask: "The scriptures declare that Lord Shiva associates with the mode of ignorance. Why do you say, then, that he associates with all the modes?"
To this question this passage of Shrimad-Bhagavatam answers with the word "vaikarikah" (Lord Shiva associates with goodness, passion, and ignorance).
aham ahan-tattvam hi tat-tad-rupena tridha. sa ca tad-adhishöhatety arthah. mukhyataya nastam namanyad guna-dvayam. gaunataya tv asta evety arthah.
aham-aham; ahan-tattvam-egotism; hi-indeed; tat-tad-rupena-in various forms; tridha.-three kinds; sa-he; ca-and; tat-of that; adhishöhata-the controller; iti-thus; arthah.-the meaning; mukhyataya-primary meaning na-not; astam-may be; nama-name; anyat-another; guna-dvayam.-two modes; gaunataya-with the secondary meaning; tv-but; aste-is; eva-indeed; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
Here the word "aham" means "egotism", and "tridha" means "that egotism is manifested in three forms". The meaning is that Lord Shiva is the presiding deity of these three kinds of egotism. In this passage the direct meaning should not be accepted. The secondary meaning should be accepted in its place.
tatas tena bhagavat-pratinidhi-rupenadhishöhitad ahan-tattvat shodasha vikara ye abhavann amishu vikareshu madhye sarvasam vibhutinam sambandhi kincana upadhavan. tad-upadhikatvena tam upasino gatim prapyam phalam labhate.
tatah-then; tena-by thisa; bhagavat-pratinidhi-rupena-as the representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhishöhitat-established; ahan-tattvat-from egotism; shodasha-sixteen; vikara-transformations; ye-which; abhavann-were; amishu-among them; vikareshu-transformations; madhye-in the midst; sarvasam-of all; vibhutinam-opulences; sambandhi-relationship; kincana-something; upadhavan-pursuing; tad-upadhikatvena-by that designation; tam-that; upasinah-worshiping; gatim-goal; prapyam-to be attained; phalam-result; labhate-obtains.
In this way Lord Shiva acts as a the representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. From egotism are manifested the sixteen (shodasha) transformations (vikarah) that are the material elements. The living entities pursue (kincana upadhavan) all (sarvasam) the opulences (vibhutinam) manifested among these elements. By worshiping Lord Shiva, they attain their goals (gatim).
hi prasiddhau hetau va. haris tu prakriter upadhitah paras tad-dharmair asprishöah. ata eva nirguno 'pi kutas tri-lingatvadikam iti bhavah. tatra hetuh sakshad eva purusha ishvarah. na tu pratibimbavad vyavadhanenety arthah.
hi-hi; prasiddhau-in proof; hetau-in reason; va.-or; harih-Lord Krishna; tu-indeed; prakriteh-of matter; upadhitah-designated; parah-transcendental; tad-dharmaih-by those natures; asprishöah.-untouched; ata eva-therefore; nirgunah-nirguna; api-also; kutah-from where?; tri-lingatvadikam-beginning with the three features; iti-thus; bhavah.-the meaning; tatra-there; hetuh-the reason; sakshat-directly; eva-indeed; purusha-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ishvarah.-the controller; na-not; tu-but; pratibimbavat-like a reflection; vyavadhanena-by separation; iti-thus; arthah-the meaning.
In the last of these verses the word "hi" means either "it is certainly well known" or "it is certainly proved". The words "harih purushah prakriteh parah" mean "Lord Hari is never touched by the material energy". For this reason, Lord Hari is said here to be nirgunah" (beyond the modes of material nature). This being so, how is it possible that Lord Hari can come under the influence of the material modes? (It is not possible.) the reason Lord Hari never comes under the influence of the material modes is given in the words "sakshat purushah", which mean that He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller. He is not a reflection of something else that is the true Supreme. He is the Supreme.
atah vidyavidye mama tanu itivat tanu-shabdopadanat kutracit sattva-shaktitva-shravanam api prekshadi-matrenopakaritvad iti bhavah. ata eva sarvesham shiva-brahmadinam drik jnanam yasmat tatha-bhutah sann upadrashöa tad-adi-sakshi bhavati. atas tam bhajan nirguno bhaved gunatita-phala-bhag bhavatiti. shri-shukah.
atah-therefore; vidyavidye mama tanu itivat-as in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.11.3; tanu-shabdopadanat-from the word tanu"; kutracit-somewhere; sattva-shaktitva-the goodness potency; shravanam-hearing; api-even; preksha-with seeing; adi-beginning; matrena-merely; upakaritvat-because of helping; iti-thus; bhavah.-the meaning; ata eva-therefore; sarvesham-of all; shiva-brahmadinam-beginning with Siva and Brahma; drik-seeing; jnanam-knowledge; yasmat-from which; tatha-bhutah-in that way; san-being so; upadrashöa-the oevrseer; tad-adi-of the living entities beginning with them; sakshi-the witness; bhavati.-is; atah-therefore; tam-Him; bhajan-worshipinf; nirgunah-beyond the modes of nature; bhavet-may become; guna-the modes; atita-beyond; phala-the result; bhak-possessing; bhavati-is iti-thus; shri-shukah-Shri Sukadeva Gosvami.
Here the word "tanuh" is used in the same way as in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.11.3. In various places in the scriptures the potency of the Lord is described. In this way, merely by glancing, Lord Hari can perform various activities. That is the meaning. The word "upadrashöa" here means that Lord Hari is the witness. "Sarva-drik" means that Lord Hari has direct knowledge of Shiva, Brahma, and all other living entities. The words "tam bhajan nirguno bhavet" mean that a person who worships Lord Hari also transcends the influence of the material modes. The verses quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda were spoken by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami.
ata eva vishnor eva parama-purushena sakshad abhedoktim aha
ata eva-therefore; vishnoh-Lord Vishnu; eva-indeed; parama-purushena-as the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sakshat-directly; abheda-non-difference; uktim-statement; aha-says.
That Lord Vishnu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself is confirmed by the following words, where the demigod Brahma describes Lord Vishnu (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 2.6.32):
shrijami tan-niyukto 'ham
haro harati tad-vashah
paripati tri-shakti-dhrik. iti.
shrijami-do create; tat-by His; niyuktah-appointment; aham-I; harah-Lord Siva; harati-destroys; tad-vashah-under His subordination; vishvam-the whole universe; purusha-the Personality of Godhead; rupena--by His eternal form; paripati-maintains; tri-shakti-dhrik-the controller of three energies; iti.-thus.
"By His will, I create, Lord Shiva destroys, and He Himself, in His eternal form as the Personality of Godhead, maintains everything. He is the powerful controller of these three energies."*
aham brahma. shrutish catra sa brahmana shrijati. sa rudrena vilapayati. so 'nutpattir alaya eva harih parah paramanandah iti mahopanishadi.
aham-I; brahma.-Brahma; shrutih-The sruti-sastra; ca-also; atra-here; sa-He; brahmana-by Brahma; shrijati.-creates; sa-He; rudrena-by Siva; vilapayati-destroys; sah-He; anutpattih-never born; alaya-the abode; eva-indeed; harih-Lord Hari; parah-the Supreme; paramanandah-full of transcendental bliss; iti-thus; mahopanishadi-in the Maha Upanisad.
Here the word "aham" (I) refers to Lord Brahma. That Lord Hari is the Supreme Personality of Godhead is also confirmed by the following words of the Maha Upanishad (2.3.14):
"Using Brahma as His agent, Lord Hari creates the material universe. Using Shiva as His agent, Lord Hari destroys the material universe. Lord Hari is the blissful Supreme Personality of Godhead. He was never born. He is the shelter in which everything rests."
shri-brahma-Shri Brahma; shri-naradam-to Shri Narada.
The verse quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda was spoken by Shri Brahma to Shri Narada.
vishvatma bhagavan harih
yasya prasada-jo brahma
rudrah krodha-samudbhavah. iti.
tatha-so; eva-indeed; aha-said; atra-here; anuvarnyate-is described; abhikshnam-again and again; vishvatma-the soul of the universes; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; harih-Hari; yasya-of whom; prasada-jah-born from the mercy; brahma-Brahma; rudrah-Siva; krodha-samudbhavah-bron from the anger; iti-thus.
In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.1) it is also said:
"In this book the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari, is described again and again. Lord Hari is the soul of the universe. From His mercy Brahma is born, and from His anger Shiva is born."
atra shri-vishnur na kathita iti tena sakshad abheda evety ayatam. tad uktam sa u eva vishnuh iti.
atra-here; shri-vishnuh-Lord Vishnu; na-not; kathita-said; iti-thus; tena-by Him; sakshat-directly; abheda-not different; eva-indeed; iti-thus; ayatam-attained; tat-that; uktam-said; sa-He; u-indeed; eva-indeed; vishnuh-Vishnu; iti-thus.
Although the word "vishnu" is not expressly used here, Lord Vishnu is meant, for Lord Vishnu is not different from Lord Hari. This is confirmed by the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.8.15):
"Lord Vishnu personally entered as the Supersoul."*
shrutish ca purusho ha vai narayano 'kamayata. atha narayanad ajo 'jayata. yatah prajah sarvani bhutani.
shrutih-the Sruti-sastra; ca-laos; purushah-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ha-indeed; vai-indeed; narayanah-Narayana; akamayata-desired; atha-then; narayanat-from Lord Narayana; ajah-Brahma; ajayata-was born; yatah-from whom; prajah-the living entities; sarvani-all; bhutani-elements.
In the Narayana Upanishad (1) it is said:
"Narayana is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He desired, `I shall create children'. From Narayana Brahma was born. From Narayana the living entities and material elements were manifested."
narayanah param brahma
tattvam narayanah param
shritam satyam param brahma
purusham krishna-pingalam. iti.
narayanah-Narayana; param brahma tattvam-the Supreme Truth; narayanah-Narayana; param-Supreme; shritam-manifested; satyam-eternal; param brahma purusham-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krishna-pingalam-with a dark complexion; iti-thus.
In the scriptures it is also said:
"Narayana is the Supreme Brahman. He is the Supreme Truth. He is the real, eternal Supreme Spirit. He is a person with a dark complexion."
eko narayana asin na brahma na ca shankarah. sa murtir bhutva samacintayat. tata evaite vyajayanta vishvo hiranyagarbho 'gnir varuna-rudrendrah iti ca.
ekah-one; narayana-Narayana; asit-was; na-not; brahma-Brahma; na-not; ca-and; shankarah-Siva; sa-this; murtih-form; bhutva-manifesting; samacintayat-thought; tata-then; eva-indeed; ete-they; vyajayanta-were born; vishvah-the universe; hiranyagarbhah-Brahma; agnih-Agni; varuna-rudrendrah-Varuna, Siva, and Indra; iti-thus; ca-also.
It is also said:
"In the beginning of creation there was only the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, and there was no existence of Brahma or Shiva.* Manifesting His transcendental form, Narayana began to think, and from His thinking were born the universe and the demigods Brahma, Agni, Varuna, Shiva, and Indra."
tasmat tasyaiva varnaniyatvam api yuktam. shri-sutah.
tasmat-therefore; tasya-of Him; eva-indeed; varnaniyatvam-the state of being worthy to be described; api-also; yuktam-endowed; shri-sutah-Shri Suta Gosvami.
Therefore, for these reasons one should describe the glories of Lord Narayana. The verse quoted in the beginning of this anuccheda was spoken by Shrila Suta Gosvami.
nanu trayanam eka-bhavanam yo na pashyati vai bhidam. tatha na te mayy acyute 'je ca bhidam anv api cakshate ity adav abheda eva shruyate. puranantare ca vishnutas tayor bhede narakah shruyate. satyam. vayam api bhedam na brumah. parama-purushasyaiva tat-tad-rupam ity ekatmatvenaivopakrantatvat.
nanu-is it not so?; trayanam eka-bhavanam yo na pashyati vai bhidam-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 4.7.54; tatha na te mayy acyute 'je ca bhidam anv api cakshate ity adau-Shrimad-Bhagavatam 12.10.22; abheda-not different; eva-indeed; shruyate-described in the scriptures; puranantare-in another pUrana; ca-also; vishnutah-from Lord Vishnu; tayoh-of them both; bhede-in difference; narakah-a resident of hell; shruyate-is described in the scriptures; satyam-truth; vayam-we; api-also; bhedam-difference; na-not; brumah-say; parama-purushasya-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; eva-indeed; tat-tad-rupam-various forms; iti-thus; ekatmatvena-as one person; eva-indeed; upakrantatvat-from what was begun.
Here someone may protest: Is it not so that Shrimad-Bhagavatam (4.7.54) declares:
"One who does not consider Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, or the living entities in general, to be separate from the Supreme, and who knows Brahman, actually realizes peace. Others do not."*
Is it not also so that in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.10.22) Lord Vishnu Himself declares:
"The devotees do not think that I am different from the demigod Brahma."
In another Purana it is also said that anyone who thinks that Brahma and Shiva are different from Lord Vishnu becomes a resident of hell.
To this protest I give the following reply: That is true. We also say that Brahma and Shiva are not different from Lord Vishnu. From the very beginning we have said that even though He manifests many different forms, the Supreme Personality of Godhead remains one person.
shivo brahma ca bhinna-svabhavaditaya drishyamano 'pi pralaye shrishöau ca tasmat svatantra evanya ishvara iti na mantavyam. kintu vishnv-atmaka eva sa sa iti hi tatrarthah. tad uktam brahmani brahma-rupah sah ity adi.
shivah-Shiva; brahma-Brahma; ca-and; bhinna-svabhavaditaya-beginning with possessing a different nature; drishyamanah-being seen; api-also; pralaye-in annihilation; shrishöau-in creation; ca-also; tasmat-from that; svatantra-independent; evanya-personally; ishvara-the controller; iti-thus; na-not; mantavyam-to be considered; kintu-however; vishnu-Lord Vishnu; atmaka-the Self; eva-indeed; sa-he; sa-he; iti-thus; hi-indeed; tatra-there; arthah-the meaning; tat-that; uktam-said; brahmani-in Brahma; brahma-rupah-the form of Brahma; sah-he; iti-thus; adi-beginning.
Although Shiva and Brahma may seem to be independent of Lord Vishnu, they are not truly independent in their duties of cosmic creation and annihilation. They are dependent on Lord Vishnu. That is the meaning of the word "vishnv-atmaka" applied to them. The word means that they are dependent on Lord Vishnu. This is also described in the following words of the Vamana Purana:
"The demigod Brahma takes shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."
na ca prakashasya sakshad-asakshad-rupatvadi taratamyam vayam kalpayamah. param shastram eva vadati. shastram tu darshitam. evam bhagavad-avataranukramanikasu trayanam bhedam angi-krityaiva kevalasya shri-dattasya ganana. soma-durvasasos tv aganana.
na-not; ca-and; prakashasya-of manifestation; sakshat-direct; asakshat-indirect; rupatva-having the form; adi-beginning with; taratamyam-gradations of higher and lower; vayam-we; kalpayamah-consider; param-best; shastram-scripture; eva-indeed; vadati-says; shastram-scripture; tu-but; darshitam-shown; evam-thus; bhagavad-avatara-of the incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anukramanikasu-in the sequence; trayanam-of the three; bhedam-difference; angi-kritya-accepting; eva-indeed; kevalasya-transcendental; shri-dattasya-of Lord Dattatreya; ganana-consideration; soma-durvasasoh-of Siva and Durvasa Muni; tv-but; aganana-not consideration.
Brahma and Shiva are not direct incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. they are indirect incarnations. We consider that the Lord has different grades of incarnations, some direct and other indirect. This is explained in the best of scriptures. Among the varying grades of incarnations the guna-avataras Shiva and Brahma are accepted as different from the Supreme Lord. Dattatreya is counted among the direct incarnations, but Shiva and Durvasa Muni are not counted among the direct incarnations.
kim ca brahma-vaivarte ca brahma-vakyam
naham shivo na canye ca
kridate 'smabhir acyutah. iti.
kim-furthermore; ca-also; brahma-vaivarte-in the Brahma-vaivarta Purana; ca-also; brahma-vakyam-the words of Brahma; na-not; aham-I; shivah-Shiva; na-not; ca-also; anye-others; ca-and; tac-chakty-ekamsha-bhaginah-parts of a part of His potency; bala-kriidanakaih-with childhood pastimes; yadvat-when; kridate-plays; asmabhih-with us; acyutah-the infallible Lord; iti-thus.
This is also confirmed in the Brahma-vaivarta Purana, where Brahma says:
"I am not the Supreme, Shiva is not the Supreme, and the other demigods are not the Supreme either. We are parts of the parts of one of the Supreme Lord's potencies. As an adult plays with children, so the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead plays with us."
ata eva shrutau yam kamaye tam ugram krinomi. tam brahmanam tam rishim tam sumedham ity uktva mama yonir apasv antah iti shakti-vacanam.
ata eva-therefore; shrutau-in the Sruti-sastra; yam-which; kamaye-desire; tam-that; ugram-horrible; krinomi-I do; tam-that; brahmanam-to Brahma; tam-him; rishim-the sage; tam-him; sumedham-intelligence; iti-thus; uktva-said; mama-of me; yonih-the birth; apasv-in water; antah-at the end; iti-thus; shakti-of the potency; vacanam-the words.
In the Shruti-shastra, Shakti says:
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead says: When I desire to destroy the universe, I employ ferocious Shiva. When I desire to create the universe, I employ saintly intelligent Brahma. When I desire to maintain the universe, I Myself appear. I manifest a form that lies down on the Karana waters."
apasv antar iti karanodashayi sucyate apo nara iti proktah ity adeh. yonih karanam.
apasv antah-in the water; iti-thus; karanodashayi-Karanodakashayi Vishnu; sucyate-is inicated; apah-apa; nara-nara; iti-thus; proktah-is said; iti-thus; adeh-beginning; yonih-yoni; karanam-cause.
Here the words "apasv antah" refer to Lord Karanodakashayi Vishnu. Here "apah" means "water" and yoni" means "cause" (karana).
evam eva skande
yat praptum naiva shakyate
tadvat svabhavah kaivalyam
sa bhavan kevalo harih. iti.
evam-thus; eva-indeed; skande-in the Skanda Purana; brahmeshanadibhih-beginning with Brahma and Siva; devaih-by the demigods; yat-what; praptum-to attain; na-not; eva-indeed; shakyate-is able; tadvat-to that extent; svabhavah-own nature; kaivalyam-liberation; sa-He; bhavan-Your Lordship; kevalah-alone; harih-Lord Hari iti..
In the Skanda Purana it is said:
"O Lord Hari, You alone are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If Brahma, Shiva, and the demigods cannot accomplish something, then only You can accomplish it."
tatha vishnu-samanya-darshinam doshash ca shruyate. yatha vaishnava-tantre
tatha-so; vishnu-samanya-equality with Lord Vishnu; darshinam-of they who see; doshah-the defect; ca-also; shruyate-is explained in the scriptures; yatha-as; vaishnava-tantre-in the Vaishnava Tantra
Persons who think Brahma and Shiva equal to Lord Vishnu make a great mistake. This is explained in the following words of the Vaishnava Tantra:
na labheyuh punar bhaktim
harer aikantikim jadah
na-not; labheyuh-attain; punah-again; bhaktim-devotional service; hareh-to Lord Hari; aikantikim-pure; jadah-dull; ekagrya-single-pointed; manasah-mind; ca-also; api-and; vishnu-samanya-darshinah-seeing to be equal to Lord Vishnu; iti-thus.
Fools who think Brahma and Shiva equal to Lord Vishnu do not attain pure devotion to Lord Hari."
yas tu narayanam devam
sa pashandi bhaved dhruvam. iti.
anyatra-in another place; ca-also; yah-any person who; tu-however; narayanam-the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of such demigods as Brahma and Siva;; devam--the Lord; brahma-Lord Brahma; rudra-Lord Siva; adi-and others; daivataih-with such demigods; samatvena-on an equal level; eva-certainly; viksheta-observes; sa-such a person; pashandi-pasandi; bhavet-must be; dhruvam-certainly; iti-thus.
In another place in the scriptures it is said:
"A person who considers demigods like Brahma and Shiva to be on an equal level with Narayana is to be considered an offender, a pashandi."*
tatha ca mantra-varnah madhye vamanam asinam vishve deva upasate iti.
tatha-so; ca-also; mantra-varnah-the words of the mantra; madhye-in the midst; vamanam-Lord Vamana; asinam-seated; vishve-in the universe; deva-the demigods; upasate-worship; iti-thus
This is also confirmed by the following words of the Mantra-varna:
"Then Lord Vamana sat in the middle and all the demigods worshiped Him."
nanu kvacid anya-shastre shivasyaiva parama-devatvam ucyate.
nanu-is it not so; kvacit-somewhere; anya-shastre-in another scripture; shivasya-of Lord Shiva; eva--indeed; parama-devatvam-the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ucyate-is said.
Here someone may protest: Is it not true that in other scriptures it is said that Lord Shiva is the Supreme Personality of Godhead?
satyam. tathapi shastrasya sarasaratva-vivekena tad badhitam iti. tatha ca padma-saivayor umam prati shri-shivena shri-vishnu-vakyam anukritam
satyam-true; tathapi-nevertheless; shastrasya-of scripture; sara-important; asaratva-and not important; vivekena-by distinguishing; tat-that; badhitam-refuted; iti-thus; tatha-so; ca-also; padma-saivayoh-in the Pamda Purana and Shiva Purana; umam-to Goddess Partvati; prati-to; shri-shivena-by Lord Siva; shri-vishnu-vakyam-the words of Lord Vishnu; anukritam-repeated
That is true. Still, when the scriptures consider what is good and true, they reject that idea. For example, in both the Padma Purana (Uttara-khanda 42.105-106) and the Shiva Purana, Lord Shiva repeats to Parvati the following words originally spoken by Lord Vishnu:
tvam aradhya tatha shambho
grahishyami varam sada
dvaparadau yuge bhutva
tvam-you; aradhya-worshiping; tatha-so; shambhah-O Shiva; grahishyami-I will accept; varam-a boon; sada-always; dvapara-of Dvapara-yuga; aadau-in the beginning; yuge-in the yuga; bhutva-becoming; kalaya-by a part; manusha-human; adishu-beginning.
"O Shiva, I will accept this service from you: When the Dvapara-yuga has ended and the Kali-yuga has begun, I want you to incarnate among the human beings.
svagamaih kalpitais tvam tu
janan mad-vimukhan kuru
mam ca gopaya yena syat
shrishöir eshottarottara. iti.
sva-own; agamaih-with scriptures; kalpitaih-imagined; tvam-you; tu-indeed; janan-the people; mad-vimukhan-averse to me; kuru-make; mam-Me; ca-also; gopaya-conceal; yena-by which; syat-may be; shrishöih-creation; esha-this; uttarottara-more and more; iti-thus.
"In Kali-yuga, mislead the people in general by propounding imaginary meanings for the Vedas to bewilder them.* In this way turn the people away from Me. Make them averse to Me. Hide Me from them."
esha moham shrijamy ashu
yo janan mohayishyati
tvam ca rudra maha-baho
varahe-in the Varaha Purana; ca-and; esha-he; moham-illusion; shrijami-create; ashu-quickly; yah-who; janan-the people; mohayishyati-will be bewildered; tvam-you; ca-and; rudra-Shiva; maha-bahah-O mighty armed one; moha-shastrani-bewildering scriptures; karaya-please do.
In the Varaha Purana Lord Vishnu says:
"I will create a situation where the people will be bewildered. O mighty-armed Shiva, please write books that will bewilder the people.
prakasham kuru catmanam
aprakasham ca mam kuru
atathyani-without the truth; vitathyani-with lies; darshayasva-please show; maha-bhuja-O mighty-armed one; prakasham-manifestation; kuru-do; ca-and; atmanam-yourself; aprakasham-unmanifested; ca-also; mam-Me; kuru-please do.
"O mighty-armed Shiva, please write books that preach many lies and conceal the real truth. Make yourself prominent, and conceal Me."
purananam ca madhye yad yat sattvika-kalpa-kathamayam tat tat shri-vishnu-mahima-param. yad yat tamasa-kalpa-kathamayam tat tac chivadi-mahima-param iti shri-vishnu-pratipadaka-puranasyaiva samyag-jnana-pradatvam sattvat sanjayate jnanam iti darshanat.
purananam-of the Puranas; ca-and; madhye-in the midst; yad yat-whatever; sattvika-kalpa-kathamayam-descriptions that are true and good; tat tat-they; shri-vishnu-mahima-param-devoted to the glories of Lord Vishnu; yad yat-whaetver; tamasa-kalpa-kathamayam-descriptions manifested from the mode of ignroance; tat tat-that; shivadi-mahima-param-the glories of Siva and others; iti-thus; shri-vishnu-pratipadaka-puranasya-of a Purana that describes the glories of Lord Vishnu; eva-indeed; samyag-jnana-pradatvam-giving true knowledge; sattvat sanjayate jnanam iti darshanat-from the description in Bhagavad-gita 14.17.
The Puranas in the mode of goodness glorify Lord Vishnu, whereas the Puranas in the mode of ignorance glorify Lord Shiva and others. Therefore the Puranas that glorify Lord Vishnu present the actual truth. This is also confirmed by the following words of Bhagavad-gita (14.17):
"From the mode of goodness real knowledge develops."*
tatha ca matsye
sattvikeshu ca kalpeshu
mahatmyam adhikam hareh
rajaseshu ca mahatmyam
adhikam brahmano viduh
tatha-so; ca-and; matsye-in the Matsya Purana; sattvikeshu-in goodness; ca-also; kalpeshu-in determination; mahatmyam-glory; adhikam-better; hareh-of Lord Hari; rajaseshu-in passionm; ca-and; mahatmyam-glorification; adhikam-better; brahmanah-of Brahma; viduh-they know.
In the Matsya Purana (53.67-68) it is also said:
"The sages know that the glorification of Lord Hari, which is contained in the goodness Puranas is better than the glorification of Brahma, which is contained in the passion Puranas.
tadvad agnesh ca mahatmyam
tamaseshu shivasya ca
pitrinam ca nigadyate. iti.
tadvat-in the same way; agneh-of Agni; ca-and; mahatmyam-the glorification; tamaseshu-in ignorance; shivasya-of Shiva; ca-also; sankirneshu-expanded; sarasvatyah-of Sarasvati; pitrinam-of the Pitas; ca-also; nigadyate-said; iti-thus.
"The sages also say that the glorification of Lord Hari is better than the glorification of Shiva and Agni, which is contained in the ignorance Puranas, and the glorification of Lord Hari is also better than the glorification of Sarasvati and the Pitas, which is contained in a host of miscellaneous scriptures."
vaishnavam naradiyam ca
tatha bhagavatam shubhe
garudam ca tatha padmam
vaishnavam-Vishnu; naradiyam-Narada; ca-and; tatha-so; bhagavatam-Shrimad-Bhagavatam; shubhe-O beautiful one; garudam-Garuda; ca-also; tatha-so; padmam-Padma; varaham-Varaha; shubha-darshane-O beautiful one.
In the Matsya Purana, Lord Shiva also says:
"O beautiful one, it is said that the Puranas in the mode of goodness are: 1. Vishnu, 2. Narada, 3. Shrimad-Bhagavatam, 4. Garuda, 5. Padma, and 6. Varaha.
markandeyam tathaiva ca
bhavishyam vamanam brahmyam
brahmandam-Brahmanda; brahma-vaivartam-Brahma-vaivarta; markandeyam-Markandeya; tatha-so; eva-indeed; ca-also; bhavishyam-Bhavishya; vamanam-Vamana; brahmyam-Brahma; rajasani-in the mode of passion; nigadyate-is said.
"It is said that the Puranas in the mode of passion are: 1. Brahmanda, 2. Brahma-vaivarta, 3. Markandeya, 4. Bhavishya, 5. Vamana, and 6. Brahma.
matsyam kurmam tatha laingam
shaivam skandam tathaiva ca
tamasani nigadyate. ity adi.
matsyam-Matsya; kurmam-Kurma; tatha-so; laingam-Linga; shaivam-Siva; skandam-Skanda; tatha-so; eva-indeed; ca-and; agneyakam-Agni; tatha-so; etani-they; tamasani-in ignorance; nigadyate-is said; iti-thus; adi-beginning.
"It is said that the Puranas in the mode of ignorance are: 1. Matsya, 2. Kurma, 3. Linga, 4. Shiva, 5. Skanda, and 6. Agni."
ata uktam skande shanmukham prati shri-shivena
shiva-shastreshu tad grahyam
paramo vishnur evaikas
taj jnanam moksha-sadhanam
shastranam nirnayas tv
eshas tad anyan mohanaya hi. iti.
ata-therefore; uktam-said; skande-in the Skanda Purana; shanmukham-Karttikeya; prati-to; shri-shivena-by Lord Siva; shiva-of Siva; shastreshu-in the scriptures; tat-that; grahyam-to be accepted; bhagavac-chastra-yogi-appropriate for the scriptures of Lord Vishnu; yat-what; paramah-Supreme; vishnuh-Lord Vishnu; eva-indeed; ekah-one; taj-that; jnanam-knowledge; moksha-sadhanam-bringing liberation; shastranam-of scriptures; nirnayah-the conclusion; tv-indeed; eshah-this; tat-that; anyan-another; mohanaya-for bewilderment; hi-indeed; iti-thus.
In the Skanda Purana, Lord Shiva tells Karttikeya:
"The statements of the Shiva scriptures should be accepted only when they agree with the Vishnu scriptures. Lord Vishnu is the only Supreme Lord, and knowledge of Him is the path to liberation. That is the conclusion of all the scriptures. Any other conclusions are meant only to bewilder the people."
tathaiva ca drishöam moksha-dharme narayaniyopakhyane. vaishampayana uvaca
tatha-so; eva-indeed; ca-also; drishöam-seen; moksha-dharme-in the Moksa-dharma; narayaniyopakhyane-in the story nof Lord Narayana; vaishampayana uvaca-Vaisampayana said.
This is also seen in the following passage of the Moksha-dharma, Narayaniyopakhyana, where Vaishampayana says:
sankhyam yogah pancaratram
vedah pashapatam tatha
jnanany etani rajarshe
viddhi nana-matani vai
sankhyam-sankhya; yogah-yoga; pancaratram-Pancaratra; vedah-Vedas; pashapatam-Saiva-sastras; tatha-so; jnanani-knowledges; etani-these; rajarshe-O saintly king; viddhi-please know; nana-matani-various opinions; vai-indeed.
"O saintly king, please know that there are many different philosophies, such as the sankhya, yoga, pancaratra, Vedic, and Shaiva philosophies.
sankhyasya vakta kapilah
paramarshih sa ucyate
vetta nanyah puratanah
sankhyasya-of sankhya; vakta-the speaker; kapilah-Kapila; paramarshih-the great sage; sa-he; ucyate-is said; hiranyagarbhah-Brahma; yogasya-of yoga; vetta-the know; na-not; anyah-another; puratanah-ancient.
"The great sage Kapila is the propounder of the sankhya philosophy. Ancient Brahma is the knower of yoga. No one is like him.
vedacaryah sa ucyate
pracinagarbham tam rishim
pravadanti hi kecana
apantaratamah-Apantaratama; ca-also; eva-indeed; veda-of the Vedas; acaryah-the teacher; sa-he; ucyate-is said; pracinagarbham-Pracinagarbha; tam-him; rishim-the sage; pravadanti-call; hi-indeed; kecana-some.
"The sage Apantaratama is said to be the teacher of the Vedas. Some call him by the name Pracinagarbha.
shrikanöho brahmanah sutah
uktavan idam avyagro
jnanam pashupatam shivah
uma-patoh-of the husband of Parvati; bhuta-patih-the master of the ghosts; shrikanöhah-who has a beautiful neck; brahmanah-of Brahma; sutah-the son; uktavan-said; idam-this; avyagrah-detached; jnanam-knowledg; pashupatam-Shaiva; shivah-Lord Shiva.
"Lord Shiva, who is Brahma's son, Parvati's husband, and the ghosts' master, and who has a glorious neck and is detached from material life, spoke the Shaiva philosophy.
vakta tu bhagavan svayam
sarveshu ca nripa-shreshöha
jnaneshv eteshu drishyate
pancaratrasya-of pancaratra; kritsnasya-entire; vakta-the speaker; tu-indeed; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam-Himself; sarveshu-in all; ca-also; nripa-shreshöha-O best of kings; jnaneshv-in knowledges; eteshu-in these; drishyate-is seen.
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead is Himself the speaker of the pancaratra philosophy. O best of kings, the pancaratra philosophy is seen as the best of all the philosophies.
nishöha narayanah prabhuh
na cainam evam jananti
yatha-as; agamam-scripture; yatha-as; jnanam-knowledge; nishöha-faith; narayanah-Narayana; prabhuh-the Lord; na-not; ca-also; enam-to Him; evam-thus; jananti-know; tamo-bhuta-manifested in the mode of ignorance; visham-pate-O king.
"To whatever extent one understands the scriptures and knows the truth of spiritual life, to that extent one will have faith that Lord Narayana is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. O king, persons who are trapped in the mode of ignorance cannot understand that Narayana is the Supreme Lord.
tam eva shastra-kartarah
nishöham narayanam rishim
nanyo 'stiti vaco mama
tam-Him; eva-certainly; shastra-kartarah-the austhors of the scriptures; pravadanti-say; manishinah-wise; nishöham-faith; narayanam-Narayana; rishim-sage; na-not; anyah-another; asti-is; iti-thus; vacah-words; mama-of me.
The wise authors of the scriptures declare that Narayana is the Supreme Lord. The sages place their faith in Lord Narayana. None but Him is the Supreme. Those are my words.
nityam vasati vai harih
nihsamshayeshu-without doubt; sarveshu-in all; nityam-always; vasati-resides; vai-indeed; harih-Lord Krishna; samshayat-from doubt; hetu-cause; valanat-from the action; na-not; adhyavasati-resides; madhavah-Lord Krishna.
"Lord Hari always stays with persons who have faith in Him. He does not stay among the faithless.
pancaratra-vido ye tu
te harim pravishanti vai
pancaratra-the pancaratra; vidah-know; ye-who; tu-indeed; yatha-as; krama-sequence; para-devoted; nripa-O king; ekanta-bhavopagatah-pure devotees; te-they; harim-Lord Krishna; pravishanti-attain; vai-indeed.
O king, the pure devotees, who know the truths explained in the Pancaratras, attain the company of Lord Hari.
sankhyam yogash ca sanatane dve
vedash ca sarve nikhile 'pi rajan
sarvaih samastair rishibhir nirukto
narayanam vishvam idam puranam. iti.
sankhyam-sankhya; yogah-yoga; ca-and; sanatane-eternal; dve-two; vedah-the Vedas; ca-and; sarve-all; nikhile-all; api-also; rajan-O king; sarvaih-by all; samastaih-by all; rishibhih-the sages; niruktah-said; narayanam-Narayana; vishvam-universe; idam-this; puranam-ancient; iti-thus.
"Sankhya and yoga are both eternal. All the Vedas are also eternal. All the sages declare that Lord Narayana is the ancient Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the worlds."
atra apantaratamah iti shri-krishna-dvaipayanasyaiva janmantara-nama-vishesha iti tatraiva jneyam. atraivam vyakhyeyam pancaratra-sammatam shri-narayanam eva sarvottamatvena vaktum nana-matam darshayati sankhyam iti. tatra pancaratram eva garishöham acashöe pancaratrasyety adau bhagavan svayam iti.
atra-here; apantaratamah-apantaratama; iti-thus; shri-krishna-dvaipayanasya-of Shri Krishna-dvaipayana Vyasa; eva-certainly; janma-birth; antara-in another; nama-name; vishesha-specific; iti-thus; tatra-there; eva-indeed; jneyam-to be known; atra-here; evam-thus; vyakhyeyam-to be explained; pancaratra-of the Pancaratras; sammatam-the conclusion; shri-narayanam-Shri Narayana; eva-indeed; sarvottamatvena-as the best of all; vaktum-to say; nana-matam-various opinions; darshayati-reveal; sankhyam-sankhya; iti-thus; tatra-there; pancaratram-Pancaratra; eva-indeed; garishöham-the best; acashöe-says; pancaratrasya-of Pancaratra; iti-thus; adau-beginning; bhagavan-the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam-personally; iti-thus.
Here the word "apantaratama" is Shri Krishna-dvaipayana Vyasa's name in a previous birth. These verses explain that all these different philosophies ultimately lead to the Pancaratra philosophy, which declares that Lord Narayana is the supreme master of all. The verse quoted here in text 30 specifically declares that the Pancaratra philosophy is the best of all philosophies.
atha dvau bhuta-sargau loke 'smin daiva asura eva iti shri-gitasu shruyate.
atha-now; dvau bhuta-sargau loke 'smin daiva asura eva iti shri-gitasu-in Bhagavad-gita 16.6; shruyate-is heard.
In Bhagavad-gita (16.6) the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares:
"O son of Pritha, in this world there are two kinds of created beings. One is called the divine and the other the demonic."*
yad eva tani nana-matani ity uktam tattvasura prakrity-anusarenety eva jneyam. daiva-prakritayas tu tat-tat-sarvavalokanena pancaratra-pratipadye shri-narayana eva paryavasyantity aha sarveshv iti. asurams tu nindati na cainam iti.
yad eva-therefore; tani nana-matani ity uktam-said in the passage beginnignw ith the words "nana-matani"; tattva-truth; asura-asura; prakrity-anusarena-following matter; iti-thus; eva-indeed; jneyam-to be known; daiva-prakritayah-who have a spiritual nature; tu-but; tat-tat-various; sarva-all; avalokanena-by seeing; pancaratra-pratipadye-explained in the Pancaratra; shri-narayana-Shri Narayana; eva-indeed; paryavasyanti-comes to the conclusion; iti-thus; aha-said; sarveshv iti-in the passage beginning with the word sarvesu; asuramh-the demons; tu-but; nindati-criticizes; na cainam iti-the passage beginning with the words "na cainam".
In these verses (beginning with text 26) the demonic and saintly natures are both described. In the words beginning with te verse quoted here in text 30 it is said that the final conclusion of the Pancaratra philosophy is the understanding that Lod Narayana is the Shri Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the verse quoted here and in text 31 the demons are criticized.
tad uktam vishnu-dharmagni-puranayoh
dvau bhuta-sargau loke 'smin
daiva asura eva ca
vishnu-bhaktah smrito saiva
asuras tad-viparyayah. iti.
tat-that; uktam-said; vishnu-dharmagni-puranayoh-in the Vishnu, Dharma, and Agni Puranas; dvau-two; bhuta-of the living beings; sargau-dispositions; loke-in the world; asmin-in this; daiva-godly; asura-demonic; eva-certainly; ca-and; vishnu-bhaktah-a devotee of Lord Vishnu; smritah-remembered; daiva-godly; asurah-demonic; tad-viparyayah-the opposite of that; iti-thus.
In the Vishnu Purana, Dharma Purana, and Agni Purana it is said:
"There are two classes of men in the created world. One consists of the demonic and the other of the godly. The devotees of Lord Vishnu are the godly, whereas those who are just the opposite are called demons."*
nanu tatra tatra mataya eva drishyante. tatraha tam eveti. pancaratretara-shastra-kartaro hi dvi-vidhah kincij-jnah sarva-jnash ca. tatradya yatha sva-sva-jnananusarena yat kincit tattvaika-desham vadanti. tat tu samudraika-desha-varnanam samudra iva purna-tattve shri-narayana eva paryavasyatiti te tam eva kincid vadanti.
nanu-is it not so; tatra tatra-there; mataya-opinions; eva-indeed; drishyante-are seen; tatra-there; aha-said tam eva iti-the words "tam eva"; pancaratra-Pancartara; itara-other; shastra-scriptures; kartarah-authors; hi-indeed; dvi-vidhah-two kinds; kincij-jnah-they who have some knowledge; sarva-jnah-they who have all knowledge; ca-also; tatra-there; adyah-the former; yatha-as; sva-sva-jnana-one's own knowledge; anusarena-according to; yat-what; kincit-something; tattva-truth; eka-only; desham-place; vadanti-say; tat-that; tu-but; samudra-ocean; eka-only; desha-place; varnanam-description; samudra-ocean; iva-like; purna-full; tattve-truth; shri-narayana-Shri Narayana; eva-indeed; paryavasyati-concludes; iti-thus; te-they; tam-Him; eva-indeed; kincit-something; vadanti-say.
Here someone may protest: Is it not true that there are many different philosophies, and they are all valid in their own way?
To this protest a reply may be given by quoting the verse given here in text 32. Aside from the author of the Pancaratras, the authors of the scriptures are of two kinds: 1. prsons who have some knowledge, and 2. persons who have all knowledge. The first of these, the persons who have some knowledge, can describe some portions of the truth, according to what they have the power to understand of it. It is very difficult to describe the entire ocean, but one may describe a portion of it. The glories of Lord Narayana are vast like an ocean. Therefore these authors of scripture are able to describe only a certain portion of them.
ye tu sarvajnas te caivam abhiprayanti nasmabhir asuranam mohanartham eva kritani shastrani. kintu daivanam vyatirekena bodhanartham.
ye-who; tu-but; sarvajnah-knowing all; te-they; ca-and; evam-thus; abhiprayanti-intend; na-not; asmabhih-by us; asuranam-of demons; mohanartham-for bewilderment; eva-indeed; kritani-done; shastrani-books; kintu-however; daivanam-of godly; vyatirekena-by contrast; bodhanartham-for enlightening.
Scripture authors who have all knowledge do not think `Let us write misleading things to bewilder the demons'. On the contrary, they think `Let us write things to enlighten the godly'.
te hi rajas-tamah-shavalasya khandasya ca tattvasya tatha klesha-bahulasya sadhanasya ca pratipadakany etani shastrani drishöva vedamsh ca durgaman drishöva ca nirvidya sarva-vedartha-sarasya shuddhakhanda-tattva-shri-narayanasya sukhamaya-tad-aradhanasya ca sushöhu pratipadake pancaratre eva gadham pravekshyantiti.
te-they; hi-indeed; rajah-passion; tamah-ignorance; shavalasya-barbarian; khandasya-broken; ca-and; tattvasya-truth; tatha-so; klesha-bahulasya-of many troubles; sadhanasya-of the method; ca-and; pratipadakani-proved; etani-these; shastrani-scriptures; drishöva-seeing; vedamh-the Vedas; ca-and; durgaman-difficult to follow; drishöva-seeing; ca-and; nirvidya-being dissatisfied; sarva-all; veda-Vedas; artha-the meaning; sarasya-of the best; shuddha-pure; akhanda-unbroken; tattva-truth; shri-narayanasya-of Lord Narayana; sukhamaya-consisting of happiness; tat-of Him; aradhanasya-of the worship; ca-and; sushöhu-clearly; pratipadake-proved; pancaratre-in the Pancaratra; eva-indeed; gadham-firmly; pravekshyanti-will explain; iti-thus.
Seeing that the imperfect scriptures in the modes of passion and ignorance bring only a host of troubles, and also seeing that the original Vedas are very difficult to follow properly, and thus being very dissatisfied with both of them, the all-knowing scripture authors affirm the superiority of the Pancaratras, which describe the pure absolute truth, Lord Narayana, and the worship of Lord Narayana, which is very easy to perform.
tad etad aha nihsamshayeshv iti. tasmat jhaöiti vedartha-pratipattaye pancaratram evadhyetavyam ity aha pancaratreti. yata evam tata upasamharati sankhyam ca yogash ceti.
tat-this; etat-that; aha-said; nihsamshayeshv iti-in the verse beginning with the word nihsamsayesu; tasmat-from that; jhaöiti-at once; vedartha-the meaning of the Vedas; pratipattaye-to establish; pancaratram-thew Pancaratra; eva-certainly; adhyetavyam-to be studied; iti-thus; aha-said; pancaratra iti-the vesre beginning with the word "pancaratra; yata-from that; evam-thus; tata-from that; upasamharati-concludes; sankhyam ca yogash ca iti-the verse beginning with the words sankhyam ca yogash ca".
This is confirmed in the Moksha-dharma verse quoted here in text 33. In the Moksha-dharma verse quoted here in text 34, it is said that to quickly understad the true meaning and purpose of the Vedas one should study the Pancaratras. That conclusion is given its final form in the Moksha-dharma verse quoted in this anuccheda in text 35.
tad evam pancaratra-pratipadya-rupasya shri-bhagavata evam utkarshe sthite atmaramash ca munayah ity ady asakrid apurvam upadishata shri-bhagavatena pratipadya-rupasya tasya kim utety api vivecaniyam.
tat-that; evam-thus; pancaratra-of the Pancaratras; pratipadya-to be established; rupasya-of the form; shri-bhagavata-of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; evam-thus; utkarshe-position of being most exalted; sthite-situated; atmaramash ca munayah ity adi-in Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.7.10; asakrit-many times; apurvam-unprecedented; upadishata-shows; shri-bhagavatena-by Shrimad-Bhagavatam; pratipadya-rupasya-the form to be proved; tasya-of that; kim uta-how much more?; iti-thus; api-also; vivecaniyam-to be said.
That the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the original, the highest feature of the Supreme is the truth taught in the Pancaratras. This truth is also confirmed by the following words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.7.10):