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¬pastamba-Dharma Sutra

¬pastamba's Aphorisms On The Sacred Law.


Introduction To ¬pastamba.

FOR all students of Sanskrit philology and Indian history ¬pastamba's aphorisms on the sacred law of the Aryan Hindus possess a special interest beyond that attaching to other works of the same class. Their discovery enabled Professor Max Muller, forty-seven years ago, to dispose finally of the Brahmanical legend according to which Hindu society was supposed to be governed by the codes of ancient sages, compiled for the express purpose of tying down each individual to his station, and of strictly regulating even the smallest acts of his daily life [1]. It enabled

[1. Max Muller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 133 seq.

The following letter, addressed to the late W. H. Morley, and published by him in his Digest of ludian Cases, 1850, may be of interest as connected with the first discovery of the ¬pastamba-sutras:-

9, Park Place, Oxford, July 29, 1849.

MY DEAR MORLEY,--I have been looking again at the law literature, in order to write you a note on the sources ofManu. I have treated the subject fully in my introduction to the Veda, where I have given an outline of the different periods of Vaidik literature, and analysed the peculiarities in the style and language of each class of Vaidik works. A hat I consider to be the sources of the M‚nava-dharma-sutra, the so-called Laws of Manu, are the Sutras. These are works which presuppose the development of the prose literature of the Br‚hmanas (like the Aitareya-br‚hmana, Taittirtya-br‚hmana, &c.) These Br‚hmanas, again, presuppose, not only the existence, but the collection and arrangement of the old hymns of the four Samhit‚s. The Sutras are tberefore later than both these classes of Vaidik works, but they must be considered as belonging to the Vaidik period of literature, not only on account of their intimate connection with Vaidik subjects, but also because they still exhibit the irregularities of the old Vaidik language. They form indeed the last branch of Vaidik literature; and it will perhaps be possible to fix some of these works chronologically, as they are contemporary with the first spreading of Buddhism in India,

Again, in the whole of Vaidik literature there is no work written (like the M‚nava-dharma-sutra) in the regular epic Sloka, and the continuous employment of this rnetre is a characteristic mark of post-Vaidik writings.

One of the principal classes of Sutras is known by the nameof Kalpa-sutras, or rules of ceremonies. These are avowedly composed by human authors, while, according to Indian orthodox theology, both the hymns and Br‚hmanas are to be considered as revelation. The Sutras generally bear the name of their authors, like the Sutras of ¬sval‚yana, K‚ty‚yana, &c., or the name of the family to which the Sutras belonged. The great number of these writings is to be accounted for by the fact that there was not one body of Kalpa-sutras binding on all Brahmanic families, but that different old families had each their own Kalpa-sutras. These works are still very frequent in our libraries, yet there is no doubt that many of them have been lost. Sutras are quoted which do not exist in Europe, and the loss of some is acknowledged by the Brahmans themselves. There are, however, lists of the old Brahmanic families which were in possession of their own redaction of Vaidik hymns (Samhit‚s), of Br‚hmanas, and of Sutras. Some-of these families followed the Rig-veda, some the Yagur-veda, the Sama-veda, and Atharva-veda; and thus the whole Vaidik literature becomes divided into four great classes of Br‚hmanas and Sutras, belonging to one or the other of the four principal Vedas.

Now one of the families following the Yagur-veda was that of the M‚nava (cf. Karanavyuha). There can be no doubt that that family, too, had its own Sutras. Quotations from M‚nava-sutras are to be met with in commentaries on other Sutras; and I have found, not long ago, a MS. which cortains the text of the M‚nava-srauta-sutras, though in a very fragmentary state. But these Sutras, the Srauta-sutras, treat only of a certain branch of ceremonies connected with the great sacrifices. Complete Sutra works are divided into three parts: 1. the first (Srauta), treating on the great sacrifices; 2. the second (Grihya), treating on the Samsk‚ras, or the purificatory sacraments; 3. the third, (S‚may‚k‚rika or Dharma-sutras), treating on emporal duties, customs, and punishments. The last two classes of Sutras seem to be lost in the M‚nava-sutra. This loss is. however, not so great with regard to tracing the sources of the M‚nava-dharma-s‚stra, because whenever we have an opportunity ofcomparing Sutras belonging to different families, but following the same Veda, and treating on the same subjects, the differences appear to be very slight, and only refer to less important niceties of the ceremonial. In the absence, therefore, of the M‚nava- s‚may‚k‚rika-sutras, I have taken another collection of Sutras, equally belonging to the Yagur-veda, the Sutras of ¬pastamba. In his family we have not only a Br‚hmana, but also ¬pastamba Srauta, Grihya, and S‚may‚k‚rika-sutras. Now it is, of course, the third class of Sutras, on temporal duties, which are most likely to contain the sources of the later metrical Codes of Law, written in the classical Sloka. On a comparison of different subjects, such as the duties of a Brahmak‚rin, a Gihastha, laws of inheritance, duties of a king, forbidden fruit, &c., I find that the Sutras contain generally almost the same words which have been brought into verse by the compiler of the M‚nava-dharma-sutra. I consider, therefore, the Sutras as the principal source of the metrical Smritis, such as the M‚nava-dharma-s‚stra, Y‚gshavalkya-dharma-s‚stra, &c., though there are also many other verses in these works which may be traced to different sources. They are paraphrases of verses of the Samhit‚s, or of passages of the Br‚hmanas, often retaining the same old words and archaic constructions which were in the original. This is indeed acknowledged by the author of the M‚nava-dharma-s‚stra, when he says (B. II, v. 6), 'The roots of the Law are the whole Veda (Samhit‚s and Br‚hmanas), the customs and traditions of those who knew the Veda (as laid down in the Sutras), the conduct of good men, and one's own satisfaction.' The M‚nava-dharma-s‚stra may thus be considerd as the last redaction of the laws of the M‚navas. Quite different is the question as to the old Manu from whom the family probably derived its origin, and who is said to have been the author of some very characteristic hymns in the Rig-veda-samhit‚. He certainly cannot be considered as the author of a M‚nava-dharma-sutra, nor is there even any reason to suppose the author of this work to have had the same name. It is evident that the author of the metrical Code of Laws speaks of the old Manu as of a person different from himself, when he says (B. X, v. 63), 'Not to kill, not to lie, not to steal, to keep the body clean, and to restrain the senses, this was the short law which Manu proclaimed amongst the four castes.'Yours truly, M. M.]

him not only to arrive at this negative result, but also to substitute a sounder theory the truth of which subsequent investigations have further confirmed, and to show that the sacred law of the Hindus has its source in the teaching of the Vedic schools, and that the so-called revealed law codes are, in most cases, but improved metrical editions of older prose works which latter, in the first instance, were destined to be committed to memory by the young Aryan students, and to teach them their duties. This circumstance, as well as the fact that ¬pastamba's work is free from any suspicion of having been tampered with by sectarians or modern editors, and that its intimate connection with the manuals teaching the performance of the great and small sacrifices, the Srauta and Grihya-sutras, which are attributed to the same author, is perfectly clear and indisputable, entitle it, in spite of its comparatively late origin, to the first place in a collection of Dharma-sutras.

The Apastamblya Dharma-sutra forms part of an enormous Kalpa-sutra or body of aphorisms, which digests the teaching of the Veda and of the ancient Rishis regarding the performance of sacrifices and the duties of twice-born men, Br‚hmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas. and which, being chiefly based on the second of the four Vedas, the Yagur-veda in the TaittirÓya recension, is primarily intended for the benefit of the Adhvaryu priests in whose families the study of the Yagur-veda is hereditary.

The entire Kalpa-sutra of ¬pastamba is divided into thirty sections, called Prasnas, literally questions [1]. The first twenty-four of these teach the performance of the so-called Srauta or Vait‚nika sacrifices, for which several sacred fires are required, beginning with the simplest rites, the new and full moon offerings, and ending with the complicated Sattras or sacrificial sessions, which last a whole year or even longer [2]. The twenty-fifth Prasna contains the Paribh‚sh‚s or general rules of interpretation [3], which are valid for the whole Kalpa-sutra, the Pravara-khanda, the chapter enumerating the patriarchs of the various Brahmanical tribes, and finally the Hautraka, prayers to be recited by the Hotraka priests. The twenty-sixth section gives the Mantras or Vedic prayers and formulas for the Grihya rites, the ceremonies for which the sacred domestic or Grihya fire is required, and the twenty-seventh the rules for the performance of the latter [4]. The aphorisms on the sacred law fill the next two Prasnas; and the Sulva-sutra[5], teaching the geometrical principles, according to which the altars necessary for the Srauta sacrifices must be constructed, concludes the work with the thirtieth Prasna.

The position of the Dharma-sutra in the middle of the collection at once raises the presumption that it originally formed an integral portion of the body of Sutras and that it is not a later addition. Had it been added later, it wouid either stand at the end of the thirty Prasnas or altogether outside the collection, as is the case with some other treatises attributed to ¬pastamba [6]. The Hindus are, no doubt, unscrupulous in adding to the works of famous teachers. But such additions, if of considerable extent, are usually not embodied in the works themselves which they are intended to supplement. They are mostly given

[1. Burnell, Indian Antiquary, 1, 5 seq.

2 The Srauta-sutra, Pr. I-XV, has been edited by Professor R. Garbe in the Bibliotheca Indica, and the remainder is in the press.

3. See Professor Max Muller's Translation in S. B. E., vol. xxx.

4. The Grihya-sutra has been edited by Dr. Winternitz, Vienna, 1887.

5. On the Sulva-sutras see G. Thibaut in 'the Pandit,' 1875, p. 292.

6. Burnell, loc. cit.]

as seshas or parisishtas, tacked on at the end, and generally marked as such in the MSS.

In the case of the ¬pastamba Dharma-sutra it is, however, not necessary to rely on its position alone, in order to ascertain its genuineness. There are unmistakable indications that it is the work of the same author who wrote the remainder of the Kalpa-sutra. One important argument in favour of this view is furnished by the fact that Prasna XXVII, the section on the Grihya ceremonies has evidently been made very short and concise with the intention of saving matter for the subsequent sections on the sacred law. The ¬pastambÓya Grihya-sutra contains noth ing beyond a bare outline of the domestic ceremonies, while most of the other Grihya-sutras, e. g. those of Asval‚yana, S‚nkh‚yana, Gobhila, and P‚raskara, include a great many rules which bear indirectly only on the performance of the offerings in the sacred domestic fire. Thus on the occasion of the description of the initiation of Aryan students, ¬sval‚yana inserts directions regarding the dress and girdle to be worn, the length of the studentship, the manner of begging, the disposal of the alms collected, and other similar questions [1]. The exclusion of such incidental remarks on subjects that are not immediately connected with the chief aim of the work, is almost complete in ¬pastamba's Grihya-sutra, and reduces its size to less than one half of the extent of the shorter ones among the works enumerated above. It seems impossible to explain this restriction of the scope of Prasna XXVII otherwise than by assuming that ¬pastamba wished to reserve all rules bearing rather on the duties of men than on the performance of the domestic offerings, for his sections on the sacred law.

A second and no less important argument for the unity of the whole Kalpa-sutra may be drawn from the cross-references which occur in several Prasnas. In the Dharma-sutra we find that on various occasions, where the performance

[1. Asval‚yana Grihya-sutra 1, 19, ed. Stenzler.]

of a ceremony is prescribed, the expressions yathoktam, 'as has been stated,' yathopadesam, 'according to the injunction,' or yath‚ purast‚t, 'as above,' are added. In four of these passages, Dh. I, 1, 4, 16; II, 2, 3, 17; 2, 5, 4; and 7, 17, 16, the Grihya-sutra is doubtlessly referred to, and the commentator Haradatta has pointed out this fact. On the other hand, the Grihya-Sutra refers to the Dharma-sutra, employing the same expressions which have been quoted from the latter. Thus we read in the beginning of the chapter on funeral oblations, Grihya-sutra VIII, 21, 1, m‚sisr‚ddhasy‚parapakshe yathopadesam k‚l‚h, 'the times,for the monthly funeral sacrifice (fall) in the latter (dark) half of the month according to the injunction.' Now as neither the Grihya-sutra itself nor any preceding portion of the Kalpa-sutra contains any injunction on this point, it, follows that the long passage on this subject which occurs in the Dharma-sutra II, 7, 16, 4-22 is referred to. The expression yathopadesam is also found in other passages of the Grihya-sutra, and must be explained there in a like manner[1]. There are further a certain number of Sutras which occur in the same words both in the Prasna on domestic rites, and in that on the sacred law, e. g. Dh. I, 1, A; I, 1, 2, 38; I, 1, 4, 14. It seems that the author wished to call special attention to these rules by repeating them. Their recurrence and literal agreement may be considered an additional proof of the intimate connection of the two sections.

Through a similar repetition of, at least, one Sutra it is possible to trace the connection of the Dharma-sutra with the Srauta-sutra. The rule ritve v‚ g‚y‚m, 'or (he may have conjugal intercourse) with his wife in the proper season', is given, Dh. II, 2, 5, 17, with reference to a householder who teaches the Veda. In the Srauta-sutra it occurs twice, in the sections on the new and full moon sacrifices III, 17, 8, and again in connection with the K‚turm‚sya offerings, VIII, 4, 6, and it refers both times

[1. See the details, given by Dr. Wintemitz in his essay, Das altindische Hochzeitshrituell, p. 5 (Denkschr. Wiener Akadernie, Bd. 40).]

to the sacrificer. In the first passage the verb, upey‚t, is added, which the sense requires; in the second it has the abbreviated form, which the best MSS. of the Dharma-sutra offer. The occurrence of the irregular word, ritve for ritvye, in all the three passages, proves clearly that we have to deal with a self-quotation of the same author. If the Dharma-sutra were the production of a different person and a later addition, the Pseudo-¬pastamba would most probably not have hit on this peculiar irregular form. Finally, the Grihya-sutra, too, contains several crossreferences to the Srauta-sutra, and the close agreement of the Sutras on the Vedic sacrifices, on the domestic rites, and on the sacred, both in language and style, conclusively prove that they are the compositions of one author[1].

Who this author really was, is a problem which cannot be solved for the present, and which probably will. always remain unsolved, because we know his family name only. For the form of the word itself shows that the name ¬pastamba, just like those of most founders of Vedic schools, e. g. Bh‚radv‚ga, ¬sval‚yana, Gautama, is a patronymic. This circumstance is, of course, fatal to all attempts at an identification of the individual who holds so prominent a place among the teachers of the Black Yagur-veda.

But we are placed in a somewhat better position with respect to the history of the school which has been named after ¬pastamba and of the works ascribed to him. Regarding both, some information has been preserved by tradition, and a little more can be obtained from inscriptions and later works, while some interesting details regarding the time when, and the place where the Sutras were composed, may be elicited from the latter themselves. The data, obtainable from these sources, it is true, do not enable us to determine with certainty the year when the ¬pastambÓya school was founded, and when its Sutras were composed. But they make it possible to ascertain the position of the school and of its Sutras in Vedic literature,

[1. See Dr. Winternitz, loc. cit.]

their relative priority or posteriority as compared with other Vedic schools and works, to show with some amount of probability in which part of India they had their origin, and to venture, at least, a not altogether unsupported conjecture as to their probable antiquity.

As regards the first point, the Karanavyuha, a supplement of the White Yagur-veda which gives the lists of the Vedic schools, informs us that the ¬pastambÓya school formed one of the five branches of the Kh‚ndikÓya school, which in its turn was a subdivision of the TaittirÓyas, one of the ancient sections of Br‚hmanas who study, the Black Yagur-veda. Owing to the very unsatisfactory condition of the text of the Karanavyuha it is unfortunately not possible to ascertain what place that work really assigns to the ¬pastambÓyas among the five branches of the, Kh‚ndikÓyas. Some MSS. name them first, and others, last. They give either the following list, 1. K‚leyas (K‚letas), 2. S‚ty‚vanins, 3. Hiranyakesins, 4. Bh‚radv‚gins, and 5. ¬pastambins, or, I. ¬pastambins, 2. Baudh‚yanins or Bodh‚yanins, 3. Saty‚sh‚dhins, 4. Hiranya-kesins, 5. Aukheyas[1]. But this defect is remedied to, a certain extent by the now generally current, and probably ancient tradition that theApastambiyas are younger than, the school of Baudh‚yana, and. older than that of Saty‚sh‚dha Hiranyakesin. Baudh‚yana, it is alleged, composed the first set of Sutras connected with the Black Yagur-Veda, which bore the special title 'pravakana,' and hel,~, was succeeded by Bh‚radv‚ga, ¬pastamba, and Saty‚sh‚dha Hiranyakesin,who all founded schools which bear their names[2].

[1. Max Muller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit, p. 371. AMS. of the Karanavyuha, with an anonymous commentary, in my possession, has the following passage:


2. Max MullIer, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 194. These statements occur in the introduction of Mah‚deva's commentary on the Srauta-sutra of Hiranyakesin (Weber, Hist. Sansk. Lit., p. 110, 2nd ed.) and, in an interpolated: passage of Bh‚radv‚g‚'s Grihya-sutra (Winternitz, op. cit., p. 8, note i), as well as, with the omission of Bh‚radv‚g‚'s name, in interpolated passages of Baudh‚yana's Dharma-sutra (II, 5, 9, 14) and of the same author's Grihya-sutra (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. xxxvi, note i). Adherents of a Pravakana-sutra, no doubt identical with that of Baudh‚yana, the Pravakanakart‚ (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. xxxvi), are mentioned in a land grant, originally issued by the Pallava king Nandivarman in the beginning of the eighth century A.D., see Hultzsch, South Indian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 361 seqq.; see also Weber, Hist Sansk. Lit., p. 110, 2nd ed.]

This tradition has preserved two important pieces of in-formation. First, the ¬pastamba school is what Professor Max Muller appropriately calls a Sutrakarana, i.e. a school whose founder did not pretend to have received a revelation of Vedic Mantras or of a Br‚hmana text, but merely gave a new systematic arrangement of the precepts regarding sacrifices and the sacred law. Secondly, the Sutras of ¬pastamba occupy an intermediate position between the works of Baudh‚yana and Hiranyakesin. Both these statements are perfectly true, and capable of being supported by proofs, drawn from ¬pastamba's own and from other works.

As regards the first point, Professor Max Muller has already pointed [1] out that, though we sometimes find a Br‚hmana of the ¬pastambÓyas mentioned, the title ¬pastamba-br‚hmana is nothing but another name of the TaittirÓya-br‚hmana, and that this Br‚hmana, in reality, is always attributed to Tittiri or to the pupils of Vaisamp‚yana, who are said to have picked up the Black YagurVeda in the shape of partridges (tittiri). The same remark applies to the collection of the Mantras of the Black Yagur-veda, which, likewise, is sometimes named ¬pastamba-samhit‚. The Karanavyuha states explicitly that the five branches of the Kh‚ndÓkÓya school, to which the ¬pastambÓyas belong, possess one and the same recension of the revealed texts, consisting Of 7 K‚ndas. 44 Prasnas, 651 Anuv‚kas, 2198 Pann‚sÓs, 19290 Padas[2], and 253,868 syllables, and indicates thereby that all these five schools were Sutrakaranas.

If we now turn to ¬pastamba's own works, we find still

[1. Max Muller, op. cit., p. 195.

2 See also Weber, Ind. Lit., p. 98, 2nd ed.]

clearer proof that he laid no claim to the title Rishi, or inspired seer of Vedic texts. For (Dharma-sutra I, 2, 5, 4-5 says distinctly that on account of the prevalent transgression of the rules of studentship no Rishis are born, among the Avaras, the men of later ages or of modern times, but that some, by virtue of a residue of the merit which they acquired in former lives, become similar to Rishis by their knowledge of the Veda. A man who speaks in this manner, shows that he considers the holy ages during which the great saints saw with their mind's eye the uncreated and eternal texts of the Veda to be past, and that all he claims is a thorough acquaintance with the scriptures which had been handed down to him. The same spirit which dictated this passage is also observable in other portions of the Dharma-sutra. For ¬pastamba repeatedly contrasts the weakness and sinfulness of the Avaras, the men of his own times, with the holiness of the ancient sages, who, owing to the greatness of their 'lustre,' were able to commit various forbidden acts without diminishing their spiritual merit[1]. These utterances prove that ¬pastamba considered himself a child of the Kali Yuga, the age of sin, during which, according to Hindu notions, no Rishis can be born. If, therefore, in spite of this explicit disclaimer, the Samhit‚ and the Br‚hmana of the Black Yagur-veda are sometimes called ¬pastamba or ¬pastambÓya, i.e. belonging to ¬pastamba, the meaning of this expression can only be, that they were and are studied and handed down by the school of ¬pastamba, not that its founder was their author, or, as the Hindus would say, saw them.

The fact that ¬pastamba confined his activity to the composition of Sutras is highly important for the determination of the period to which he belonged. It clearly shows that in his time the tertiary or Sutra period of the Yagur-veda had begun. Whether we assume, with Professor Max Muller, that the Sutra period was one and the same for all the four Vedas, and fix its limits with him

[1. Dharma-sutra II, 6, x 3, 1-10; II, 10, 27, 4.]

between 600-200 B.C., or whether we believe, as I am inclined to do, that the date of the Sutra period differed for each Veda, still the incontestable conclusion is that the origin of the ¬pastambÓya school cannot be placed in the early times of the Vedic period, and probably falls in the last six or seven centuries before the beginning of the Christian era.

The correctness of the traditional statement that ¬pastarnba is younger than Baudh‚yana may be made very probable by the following considerations. First, Baudh‚yana's and ¬pastamba's works on Dharma have a considerable number of Sutras in common. Thus in the chapter on Penances not less than seven consecutive Sutras, prescribing the manner in which outcasts are to live and to obtain readmission into the Brahmanical community for their children, occur in both treatises[1]. Besides this passage, there are a number of single Sutras [2] which agree literally. Taken by itself this agreement does not prove much, as it may be explained in various ways. It may show either that Baudh‚yana is older than ¬pastamba, and that the latter borrowed from the former, or that the reverse was the case. It may also indicate that both authors drew from one common source. But if it is taken together with two other facts, it gains a considerable importance. First, ¬pastamba holds in several cases doctrines which are of a later origin than those held by Baudh‚yana. With respect to this point the puritan opinions which ¬pastamba puts forward regarding the substitutes for legitimate sons and regarding the appointment of widows (niyoga), and his restriction of the number of marriage-rites, may be adduced as examples. Like many other ancient teachers, Baudh‚yana permits childless ¬ryans to satisfy their craving for representatives bearing their name, and to allay their fears of falling after death into the regions of torment through a failure of the funeral oblations, by the affiliation

[1. Baudh. Dh. II, 1, 2, 18-23 = ¬p. Dh. I, 10, 29, 8-14.

2. E.g. ¬p. Dh. I, 1, 2, 30; I, 2, 6, 8-9; I, 5, 15, 8 correspond respectively to Baudh. Dh. I, 2, 3, 39-40; I, 2, 3, 38; II, 21 3, 29.]

of-eleven kinds of substitutes for a legitimate son. Illegitimate sons, the illegitimate sons of wives, the legitimate -and illegitimate offspring of daughters, and the children of relatives, or even of strangers who may be solemnly adopted, or received as members of the family without any ceremony, or be acquired by purchase, are all allowed to take the place and the rights of legitimate sons[1]. ¬pastamba declares his dissent from this doctrine. He allows legitimate sons alone to inherit their father's estate and to follow the occupations of his caste, and he explicitly forbids the sale and gift of children[2].

In like manner he protests against the custom of making over childless widows to brothers-in-law or other near relatives in order to obtain sons who are to offer the funeral oblations to the deceased husband's manes, while Baudbayana has as yet no scruple on the subject[3]. Finally, he omits from his list of the marriage-rites the Pais‚ka viv‚ha, where the bride is obtained by fraud[4]; though it is reluctantly admitted by Baudhdvana and other ancient teachers. There can be no doubt that the law which placed the regular continuance of the funeral oblations above all other considerations, and which allowed, in order to secure this object, even a violation of the sanctity of the marriage-tie and other breaches of the principles of morality, beloncrs to an older order of ideas than the stricter views of ¬pastamba. It is true that, according to Baudh‚yana's own statement[5], before his time an ancient sage named Aupaganghani, who is also mentioned in the Satapatha-br‚hmana, had opposed the old practice of taking substitute's for a legitimate son. It is also very probable that for a long time the opinions of the Br‚hmana teachers, who lived in different parts of India and belonged to different schools, may have been divided on this subject. Still it seems very improbable that of two authors who both belong to the same Veda and to the same school, the

[1. Baudh. Dh. II, 2, 3, 17 seqq.

2. ¬p. Dh. II, 5, 13, 1-2, 11.

3. ¬p. Dh. II, 10, 27, 2-7.

4. ¬p. Dh. II, 5, 11 and 12.

5. Baudh. Dh. II, 21 3, 33.]

earlier one should hold the later doctrine, and the later one the earlier opinion. The contrary appears the more probable assumption. The same remarks apply to the cases of the Niyoga and of the Pais‚ka marriage[1].

The second fact, which bears on the question how the identity of so many Sutras in the two Dharma-sutras is to be explained, affords a still stronger proof of ¬pastamba's posteriority to Baudh‚yana. For on several occasions, it appears, ¬pastamba controverts opinions which Baudh‚yana holds, or which may be defended with the help of the latter's Sutras. The clearest case of this kind occurs in the chapter on Inheritance, where the treatment of the eldest son on the division of the estate by the father is discussed. There ¬pastamba gives it as his own opinion that the father should make an equal division of his property 'after having gladdened the eldest son by some (choice portion of his) wealth,' i.e. after making him a present which should have some value, but should not be so valuable as to materially affect the equality of the shares[2]. Further on he notices the opinions of other teachers on this subject, and states that the practice advocated by some, of allowing the eldest alone to inherit, as well as the custom prevailing in some countries, of allotting to the eldest all the father's gold, or the brack cows, or the black iron and grain, is not in accordance with the precepts of the Vedas. In order to prove the latter assertion he quotes a passage of the TaittirÓya Samhit‚, in which it is declared that 'Manu divided his wealth among his sons,' and no difference in the treatment of the eldest son is prescribed. He adds that a second passage occurs in the same Veda, which declares that 'they distinguish the eldest son by (a larger portion of) the heritage,' and which thus apparently countenances the partiality for the first-born. But this second passage, he contends, appealing to the

[1. For another case, the rules, referring to the composition for homicide, regarding which ¬pastamba holds later views than Baudh‚yana, see the Festgruss an R. von Roth, pp. 47-48.

2 ¬p. Dh. II, 6, 13, 13, and II, 6, 14, 1]

opinion of the Mim‚nsists, is, like many similar ones, merely a statement of a fact which has not the authority of an injunction[1]. If we now turn to Baudh‚yana, we find that he allows of three different methods for the distribution of the paternal estate. According to him, either an equal share may be given to each son, or the eldest may receive the best part of the wealth, or, also, a preferential share of one tenth of the whole property. He further alleges that the cows, horses, goats, and sheep respectively go to the eldest sons of Br‚hmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras. As authority for the equal division he gives the first of the two Vedic passages quoted above; and for the doctrine that the eldest is to receive the best part of the estate, he quotes the second passage which ¬pastamba considers to be without the force of an injunction [2]. The fact that the two authors' opinions clash is manifest, and the manner in which ¬pastamba tries to show that the second Vedic passage possesses no authority, clearly indicates that before his time it had been held to contain an injunction. As no other author of a Dharma-sutra but Baudh‚yana is known to have quoted it, the conclusion is that ¬pastamba's remarks are directed against him. If ¬pastamba does not mention Baudh‚yana by name, the reason probably is that in olden times, just as in the present day, the Brahmanical etiquette forbad a direct opposition against doctrines propounded by an older teacher who belongs to the same spiritual family (vidy‚vamsa) as oneself.

A similar case occurs in the chapter on Studentship [3] where ¬pastamba, again appealing to the MÓm‚msists, combats the doctrine that pupils may eat forbidden food, such as honey, meat, and pungent condiments, if it is given to them as leavings by their teacher. Baudh‚yana gives no explicit rule on this point, but the wording of his Sutras is not opposed to the doctrine and practice, to which ¬pastamba objects. Baudh‚yana says that students

[1. ¬p. Dh. II, 6,14, 6-13. Baudh. Dh. II, 2, 3, 2-7.

2. ¬p. Dh. I, 1, 4, 5-7.]

shall avoid honey, meat, pungent condiments, &c.; he further enjoins that pupils are to obey their teachers except when ordered to commit crimes which cause loss of caste (patanÓya); and he finally directs them to eat the fragments of food given to them by their teachers. As the eating of honey and other forbidden substances is not a crime causing loss of caste, it is possible that Baudh‚yana himself may have considered it the duty of a pupil to eat any kind of food given by the teacher, even honey and meat. At all events the practice and doctrine which ¬pastamba blames, may have been defended by the wording of Baudh‚yana's rules [1].

The three points which have been just discussed, viz. the identity of a number of Sutras in the works of the two authors, the fact that ¬pastamba advocates on some points more refined or puritan opinions, and, especially, that he labours to controvert doctrines contained in Baudh‚yana's Sutras, give a powerful support to the traditional statement that he is younger than that teacher. It is, however, difficult to say how great the distance between the two really is. Mahddeva, as stated above, places between them only Bh‚radv‚ga, the author of a set of Sutras, which as yet have not been completely recovered. But it seems to me not likely that the latter was his immediate predecessor in the vidy‚vamsa or spiritual family to which both belonged. For it cannot be expected that two successive heads of the school should each have composed a Sutra and thus founded a new branch-school. It is

[1. Cases, in which ¬pastamba's Grihya-sutra appears to refer to, or to controvert, Baudh‚yana's Grihya-sutra, have been collected by Dr. Wintemitz, op. cit., p. 8. Dr. Burnell, Tanjore Catalogue, p. 34, too, considers Baudh‚yana to be older than ¬pastamba, because his style is so much simpler. With this remark may be compared Dr. Winternitz's very true assertion that Baudh‚yana's style resembles sometimes, especially in the discussion of disputed points, that of the Br‚hmanas. On the other hand, Dr. R. G. Bhindirkar, Second Report on the Search for Sanskrit MSS., p. 34, believes Baudh‚yana to be later than ¬pastamba and Bh‚radv‚ga, because he teaches other developments of sacrificial rites, unknown to the other two Sutrak‚ras. This may be true, but it must not be forgotten that every portion of Baudh‚yana's Sutras, which has been subjected to a critical enquiry, has turned out to be much interpolated and enlarged by later hands.]

more probable that Baudh‚yana and Bh‚radv‚ga, as well as the latter and ¬pastamba, were separated by several intervening generations of teachers, who contented themselves with explaining the works of their predecessors. The distance in years between the first and the last of the three Ritrakiras must, therefore, I think, be measured rather by centuries than by decades [1].

As regards the priority of ¬pastamba to the school of Saty‚sh‚dha Hiranyakesin, there can be no doubt about the correctness of this statement. For either Hiranyakesin himself, or, at least, his immediate successors have appropriated ¬pastamba's Dharma-sutra and have inserted it with slight modifications in their own collection. The alterations consist chiefly in some not very important additions, and in the substitution of more intelligible and more modern expressions for difficult and antiquated words'. But they do not extend so far as to make the language of the Dharma-sutra fully agree with that of the other sections of the collection, especially with the Grihya-sutra. Numerous discrepancies between these two parts are observable. Thus we read in the Hiranyakesi

[1. The subjoined pedigree of the Sutrak‚ras of the Black Yagur-veda will perhaps make the above remarks and my interpretation of the statements of Mah‚deva and the other authorities mentioned above more intelligible:-

Kh‚ndika, taught the TaittirÓya recension of the Black Yagur-veda.

(Successors of Kh‚ndika, number unknown, down to)

Baudh‚yana, Pravahanakart‚, i.e. 1st Sutrak‚ra, and founder of Baudh‚yana-karana.

(Successors of Baudh‚yana down to fellow-pupil of Bh‚radv‚ga, number unknown.)

(Successors of Baudh‚yana after the schism down to the present day.)

Bh‚radv‚ga, 2nd Sutrak‚ra, and founder of Bh‚radv‚ga-karana.

(Successors of Bh‚radv‚ga down to fellow-pupil of ¬pastamba, number unknown.)

(Successors after the schism down to the present day.)

¬pastamba, 3rd Sutrak‚ra, and founder of ¬pastamba-karana.

(Successors of ¬pastamba duwn to fellow-pupil of Saty‚sh‚dha Hiranyakesin, number unknown.)

(successors of ¬pastamba down to the present day.)

Saty‚sh‚dha Hiranyakesin, 4th Sutrak‚ra, and founder of Hiranyakesikarana.

(Successors of Saty‚sh‚dha Hiranyakesin down to the present day.)

After the schism of Saty‚sh‚dha Hiranyakesin the pedigree has not been continued, though Mah‚deva asserts that several other Sutrak‚ras arose. But to work it out further would be useless.

2. See Appendix II to Part I of my second edition of ¬pastamba's Dharma-sutra, p. 117 seqq.]

Grihya-sutra that a Br‚hmana must, ordinarily, be initiated in his seventh year, while the rule of the Dharma-sutra, which is identical with ¬p. Dh. I, 1, 1, 18, prescribes that the ceremony shall take place in the eighth year after conception. The commentators, M‚tridatta on the Grihya-sutra and Mah‚deva on the Dharma-sutra, both state that the rule of the Grihya-sutra refers to the seventh year after birth, and, therefore, in substance agrees with the Dharma-sutra. They are no doubt right. But the difference in the wording shows that the two sections do not belong to the same author. The same inference may be drawn from the fact that the Hiranyakesi Grihya-sutra, which is much longer than ¬pastamba's, includes a considerable amount of matter which refers to the sacred law, and which is repeated in the Dharma-sutra. According to a statement which I have heard from several learned Br‚hmanas, the followers of Hiranyakesin, when pronouncing the samkalpa or solemn pledge to perform a ceremony, declare themselves to be members of the Hiranyakesi school that forms a subdivision of ¬pastamba's (‚pastamb‚ntargatahiranyakesis‚kh‚dhy‚yi . . . aham). But I have not been able to find these words in the books treating of the ritual of the Hiranyakesins, such as the MahesabhattÓ. If this assertion could be further corroborated, it would be an additional strong proof of the priority of ¬pastamba, which, however, even without it may be accepted as a fact[1]. The distance in time between the two teachers is probably not so great as that between ¬pastamba and Baudh‚yana, as Mah‚deva mentions no intermediate Sutrak‚ra between them. Still it is probably not less than 100, or 150 years.

The results of the above investigation which show that the origin of the ¬pastamba school falls in the middle of the Sutra period of the Black Yagur-veda, and that its Sutras belong to the later, though not to the latest products of Vedic literature, are fully confirmed by an

[1. Compare also Dr. Winternitz's remarks on the dependence of the Grihya-sutra of the Hiranyakesins on ¬pastamba's, op. cit., p. 6 seqq., and the second edition of the ¬p. Dh., Part 1, p. xi.]

examination of the quotations from and references to Vedic and other books contained in ¬pastamba's Sutras, and especially in the Dharma-sutra. We find that all the four Vedas are quoted or referred to. The three old ones, the Rik, Yagus, and S‚man, are mentioned both separately and collectively by the name trayÓ vidy‚, i.e. threefold sacred science, and the fourth is called not Atharv‚ngirasah, as is done in most ancient Sutras, but Atharva-veda. The quotations from the Rik and S‚man are not very numerous. But a passage from the ninth Mandala of the former, which is referred to Dh. I, 1, 2, 2, is of some extent, and shows that the recens:on which ¬pastamba knew, did not differ from that which still exists. As ¬pastamba was an adherent of the Black Yagur-veda, he quotes it, especially in the Srauta-sutra, very frequently, and he adduces not only texts from the Mantra-samhit‚, but also from the TaittirÓya-Br‚hmana and ¬ranyaka. The most important quotations from the latter work occur Dh. II, 2, 3, 16-II, 2, 4, 9, where all the Mantras to be recited during the performance of the Bali-offerings are enumerated. Their order agrees exactly with that in which they stand in the sixty-sevcnth Anuv‚ka of the tenth Prap‚thaka of the recension of the ¬ranyaka which is current among the ¬ndhra Br‚hmanas [2]. This last point is of considerable importance, both for the history of the text of that book and, as we shall see further on, for the history of the ¬pastambÓya school.

The White Yagur-veda, too, is quoted frequently in the Srauta-sutra and once in the section on Dharma by the title V‚gasaneyaka, while twice its Br‚hmana, the V‚asaneyi-br‚hmana, is cited. The longer one of the two passages, taken from the latter work, Dh. I, 4, 12, 3, does, however, not fully agree with the published text of the M‚dhyandina recension. Its wording possesses just sufficient resemblance to allow us to identify the passage which ¬pastamba meant, but differs from the Satapatha-

[1. ¬p. II, 29, 12.

The TaittirÓya ¬ranyaka exists in three recensions, the Karn‚ta, Dr‚vida, and the ¬ndhra, the first of which has been commented on by S‚yana.]

Br‚hmana in many details[1]. The cause of these discrepancies remains doubtful for the present [2]. As regards the Atharva-veda, ¬pastamba gives, besides the reference mentioned above and a second to the Angirasa-pavitra [3], an abstract of a long passage from Atharva-veda XV, 10-13, regarding the treatment of a Vr‚tya, i.e. a learned mendicant Br‚hmana, who really deserves the title of an atithi, or guest [4]. It is true that ¬pastamba, in the passage referred to, does not say that his rule is based on the Atharvaveda. He merely says that a Br‚hmana is his authority. But it seems, nevertheless, certain that by the expression a Br‚hmana, the Br‚hmana-like fifteenth book of the Atharva-veda is meant, as the sentences to be addressed by the host to his guest agree literally with those which the Atharva-veda prescribes for the reception of a Vr‚tya. Haradatta too, in his commentary, expresses the same opinion. Actual quotations from the Atharva-veda are not frequent in Vedic literature, and the fact that ¬pastamba's Dharma-sutra contains one, is, therefore, of some interest.

Besides these Vedic texts[5], ¬pastamba mentions, also, the Angas or auxiliary works, and enumerates six classes, viz. treatises on the ritual of the sacrifices, on grammar, astronomy, etymology, recitation of the Veda, and metrics [6]. The number is the same as that which is considered the correct one in our days [7].

As the Dharma-sutra names no less than nine teachers in connection with various topics of the sacred law, and frequently appeals to the opinion of some (eke), it follows that a great many such auxiliary treatises must have existed in ¬pastamba's time. The ¬k‚ryas mentioned are Eka, K‚nva, K‚nva, Kunika, Kutsa, Kautsa, Pushkaras‚di,

[1. Compare on this point Professor Eggeling's remarks in Sacred Books of the East, vol. xii, p. xxxix seqq.

2. See the passage from the Karanavyuhabh‚shya given below, ver.10.

3. ¬p. Dh. I, 2, 2.

4. ¬p. Dh. II, 3, 7, 12-17.

5. Some more are quoted in the Srauta-sutra, see Professor Garbe in the GurupugakaumudÓ, p. 33 seqq.

6. ¬p. Dh. II, 4, 8, 10.

See also Max Muller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 111.]

V‚rshy‚yani, Svetaketu, and H‚rita [1]. Some of these persons, like H‚rita and K‚nva, are known to have composed Sutras on the sacred law, and fragments or modified versions of their works are still in existence, while K‚nva, Kautsa, Pushkaras‚di or Paushkaras‚di, as the grammatically correct form of the name is, and V‚rshy‚yani are quoted in the Nirukta, the Pr‚tisikhyas, and the V‚rttikas on P‚nini as authorities on phonetics, etymology, and grammar [1]. K‚nva, finally, is considered the author of the still existing Kalpa-sutras of the K‚nva school connected with the White Yagur-veda. It seems not improbable that most of these teachers were authors of complete sets of Angas. Their position in Vedic literature, however, except as far as K‚nva, H‚rita, and Svetaketu are concerned, is difficult to define, and the occurrence of their names throws less light on the antiquity of the ¬pastambÓya school than might be expected. Regarding H‚rita it must, however, be noticed that he is one of the oldest authors of Sutras, that he was an adherent of the Maitr‚yanÓya S‚kh‚ [3], and that he is quoted by Baudh‚yana, ¬pastamba's predecessor. The bearing of the occurrence of Svetaketu's name will be discussed below.

Of even greater interest than the names of the teachers are the indications which ¬pastamba gives, that he knew two of the philosophical schools which still exist in India, viz. the Purv‚ or Karma Mim‚ms‚ and the Ved‚nta. As regards the former, he mentions it by its ancient name, Ny‚ya, which in later tirnes and at present is usually applied to the doctrine of Gautama Akshap‚da. In two passages [4] he settles contested points on the authority of those who know the Ny‚ya, i.e. the Purv‚ MÓm‚ms‚, and

[1. p. Dh. I, 6, 19, 3-8; I, 10, 2 8, 1-2; I, 4, 13, 10; I, 6, 18, 2; I, 6, 19, 12; I, 10, 28, 5, 16; I, 10, 29, 12-16.

2. Max Muller, loc. cit., p. 142.

3. A Dharma-sutra, ascribed to this teacher, has been recovered of late, by Mr. Virnan Shastri Islampurkar. Though it is an ancient work, it does not contain ¬pastamba's quotations, see Grundriss d. Indo-Ar. Phil. und Altertumsk, II, 8, 8.

4. ¬p. Dh. II, 4, 8, 13; II, 6, 14, 13.]

in several other cases he adopts a line of reasoning which fully agrees with that followed in Gaimini's Mim‚ms‚-sutras. Thus the arguments[1], that 'a revealed text has greater weight than a custom from which a revealed text may be inferred,' and that 'no text can be inferred from a custom for which a worldly motive is apparent,' exactly correspond with the teaching of Gaimini's Mim‚ms‚-sutras I, 3, 3-4. The wording of the passages in the two works does not agree so closely that the one could be called a quotation of the other. But it is evident, that if ¬pastamba did not know the Mim‚ms‚-sutras of Gaimini, he must have possessed some other very similar work. As to the Ved‚nta, ¬pastamba does not mention the name of the school. But Khandas 22, 23 of the first Patala of the Dharma-sutra unmistakably contain the chief tenets of the Ved‚ntists, and recommend the acquisition of the knowledge of the ¬tman as the best means for purifying the souls of sinners. Though these two Khandas are chiefly filled with quotations, which, as the commentator states, are taken from an Upanishad, still the manner of their selection, as well as ¬pastamba's own words in the introductory and concluding Sutras, indicates that he knew not merely the unsystematic speculations contained in the Upanishads and Aranyakas, but a well-defined system of Ved‚ntic philosophy identical with that of B‚dar‚yana's Brahma-sutras. The fact that ¬pastamba's Dharma-sutra contains indications of the existence of these two schools of philosophy, is significant as the Purv‚ MÓm‚ms‚ occurs in one other Dharma-sutra only, that attributed to Vasishtha, and as the name of the Ved‚nta school is not found in any of the prose treatises on the sacred law.

Of non-Vedic works ¬pastamba mentions the Pur‚na. The Dharma-sutra not only several times quotes passages from 'a Pur‚na' as authorities for its rules [2], but names in one case the Bhavishyat-pur‚na as the particular Pur‚na from which the quotation is taken [3]. References to the

[1. ¬p. Dh. I, 1, 14, 8, 9-10

2. ¬p. Dh, I, 6, 19, 13; I, 10, 29, 7.

2. ¬p. Dh. II, 9, 24,6.]

Pur‚na in general are not unfrequent in other Sutras on the sacred law, and even in older Vedic works. But ¬pastamba, as far as I know, is the only Surak‚ra who specifies the title of a partirular Pur‚na, and names one which is nearly or quite identical with that of a work existing in the present day, and he is the only one, whose quotations can be shown to be, at least in part, genuine Paur‚nic utterances.

Among the so-called Upa-pur‚nas we find one of considerable extent which bears the title Bhavishya-pur‚na or also Bhavishyat-pur‚na [1]. It is true that the passage quoted in the Dharma-sutra from the Bhavishyat-pur‚na is not to be found in the copy of the Bhavishya-pur‚na which I have seen. It is, therefore, not possible to assert positively that ¬pastamba knew the present homonymous work. Still, considering the close resemblance of the two titles, and taking into account the generally admitted fact that most if not all Pur‚nas have been remodelled and recast [2], it seems to me not unlikely that ¬pastamba's

[1. Aufrecht, Catalogus Catalogorum, p. 400.

2 Max Muller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., pp. 40-42. Weber, Literaturgeschichte, pp. 206-208. Though I fully subscribe to the opinion, held by the most illustrious Sanskritists, that, in general, the existing Pur‚nas are not identical with the works designated by that title in Vedic works, still I cannot believe that they are altogether independent of the latter. Nor can I agree to the assertion that the Pur‚nas known to us, one and all, are not older than the tenth or eleventh century A.D. That is inadmissible, because BÍrunÓ (India, I, 130 enumerates them as canonical books. And his frequent quotations from them prove that in 1030 A. D. they did not differ materially from those known to us (see Indian Antiquary, 19, 382 seqq.). Another important fact bearing on this point may be mentioned here, viz. that the poet B‚na, who wrote shortly after 600 A.D., in the SrÓhatshakarita, orders his Paur‚nika to recite the Pavanaprokta-pur‚na, i.e. the V‚yu-pur‚na (Harshakarita, p. 61, Calcutta ed.). Dr. Hall, the discoverer of the life of Harsha, read in his copy Yavanaprokta-pur‚na, a title which, as he remarks, might suggest the idea that B‚na knew the Greek epic poetry. But a comparison of the excellent Ahmad‚b‚d and Benares Devan‚garÓ MSS. and of the KasmÓr S‚rad‚ copies shows that the correct reading is the one given above. The earlier history of the Pur‚nas, which as yet is a mystery, will only be cleared up when a real history of the orthodox Hindu sects, especially of the Sivites and Vishnuites, has been written.

It will, then, probably become apparent that the origin of these sects reaches back far beyond the rise of Buddhism and Jainism. It will also be proved that the orthodox sects used Pur‚nas as text books for populpr Teadings, the Pur‚nap‚thana of our days, and that some, at least, of the now existing Pur‚nas are the latest recensions of those mentioned in Vedic books.]

authority was the original on which the existing Upapur‚na is based. And in favour of this view it may be urged that passages, similar to ¬pastamba's quotation, actually occur in our Paur‚nic texts. In the Gyotishprak‚ra section of several of the chief Pur‚nas we find, in connection with the description of the Path of the Manes (pitriy‚na)[1], the assertion that the pious sages, who had offspring and performed the Agnihotra, reside there until the general destruction of created things (bhutasamplav‚t), as well as, that in the beginning of each new creation they are the propagators of the world (lokasya samt‚nakar‚h) and, being re-born, re-establish the sacred law. Though the wording differs, these passages fully agree in sense with ¬pastamba's Bhavishyat-pur‚na which says, 'They (the ancestors) live in heaven until the (next) general destruction of created things. At the new creation (of the world) they become the seed.' In other passages of the Pur‚nas, which refer to the successive creations, we find even the identical terms used in the quotation. Thus the V‚yup., Adhy. 8, 23, declares that those beings, which have gone to the Ganaloka, 'become the seed at the new creation' (punah sarge ... big‚rtham ta bhavanti hi).

These facts prove at all events that ¬pastamba took his quotation from a real Pur‚na, similar to those existing. If it is literal and exact, it shows, also, that the Pur‚nas of his time contained both prose and verse.

Further, it is possible. to trace yet another of ¬pastamba's quotations from 'a Pur‚na.' The three Pur‚nas, mentioned above, give, immediately after the passages referred to, enlarged versions of the two verses[2] regarding the sages, who begot offspring and obtained 'burial-grounds,' and

[1. V‚yup., Adhy. .50, 208 seqq.; Matsyap., Adhy. 123, 96 seqq.; Vishnup. II, 8. 86-89; H. H. Wilson, Vishnup., vol. ii, pp. 263-268 (ed. Hall).

2 ¬p. Dh. II, 9, 23,4-5.]

regarding those who, remaining chaste, gained immortality[1]. In this case ¬pastamba's quotation can be restored almost completely, if certain interpolations are cut out. And it is evident that ¬pastamba has preserved genuine Pur‚nic verses in their ancient form. A closer study of the unfortunately much neglected Pur‚nas, no doubt, will lead to further identifications of other quotations, which will be of considerable interest for the history of Indian literature.

There is yet another point on which ¬pastamba shows a remarkable agreement with a theory which is prevalent in later Sanskrit literature. He says (Dh. II, 11, 29, 11-12), 'The knowledge which Sudras and women possess, is the completion of all study,' and 'they declare that this knowledge is a supplement of the Atharva-veda.' The commentator remarks with reference to these two Sutras, that 'the knowledge which Sudras and women possess,' is the knowledge of dancing, acting, music, and other branches of the so-called Arthas‚stra, the science of useful arts and of trades, and that the object of the Sutras is to forbid the study of such matters before the acquisition of sacred learning. His interpretation is, without doubt, correct, as similar sentiments are expressed by other teachers in parallel passages. But, if it is accepted, ¬pastamba's remark that 'the knowledge of Sudras and women is a supplement of the Atharva-veda,' proves that he knew the division of Hindu learning which is taught in Madhusudana SarasvatÓ's Prasth‚nabheda [2]. For Madhusudana allots to each Veda an Upa-veda or supplementary Veda, and asserts that the Upa-veda of the Atharva-veda is the Arthas‚stra. The agreement of ¬pastamba with the modern writers on this point, furnishes, I think, an additional argument that he belongs to the later Vedic schoolmen.

In addition to this information regarding the relative position of the ¬pastambÓya school in ancient Sarlskrit literature, we possess some further statements as to the

[1. An abbreviated version of the same verses, ascribed to the Paurinikas, occurs in Sahkar‚k‚rya's Comm. on the Kh‚ndogya Up., p. 336 (Bibl. Ind.).

2. Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 1-24.]

part of India to which it belongs, and these, as it happens, are of great importance for fixing approximately the period in which the school arose. According to the Brahmanical tradition, which is supported by a hint contained in the Dharina-sutra and by, information derivable from inscriptions and the actual state of things in modern India, the ¬pastambÓyas belong to Southern India and their founder probably was a native of or resided in the ¬ndhra country. The existence of this tradition, which to the present day prevails among the learned Brahmans of Western India and Benares, nlay be substantiated by a passage from the above-mentioned commentary of the Karanavyuha[1],which,

[1. Karanavyuhabh‚shya, fol. 15a, 1- 4 seqq.:-


though written in barbarous Sanskrit, and of quite modern origin, possesses great interest, because its description of the geographical distribution of the Vedas and Vedic schools is not mentioned elsewhere. The verses from a work entitled Mah‚nava, which are quoted there, state that the earth, i.e. India, is divided into two equal halves by the river Narmad‚ (Nerbudda). and that the school of ¬pastamba prevails in the southern half (ver. 2). It is further alleged (ver. 6) that the Yagur-veda of Tittiri and the ¬pastambÓya school are established in the ¬ndhra country and other parts of the south and soutth-east up to the mouth of the God‚vari (god‚s‚gara-‚vadhi). According to the Mah‚rnava the latter river marks, therefore, the northern frontier of the territory occupied by the ¬pastambÓyas. which comprises the Mar‚tha and K‚nara districts of the Bombay Presidency, the greater part of the Niz‚m's dominions, Berar, and the Madras Presidency with the exception of the northern Sirk‚rs and the western coast. This assertion agrees, on the whole, with the actual facts which have fallen under my observation. A great number of the Desastha-br‚hmanas in the N‚sik, Puna, Ahniadnagar, S‚t‚r‚, Shol‚pur, and Kolh‚pur districts, and of the K‚nari or Karn‚taka-br‚hmanas in the Belg‚m, Dh‚rv‚d, Kal‚dghÓ, and Karv‚d collectorates, as well as a smaller number among the Kittap‚vanas of the Konkana are ¬pastambÓyas. Of the Niz‚m's dominions and the Madras Presidency I possess no local knowledge. But I can say that I have met many followers of ¬pastamba among the Telingana-br‚hmanas settled in Bombay, and that the frequent occurrence of MSS. containing the Sutras of the ¬pastambÓya school in the Madras Presidency proves that the Karana there must count many adherents. On the other hand, I have never met with any ¬pastambÓyas among the ancient indigenous subdivisions of the Brahmanical community dwelliing north of the Mar‚thi country and north of the Narmad‚. A few Br‚hmanas of this school, no doubt, are scattered over Gugar‚t and Central India, and others are found in the great places of pilgrimage in Hindustan proper. The former mostly have immigrated during the last century, following the Mar‚th‚ chieftains who conquered large portions of those countries, or have been imported in the present century by the Mar‚th‚ rulers of Gwalior, Indor, and Baroda. The settlers in Benares, Mathur‚, and other sacred cities also. have chiefly come in modern times, and not unfrequently live on the bounty of the Mar‚th‚ princes. But all of them consider themselves and are considered by the Br‚hmanas, who are indigenous in those districts and towns, as aliens, with whom intermarriage and commensality are not permitted. The indigenous sections of the Br‚hmanas of Gugar‚t, such as the N‚garas, Khed‚vals, Bh‚rgavas, Kapilas, and Mot‚l‚s, belong, if they arc adherents of the Yagur-veda, to the M‚dhyandina or K‚nva schools of the White Yagur-veda. The same is the case with the Br‚hmanas of Ragput‚na, Hindustan, and the Paishgab. In Central India, too, the White Yagur-veda prevails; but, besides the two schools mentioned above, there are still some colonies of Maitr‚yanÓyas or M‚navas[1]. It seems, also, that the restriction of the ¬pastambÓya school to the south of India, or rather to those subdivisions of the Brahmanical community which for a long time have been settled in the south and are generally considered as natives of the south, is not of recent date. For it is a significant fact that the numerous ancient landgrants which have been found all over India indicate exactly the same state of things. I am not aware that in any grant issued by a king of a northern dynasty to Br‚hmanas who are natives of the northern half of India, an ¬pastambÓya is mentioned as donee. But among the southern landgrants there are several on which the name of the school appears. Thus in a sasana of king Harihara of Vidy‚nagara, dated Sakasamvat 1317 or 1395 A.D., one of the recipients of the royal bounty is 'the learned Ananta Dikshita, son of R‚mabhatta, chief

[1. See Bh‚u D‚gÓ, Journ. Bombay Br. Roy. As. Soc. X, 40. Regarding the Maitr‚yanÓyas in Gugar‚t, of whom the Karanavyuha speaks, compare my Report on the Search for Sanskrit MSS., 1879-80, p. 3.]

of the ¬pastambya (read ¬pastambÓya) s‚kh‚, a scion of the Vasishtha gotra [1].' Further, the eastern K‚lukya king Vigay‚ditya 112, who ruled, according to Dr. Fleet, from A-D. 799-843, presented a village to six students of the Hiranyakesi-sutra and to eighteen students of the ¬pastamba, recte the ¬pastamba-sutra. Again, in the abovementioned earlier grant of the Pallava king Nandivarman, there are forty-two students of the Apastambha-sutra [3] among the 108 sharers of the village of Udayakandramangalam. Finally, on an ancient set of plates written in the characters which usually are called cave-characters, and issued by the Pallava king Simhavarman II, we find among the donees five ¬pastambhÓya Br‚hmanas, who, together with a Hairanyakesa, a V‚gasaneya, and a S‚ma-vedi, received the village of Mangadur, in Vengor‚shtra [4]. This inscription is, to judge from the characters, thirteen to fourteen hundred years old, and on this account a very important witness for the early existence of the ¬pastambÓyas in Southern India.

Under the circumstances just mentioned, a casual remark made by ¬pastamba, in describing the Sr‚ddbas or funeral oblations, acquires considerable importance. He says (Dh. II, 7, 17, 17) that the custom of pouring water into the hands of Br‚hmanas invited to a Sr‚ddha prevails among the northerners, and he indicates thereby that he himself does not belong to the north of India. If this statement is taken together with the above-statcd facts, which tend to show that the ¬pastambÓyas were and are restricted to the south of India, the most probable construction which can be put on it is that ¬pastamba declares himself to be a southerner. There is yet another indication to the same effect contained in the Dharma-sutra. It has been pointed

[1. Colebrooke, Essays, II, p. 264, ver. 24 (Madras ed.).

2. See Hultzsch, South Indian Inscriptions, vol. i, p. 31 seqq., and Indian Antiquary, vol. xx, p. 414 seqq.

3 ¬pastambha may be a mistake for ¬pastamba. But the form with the aspirate occurs also in the earlier Pallava grant and in Devap‚la's commentary on the Kathaka Grihya-sutra.

4. Ind. Ant. V, 133.]

out above that the recension of the TaittirÓya ¬ranyaka which ¬pastamba recognises is that called the ¬ndhra text or the version current in the ¬ndhra country, by which term the districts in the south-east of India between the God‚vari and the Krishn‚ have to be understood [1]. Now it seems exceedingly improbable that a Vedic teacher would accept as authoritative any other version of a sacred work except that which was current in his native country. it would therefore follow, from the adoption of an ¬ndhra text by ¬pastamba, that he was born in that country, or, at least, had resided there so long as to have become naturalised in it. With respect to this conclusion it must also be kept in mind that the above-quoted passage from the Mah‚rnava particularly specifies the ¬ndhra country (Andhr‚di) as the seat of the ¬pastambÓyas. It may be that this is due to an accident. But it seems to me more probable that the author of the Mah‚rnava wished to mark the ¬ndhra territory as the chief and perhaps as the original residence of the ¬pastambÓyas.

This discovery has, also, a most important bearing on the question of the antiquity of the school of ¬pastamba. It fully confirms the result of the preceding enquiry, viz. that the ¬pastambÓyas are one of the later Karanas. For the south of India and the nations inhabiting it, such as Kalingas, Dravidas, Andhras, Kolas, and P‚ndyas, do not play any important part in the ancient Brahmanical traditions and in the earliest history of India, the centre of both of which lies in the north-west or at least north of the Vindhya range. Hitherto it has not been shown that the south and the southern nations are mentioned in any of the Vedic Samhit‚s. In the Br‚hmanas and in the Sutras they do occur, though they are named rarely and in a not complimentary manner. Thus the Aitareya-Br‚hmana gives the names of certain degraded, barbarous tribes, and among them that of the Andhras [2], in whose country, as

[1. See Cunningham, Geography, p. 527 seqq.; Burnell, South Ind. Pal., p. 14, note 2.

2. Aitareya-br‚hmana VII, 18.]

has been shown, the ¬pastambÓyas probably originated. Again, Baudh‚yana, in his Dharma-sutra I, i, quotes song verses in which it is said that he who visits the Kalingas must purify himself by the performance of certain sacrifices in order to become fit for again associating with Aryans. The same author, also, mentions distinctive forbidden practices (‚k‚ra) prevailing in the south (loc. cit.). Further, P‚nini's grammatical Sutras and K‚ty‚yana's V‚rttikas thereon contain rules regarding several words which presuppose an acquaintance with the south and the kingdoms which flourished there. Thus P‚nini, IV, 2, 98, teaches the formation of d‚kshin‚tya in the sense of 'belonging to or living in the south or the Dekhan,' and a V‚rttika of K‚ty‚yana on P‚nini, IV, 1, 175, states that the words Kola and P‚ndya are used as names of the princes ruling over the Kola and P‚ndya countries, which, as is known from history, were situated in the extreme south of India. The other southern nations and a fuller description of the south occur first in the Mah‚bh‚rata [1]. While an acquaintance with the south can thus be proved only by a few books belonging to the later stages of Vedic literature, several of the southern kingdoms are named already in the oldest historical documents. Asoka in his edicts[2], which date from the second half of the third century B.C., calls the Kolas, P‚ndyas, and the Keralaputra or Ketalaputra his pratyantas (prakant‚) or neighbours. The same monarch informs us also that he conquered the province of Kalinga and annexed it to his kingdom [3], and his remarks on the condition of the province show that it was thoroughly imbued with the Aryan civilisation. [4]. The same fact is attested still more clearly by the annals of the Keta king of Kalinga, whose thirteenth year fell in the 165th year of the Maurya era, or about 150 B.C.[5] The early

[1. Lassen, Ind. Alterthurnskunde, I. 684, 2nd ed.

2. Edict II, Epigraphia Indica, vol. ii, pp. 449-450, 466.

3. Edict XIII, op. cit., pp. 462-465, 470-472.

See also Indian Antiquary, Vol. xxiii, p. 246.

Actes du 6irime Congrris Int. d. Orient., vol. iii, 2, 135 seqq., where, however, the beginning of the Maurya era is placed wrongly in the eighth year of Asoka.]

spread of the Aryan civilisation to the eastern Coastdistricts between the God‚vari and the Krishn‚ is proved by the inscriptions on the Bhattiprolu relic caskets, which probably belong to the period of 200 B.C.[1] Numerous inscriptions in the Buddhist caves of Western India[2], as well as coins, prove the existence during the last centuries before, and the first centuries after, the beginning of our era of a powerful empire of the Andhras, the capital of which was probably situated near the modern Amar‚vati an the lower Krishn‚. The princes of the latter kingdom, though great patrons of the Buddhist monks, appear to have been Brahmanists or adherents of the ancient orthodox faith which is founded on the Vedas. For one of them is called Vedisiri (vedishri), 'he whose glory is the Vedi,' and another Yashasiri (yagshasrÓ), 'he whose glory is the sacrifice,' and a very remarkable inscription on the N‚n‚gh‚t [3] contains a curious catalogue of sacrificial fees paid to priests (dakshin‚) for the performance of Srauta sacrifices. For the third and the later centuries of our era the information regarding Southern India becomes fuller and fuller. Very numerous inscriptions, the accounts of the Buddhist chroniclers of Ceylon, of the Greek geographers, and of the Chinese pilgrims, reveal the existence and give fragments, at least, of the history of many kingdoms in the south, and show that their civilisation was an advanced one, and did not differ materially from that of Northern India.

There can be no doubt that the south of India has been conquered by the Aryans, and has been brought within the pale of Brahmanical civilisation much later than India north of the Vindhya range. During which century precisely that conquest took place, cannot be determined for the present. But it would seem that it happened a considerable time before the Vedic period came to an end, and it certainly was an accomplished fact, long before the

[1. Epigraphia Indiep., vol. ii, p. 323 seqq.

2. See Burgess, Arch. Surv. Reports, West India, vol. iv, pp. 104-114 and vol. v, p. 75 seqq.

3. Op. cit., vol. v, p. 69 seqq. Its date probably falls between 150-140 B.C.]

authentic history of India begins, about 500 B.C., with the Persian conquest of the Pashgab and Sindh. It may be added that a not inconsiderable period must have elapsed after the conquest of the south, before the Aryan civilisation had so far taken root in the conquered territory, that, in its turn, it could become a centre of Brahmanical activity, and that it could produce new Vedic schools.

These remarks will suffice to show that a Vedic Karana which had its origin in the south, cannot rival in antiquity those whose seat is in the north, and that all southern schools must belong to a comparatively recent period of Vedic history. For this reason, and because the name of ¬pastamba and of the ¬pastambÓyas is not mentioned in any Vedic work, not even in a Kalpa-sutra, and its occurrence in the older grammatical books, written before the beginning of our era, is doubtful [1], it might be thought advisable to fix the terminus a quo for the composition of the ¬pastambÓya-sutras about or shortly before the beginning of the era, when the Brahmanist ¬ndhra kings held the greater part of the south under their sway. It seems to me, however, that such a hypothesis is not tenable, as there are several points which indicate that the school and its writings possess a much higher antiquity. For, first, the Dharma-sutra contains a remarkable passage in which its author states that Svetaketu, one of the Vedic teachers who is mentioned in the Satapatha-Br‚hmana and in the Kh‚ndogya Upanishad, belongs to the Avaras, to the men of later, i.e. of his own times. The passage referred to, Dh. I, 2, 5, 4-6, has been partly quoted above in order to show that ¬pastamba laid no claim to the title Rishi, or seer of revealed texts. It has been stated that according to Sutra 4, 'No Rishis are born among the Avaras, the men of later ages, on account of the prevailing transgression of the rules of studentship;' and that according to Sutra 5,

[1. The name ¬pastamba occurs only in the gana vid‚di, which belongs to P‚nini IV, 1, 104, and the text of this gana is certain only for the times of tile K‚sik‚, about 690 A.D. The Srauta-sutra of ¬pastamba is mentioned in the nearly contemporaneous commentary of Bhartrihari on the Mah‚bh‚shya, see Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Morg. Ges., vol. xxxvi, p. 654.]

'Some in their new birth become similar to Rishis by their knowledge of the Veda (srutarshi) through a residue of merit acquired in former existences.' In order to give,an illustration of the latter case, the author adds in Sutra 6, 'Like Svetaketu.' The natural, and in my opinion, the only admissible interpretation of these words is that ¬pastamba considers Svetaketu to be one of the Avaras, who by virtue of a residue of merit became a Srutarshi. This is also the view of the commentator Haradatta, who, in elucidation of Sutra 6, quotes the following passage from the Kh‚ndogya Upanishad (VI, 1, 1-2):

'1. Verily, there lived Svetaketu, a descendant of Aruna. His father spake unto him, "O Svetaketu, dwell as a student (with a, teacher); for, verily, dear child, no one in our family must neglect the study of the Veda and become, as it were, a Br‚hmana in name only."

'Verily, he (Svetaketu) was initiated at the age of twelve years, and when twenty-four years old be had learned all the Vedas; he thought highly of himself and was vain of his learning and arrogant.'

There can be no doubt that this is the person and the story referred to in the Dharma-sutra. For the fact which the Upanishad mentions, that Svetaketu learned all the Vedas in twelve years, while, the Smritis declare forty-eight years to be necessary for the accomplishment of that task, makes ¬pastamba's illustration intelligible and appropriate. A good deal more is told in the Kh‚ndogya Upanishad about this Svetaketu, who is said to have been the son of Udd‚laka and the grandson of Aruna (‚runeya). The same person is also frequently mentioned in the Satapatha-Br‚hmana. In one passagt; of the latter work, which has been translated by Professor Max Muller[1], it is alleged that he was a contemporary of Y‚gshavalkya, the promulgator of the White Yagur-veda, and of the learned king Ganaka of Videha, who asked him about the meaning of the Agnihotra sacrifice, Now, as has been shown above, ¬pastamba knew and quotes the White Yagur-veda and

[1. Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 421 seq.]

the Satapatha-br‚hmana. The passage of the latter work, which he quotes, is even taken from the same book in which the story about Svetaketu and Ganaka occurs. The fact, therefore, that ¬pastamba places a teacher whom he must have considered as a contemporary of the promulgator of the White Yagur-veda among the Avaras, is highly interesting and of some importance for the history of Vedic literature. On the one hand it indicates that ¬pastamba cannot have considered the White Yagur-veda, such as it has been handed down in the schools of the K‚nvas and M‚dhyandinas, to belong to a remote antiquity. On the other hand it makes the inference which otherwise might be drawn from the southern origin of the ¬pastambÓya school and from the non-occurrence: of its name in the early grammatical writings, viz. that its founder lived not long before the beginning of our era, extremely improbable. For even if the term Avara is not interpreted very strictly and allowed to mean not exactly a contemporary, but a person of comparatively recent times, it will not be possible to place between Svetaketu and ¬pastamba a longer interval than, at the utmost, two or three hundred years. Svetaketu and Y‚gshavalkya would accordingly, at the best, find their places in the fourth or fifth century B.C., and the Satapatha-Br‚hmana as well as all othet Vedic works, which narrate incidents from their lives, must have been composed or at least edited still later. Though little is known regarding the history of the Vedic texts, still it happens that we possess some information regarding the texts in question. For we know from a statement made by K‚ty‚yana in a V‚rttika on P‚nini IV, 3, 105, and from Patashgali's commentary on his words that the Br‚hmana proclaimed by Y‚gshavalkya, i.e. the Satapatha-br‚hmana of the White Yagur-veda, was considered to have been promulgated by one of the Ancients, in the times of these two writers, i.e. probably in the fourth and second centuries B.C.[1]

[1. This famous V‚rttika has been interpreted in various ways; see Max Muller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., pp. 360-364; Goldstucker, P‚nini, pp. 132-140; Weber, Ind. Stud. V, 65-74; XIII, 443, 444. As regards the explanation of K‚ty‚yana's and Patashgali's words, I side with Kaiyata and Professor Goldstucker. But I am unable to follow the latter in the inferences which he draws from the fact, that K‚ty‚yana and Patashgali declare Y‚gshavalkya and other sages to be as ancient as those whose Br‚hmanas and Kalpas are designated by the plural of adjectives formed by the addition of the affix in to the names of the promulgators. Though P‚nini asserts, IV, 3, 105, that only those Br‚hmanas which are known by appellations like Bh‚llavinah, KaushÓtakinah, &c, have been proclaimed by ancient sages, and though K‚ty‚yana and the author of the Great Commentary add that this rule does not hold good in the case of the work called Y‚gshavalk‚ni Br‚hman‚ni, it does not necessarily follow, as Professor Goldstucker thinks, that an extraordinarily long interval lies between P‚nini and K‚ty‚yana-so long a period that what P‚nini considered to be recent had become ancient in K‚ty‚yana's time. Professor Weber has rightly objected to this reasoning. The difference between the statements of the two grammarians may have been caused by different traditions prevailing in different schools, or by an oversight on the part of P‚nini, which, as the scene of Y‚gshavalkya's activity seems to have been Videha in eastern India, while P‚nini belonged to the extreme north-west, is not at all improbable. As regards the two dates, I place, following, with Professor Max Muller, the native tradition, K‚ty‚yana in the fourth century B.C., and Patashgali, with Professors Goldstucker, Kern, and Bh‚ndarkar, between 178-140 B.C.]

These considerations will show that it is necessary to allow for ¬pastamba a much higher antiquity than the first century B.C.

The same inference may also be drawn from another series of facts, viz. the peculiarities of the language of his Sutras. The latter are very considerable and very remarkable. They may be classed under four heads. In the ¬pastambÓya Dharma-sutra we have, first, archaic words and forms either occurring in other Vedic writings or formed according to the analogy of Vedic usage; secondly, ancient forms and words specially prescribed by P‚nini, which have not been traced except in ¬pastamba's Sutras; thirdly, words and forms which are both against Vedic usage and against P‚nini's rules, and which sometimes find their analogies in the ancient Prakrits; and fourthly, anomalies in the construction of sentences. To the first class belong, kravy‚das, I, 7, 21, 15, carnivorous, formed according to the analogy of ris‚das; the frequent use of the singular d‚ra, e.g. II, 1, 1, 17-18, a wife, instead of the plural d‚r‚h; sal‚vrikÓ, I, 3, 10, 19, for s‚lavrikÓ; the substitution of l for r in plenkha, I, 11, 31, 14; occasional offences against the rules of internal and external Sandhi, e.g. in agrihyam‚nak‚ranah, I, 4, 12, 8; in skuptv‚, I, 11, 31, 22, the irregular absolutive of skubh or of sku; in p‚duna, I, 1, 2, 13; in adh‚sanas‚yin, I, 19, 2, 21 and in sarvatopeta, I, 6, 19, 8; the neglect of the rule requiring vriddhi in the first syllable of the name Pushkaras‚di, I, 10, 28, 1; the irregular instrumentals vidy‚, I, 11, 30, 3, for vidyay‚, and nihsreyas‚, II, 7, 16, 2, for nihsreyasena; the nominatives dual ‚vam, I, 7, 20, 6, for ‚v‚m,and krushkakraushka, I, 5, 17, 36 for kraushkau; and the potentials in Óta, such as praksh‚layÓta, I, 1, 2, 28; abhipras‚rayÓta, I, 25 6, 3, &c.

Among the words mentioned by P‚nini, but not traced except in the Dharma-sutra, may be enumerated the verb strih, to do damage, I, 11, 31, 9; the verb shrinkh, to sneeze, from which shrinkh‚nik‚, I, 5, 16, 14, and nihshrinkhana, II, 2, 5, 9, are derived; and the noun ved‚dhy‚ya, I, 9, 24, 6; II, 4, 8, 5, in the sense of a student of the Veda. Words offending against rules given by P‚nini, without being either archaic or Prakritic, are e.g. sarv‚nnin, I, 6, 18, 33, one who eats anybody's food, which, according to P‚nini V, 2, 9, should be sarv‚nnÓna; sarpasÓrshin, I, 5, 17, 39; annasamskartri, a cook, II, 3, 6, 16; dh‚rmya, righteous, for dharmya, I, 2, 7, 21, and elsewhere; dÓvitri, a gambler, II, 10, 2, 5, 13, for devitri, the very remarkable form pr‚ssh‚ti, I, 1, 4, 1, for pr‚sn‚ti, finds an analogy in the Vedic snyaptre for snaptre[1] and in Pali, pashha from prassha for prasna; and the curious compounds av‚ngagra, I, 1, 2, 38, par‚ng‚vritta, II, 5, 10, 11,where the first parts show the forms of the nominative instead of the base, and pratisuryamatsyah, I, 3, 11, 31, which as a copulative compound is wrong, though not without analogies in Prakrit and in later Sanskrit [2]. The irregular forms caused by the same tendencies as those which effected the formation of the

[1. Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik, vol. i, p. xxxiii.

See Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Morg. Ges., vol. xl, p. 539 seq.; Eplgraphia Indica, vol i, p. 3.]

Prakrit languages, are, aviprakramina, II, 2, 5, 2, for aviprakramana, where an a standing in thesi has been changed to i; s‚mvrittih, II, 3, 6, 13, s‚nvartete, II, 5, 11, 20, and pary‚nta, I, 3, 9, 21, and I, 3, 11, 33 (compare Mar‚thi ‚mt for antah), in each of which a standing before a nasal has been lengthened; anika, I, 6, 19, 1, the initial a of which stands for ri, if it really has the meaning of rinika, as some commentators asserted; anulepana, I, 3, 11, 13; I, 11, 32, 5, with the Prakritic change of na to na; vyupag‚va, I, 2, 8, 15, with va for pa; ritve for ritvye, wherey seems to have been absorbed by the following e; apassayÓta, I, 11, 32, 16, for ap‚srayita, and bhatrivyatikrama, I, 10, 28, 20, where r has been assimilated to the preceding, or has been lost before the following consonant. The irregularities in the construction are less frequent. But in two Sutras, I, 3, 10, 2, and I, 3, 11, 31, some words which ought to stand in the locative case have the terminations of the nominative, and it looks as if the author had changed his mind about the construction which he meant to use. In a third passage II, 10, 26, 20, sisnakkhedanam savrishanasya, the adjective which is intended to qualify the noun sisna has been placed in the genitive case, though the noun has been made the first part of a compound.

The occurrence of so many irregularities[1] in so small a treatise as the Dharma-sutra is, proves clearly that the author did not follow P‚nini's grammar, and makes it very unlikely that he knew it at all. If the anomalous forms used by ¬pastamba all agreed with the usage of the other Sutrak‚ras, known to us, it might be contended that, though acquainted with the rules of the great grammarian, he had elected to adopt by preference the language of the Vedic schools. But this is by no means the case. The majority of the irregular forms are peculiar to ¬pastamba. As it is thus not probable that ¬pastamba employed his peculiar expressions- in obedience to the tradition of the

[1. Many more may be collected from the other divisions of the body of Sutras. See Winternitz, op. cit., p. 13 seqq.; Gurupug‚kaumudÓ, p. 34 seq.]

Vedic schools or of his particular school, he must have either been unacquainted with P‚nini or have considered his teachings of no great importance. In other words, he must either have lived earlier than P‚nini or before P‚nini's grammar had acquired general fame throughout India, and become the standard authority for Sanskrit authors. In either case so late a date as 150 B. C. or the first century B.C. would not fit. For Patashgali's Mah‚bh‚shya furnishes abundant proof that at the time of its composition, in the second century B.C., P‚nini's grammar occupied a position similar to that which it holds now, and has held since the beginning of our era in the estimation of the learned of India. On linguistic grounds it seems to me ¬pastamba cannot be placed later than the third century B.C., and if his statement regarding Svetaketu is taken into account, the lower limit for the composition of his Sutras must be put further back by 150-200 years.

But sufficient space has already been allotted to these attempts to assign a date to the founder of the ¬pastambÓya school, the result of which, in the present state of our knowledge of the ancient history of India, must remain, I fear, less certain and less precise than is desirable. It now is necessary to say, in conclusion, a few words about the history of the text of the Dharma-sutra, and about its commentary, the Uggval‚ Vritti of Haradatta. The oldest writer with a known date who quotes the ¬pastambÓya Dharma-sutra is Sankar‚k‚rya [1], c. 800 A.D. Even somewhat earlier Kum‚rila, c. 750, refers repeatedly to a law-book by ¬pastamba[2]. But it is improbable that he had our Dharma-sutra before him. For he says, p. 138, that ¬pastamba expressly sanctions local usages, opposed to the teaching of the Vedas, for the natives of those districts where they had prevailed since ancient times. Now, that is just an opinion, which our Dharma-sutra declares to be wrong and refutes repeatedly [3]. As it seems

[1. See Deussen, Ved‚nta, p. 35.

2. Tantrav‚rttika, pp. 138, 139, 142, 174,175, 179, Benares ed.

3. ¬p. Dh. I, 1, 14, 8, 9-10; II, 6, 14, 10-13; II, 6, 15, I.]

hazardous to impute to a man, like Kum‚rila, ignorance or spite against ¬pastamba, I am inclined to assume that the great Mim‚msaka refers to some other work, attributed to ¬pastamba, perhaps the metrical ¬pastamba-smriti which Aparirka quotes very frequently[1]. Among the commentators on Smritis the oldest, who quote the Dharma-sutra, are Medh‚tithi, the author of the Manubh‚shya, and Vigsh‚nesvara, who composed the Mit‚kshar‚, the well-known commentary on Y‚shgavalkya's Dharma-s‚stra during the reign of the K‚lukya king Vikram‚ditya VI, of K‚lukya towards the end of the eleventh century. From that time downwards ¬pastamba is quoted by almost every writer on law. But the whole text, such as it is given in my edition [2], is vouched for only by the commentator Haradatta, who wrote his Uggval‚ Vritti, at the latest, in the fifteenth century A.D. or possibly 100 years earlier [3] . Haradatta was, however, not the first commentator of the Dharma-sutra. He frequently quotes the opinions of several predecessors whom he designates by the general expressions anyah or aparah, i.e. another (writer). The fact that the Uggval‚ was preceded by earlier commentaries which protected the text from corruption, also speaks in favour of the authenticity of the lattcr, -which is further attested by the close agreement of the Hiranyakesi Dharma-sutra, mentioned above.

As regards the value of the Uggval‚ for the explanation of ¬pastamba's text, it certainly belongs to the best commentaries

[1. ¬p. Dh., Introd., p. x.

2. ¬pastambÓya Dharma-sutram, second edition, Part i, Bombay, 1892; Part ii, Bombay, 1894.

3. It seems not doubtful that Haradatta, the author of the Uggval‚, is the same person who wrote the An‚kula Vritti on the ¬pastambÓya Grihya-sutra, an explanation of the ¬pastambÓya Grihya-mantras (see Burnell, Ind. Ant. I, 6), and the Mit‚kshar‚ Vritti on the Dharma-sutra of Gautama. From the occurrence in the latter work of Tamil words, added in explanation of Sanskrit expressions, it follows that Haradatta was a native of the south of India. I am not in a position to dccide if our author also wrote the PadamashgarÓ Vritti on the K‚sik‚ of V‚mana and Gay‚ditya. This is Professor Aufrecht's opinion, Catalogus Catalogorum, p. 715 seq. See also my remarks in the Introd. to the second ed., p. viii.]

existing. Haradatta possessed in the older Vrittis abundant and good materials on which he could draw; he himself apparently was, well versed in Hindu law and in Sanskrit grammar, and distinguished by sobriety and freedom from that vanity which induces many Indian commentators to load their works with endless and useless quotations. His explanations, therefore, can mostly be followed without hesitation, and, even when they appear unacceptable, they deserve careful consideration.


¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 1, Khanda, 1.


Aphorisms On The Sacred Law Of The Hindus.

1. Now, therefore, we will declare the acts productive of merit which form part of the customs of daily life, as they have been settled by the agreement (of those who know the law).

2. The authority (for these duties) is the agreement of those who know the law,

3. And (the authorities for the latter are) the Vedas alone.

4. (There are) four castes--Br‚hmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras.

5. Amongst these, each preceding (caste) is superior by birth to the one following.

6. (For all these), excepting Sudras and those who have committed bad actions, (are ordained) the initiation, the study of the Veda, and the kindling of

[1. 1. Samaya, 'agreement, decision,' is threefold. It includes injunction, restriction, and prohibition.

Dharma, 'acts productive of merit, I usually translated by 'duty or law,' is more accurately explained as an act which produces the quality of the soul called apurva, the cause of heavenly bliss and of final liberation.

2. Manu II, 6, 12 Y‚gsh. I, 7; Gautama I, 1.

6. Manu II, 35.]

the sacred fire; and (their) works are productive of rewards (in this world and the next).

7. To serve the other (three) castes (is ordained) for the Sudra.

8. The higher the caste (which he serves) the orreater is the merit.

9. The initiation is the consecration in accordance with the texts of the Veda, of a male who is desirous of (and can make use of) sacred knowledge.

10. A Br‚hmana declares that the G‚yatrÓ is learnt for the sake of all the (three) Vedas.

11. (Coming) out of darkness, he indeed enters darkness, whom a man unlearned in the Vedas, initiates, and (so does he) who, without being learned in the Vedas, (performs the rite of initiation.) That has been declared in a Br‚hmana.

12. As performer of this rite of initiation he shall seek to obtain a man in whose family sacred learning is hereditary, who himself- possesses it, and who is devout (in following the law).

13. And under him the sacred science must be

[7. Manu 1, 91, VIII, 410; and IX, 334; Y‚gsh, I, 120.

9. The use of the masculine in the text excludes women. For though women may have occasion to use such texts as 'O fire, of the dwelling' &c. at the Agnihotra, still it is specially ordained that they shall be taught this and similar verses only just before tbe rite is to be performed.

10. The object of the Sutra is to remove a doubt whether the ceremony of initiation ought to be repeated for each Veda, in case a man desires to study more than one Veda. This repetition is declared to be unnecessary, except, as the commentator adds, in the case of the Atharva-veda, for which, according to a passage of a Br‚hmana, a fresh initiation is necessary. The latter rule is given in the Vait‚na-sutra I, 1, 5.

13. Haradatta: 'But this (latter rule regarding the taking of another teacher) does not hold good for those who have begun to study, solemnly, binding themselves, to their teacher. How so? As he (the pupil) shall consider a person who initiates and instructs him his ¬karya, and a pupil who has been once initiated cannot be initiated again, how can another man instruct him? For this reason it must be understood that the study begun with one teacher may not be completed with another, if the frst die.' Compare also Haradatta On I, 2, 7, 26, and the rule given I, 1, 4, 26. In our times also pupils, who have bound themselves to a teacher by paying their respects to him and presenting a cocoa-nut, in order to learn from him a particular branch of science, must not study the same branch of science under any other teacher.]

studied until the end, provided (the teacher) does not fall off from the ordinances of the law.

14. He from whom (the pupil) gathers (‚kinoti) (the knowledge of) his religious duties (dharm‚n) (is called) the ¬k‚rya (teacher).

15. Him he should never offend.

16. For he causes him (the pupil) to be born (a second time) by (imparting to him) sacred learning.

17. This (second) birth is the best.

18. The father and the mother produce the body only.

19. Let him initiate a Br‚hmana in spring, a Kshatriya in summer, a Vaisya in autumn, a Br‚hmana in the eighth year after conception, a Kshatriya in the eleventh year after conception, (and) a Vaisya in the twelfth after conception.

20. Now (follows the enumeration of the years

[14. Manu II, 69; Y‚gsh. I, 15.

15. Manu II, 144.

16. Manu II, 146-148.

17. 'Because it procures heavenly bliss and final liberation.'--Haradatta.

18. Manu II, 147.

19. Y‚gsh. I, 14; Manu II, 36; ¬svak‚yana Gri. Su. I, 19, 1, 4: Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 20 seq.]

to be chosen) for the fulfilment of some (particular) wish,

21. (Let him initiate) a person desirous of excellence in sacred learning in his seventh year,

22. A person desirous of long life in his eighth year,

2-. A person desirous of manly vigour in his ninth year,

24. A person desirous of food in his tenth year,

25. A person desirous of strength in his eleventh year,

26. A person desirous of cattle in his twelfth year.

27. There is no dereliction (of duty, if the initiation takes place), in the case of a Br‚hmana before the completion of the sixteenth year, in the case of a Kshatriya before the completion of the twenty-second year, in the case of a Vaisya before the completion of the twenty-fourth year. (Let him be initiated at such an age) that he may be able to perform the duties, which we shall declare below.

28. If the proper time for-the initiation has passed, he shall observe for the space of two months

[21. Manu II, 37.

22-26. ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 19, 5, 7; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.

27. The meaning of the Sutra is, that the initiation shall be performed as soon as the child is able to begin the study of the Veda. If it is so far developed at eight years, the ceremony must then be performed; and if it be then neglected, or, if it be neglected at any time when the capacity for learning exists, expiation prescribed in the following Sutras must be performed. The age of sixteen in the case of Br‚hmanas is the latest term up to which the ceremony may be deferred, in case of incapacity for study only. After the lapse of the sixteenth year, the expiation becomes also necessary. Manu II, 38; Y‚gsh. I, 37.

28. The meaning is, he shall keep all the restrictions imposed upon a student, as chastity, &c, but that he shall not perform the fire-worship or service to a teacher, nor study. Manu II, 39; XI. 192, Y‚gsh. I, 38; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 101.]

the duties of a student, as observed by those who are studying the three Vedas.

29. After that he may be initiated.

30. After that he shall bathe (daily) for one year.

31. After that he may be instructed.

32. He, whose father and grandfather have not been initiated, (and his two ancestors) are called 'slayers of the Brahman.'

33. Intercourse, eating, and intermarriage with them should be avoided.

34. If they wish it (they may perform the following) expiation;

35. In the same manner as for the first neglect (of the initiation, a penance of) two months (was) prescribed, so (they shall do penance for) one year.

36. Afterwards they may be initiated, and then they must bathe (daily),

[30. 'If he is strong, he shall bathe three times a day--morning, midday, and evening.'--Haradatta.

32. Brahman, apparently, here means 'Veda,' and those who neglect its study may be called metaphorically 'slayers of the Veda.'

33. Manu II, 40; ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 19, 8, 9; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.

35. Compare above, I, 1, 1, 28.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 1, Khanda, 2.



1. For as many years as there are uninitiated persons, reckoning (one year) for each ancestor (and the person to be initiated himself),

2. (They should bathe daily reciting) the seven

[2. 2. The seven P‚van‚nÓs are seven verses which occur Rig veda IX, 67, 21-27. Yagushpavitra=Taitt. Samh. I, 2, 1, 1. The S‚mapavitra is found S‚ma-veda I, 2, 2, 3, 5.¬ngirasapavitra=Rig-veda IV, 40, 5.]

P‚vam‚nis, beginning with 'If near or far,' the Yagushpavitra, ('May the waters, the mothers purify us,' &c.) the S‚mapavitra, ('With what help assists,' &c.), and the Angirasapavitra ('A swan, dwelling in purity'),

3. Or also reciting the Vy‚hritis (om, bhuh, bhuvah, suvah).

4. After that (such a person) may be taught (the Veda).

5. But those whose great-grandfather's (grandfather's and father's) initiation is not remembered, are called 'burial-grounds.'

6. Intercourse, dining, and intermarriage with them should be avoided. For them, if they like, the (following) penance (is prescribed). (Such a man) shall keep for twelve years the rules prescribed for a student who is studying the three Vedas. Afterwards he may be initiated. Then he shall bathe, reciting the P‚vam‚nis and the other (texts mentioned above, I, 1, 2, 2).

7. Then he may be instructed in the duties of a householder.

8. He shall not be taught (the whole Veda), but only the sacred formulas required for the domestic ceremonies.

9. When he has finished this (study of the Grihvamantras), he may be initiated (after having performed the penance prescribed) for the first neglect (I, 1, 1, 28).

10. Afterwards (everything is performed) as in the case of a regular initiation.

[10. The commentatcr observes that for those whose great-great-grandfather or remoter ancestors were not initiated, no penance is prescribed, and that it must be fixed by those who know the law.]

He who has been initiated shall dwell as a religious student in the house of his teacher,

12. For forty-eight years (if he learns all the four Vedas),

13. (Or) a quarter less (i.e. for thirty-six years),

14. (Or) less by half (i.e. for twenty-four years),

15. (Or) three quarters less (i.e. for twelve years),

16. Twelve years (should be) the shortest time (for his residence with his teacher).

17. A student who studies the sacred science shall not dwell with anybody else (than his teacher).

18. Now (follow) the rules for the studentship.

19. He shall obey his teacher, except (when ordered to commit) crimes which cause loss of caste.

20. He shall do what is serviceable to his teacher, he shall not contradict him.

21. He shall always occupy a couch or seat lower (than that of his teacher).

[11. Manu II, 164.

12. Manu III, 1, and Y‚gsh. I, 36; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.

16. The commentator declares that in Manu III, 1, the expression until he has learnt it,' must be understood in this sense, that the pupil may leave his teacher, if he has learnt the Veda, after twelve years' study, never before. But compare also ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 22, 3.

17. The commentator states that this rule refers only to a temporary, not to a professed student (Daishihika). He also gives an entirely different explanation to the Sutra, which, according to some, means, 'A student who learns the sacred science shall not fast in order to obtain heaven.' This Tendering also is admissible, as the word para may mean either a 'stranger' or 'heaven' and upavasa, 'dwelling' or 'fasting.'

19. Regarding the crimes which cause loss of caste (patanÓya), see below, I, 7, 21, 7.

20. Manu II, 108, and Y‚gsh. I, 27.

21. Manu II, 108, 198; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.]

22. He shall not eat food offered (at a sacrifice to the gods or the Manes),

23. Nor pungent condiments, salt, honey, or meat.

24. He shall not sleep in the day-time.

25. He shall not use perfumes.

26. He shall preserve chastity.

27. He shall not embellish himself (by using ointments and the like).

28. He shall not wash his body (with hot water for pleasure).

29. But, if it is soiled by unclean things, he shall clean it (with earth or water), in a place where he is not seen by a Guru.

30. Let him not sport in the water whilst bathing; let him swim (motionless) like a stick.

31. He shall wear all his hair tied in one braid.

32. Or let him make a braid of the lock on the crown of the head, and shave the rest of the hair.

[23. Regarding the meaning of ksh‚ra, 'pungent condiments,' see Haradatta on II, 6, 15, 15. Other commentators explain the term differently.--Manu II, 177; Y‚gsh. I, 33; and Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123. ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 22, 2.

25. Manu II, 177; Y‚gsh. I, 33.

26. Manu II, 180.

27. Manu II, 178; Y‚gsh. I, 33.

29. 'Here, in the section on the teacher, the word guru designates the father and the rest also.'--Haradatta.

30. Another version of the first portion of this Sutra, proposed by Haradatta, is, 'Let him not, whilst bathing, clean himself (with bathing powder or the like).' Another commentator takes Sutra 28 as a prohibition of the daily bath or washing generally ordained for Br‚hmanas, and refers Sutra 29. to the naimittika sn‚na or 'bathing on certain occasions,' and takes Sutra 30 as a restriction of the latter.

31. Manu II, 2 19.]

33. The girdle of a Br‚hmana shall be made of Mushga grass, and consist of three strings; if possible, (the strings) should be twisted to the right.

34. A bowstring (should be the girdle) of a Kshatriya,

35. Or a string of Mushga grass in which pieces of iron have been tied.

36. A wool thread (shall be the girdle) of a Vaisya,

37. Or a rope used for yoking the oxen to the plough, or a stringy made of Tamala-bark.

38. The staff worn by a Br‚hmana should be made of Pal‚sa wood, that of a Kshatriya of a branch of the Banian tree, which grows downwards, that of a Vaisya of B‚dara or Udumbara wood. Some declare, without any reference to caste, that the staff of a student should be made of the wood of a tree (that is fit to be used at the sacrifice).

39. (He shall wear) a cloth (to cover his nakedness).

40. (It shall be made) of hemp for a Br‚hmana, of flax (for a Kshatriya), of the skin of a (clean) animal (for a Vaisya).

4L Some declare that the (upper) garment (of a Br‚hmana) should be dyed with red Lodh,

[33. Manu II, 42-44; Y‚gsh. I, 29; ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 19, 12; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.

38. Manu II, 45; Y‚gsh. I, 29; ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 19, 13; 20, 1; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.

Haradatta gives no commentary on this Sutra, but refers back to the Grihya-sutra, II, 16-17, where the same words occur.

39. The word forms a Sutra by itself, in order to show that every one must wear this cloth.

40. Manu II, 41. 'Clean' means here and everywhere else, if applied to animals or things,' fit to be used at the sacrifice.'

41. ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 19, 11; Weber, Ind. Stud X, 22.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 1, Khanda 3.



1. And that of a Kshatriya dyed with madder,

2. And that of a Vaisya dyed with turmeric.

3. (The skin),worn by a Br‚hmana shall be that of a common deer or of a black doe.

4. If he wears a black skin, let him not (on the ground) to sit or lie upon it.

5. (The skin worn) by a Kshatriya shall be that of a spotted deer.

6. (The skin worn) by a Vaisya shall be that of a he-goat.

7. The skin of a sheep is fit to be worn by all castes,

8. And a blanket made of wool.

9. He who wishes the increase of Br‚hmana power shall wear skins only; he who wishes the increase of Kshatriya power shall wear cloth only; he who wishes the increase of both shall wear both (skin and cloth). Thus says a Br‚hmana.

10. But (I, ¬pastamba, say), let him wear a skin only as his upper garment.

11. Let him not look at dancing.

12. Let him not go to assemblies (for gambling, &c.), nor to crowds (assembled at festivals).

[3. 3. Manu II, 41; Y‚gsh. I, 29; ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 19, 10.

9. See also Gopatha-br‚hmana I, 2, 4.

10. According to I, 1, 2, 39-I, 1, 3, 10, the rule of dress for students is the following:--According to ¬pastamba, a student shall wear a piece of cloth to cover his nakedness (langoti), and a skin as upper garment. Other teachers allow, besides, an upper dress of cloth, coloured differently for the different castes, with or without the addhion of a deer-skin.

11. Manu II, 178.

12-13. Manu III, 179; Y‚gsh. I, 33.]

13. Let him not be addicted to gossiping.

14. Let him be discreet.

15. Let him not do anything for his own pleasure in places which his teacher frequents.

16. Let him talk with women so rnuch (only) as his purpose requires.

17. (Let him be) forgiving.

18. Let him restrain his organs from seeking illicit objects.

19. Let him be untired in fulfilling his duties;

20. Modest;

21. Possessed of self-command

22. Energetic;

23. Free from anger;

24. (And) free from envy.

25. Bringing all he obtains to his teacher, he shall go begging with a vessel in the morning and in the evening, (and he may) beg (from everybody) except low-caste people unfit for association (with Aryas) and Abhisastas.

[15. 'Anything for his own pleasure,' i.e. keeping conversations with friends, making his toilet, &c.

19.The explanations of the last two terms, s‚nta (Sutra 18) and d‚nta (Sutra 19), are different from those given usually. Sama is usually explained as 'the exclusive direction of the mind towards God,' and dama as 'the restraining of the senses..'

23, Manu II, 178.

25. Regarding the explanation of the term Abhisasta, see below, I, 7, 21, 17. Haradatta: 'Apap‚tras are called those born from a high-caste mother and a low-caste father, such as washermen. For their cooking vessels &c. are unfit for the use of the four castes.

Since ¬pastamba says, In the evening and in the morning, food obtained in the evening must not be used for the morning meal, nor food obtained in the morning for the eveni ng meal."' Manu II, 182, 183, 185; ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 22, 4. See also Gopatha-br‚hmana I, 2, 6.]

26. A Br‚hmana declares: Since a devout student takes away from women, who refuse (to give him alms, the merit gained) by (Srauta)-sacrifices, by gifts, (and) by burnt-offerings (offered in the domestic fire), as well as their offspring, their cattle, the sacred learning (of their families), therefore, indeed, (a woman) should not refuse (alms) to the crowd of students; for amonst those (who come to beg), there might be one of that (devout) kind, one who thus (conscientiously) keeps his vow.

2 7 . Alms (shall) not (be considered) leavings (and be rejected) by inference from their appearance), but on the strength of ocular or oral testimony (only).

28. A Br‚hmana shall beg, prefacing (his request) by the word 'Lady';

29. A Kshatriya (inserting the word) 'Lady' in the middle (between the words 'give alms');

30. A Vaisya, adding the word 'Lady' (at the end of the formula).

31. (The pupil) having taken those (alms) shall place them before his teacher and offer them to him.

32. He may eat (the food) after having been ordered to do so by his teacher.

[27. To eat the residue of the meal of any person except that left by the teacher and other Gurus, is not permitted to a student; see also below, I, 1, 4, 1 seq.; Manu II, 56; Y‚gsh. I, 33.

28. The formula to be used by a Br‚hmana is, 'Lady, give alms;' that to be used by a Kshatriya, 'Give, lady, alms;' and that used by a Vaisya, 'Give alms, lady.' Manu II, 49; Y‚gsh. I, 30; ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 22, 8.

31. The words with which be announces the alms are, Idam ittham ‚hritam, 'this much have I received.' Manu II, 51; Y‚gsh. I, 2, 7; ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 2 2, 10.

32. The answer of the teacher is, Saumya tvameva bhunkshva, friend, eat thou.']

33. If the teacher is absent, the pupil (shall offer the food) to (a member of) the teacher's farnily.

34. If the (family of the teacher) is (also) absent, the pupil (may offer the food) to other learned Br‚hmanas (Srotriyas) also (and receive from them the permission to eat).

5. He shall not beg for his own sake (alone).

36. After he has eaten, he himself shall clean his dish.

37. And he shall leave no residue (in his dish).

38. If he cannot (eat all that he has taken in his dish), he shall bury (the remainder) in the grou nd;

39. Or he may throw it into the water;

40. Or he may place (all that remains in a pot), and put it down near an (uninitiated) ¬rya;

41. Or (he may put it down) near a Sudra slave (belonging to his teacher).

42. If (the pupil) is on a journey, he shall throw

[34. Regarding the term Srotriya, see below, II, 3, 6. 4.

35. 'The meaning of this Sutra is, that the rule given, Sutra 42 (below), for a pupil who is on a journey, shall hold food also for a pupil who is at home, if (in the absence of his teacher) no Srotriyas are to be found (from whom he can receive the permission to eat).'--Haradatta.

36. 'He commits no sin, if he has the alms-pot cleaned by somebody else. Some say that the Sutra refers to both vessels (the alms-pot and his own dish).'

40. An ¬rya is a person belonging to one of the first three castes (see below). The ¬rya must be a boy who is not initiated, because children are k‚rnabhaksh‚h, i.e. allowed to eat what they like, even leavings.

42. This rule holds good if no Srotriyas are near. If Srotriyas are to be found, Sutra 34 applies. Agni, the god of fire, is considered to be of the Brahminical caste, and hence he takes the place of the teacher or of the Srotriyas. See also Manu II, 247, 248, and the passages collected from the Br‚hmanas, by Prof. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, 39.]

a part of the alms into the fire and eat (the remainder).

43. Alms are declared to be sacrificial food. In regard to them the teacher (holds the position which) a deity (holds in regard to food offered at a sacrifice).

44. And (the teacher holds also the place which) the ¬havanÓya fire occupies (at a sacrifice, because a portion of the alms is offered in the fire of his stomach).

45. To him (the teacher) the (student) shall offer (a portion of the alms),

[44. Manu II, 231.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 1, Khanda 4.



1. And (having done so) eat what is left.

2. For this (remnant of food) is certainly a remnant of sacrificial food.

If he obtains other things (besides food, such as cattle or fuel, and gives them to his teacher) as he obtains them, then those (things hold the place of) rewards (given to priests for the performance of a sacrifice).

4. This is the sacrifice to be performed daily bya religious student.

5. And (the teacher) shall not give him anything that is forbidden by the revealed texts, (not even as) leavings,

6. Such as pungent condiments, salt, honey, or meat (and the like).

[4. 6. See above, I, 1, 2, 23.]

7. By this (last Sutra it is) explained (that) the other restrictions (imposed upon a student, such as abstinence from perfumes, ointments, &c., are likewise not to be broken).

8. For (explicit) revealed texts have greater force than custom from which (the existence of a permissive passage of the revelation) may be inferred.

9. Besides (in this particular case) a (worldly) motive for the practice is apparent.

[7. See above, I, 1, 2, 24 seq.:-According to Haradatta, teachers were in the habit of giving ointments and the like forbidden substances to their pupils, and ¬pastamba gives this rule in order to show his dissent from the practice.

8. ¬num‚nika means "proper to be inferred from." For the existence of a text of the revelation or tradition (Smriti) is inferred from custom. A visible text of the revelation is (however) of greater weight than a custom from which the existence of a text may be inferred. It is impossible to infer (the existence of a text) which is opposed to such (a visible text), on account of the maxim "an inference (can be made only, if it is) not opposed (by ocular proof)." (¬pastamba), by speaking thus, ("For revealed texts," &c.,) shows that the rule forbidding a student to eat pungent condiments, salt &c. is based on the existing text of a Br‚hmana.' --Haradatta.

9. 'Though the text forbidding the use of pungent condiments salt, and the like refers to such substances if they are not leavings, still it is improper to assert, on the ground of the custom from which a permissive text may be inferred, that it (the existing text), which is general, must be restricted (to those cases only) where the forbidden substances are not leavings given by the teacher. (If an opponent should answer that) certainly there are also texts which contradict each other, such as "he takes" and "he does not take," and that therefore there is no reason why a text restricted (to the case in which forbidden substances are leavings of the teacher) should not be inferred. In order to answer (that plea), he (¬pastamba) says (Sutra 9), "True, that would be right if no motive whatever could be discovered for that custom (to eat forbidden food which is given by the teacher). But a reason for this course of action exists."'--Haradatta.]

10. For pleasure is obtained (by eating or using the forbidden substances).

11. A residue of food left by a father and an elder brother, may be eaten.

12. If they act contrary to the law, he must not eat (their leavings).

13. In the evening and in the morning he shall fetch water in a vessel (for the use of his teacher).

14. Daily he shall fetch fuel from the forest, and place it on the floor (in his teacher's house).

15. He shall not go to fetch firewood after sunset.

16. After having kindled the fire, and having swept the ground around (the altar), he shall place

[10. 'What is that (reason)? [Sutra 10] For to eat pungent condiments, salt, &c. gives pleasure to the eater, and therefore according to the maxim, I, 4, 12, 11, "That in case a custom has pleasure for its motive, there is no text of the holy law to authorise it," no text restricting (the prohibition of forbidden substances to the case in which a Brahmak‚rin does not receive them as leavin-s from his teacher) can be inferred (from the practice of eating such leavings).'-Haradatta.

12. Another explanation of this Sutra is given by Haradatta: 'If by eating their leavings he should commit a sin (because the food contains salt &c.), he shall not do it.'

13. Manu II, 182.

14. The reason for placing the fuel on the ground is, according to Haradatta, the fear lest, if placed on some shelf or the like, it should tumble down and injure the teacher's children. Others however, are of opinion that. the wood which the pupil fetches daily, is not to be used by the teacher for cooking, but for the performance of the pupil's daily fire-offering. The reason for this interpretation is, that in the Grihya-sutra, II, 24, the daily offering of fuel is enjoined with the same words. See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123; Manu II, 186.

16. Some explain, instead of 'after having swept the ground around the altar,' &c., 'after having raked the scattered brands into a heap.'--Haradatta.]

the sacred fuel on the fire every morning and evening, according to the prescription (of the Grihya-sutra).

17. Some say that the fire is only to be worshipped in the evening.

18. He shall sweep the place around the fire after it has been made to burn (by the addition of'fuel), with his hand, and not with the broom (of Kusa grass).

19. But, before (adding the fuel, he is free to use the broom) at his pleasure

20. He shall not perform non-religious acts with the residue of the water employed for the fire-worship, nor sip it.

21. He shall not sip water which has been stirred with the hand, nor such as has been received into one hand only.

22. And he shall avoid sleep (whilst his teacher is awake).

23. Then (after having risen) he shall assist his teacher daily by acts tending to the acquisition of spiritual merit and of wealth.

24. Having served (his teacher during the day in this manner, he shall say when going to bed): I have protected the protector of the law (my teacher).

[18. ¬p. Gri. Su. II, 22.

20. During the fire-worship water is wanted for sprinkling the altar in various Ways.

23. Acts tending to the acquisition of merit are here-collecting sacred fuel, Kusa grass, and flowers for sacrifices. Acts tending to the acquisition of wealth are-gathering fuel for cooking, &c. Manu II, 182; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.

24. Another explanation of the words spoken by the student is, O law, I have protected him; protect thou me.' See also Gopatha-br‚hmana, 1, 2, 4.]

25. If the teacher transgresses the law through carelessness or knowingly, he shall point it out to him privately.

26. If (the teacher) does not cease (to transgress), he himself shall perform the religious acts (which ought to be performed by the former);

27. Or he may return home.

28. Now of him who rises before (his teacher) and goes to rest after (him), they say that he does not sleep.

29. The student who thus entirely fixes his mind there (in the teacher's family), has thereby performed all acts which yield rewards (such as the Gyotishtoma), and also those which must be performed by a householder.

[26. Compare above, I, 1, 1, 13.

29. The Sutra refers to a naishthika brahmak‚rin or professed student, who never leaves his teacher's family, and never enters any other order; and it declares his merit to be equal to that of one who becomes a householder. Manu II, 243, 244; Y‚gsh. I, 49, 50.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 2, Khanda 5.



1. The word 'austerity' (must be understood to apply) to (the observance of) the rules (of studentship).

2. If they are transgressed, study drives out the knowledge of the Veda acquired already, from the (offender) and from his children.

[5. 1. Manu II, 164.

2. The meaning of the phrase, 'Study drives out the Veda, which has already been learnt from him who studies transgressing the rules prescribed for the student,' is, 'The Veda recited at the Brahmayagsha (daily study), -and other religious rites, produces no effect, i.e. gains no merit for the reciter.' Manu II, 97. Haradatta gives also the following three explanations of this Sutra, adopted by other commentators:-

a. If these (rules) are transgressed, he loses his capacity for learning, because the Brahman forsakes him, &c.

b. If these rules are transgressed, the capacity for learning and the Brahman leave him, &c.

c. From him who studies whilst transgressing these rules, the Brahman goes out, &c.]

3. Besides he will go to hell, and his life will be shortened.

4. On account of that (transgression of the rules of studentship) no Rishis are born amongst the men of later ages.

5. But some in their new birth, on account of a residue of the merit acquired by their actions (in former lives), become (similar to) Rishis by their knowledge (of the Veda),

6. Like Svetaketu.

And whatever else besides the Veda, (a student) who obeys the rules learns from his teacher, that brings the same reward as the Veda.

8. Also, if desirous to accomplish something (be

[4. 'Amongst the avaras means "amongst the men of modern times, those who live in the Kaliyuga." No Rishis are born means "there are none who see (receive the revelation of) Mantras, Vedic texts."'--Haradatta.

5. 'How is it then that men in our days, though they transgress the rules prescribed for students, learn the four Vedas with little trouble? (The answer is), By virtue of a residue of the reward (due) for the proper observance of those rules (of studentship) in a former Yuga. Therefore ¬pastamba says, Sutra 6 "But some," &c. New existence means "new birth (life)."'--Haradatta.

6. An example of this (follows, Sutra 6): 'Like Svetaketu. For Svetaketu learned the four Vedas in a short time; as we read in the Kh‚ndogya Upanishad (Prap‚thaka VI, 1).'--Haradatta.]

7. 'Whatever else besides the Veda, such as poison-charms and the like,'--Haradatta.]

it good or evil), he thinks it in his mind, or pronounces it in words, or looks upon it with his eye, even so it will be; thus teach (those who know the law).

9. (The duties of a student consist in acts to please the spiritual teacher, the observance (of rules) conducive to his own welfare, and industry in studying.

10. Acts other than these need not be performed by a student.

11. A religious student who retains what he has learned, who finds pleasure in the fulfilment of the law, who keeps the rules of studentship, who is upright and forgiving, attains perfection.

12. Every day he shall rise in the last watch of the night, and standing near his teacher, salute him with (this) salutation: I, N. N., ho! (salute thee.)

13. And (he shall salute) before the morning meal also other very aged (learned Br‚hmanas) who may live in the same village.

14. If he has been on a journey, (he shall salute

[9. 'Acts to please the teacher are--washing his feet and the like; observance (of rules) conducive to welfare are--obedience to the prohibition to cross a river swirnming, to eat pungept condiments, and obedience to the injunction to beg.'--Haradatta.

10. 'Acts other than these, such as pilgrimages and the like.'--Haradatta.

11. 'What this "perfection" is has been declared in Sutras 7, 8.'--Haradatta.

12. Manu II, 122 and 124.

14. This salutation is to be performed only when the occasion requires it. The formerly-mentioned salutation (Sutras 12, 13) is to be performed daily. In the next Sutra follows that by which the fulfilment of a wish may be obtained.-Haradatta. Manu II, 121; Y‚gsh I, 26]

the persons mentioned) when he meets them on his, return.

15. (He may also salute the persons mentioned at other times), if he is desirous of heaven and long life.

16. A Br‚hmana. shall salute stretching forward his right arm on a level with his ear, a Kshatriya holding it on a level with the breast, a Vaisya holding it on a level with the waist, a Sudra holding it low, (and) stretching forward the joined hands.

17. And when returning the salute of (a man belonging) to the first (three) castes, the (last syllable of the) name (of the person addressed) is produced to the length of three moras.

18. But when lie meets his teacher after sunrise (Coming for his lesson), he shall embrace (his feet).

19. On all other occasions he shall salute (him in the manner described above).

20. But some declare that he ought to embrace the (feet of his) teacher (at every occasion instead of saluting him).

21. Having stroked the teacher's right foot with his right hand below and above, he takes hold of it and of the ankle.

22. Some say, that he must press both feet, each with both hands, and embrace them.

23. He shall be very attentive the whole day

[16. 'A Vaisya shall salute stretching forth his arm on a level with his middle, i.e. the stomach; others say, on a level with his thigh; the Sudra stretching it forth low, i.e. on a level with his feet.'--Haradatta.

17. See also Mann II, 225.

18. Manu II, 71.

22. Mann II, 72

23. Manu II, 191.]

long, never allowing his mind to wander froin the lesson during the (time devoted to) studying.

24. And (at other times he shall be attentive) to the business of his teacher.

25. And during the time for rest (he shall give) his mind (to doubtful passages of the lesson learnt).

26. And he shall study after having been called by the teacher (and not request the teacher to begin the lesson).

[26. Y‚gsh. I, 27; Manu II, 191.]

¬pastamba Prasna 1, Patala 2, Khanda 6.



1. Every day he shall put his teacher to bed after having washed his (teacher's) feet and after having rubbed him.

2. He shall retire to rest after having received (the teacher's permission).

3. And he shall not stretch out his feet towards him.

4. Some say, that it is not (sinful) to stretch out the feet (towards the teacher), if he be lying on a bed.

5. And he shall not address (the teacher), whilst he himself is in a reclining position.

6. But he may answer (the teacher) sitting (if the teacher himself is sitting or lying down).

7. And if (the teacher) stands, (he shall answer him,) after having risen also.

[6. 1. Manu II, 209.

2. Manu II, 194.

4. 'But, in ¬pastamba's opinion, it is sinful even in this case.'--Haradatta.

5. Manu II, 195.

6. Manu II, 196.]

8. He shall walk after him, if he walks.

9. He shall run after him, if he runs.

10. He shall not approach (his teacher) with shoes on his feet, or his head covered, or holding (implements) in his hand.

11. But on a journey or occupied in work, he may approach him (with shoes on, with his head covered, or with implements in his hand),

12. Provided he does not sit down quite near (to his teacher).

13. He shall approach his teacher with the same reverence as a deity, without telling idle stories, attentive and listening eagerly to his words.

14. (He shall not sit near him). with his legs crossed.

15. If (on sitting down) the wind blows from the pupil towards the master, he shall change his place.

16. (He shall sit) without supporting himself with his hands (on the ground),

17. Without leaning against something (as a wall or the like).

18. If the pupil weats two garments, he shall wear the upper one after the fashion of the sacred thread at the sacrifices.

19.But, if he wears a (lower) garment only, he shall wrap it around the lower part of his body.

20. He shall turn his face towards his teacher though the latter does not turn his towards him.

21. He shall sit neither too near to, nor too far (from the teacher),

[15. Manu II, 203.

18. At sacrifices the sacred thread passes over the left shoulder and under the right arm. Manu II, 63, and Taitt-¬r. II, 1, 3.

20. Manu II, 197.]

22. (But) at such a distance, that (the teacher) may be able to reach hir with his arms (without rising).

23. (He shall not sit in such a position) that the wind blows from the teacher, towards himself.

24. (If there is) only one pupil, he shall sit at the right hand (of the teacher).

25. (If there are) many, (they may sit) as it may be convenient.

26. If the master (is not honoured with a seat and) stands, the (pupil) shall not sit down.

27. (If the master is not honoured with a couch) and sits, the (pupil) shall not lie down on a couch.

28. And if the teacher tries (to do something), then (the pupil) shall offer to do it for him, if it is in his power.

29. And, if his teacher is near, he shall not embrace (the feet of) another Guru who is inferior (in dignity),

30. Nor shall he praise (such a person in the teacher's presence) by (pronouncing the name of) his family.

31. Nor, shall he rise to meet such an (inferior Guru) or rise after him,

32. Even if he be a Guru of his teacher.

33. But he shall leave his place and his seat, (in order to show him honour.)

[23. See Sutra 15 and Manu quoted there.

29. The term Guru includes a father, maternal uncle, &c. (see above), and these are inferior to the,teacher. Manu II, 205.

31-32. 'The pupil is not to show the mentioned marks of respect to any of his own inferior Guxus, even if the person is the Guru, e.g. the maternal uncle, of his teacher.'--Haradatta.]

34. Some say, that (he may address) a pupil of his teacher by (pronouncing) his name, if he is also one of his (the pupil's) own Gurus.

35. But towards such a person who is generally revered for some other reason than being the teacher (e.g. for his learning), the (student) should behave as towards his teacher, though he be inferior in dignity to the latter.

36. After having eaten in his (teacher's) presence, he shall not give away the remainder of the food without rising.

37. Nor shall he sip water (after having eaten in the presence of his teacher without rising).

38. (He shall rise) addressing him (with these words), 'What shall I do?'

[34. 'But ¬pastamba's own opinion is that he ought not to address by name a (maternal uncle or other) Guru (who visits his teacher).'--Haradatta.

36. According to I, 1, 3, 40 seq., a student shall give what he is unable to eat to a child, or to a slave. If he has eaten in the presence of his teacher, he shall not give the food away without rising for the purpose.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 2, Khanda 7.



1. Or he may rise silently.

2. Nor shall he (in going away) move around his teacher with his left hand turned towards him; he shall go away after having walked around him with his right side turned towards him.

3. He shall not look at a naked woman.

4. He shall not cut the (leaves or flowers) of herbs or trees, in order to smell at them.

[7. 3. Manu IV, 5 3: Y‚gsh. I, 13 5.

4. Gopatha-br‚hmana I, 2, 2.]

5. He shall avoid (the use of) shoes, of an umbrella a chariot, and the like (luxuries).

6. He shall not smile.

7. If he smiles, he shall smile covering (the mouth with his hand); thus says a Br‚hmana.

8. He shall not touch a woman with his face, in order to inhale the fragrance of her body.

9. Nor shall he desire her in his heart.

10. Nor shall he touch (a woman at all) without a particular reason.

11. A Br‚hmana declares, 'He shall be dusty, be shall have dirty teeth, and speak the truth.'

12. Those teachers, who instructed his teacher in that science which he (the pupil) studies with him, (are to be considered as) spiritual teachers (by the pupil).

13. But if (a teacher), before the eyes of his (pupil), embraces the feet of any other persons, then he (the pupil also) must embrace their feet, (as long as he remains) in that (state of studentship).

[5. Manu II, 178.

10. Manu II, 179.

11. Though both (these first two precepts) have been given in Sutra I, 1, 2, 27, still they are repeated, in order to show that a Srauta penance for the breach of them, is enjoined by a revealed text.'--Haradatta.

12. The term vamsya, 'ancestor,' for the teacher's teacher is explained by the circumstance, that Hindus consider a 'school,' consisting of a succession of teachers and pupils, as a spiritual family, and call it a vidy‚vamsa, vidy‚parampar‚. Manu II, 205.

13. 'Another (commentator) says, "He, the pupil, must embrace their feet (at every meeting) from that time (when he first saw his teacher do it)." Because the word "but" is used in the Sutra, he must do so even after he has returned home (on completion of his studies).'--Haradatta.]

14. If (a pupil) has more than one teacher, the alms (collected by him) are at the disposal of him to whom he is (just then) bound.

15. When (a student) has returned home (from his teacher), he shall give (whatever he may obtain by begging or otherwise) to his mother.

16. The mother shall give it to her husband;

17. (And) the husband to the (student's) teacher.

18. Or he may use it for religious ceremonies.

19. After having studied as many (branches of) sacred learning as he can, he shall procure in a righteous manner the fee for (the teaching of) the Veda (to be given to his teacher), according to his power.

20. But, if the teacher has fallen into distress, he may take (the fee) from an Ugra or from a Sudra.

21. But some declare, that it is lawful at any time to take the money for the teacher from an Ugra or from a Sudra.

[14. 'More than one teacher,' i.e. several, who have taught him the several Vedas. Each Brahman generally knowing one Veda only.

This passage shows, that the young Brahmans in olden time, just as now, went from one teacher to the other, learning from each what he knew. The rules, which seemingly enjoin a pupil to stay with one and the same teacher, refer only to the principle, that the pupil must stay with his teacher, until he has learnt the subject which he began with him.

18. 'Religious, ceremonies, i.e. the wedding and the like. For them he may use it optionally. He, i.e. on failure of the teacher; the father, on failure of the father; the mother, on failure of all (the pupil) himself.'--Haradatta.

19.Manu II, 245 and 246; Y‚gsh. I, 51; Weber, Ind. Stud, X, 125.

20. 'The word Ugra denotes either the offspring of a Vaisya, and of a Sudra woman, or a twice-born man, who perpetrates dreadful deeds.'--Haradatta.]

22. And having paid (the fee), he shall not boast of having done so.

23. And he shall not remember what he may have done (for his teacher).

24. He shall avoid self-praise, blaming others, and the like.

25. If he is ordered (by his teacher to do something), he shall do just that.

26. On account of the incompetence of his teacher, (he may go) to another (and) study (there).

27. He shall behave towards his teacher's wife as towards the teacher himself, but he shall not embrace her feet, nor eat the residue of her food.

28. So also (shall he behave) towards him who teaches him at (the teacher's) command,

29. And also to a fellow-student who is superior (in learning and years).

30. He shall behave to his teacher's son (who is superior to himself in learning or years) as to his teacher, but not eat the residue of his food.

31. Though he may have returned home, the

[24. Manu II, 119.

26. See above, I, 1, 1, 13, and note. Here also Haradatta states that the permission to. leave the teacher is to be restricted to those who have not solemnly bound themselves to their teacher by allowing him to perform the ceremony of initiation.

27. Manu II, 208-212.

28. 'The use of the present "adhy‚payati," shows that this rule holds good only for the time during which he is taught by such a man.'--Haradatta.

29. 'Because (an older fellow-student) is of use to him, according to the verse: One-fourth (of his learning) a pupil receives from his teacher, one-fourth he acquires by his own intelligence, one-fourth from his fellow students, one-fourth he is taught by time.'-- Haradatta.

30. Manu II, 2, 207-209.]

behaviour towards his (teacher and the rest) which is prescribed by the rule of conduct settled by the agreement (of those who know the law, must be observed by him to the end),

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 2, Khanda 8.



1. just as by a student (actually living with his teacher).

2. He may wear garlands, anoint his face (with sandal), oil his hair and moustaches, smear his eyelids (with collyrium), and (his body) with oil, wear a turban, a cloth round his loins, a coat, sandals, and wooden shoes.

3. Within the sight of his (teacher or teacher's relations) he shall do none of those (actions, as putting on a garland), nor cause them to be done.

4. Nor (shall he wear garlands &c. whilst performing) acts for his pleasure,

5. As, for instance, cleaning his teeth, shampooing, combing the hair, and the like.

6. And the teacher shall not speak of the goods of the (pupil) with the intention to obtain them.

7. But some declare, that, if a pupil who has bathed (after completing his studies) is called by his teacher or has gone to see him, he shall not take off

[8. 1. Haradatta does not connect this Sutra with the preceding one. He explains it by itself: '(We will now declare) how a student (who has left his teacher, but is not married) ought to behave.'

6. 'If the teacher comes to the house of his (former) pupil (who has become a householder), he shall, for instance, not say, "Oh, what a beautiful dish!" in such a manner, that his desire to obtain it becomes apparent.'--Haradatta.

7. This opinion is contrary to ¬pastamba's view given in Sutras 2 and 3 above.]

that (garland or other ornaments) which he wears according to the law at the time (of that ceremony).

8. He shall not sit on a seat higher (than that of his teacher),

9. Nor on a seat that has more legs (than that of his teacher),

10. Nor on a seat that stands more firmly fixed (on the ground than that of his teacher),

11. Nor shall he sit or lie on a couch or seat which is used (by his teacher).

12. If he is ordered (by his teacher), he shall on journey ascend a carriage after him.

13. (At his teacher's command) he shall also enter an assembly, ascend a roller (which his teacher drags along), sit on a mat of fragrant grass or a couch of straw (together with his teacher).

14. If not addressed by a Guru, he shall not speak to him, except (in order to announce) good news.

15. He shall avoid to touch a Guru (with his finger), to whisper (into his ear), to laugh (into his face), to call out to him, to pronounce his name or to give him orders and the like (acts)

[10. 'When he gives to his teacher a wooden seat (with legs), he shall not sit on a cane-seat (without legs), for the latter touches the ground on all sides.'--Haradatta.

11. Mann II, 119.

12. This rule is an exception to I, 2, 7, 5. Manu II, 204.

13. 'The roller is an implement used by husbandmen, with which the ploughed land is made even. If one person ascends it and another drags it along, the ground becomes even. If that is dragged by the teacher, the pupil shall ascend it at his command. He shall not disobey from fear of the unseemliness of the action.'--Haradatta.

15. Manu II, 199; regarding the term Guru, see above, I, 2, 6, 29.]

16. In time of need he may attract attention (by any of these acts).

17. If (a pupil) resides (in the same village) with (his teacher after the completion of his studies), he shall go to see him every morning and evening, without being called.

18. And if he returns from a journey, he shall (go to) see him on the same day.

19. If his teacher and his teacher's teacher meet, he shall embrace the feet of his teacher's teacher, and then show his desire to do the same to his teacher.

20. The other (the teacher) shall (then) forbid it.

21. And (other marks of) respect (due to the teacher) are omitted in the presence of the (teacher's teacher).

22. And (if he does not live in the same village), he shall go frequently to his teacher's residence, in order to see him, and bring him some (present) with his own hand, be it even only a stick for cleaning the teeth. Thus (the duties of a student have been explained).

23. (Now) the conduct of a teacher towards his pupil (will be explained).

24. Loving him like his own son, and full of attention, he shall teach him the sacred science, without hiding anything in the whole law.

25. And he shall not use. him for his own purposes to the detriment of his studies except in times of distress.

[17. This and the following Sutras refer to a person who has finished his studentship, while the preceding ones, from Sutra 8, apply to the time of studentship also.

24. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 126.]

26. That pupil who, attending to two (teachers), accuses his (principal and first) teacher of ignorance, remains no (longer) a pupil.

27. A teacher also, who neglects the instruction (of his pupil), does no (longer) remain a teacher.

28. If the (pupil) commits faults, (the teacher) shall always reprove him.

29. Frightening, fasting, bathing in (cold) water, and banishment from the teacher's presence are the punishments (which are to be employed), according to the greatness (of the fault), until (the pupil) leaves off (sinning).

30. He shall dismiss (the pupil), after he has performed the ceremony of the Sam‚vartana and has finished his studentship, with these words, 'Apply thyself henceforth to other duties.'

[26. 'Another commentator says, "That pupil who offends his teacher in word, thought, or deed, and directs his mind improperly, i.e. does not properly obey, does not (any longer) remain a pupil."'--Haradatta.

29. But see also Manu. VIII, 299, where corporal punishment is permitted.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 3, Khanda 9.



1. After having performed the Up‚karma for studying the Veda on the full moon of the month' Sr‚vana (July-August), he shall for one month not study in the evening.

[9. 1. The Up‚karma is the ceremony which is performed every year at the beginning of the course of study. It is in fact the solemn opening of the Brahmanic term. 'Because ¬pastamba uses the word evening (i.e. first part of the night) it is not sinful to study later in the night.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 95; Y‚gsh. I, 142, 143; Weber, Ind. Stud. X. 130 and 134.]

2. On the full moon of the month of Pausha (December-January), or under the constellation Rohini, he shall leave off reading the Veda.

3. Some declare, (that he shall study) for four months and a half.

4. He shall avoid to Study the Veda on a high-road.

5: Or he may study it (on a high-road), after having smeared (a space) with cowdung.

6. He shall never study in a burial-ground nor anywhere near it within the throw of a Samy‚.

7. If a village has been built over (a burial ground) or its surface has been cultivated as a field, the recitation of the Veda (in such a place) is not prohibited.

8. But if that place is known to have been a burial-ground he shall not study (there).

[2. The term lasts therefore for five months; (i.e. latter half of, Sr‚vana, Bh‚rapada, ¬svina, K‚rttika, M‚rgasÓrsha, and the first half of Pausha.) The RohinÓ-day of Pausha is meant.

3. 'According to this latter opinion the Up‚karma should be performed on the full moon of Bh‚drapada, as has been taught in another work (Manu IV, 95); the (time of the) Utsargana, (the solemn closing of the term) should be advanced; and after the Utsargana has been performed, one may study the Veda during the light nights of each month until the full moon of Sr‚vana, in order to fix in one's mind the part learned already; and in the dark fortnight of each month one may study the Ved‚ngas, i.e. grammar and the rest (Manu IV, 98). On the full moon of Sr‚vana the Up‚karma should be performed once more, and that part of the Veda should be studied which has not yet been learned.'--Haradatta.

4. Nigarn‚h, 'high-roads,' are squares and the like.--Haradatta.

6. The Samy‚ is either the pin in the bullock's yoke or the round stick, about a foot and a half in length, which is used for the preparation of the Vedi. Manu IV, 116; Y‚gsh. I, 148.

8. 'Nor anywhere near it within the throw of a Samyi.' This must be understood from. Sutra 6.]

9. A Sudra and an outcast are (included by the term) burial-ground, (and the rule given, Sutra 6, applies to them).

10. Some declare, that (one ought to avoid only, to study) in the same house (where they dwell).

11. But if (a student and) a Sudra woman merely look at each other, the recitation of the Veda must be interrupted,

12. Likewise, if (a student and) a woman, who has had connexion with a man of a lower caste, (look at each other).

13. If he, who is about to study the Veda, wishes to talk to a woman during her courses, he shall first speak to a Br‚hmana and then to her, then again speak to a Br‚hmana, and afterwards study. Thereby the children (of that woman) will be blessed.

14. (He shall not study in a village) in which a corpse lies;

15. Nor in such a one where K‚nd‚las live.

16. He shall not study whilst corpses are being carried to the boundary of the village,

17. Nor in a forest, if (a corpse or K‚nd‚la) is within sight.

18. And if outcasts have entered the village, he shall not study on that day,

[9. Y‚gsh. I, 148.

13. The last part of the Sutra may also be interpreted: 'Thus she will be blessed with children.'--Haradatta.

14. Manu IV, 108; Y‚gsh, I, 148.

18. Haradatta explains B‚hya, 'outcasts,' by 'robbers, such as Ugras and Nish‚das.' But, I think, it means simply such outcasts as live in the forest or outside the village in the V‚dÓ, like the Dhers, Mah‚rs, M‚ngs of the present day. Most of these tribes however, are or were given to thieving. See Kulluka on Manu X, 2 9, and the Petersburg Dict. s. v.]

19. Nor if good men (have come).

20. If it thunders in the evening, (he shall not study) during the night.

21. If lightning is seen (in the evening, he shall not study during that night), until he has slept.

22. If lightning is seen about the break of dawn, or at the time when he may distinguish at the distance of a Samy‚-throw, whether (a cow) is black or red, be shall not study during that day, nor in the following evening.

24. If it thunders in the second part of the third watch of the night, (he shall not study during the following day or evening).

24. Some (declare, that this rule holds good, if it thunders), after the first half of the night has passed.

25. (Nor shall he study) whilst the cows are prevented from leaving (the village on account of thieves and the like),

26. Nor (on the imprisonment of criminals) whilst they are being executed.

27. He shall not study whilst he rides on beasts (of burden).

28. At the new moon, (he shall not study) for two days and two nights.

[19. Y‚gsh. I, 150.

20. Manu IV, 106; Y‚gsh. I, 145. This rule refers to the rainy season. (For thunder) at other (seasons) he orders below a longer (cessation).'--Haradatta.

27. Manu IV, 120; Y‚gsh. I, 151.

28. '"For two days," i.e. on the day of the new moon and the preceding one, the fourteenth of the half month.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 113; Y‚gsh. I, 146.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 3, Khanda 10.



1. (Nor shall he study) on the days of the full moons of those months in- which the K‚turmasya-sacrifice may be performed (nor on the days preceding them).

2. At the time of the Vedotsarga, on the death of Gurus, at the Ashlak‚-Sr‚ddha, and at the time of the Up‚karma, (he shall not study) for three days;

3. Likewise if near relations have died.

4. (He shall not study) for twelve days, if his mother, father, or teacher have died.

5. If these (have died), he must (also) bathe for the same number of days.

6. Persons who are younger (than the relation deceased), must shave (their hair and beard),

[10. 1. The three full-moon days are Ph‚lgunÓ (February-March), ¬sh‚dhÓ (June-July), K‚rttikÓ (October-November).

2. The construction is very irregular, the first noun standing in the nominative and the rest in the locative. A similar irregularity occurs below, I, 3, 11, 3 1. The Vedotsarga is the ceremony. which is performed at the end of the Brahmanic term, in January. 'In the case of the death of a Guru, the vacation begins with the day on which the death occurs. On the other occasions mentioned he shall not study on the day preceding (the ceremony), on the day (of the ceremony), nor on the day following it.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 119; Y‚gsh. I, 144. 'The Gurus' intended here, are fathers-in-law, uncles, &c.

3. 'This rule applies to a student only. It is known from another work that those who have been infected by impurity (on the death of a relation), must not study whilst the impurity lasts. 'Haradatta. Y‚gsh I, 144.

6. The word anubh‚vinah, interpreted by Haradatta as 'persons who are younger than the deceased,' is explained in different ways by others; firstly, as 'the mourners,' and secondly, as 'Sam‚nodakas or gentiles beyond the sixth degree.' In the latter case the Sutra ought to be-translated thus: 'On the death of gentiles beyond the sixth degree, (the head) ought to be shaved.']

7. Some declare, that students who have returned home on completion of their studentship, shall never shave, except if engaged in the initiation to a Srautas-sacrifice.

8. Now a Br‚mana also declares, 'Verily, an empty, uncovered (pot) is he, whose hair is shaved off entirely; the top-lock is his covering.'

9. But at sacrificial sessions the top-lock must be shaved off, because it is so enjoined in the Veda.

10. Some declare, that, upon the death of the teacher, (the reading should be interrupted) for three days and three nights.

11. If (he hears of) the death of a learned Br‚hmana (Srotriya) before a full year (since the death) has elapsed, (he shall interrupt his reading) for one night (and day).

12. Some declare, (that the deceased Srotriya must have been) a fellow-student.

13-14. If a learned Br‚hmana (Srotriya) has arrived and he is desirous of studying or is actually studying, (or if he is desirous of teaching or is teaching,)

[7. Regarding the Diksh‚ initiation,' see Aitareya-br‚hmana I, 1, and Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 309 seq.

8. Hence it follows that the top-lock should not be shaved off, except in the case mentioned in the following Sutra.

9. Sattras, 'sacrificial sessions,' are sacrifices which last longer than twelve days.

10. 'But in his opinion it should be twelve days, as declared above, Sutra 4.'--Haradatta. It appears, therefore, that this Sutra is to be connected with Sutra 4.

11. 'Because the word "death "is used here, death only is the reason (for stopping, the reading), in the case of Gurus and the rest (i.e. the word "died" must be understood in Sutra 2 and the following ones).' --Haradatta.]

he may study or teach after having received permission (to do so from the Srotriya).

15-16. He may likewise study or teach in the presence of his teacher, if (the latter) has addressed him (saying), 'Ho, study! (or, Ho, teach!)'

17. When a student desires to study or has finished his lesson, he shall at both occasions embrace the feet of his teacher.

18. Or if, whilst they study, another person comes in, he shall continue his recitation, after those words, ('Ho, study!') have been pronounced (by the newcomer).

19. The barking of (many) dogs, the braying of (many) asses, the cry of a wolf or of a solitary jackal or of an owl, all sounds of musical instruments, of weeping, and of the S‚man melodies (are reasons for discontinuing the study of the Veda).

20. If another branch of the Veda (is being recited in the neighbourhood), the S‚man melodies shall not be studied.

21. And whilst other noises (are being heard, the recitation of the Veda shall be discontinued), if they mix (with the voice of the person studying).

[15-16. Manu II, 73.

17. Manu II, 73.

18. Haradatta states rightly, that the plural ('they study') is useless. According to him, the use of the verb in the singular may be excused thereby, that the advice is addressed to each of the persons engaged in study. Manu IV, 122.

19. The ekashrika, 'solitary jackal,' is now called B‚lu or Pheough, and is considered,to be the constant companion of a tiger or panther. Its unharmonious cry is, in the present day also, considered to be an evil omen. Y‚gsh. I, 148; Manu IV, 108, 115 and 123.

21. Manu IV, 121.]

22. After having vomited (he shall not study) until he has slept.

23. Or (he may study) having eaten clarified butter (after the attack of vomiting).

24. A foul smell (is a reason for the discontinuance of study).

25. Food turned sour (by fermentation), which he has in his stomach, (is a reason for the discontinuance of the recitation, until the sour rising ceases).

26. (Nor shall he study) after having eaten in the evening,

27, Nor as long as his hands are wet.

28. (And he shall discontinue studying) for, a day and an evening, after having eaten food prepared in honour of a dead person (for whom the SapindÓkarana has not yet been performed),

29. Or until the food (eaten on that occasion) is digested.

30. But he shall (always) eat in addition (to the meal given in honour of a dead person), food which has not been given at a sacrifice to the Manes.

[22. Manu IV, 121.

24. Manu IV, 107; Y‚gsh. I, 150.

25. Manu IV, 121.

26. 'Therefore he shall sup, after having finished his study.'--Haradatta.

27. Manu IV, 121; Y‚gsh. I, 149.

28. Manu IV, 112; Y‚gsh. I, 146.

29. If that food has not been digested by the end of that time (i.e. in the evening), he shall not study until it has been digested.'--Haradatta.

30. 'Because in this Sutra the expression "food not given at a Sr‚ddha" occurs, some think that the preceding Sutra refers to "food eaten at a Sr‚ddha."'--Haradatta. This explanation is not at all improbable.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 3, Khanda 11.



1. (The recitation of the Veda shall be interrupted for a day and evening if he has eaten), on beginning a fresh K‚nda (of his Veda), food given by a motherless person,

2. And also if he has eaten, on the day of the completion of a K‚nda, food given by a fatherless person.

Some declare, that (the recitation shall be interrupted for the same space of time), if he has eaten at a sacrifice offered in honour of gods who were formerly men.

4. Nor is the recitation interrupted, if he has,eaten rice received the day before, or raw meat (though these things may have been offered in honour of the dead),

5. Nor (if he has eaten at a funeral dinner) roots or fruits of herbs and trees.

6. When he performs the ceremony for beginning of a K‚nda, or when he studies the index of the Anuv‚kas

[1. The Black Vagur-veda, to which ¬pastamba belongs, is divided throughout into books called K‚ndas.

3. Haradatta names as such gods, NandÓsvara and Kubera. Other commentators, however, explain Manushyaprakriti by Manushyamukha, 'possessing human faces.' A similar rule occurs Gautama XVI, 34, Where a Manushyayagsha is mentioned as a cause for discontinuing the recitation of the Veda. In his Commentary on Gautama, also, Haradatta is in doubt. He first refers the term to the sacraments like the SÓmantonnayana, and then adds, that some explain it to mean 'a sacrifice to gods who formerly were men.'

A. This Sutra is an exception to I, 3, 10, 28.

6. Haradatta's commentary on this Sutra is very meagre, and he leaves the word anuv‚kyam unexplained. I am not ccrtain that my explanation is correct. But it is countenanced by the statements of the Grihya-sutras regarding the order of studying. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 132.]

of a (K‚nda), he shall not study that (K‚nda) on that day (nor in that night).

7. And if he performs the ceremonies prescribed on beginning or ending the recitation of one entire Veda, he shall not study that Veda (during that day).

8. If the wind roars, or if it whirls up the grass on the ground, or if it drives the rain-drops forward during a rain-shower, (then the recitation shall be interrupted for so long a time as the storm lasts).

9. (Nor shall he study) on the boundary between a village and forest,

10. Nor on a highway.

11. If (some of his) fellow-students are on a journey, he shall not study during that day, (the passage) which they learn together.

12. And whilst performing acts for his pleasure,

13. Such as washing his feet, shampooing or anointing himself,

14. He shall neither study nor teach, as long as he is thus occupied.

[7. Y‚gsh. I, 145. This Sutra is a Gsh‚paka or 'such a one which indicates the existence of a rule not expressly mentioned! Above (I, 3, 9, 1) the yearly -performance of the Up‚karma and Utsarga ceremonies for the beginning and end of the Brahmanic term has been prescribed. In this Sutra the performance of the Upakarma and Utsarga at the beginning and completion of the P‚r‚yana or the vow to go through a whole Veda is incidentally mentioned. Thence it may be inferred that these ceremonies must. be likewise performed on the latter occasions, though no absolute rule to this effect has been given. Such Gsh‚pakas are of frequent occurrence in all Sutras, and constitute one of the chief difficulties of their interpretation.

8. Y‚gsh I, 149; Manu IV, 102, 122.

11. Others explain the Sutra thus: 'If he meets fellow-students, after they have come home from a journey, he shall not study with them on that day.']

15. (He shall not study or teach) in the twilight,

16. Nor whilst sitting on a tree,

17. Nor whilst immersed in water,

18. Nor at night with open doors,

19. Nor in the day-time with shut doors.

20. During the spring festival and the festival (of Indra), in the month of ¬sh‚dha (June-July), the study of an Anuv‚ka is forbidden.

21. (The recitation) of the daily portion of the Veda (at the Brahmayagsha is likewise forbidden if done) in a manner differing from the rule (of the Veda).

22. (Now follows) the rule (for the daily recitation) of that (Brahmayagsha).

23. Before taking his morning-meal, he shall go to the water-side, and having purified himself, he shall rerite aloud (a portion of the Veda) in a pure

[15. Y‚gsh. I, 145; Manu IV, 113.

16. Y‚gsh. I, 51; Manu IV, 120.

20. According to Haradatta, ¬pastamba uses the word Anuv‚ka in order to indicate that smaller portions of the Veda may be studied. Others think, that by Anuv‚ka, the Samhit‚ and the Br‚hmana are meant, and that the study of the Angas is permitted. The Vasantotsava, or spring festival, which, according to the Dramas, was, in olden times, kept all over India, falls, according to Haradatta, on the thirteenth of the first half of Kaitra, about the beginning of April.

21. 'Hence, if one has forgotten it and eaten one's breakfast, a penance, not the Brahmayagsha, must be performed'--Haradatta.

23. See TaittirÓya ¬ranyaka II, 11, 1 and 11; ¬sv. Gri. Su. III, 2, 1-2. In our days this rule is usually not observed. Br‚hmanas mostly recite at the daily Brahmayagsha, 'Veda-offering,' one particular formula, which symbolically comprises the whole Veda. A few learned Br‚hmana friends, however, have assured me, that they still recite the whole of their S‚kh‚ every year according to this rule of ¬pastamba.]

place, leaving out according to (the order of the) texts (what he has read the day before).

24. If a stoppage of study is enjoined (for the day, he shall recite the daily portion) mentally.

25. If lightning flashes without interruption, or, thunder rolls continually, if a man has neglected to purify himself, if he has partaken of a meal in honour of a dead person, or if hoarfrost lies on the ground, (in these cases) they forbid the mental recitation (of the daily portion of the Veda).

26. Some forbid it only in case one has eaten a funeral dinner.

27. Where lightning, thunder, and rain happen together out of season, the recitation shall be interrupted for three days.

28. Some (declare, that the recitation shall stop) until the ground is dry.

29. If one or two (of the phenomena mentioned in Sutra 27 appear, the recitation shall be interrupted) from that hour until the same hour next day.

30. In the case of an eclipse of the sun or of the moon, of an earthquake, of a whirlwind, of the fall of a meteor, or of a fire (in the village), at whatever time these events happen, the recitation of all the sacred sciences (Vedas and Angas) must be interrupted from that hour until the same hour next day.

31. If a cloud appears out of season, if the sun or the moon is surrounded by a halo, if a rainbow, a parhelion or a comet appears, if a (high) wind (blows),

[25. Y‚gsh I, 149; Manu IV, 106, 120, 127; Taitt. ¬r. II, 15, 1.

26. Manu IV, 109, 116.

27. Manu IV, 103 and 104.

30. Y‚gsh. I, 145; Manu IV, 105, 118.

31. Manu IV, 104, and see above.]

a foul smell (is observed), or hoarfrost (lies on the ground, at all these occasions (the recitation of all the sacred sciences must be interrupted) during the duration (of these phenomena).

32. After the wind has ceased, (the interruption of the recitation continues) for one muhurta.

33. If (the howl of) a wolf or of a solitary jackal (has been heard, he shall stop the reading) until he has slept.

34. At night (he shall not study) in a wood, where there is no fire nor gold.

35. Out of term he shall not study any part of the Veda which he has not learnt before.

36. Nor (shall he study during term some new part of the Veda) in the evening.

37. That which has been studied before, must never be studied (during the vacation or in the evening).

38. Further particulars (regarding the interruption

[32. One muhurta = 48 minutes.

36. Other commentators interpret the Sutra in a different sense. They take it to mean: 'And (luring the night (from the twelfth to the thirteenth of each half of the month, he shall not study at all, be it in or out of term).'

37. 'What has been studied before, must not be studied (again) at any time in the vacation nor in the evening.'-- Haradatta.

38. Haradatta thinks that by 'Parishad,' Manu's and other Dharnia-s‚tras are meant. This explanation is, however, not exact. Parishad, 'assemblage,' means, in the language of the S‚stras, either a Pashk, an assemblage of learned Brahmans called together to decide some knotty point of law, or a Brahminical school, which studies a particular redaction of the Veda (see the Petersburg Dict. s. v.) The latter meaning is that applicable to this Sutra. By 'Parishadah' are here intended the Vedic schools, and their writings and teaching. Gautama also says, XVI, 40. Pr‚tividyam y‚n smaranti smaranti, '(he shall observe the stoppages of the Veda-study) which they teach in (the writings belonging to) each of the Vedas.']

of the Veda-study may be learnt) from the (teaching and works of other) Vedic schools.

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 4, Khanda 12.



1. A Br‚hmana declares, 'The daily recitation (of the Veda) is austerity.'

2. In the same (sacred text) it is also declared, Whether he recites the daily portion of the Veda standing, or sitting, or lying down, he performs austerity thereby; for the daily recitation is austerity.'

3. Now the V‚gasaneyi-br‚hmana declares also, 'The daily recitation is a sacrifice at which the Veda is offered. When it thunders, when lightning flashes or thunderbolts fall, and when the wind blows violently, these sounds take the place of the exclamations Vashat (Vaushat and Sv‚h‚). Therefore he shall recite the Veda whilst it thunders, whilst lightning flashes and thunderbolts fall, and whilst the wind blows violently, lest the Vashat (should be heard) in vain.

[12. 1. 'It procures as much reward as penance.'--Haradatta. Manu II, 166; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 113. The phrase occurs frequently in the Br‚hmanas, e.g. Taitt. ¬r. II, 14, 3.

2. Regarding the proper position at the 'Veda-offering,' or daily recitation, see above, I, 3, 11, 2 3, and Taitt. ¬r. II, 11, 3. Passages similar to the first part of the sentence quoted in this Sutra occur Taitt. ¬r II, 12, 3, and 15, 3. It ouught to be observed that the Taitt. ¬r. in both places has the word 'vragan,' which is also read in the P. and P. U. MSS. The second part is taken apparently from the same work, II, 14, 2.

3. See Satapatha-br‚hmana XI, 5, 6, 8, where a passage very similar to that quoted by ¬pastamba occurs. Vashat and the other exclamations, which are pronounced by the Hotri-priest, serve as signals for the Adhvaryu to throw the oblations into the fire.]

4. The conclusion of the passage from that (V‚gasaneyi-br‚hmana is found) in another S‚kh‚ (of the Veda).

5. 'Now, if the wind blows, or if it thunders, or if lightning flashes, or thunderbolts fall, then he shall recite one Rik-verse (in case he studies the Rig-Veda), or one Yagus (in case he studies the Yagur-veda), or one S‚man (in case he studies the S‚ma-veda), or (without having a regard to his particular Veda, the following Yagus), "Bhuh Bhuvah, Suvah, in faith I offer true devotion." Then, indeed, his daily recitation is accomplished thereby for that day.'

6. If that is done, (if the passage of the V‚gasaneyi-br‚hmana is combined with that quoted in Sutra 5, the former stands) not in contradiction with the decision of the ¬ryas.

7. For they (who know the law) teach both the continuance and the interruption (of the daily recitation of the Veda). That would be meaningless, if one paid attention to the (passage of the) V‚gasaneyi-br‚hmana (alone).

8. For no (worldly) motive for the decision of those ¬ryas is perceptible; (and hence it must have a religious motive and be founded on a passage of the Veda).

9. (The proper interpretation therefore is, that) the prohibition to study (given above and by the

[5. 1 Some suppose that the words Bhuh Bhuvah and Suvah &c. (are to be used only) if one studies the Brahmana portion of the Veda, not every where.'-- Haradatta.

6. Haradatta explains ¬ryas by visisht‚h, 'excellent ones,' i.e. persons who know the law, and he gives Manu as an instance.

8. See above, I, 1, 4, 9 and 10. and notes.]

¬ryas generally) refers only to the repetition of the sacred texts in order to learn them, not to their application at sacrifices.

10. (But if you ask, why the decision of the ¬ryas presupposes the existence of a Vedic passage, then I answer): All precepts were (originally) tauglit in the Br‚hmanas, (but) these texts have been lost. Their (former existence) may, however, be inferred from usage.

11. But it is not (permissible to infer the former existence of) a (Vedic) passage in cases where pleasure is obtained (by following a rule of the Smriti or a custom).

12. He who follows such (usages) becomes fit for hell.

13. Now follow (some rites and) rules that have been declared in the Br‚hmanas.

14. By way of laudation they are called 'great sacrifices ' or 'great sacrificial sessions.'

15. (These rites include): The daily Bali-offering

[10. How then is their existence known? 'They are inferred from usage.' '"Usage" means the teaching of the law-books and the practice. From that it is inferred that Manu and other (authors of law-books) knew such texts of the Br‚hmanas. For how could otherwise (Rishis like Manu) teach in their works or practise (such customs) for which no authority is now found? And certainly they were intimately connected with the revealed texts (i.e. saw them).'-- Haradatta.

11. Compare above, I, 1, 4, 8-10.

13. The consequence of the introduction of these rules into a Smriti work is, that their omission must be expiated by a Sm‚rta penance and not by a Srauta one.

14. The commentator observes, that, as these rites are called 'great sacrifices,' by way of laudation only, the particular laws binding on performers of real Soma-sacrifices cannot be transferred to the performers of these ceremonies. Regarding the term 'great sacri rices,' see also Taitt. ¬r. II, 11, 10, 1 seq., and Satapatha-br‚hmana XI, 59 61 1.]

to the (seven classes of) beings; the (daily) gift of (food) to men according to one's power;

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 4, Khanda 13.



1. The oblation to the gods accompanied by the exclamation Sv‚h‚, which may consist even of a piece of wood only; the offering to the Manes accompanied by the exclamation Svadh‚, which may consist even of a vessel with water only; the daily recitation.

2. Respect must be shown to those who are superior by caste,

3. And also to (persons of the same caste who are) venerable (on account of learning, virtue, and the like).

4. A man elated (with success) becomes proud, a proud man transgresses the law, but through the transgression of the law hell indeed (becomes his portion).

5. It has not been declared, that orders (may be addressed by the teacher) to a pupil who has returned home.

6. The syllable 'Om' is the door of heaven.

[13. 1. Taitt. ¬r. II, 10, 2 and 3, and Satapatha-br. loc. cit. 2. Haradatta observes, that some consider the Devayagsha, mentioned in the Sutra, to be different from the Vaisvadeva, but that he holds it to be the same. Further he mentions, that some prescribe this Vaisvadeva to be performed even if one has nothing to eat.

2. 'Namely, by allowing them to walk in front on the road and by giving them perfumed garlands and the like at festive occasions.'--Haradatta.

5. Haradatta gives as an example the order to fetch water, and adds that a voluntary act on a former pupil's part ought not to be forbidden.

6. Compare also Taitt. ¬r. I, 2, 4, and Manu II, 74.]

Therefore he who is about to study the Veda, shall begin (his lesson) by (prouncing) it.

7. If he has spoken anything else (than what refers to the lesson, he shall resume his reading by repeating the word 'Om'). Thus the Veda is separated from profane speech.

8. And at sacrifices the orders (given to the priests) are headed by this word.

9. And in common life, at the occasion of ceremonies performed for the sake of welfare, the sentences shall be headed by this word, as, for instance, '(Om) an auspicious day,' '(Om) welfare,' '(Om) prosperity.'

10. Without a vow of obedience (a pupil) shall not study (nor a teacher teach) a difficult (new book) with the exception of (the texts called) Trihsr‚vana and Trihsahavakana.

11. H‚rita declares, that the (whole) Veda must be studied under a vow of obedience until there is no doubt (regarding it in the mind of the pupil).

[9. The example given in the Sutra is that of the Punyihav‚kana,.vhich precedes every Grihya ceremony, and at which the sacrificer requests a number of invited Br‚hmanas to wish him success. The complete sentences are, The sacrificer: Om karmanah puny‚ham bhavanto bruvantviti, 'Om, wish that the day may be auspicious for the performance of the ceremony.' The Br‚hmanas: Om puny‚ham karmana itÓ, 'Om, may the day be auspicious for the ceremony.' In the same manner the Br‚hmanas afterwards wish 'welfare,' svasti, 'prosperity,' vriddhi, to the sacrificer.

10. Manu II, 112.

11. The meaning of H‚rita is, that the vow of obedience is required for the Trihsr‚vana and Trihsahavakana, which ¬pastamba exempted in the preceding Sutra. It follows from this rule that the Angas or works explanatory of the Veda need not be studied under a vow of obedience.]

12. No obedience is due (to the teacher for teaching) works which do not belong to the Veda.

13. (A student) shall embrace the feet of a person, who teaches him at the request of his (regular teacher), as long as the instruction lasts.

14. Some (declare, that he shall also) always, (if the substitute is) a worthy person.

15. But obedience (as towards the teacher) is not required (to be shown towards such a person).

16. And (pupils) older (than their teacher need not show him obedience).

17. If (two persons) teach each other mutually (different redactions of) the Veda, obedience (towards each other) is not ordained for them.

18. (For) the (wise) say, 'The Veda-knowledge (of either of them) grows.'

19. Svetaketu declares, 'He who desires to study more, after having settled (as a householder), shall dwell two months every year, with collected mind, in the house of his teacher,'

20. (And he adds), 'For by this means I studied a larger part of the Veda than before, (during my studentship.)'

21. That is forbidden by the S‚stras.

22. For after the student has settled as a householder, he is ordered by the Veda, to perform the daily rites,

[13. This rule is a Supplement to I, 2, 7, 29.

14. '"A worthy person," i.e. on account of his learning, or character.'-- Haradatta.

16. 'According to some, this rule refers only to the time after instruction has been completed; according to others, to the time of studentship.'--Haradatta. But see Manu II, 151 seq.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 4, Khanda 14.



1. (That is to say) the Agnihotra, hospitality,

2. And what else of this kind (is ordained).

3. He whom (a student) asks for instruction, shall certainly not refuse it;

4. Provided he does not see in him a fault, (which disqualifies him from being taught).

5. If by chance (through the pupil's stupidity the teaching) is not completed, obedience towards the (teacher is the pupil's only refuge).

6. Towards a mother (grandmother and great-grandmother) and a father (grandfather and great-grandfather) the same obedience must be shown as towards a teacher.

7. The feet of all Gurus must be embraced (every day) by a student who has returned home;

8. And also on meeting them, after returning from a journey.

9. The feet of (elder) brothers and sisters must be embraced, according to the order of their seniority.

10. And respect (must) always (be shown to one's elders and betters), according to the injunction

[14. 1. The Agnihotra, i.e. certain daily oblations of clarified butter.

3. Manu II, 109-115.

5. Manu II, 218.

6. Manu II, 228, 215.

7. The word Gurus, 'venerable persons,' includes besides the teacher and persons mentioned in the preceding Sutra, an elder brother, a maternal uncle, and all others who are one's betters or elders. See above, I, 2, 6, 29-35.

8. 'That is to say, whether he himself or "the venerable persons" undertook the journey.'--Haradatta.

9. Manu II, 133.

10. See above, I, 4, 13, 2.]

(given above and according to the order of their seniority).

11. He shall salute an officiating priest, a father-in-law, a father's brother, and a mother's. brother, (though they may be) younger than he himself, and (when saluting) rise to meet them.

12. Or he may silently embrace their feet.

13. A friendship kept for ten years with fellow citizens (is a reason for giving a salutation, and so is) a friendship, contracted at school, which has lasted for five years. But a learned Br‚hmana (known) for less than three years, must be saluted.

14. If the age (of several persons whom one meets) is exactly known, one must salute the eldest (first).

15. He need not salute a person, who is not a Guru, and who stands in a lower or higher place than he himself.

16. Or he may descend or ascend (to the place where such a person stands) and salute him.

17. But every one (Gurus and others) he shall salute, after having risen (from his seat).

18. If he is impure, he shall not salute (anybody);

19. (Nor shall he salute) a person who is impure.

[11. Manu II, 130.

12. The commentator adds that the mode of salutation must depend on their learning and virtue,

13. Manu II, 134.

16. This Sutra, like the preceding, refers to those who are not Gurus.'

17. Manu II, 120.

18. 'Impure,' i.e. unfit for associating with others on account of the death of relations or through other causes, see below, I, 5, 15, 7 seq.]

20. Nor shall he, being impure, return a salutation.

21. Married women (must be saluted) according to the (respective) ages of their husbands.

22. He shall not salute with his shoes on, or his head wrapped up, or his hands full.

23. In saluting women, a Kshatriya or a Vaisya he shall use a pronoun, not his name.

24. Some (declare, that he shall salute in this manner even) his mother and the wife of his teacher.

25. Know that a Br‚hmana of ten years and a Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation of father and son. But between those two the Br‚hmana is the father.

26. A younger person or one of equal age he shall ask, about his well-being (employing the word kusala).

27. (He shall ask under the same conditions) a Kshatriya, about his health (employing the word an‚maya);

28. A Vaisya if he has lost anything (employing the word anashta).

[23. He shall say, 'I salute,' not 'I, N. N., salute.' Manu II, 123.

24. ¬pastamba, of course, holds the contrary opinion. Maun II, 216.

25. This verse, which is found with slight variations in most SmrÓtis contains, according to Haradatta, an instruction given by a teacher to his pupil. Manu II, 135.

26. Of course. in case the person addressed is a Brahman. Manu II, 127. Kulluka quotes under this verse the above and the following Sutras. But his quotation has only a faint resemblance to our text.

28. That is to say in these terms I hope you have not lost any cattle or other property!'--Haradatta.]

29. A Sudra, about his health (employing the word ‚rogya).

30. He shall not pass a learned Br‚hmana without addressing him;

31. Nor an (unprotected) woman in a forest (or any other lonely place).

[31. He shall address a woman in order to re-assure her, and do it in these terms: 'Mother, or sister, what can I do for you? Don't be afraid!' &c.--Haradatta.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 5, Khanda 15.



1. When he shows his respect to Gurus or aged persons or guests, when he offers a burnt-oblation (or other sacrifice), when he murmurs prayers at dinner, when sipping water and during the (daily) recitation of the Veda, his garment (or his sacrificial thread) shall pass over his left shoulder and under his right arm.

2. By sipping (pure) water, that has been collected on the ground, he becomes pure.

3. Or he, whom a pure person causes to sip water, (becomes also pure).

[15. 1. Taitt. ¬r. II, 1, 2 seq.; Manu IV, 58.

2. Pure water is that which a cow will drink. Y‚gsh. I, 192; Manu V, 128.

3. The ceremony of 'sipping water' may be performed in two ways; either the 'person sipping' may take the water out of a river, pond, &c., or he may get the water poured into his hand by another person. But, according to ¬pastamba, he must not take a pot or gourd in his left hand and pour the water into his right, as some Smritis allow. The reason for this rule is, that ¬pastamba considers it essential that both hands should be used in conveying the water to the mouth; see also above, I, 1, 4, 21. This agrees with the custom now followed, which is to bend the right hand into the form of a cow's ear, and to touch the right wrist with the left hand while drinking.]

4. He shall not sip rain-drops.

5. (He shall not sip water) from a (natural) cleft in the ground.

6. He shall not sip water heated (at the fire) except for a particular reason (as sickness).

7. He who raises his empty hands (in order to scare) birds, (becomes impure and) shall wash (his hands).

8. If he can (find water to sip) he shall not remain impure (even) for a muhurta.

9. Nor (shall he remain) naked (for a muhurta if he can help it).

10. Purification (by sipping water) shall not take place whilst he is (standing) in the water.

11. Also, when he has crossed a river, he shall purify himself by sipping water.

12. He shall not place fuel on the fire, without having sprinkled it (with water).

[4. 'Some think, that this Sutra is intended to forbid also the drinking of rain-water. Other commentators declare that, according to this Sutra, it is allowed to ust for "sipping" drops of water which fall from a vessel suspended by ropes [because the Sutra emphatically excludes "rain-drops only].'--Haradatta.

6. Manu II, 61. 'Because the term "heated by fire" is used, there is no objection to water heated by the rays of the sun. In the same manner the use of, "hot" water only is usually forbidden in the Smritis.'-- Haradatta.

7. 'Because the phrase "with empty hands" is used, he commits no fault if he raises his hand, holding a stick or a clod. Some declare, that the term "touching water" (rendered by "washing means "sipping water."'--Haradatta.

11. The translation given above is based on the interpretation of Haradatta, who considers that ¬pastaniba holds 'crossing a river' to cause impurity. The natural and probably the right interpretation, however, is that rejected by Haradatta, 'But he shall sip water after having come out (of the river or tank).'

12. '"On the fire used for Vedic or Sm‚rta sacrifices or for household purposes.". . . Some declare, that (the fuel need not be sprinkled with water) if used for the kitchen fire.'--Haradatta.]

13. (If he is seated in companywith) other unclean persons on a seat consisting of a confused heap of straw, and does not touch them, he may consider himself pure.

14. (The same rule applies, if he is seated) on grass or wood fixed in the ground.

15. He shall put on a dress, (even if it is clean,) only after having sprinkled it with water.

16. If he has been touched by a dog, he shall bathe, with his clothes on;

17. Or he becomes pure, after having washed that part (of his body) and having touched it with fire and again washed it, as well as his feet, and having sipped wa ter.

18. Unpurified, he shall not approach fire, (so near that he can feel the heat).

19. Some declare, that (he shall not approach nearer) than the length of an arrow.

20. Nor shall he blow on fire with his breath.

21. Nor shall he place fire under his bedstead.

[14. Haradatta's commentary is of little use, and I am not quite certain that my translation is correct.

15. Manu V, 118.

17. This second proceeding is adopted in case the dog has touched the hands or the lower parts of the body, as may be learnt by the comparison of a verse of Manu.

18. Manu IV, 142; Y‚gsh. I, 155.

20. Manu IV, 53. Haradatta mentions other cxplanations of this Sutra. Some say, that the Srauta fire may be kindled by blowing, because that is ordained particularly in the Y‚gasaneyaka, but that the domestic fire is not to be treated so. Others again consider the rule absolute, and say, that a hollow reed or bellows must be used for kindling the fire, lest drops of saliva should fiall upon it.

21. Manu IV, 54.]

22. It is lawful for a Br‚hmana to dwell in a village, where there is plenty of fuel and water, (and) where he may perform the rites of purification by himself.

23. When he has washed away the stains of urine and fśeces after voiding urine or fśces, the stains of food (after dinner), the stains of the food eaten the day before (from his vessels), and the stains of semen, and has also washed his feet and afterwards has sipped water, he becomes pure.

[22. The last condition mentioned in the Sutra indicates, that the place must have a river or tank, not wells only, as the purification by sipping water cannot be performed without help, with water from wells.

23. Manu V, 138.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 5, Khanda 16.



1. He shall not drink water standing or bent forwards.

2. Sitting he shall sip water (for purification) thrice, the water penetrating to his heart.

[16. 1. Haradatta takes ‚kam here to mean 'to drink water,' and thinks that it is forbidden to do this standing or in a bent position. Others refer the prohibition to 'sipping water for the sake of purification,' and translate, 'He shall not sip water standing or in a bent position (except in case of necessity),' i.e. if the bank of the river is so high that he cannot reach the water sitting down, and in this case he shall enter it up to his thighs or up to his navel.

2. Manu II, 60 and 62; V, 139; and Y‚gsh. I, 20 and 27; Weber. Ind. Stud. X, 165. Haradatta observes, that the further particulars regarding purification by sipping water must be supplied frorn other Smritis. The rule quoted by him is as follows: 'The perforiner should be sitting in a pure place, not on a seat, except when sipping water after dinner, and should sip thrice from his hand water which is free from bubbles and foam, and which he has attentively regarded, in such a quantity as would cover a M‚sha-bean. The water sipped by a Brahman should reach his heart, that sipped by a Kshatriya the throat, and that sipped by a Vaisya the palate. A Sudra sips once as much as to wet his tongue.']

3. He shall wipe his lips three times.

4. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice.

5. He shall then touch (his lips) once (with the three middle fingers).

6. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice.

7. Having sprinkled water on his left hand with his right, he shall touch both his feet, and his head and (the following three) organs, the eyes, the nose, and the ears.

8. Then he shall wash (his hands).

9. But if he is going to eat he shall, though pure, twice sip water, twice wipe (his mouth), and once touch (his lips).

10. He shall rub the gums and the inner part of his lips (with his finger or with a piece of wood) and then sip water.

11. He does not become impure by the hair (of his moustaches) getting into his mouth, as long as he does not touch them with his hand.

12. If (in talking), drops (of saliva) are perceived to fall from his mouth, then he shall sip water.

13. Some declare, that if (the saliva falls) on the ground, he need not sip water.

[7. The eyes are to be touched with the thumb and the fourth finger, either at once, or one after the other, the nostrils with the thumb and the second finger, the ears with the thumb and the small finger.

9. Manu V, 138.

11. Haradatta observes that this Sutra shows, that every other foreign substance brought with the food into the mouth, makes the food 'leavings' and the eater impure. Manu V, 141.

12. Manu V, 141 declares sipping to be unnecessary in this case.]

14. On touching during sleep or in sternutation the effluvia of the nose or of the eyes, on touching blood, hair, fire, kine, a Br‚hmana, or a woman, and after having walked on the high road, and after having touched an (thing orman), and after having put on his lower garment, he shall either bathe or sip or merely touch water (untlil he considers himself clean).

15. (Or he may touch) moist cowdung, wet herbs, or moist earth.

16. He shall not eat meat which lias been cut with a sword (or knife) used for killing.

17. He shall not bite off with his teeth (pieces from) cakes (roots or fruits).

18. He shall not eat in the house of a (relation within six degrees) where a person has died, before the ten days (of impurity) have elapsed.

19. (Nor shall he eat in a house) where a lying-in woman has not (yet) come out (of the lying-in chamber),

20. (Nor in a house) where a corpse lies.

[14. Manu V, 145.

18. The term "ten days" is used in order to indicate the time of impurity generally. In some cases, as that of a Kshatriya, this lasts longer. In other cases, where the impurity lasts thirty-six hours only, (the abstention from dining in such houses is shorter.)'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 217.

19. A lying-in woman is impure, and must not be touched during the first ten days after her confinement. During this time, she exclusively occupies the Sik‚griha, or lying-in chamber. Manu IV, 217.

20. Haradatta remarks that in the case of the death of a person who is not a relation, it is customary to place at the distance of 'one hundred bows' a lamp and water-vessel, and to eat (beyond that distance).]

21. Food touched by a (Br‚hmana or other high-caste person) who is impure, becomes impure, but not unfit for eating.

22. But what has been brought (be it touched or not) by an impure Sudra, must not be eaten,

23. Nor that food in which there is a hair,

24. Or any other unclean substance.

25. (Nor must that food be eaten) which has been touched with an unclean substance (such as garlic),

26. Nor (that in which) an insect living on impure substances (is found),

27. Nor (that in which) excrements or limbs of a mouse (are found),

28. Nor that which has been touched by the foot (even of a pure person),

29. Nor what has been (touched) with the hem of a garment,

30. Nor that which has been looked at by a dog or an Apap‚tra,

[21. 'Food which is simply impure, may be purified by putting it on the fire, sprinkling it with water, touching it with ashes or earth, and praising it.'--Haradatta.

22. Others say, that the food becomes unfit for eating, only, if in bringing it, the Sudra has touched it.--Haradatta.

23. Manu IV, 207; Y‚gsh. I, 167. 'But this rule holds good only if the hair had been cooked with the food. If a hair falls into it at dinner, then it is to be purified by an addition of clarified butter, and may be eaten.'--Haradatta.

24. Haradatta quotes a passage from Baudh‚yana, which enumerates as 'unclean things' here intended, 'hair, worms or beetles, nail-parings, excrements of rats.' The rule must be understood as the preceding, i.e. in case these things have been cooked with the food.

26. Manu IV, 207: Y‚gsh. I, 167, 168. This Sutra must be read with Sutra 23 above.

30. Manu IV, 208; Y‚gsh. I, 167. Apap‚tras are persons whom one must not allow to eat from one's dishes, e.g. Kand‚las, Patitas, a woman in her courses or during the ten days of impurity after confinement. See also above, I, 1, 3, 25.]

31. Nor what has been brought in the hem of a garment, (even though the garment may be clean),

32. Nor what has been brought at night by a female slave.

33. If during his meal,

[32. Haradatta thinks, that as the Sutra has the feminine gender, d‚sÓ, it does not matter if a male slave brings the food. But others forbid also this.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 5, Khanda 17.



1. A Sudra touches him, (then he shall leave off eating).

2. Nor shall he eat sitting in the same row with unworthy people.

3. Nor shall he eat (sitting in the same row with persons) amongst whom one, whilst they eat, rises and gives his leavings to his pupils or sips water;

4. Nor (shall he eat) where they give him food, reviling him.

[17. 1. 'Some say, that this Sutra indicates that the touch of a Sudra does not defile at any other time but at dinner, whilst others hold that a Sudra's touch defiles always, and that the Sutra is intended to indicate an excess of impurity, if it happens at dinnertime.'--Haradatta.

2. 'Unworthy people are those who are neither of good family, nor possess learning and virtue.'--Haradatta.

3. According to Haradatta a person who misbehaves thus, is called 'a dinner-thorn.' This point of etiquette is strictly observed in our days also. Manu IV, 2 12.

4. Manu IV, 212; Y‚gsh. I, 167]

5. Nor (shall he eat) what has been smelt at by men or other (beings, as cats).

6. He shall not eat in a ship,

7. Nor on a wooden platform.

8. He may eat sitting on ground which has been purified (by the application of cowdung and the like).

9. (If he eats) out of an earthen vessel, he shall eat out of one that has not been used (for cooking).

10. (If he can get) a used vessel (only, he shall eat from it), after having heated it thoroughly.

11. A vessel made of metal becomes pure by being scoured with ashes and the like.

12. A wooden vessel becomes pure by being scraped.

13. At a sacrifice (the vessels must be cleaned) according to the precepts of the Veda.

14. He shall not eat food which has been bought or obtained ready-prepared in the market.

15. Nor (shall he eat) flavoured food (bought in the market) excepting raw meat, honey, and salt.

16. Oil and clarified butter (bought in the market) he may use, after having sprinkled them with water.

17. Prepared food which has stood for a night, must neither be caten nor drunk.

[5. 'As the text has avagh‚ta, "smelt at," it does not matter if they smell the food from a distance.'--Haradatta.

11. 'It must be understood from other Smritis, that brass is to be cleaned with ashes, copper with acids, silver with cowdung, and gold with water.'--Haradatta. Manu V, I 14.

12. Manu V, 115.

16. 'Having sprinkled them with water and purified them by boiling; or, according to others, mixing them with so much water as will not spoil them.'--Haradatta.

17. The Sanskrit has two terms for 'eating;' the first 'kh‚d' applies to hard substances, the second 'ad' to soft suubstances. Manu I, V, 211; Y‚gsh. I, 16 7.]

18. Nor (should prepared food) that has turned sour (be used in any way).

19. (The preceding two rules do) not (hold good in regard to) the juice of sugar-cane, roasted rice-grains, porridge prepared with whey, roasted yava, gruel, vegetables, meat, flour, milk and preparations from it, roots and fruits of herbs and trees.

20. (Substances which have turned) sour without being mixed with anything else (are to be avoided).

21. All intoxicating drinks are forbidden.

22. Likewise sheep's milk,

23. Likewise the milk of camels, of does, of animals that give milk while big with young, of those that bear twins, and of (one-hoofed animals),

24. Likewise the milk of a cow (buffalo-cow or she-goat) during the (first) ten days (after their giving birth to young ones),

25. Likewise (food mixed) with herbs which serve for preparing intoxicating liquors,

26. (Likewise) red garlic, onions, and leeks,

[18. Manu IV, 211; V, 9; Y‚gsh. I, 167.

19. Manu V, 10, 24 and 25.

20. According to Haradatta, ¬pastamba returns once more to the question about sour food, in order to teach that dishes prepared with curds and other sour substances may be eaten.

22. Manu V, 8; Y‚gsh. I, 170.

23. Manu V, 8, 9; Y‚gsh. I 170. 'SandhinÓ, translated by "females that give milk while big with young," means, according to others, "female animals that give milk once a day."--Haradatta.

24. Manu V, 8.

26. Manu V, 5; Y‚gsh. I, 176.]

27. Likewise anything else which (those who are learned in the law) forbid.

28. Mushrooms ought not to be eaten; that has been declared in a Br‚hmana;

29. (Nor the meat) of one-hoofed animals, of camels, of the Gayal, of village pigs, of Sarabhas, and of cattle.

30. (But the meat) of milch-cows and oxen may be eaten.

31. The V‚gasaneyaka declares 'bull's flesh is fit for offerings.'

32. Amongst birds that scratch with their feet for, food, the (tame) cock (must not be eaten).

33. Amongst birds that feed thrusting forward their beak, the (heron, called) Plava (or Sakalabila, must not be eaten).

34. Carnivorous (birds are forbidden),

35. Likewise the swan, the Bh‚sa, the Br‚hman duck, and the falcon.

36. Common cranes and S‚ras-cranes (are not to

[27. Haradatta observes that ¬pastamba, finding the list of forbidden vegetables too long, refers his pupils to the advice of the Sishtas. The force of this Sutra is exactly the same as that of I, 3, 11, 38.

28. Y‚gsh. I, 171.

29. The camel, Gayal, and Sarabha are mentioned as 'forbidden animals,' Satapatha-br. I, 2, 1, 8; Aitareya-br. II, 1, 8; see also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 62; Manu V, 11, 18; Y‚gsh. I, 172, 176.

32. Y‚gsh. I, 176.

33. Manu V, 12. Y‚gsh I, 172.

34. Manu V, 11; Y‚gsh I, 172.

35. Y‚gsh I, 172.

36. Manu V, 12; Y‚gsh I, 172. Other commentators take the whole Sutra as one compound, and explain it as an exception to Sutra 34. In that case the translation runs thus: ('Carnivorous birds are forbidden) except the Krushka, Kraushka, V‚rdhr‚nasa, and Lakshmana.'--Haradatta. This translation is objectionable, because both the Krushka, now called Kulam or Kushk, and the Kraushka, the red-crested crane, now called S‚ras (Cyrus), feed on grain. Krushkakraushka is a Vedic dual and stands for krushkakraushk‚ or krushkakraushkau.]

be eaten) with the exception of the leather-nosed Lakshmana.

37. Five-toed animals (ought not to be eaten) with the exception of the iguana, the tortoise, the porcupine, the hedgehog, the rhinoceros, the hare, and the Putikhasha.

38. Amongst fishes, the Keta ought not to be eaten,

39. Nor the snake-headed fish, nor the alligator, nor those which live on flesh only, nor those which are misshaped (like) mermen.

[37. Manu V, 18; Y‚gsh. I, 77. Putikhasha is, according to Haradatta, an animal resembling a hare, and found in the Him‚layas.

39. Haradatta closes this chapter on flesh-eating by quoting Manu V, 56, which declares flesh-eating, drinking spirituous liquor, and promiscuous intercourse to be allowable, but the abstinence therefrom of greater merit. He states that the whole chapter must be understood in this sense.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 6, Khanda 18.



1. Honey, uncooked (grain), venison, land, roots, fruits, (a promse of) safety, a pasture for cattle, a house, and fodder for a draught-ox may be accepted (even) from an Ugra.

2. H‚rita declares, that even these (presents) are to be accepted only if they have been obtained by a pupil.

[18. 1. Manu IV, 247. 'Ugra denotes either a bad twice-born man. or the offspring of a Vaisya and of a Sudra-woman. Other persons of a similar character must be understood to be included by the term.'--Haradatta.]

3. Or they (Br‚hmana householders) may accept (from an Ugra) uncooked or (a little) unflavoured boiled food.

4. (Of such food) they shall not take a great quantity (but only so much as suffices to support life).

5. If (in times of distress) he is unable to keep himself, he may eat (food obtained from anybody),

6. After having touched it (once) with gold,

7. Or (having touched it with) fire.

8. He shall not be too eager after (such a way of living). He shall leave it when he has obtained a (lawful) livelihood.

9. (A student of the Brahmanic caste) who has returned home shall not eat (in the house) of people belonging to the three tribes, beginning with ihe Kshatriya (i. e. of Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras).

10. He may (usually) eat (the food) of a Br‚hmana on account of (the giver's) character (as a Br‚hmana). It must be avoided for particular reasons only.

[4. Also this rule seems to belong to H‚rita, on account of its close connection with the preceding two.

8. Haradatta quotes, in support of the last Satras, a passage of the Kh‚ndogya Upanishad, I, 10, 1, and one from the Rig-veda, IV, 18, 13, according to which it would be lawful to eat even impure food, as a dog's entrails, under such circumstances. Other commentators explain this and the preceding thrce Sutras differentiv. According to them the translaticn would run thus: 'If he himself does not find any livelihood (in times of distress, he may dwell even with low-caste people who give him something to eat, and) he may eat (food given by them) paying for it with (some small gift in) gold or with animals.' This second explanation is perhaps preferable.

9. Manu IV, 219, and 223.]

11. He shall not eat in a house where (the host) performs a rite which is not a rite of penance, whilst he ought to perform a penance.

12. But when the penance has been performed, he may eat (in that house).

13. According to some (food offered by people) of any caste, who follow the laws prescribed for them, except that of Sudras, may be eaten.

14. (In times of distress) even the food of a Sudra, who lives under one's protection for the sake of spiritual merit, (may be eaten).

15. He may eat it, after having touched it (once) with gold or with fire. He shall not be too eager after (such a way of living). He shall leave it when he obtains a (lawful) livelihood.

16. Food received from a multitude of givers must not be eaten,

17. Nor food offered by a general invitation (to all comers).

18. Food offered by an artisan must not be eaten,

19. Nor (that of men) who live by the use of arms (with the exception of Kshatriyas),

[11. If a Br‚hmana who has been ordered to perform a penance, performs a Vaisvadeva or other rite without heeding the order of his spiritual teacher, then a student who has returned home ought not to eat in his house, until the enjoined penance has been performed.'--Haradatta.

12. 'The use of the part. perf. pass. "performed" indicates that he must not eat there, whilst the penance is being performed.'--Haradatta.

14. Y‚gsh. 1, 166.

15. Manu IV, 223

16. Manu IV, 209.

17. Manu IV, 209; Y‚gsh. I, 168.

18. Manu IV, 2 10, 215; Y‚gsh. I, 162-164.

19. Y‚gsh. I, 164.]

20. Nor (that of men) who live by letting lodgings or land.

21. A (professional) physician is a person whose food must not be eaten,

22. (Also) a usurer,

23. (Also) a Br‚hmana who has performed the DÓkshanÓyeshti (or initiatory ceremony of the Soma-sacrifice) before he has bought the king (Soma).

24. (The food given by a person who has performed the DÓkshanÓyeshti may be eaten), when the victim sacred to Agni and Soma has been slain.

25. Or after that the omentum of the victim (sacred to Agni and Soma) has been offered.

26. For a Br‚hmana declares, 'Or they may eat of the remainder of the animal, after having set apart a portion for the offering.'

27. A eunuch (is a person whose food must not be eaten),

28. (Likewise) the (professional) messenger employed by a king (or others),

29. (Likewise a Br‚hmana) who offers substances that are not fit for a sacrifice,

30. (Likewise) a spy,

[21. Manu IV, 212; Y‚gsh. I, 162.

22. Manu IV, 210; Y‚gsh. I, 161.

23. 'That is to say, one who has begun, but not finished a Soma-sacrifice.'--Haradatta. Manu IV, 210, and Gopatha-br‚hmana III, 19.

25. Aitareya-br‚hmana II, 1, 9.

27. Manu I V, 211; Y‚gsh. I, 161.

28. The village or town messengers are always men of the lowest castes, such as the Mah‚rs of Mah‚r‚shthra.

29. 'For example, he who offers human blood in a magic rite.'--Haradatta.

30. Haradatta explains k‚rÓ, translated by 'spy,' to mean 'a secret adherent of the S‚kta sect' (gudhak‚rÓ, s‚ktah). The existence of this sect in early times has not hitherto been proved.]

31. (Also) a person who has become an ascetic without (being authorized thereto by) the rules (of the law),

32. (Also) he who forsakes the sacred fires without performing the sacrifice necessary on that occasion),

33. Likewise a learned Br‚hmana who avoids everybody, or eats the food of anybody, or neglects the (daily) recitation of the Veda, (and) he whose (only living) wife is of the Sadra caste.

[31. Haradatta gives the S‚kyas or Bauddhas as an instance. But it i's doubtful, whether ¬pastamba meant to refer to them, though it seems probable that heretics are intended.

32. Y‚gsh. I, 160.

33. 'Who avoids everybody, i.e. who neither invites nor dines with anybody.'--Haradatta.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 6, Khanda 19.



1. A drunkard, a madman, a prisoner, he who learns the Veda from his son, a creditor who sits with his debtor (hindering the fulfilment of his duties), a debtor who thus sits (with his creditor, are persons whose food must not be eaten) as long as they are thus engaged or in that state.

2. Who (then) are those whose food may be eaten?

[19. 1. Manu IV, 207; Y‚gsh. I, 161, 162. Another commentator explains anika, translated above 'he who learns the Veda from his son,' by 'a money-lender,' and combines pratyupavishtah with this word, i.e. 'a money-lender who sits with his debtor hindering him from fulfilling his duties.' This manner of forcing a debtor to pay, which is also called ¬karita (see Manu VIII, 49), is, though illegal, resorted to sometimes even now.

2. 'The object of this Sutra is to introduce the great variety of opinions quoted below.'--Haradatta.]

3. Kanva declares, that it is he who wishes to give.

4. Kautsa declares, that it is he who is holy.

5. V‚rshy‚yani declares, that it is every giver (of food).

6. For if guilt remains fixed on the man (who committed a crime, then food given by a sinner) may be eaten (because the guilt cannot leave the sinner). But if guilt can leave (the sinner at any time, then food given by the sinner may be eaten because) he becomes pure by the gift (which he makes).

7. Offered food, which is pure, may be eaten, according to Eka, Kunika, K‚nva, Kutsa, and Pushkaras‚di.

8. V‚rshy‚yani's opinion is, that (food) given unasked (may be accepted) from anybody.

9. (Food offered) willingly by a holy man may be eaten.

10. Food given unwillingly by a holy man ought not to be eaten.

11. Food offered unasked by any person whatsoever may be eaten,

12. 'But not if it be given after an express previous announcement;' thus says H‚rita.

13. Now they quote also in a Pur‚na the following two verses:

[4. 'Holy' means not only 'following his lawful occupations,' but particularly 'practising austerities, reciting prayers, and offering burnt-oblations.'--Haradatta.

10. Another commentator explains this Sutra thus: 'He need not eat the food offered by a righteous man, if he himself does not wish to do so.'--Haradatta.

13. See Manu IV, 248 and 249, where these identical verses occur.]

'The Lord of creatures has declared, that food offered unasked and brought by the giver himself, may be eaten, though (the giver be) a sinner, provided the gift has not been announced beforehand. The Manes of the ancestors of that man who spurns such food, do not eat (his oblations) for fifteen years, nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the gods).'

14. (Another verse from a Pur‚na declares): 'The food given by a physician, a hunter, a surgeon, a fowler, an unfaithful wife, or a eunuch must not be eaten.'

15. Now (in confirmation of this) they quote (the following verse): 'The murderer of a Br‚hmana learned in the Veda heaps his guilt on his guest, an innocent man on his calumniator, a thief set at liberty on the king, and the petitioner on him who makes false promises.'

[14. Manu IV, 211, 212.

15. Regarding the liberation of the thief, see ¬pastamba I, 9, 25, 4. A similar verse occurs Manu VIII, 317, which has caused the confusion observable in many MSS., as has been stated in the critical notes to the text.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 7, Khanda 20.



1. He shall not fulfil his sacred duties merely in order to acquire these worldly objects (as fame, gain, and honour).

2. For when they ought to bring rewards, (duties thus fulfilled) become fruitless.

3. (Worldly benefits) are produced as accessories (to the fulfilment of the law), just as in the case of a mango tree, which is planted in order to obtain fruit, shade and fragrance (are accessory advantages).

4. But if (worldly advantages) are not produced, (then at least) the sacred duties have been fulfilled.

5. Let him not become irritated at, nor be deceived by the speeches of hypocrites, of rogues, of infidels, and of fools.

6. For Virtue and Sin do not go about and say, Here we are;' nor do gods, Gandharvas, or Manes say (to men), 'This is virtue, that is sin.'

7. But that is virtue, the practice of which wise men of the three twice-born castes praise; what they blame, is sin.

8. He shall regulate his course of action according to the conduct which in all countries is unanimously approved by men of the three twice-born castes, who have been properly obedient (to their teachers), who are aged, of subdued senses, neither given to avalrice, nor hypocrites.

9. Acting thus he will gain both worlds.

10. Trade is not lawful for a Br‚hmana.

11. In times of distress he may trade in lawful merchandise, avoiding the following (kinds), that are forbidden

12. (Particularly) men, condiments and liquids, colours, perfumes, food, skins, heifers, substances

[20. 7. The Sutra is intended to show how the law should be ascertained in difficult cases. Haradatta quotes here the passage of Y‚gsh. I, 9, on Parishads, and states that the plural ‚ry‚h shows that three or four must be employed to arrive at a decision. See also Manu XII, 108 seq.

8. Manu I, 6.

11. This Sutra, which specifies only one part of a Vaisya's occupations as permissible for Br‚hmanas in distress, implies, according to Haradatta, that his other occupations also, as well as those of a Kshatriya, are permissible. Manu IV, 6; X, 82; Y‚gsh. III, 35.

12. Manu X, 86-89; Y‚gsh. III, 36-39.]

used for glueing (such as lac), water, young cornstalks, substances from which spirituous liquor may be extracted, red and black pepper, corn, flesh, arms, and the hope of rewards for meritorious deeds.

13. Among (the various kinds of) grain he shall especially not sell sesamum or rice (except he have grown them himself).

14. The exchange of the one of these (abovementioned goods) for the other is likewise unlawful.

15. But food (may be exchaned) for food, and slaves for slaves, and condiments for condiments, and perfumes for perfumes, and learning for learning.

16. Let him traffic with lawful merchandise which he has not bought,

[13. The exception stated above, is given by Haradatta on the authority of Manu X, 90; Y‚gsh. III, 39.

15. From the permission to exchange learning for learning, it may be known that it is not lawful to sell it.'--Haradatta. Manu X, 94.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 7, Khanda 21.



1. With Mushga-grass, Balbaga-grass (and articles made of them), roots, and fruits,

2. And with (other kinds of) grass and wood which have not been worked up (into objects of use).

3. He shall not be too eager (after such a livelihood).

4. If he obtains (another lawful) livelihood, he shall leave off (trading).

[21. 2. 'Since it is known that Mushga and Balbaga are kinds of grass, it may be inferred from their being especially mentioned (in Sutra 1) that objects made of them (may be also sold).'--Haradatta.

4. Y‚gsh. III, 35.]

5. Intercourse with fallen men is not ordained,

6. Nor with Apap‚tras.

7. Now (follows the enumeration of) the actions which cause loss of caste (PatanÓya).

8. (These are) stealing (gold), crimes whereby one becomes an Abhisasta, homicide, neglect of the Vedas, causing abortion, incestuous connection with relations born from the same womb as one's mother or father, and with the offspring of such persons, drinking spirituous liquor, and intercourse with persons the intercourse with whom is forbidden.

9. That man falls who has connection with a female friend of a female Guru, or with a female friend of a male Guru, or with any married woman.

10. Some (teachers declare), that he does not fall by having connection with any other married female except his teacher's wife.

11. Constant commission of (other) sins (besides those enumerated above) also causes a man to lose his caste.

12. Now follows (the enumeration of) the acts which make men impure (Asukikara).

13. (These are) the cohabitation of Aryan women with Sudras,

14. Eating the flesh of forbidden (creatures),

[5. Manu XI, 180.

6. Regarding the definition of the word Apap‚tra, see above, I, 5, 16, 29.

8. The crimes by which a person becomes Abhisasta are enumerated below, I, 9, 24, 6 seq., where an explanation of the term will be given.

9. Regarding the 'male Gurus' see above. By 'female Gurus' their wives are meant.

10. I.e. he need not perform so heavy a penance.]

15. As of a dog, a man, village cocks or pigs, carnivorous animals,

16. Eating the excrements of men,

17. Eating what is left by a Sudra, the cohabitation of Aryans with Apap‚tra women.

18. Some declare, that these acts also cause a man to lose his caste.

19. Other acts besides those (enumerated) are causes of impurity.

20. He who learns (that a man has) committed a sin, shall not be the first to make it known to others; but he shall avoid the (sinner), when performing religious ceremonies.

[20. 'That is to say, he is not to invite the sinner to dinners, given at the occasion of religious ceremonies.'--Haradatta.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 8, Khanda 22.



1. He shall employ the means which tend to the acquisition of (the knowledge of) the ¬tman, which are attended by the consequent (destruction of the passions, and) which prevent the wandering (of the mind from its object, and fix it on the contemplation of the ¬tman).

2. There is no higher (object) than the attainment of (the knowledge of the) ¬tman.

3. We shall quote the verses (from the Veda)

[22. 1. The knowledge of the Ved‚nta and the means which prepare men for the knowledge of the ¬tman, the 'Self, the universal soul,' are placed in this Patala at the head of the penances, because they are most efficacious for the removal of all sin. The means are absence of anger &c., which are enumerated I, 8, 23, 6.

2. Haradatta gives in his commentary a lengthy discussion on the ¬tman, which corresponds nearly to Sahkara's Introduction to and Commentary on the first Sutra of B‚dar‚yana.

3. According to Haradatta, the following verses are taken from an Upanishad.]

which refer to the attainment of (the knowledge of) the ¬tman.

4. All living creatures are the dwelling of him who lies enveloped in matter, who is immortal and who is spotless. Those become immortal who worship him who is immovable and lives in a movable dwelling.

5. Despising all that which in this world is called an object (of the senses) a wise man shall strive after the (knowledge of the) ¬tman.

6. O pupil, I, who had not recognised in my own self the great self-luminous, universal, (absolutely) free ¬tman, which must be obtained without the mediation of anything else, desired (to find) it in others (the senses). (But now as I have obtained the pure knowledge, I do so no more.) Therefore follow thou also this good road that leads to welfare (salvation), and not the one that leads into misfortune (new births).

7. It is he who is the eternal part in all creatures, whose essence is wisdom, who is immortal, unchangeable, destitute of limbs, of voice, of the (subtle) body,

[4. The spotless one &c. is the Param‚tman. The spots are merit and demerit which, residing in the Manas, the internal organ of perception, are only falsely attributed to the ¬tman, 'the soul.' To become immortal means 'to obtain final liberation.'

5. It seems to me that Haradatta's explanation of the words 'idam idi ha idi ha' is wrong. They ought to be divided thus, 'idamid, iha id, iha loke.' The general sense remains the same, and there is no necessity to assume very curious and otherwise unknown Vedic forms.

6. The verse is addressed by a teacher to his pupil. My translation strictly follows Haradatta's gloss. But his interpretation is open to many doubts. However, I am unable to suggest anything better.

7. The Sutra contains a further description of the Param‚tman.]

(even) of touch, exceedingly pure; he is the universe, he is the highest goal; (he dwells in the middle of the body as) the Vishuvat day is (the middle of a Sattra-sacrifice); he, indeed, is (accessible to all) like a town intersected by many streets.

8. He who meditates on him, and everywhere and always lives according to his (commandments), and who, full of devotion, sees him who is difficult to be seen and subtle, will rejoice in (his) heaven.

[8. Haradatta explains the word vishtap, 'heaven,' by 'pain-freed greatness,' apparently misled by a bad etymology. The heaven of the ¬tman is, of course, liberation, that state where the individual soul becomes merged in the Brahman or Param‚tman, which is pure essence, intelligence and joy.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 8, Khanda 23.



1. That Br‚hmana, who is wise and recognises all creatures to be in the ¬tman, who pondering (thereon) does not become bewildered, and who recognises the ¬tman in every (created) thing, shines, indeed, in heaven.

2. He, who is intelligence itself and subtler than the thread of the lotus-fibre, pervades the universe, and who, unchangeable and larger than the earth, contains the universe; he, who is different from the knowledge of this world, obtained by the senses and identical with its objects, possesses the highest (form consisting of absolute knowledge). From him, who divides himself, spring all (created) bodies. He is the primary cause, he is eternal, he is unchangeable.

[23. 2. This Sutra again contains a description of the Param‚tman. The translation strictly follows the commentary, though the explanation, given in the latter, is open to objections,]

But the eradication of the faults is brought about in this life by the means (called Yoga). A wise man who has eradicated the (faults) which destroy the creatures, obtains salvation.

4. Now we will enumerate the faults which tend to destroy the creatures.

5. (These are) anger, exultation, grumbling, covetousness, perplexity, doing injury, hypocrisy, lying, gluttony, calumny, envy, lust, secret hatred, neglect to keep the senses in subjection, neglect to concentrate the mind. The eradication of these (faults) takes place through the means of (salvation called) Yoga.

6. Freedom from anger, from exultation, from grumbling, from covetousness, from perplexity, from hypocrisy (and) hurtfulness; truthfulness, moderation in eating, silencing a slander, freedom from envy, self-denying liberality, avoiding to accept gifts, uprightness, affability, extinction of the passions, subjection of the senses, peace with all created beings, concentration (of the mind on the contemplation of the ¬tman), regulation of one's conduct according to that of the ¬ryas, peacefulness and contentedness;--these (good qualities) have been settled by the agreement (of the wise) for all (the four) orders; he who, according to the precepts of the sacred law, practises these, enters the universal soul.

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 9, Khanda 24.



1. He who has killed a Kshatriya shall give a thousand cows (to Br‚hmanas) for the expiation of his sin.

[24. 1. Manu XI, 128; Y‚gsh. III, 266. Others explain the phrase vairay‚tan‚rtham, 'for the expiation of his sin,' thus: 'He, who is slain by anybody, becomes, in dying, an enemy of his slayer (and thinks), "O that I might slay him in another life," for the removal of this enmity!'--Haradatta. I am strongly inclined to agree with the other commentator, and to translate vairay‚tan‚rtham, 'in order to remove the enmity.' I recognise in this fine a remnant of the law permitting compositions for murder which was in force in ancient Greece and among the Teutonic nations. With the explanation adopted by Haradatta, it is impossible to find a reasonable interpretation for pr‚yaskittirthah, Sutra 4. Haradatta, seduced by the parallel passage of Manu, takes it to be identical with vairay‚tan‚rtham. I propose to translate our Sutra thus: 'He who has killed a Kshatriya shall give a thousand cows (to the relations of the murdered man) in order to remove the enmity.' According to Baudh‚yana I, 10. 19. 1 (compare Zeitschr. d. D. Morg. Ges., vol. 41, pp. 672-76; Festgruss an Roth, pp. 44-52), the cows are to be given to the king.]

2. (He shall give) a hundred cows for a Vaisya,

3. Ten for a Sudra,

4. And in every one (of these cases) one bull (must be given) in excess (of the number of cows) for the sake of expiation.

5. And if women of the (three castes mentioned have been slain) the same (composition must be paid).

6. He who has slain a man belonging to the two (first-mentioned castes) who has studied the Veda, or had been initiated for the performance of a Soma-sacrifice, becomes an Abhisasta.

7. And (he is called an Abhisasta) who has slain a man belonging merely to the Br‚hmana caste (though he has not studied the Veda or been initiated for a Soma-sacrifice),

[2. Manu XI, 130. Y‚gsh. III, 267.

3. Mauu XI, 131. Y‚gsh. III, 267.

6. Manu XI, 87. Abhisasta means literally 'accused, accursed,' and corresponds in ¬pastamba's terminology to the mah‚p‚takin of Manu and Y‚gshavalkya, instead of which latter word Manu uses it occasionally, e.g. II, 185.]

8. Likewise he who has destroyed an embryo of a (Br‚hmana, even though its sex be) undistinguishable,

9. Or a woman (of the Br‚hmana caste) during her courses.

10. (Now follows) the penance for him (who is an Abhisasta).

11. He (himself) shall erect a hut in the forest, restrain his speech, carry (on his stick) the skull (of the person slain) like a flag, and cover the space from his navel to his knees with a quarter of a piece of hempen cloth.

12. The path for him when he goes to a village, is the space between the tracks (of the wheels).

13. And if he sees another (¬rya), he shall step out of the road (to the distance of two yards).

14. He shall go to the village, carrying a broken tray of metal of an inferior quality.

15. He may go to seven houses only, (crying,) 'Who will give alms to an Abhisasta?'

16. That is (the way in which he must gain) his livelihood.

17. If he does not obtain anything (at the seven houses), he must fast.

18. And (whilst performing this penance) he must tend cows.

19. When they leave and enter the village, that is the second occasion (on which he may enter) the village.

[9. 'Others interpret ‚treyÓ, "during her courses," by "belonging to the race of Atri."'--Haradatta.

11. Others say that he may carry the skull of any corpse. This Sutra is to be construed with Sutra 114, Sutras 12 and 13 being inserted parenthetically.-- Haradatta. Manu XI, 72-78; Y‚gsh. III, 243.]

20. After having performed (this penance) for twelve years, he must perform) the ceremony known (by custom), through which he is re-admitted into the society of the good.

21. Or (after having performed the twelve years' penance), he may build a hut on the path of robbers, and live there, trying to take from them the cows of Br‚hmanas. He is free (from his sin), when thrice he has been defeated by them, or when he has vanquished them.

22. Or he is freed (from his sin), if (after the twelve years' penance) he bathes (with the priests) at the end of a horse-sacrifice.

23. This very same (penance is ordained) for him who, when his duty and love of gain come into conflict, chooses the gain.

24. If he has slain a Guru or a Br‚hmana, who has studied the Veda and finished the ceremonies of a Soma-sacrifice, he shall live according to this very same rule until his last breath.

25. He cannot be purified in this life. But his sin is removed (after death).

[20. 'I.e. after having performed the penance, he shall take grass and offer it to a cow. If the cow approaches and confidingly eats, then one should know that he has performed the penance properly not otherwise.'--Haradatta. Manu XI, 195 and 196.

21. Manu XI, 81.--Thus Haradatta, better, 'when-thrice he has fought with them,' see the Pet. Dict. s. v. r‚dh.

22. Manu XI, 83; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 67.

23. 'Or the Sutra may have reference to unrighteous gain acquired by false testimony and the like.'--Haradatta.

24. 'Guru means "the father and the rest."--Haradatta.

25. 'His sin is removed after death. Hence the meaning is that his sons or other (relations) may perform the funeral ceremonies and the like. But others think that the first part of the Sutra forbids this, and that the meaning of pratv‚pattih (can be purified) is "connection by being received as a son or other relation."--Haradatta.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 9, Khanda 25.



1. He who has had connection with a Guru's wife shall cut off his organ together with the testicles, take them into his joined hands and walk towards the south without stopping, until he falls down dead.

2. Or he may die embracing a heated metal image of a woman.

3. A drinker of spirituous liquor shall drink exceedirgly hot liquor so that he dies.

4. A thief shall go to the king with flying hair, carrying a club on his shoulder, and tell him his deed. He (the king) shall give him a blow with that (club). If the thief dies, his sin is expiated.

5. If he is forgiven (by the king), the guilt falls upon him who forgives him,

6. Or he may throw himself into the fire, or perform repeatedly severe austerities,

7. Or he may kill himself by diminishing daily his portion of food,

8. Or he may perform Krikkhra penances (uninterruptedly) for one year.

[25. 1. Haradatta's explanation of a 'Guru's wife' by 'mother' rests on a comparison of similar passages from other Smritis, where a different 'penance' is prescribed for incestuous intercourse with other near relations. Manu XI, 105; Y‚gsh. III, 259.

2. Manu XI, 104; Y‚gsh. III, 259.

3. Manu XI, 91, 92; Y‚gsh. III, 253.

4. I.e. who has stolen the gold of a Br‚hmana. Manu VIII, 314, 316; XI, 99-101; Y‚gsh. III, 257.

5. Manu VIII, 317.

6. Manu XI, 102.

8. According to Haradatta this Sutra refers to all kinds of sins and it must be understood that the Krikkhra penances must be heavy for great crimes, and lighter for smaller faults; see also below, I, 9, 27, 7 and 8.]

9. Now they quote also (the following verse):

10. Those who have committed a theft (of gold), drunk spirituous liquor, or had connection with a Guru's wife, but not those who have slain a Br‚hmana, shall eat every fourth meal-time a little food, bathe at the times of the three libations (morning, noon, and evening), passing the day standing and the night sitting. After the lapse of three years they throw off their guilt.

11. (A man of any caste) excepting the first, who has slain a man of the first caste, shall go on a battle-field and place himself (between the two hostile armies). There they shall kill him (and thereby he becomes pure).

12. Or such a sinner may tear from his body and make the priest offer as a burnt-offering his hair, skin, flesh, and the rest, and then throw himself into the fire.

13. If a crow, a chameleon, a peacock, a Br‚hmanÓ duck, a swan, the vulture called Bh‚sa, a frog, an ichneumon, a musk-rat, or a dog has been killed, then the same penance as for a Sudra must be performed.

[9. Haradatta states that the verse is taken from a Pur‚na.

11. Manu XI, 74; Y‚gsh. III, 248.

12. The Mantras given in the commentary, and a parallel passage of Vasishtha XX, 25-26, show that this terrible penance is not altogether a mere theory of ¬pastamba. Y‚gsh. III, 247.

13. 'According to some, the penance must be performed if all these animals together have been slain; according to others, if only one of them has been killed.'--Haradatta. Manu XI, 132, 136 Y‚gsh. III, 270-272.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 9, Khanda 26.



1. (The same penance must be performed), if a milch-cow or a full-grown ox (has been slain), without a reason.

2. And for other animals (which have no bones), if an ox-load of them has been killed.

3. He who abuses a person who (on account of his venerability) ought not to be abused, or speaks an untruth (regarding any small matter) must abstain for three days from milk, pungent condiments, and salt.

4. (If the same sins have been committed) by a Sudra, he must fast for seven days.

5. And the same (penances must also be performed) by women, (but not those which follow).

6. He who cuts off a limb of a person for whose murder he would become an Abhisasta (must perform the penance prescribed for killing a Sudra), if the life (of the person injured) has not been endangered.

[26. 1. 'A reason' for hurting a cow is, according to Haradatta, anger, or the desire to obtain meat.

2. Manu XI, 141;Y‚gsh. III, 269. That 'animals without bones,' i.e. insects or mollusks, are intended in the Sutra is an inference, drawn by Haradatta from the parallel passages of Gautama, Manu, and Y‚gshavalkya.

3. 'A person who ought not to be abused, i. e. a father, a teacher, and the like.'--Haradatta.

5. The same penances, i. e. those prescribed I, 9, 24-I, 9, 26, 4. According to Haradatta this Sutra is intended to teach that women shall not perform the penances which follow. Others, however, are of opinion that it is given in order to indicate that the preceding Sutras apply to women by an atidesa, and that, according to a Sm‚rta principle, applicable to such cases, it may be inferred, that women are to perform one-half only of the penances prescribed for men.]

7. He who has been guilty of conduct unworthy of an Aryan, of calumniating others, of actions contrary to the rule of conduct, of eating or drinking things forbidden, of connection with a woman of the Sudra caste, of an unnatural crime, of performing; magic rites with intent (to harm his enemies) or (of hurting others) unintentionally, shall bathe and sprinkle himself with water, reciting the (seven) verses addressed to the Waters, or the verses addressed to Varuna, or (other verses chosen frorn the Anuv‚ka, called) Pavitra, in proportion to the frequency with which the crime has been committed.

8. A (student) who has broken the vow of chastity, shall offer to Nirriti an ass, according to the manner of the P‚kayashga-rites.

9. A Sudra shall eat (the remainder) of that (offering).

10. (Now follows) the penance for him who transgresses the rules of studentship.

11. He shall for a year serve his teacher silently, emitting speech only during the daily study (of the Veda, in announcing necessary business to) his teacher or his teacher's wife, and whilst collecting alms.

12. The following penances) which we are going to proclaim, may be performed for the same sin, and

[7. The Anuv‚ka intended is Taitt. Samh. II, 5, 12.

8. Taitt. ¬r. II, 18, and Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102; Manu XI, 199 seq.; and Y‚gsh. III, 280. Regarding the P‚kayagsha-rites, see ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 1, 2, and Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, P. 203.

12. Regarding the PatanÓya-crimes which cause loss of caste, see above, I, 7, 21, 7 seq.]

also for other sinful acts, which do not cause loss of caste.

13. He may either offer oblations to K‚ma and Manyu (with the following two Mantras), 'K‚ma (passion) has done it; Manyu (anger) has done it.' Or he may mutter (these Mantras).

14. Or, after having eaten sesamum or fasted on the days of the full and new moon he may, on the following day bathe, and stopping his breath, repeat the G‚yatrÓ one thousand times, or he may do so without stopping his breath.

[13. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102. According to the greatness of the crime the number of the burnt-oblations must be increased and the prayers be repeated.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 9, Khanda 27.



1. After having eaten sesamum or having fasted on the full moon day of the month Sr‚vana July-August), he may on the following day bathe in the water of a great river and offer (a burnt-oblation of) one thousand pieces of sacred fuel, whilst. reciting the G‚yatrÓ, or he may mutter (the G‚yatrÓ) as many times.

2. Or he may perform Ishtis and Soma-sacrifices for the sake of purifying himself (from his sins),

3. After having eaten forbidden food, he must fast, until his entrails are empty.

4. That is (generally) attained after seven days.

5. Or he may during winter and during the dewy

[27. 1. 'The oblations of sacred fuel (samidh) are not to be accompanied by the exclamation Sv‚h‚'--Haradatta.

2. Ishtis are the simplest forms of the Srauta-sacrifices, i.e. of those for which three fires are necessary.

3. For some particular kinds of forbidden food the same penance is prescribed, Manu XI, 153-154.]

season (November-March) bathe in cold water both morning and evening.

6. Or he may perform a Krikkhra penance, which lasts twelve days.

7. The rule for the Krikkhra penance of twelve days (is the following): For three days he must not eat in the evening, and then for three days not in the morning; for three days he must live on food which has been given unasked, and three days he must not eat anything.

8. If he repeats this for a year, that is called a Krikkhra penance, which lasts for a year.

9. Now follows another penance. He who has committed even a great many sins which do not cause him to fall, becomes free from guilt, if, fasting, he recites the entire S‚kh‚ of his Veda three times consecutively.

10. He who cohabits with a non-Aryan woman, he who lends money at interest, he who drinks (other) spirituous liquors (than Sur‚), he who praises everybody in a manner unworthy of a Br‚hmana, shall sit on grass, allowing his back to be scorched (by the sun).

11. A Br‚hmana removes the sin which he committed by serving one day and night (a man of) the black race, if he bathes for three years, eating at every fourth meal-time.

[7. The same penance is described, under the name Pr‚g‚patya krikkhra, the Krihkhra invented by Prag‚pati, Manu XI, 212, and Y‚gsh. III, 320.

9. Manu XI, 259.

11. The expression krishna varna, 'the black race,' is truly Vedic. In the Rig-veda it usually denotes the aboriginal races, and sometimes the demons. Others explain the Sutra thus: A Br‚mana removes the sin, which be committed by cohabiting for one night with a female of the Sudra caste, &c.--Haradatta. The latter explanation has been adopted by Kulluka on Manu XI. 179.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 10, Khanda 28.



1. He who, under any conditions whatsoever, covets (and takes) another man's possessions is a thief; thus (teach) Katitsa and H‚rita as well as Kanva and Pushkaras‚di.

2. V‚rshy‚yani declares, that there are exceptions to this law, in regard to some possessions.

3. (E.g.) seeds ripening in the pod, food for a draught-ox; (if these are taken), the owners (ought) not (to) forbid it.

4. To take even these things in too great a quantity is sinful.

5. H‚rita declares, that in every case the permission (of the owner must be obtained) first.

6. He shall not go to visit a fallen teacher or blood relation.

7. Nor shall he accept the (means for procuring) enjoyments from such a person.

8. If he meets them accidentally he shall silently embrace (their feet) and pass on.

9. A mother does very many acts for her son, therefore he must constantly serve her, though she be fallen.

10. But (there shall be) no communion (with a fallen mother) in acts performed for the acquisition of spiritual merit.

[28. 3. The same rule. Manu emphatically ascribes to himself, Manu VIII, 339, But see also VIII, 331.

7. Haradatta remarks, that this Sutra implicitly forbids to accept the heritage of an outcast.]

11. Enjoyments taken unrighteously he shall give up; he shall say, 'I and sin (do not dwell together).' Clothing himself with a garment reaching from the navel down to the knee, bathing daily, morn, noon, and evening, eating food which contains neither milk nor pungent condiments, nor salt, he shall not enter a house for twelve years.

12. After that he (may be) purified.

13. Then he may have intercourse with Aryans.

14. This penance may also be employed in the case of the other crimes which cause loss of caste (for which no penance has been ordained above).

15. But the violator of a Guru's bed shall enter a hollow iron image and, hhving caused a fire to be lit on both sides, he shall burn himself.

16. According to H‚rita, this (last-mentioned penance must) not (be performed).

17, For he who takes his own or another's life becomes an Abhisasta.

18. He (the violator of a Guru's bed) shall perform to his last breath (the penance) prescribed by that rule (Sutra 11). He cannot be purified in this world. But (after death) his sin is taken away.

19. He who has unjustly forsaken his wife shall put on an ass's skin, with the hair turned outside, and beg in seven houses, saying, 'Give alms to him who forsook his wife.' That shall be his livelihood for six months.

20. But if a wife forsakes her husband, she shall

[11. A similar but easier penance is prescribed, Manu XI, 19 4.

15. 1 (This penance, which had been prescribed above, I, 9, 25, 1), is enjoined (once more), in order to show that it is not optional (as might be expected according to Sutra 14).'-Haradatta.]

perform the twelve-night Krikkhra penance for as long a time.

21. He who has killed a Bhruna (a man learned in the Vedas and Ved‚ngas and skilled in the performance of the rites) shall put on the skin of a dog or of an ass, with the hair turned outside, and take a human skull for his drinking-vessel,

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 10, Khanda 29.



1. And he shall take the foot of a bed instead of a staff and, proclaiming the name of his deed, he shall uo about (saying), 'Who (gives) alms to the murderer of a Bhruna?' Obtaining thus his livelihood in the village, he shall dwell in an empty house or under a tree, (knowing that) he is not allowed to have intercourse with Aryans. According to this rule he shall act until his last breath. He cannot be purified in this world. But (after death) his sin is taken away.

2. He even who slays unintentionally, reaps nevertheless the result of his sin.

3. (His guilt is) greater, (if he slays) intentionally.

4. The same (principle applies) also to other sinful actions,

5. And also to good works.

6. A Br‚hmana shall not take a weapon into his hand, though he be only desirous of examining it.

7. In a Pur‚na (it has been declared), that he who

[29. 5. Haradatta gives, as an example, the case where a warrior saves the property of a traveller from thieves. If the traveller turns out to be a Br‚hmana, and the warrior did not know his caste before rescuing his property, his merit will be less than if he had rescued knowingly the property of a Br‚mana.]

slays an assailant does not sin, for (in that case) wrath meets wrath.

8. But Abhisastas shall live together in dwellings (outside the village); considering this their lawful (mode of life), they shall sacrifice for each other, teach each other, and marry amongst each other.

9. If they have begot sons, let them. say to them: 'Go out from amongst us, for thus the ¬ryas, (throwing the guilt) upon us, will receive you (amongst their number).'

10. For the organs do not become impure together with the man.

11. (The truth of) that may be learned from this (parallel case); a man deficient in limbs begets a son who possesses the full number of limbs.

12. H‚rita declares that this is wrong.

13. A wife is similar to the vessel which contains the curds (for the sacrifice).

14. For if one makes impure milk curdle (by mixing it with whey and water) in a milk-vessel and stirs it, no sacrificial rite can be performed with (the curds produced from) that. Just so no intercourse

[9. It is impossible to agree with Haradatta's explanation of the words to be addressed by Abhisastas to their children. No Vedic license can excuse the use of the second person plural instead of the third. I propose the following: 'Go out from among us; for thus (leaving the guilt) to us, you will be received (as) ¬ryas.' it is, however, not improbable that our text is disfigured by several very old corruptions, compare Baudh‚yana II, 1, 2, 18.

11. 'In like manner a man who has lost.his rights, (can) beget a son, who possesses the rights (of his caste). For the wife is also a cause (of the birth of the son), and she is guiltless.'--Haradatta.

13. The statements now following are those with which ¬pastamba agrees. Those contained in Sutras 8-11 are merely the purvapaksha.]

can be allowed with the impure seed which comes (from an Abhisasta).

15. Sorcery and curses (employed against a Br‚hmana) cause a man to become impure, but not loss of caste.

16. H‚rita declares that they cause loss of caste.

17. But crimes causing impurity must be expiated, (when no particular penance is prescribed,) by performing the penance enjoined for crimes causing loss of caste during twelve months, or twelve half months, or twelve twelve-nights, or twelve se'nnights, or twelve times three days, or twelve days, or seven days, or three days, or one day.

18. Thus acts causing impurity must be expiated according to the manner in which the (sinful) act has been committed (whether intentionally or unintentionally).

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 11, Khanda 30.



1. Some declare, that a student shall bathe after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda, (however long or short the time of his studentship may have been).

2. (He may) also (bathe) after having kept the student's vow for forty-eight, (thirty-six or twenty-four) years, (though he may not have mastered the Veda).

Some declare, that the student (shall bathe) after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda and after (the expiration of) his vow.

[30. 1. The bath is taken at the end of the studentship, and forms part of the Sam‚vartana-ceremony. From this rite a student who has completed his course of study derives the name Sn‚taka, 'one who has bathed.' See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.]

4. To all those persons who have bathed (In accordance with any of the above rules must be shown) the honour clue to a Sn‚taka.

5. The reverence (shown to a Sn‚taka) brings, however, different rewards according to the degree of devotion or of learning (possessed by the person honoured).

6. Now follow the observances (chiefly to be kept) by a Sn‚taka.

7. He shall usually enter the village and leave it by the eastern or the northern gate.

8. During the morning and evening twilights, he shall sit outside the village, and not speak anything (referring to worldly matters).

9. (But an Agnihotri, who is occupied at home by oblations in the morning and evening, must not go out; for) in the case of a conflict (of duties), that enjoined by the Veda is the more important.

10. He shall avoid all dyed dresses,

11. And all naturally black cloth.

12. He shall wear a dress that is neither shining,

13. Nor despicable, if he is able (to afford it).

14. And in the day-time he shall avoid to wrap up his head, except when voiding excrements.

15. But when voiding excrements, he shall envelop his head and place some (grass or the like) on the ground.

16. He shall not void excrements in the shade (of a tree, where travellers rest).

[10. The rule to wear white garments is given Y‚gsh. I, 131; Manu IV, 35. 33.

13. Manu IV, 34.

15. Manu IV, 49.]

17. But he may discharge urine on his own shadow.

18. He shall not void excrements with his shoes on, nor on a ploughed field, nor on a path, nor in water.

19. He shall also avoid to spit into, or to have connection with a woman in water.

20. He shall not void excrements facing the fire, the sun, water, a Br‚hmana, cows, or (images of) the gods.

21. He shall avoid to clean his body from excrements with a stone, a clod of earth, or with (boughs of) herbs or trees which he has broken off, whilst they were on the tree and full of sap.

22. If possible, he shall not stretch out his feet towards a fire, water, a Br‚hmana, a cow, (iniages of) the gods, a door, or against the wind.

23. Now they quote also (the following verse):

[18. Manu IV, 45, 46; Y‚gsh. I, 137.

19. Manu IV, 56.

20. Manu IV, 48, 52; Y‚gsh. I, 134.

22. The prohibition to stretch the feet towards a fire occurs also Manu IV, 53; Y‚gsh. I, 137.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 11, Khanda 31.



1. He shall eat facing the east, void fśces facing, the south, discharge urine facing the north, and wash his feet turned towards the west.

2. He shall void excrements far from his house, having gone towards the south or south-west.

3. But after sunset he must not void excrements outside the village or far from his house.

4. And as long as he is impure he (shall avoid) to pronounce the names of the gods.

[31. 2. Manu IV, 151; Y‚gsh. I, 16.]

5. And he shall not speak evil of the gods or of the king.

6. He shall not touch with his foot a Br‚hmana, a cow, nor any other (venerable beings).

7. (Nor shall he touch them) with his hand, except for particular reasons.

8. He shall not mention the blemishes of a cow, of sacrificial presents, or of a girl.

9. And he shall not announce it (to the owner) if a cow does damage (by eating corn or grass in a field).

10. (Nor shall he call attention to it) if a cow is together with her calf, except for a particular reason.

11. And of a cow which is not a milch-cow he shall not say, 'She is not a milch-cow.' He must say, 'This is a cow which will become a milch-cow.'

12. He shall not call 'lucky' that which is lucky. He shall call it 'a mercy, a blessing.'

13. He shall not step over a rope to which a calf (or cow) is tied.

14. He shall not pass between the posts from which a swing is suspended.

15. (In company) he shall not say, 'This person

[5. Manu IV, 163.

8. 'In the section on transcendental knowledge (1, 8, 23, 5), "speaking evil" has been forbidden, in connection with the means of salvation. And below (Sutra 25) the (author) will declare that the sins which destroy the creatures are to be avoided. But this precept (is given in order to indicate that) in the case of cows and the rest an extra penance must be performed.'--Haradatta.

12. Manu IV, 139.

13. Manu IV, 38.

14. 'Or according to others, " He shall not pass between pillars supporting an arch."'--Haradatta.]

is my enemy.' If he says, 'This person is my enemy,' he will raise for himself an enemy, who will show his hatred.

16. If he sees a rainbow, he must not say to others, 'Here is Indra's bow.'

17. He shall not count (a flock of) birds.

18. He shall avoid to look at the sun when he rises or sets.

19. During the day the sun protects the creatures, during the night the moon. Therefore let him eagerly strive to protect himself on the night of the new moon by purity, continence, and rites adapted for the season.

20. For during that nicht the sun and the moon dwell together.

21. He shall not enter the village by a by path. If he enters it thus, he shall mutter this Rik-verse, 'Praise be to Rudra, the lord of the dwelling,' or some other (verse) addressed to Rudra.

22. he shall not (ordinarily) give the residue of his food to a person who is not a Br‚hmana. When he gives it (to such a one), he shall clean his teeth and give (the food) after having placed in it (the dirt from his teeth).

[16. Manu IV, 59.

17. Others explain (the Sutra thus): He shall not announce it to others, if he sees (the souls of) good men falling from heaven on account of the expenditure of their merit, (i.e.) he shall not call attention to shooting-stars.'--Haradatta.

18. Manu IV, 37. 19. Manu IV, 153.

21. Manu IV, 73; Y‚gsh. I, 140.

22. Manu IV, 80. 'This prohibition (given in the first part of the Sutra) refers to Sudras who are not dependents; to dependents the following (exception applies).'--Haradatta.]

23. And let him avoid the faults that destroy the creatures, such as anger and the like.

[23. See above, I, 6, 23, 4 and 5, and Manu IV, 163.]

¬pastamba Prasna I, Patala 11, Khanda 32.



1. Let him who teaches, avoid connubial intercourse during the rainy season and in autumn.

2. And if he has had connection (with his wife), he shall not lie with her during the whole night

3. He shall not teach whilst he is lying on a bed.

4. Nor shall he teach (sitting) on that couch on which he lies (at night with his wife).

5. He shall not show himself adorned with a garland, or anointed with ointments. '

6. At night he shall always adorn himself for his wife.

7. Let him not submerge his head together with his body (in bathing),

8. And (let him avoid) to bathe after sunset.

9. Let him avoid to use a seat, clogs, sticks for cleaning the teeth, (and other utensils) made of Pal‚sa-wood.

10. Let him avoid to praise (himself) before his teacher, saying, 'I have properly bathed or the like.'

11. Let him be awake from midnight.

12. Let him not study (or teach) in the middle of the night; but (he may point out) their duties to his pupils.

13. Or (he may) by himself mentally (repeat the sacred texts).

14. After midnight he may teach.

[32. 1. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 42.

2. Manu IV, 40.

5. Manu IV, 72.]

15. When he has risen (at midnight, and taught) during the third watch of the night, let him not lie down again (saying), 'Studying is forbidden.'

16. At his pleasure he may (sleep) leaning (against a post or the like).

17. Or he may mentally repeat (the sacred texts).

18. Let him not visit inferior men (such as Nish‚das), nor countries which are inhabited by them,

19. Nor assemblies and crowds.

20. If he has entered a crowd, he shall leave it, turning his right hand towards the crowd.

21. Nor shall he enter towns frequently.

22. Let him not answer directly a question (that is difficult to decide).

23. Now they quote also (the following verse):

24. (The foolish decision) of a person who decides wrongly destroys his ancestors and his future happiness, it harms his children, cattle, and house. 'Oh Dharmaprahr‚da, (this deed belongs) not to Kum‚lana!' thus decided Death, weeping, the question (addressed to him by the Rishi).

[15. I.e. if the following day is a forbidden day, e.g. an Ashtami. See also Manu IV, 99.

18. Manu IV, 60 and 61.

24. Haradatta tells the story to which the second half of the verse alludes, in the following manner: 'A certain Rishi had two pupils, called Dharmaprahr‚da and Kum‚lana. Once they brought from the forest two great bundles of firewood and threw them negligently into their teacher's house, without looking. One of the bundles struck the teacher's little son so that he died. Then the teacher asked his two pupils, "Which of you two has killed him?" Both answered, "Not I, not I." Hereupon the teacher, being unable to (come to a decision in order to) send away, the sinner and to keep the innocent one, called Death, and asked him, "Which of the two has killed the boy?" Then Death, finding himself involved in a difficult law-questioh, began to weep, and giving his decision, said, "Oh Dharmaprahr‚da, not to Kum‚lana (the dative has the sense of the genitive), this sin is none of Kum‚lana's!" Instead of declaring, "Dharmaprahrida, thou hast done this,' he said, "The other did not do it." Still from the circumstances of the case it appeared that the meaning of the answer was, "The other has done it." "This was the decision which he gave crying."'--The reading of the text rendered in the translation is, dharmaprahr‚da na kum‚lan‚ya.]

25. Let him not ascend a carriage yoked with asses; and let him avoid to ascend or to descend from vehicles in difficult places.

26. And (let him avoid) to cross a river swimming.

27. And (let him avoid) ships of doubtful (solidity).

28. He shall avoid cutting grass, crushing clods of earth, and spitting, without a particular reason,

29. And whatever else they forbid.

[26. Manu IV, 77.

28, Manu IV, 70 and 71.]



¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 1, Khanda 1.



1. After marriage the rites prescribed for a householder and his wife (must be performed).

2. He shall eat at the two (appointed) times, (morning and evening)

[1. 1. According to Haradatta, this rule is intended to refute the opinion of those who hold that the sacred household-fire may be kept, and the prescribed offerings therein may be performed, either from the time of the marriage, or after the division of the family estate. He also states that the use of the dual grihamedhinoh indicates that husband and wife must perform the rites conjointly. Manu III, 67.

2. Haradatta thinks that this Sutra is intended to prevent householders from having more than two meals a day, and to keep them from gluttony. Others are of opinion that its object is to keep householders from excessive fasting, and to make them perform the Pr‚n‚gnihotra at either meal. At the Pr‚n‚gnihotra the sacrificer eats five mouthfuls invoking successively, whilst he eats, the five vital airs. At the first mouthful he says, 'To Pr‚na sv‚h‚;' at the second, 'To Ap‚na sv‚ha,' &c.]

3. And he shall not eat to repletion.

4. And both (the householder and his wife) shall fast on (the days of) the new, and full moon,

5. To eat once (on those days in the morning) that also is called fasting.

6. And they may eat (at that meal) until they are quite satisfied.

7. And on (the anniversary of) that (wedding)-day they may eat that food of which they are fond.

8. And (on the night of that day) they shall sleep on the ground (on a raised heap of earth).

9. And they shall avoid connubial intercourse.

10. And on the day after (that day) a Sth‚lÓp‚ka must be offered.

11. The manner in which that offering must be

[5. ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 10, 2.

7. Haradatta holds that the words 'on that day' do not refer to the days of the new and full moon, the Parvan-days, mentioned in Sutra 4. His reasons are, first, that the permission to eat food, of which the householder may be particularly fond, has already been given in Sutra 6, by the term tripith, 'satisfaction'; and, secondly, that the singular 'on this day' does not agree with the plural 'on the Parvan-days.' Hence he comes to the conclusion that the words 'on that day' must refer to the wedding-day, mentioned in Sutra 1, as well as to its anniversary. Haradatta is, probably, right in his explanation, though the reasons adduced here are very weak. A stronger reason for detaching this Sutra from Sutra 4 will be brought forward below, under Sutra 11. Mah‚deva, the commentator of the Hiranyakesidharma, adopts the view rejected by Haradatta.

8. ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 3, 10.

10. A Sth‚lip‚ka is an offering at which rice cooked in a pot, sth‚lÓ, is offered in the fire. A full description of this kind of sacrifice occurs, ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 10, 1 seq.

11. The P‚rvana Sth‚l‚p‚ka has been described by Apastamba in the Grihya-sutra, III, 7. Again, Haradatta returns to the question whether the words on that day (Sutra 7) refer to the Parvan-days, or the marriage-day and its anniversaries. He now adds, in favour of the latter view, that the word P‚rvanena, 'by the rite to be performed on Parvan-days,' by which the Sth‚lÓp‚ka on Parvan-days is intended, clearly proves the impossibility to refer he preceding rules to the Parvan-days. He adds that some, nevertheless, adopt the explanation rejected by himself.]

performed has been declared by (the description of the Sth‚lÓp‚ka) to be performed on the days of the new and full moon (the P‚vana).

12. And they declare (that this rite which is known) amongst the people (must be performed) every (year).

13. At every (burnt-offering), when he wishes to place the fire on the altar (called Sthandila), let him draw on that (altar) three lines from west to east and three lines from south to north, and sprinkle (the altar) with water, turning the palm of the hand downwards, and let him then make the fire burn brightly by adding (fuel).

14. He shall pour out (the remainder of) this water used for sprinkling, to the north or to the east (of the altar), and take other (water into the vessel).

15. The water-vessels in the house shall never be empty; that is the duty to be observed by the householder and his wife.

[12. They, i.e. the Sishtas, those learned in the law.'Another commentator says, the rite which will be taught (in the following Sutra), and which is known from the usage of the learned, is constant, i.e. must be performed in every case. That it is what the "learned" declare.'--Haradatta. The latter explanation of the Sutra is adopted by Mah‚deva.

13. ¬sv. Gri. Su. I, 3, 1-3.

15. Haradatta states that the object of the repetition of the words 'the householder and his wife' is to show that they themselves must fill the water-vessels, and not employ others for this purpose. He adds that, according to another commentator, the object of the repetition is to show that Sutras 13 and 14 apply not only to householders, but also to students, and that hence students, when they offer the daily oblations of sacred fuel (above, I, 1, 4, 14 seq.), should also periorm the rites taught in the preceding Sutras.]

16. Let him not have connubial intercourse (with his wife) in the day-time.

17. But let him have connection with his wife at the proper time, according to the rules (of the law).

18. Let him have connubial intercourse in the interval also, if his wife (desires it, observing the restrictions imposed by the law).

19. (The duty of) connubial intercourse (follows from) the passage of a Br‚hmana, ('Let us dwell together until a son be born.')

20. But during intercourse he shall be dressed in a particular dress kept for this purpose.

21. And during intercourse only they shall lie together,

22. Afterwards separate.

23. Then they both shall bathe;

[17. See Manu III, 46-48; Y‚gsh. I, 79, 80.

19. Manu III, 45; Y‚gsh. I, 81.

19. See TaittirÓya Samhit‚ II, 5, 1, 5.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 1, Khanda 2.



1. Or they shall remove the stains with earth or water, sip water, and sprinkle the body with water.

2. Men of all castes, if they fulfil their (assigned) duties, enjoy (in heaven) the highest, imperishable bliss.

3. Afterwards when (a man who has fulfilled his duties) returns to this world, he obtains, by virtue of a remainder of merit, birth in a distinguished family, beauty of form, beauty of complexion, strength, aptitude for learning, wisdom, wealth, and the gift of fulfilling the laws of his (caste and order). Therefore in both worlds he dwells in happiness, (rolling) like a wheel (from the gne to the other).

4. As the seed of herbs (and) trees, (sown) in good and well-cultivated soil, gives manifold returns of fruit (even so it is with men who have received the various sacraments).

5. The increase of the results of sins has been explained hereby.

6. Thus after having undergone a long punishment in the next world, a person who has stolen (the gold of a Br‚hmana) or killed a (Br‚hmana) is born again, in case he was a Br‚hmana as a K‚nd‚la, in case he was a Kshatriya as a Paulkasa, in case he was a. Vaisya as a Vaina.

7. In the same manner other (sinners) who have become outcasts in consequence of their sinful actions are born again, on accountof (these) sins, losing their caste, in the wombs (of various animals).

8. As it is sinful to touch a K‚nd‚la, (so it is also sinful) to speak to him or to look at him. The penance for these (offences will be declared).

9. (The penance) for touching him is to bathe, submerging the whole body; for speaking to him to speak to a Br‚hmana; for looking at him to look at the lights (of heaven).

[2. 6. Manu XII, 55; Y‚gsh. III, 206, 207. A Paulkasa is said to be the offspring of a Nish‚da and a Kshatriya woman. See the Pet. Dict. s.v. A Vaina is a rope-dancer, or equilibrist.

7. Manu XII, 52.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 2, Khanda 3.



1. Pure men of the first three castes shall prepare the food (of a householder which is used) at the Vaisvadeva ceremony.

2. The (cook) shall not speak, nor cough, nor sneeze, while his face is turned towards the food.

3. He shall purify himself by touching water if he has touched his hair, his limbs, or his garment.

4. Or Sudras may prepare the food, under the superintendence of men of the first three castes.

5. For them is prescribed the same rule of sipping water (as for their masters).

6. Besides, the (Sudra cooks) daily shall cause to be cut the hair of their heads, their beards, the hair on their bodies, and their nails.

7. And they shall bathe, keeping their clothes on.

8. Or they may trim (their hair and nails) on the eighth day (of each half-month), or on the days of the full and. new moon.

9. He (the householder himself) shall place on the fire that food which has been prepared (by Sudras) without supervision, and shall sprinkle it with water. Such food also they state to be fit for the gods.

10. When the food is ready, (the cook) shall place

[3. 1. 'The food which is used at the Vaisvadeva, i. e. the food prepared for the meals of the householder and of his wife.'--Haradatta.

5. This Sutra is a Gsh‚paka, as it indicates that ¬pastamba also recognises the different rules which are usually prescribed in the Smritis for Br‚hmanas, Kshatriyas,Vaisyas, and Sudras. See above, I, 5, 16, 2.

7. Usually in bathing both ¬ryas and Sudras wear no dress except the langotÓ.]

himself before his master and announce it to him (saying), 'It is ready.'

11. The answer (of the master) shall be, 'That well-prepared food is the means to obtain splendour; may it never fail!'

12. The burnt-oblations and Bali-offerings made with the food which the husband and his wife are to eat, bring (as their reward) prosperity, (and the enjoyment of) heaven.

13. Whilst learning the sacred formulas (to be recited during the performance) of those (burnt oblations and Bali-offerings, a householder) shall sleep on the ground, abstain from connubial intercourse and from eating pungent condiments and salt, during welve days.

14. (When he studies the Mantras) for the last (Bali offered to the goblins), he shall fast for one (day and) night.

15. For each Bali-offering the ground must be prepared separately. (The performer) sweeps (the ground) with his (right) hand, sprinkles it with water, turning, the palm downwards, throws down (the offering), and afterwards sprinkles water around it.

[11. Manu II, 54.

12. Balis are portions of food which are thrown before the door, or on the floor of the house. See below, Sutra 16 seq.

13. Others explain this Sutra thus: 'After having used for the first time these sacred formulas (which are to be recited in offering the burnt-oblation and the Balis, the householder and his wife) shall sleep,' &c.

14. Regarding the use of ekar‚tra in the sense of 'a (day and a) night,' see above. The 'last' Bali-offering is that described below, II ,2, 4, 5.

15. 'They say that the word "afterwards" is used in order to indicate that perfumes, garlands, and other (Upak‚ras) must be, offered between (the last two acts).'- Haradatta.]

16. (At the Vaisvadeva sacrifice) he shall offer the oblations with his hand, (throwing them) into the kitchen-fire or into the sacred (Grihya)-fire, and reciting (each time one of) the first six Mantras (prescribed in the N‚r‚yanÓ Upanishad).

17. He shall sprinkle water all around both times (before and after the oblations), as (has been declared) above.

18. In like manner water is sprinkled around once only after the performance of those Bali-offerings that are performed in one place.

19. (If a seasoning) has been prepared, (the Bali-offering should consist of rice) mixed with that seasoning.

20. With the seventh and eighth Mantras (Balis

[16. It is a disputed point with the commentators whether every Br‚hmana may offer the Vaisvadeva in the common kitchen-fire, or those persons only who do not keep a sacred domestic fire. The six Mantras, which are given Taitt. ¬r. X, 67, 1, are: 1. Agnaye sv‚h‚, 'to Agni sv‚h‚'; 2. Somaya sv‚h‚, 'to Soma sv‚h‚'; 3. Visvebhyo devebhyah sv‚h‚, 'to all the gods sv‚h‚'; 4. Dhruv‚ya bhumaya sv‚h‚, 'to Dhruva Bhuma sv‚h‚'; 5. Dhruvakshitaye sv‚h‚, 'to Dhruvakshiti sv‚h‚'; 6. Akyutakshitaye sv‚h‚, 'to Akyutakshiti sv‚h‚.' Haradatta adds that some add a seventh formula, addressed to Agni svishtakrit, 'to the fire which causes the proper performance of the sacrifice,' while others leave out the second Mantra and give that addressed to Agni svishtakrit the sixth place. This latter is the order given in the Calcutta edition of the Taittir‚y ¬kranyaka.

17. 'Above, i.e. Grihya-sutra, I, 2, 3, 8.'--Haradatta. The Mantras recited are: 1. at the first sprinkling, Adite 'numanyasva, 'Aditi permit'; Anumate 'numanyasva, 'Anumati permit'; Sarasvaty anumanyasva, 'SarasvatÓ permit'; Deva Savitah prasuva, 'Divine Savitri permit'; 2. at the second sprinkling, the same as above, anvamamsth‚h and pr‚s‚vÓh, 'thou hast permitted,' being substituted for anumanyasva and prasuva.

18. This Sutra is a restriction of Sutra 15.

20, The first six offerings constitute the Devayagsha or Vaisvadeva, which is offered in the fire. Now follow the Bali-offerings, which are merely placed on the ground. 'Behind the fire' means to the east of the fire'; for the sacrificer must face the east.]

must be offered to Dharma and Adharma) behind the fire, and must be placed the one to the north of the other.

21. With the ninth (Mantra a Bali offered to the waters must be placed) near the water-vessel (in which the water for domestic purposes is kept).

22. With the tenth and eleventh (Mantras, Balis, offered to the herbs and trees and to Rakshodevagana, must be placed) in the centre of the house, and the one to the east of the other.

23. With the following four (Mantras, Balis must be placed) in the north-eastern part of the house (and the one to the east of the other).

[21. The Mantra is, Adbbyah sv‚h‚, 'to the Waters sv‚h‚.'

22. The Mantras are, Osbadhivanaspatibbyah sv‚h‚, 'to the herbs and trees sv‚h‚'; Raksbodevaganebhyah sv‚h‚, 'to the Rakshasas and the servants of the gods sv‚h‚.'

23. These four Balis are sacred to the Grih‚s, to the Avas‚nas, to the Avas‚napatis, and to all creatures.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 2, Khanda 4.



1. Near the bed (a Bali must be offered) with (a Mantra) addressed to K‚ma (Cupid).

2. On the door-sill (a Bali must be placed) with (a Mantra) addressed to Antariksha (the air).

With (the Mantra) that follows (in the Upanishad, he offers a Bali) near the door.

[4. 2. 'Others explain dehalÓ', "the door-sill," to mean "the door-case."'--Haradatta.

3. 'Others explain apidh‚na, "the panels of the door;" to mean "the bolt of the door."'--Haradatta. The offering is made to N‚ma, 'the name, or essence of things.']

4. With the following (ten Mantras, addressed to Earth, Air, Heaven, Sun, Moon, the Constellations, Indra, Brihaspati, Prag‚pati, and Brahman, he offers ten Balis, each following one to the east of the preceding one), in (the part of the house called) the seat of Brahma.

5. He shall offer to the south (of the Balis offered before, a Bali) with a Mantra addressed to the Manes; his sacrificial cord shall be suspended over the right shoulder, and the (palm of his right hand shall be turned upwards and) inclined to the right.

6. To the north (of the Bali given to the Manes, a Bali shall be offered) to Rudra, in the same manner as to the (other) gods.

7. The sprinkling with water (which precedes and follows the oblation) of these two (Balis, takes place) separately, on account of the difference of the rule (for each case).

[4. Haradatta gives two explanations of the word Brahmasadana, 'the seat of Brahman.' According to some, it is an architectural term, designating the centre of the house; according to others, it denotes the place where, at the time of the burnt-oblations, the Brahman or superintending priest is seated, i.e. a spot to the south of the sacred fire.

5. Balis and water for the Manes are placed or poured into the palm of the hand and thrown out between the thumb and forefinger. That part of the palm is, therefore, sometimes called 'the tirtha sacred to the Manes.' See Manu II, 39.

6. 'That is to say, the sacrificial cord shall not be suspended over the right shoulder, nor shall the Bali be thrown out between the thumb and forefinger.'--Haradatta

7. In sprinkling around an offering to the gods, the saqincer turns his right hand towards the oblation and pours out the water, beginning in the south and ending in the east. In sprinkling around an offering to the Manes, exactly the opposite order is to be followed.]

8. At night only he shall offer (the Bali to the Goblins), throwing it in he air and reciting the last (Mantra).

9. He who devoutly offers those (above-described), to the rules, (obtains) Balis and Homas), according eternal bliss in heaven and prosperity.

10. And (after the Balis have been performed, a portion of the food) must first be given as alms.

11. He shall give food to his guests first,

12. And to infants, old or sick people, female (relations, and) pregnant women.

13. The master (of the house) and his wife shall not refuse a man who asks for food at the time (when the Vaisvadeva offering has been performed).

14. If there is no food, earth, water, grass, and a kind word, indeed, never fall in the house of a good man. Thus (say those who know the law).

[8. At night, i. e. before the evening meal. The Mantra is, 'To those beings which, being servants of Vituda, roam about day and night, desiring a Bali-offering, I offer this Bali, desirous of prosperity. May the Lord of prosperity grant me prosperity, sv‚h‚. Haradatta adds, that according to another commentator, no other Bali but this is to be offered in the evening, and that some modify the Mantra for each occasion, offering the Bali in the morning to the Bhutas that roam about during the day,' and in the evening 'to the night-walkers.' Compare for the whole section Manu III, 90-92; Y‚gsh. I, 102-104.

10. Manu III, 94 seq.

11. Manu III, 115; Y‚gsh. I, 105.

12. Manu III, 114; Y‚gsh. I, 105.

14. Manu III, 101 Y‚gsh, I, 107. As read in the text, the first line of the verse has one syllable in excess. This irregularity would disappear if trin‚, the Vedic form of the nom. ace. plural, were read for trin‚ni, and it seems to me not improbable that tr‚nini is a correction made by a Pandit who valued grammatical correctness higher than correctness of metre.]

15. Endless worlds are the portion (of those householders and wives) who act thus.

16. To a Br‚hmana who has not studied the Veda, a seat, water, and food must be given. But (the giver) shall not rise (to do him honour).

17. But if (such a man) is worthy of a salutation (for other reasons), he shall rise to salute him.

18. Nor (shall a Br‚hmana rise to receive) a Kshatriya or Vaisya (though they may be learned).

19. If a Sudra comes as a guest (to a Br‚hmana), he shall give him some work to do. He may feed him, after (that has been performed).

20. Or the slaves (of the Br‚hmana householder) shall fetch (rice) from the royal stores, and honour the Sudra as a guest.

21. (A householder) must always wear his garment over (his left shoulder and under his right arm).

22. Or he may use a cord only, slung over his left shoulder and passed under his right arm, instead of the garment.

23. He shall sweep together (the crumbs) on the place where he has eaten, and take them away. He shall sprinkle water on that place, turning the palm downwards, and remove the stains (of food from the cooking-vessels with a stick), wash them with water, and take their contents to a clean place to the north (of the house, offering them) to Rudra. In this manner his house will become prosperous.

[16. Manu III, 99.

18. Manu III, 110-112; Y‚gsh. I, 107.

19. Manu loc. cit.

20. 'Hence it is known that the king ought to keep stores of rice and the like in every village, in order to show hospitality to Sudra guests.'--Haradatta.]

24. It is declared in the Smritis that a Br‚hmana alone should be chosen as teacher (or spiritual guide).

25. In times of distress a Br‚hmana may study under a Kshatriya or Vaisya.

26. And (during his pupilship) he must walk behind (such a teacher).

27. Afterwards the Br‚hmana shall take precedence before (his Kshatriya or Vaisya teacher).

[24. Manu II, 241, 242. From here down to II, 3, 6, 2, ¬pastamba again treats of the duties of students and teachers, a subject which appears to have in his eyes a greater importance than any other. The rules given now apply chiefly to householders. It would seem that they have been inserted in this particular place, because the reception of a former teacher is to be described II, 3, 5, 4-11, and that of a 'learned guest' II, 3, 6, 3 seq.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 2, Khanda 5.



1. On the day on which, beginning the study of the whole sacred science, the Upanishads (and the rest, he performs the Up‚karma in the morning) he shall not study (at night).

2. And he shall not leave his teacher at once afte having studied (the Veda and having returned home)

[5. 1. This rule refers to the Up‚karma, to be performed yearly by householders. In our days, too, the custom is observed, and the whole Brahminical community change on this occasion their GenvÓs or sacrificial cords in the month of Sr‚vana. The adherents of the various S‚kh‚s of the Vedas, however, perform the ceremony on different days. According to Haradatta, the Upanishads are named, in order to show that they are of the highest importance. See also Satapatha-br‚hmana X, 3, 5, 12.

2. Others consider that this Sutra refers to the annual Up‚karma of the householder. In that case the trarslation would be, 'And after having performed the Up‚karma,' &c. Probably ¬pastamba,means to give a general rule, applicable both to householders and to students who have returned home.]

3. If he is in a hurry to go, he shall perform the daily recitation of the Veda in the presence of his teacher, and then go at his pleasure. In this manner (rood fortune will attend both of them.

4. If the (former) teacher visits him after he has returned home, he shall go out to meet him, embrace his (feet), and he shall not wash himself (after that act), showing disgust. He then shall let him pass first into the house, fetch (the materials necessary for a hospitable reception), and honour him according tothe rule.

5. If his former teacher is) present, he himself shall use a seat, a bed, food, and garments inferior to, and lower (than those offered to the teacher.

6. Standing (with his body bent), he shall place his left hand (under the water-vessel, and bending with his other hand its mouth downwards), he shall offer to his teacher water for sipping.

7. And (he shall offer water for sipping in this manner) to other guests also who possess all (good qualities) together.

8. He shall imitate (his teacher) in rising, sitting, walking, about, and smiling.

[4. 'Though he may suspect tnat the teacher had been defiled by the touch of a K‚nd‚la or the like, still he shall not show disgust nor wash himself.'--Haradatta. Regarding the rule of receiving guests, see below, II, 4, 8, 6 seq.

6. According to Haradatta, the repetition of the word dkiryam, 'the teacher,' in this Sutra, indicates that the rule holds good not only when the teacher comes as a guest to his former pupil, but on every occasion when he receives water for sipping.

7. 'He is called samudeta, "possessed of all (good qualities) together," who is endowed with (good) birth, disposition, behaviour, (great) learning, and a (venerable) age.'--Haradatta.

8. The word sy‚t is to be understood from Sutra 5.]

9. In the presence (of his teacher) he shall not void excrements, discharge wind, speak aloud, laugh, spit, clean his teeth, blow his nose, frown, clap his hands, nor snap his fingers.

10. Nor shall he tenderly embrace or address caressing words to his wife or children.

11. He shall not contradict his teacher,

12. Nor any of his betters.

13. (He shall not) blame or revile any creature.

14. (He shall not revile one branch of) sacred learning by (invidiously comparing it with) another.

15. If he is not well versed in a (branch of) sacred learning (which he studied formerly), he shall again go to the (same) teacher and master it, observing the (same) rules as (during his first studentship).

16. The restrictions (to be kept) by the teacher from the beginning of the course of teaching to its end are, to avoid cutting the hair on the body, partaking of meat or of oblations to the Manes, and connection (with a woman).

17. Or (he may have conjugal intercourse) with his wife at the proper season.

18. He shall be attentive in instructing his pupils in the sacred learning, in such a manner that they

[13. Haradatta states that 'speaking evil' is forbidden here once more in order that it should be particularly avoided.

14. 'For example, he shall not say, "The Rig-veda is sweet to the ear, the other Vedas grate on the ear," or "the TaittirÓya-veda is a S‚kh‚ consisting of leavings," or "the Br‚hmana proclaimed by Y‚gshavalkya is of modern origin."'--Haradatta. The second sentence refers to the story that Y‚gshavalkya vomited the Black Yagur-veda, and his fiellow-students, becoming partridges, picked it up. Regarding the third sentence, see V‚rttika on P‚nini IV, 3, 105, and Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, P. 363.

16. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 42.]

master it, and in observing the restrictions (imposed upon householders during their teaching . He who acts thus, gains heavenly bliss for himself, his descendants and ancestors.

19. He who entirely avoids with mind, word, nose, eye, and ear the sensual objects (such as are) enjoyed by the touch, the organ, or the stomach, gains immortality.

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 3, Khanda 6.



1. If he has any doubts regarding the caste and conduct of a person who has come to him in order to fulfil his duty (of learning the Veda), he shall kindle a fire (with the ceremonies prescribed for kindling the sacrificial fire) and ask him about his caste and conduct.

2. If he declares himself to be (of) good (family and conduct, the teacher elect) shall say, 'Agni who sees, V‚yu who hears, ¬ditya who brings to light, vouch for his goodness; may it be well with this person! He is free from sin.' Then he shall begin to teach him.

3. A guest comes to the house resembling a burning fire.

[6. 1. The person desirous to study addresses his teacher elect with the following Mantra: Bhagavan maitrena kakshush‚ pasya sivena manas‚nugrih‚na prasÓda m‚m adhy‚paya, 'venerable Sir, look on me with a friendly eye, receive me with a favourable mind, be kind and teach me.' The teacher elect then asks: Kimgotro 'si saumya, kim‚k‚rah, 'friend, of what family art thou? what is thy rule of conduct?'

3. The object of this Sutra is to show the absolute necessity of feeding a guest. For, if offended, he might burn the house with the flames of his anger.]

4. He is called a Srotriya who, observing the law (of studentship), has learned one recension of the Veda (which may be current in his family).

5. He is called a guest (who, being a Srotriya), approaches solely for the fulfilment of his religious duties, and with no other object, a householder who lives intent on the fulfilment of his duties.

6. The reward for honouring (such a guest) is immunity from misfortunes, and heavenly bliss.

7. He shall go to meet such (a guest), honour him according to his age (by the formulas of salutation prescribed), and cause a seat to be given to him.

8. Some declare that, if possible, the seat should have many feet.

9. The (householder himself) shall wash the feet of that (guest); according to some, two Sudras shall do it.

10. One of them shall be employed in pouring water (over the guest, the other in washing his feet).

11. Some declare that the water for the (guest) shall be brought in an earthen vessel.

[4. The object of this Sutra is to complete the definition of the term 'guest' to be given in the following Sutra. In my translation I have followed Haradatta's gloss. The literal sense of ¬pastamba's words is,. 'He who, observing the law, has studied one recension of each (of the four) Vedas, becomes a Srotriya.' Haradatta says this definition would be contrary to the current acceptation of the term. That argument proves, however, nothing for ¬pastamba's times.

5. Manu III, 102, 103; Y‚gsh. I, 111.

6. Y‚gsh. I, 109; Manu III, 101.

8. Haradatta states that this is also ¬pastamba's opinion.

11. According to Haradatta, ¬pastamba is of opinion that it should be brought in a pot made of metal.]

12. But (a guest) who has not yet returned home from his teacher shall not be a cause for fetching water.

13. In case a (student comes, the host) shall repeat the Veda (together with him) for a longer time (than with other guests).

14. He shall converse kindly (with his guest), and gladden him with milk or other (drinks), with eatables, or at least with water.

15. He shall offer to his guest a room, a bed, a mattress, a pillow with a cover, and ointment, and what else (may be necessary).

16. (If the dinner has been finished before the arrival of the guest), he shall call his cook and give him rice or yava for (preparing a fresh meal for) the guest.

17. (If dinner is ready at the arrival of the guest), he himself shall portion out the food and look at it, saying (to himself), 'Is this (portion) greater, or this?'

18. He shall say, ' Take out a larger (portion for the guest).'

19. A guest who is at enmity (with his host) shall not eat his food, nor (shall he eat the food of a host) who hates him or accuses him of a crime, or of one who is suspected of a crime.

20. For it is declared in the Veda that he (who eats the food of such a person) eats his guilt.

[12. I.e. it is unnecessary to offer water for washing the feet to a student.

15. 'Ointment, (i.e.) oil or clarified butter for anointing the feet.'--Haradatta. Manu III, 107.

19. Manu III, 108.

19. Manu IV, 213; Y‚gsh. I, 162.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 3, Khanda 7.



1. This reception of guests is an everlasting (Srauta)-sacrifice offered by the householder to Prag‚pati.

2. The fire in the stomach of the guest (represents) the ¬havanÓya, (the sacred fire) in the house of the host represents the G‚rhapatya, the fire at which the food for the guest is cooked (represents) the fire used for cooking the sacrificial viands (the Dakshin‚gni).

3. He who eats before his guest consumes the food, the prosperity, the issue, the cattle, the merit which his family acquired by sacrifices and charitable works.

4. Food (offered to guests) which is mixed with milk procures the reward of an Agnishtoma-sacrifice. Food mixed with clarified butter procures the reward of an Ukthya, food mixed with honey the reward of an Atir‚tra, food accompanied by meat the reward of a Dv‚das‚ha, (food and) water numerous offspring and long life.

5. It is declared in the Veda, 'Both welcome and indifferent guests procure heaven (for their host).'

[7. 1. 'Pr‚g‚patya may mean either "created by Prag‚pati" or sacred to Prag‚pati."'--Haradatia.

2. in the first Sutra the reception of guests had been compared to an everlasting Vedic sacrifice. This analog is traced further in detail in this Sutra. One of the chief characteristics of a Vedic sacrifice is the vit‚na, or the use of three sacred fires. Hence ¬pastamba shows that three fires also are used in offering hospitality to guests.

4. Regarding the Agnisivorna and the other sacrifices mentioned, see Aitareya-br‚hmana III, 8; IV, 1; IV, 4.]

6. When he gives food in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, (these gifts) are the Savanas (of that sacrifice offered to Prag‚pati).

7. When he rises after his guest has risen (to depart), that act represents the Udavas‚nÓy‚ ishti (of a Vedic sacrifice).

8. When he addresses (the guest) kindly, that kind address (represents) the Dakshin‚.

9. When he follows (his departing guest, his steps represent) the steps of Vishnu.

10. When he returns (after having accompanied his guest), that (act represents) the Avabhritha, (the final bath performed after the completion of a sacrifice.)

11. Thus (a Br‚hmana shall treat) a Br‚hmana, (and a Kshatriya and a Vaisya their caste-fellows.)

12. If a guest comes to a king, he shall make (his Purohita) honour him more than himself

13. If a guest comes to an Agnihotrin, he himself

[6. The morning, midday, and evening offerings offered at the great Vedic sacrifices are called Savanas. The object of this Sutra is to prescribe the hospitable reception of guests at a times of the day, and to further describe the similarity of a guest-offering to a Vedic sacrifice.

7. Regarding the Udavas‚nÓy‚ ishti, see Aitareya-br‚hmana VIII, 5. It is the 'concluding ishti.'

8. Dakshini is the reward given to priests who officiate at a sacrifice.

9. 'The steps of Vishnu' are three steps which the sacrificer has to make between the Vedi and the ¬havanÓya-fire. See Pet. Diet. s. v.

12. 'A guest,' i.e. such a one as described above, II, 3, 6, 4 and 5.

13. An Agnihotrin is a Br‚hmana who offers certain daily burnt offerings called Agnihotra. The translation of the last clause renders tarpayantu, the reading of the Atharva-veda.]

shall go to meet him and say to him: 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, where didst thou stay (last night)?' (Then he offers water, saying): 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, here is water.' (Next he offers milk or the like, saying): 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may (these fluids) refresh (thee).'

14. (If the guest stays at the time of the Agnihotra, he shall make him sit down to the north of the fire and) murmur in a low voice, before offering the oblations: 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy heart desires;' 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy will is;' 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy wish is;' 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy desire is.'

15. If a guest comes, after the fires have been placed (on the altar), but before the oblations have been offered, (the host) himself shall approach him and say to him: 'O faithful fulfiller of thy vows give me permission; I wish to sacrifice.' Then he shall sacrifice, after having received permission. A Br‚hmana declares that he commits a sin if he sacrifices without permission.

16. He who entertains guests for one night obtains earthly happiness, a second night gains the middle air, a third heavenly bliss, a fourth the world of unsurpassable bliss; many nights procure endless worlds. That has been declared in the Veda.

17. If an unlearned person who pretends to be

[14. According to some, all these sentences must be pronounced; according to Haradatta, one only, which may be selected optionally.

15. Haradatta states that the Br‚mana mentioned in the text is the ¬harvana-br‚hmana. See Atharva-veda. XV, 11-12.]

(worthy of the appellation) 'guest' comes to him, he shall give him a seat, water, and food, (thinking) 'I give it to a learned Br‚hmana.' Thus (the merit) of his (gift) becomes (as) great (as if a learned Br‚hmana had received it).

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 4, Khanda 8.



1. On the second and following days of the guest's stay, the host shall not rise or descend (from his couch) in order to salute his (guest), if he has been saluted before (on the first day).

2. He shall eat after his guests.

3. He shall not consume all the flavoured liquids in the house, so as to leave nothing for guests.

4. He shall not cause sweetmeats to be prepared for his own sake.

5. (A guest) who can repeat the (whole) Veda (together with the supplementary books) is worthy to receive a cow and the Madhuparka,

6. (And also) the teacher, an officiating priest, a Sn‚taka, and a just king (though not learned in the Veda).

7. A cow and the Madhuparka (shall be offered) to the teacher, to an officiating priest, to a father-in-law, and to a king, if they come after a year has elapsed (since their former visit).

[8. 2. Manu III, 117; Y‚gsh. I, 105.

3. Flavoured liquids, i.e. milk, whey, &c.

4. Manu III, 106.

5. Manu III, 119 and 120; Y‚gsh. I, 110;: Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125. A guest is also called goghna, 'cow-killer,' because formerly a cow used to be killed on the arrival of a distinguished guest. The rite is described by ¬sval‚yana Grihya-sutra I, 24, 31-33.]

8. The Madhuparka shall consist of curds mixed with honey, or of milk mixed with honey.

9. On failure (of these substances) water (mixed with honey may be used).

10. The Veda has six Angas (auxiliary works).

11. (The six auxiliary works are) the Kalpa (teaching the ritual) of the Veda, the treatises on grammar, astronomy, etymology, phonetics, and metrics.

12. (If any one should contend that) the term Veda (on account of its etymology, implying that which teaches duty or whereby one obtains spiritual merit) applies to the complete collection of (works which contain) rules for rites to be performed on the authority of precepts, (that, consequently, the Kalpa-sutras form part of the Veda, and that thereby) the number (fixed above) for those (Angas) is proved to be wrong,

13. (Then we answer), All those who are learned in Mim‚ms‚ are agreed that (the terms Veda, Br‚hmana, and the like, which are applied to) the principal (works), do not include the Angas (the Kalpa-sutras and the rest). he remembers at any time during dinner,

14. If he remembers at any time that he has refused a guest, he shall at once leave off eating and fast on that day,

[8. ¬sval‚yana Grihya-sutra I, 24, 5 and 6.

10. This Sutra explains the term ved‚dhy‚ya, '(a guest) who can repeat the (whole) Veda,' which occurs above, Sutra 5--Haradatta. See Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, P. 111.

12. This Sutra and the following one are directed against those who consider the Kalpa-sutras to be a part of the Veda, the revealed texts. See also Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 95 seq.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 4, Khanda 9.



1. And on the following day (he shall search for himl, feast him to his heart's content, and accompany him (on his departure).

2. (If the guest) possesses a carriage, (he shall accompany him) as far as that.

3. Any other (guest he must accompany), until permission to return is given.

4. If (the guest) forgets (to give leave to depart), the (host) may return on reaching the boundary of his village.

5. To all (those who come for food) at (the end of) the Vaisvadeva he shall give a portion, even to dogs and Kand‚las.

6. Some declare that he shall not give anything to unworthy people (such as Kand‚las).

7. A person who has been initiated shall not eat the leavings of women or of an uninitiated person.

8. All gifts are to be preceded by (pouring out) water.

9. (But gifts offered to priests) at sacrifices (are to be given) in the manner prescribed by the Veda.

10. The division of the food must be made in such a manner that those who receive daily portions (slaves) do not suffer by it.

[9. 1. Y‚gsh. I, 113.

7. After a long discussion on the object of this Sutra, Haradatta comes to the conclusion that it is given 'against the improper custom to dine out of the same vessel with one's wife and uninitiated children, which prevails in some countries.'

8. 'Consequently a gift of food also.' The custom is to pour water, usually with the spoon called DarvÓ (PallÓ), into the extended palm of the recipient's right hand.]

11. At his pleasure, he may stint himself, his wife, or his children, but by no means a slave who does his work.

12. And he must not stint himself so much that he becomes unable to perform his duties.

13. Now they quote also (the following two verses):

'Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic, sixteen that of a hermit living in the woods, thirtytwo that of a householder, and an unlimited quantity that of a student. An Agnihotrin, a. draught-ox, and a student, those three can do their work only if they eat; without eating (much), they cannot do it.'

[13. Manu VI, 28; Y‚gsh. III, 55.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 5, Khanda 10.



1. The reasons for (which) begging (is permissible are), (the desire to collect the fee for) the teacher, (the celebration of) a wedding, (or of) a Srauta-sacrifice, the desire to keep one's father and mother, and the (impending) interruption of ceremonies performed by a worthy man.

2. (The person asked for alms) must examine the qualities (of the petitioner) and give according to his power.

3. But if persons ask for alms for the sake of sensual gratification, that is improper; he shall not take heed of that.

4. The lawful occupations of a Br‚mana are,

[10. 1. Manu IV, 251; XI, 1 seq.; Y‚gsh. I, 2 16. By the term arhat, I a worthy person,' a Br‚hmana is here designated who has studied the Veda and performs an Agnihotra.

4. Manu I, 88; X, 15; Y‚gsh. I, 118.]

studying, teaching, sacrificing for himself, officiating as priest for others, giving alms, receiving alms, inheriting, and gleaning corn in the fields;

5. And (he may live by taking) other things which belong to nobody.

6. (The lawful occupations) of a Kshatriya are the same, with the exception of teaching, officiating as priest, and receiving alms. (But) governing and fighting must be added.

7. (The lawful occupations) of a Vaisya are the same as those of a Kshatriya, with the exception of governing and fighting. (But in his case) agriculture, the tending of cattle, and trade must be added.

8. He (shall) not choose (for the performance of a Srauta-sacrifice) a priest who is unlearned in the Veda, nor one who haggles (about his fee).

9. (A priest) shall not officiate for a person unlearned in the Veda.

10. In war (Kshatriyas) shall act in such a manner as those order, who are learned in that (art of war).

11. The ¬ryas forbid the slaughter of those who have laid down their arms, of those who (beg for mercy) with flying hair or joined hands, and of fugitives.

12. The spiritual guide shall order those who,

[5. I.e. wild roots and fruits.

6. Manu I, 89; X, 77, 79; Y‚gsh. I, 118, 119.

7. Manu I, 90; X, 78, 79; Y‚gsh. loc. cit.

11. Manu VII, 91 seq.; Y‚gsh. 1, 325.

12. Haradatta explains the words S‚strair adhigat‚n‚m, 'who whilst participating, according to the sacred law, (in the rights of their caste,)' by 'who have been sanctified according to the law by the sacraments, such as the Garbh‚dh‚na, and are entitled (to the rights and occupations of their caste).']

(whilst) participating according to sacred law (in the rights of their caste), have gone astray through the weakness of their senses, to perform penances proportionate to (the greatness of) their sins, according to the precepts (of the Smriti).

13. If (such persons) transgress their (¬k‚rya's) order, he shall take thern before the king.

14. The king shall (send them) to his domestic priest, who should be learned in the law and the science of governing.

15. He shall order (them to perform the proper penances if they are) Br‚hmanas.

16. He shall reduce them (to reason) by forcible means, excepting corporal punishment and servitude.

[16. Probably this Sutra is meant to give a general rule, and to exempt Br‚hmanas in every case from corporal punishment and servitude. Manu VIII, 379-380.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 5, Khanda 11.



1. In the cases of (men of) other castes, the king, after having examined their actions, may punish them even by death.

2. And the king shall not punish on suspicion.

3. But having carefully investigated (the case) by means of questions (addressed to witnesses) and even of ordeals, the king may proceed to punish.

4. A king who acts thus, gains both (this and the next) world.

5. The road belongs to the king except if he meets a Br‚hmana.

[11. 3. See also below, II, 11, 29, 6.

5. Manu II, 139; Y‚gn. I, 117. According to Haradatta this Sutra is given, though the precedence among the various castes has been already settled, in order to show that common Kshatriyas must make way for an anointed king.]

6. But if he meets a Br‚hmana, the road belongs to the latter.

7. All must make way for a (laden) vehicle, for a person who carries a burden, for a sick man, for a woman and others (such as old men and infants).

8. And (way must be made), by the other castes, for those men who are superior by caste.

9. For their own welfare all men must make way for fools, outcasts, drunkards, and madmen.

10. In successive births men of the lower castes are born in the next higher one, if they have fulfilled their duties.

11. In successive births men of the higher castes are born in the next lower one, if they neglect their duties.

12. If he has a wife who (is willing and able) to perform (her share of) the religious duties and who bears sons, he shall not take a second.

13. If a wife is deficient in one of these two (qualities), he shall take another, (but) before he kindles the fires (of the Agnihotra).

14. For a wife who assists at the kindling of the fires, becomes connected with those religious rites of which that (fire-kindling) forms a part.

[6. Manu II, 138; Y‚gsh. I, 117.

10. Manu X, 64, 65; Y‚gsh. 1, 96.

12. Maru IX, 95; Y‚gsh. I, 76.

13. Manu IX, 80, 81; Y‚gsh. I, 73.

14. A wife who assists at the kindling of the fires for any sacrificial rite, becomes connected with that rite like any priest, and in that rite no other woman can take her place. Hence in the case of an Agnihotra, which lasts during the performer's lifetime, or at least as long as be is a householder, the performer cannot take another principal wife after be once has begun his sacrifice. If the wife of an Agnihotrin dies, he must inarry again, and also kindle his fires afresh. Manu V, 167, 168; Y‚gsh. I 80.]

15. He shall not give his daughter to a man belonging to the same family (Gotra),

16. Nor to one related (within six degrees) on the mother's or (the father's) side.

17. At the wedding called Br‚hma, he shall give away (his daughter) for bearing children and performing the rites that must be performed together (by a husband and his wife), after having enquired regarding (the bridegroom's) family, character, learning, and health, and after having given (to the bride) ornaments according to his power.

18. At the wedding called Arsha, the bridegroom shall present to the father of the bride a bull and a cow.

19. At the wedding called Daiva, (the father) shall give her to an officiating priest, who is performing a Srauta-sacrifice.

[15. The term Gotra corresponds to the Latin Gens. It may be of two kinds, Vaidika for Br‚hmanas and Laukika, 'worldly', for men of other castes. In the first case it denotes 'persons descended from the same Rishi;' in the second, 'persons distinguished by the same family name, or known to be descended from the same ancestor.' In our days Br‚hmanas also have Laukika Gotras, which form subdivisions of the very large Vedic Gotras. Regarding the Vaidika Gotras, see Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 379-390, and particularly p. 387. Manu III, 5; Y‚gsh. I, 33; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 75 seq.

16. The term yonisambandha, 'related (within six degrees),' corresponds to the more common Sapinda of Manu, Y‚gshavalkya, and others; see the definitions given below, II, 6, 15, 2. In ¬pastamba's terminology Sapinda has probably a more restricted sense. It seems very doubtful whether Haradatta's explanation of ka, translated by 'or,' is correct, and whether his interpolation of 'the father's' ought to be admitted. Probably Sutra 15 refers to the father's side, and Sutra 16 to the mother's side.

17. Manu III, 27; Y‚gsh. I, 58.

18. Manu III, 29; Y‚gsh. I, 59.

19. Manu III, 28; Y‚gsh. I, 59.]

20. If a maiden and a lover unite themselves through love, that is called the G‚ndharva-rite.

[20. Manu III, 32; Y‚gsh. I, 61.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 5, Khanda 12.



1. If the suitor pays money (for his bride) according to his ability, and marries her (afterwards), that (marriage is called) the ¬sura-rite.

2. If the (bridegroom and his friends) take away (the bride), after having overcome (by force) her father (or relations), that is called the R‚kshasa-rite.

3. The first three amongst these (marriage-rites are considered) praiseworthy; each preceding one better than the one following.

4. The quality of the offspring is according to the quality of the marriage-rite.

5. He shall not step on a spot which has been touched by the hand of a Br‚hmana, without having sprinkled it with water.

6. He shall not pass between a fire and a Br‚hmana,

7. Nor between Br‚hmanas.

8. Or he may pass between them after having received permission to do so.

9. He shall not carry fire and water at the same time.

[12. 1. Manu III, 31; Y‚gsh. I, 61. It must be understood that, at this rite, a regular sale of the bride must take place. If a suitor merely gives presents to the bride, that is not an ¬sura-marriage.

2. Manu III, 33; Y‚gsh. I, 61. Haradatta points out that the other law-books enumerate two additional marriage-rites, the Pr‚g‚patya or K‚ya and the Pais‚ka. But Vasishtha I, 29-35, like ¬pastamba, gives six rites only.

3. Manu III, 24, 25; Y‚gsh. I, 58-60.

4. I.e. from praiseworthy marriages virtuous children are born, and from blamable marriages bad ones. Manu III, 42.]

10. He shall not carry fires (burning in) separate (places) to one (spot).

11. If, whilst he walks, fire is being carried towards him, he shall not walk around it with his right hand turned towards it, except after it has been placed on the ground.

12. He shall not join his hands on his back.

13. If the sun sets whilst he sleeps, he shall sit up, fasting and silent, for that night. On the following morning he shall bathe and then raise his voice (in prayer).

14. If the sun rises whilst he is asleep, he shall stand during that day fasting and silent.

15. Some declare that he shall restrain his breath until he is tired.

16. And (he shall restrain his breath until he is tired) if he has had a bad dream,

17. Or if he desires to accomplish some object,

18. Or if he has transgressed some other rule.

19. (If he is) doubtful (whether) the result (of an action will be good or evil), he shall not do it.

20. (He shall follow) the same principle (if he is in doubt whether he ought) to study or not.

21. He shall not talk of a doubtful matter as if it were clear.

22. In the case of a person who slept at sunset, of

[10. Another commentator says, 'He shall not throw (brands taken from) one fire into another fire.'--Haradatta.

11. The Sutra implies that under other circumstances he must show this respect to a fire.

13. Manu II, 220.

18. Manu XI, 200.

21. See above, I, 11, 32, 22.

22. These sinners are, enumerated in nearly the same order, TaittirÓya-br‚hmana III, 2, 8, 11 and 12, and ¬p. Srauta-sutra IX, 12, 11. See also Manu XI, 44-49. Regarding the crimes causing impurity, see above, I, 7, 21, 12-19.]

one who slept at sunrise, of one who has black nails, or black teeth, of one who married a younger sister before the elder one was married, of one who married an elder sister whose younger sister had been married already, (of a younger brother who has kindled the sacred Grihya-fire before his elder brother,) of one whose younger brother has kindled the sacred fire first, (of a younger brother who offers a Soma-sacrifice before his elder brother,) of an elder brother whose younger brother offered a Soma-sacrifice first, of an elder brother who marries or receives his portion of the inheritance after his younger brother, and of a younger brother who takes a wife or receives his portion of the inheritance before his elder brother,-penances ordained for crimes causing impurity, a heavier one for each succeeding case, must be performed.

23. Some declare, that after having performed that penance, he shall remove its cause.

[23. 'Its cause, i.e. the black nails, &c. According to another Smriti, one shall not put away a wife or extinguish a fire, for the taking or kindling of which the penance had to be performed.'--Haradatta. But see Vasishiha XX, 7 seq.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 6, Khanda 13.



1. Sons begotten by a man who approaches in the proper season a woman of equal caste, who has

[13. 1. 'S‚stravihit‚ (translated by "who has been married to him legally") means either "married according to the rites prescribed ia the Sutras," or "possessed of the qualities (which have been described) by (the rule of) the S‚tras, He shall not give his daughter to a man of the same Gotra," and in similar (passages).'Haradatta. See also Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text cxcix.]

not belonged to another man, and who has been married legally, have a right to (follow) the occupations (of their castes),

2. And to (inherit the) estate,

3. If they do not sin against either (of their parents).

4. If a man approaches a woman who had been married before, or was not legally married to him, or, belongs to a different caste, they both commit a sin.

5. Through their (sin) their son also becomes sinful.

6. A Br‚hmana (says), 'The son belongs to the begetter.'

7. Now they quote also (the following G‚th‚ from the Veda): '(Having considered myself) formerly a father, I shall not now allow (any longer) my wives (to be approached by other men), since they have declared that a son belongs to the begetter in the world of Yama. The giver of the seed carries off the son after death in Yama's world; therefore they guard

[3. Another (commentator) says, 'Neither of the parents shall pass them over at (the distribution of) the heritage. Both (parents) must leave their property to them.'--Haradatta. The text of the Sutra admits of either explanation.

6. See also Manu IX, 32 seq., where the same difference of opinion occurs.

7. According to Haradatta this G‚th‚ gives the sentiments of a husband who neglected to watch his wives, and who had heard from those learned in the law that the sons or his unfaithful wives would in the next world belong to their natural fathers, and that be would not derive any spiritual benefit from their oblations. He adds that this verse does not refer to or prevent the appointment of a eunuch's wife or of a childless widow to a relation. He also quotes a passage from the Srauta-sutra 1, 9, 7, in which the dvipiti, 'the son of two fathers,' is mentioned. But Haradatta's view cannot be reconciled with the statements made below, II, 10, 27, 2-7, where the Niyoga, is plainly forbidden. Baudhiyana, who (II, 2, 3, 34) quotes the same G‚th‚, reads in the first line the vocative 'ganaka' instead of the nominative 'ganakah,' and in the fifth line 'pare bÓg‚ni' instead of 'parabÓg‚ni.' The commentator Govindasv‚min adds that the verses are addressed by the Rishi Aupaganghani to king Ganaka of Videha. The translation of the first line must therefore run thus: 'O Ganaka, now I am jealous of my wives, (though I was) not so formerly,' &c. Baudh‚yana's readings are probably the older ones, and Govindasv‚min's explanation the right one. See also Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text ccli.]

their wives, fearing the seed of strangers. Carefully watch over (the procreation of) your children, lest stranger seed be sown on your soil. In the next world the son belongs to the begetter, an (imprudent) husband makes the (begetting of) children vain (for himself).'

8. Transgression of the law and violence are found amongst the ancient (sages).

9. They committed no sin on account of the greatness of their lustre.

10. A man of later times who seeing their (deeds) follows them, falls.

11. The gift (or acceptance of a child) and the right to sell (or buy) a child are not recognised.

12. It is declared in the Veda that at the time of marriage a gift, for (the fulfilment of) his wishes, should be made (by the bridegroom) to the father

[11. Haradatta thinks that, as most other Smritis enumerate the adopted son, and 'the son bought' in their lists of substitutes for lawful sons of the body, ¬pastamba's rule can refer only to the gift or sale of an eldest son, or to the gift or sale of a child effected by a woman. Though it is possible that he mly be right in his interpretation, it remains a remarkable fact that ¬pastamba does not mention the 'twelve kinds of sons,' which are known to other Smritis.

12. This Sutra seems to be directed against Vasishtha I, 36.]

of the bride, in order to fulfil the law. 'Therefore he should give a hundred (cows) besides a chariot; that (gift) he should make bootless (by returning it to the giver).' In reference to those (marriage-rites), the word 'sale' (which occurs in some Smritis is only used as) a metaphorical expression; for the union (of the husband and wife) is effected through the law.

13. After having gladdened the eldest son by some (choice portion of his) wealth,

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 6, Khanda 14.



1. He should, during his lifetime, divide his wealth equally amongst his sons, excepting the eunuch, the mad man, and the outcast.

2. On failure of sons the nearest Sapinda (takes the inheritance).

[14. 1. The last Sutra of Khanda 13 and the first of Khanda 14 are quoted by Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text xlii, and Mit‚kshar‚, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6. Colebrooke translates gÓvan, 'during his lifetime,' by 'who makes a partition during his lifetime.' I think that this is not quite correct, and that ¬pastamba intends to exhort householders to make a division during their lifetime, as later they ought to become ascetics or hermits. Haradatta introduces into his commentary on this Sutra the whole chapter on the division of a father's estate amongst his sons, supplementing ¬pastamba's short rule by the texts of other lawyers. No doubt, ¬pastamba means to lay down, in these and the following Sutras, only the leading principles of the law of inheritance, and he intends that the remaining particulars should be supplied from the law of custom or other Smritis.

2. Haradatta gives in his commentary a full summary of the rules on the succession of remoter relations. One point only deserves special mention. He declares that it is the opinion of ¬pastamba, that widows cannot inherit. In this he is probably right, as ¬pastamba does not mention thern, and the use of the masculine singular 'sapindah' in the text precludes the possibility of including them under that collective term. It seems to me certain, that ¬pastamba, like Baudh‚yana, considered women, especially widows, unfit to inherit.]

3. On failure of them the spiritual teacher (inherits); on failure of the spiritual teacher a pupil shall take (the deceased's wealth), and use it for religious works for the (deceased's) benefit, or (he himself may enjoy it);

4. Or the daughter (may take the inheritance).

5. On failure of all (relations) let the king take the inheritance.

6. Some declare, that the eldest son alone inherits.

7. In some countries gold, (or) black cattle, (or) black produce of the earth is the share of the eldest.

8. The chariot and the furniture in the house are the father's (share).

[4. 'Some say "on failure of sons," others that the rule refers to the preceding Sutra (i.e. that the daughter inherits on failure of pupils only).'--Haradatta. The latter seems to be the correct interpretation.

5. 'Because the word " all " is used, (the king shall take the estate) only on failure of Bandhus and Sagotras, i.e. gentiles within twelve degrees.'--Haradatta.

6. 'The other sons shall live under his protection.'--Haradatta. Colebrooke, Mit‚kshar‚, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6.

7. '"Black produce of the earth," i.e. black grain, or according to others black iron.'--Haradatta. Compare for this and the following Sutras Colebrooke, Mit‚kshar‚, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6, and Digest, Book V, Text xlviii.

8. The translation given above agrees with what I now recognise to be Haradatta's explanation, and with Colebrooke, Mit‚kshar‚, Chap. I, Sect. iii, Par. 6. Both the P. U. and Mr. U. MSS. of the Uggval‚ read rathah pituramso grihe yatparibh‚ndam upakaranam pÓth‚di tadapi, 'the chariot (is) the father's share; the furniture which (is) in the house, that also.' To this reading Mahideva's Uggval‚ on the Hiranyakesi Sutra points likewise, which gives pÓtur antah. The N. U. MS. of the Uggval‚, according to which I made the translation given in the Appendix to West and Biffiler's Digest (ist edition), leaves out the word amsah, and therefore makes it necessary to combine this Sutra, with the preceding one, and to translate, 'The father's chariot and the furniture in the house (are) also (the share of the eldest).' This latter translation agrees nearly with that given by Colebrooke, Digest, Book V, Text xlviii, where this and the preceding Sutra have been joined; but the chariot is not mentioned. A further variation in the interpretation of this Sutra occurs in Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text lxxxix, and Mit‚kshar‚, loc. cit., where the words 'the furniture in the house' are joined with Sutra 9, and the furniture is declared to be the wife's share. Considering that Sutra 9 is again quoted in Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text cccclxxii, and is not joined with the latter part of Sutra 8, it is not too much to say that Gagann‚tha has not shown any greater accuracy than his brethren usually do.]

9. According to some, the share of the wife consists of her ornaments, and the wealth (which she may have received) from her relations.

10. That (preference of the eldest son) is forbidden by the S‚stras.

11. For it is declared in the Veda, without (marking) a difference (in the treatment of the sons): Manu divided his wealth amongst his sons.

12. Now the Veda declares also in conformity with (the rule in favour of the eldest son) alone: They distinguish the eldest by (a larger share of) the heritage.

[9. The Mit‚kshar‚, loc. cit., apparently takes the words 'according to some' as referring only, to property received from relations. I follow Haradatta. The former interpretation is, however, admissible, if the Sutra is split into two.

10. The S‚stras are, according to Haradatta, the Vedas.

11. TaittirÓy‚ Samhit‚ III, 1, 9, 4.

12. 'Ath‚pi (now also) means "and certainly." They distinguish, they set apart the eldest son by wealth: this has been declared in the Veda in conformity with (the rule regarding) one (heir, Sutra 6). He denies (Sutra 13) that a passage also, which agrees with the statement that the eldest son alone inherits, is found in the Veda.'-Haradatta. See TaittirÓy‚ Samhit‚ II, 5, 2, 7.]

13. (But to this plea in favour of the eldest I answer): Now those who are acquainted with the interpretation of the law declare a statement of facts not to be a rule, as for instance (the following): 'Therefore amongst cattle, goats and sheep walk together;' (or the following), 'Therefore the face of a learned Br‚hmana (a Sn‚taka) is, as it were, resplendent;' (or), 'A Br‚hmana who has studied the Vedas (a Srotriya) and a he-goat evince the strongest sexual desires.'

14. Therefore all (sons) who are virtuous inherit.

15. But him who expends money unrighteously, he shall disinherit, though he be the eldest son.

16. No division takes place between husband and wife.

[13. Those who are acquainted with the interpretation of the law are the Mim‚msakas. The translation of the second Vedic passage is by no means certain, as the root ribh, translated by 'to be resplendent,' usually means 'to give a sound.' Haradatta thinks that ¬pastamba means to show that the passage 'Manu divided his wealth among his sons' is likewise merely a statement of facts, and cannot be considered a rule. This is probably erroneous, as Sutras 10 and 11 distinctly state, that the practice to allow the eldest alone to inherit, is forbidden by the abovementioned passage of the Veda.

15. Compare for this Sutra and the following one Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text cccxv. The translation of pratip‚dayati, 'expends,' by 'gains,' which is also proposed by Gagann‚tha, is against ¬pastamba's usage, see II, 5, 11, 17, and below, II, 8, 20, 19.

16. According to Haradatta, this Sutra gives the reason why, in Sutra i, no share has been set apart for the wife. Compare Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text lxxxix, for this Sutra and the following two.]

17. For, from the time of marriage, they are united in religious ceremonies,

18. Likewise also as regards the rewards for works by which spiritual merit is acquired,

19. And with respect to the acquisition of property.

20. For they declare that it is not a theft if a wife spends money on occasions (of necessity) during her husband's absence.

[20. See below, II, 11, 29, 3.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 6, Khanda 15.



1. By this (discussion) the law of custom, which is observed in (particular) countries or families, has been disposed of.

2. On account of the blood relations of his mother and (on account of those) of his father Within six degrees, or, as far as the relationship is traceable, he shall bathe if they die, excepting children that have not completed their first year.

3. On account of the death of the latter the parents alone bathe,

4. And those who bury them.

5. If a wife or one of the chief Gurus (a father or ¬k‚rya) die, besides, fasting (is ordained from the time at which they die) up to the same time (on the following day).

[15. 1. Customs are to be followed only if they are not opposed to the teaching of the Vedas and Smritis.

2. Manu. V, 60; Y‚gsh. I, 53; Manu V, 60; Manu V, 58; Y‚gsh. III, 3.

4. Manu V, 69 and 70.

5. Manu V, 80.]

6. (In that case) they shall also show the (following) signs of mourning:

7. Dishevelling their hair and covering themselves with dust (they go outside the village), and, clothed with one garment, their faces turned to the south, stepping into the river they throw up water for the dead once, and then, ascending (the bank), they sit down.

8. This (they repeat) thrice.

9. They pour out water consecrated in such a manner that the dead will know it (to be given to them). Then they return to the village without looking back, and perform those rites for the dead which (pious) women declare to be necessary.

10. Some declare, that these same (observances) shall also be kept in the case (of the death) of other (Sapindas).

11. At all religious ceremonies, he shall feed Br‚hmanas who are pure and who have (studied and remember) the Veda.

12. He shall distribute his gifts at the proper places, at the proper times, at the occasion of purificatory rites, and to proper recipients.

13. That food must not be eaten of which (no portion) is offered in the fire, and of which no portion is first given (to guests).

[7-9. Y‚gsh. III, 5, 7 seq. The Mantra to be spoken in throwing the water is, 'I give this water to you N. N. of the family of N. N.' The water ought to be mixed with sesamum. According to Haradatta those who know the correct interpretation, declare that the word' women' denotes in this Sutra 'the Smritis.' But I fear these learned interpreters will find few adherents among those who pay attention to the last Sutra of this work.

11. Manu III, 128.

12.Manu III, 98.]

14. No food mixed with pungent condiments or salt can be offered as a burnt-offering.

15. Nor (can food) mixed with bad food (be used for a burnt-oblation).

16. If (he is obliged to offer) a burnt-offering of food unfit for that purpose, he shall take hot ashes from the northern part of his fire and offer the food in that. That oblation is no oblation in the fire.

17. A female shall not offer any burnt-oblation,

18. Nor a child, that has not been initiated.

19. Infants do not become impure before they receive the sacrament called Annapr‚sana (the first feeding).

20. Some (declare, that they cannot become impure) until they have completed their first year,

21. Or, as long as they cannot distinguish the points of the horizon.

22. The best (opinion is, that they cannot be defiled) until the initiation has been performed.

23. For at that (time a child) according to the rules of the Veda obtains the right (to perform the various religious ceremonies).

[14. 'That (substance) is called kshira, "of pungent or alkaline taste," the eating of which makes the saliva flow.'--Haradatta.

15. Avar‚nna, 'bad food,' is explained by 'kulittha and the like.' Kulittha, a kind of vetch, is considered low food, and eaten by the lower castes only. The meaning of the Sutra, therefore, is, 'If anybody has been forced by poverty to mix his rice or D‚l with kulittha or similar bad food, he cannot offer a burnt-oblation at the Vaisvadeva ceremony with that. He must observe the rule, given in the following Sutra.

17. Manu V, 155; XI, 36.

18. Manu II, 171.]

24. That ceremony is the limit (from which the capacity to fulfil the law begins).

25. And the Smriti (agrees with this opinion).

[25. Haradatta quotes Gautama II, 1-3, on this point, and is apparently of opinion that ¬pastamba alludes to the same passage. But he is probably wrong, as all Smritis are agreed on the point mentioned by ¬pastamba.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 7, Khanda 16.



1. Formerly men and gods lived together in this world. Then the gods in reward of their sacrifices went to heaven, but men were left behind. Those men who perform sacrifices in the same manner as the gods did, dwell (after death) with the gods and Brahman in heaven. Now (seeing men left behind), Manu revealed this ceremony, which is designated by the word Sr‚ddha (a funeral-oblation).

2. And (thus this rite has been revealed) for the salvation of mankind.

3. At that (rite) the Manes (of one's father, grandfather, and great-grand father) are the deities (to whom the sacrifice is offered). But the Br‚hmanas, (who are fed,) represent the Ahavantya-fire.

4. That rite must be performed in each month.

[16. 1. 'Intending to give the rules regarding the monthly Shriddha, he premises this explanatory statement in order to praise that sacrifice.'-Haradatta.

2. The reading 'nihsreyas‚ ka' apparently has given great trouble to the commentators. Their explanations are, however, grammatically impossible. The right one is to take 'nihsreyas‚ as a Vedic instrumental, for nihsreyasena, which may designate the 'reason'. If the dative is read, the sense remains the same.

3. 'The comparison of the Br‚hmanas with the ¬havanÓya indicates that to feed Br‚hmanas is the chief act at a Sr‚ddha.'--Haradatta.

4. Manu III, 122, 123; Y‚gsh. I, 217.]

5. The afternoon of (a day of) the latter half is preferable (for it).

6. The last days of the latter half (of the month) likewise are (preferable to the first days).

7. (A funeral-oblation) offered on any day of the latter half of the month gladdens the Manes. But it procures different rewards for the sacrificer according to the time observed.

8. If it be performed on the first day of the half-month, the issue (of the sacrificer) will chiefly consist of females.

9. (Performed on the second day it procures) children who are free from thievish propensities.

10. (If it is performed) on the third day children will be born to him who will fulfil the various vows for studying (portions of the Veda).

11. (The sacrificer who performs it) on the fourth day becomes rich in small domestic animals.

12. (If he performs it) on the fifth day, sons (will be born to him). He will have numerous and distinguished offspring, and he will not die childless.

13. (If he performs it) on the sixth day, he will become a great traveller and gambler.

14. (The reward of a funeral-oblation performed) on the seventh day is success in agriculture.

15. (If he performs it) on the eighth day (its reward is) prosperity

16. (If he performs it) on the ninth day (its reward consists in) one-hoofed animals.

[5. Manu III, 255, 278.

7. Manu III, 277; Y‚gsh. I, 264, 265.

12. The translation follows the corrected reading given in the Addenda to the Critical Notes.]

17. (If he performs it) on the tenth day (its reward is) success in trade.

18. (If he performs it) on the eleventh day (its reward is) black iron, tin, and lead.

19. (If he performs a funeral-oblation) on the twelfth day, he will become rich in cattle.

20. (If he performs it) on the thirteenth day, he will have many sons (and) many friends, (and) his offspring will be beautiful. But his (sons) will die young.

21. (If he performs it) on the fourteenth day (its reward is) success in battle.

22. (If he performs it) on the fifteenth day (its reward is) prosperity.

23. The substances (to be offered) at these (sacrifices) are sesamum, m‚sha, rice, yava, water, roots, and fruits.

24. But, if food mixed with fat (is offered), the satisfaction of the Manes is greater, and (lasts) a longer time,

25. Likewise, if money, lawfully acquired, is given to worthy (persons).

26. Beef satisfies (the Manes) for a year,

[20. Others read the last part of the Sutra, ayuvam‚rmas-tu bhavanti, 'they will not die young'--Haradatta. If the two halves of the Sutra are joined and DarsanÓy‚patyoyuvam‚rinah is read, the Sandhi may be dissolved in either manner.

21. Manu III, 276, and Y‚gsh. I, 263, declare the fourteenth day to be unfit for a Sr‚ddha, and the latter adds that Sr‚ddhas for men killed in battle may be offered on that day. This latter statement explains why ¬pastamba declares its reward to be 'success in battle.' The nature of the reward shows that on that day Kshatriyas, not Br‚hmanas, should offer their Sr‚ddhas.

23. Manu III, 267; Y‚gsh. I, 257.

26. Manu III, 271.]

27. Buffalo's (meat) for a longer (time) than that.

28. By this (permission of the use of buffalo's meat) it has been declared that the meat of (other) tame and wild animals is fit to be offered.

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 7, Khanda 17.



1. (If) rhinoceros' meat (is given to Br‚hmanas seated) on (seats covered with) the skin of a rhinoceros, (the Manes are satisfied) for a very long time.

2. (The same effect is obtained) by (offering the) flesh (of the fish called) Satabali,

3. And by (offering the) meat of the (crane called) V‚rdhr‚nasa.

4. Pure, with composed mind and full of ardour, he shall feed Br‚hmanas who know the Vedas, and who are not connected with him by marriage, blood relationship, by the relationship of sacrificial priest and sacrificer, or by the relationship of (teacher and) pupil.

5. If strangers are deficient in the (requisite) good qualities, even a full brother who possesses them, may be fed (at a Sr‚ddha).

6. (The admissibility of) pupils (and the rest) has been declared hereby.

7. Now they quote also (in regard to this matter the following verse):

8. The food eaten (at a sacrifice) by persons related to the giver is, indeed, a gift offered to the goblins. It reaches neither the Manes nor the

[17. 1. Manu III, 272; Y‚gsh. I, 259.

2. Manu V, 16, where Rohita is explained by Satabali.

4. Manu III, 128-138, and 149, 188; Y‚gsh. I, 225.

8. See Manu III, 141, where this Trishtubh has been turned into an Anushtubh.]

gods. Losing its power (to procure heaven), it errs about in this world as a cow that has lost its calf runs into a strange stable.

9. The meaning (of the verse) is, that gifts which are eaten (and offered) mutually by relations, (and thus go) from one house to the other, perish in this world.

10. If the good qualities (of several persons who might be invited) are equal, old men and (amongst these) poor ones, who wish to come, have the preference.

11. On the day before (the ceremony) the (first) invitation (must be issued).

12. On the following day the second invitation takes place.

13. (On the same day also takes place) the third invitation (which consists in the call to dinner).

14. Some declare, that every act at a funeral sacrifice must be repeated three times.

15. As (the acts are performed) the first time, so they must be repeated) the second and the third times.

16. When all (the three oblations) have been

[11. Manu III, 187; Y‚gsh. I, 225. According to Haradatta the formula of invitation is, Svah sr‚ddham bhavit‚, tatr‚havanÓy‚rthe bhavadbhih pras‚de kartavya iti, 'to-morrow a Sr‚ddha will take place. Do me the favour to take at that the place of the ¬havanÓya-fire.'

12. The formula is, Adya sr‚ddham, 'to-day the Sr‚ddha takes place.'

13. The call to dinner is, Siddham ‚gamyatim, 'the food is ready; come.'

16. ¬pastamba Grihya-sutra VIII, 2 1, 9. 'He shall eat it pronouncing the Mantra, "Pr‚ne nivishtosmritam guhomi."' Taitt. ¬r. X, 34, 1.]

offered, he shall take a portion of the food of all (three), and shall eat a small mouthful of the remainder in the manner described (in the Grihyasutra).

17. But the custom of the Northerners is to pour into the hands of the Br‚hmanas, when they are seated on their seats, (water which has been taken from the water-vessel.)

18. (At the time of the burnt-offering which is offered at the beginning of the dinner) he addresses the Br‚hmanas with this Mantra: 'Let it be taken out, and let it be offered in the fire.'

19. (They shall give their permission with this Mantra): 'Let it be taken out at thy pleasure, let it be offered in the fire at thy pleasure.' Having received this permission, he shall take out (some of the prepared food) and offer it.

20. They blame it, if dogs and Apapitras are allowed to see the performance of a funeral-sacrifice.

21. The following persons defile the company if they are invited to a funeral-sacrifice, viz. a leper, a bald man, the violator of another man's bed, the son of a Br‚hmana who follows the profession of a Kshatriya, and the son of (a Br‚hmana who by marrving first a Sudra wife had himself become) a Sudra, born from a Br‚hmana woman.

[17. The North of India begins to the north of the river Sar‚vati. The rule alluded to is given by Y‚gsh. I. 226, 229, Manu III, 2 10.

18. Y‚gsh. I, 235. 20. Manu III. 239.

21. Manu III, 152-166, and particularly 153 and 154 Y‚gsh. I. 222-224. Haradatta's explanation of the word - 'Sudra' by 'a Br‚hmana who has become a Sudra' is probably not because the son of a real Sudra and of a Br‚hmana female is a Ksad‚la and has been disposed of by the preceding Sutra.]

22. The following persons sanctify the company if they eat at a funeral-sacrifice, viz. one who has studied the three verses of the Veda containing the word 'Madhu,' each three times; one who has studied the part of the Veda containing the word 'Suparna' three times; a Trin‚kiketa; one who has studied the Mantras required for the four sacrifices (called Asvamedha, Purushamedha, Sarvamedha, and Pitrimedha); one who keeps five fires; one who knows the S‚man called Gyeshtha; one who fulfils the cluty of daily study; the son of one who has studied and is able to teach the whole Veda with its Angas, and a Srotriya.

23. He shall not perform (any part of) a funeral sacrifice at night.

24. After having begun (a funeral-sacrifice), he shall not eat until he has finished it.

25. (He shall not perform a funeral-sacrifice at

[22. Compare Manu III, 185, 186; Y‚gsh. I, 219-221. The three verses to be known by a Trimadhu are, Madhu v‚t‚ rit‚yate, &c., which occur both in the Taitt. Samh. and in the Taitt. ¬r. The explanation of Trisuparna is not certain. Haradatta thinks that it may mean either a person who knows the three verses Katuslikapard‚ yuvatih supes‚, &c., TaittirÓya-br‚hmana I, 2, 1, 27, &c., or one who knows the three Anuv‚kas from the TaittirÓya kranyaka X, 48-50, beginning, Brahmarnetu mim, &c. The word 'Trin‚kiketa' has three explanations:-a. A person who knows the N‚kiketa-fire according to the TaittirÓyaka, Kathavalli, and the Satapatha, i.e. has studied the portions on the Nikiketa-fire in these three books. b. A person who has thrice kindled the Nikiketa-fire. c. A person who has studied the Anuv‚ka, called Viragas. Katurmedha may also mean 'one who has performed the four sacrifices' enumerated above.

23. Manu III, 280.

24. 'The Sr‚ddha is stated to begin with the first invitation to the Brahmans.'--Haradatta.

25. 'The Northerners do not generally receive this Sutra, and therefore former commentators have not explained it.'--Haradatta.]

night), except if an eclipse of the moon takes place.

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 8, Khanda 18.



1. He shall avoid butter, butter-milk, oil-cake, honey, meat.

2. And black grain (Such as kulittha), food given by Sudras, or by other persons, whose food is not considered fit to be eaten.

3. And food unfit for oblations, speaking an untruth, anger, and (acts or words) by which he might excite anger. He who desires a (good) memory, fame, wisdom, heavenly bliss, and prosperity, shall avoid these twelve (things and acts);

4. Wearing a dress that reaches from the navel to the knees, bathing morning, noon, and evening, living on food that has not been cooked at a fire, never seeking the shade, standing (during the day), and sitting (during the night), he shall keep this vow for one year. They declare, that (its merit) is equal to that of a studentship continued for forty-eight years.

5. (Now follows) the daily funeral-oblation.

6, Outside the village pure (men shall) prepare (the food for that rite) in a pure place.

[18. 1. Sutras 1-4 contain rules for a vow to be kept for the special objects mentioned in Sutras 3 and 4 for one year only Haradatta (on Sutra 4) says that another commentator thinks that Sutras 1-3 prescribe one vow, and Sutra 4 another, and that the latter applies both to householders and students. A passage front Baudh‚yana is quoted in support of this latter view.

5. Manu III, 82 seq.

6. The term ' pure (men) ' is used in order to indicate that they must be so particularly, because, by II, 2, 3, 11, purity has already been prescribed for cooks.]

7. New vessels are, used for that,

8. In which the food is prepared, and out of which it is eaten.

9. And those (vessels) he shall present to the (Br‚hmanas) who have been fed.

10. And he shall feed (Br‚hmanas) possessed of all (good qualities).

11. And he shall hot give the residue (of that funeral-dinner) to one who is inferior to them in good qualities.

12. Thus (he shall act every day) during a year.

13. The last of these (funeral-oblations) he shall perform, offering a red goat.

14. And let him cause an altar to be built, concealed (by a covering and outside the village).

15. Let him feed the Br‚hmanas on the northern half of that.

16. They declare, that (then) he sees both the Br‚hmanas who eat and the Manes sitting on the altar.

17. After that he may offer (a funeral-sacrifice once a month) or stop altogether.

18. For (by appearing on the altar) the Manes signify that they are satisfied by the funeral offering.

19. Under the constellation Tishya he who desires prosperity,

[7. For the unusual meaning of dravya, 'vessel,' compare the term sÓt‚dravy‚ni, 'implements of husbandry,'--Manu IX, 293, and the Petersburg Dict. s. v.

13. The red goat is mentioned as particularly fit for a Sr‚ddha, Y‚gsh. I, 259, and Manu III, 272.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 8, Khanda 19.



1. Shall cause to be prepared powder of white mustard-seeds, cause his hands, feet, ears, and mouth to be rubbed with that, and shall eat (the remainder). If the wind does not blow too violently, he shall eat sitting, silent and his face turned towards the south, on a seat (facing the) same (direction)the first alternative is the skin of a he-goat.

2. But they declare, that the life of the mother of that person who eats at this ceremony, his face turned in that direction, will be shortened.

3. A vessel of brass, the centre of which is gilt, is best (for this occasion).

4. And nobody else shall eat out of that vessel.

5. He shall make a lump of as much (food) as he can swallow (at once).

6. (And he shall) not scatter anything (on the ground).

7. He shall not let go the vessel (with his left hand);

8. Or he may let it go.

[19. 1. The ceremony which is here described, may also be performed daily. If the reading pr‚sya is adopted, the translation must run thus: 'and he shall scatter (the remainder of the powder). If the wind,' &c.

2. 'Therefore those whose mothers are alive should not perform this ceremony.'--Haradatta.

4. If the masculine bhoktavyah is used instead of bhoktavyam, the participle must be construed with kamasah.

5. The verbum finitum, which according to the Sanskrit text ought to be taken with the participle samnayan, is grasÓta, Sutra 9.

8. 'Why is this second alternative mentioned, as (the first Sutra) suffices? True. But according to the maxim that "restrictions are made on account of the continuance of an action once begun," the meaning of this second Sutra is that he shall continue to the end to handle the vessel (in that manner in which) he has handled it when eating for the first time.'--Haradatta.]

9. He shall swallow the whole mouthful at once, introducing it, together with the thumb, (into the mouth.)

10. He shall make no noise with his mouth (whilst eating).

11. And he shall not shake his right hand (whilst eating).

12. After he (has eaten and) sipped water, he shall raise his hands, until the water has run off (and they have become dry).

13. After that he shall touch fire.

14. And (during this ceremony) he shall not eat in the day-time anything but roots and fruit.

15. And let him avoid Sth‚lÓp‚ka-offerings, and food offered to the Manes or to the Gods.

16. He shall eat wearing his upper garment over his left shoulder and under his right arm.

17. At the (monthly) Sr‚ddha which must necessardy be performed, he must use (food) mixed with fat.

18. The first (and preferable) alternative (is to employ) clarified butter and meat.

19. On failure (of these), oil of sesamum, vegetables, and (similar materials may be used).

20. And under the asterism Magh‚ he shall feed the Br‚hmanas more (than at other times) with (food mixed with) clarified butter, according to the rule of the Sr‚ddha.

[16. Haradatta remarks that some allow, according to II, 2, 4, 22, the sacred thread to be substituted, and others think that both the thread and the garment should be worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 8, Khanda 20.



1. At,every monthly Sr‚ddha he shall use, in whatever manner he may be able, one drona of sesarnum.

2. And he shall feed Br‚hmanas endowed with all (good qualities), and they shall not give the fragments (of the food) to a person who does not possess the same good qualities (as the Br‚hmanas).

3. He who desires prosperity shall fast in the half of the year when the sun goes to the north, under the constellation Tishya, in the first half of the month, for (a day and) a night at least, prepare a Sth‚lip‚ka-offering, offer burnt-oblations to Kubera (the god of riches), feed a Br‚hmana with that (food prepared for the Sth‚lip‚ka) mixed with clarified butter, and make him wish prosperity with (a Mantra) implying prosperity.

4. This (rite he shall repeat) daily until the next Tishya(-day).

5. On the second (Tishya-day and during the second month he shall feed) two (Br‚hmanas).

6. On the third (Tishya-day and during the third month he shall feed) three (Br‚hmanas).

7. In this manner (the Tishya-rite is to be performed) for a year, with a (monthly) increase (of the number of Br‚hmanas fed).

[20. 1. A drona equals 128 seers or seras. The latter is variously reckoned at 1-3 lbs.

3. The reason why the constellation Tishya has been chosen for this rite seems to be that Tishya has another name, Pushya, i.e. 'prosperous'. This sacrifice is to begin on the Tishya-day of the month called Taisha or Pausba (December-January), and to continue for one year.]

8. (Thus) he obtains great prosperity.

9. But the fasting takes place on the first (Tishya-day) only.

10. He shall avoid to eat those things which have lost their strength (as butter-milk, curds, and whey).

11. He shall avoid to tread on ashes or husks of grain.

12. To wash one foot with the other, or to place one foot on the other,

13. And to swing his feet,

14. And to place one leg crosswise over the knee (of the other),

15. And to make his nails

16. Or to make (his finger-joints) crack without a (good) reason,

17. And all other (acts) which they blame.

18. And let him acquire money in all ways that are lawful.

19. And let him spend money on worthy (persons or objects).

20. And let him not give anything to an unworthy (person), of whom he does not stand in fear.

21. And let him conciliate men (by gifts or kindness).

22. And he may enjoy the pleasures which are not forbidden by the holy law.

23. (Acting) thus he conquers both worlds.

[11. Manu IV, 7 8.

16. 'Good reasons for cracking the joints are fatigue or rheumatism.'--Haradatta.

19. Manu XI, 6, and passim.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 9, Khanda 21.



I. There are four orders, viz. the order of householders, the order of students, the order of ascetics, and the order of hermits in the woods.

2. If he lives in all these four according to the rules (of the,law), without allowing himself to be disturbed (by anything), he will obtain salvation.

3. The duty to live in the teacher's house after the initiation is common to all of them.

4. Not to abandon sacred learning (is a duty common) to all.

5. Having learnt the rites (that are to be performed in each order), he may perform what he wishes.

6. Worshipping until death (and living) according to the rule of a (temporary) student, a (professed) student may leave his body in the house of his teacher.

7. Now (follow the rules) regarding the ascetic (Samny‚sin).

8. Only after (having fulfilled) the duties of that (order of students) he shall go forth (as an ascetic), remaining chaste.

[21. 1. 'Though four (orders) are enumerated, he uses the word "four," lest, in the absence of a distinct rule of the venerable teacher, one order only, that of the householder, should be allowed, as has been taught in other Smritis.'--Haradatta. Manu VI, 87.

2. Manu VI, 88.

3. Manu II, 247-249, and above.

8. The meaning of the Sutra is, that the studentship is a necessary preliminary for the Samny‚sin. If a man considers sufficiently purified by his life in that order, he may become a Samny‚sin immediately after its completion. Otherwise he may first become a householder, or a hermit, and enter the last order, when his passions are entirely extinct. See also Manu VI, 36; Y‚gsh. III, 56-57.]

9. For him (the Samnyasin) they prescribe the following rules).

10. He shall live without a fire, without a house, Without pleasures, without protection. Remaining silent and uttering speech only on the occasion of the daily recitation of the Veda, begging so much food only in the village as will sustain his life, he shall wander about neither caring for thisworld nor for heaven.

11. It is ordained that he shall wear clothes thrown away (by others as useless).

12. Some declare that he shall go naked.

13. Abandoning truth and falsehood, pleasure and pain, the Vedas, this world and the next, he shall seek the ¬tman.

14. (Some say that) he obtains salvation if he knows (the ¬tman).

15. (But) that (opinion) is opposed to the S‚stras.

16. (For) if salvation were obtained by the knowledge of the ¬tman alone, then he ought not to feel any pain even in this (world).

17. Thereby that which follows has been declared.

[10. Manu VI, 33, 42-45; Y‚gsh. III, 58 seq.

12. 'Another (commentator) says, "Some declare that he is free from all injunctions and prchibitions, i.e. he need neither perform nor avoid any (particular actions),"'--Haradatta.

13. 'He shall seek, i.e. worship, the ¬tman or Self, which has been described in the section on transcendental knowledge (I, 8).'--Haradatta.

15. Haradatta apparently takes the word S‚stras to mean 'Dharmas‚stras.

17. 'That which follows' are the Yogas, which must be employed in order to cause the annihilation of pain, after the knowledge of the ¬tman or Self has been obtained.]

18. Now (follow the rules regarding) the hermit living in the woods.

19. Only after (completing) that (studentship) he shall go forth, remaining chaste.

20. For him they give (the following rules):

21. he shall keep one fire only, have no house, enjoy no pleasures, have no protector, observe silence, uttering speech on the occasion of the daily recitation of the Veda only.

[21. 'But which is that one fire? Certainly not the Grihya-fire, because he must remain chaste. Therefore the meaning intended is, "He shall offer a Samidh morn and evening in the common fire, just as formerly, (during his studentship)." Another commentator says, "Gautama declares that he shall kindle a fire according to the rule of the Sr‚manaka Sutra. The Sr‚manaka Sutra is the Vaikhanasa Sutra. Having kindled a fire in the manner prescribed there, he shall sacrifice in it every morning and every evening."'--Haradatta. See also Manu VI, 4; Y‚gsh. III, 45.]

¬pastamba Prasna II, Patala 9, Khanda 22.



1. A dress of materials procured in the woods (skins or bark) is ordained for him.

2. Then he shall wander about, sustaining his life by roots, fruits, leaves, and grass.

3. In the end (he shall live on) what has become detached spontaneously.

4. Next he shall live on water, (then) on air, then on ether.

5. Each following one of these modes of subsistence is distinguished by a (greater) reward.

6. Now some (teachers) enjoin for the hermit the

[22. 1. Manu VI, 6.

2. Manu VI, 5, 21; Y‚gsh. III, 46.

4. 'Then he shall live on ether, i.e. eat nothing at all.'--Haradatta. Manu VI, 31; Y‚gsh. III, 55.]

successive performance (of the acts prescribed for the several orders).

7. After having finished the. study of the Veda, having taken a wife and kindled the sacred fires, he shall begin the rites, which end with the Soma-sacrifices, (performing) as many as are prescribed in the revealed texts.

8. (Afterwards) he shall build a dwelling, and dwell outside the village with his wife, his children, and his fires,

9. Or (he may live) alone.

10. He shall support himself by gleaning corn.

11. And after that he shall not any longer take presents.

12. And he shall sacrifice (only) after having bathed (in the following manner):

13. He shall enter the watter slowly, and bathe without beating it (with his hand), his face turned towards the sun.

14. This rule of bathing is valid for all (castes and orders).

15. Some enjoin (that he shall prepare) two sets of utensils for cooking and eating, (and) of choppers, hatchets, sickles, and mallets.

[6. 'The word atha, "now," introduces a different opinion. Above, it has been declared that the life in the woods (may be begun) after the studentship only. But some teachers enjoin just for that hermit a successive performance of the acts.

8. Manu VI, 3 seq.; Y‚gsh. III, 45.

10. Haradatta thinks that this rule refers both to the hermit who lives with his family and to him who lives alone. Others refer it to the latter only.

15. According to Haradatta, the word k‚ga appears to designate a 'mallet;' in the passage from the R‚m‚yana quoted in the Petersburg Dict. the commentator explains it by petaka, 'basket.']

16. He shall take one of each pair (of instruments), give the others (to his wife), and (then) go into the forest.

17. After that time (he shall perform) the burnt-oblations, (sustain) his life, (feed) his guests, and (prepare) his clothes with materials produced in the forest.

18. Rice must be used for those sacrifices for which cakes mixed with meat (are employed by the householder).

19. And all (the Mantras), as well as the daily portion of the Veda, (must be recited) inaudibly.

20. He shall not make the inhabitants of the forest hear (his recitation).

21. (He shall have) a house for his fire (only).

22. He himself (shall live) in the open air.

23. His couch and seat, must not be covered (with mats).

24. If he obtains fresh grain, he shall throw away the old (store).

[17. Y‚gsh. III, 46.