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 By excessively cruel punishment, (the ruler) becomes hated by all.


Prosperity abandons one who is satisfied with wealth.


An enemy should be won over by the use of political science.


Practising political science,  the ruler protects the people


The sceptre links one to riches.


In the absence of the sceptre, there are no ministers.


 Due to (fear of) the punishing rod,  people do not do things which  should not be done.


One's self-protection is dependent on the practice of political  science.


 In self-protection, all are protected.


Advancement and decay are dependent on oneself.


The sceptre should be wielded wisely.


 A ruler, even if weak should not be despised.


 Fire has no weakness.


All activity is understood in wielding the sceptre.


 Acquisition of wealth has its root in activity.


Righteousness and pleasures have their root in wealth.


Work is the root of wealth.


A little effort accomplishes the task.


A task in which an expedient is used is not difficult to achieve.


If no expedient is used,   a task,  even if attempted, fails.


Expedient is the aid to those who seek success  in undertakings.


A task attains its objective through human effort.


 Fortune follows human effort.


Without God's grace, even excessive effort proves fruitless.


One who is not calm and collected cannot accomplish tasks.


One should decide first and then commence the task.


There should be no delay in the undertaking of a new task after  completing one.


The fickle-minded one does not accomplish tasks.


 If what is obtained is despised, things go awry.


Flawless jobs are rare.


 A work which is ^bstacle-ridden should not be started.


One who knows the (opportune) time accomplishes the task.


 Due to lapse of time, time itself consumes the fruit.


In all tasks, one should not delay even for a moment.


One should commence a work after understanding the country and  the consequences.


Without God's grace, even an easy task becomes difficult to  accomplish.


The wise one should consider the (interests) of the country and the  times.


Prosperity lasts long for one who acts after proper consideration,


 All types of riches should be amassed by all means.


Prosperity forsakes even a lucky one, if he acts without foresight.


Exam nation (of a thing) should be done with reference to what is  known and what is to be inferred.


Every one should be yoked to the task for which he is befitted.


The one who knows the means makes the impossible possible.

 What is done by an unintelligent person should not be rated high.


Sometimes, due to fortuitous circumstances even a worm  assumes different forms.


Only accomplished deeds should be publicised.


Even the affairs of the learned go awry due to defective destiny and  human interference.


Destiny has to be counteracted through propitiatory deeds.


 Man-made obstacles should be overcome through one's skill.


When things get into difficulties, the childish describe the  handicaps.


Those who seek to achieve things should show no mercy.


 The milk-seeking calf strikes at the mother's udders.


Due to lack of effort tasks fail.


Those who blindly believe in destiny do not achieve anything.


An inactive person cannot protect those who seek refuge in him.


 He who does not see action is blind.



Things should be examined with reference to facts patent and  latent, and inferences.


Prosperity forsakes one who does things without proper  examination.


Danger should be overcome after proper analysis.


One should begin a venture after assessing one's strength.


He feeds on nectar, who first feeds his people and then eats the  left-overs.


By undertaking all kinds of activities, the ways to profit develop.


The coward does not think of action.


The favour-seeker accomplishes his end after knowing the nature of  his master.


The one who knows the cows' nature gets the milk.


A good one  should not reveal a secret to a mean one.


The soft-natured one is disregarded even by those dependent on  him.


The one who metes out severe punishment creates agitation in  everyone.


 Apt punishment should be meted out.


 A weak (ruler), even if learned,  is not respected by people.


Excessive burden overpowers a person.


He who speaks of other's  faults in an assembly proclaims his own  defect.


One who cannot control himself is destroyed by his anger'.


Nothing is unattainable by the truthful.


Rashness does not accomplish tasks.


The one troubled by calamities forgets them the moment they  disappear.


When opportunities are lost, obstacles definitely arise.


Doubtful ruin is better than definite ruin.


Custody of others' riches is undertaken purely out of selfishness.


Donation is righteousness.


The opposite (that is non-donation) forebodes disaster, like wealth  of the ignoble.


 That which does not increase virtue and wealth is lust.


Acting against virtue and wealth is courting disaster.


Honest and upright people are rare.


The virtuous one despises prosperity attained through ignominy.


A single defect overshadows many qualities.


Rash aggression should not be committed against a great and  noble enemy.


The bounds of good conduct should never be crossed.


The lion, even if hungry, does not graze grass.


Trust should be kept even by sacrificing one's life.


 A slanderous listener is forsaken even by his wife and children.



Meaningful words, even from a child, should be listened to.


That which will not he believed,  even if it is iiuih, should not be  spoken.


Many qualities are not to be overlooked for a minor defect.


Faults are common even among the learned.


There is no unbroken diamond.


Excessive courtesy should never be trusted.


In the case of an enemy, even a good gesture becomes harmful.


Even  while  bending,  the  mouth  of the  pitcher depletes the water  in the well.


One should not act against the advice of the good.


Through the association of the good, even one without virtue  becomes virtuous.


Water mixed with milk becomes milk.


Even a lump of earth can produce the smell of the trumpet flower.


Silver in contact with gold becomes golden.


The foolish wish to do harm to those who do good. Evil doers are  not afraid of criticism.


The enthusiastic ones win over even enemies.


 Valour is the wealth of rulers.


A lazy one cannot attain happiness in this world or the other


Due to lack of effort, fortune fails.


Utilisable resources should be captured, as the   fisherman catches  fish from water.


The untrustworthy should not be trusted.


Poison is always poison.


In the acquisition of wealth, the association of enemies should be  avoided.


Even after wealth  has been acquired, an enemy should not be  trusted.


 A permanent relationship is dependent on wealth.


A friend, even if he be the enemy's son, should be protected.


Till the enemy's weakness is known, he should be kept on friendly  terms.


An enemy should be struck at his weak point.


One's weakness should not be revealed.


Enemies strike at weak spots.


Even a captured enemy should not be trusted.


Wrongful activities of one's people should be stopped.


The disgrace of one's people brings sorrow to the noble-minded.


The defect in one limb ruins a man.


Good behaviour wins even an enemy.


The low-minded are fond of deception.


The low-minded should not be given good advice.


They (the low-minded) should never be trusted.


The evil one harms, even if treated well.


The forest fire burns even trees like sandalwood.


 No one should ever be disrespected.


One who is to be pardoned should not be harassed.


The foolish wish to speak out what was spoken in secret by the  master.


 Love is indicated by its fruit.


 A command (order) (of the ruler) should result in prosperity.


The foolish give what is-to be given with great difficulty.


Even after attaining great prosperity, the one without fortitude  perishes.


The one without fortitude does not enjoy anything either materially or  spiritually.


Don't associate with bad people.


Even milk in the hands of a drunkard acquires disrepute.


Intellect is that which can decide on action in difficulties.


Moderate eating is healthy.


In indigestion,  no food (wholesome or otherwise) should be taken.


Disease does not touch one who digests his food.


In an old body, a growing disease should not be neglected.


Eating is painful in indigestion.


Disease excels an enemy.


Donation follows wealth.


It is easy to deceive the clever and the greedy.


Greed clouds the intellect.


When the tasks are great, abundant rewards should be made the  incentive.


Secret tasks should be scrutinised by oneself.


With fools daring should be controlled


 Don't debate with fools.


Speak like a fool to a fool.


Iron should be cut by iron.


The unintelligent have no companions.


The world is borne by righteousness.


Vice and virtue pursue even the departed spirit.


Kindness is the mother of righteousness.


Truth and chaiity are the roots of righteousness.


One can conquer the worlds with righteousness.


 Even death protects the righteous.


Where a sinful act contrary to righteousness is propagated, great  disregard of righteousness is propagated.


The state of those about  to perish is seen through their appearance  and deeds.


The evil intellect suggests self-destruction.


Slander mongers will not keep secrets.


Don't listen to others' secrets.


It is not proper for a ruler to be an agent.



One should not disrespect one's people.


Even a mother, if cruel, has to be given up.


 One's own hand, if poisoned, has to be cut off,


A benefactor, even if he be a foreigner, is a kinsman.


Medicine can be extracted even from dry grass.


Thieves should not be trusted.


Easy tasks should not be neglected.


Even a small weakness creates trouble.


One should earn wealth as if one is immortal.


The wealthy are respected by all.


The world  does not  respect  one without riches, even if he be Indra  (the king of gods).


Poverty is death, while living.


Even an ugly one, if rich, is considered  handsome.


The aid-seekers do not give up the rich one, even if he be not a  donor.


Even a low born, if rich, will be  deemed superior to the high born.


The ignoble have no fear of shame.


The intelligent have no fear about their livelihood.


Those who have controlled their senses are not afraid of sensual  objects.


The contented have no fear of death.


The good one considers others  weaith as his own.


One should not be desirous of others' prosperity.


Desire for others' prosperity is the root of destruction.


Another's wealth, even if it be husk, should not be stolen.


Stealing others' wealth leads to loss of one's own.


There is no greater bond to sorrow than stealing.


 Even gruel, obtained in time, helps maintain life.


To the dead, medicine is of no use.


At the appropriate time, prosperity is useful.


Learning of the low-minded is yoked to sinful deeds.


Feeding a snake with milk increases its venom, no nectar is  produced.


No other wealth can equal grain.


There is no enemy equal to hunger.


One who does wrong things has to inevitably suffer hunger.


There is nothing uneatable for a hungry one.


Over-indulgence in senses ages one fast.


One should earn one's livelihood, serving a compassionate master.


One who serves a miserly master is like one who fans the firefly to  get fire.


One should serve a learned master.


Excessive sex ages men.

Lack of sex ages women.


There can be no marriage between the high and the low.


Association with low (characterless) women reduces life-span,  reputation and virtue.


There is no enemy equal to arrogance.


In an assembly, an enemy should not be criticised.


An enemy's trouble is pleasant to hear.


A poor one has no intellect.


 A poor man's word, even if apt, is not heard.


The poor one is despised by his own wife.


Bees do not go to the flowerless mango tree.


Learning is wealth to the poor.


The wealth of learning cannot be stolen by thieves.


Fame is glorified by learning.


Fame is immortal.


 He is the good one who moves forward to help others.


Learning makes the senses peaceful.


The goad of learning corrects those engaged in unworthy deeds.


One should not learn the learning of the low-minded.


 Low language should not be learnt.


 Good customs of even low people should be adopted.


One should not envy others' good qualities.


A good quality should be learnt even from an enemy.


Nectar should be extracted even from poison.


A person is honoured according to his status.


Men are respected only in their positions.


One should follow the mode of life of noble men.


One should never transgress the bounds of decorum.


 A jewel among  men is invaluable.


There is no jewel equal to a good woman.


Gems are difficult to obtain.


Fear of a bad name is the greatest fear.


 An idle one cannot learn the sciences.


A womanizer does not do righteous deeds, nor does he attain  heaven.


Even women despise womanizers.


One desirous of flowers does not water a drv tree.


Attempting a task without resources is like ploughing the sand.


One should not laugh at great people.


Omens indicate the success or failure of tasks undertaken.


Rational prognostics are superior to stars (in guidance).


One who desires speedy accomplishment of tasks does not look to  the stars (to know his fortune).


In familiarity, flaws do not remain hidden.

The impure one suspects others


It is difficult to change intrinsic nature.


Punishment should befit the crime.


Retort should befit the question.


 Adornment should befit resources.


Conduct should befit family.


 Effort should befit the task.


Donation should befit recipient.


Dress should befit age.


Servant should obey the master.


She who remains submissive to the husband is the wife.


 A student should obey the teacher.


 A son should obey the father.


Excessive courtesy should be suspected.


 When the master is angry, he should be obeyed.


A child beaten by the mother cries only before the mother.


 The anger of the affectionate is short-lived.


The fool sees others' faults, not his own.


 Cunning accompanies courtesy.


 Provision of desirable services is courtesy.


Excessive courtesy from long-known ncrsons is suspicious.


 Even an ordinary cow is superior to a thousand dogs.


A pigeon today is better than a peacock tomorrow.


Excessive companionship creates trouble.


The one without anger wins over all.


If one feels angry with a harmful person, one should be angry with  anger itself.

(Anger towards harming persons should not be displayed openly.)


One should not argue with   the   intelligent,  the foolish, friends,  teachers and the beloved.


There is no undevilish prosperity.


It is not difficult for the rich to do good deeds.


The ones who travel by carriage do not feel the weariness of  journeys.


A wife is a non-metallic shackle.


Each one should be entrusted with the job in which he is skilled.


A bad wife is a torture to good men's bodies.


One should watch one's wife, without losing one's senses.


 One should not trust women at all.


Women do not have either composure or knowledge of the world.



A mother is the greatest teacher.


In all circumstances, the mother should be looked after.


 Wisdom is clothed in figures of speech.


 Modesty is the ornament of women.


Knowledge is the ornament of the learned.

Righteousness is the ornament of all.


Learning, accompanied by humility,  is the ornament of ornaments.