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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Chanakya Pandita > MAXIMS OF CHANAKYA > MAXIMS FROM CHANAKYA RAJANITI SHASTRA > DUTIES AND QUALITIES OF THE RULER

3 . MAXIMS FROM CHANAKYA RAJANITI SHASTRA

 

1.   DUTIES AND QUALITIES OF THE RULER

 

The ruler who has controlled his senses, is religious, venerates  ascetics, is righteous and interested in the welfare of his subjects is  competent to protect his people.

 

(The ruler) shall rule his country, devoted to truth and  righteousness, and defeating enemy forces, righteously •protect his  territory.

 

The ruler, in whose country the pranava sound, "om", chanted by  the learned flourishes, becomes skilful and  free from affliction.

 

He is the ruler, who is the protector of the orphaned, refuge of the  refugees, guide to the afflicted, protector of the frightened, the  support of the unsteady, the friend,  the relative, the master, the   benefactor, the teacher, father. mother, brother to all.

 

The ruler's duties are stated to be five: punishment of the wicked,  rewarding the righteous, development of state revenues by just  means, impartiality in granting favours and protection of the state.

 

The characteristics of a ruler are five: he gives up wealth in favour  of the needy, loves virtues, enjoys pleasures in (he company of  friends and relatives, is anxious to

learn the sciences and is a fighter in war.

 

The ruler should learn one quality each from the lion and the crane,  four from the cock, five from the crow, six  from the dog and three  from the donkey.

 

One should learn from the lion to undertake a task well-prepared,  whether it is a big one or small.

 

Like a crane, the learned one should control his senses and  knowing the aptness of time and place, accomplish all tasks.

 

From the cock one should learn four things: getting up in time,  fighting, division of responsibility among allies and enjoyment after  attacking oneself.

 

From the crow one should learn five things: sex in secrecy, secret  action, catch in time, unruffled behaviour and distrust of everyone.

 

These are the six qualities of the dog: desire for much, satisfaction  with a little, deep slumber, quick awakening, devotion to master and  bravery.

 

From the donkey three things should be learnt: to carry the burden  even though tired, not to mind heat or cold and to trudge ever  satisfied.

 

The discerning one who practises these twenty virtues mentioned  conquers all enemies and himself remains unconquerable.