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3 . MAXIMS FROM CHANAKYA RAJANITI SHASTRA
1. DUTIES AND QUALITIES OF THE RULER
The ruler who has controlled his senses, is religious, venerates ascetics, is righteous and interested in the welfare of his subjects is competent to protect his people.
(The ruler) shall rule his country, devoted to truth and righteousness, and defeating enemy forces, righteously •protect his territory.
The ruler, in whose country the pranava sound, "om", chanted by the learned flourishes, becomes skilful and free from affliction.
He is the ruler, who is the protector of the orphaned, refuge of the refugees, guide to the afflicted, protector of the frightened, the support of the unsteady, the friend, the relative, the master, the benefactor, the teacher, father. mother, brother to all.
The ruler's duties are stated to be five: punishment of the wicked, rewarding the righteous, development of state revenues by just means, impartiality in granting favours and protection of the state.
The characteristics of a ruler are five: he gives up wealth in favour of the needy, loves virtues, enjoys pleasures in (he company of friends and relatives, is anxious to
learn the sciences and is a fighter in war.
The ruler should learn one quality each from the lion and the crane, four from the cock, five from the crow, six from the dog and three from the donkey.
One should learn from the lion to undertake a task well-prepared, whether it is a big one or small.
Like a crane, the learned one should control his senses and knowing the aptness of time and place, accomplish all tasks.
From the cock one should learn four things: getting up in time, fighting, division of responsibility among allies and enjoyment after attacking oneself.
From the crow one should learn five things: sex in secrecy, secret action, catch in time, unruffled behaviour and distrust of everyone.
These are the six qualities of the dog: desire for much, satisfaction with a little, deep slumber, quick awakening, devotion to master and bravery.
From the donkey three things should be learnt: to carry the burden even though tired, not to mind heat or cold and to trudge ever satisfied.
The discerning one who practises these twenty virtues mentioned conquers all enemies and himself remains unconquerable.