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One  who  seeks  fame should serve the ruler, while one who seeks  wealth should take to business, one who seeks learning a reputed  scholar, and one who seeks progeny  should wait for

the monthly period (of his wife).


Service with  the ruler  shines,  as love shines among equals, trade  among business activities, and a good woman in a home.


An  unimportant   person becomes important, if he serves thp ruler.   A person devoid of such service becomes unimportant, even if he is  an important person.


Prosperity lies in trade  (fully), in half measure in agriculture, one  fourth in service with the ruler and not at all in begging.


First comes agriculture  and  trade,  second   rearing   horses, third  buying and selling and fourth service of the ruler.


Gods should be propitiated with devotion, servants  with gifts, labour  class with favours and the Brahmin with show of respect.


The cardinal principle of the ruler's ministers is: cheerfulness at all  times, sweetness of speech and firmness of decision at heart.

(The minister should  be able to) suggest strategy  in enemy's  affairs, take quick action in own affairs, exhibit happiness in friend's  achievements and  boldness in state affairs.


Five things  burn  the body  without   the aid of fire: serving a bad  ruler,  uncleared debt, disgrace of one's people, separation from  beloved, a friend who turns his face away because one is poor.


Six things  burn the body without the aid of fire: living in a bad village,  serving a bad ruling family, bad food, short-tempered wife, idiotic  son, widowed daughter.


Servants encompass the ruler at their side, like the creeper, the  neighbouring tree, and a woman a man constantly at her side. No  doubt about this.


A woman  comes to ruin  through her beauty,   the Brahmin by  serving the ruler, cattle by straying far and money is lost by  excessive greed for profit.


One should praise new clothes, new umbrella, new fruits in the  forest and all new things, but only an old servant.


One should  give up a cruel master, more so a miserly one, an  indiscriminate one more than a miser, and an ungrateful one first of  all.


The birds abandon the tree, when there are no fruits, swans  abandon the dried up lake, women abandon men who are no longer  rich, ministers abandon a fallen ruler, bees abandon the stale  flower, animals the burnt up forest. People try to please for some  selfish objective. Who rules over whom?


Ministers are the ornament of the ruler, as learning is of brave men,  husband of women, and character everyone's.


A ruler has to seek assistance in  all matters, since a man with­out  assistance does not succeed in anything.


Rulers without ministers  undoubtedly perish fast, like trees on  riverbanks, and beloved in others' houses.


The state of a ruler without ministers perishes, like trees on  riverbanks and an uncontrolled woman.


Short is the life of a ruler without ministers,  like that of trees on  riverbanks and a woman without a support.


Rulers without ministers are not long-lived, like trees on riverbanks  and unsupported women.


Whatever the servant does, good or bad,   results in good or bad for  the ruler.


Whatever the servant does, good or bad,   thereby the ruler benefits  or comes to grief.


The ruler perishes by bad counsel,   like the recluse by attachment,  son by pampering, Brahmin by non-learning, the family by bad  children,  conduct by evil company,  woman by alcohol,  agriculture  by neglect, affection by absence, friendship by lack ot love,  abundance by indiscretion, and wealth by either sacrifice or  arrogance.


The bad minister destroys the ruler, as robbers ruin the country,    the bad woman families, the bad son the family.


Wise men desert fast the ruler surrounded by evil ministers, as also  the drunkard doctor, the unlettered actor, the Brahmin who has not  practised his learning, a cowardly warrior, unfriendly master,  foolish  servant, a troubled country,  a wife proud of her youth and involved  in other men.


Rulers are ruined by the faults of their servants,   as learning is by  non-practice, women by daily merriment, and the field by bad seed.


He attains great happiness,   who gives up an adverse wife, idiotic  son,  a non-eloquent envoy and relatives who are not affectionate.


Wise men never serve rulers guided by ministers along wrong  paths, a Brahmin who has married a sudra wife, and the ascetic  who has violated his vows


Servants are known to be superior,  bad  and mediocre.    They  should be assigned various duties  according to their capacities.


The ruler should deploy servants for the various tasks after finding  out whether they are of superior quality,   low or mediocre.


Servants who are not lazy, who are satisfied, who have good  aspirations, who are vigilant, who are alike in happiness and sorrow,  and who are brave are rare in this world.


A man is tested in four ways: with reference to his family, conduct,  quality and action, just as gold is tested in four ways: by scratching,  breaking, heating and beating.


Just as gold  is tested  by heating,  beating and breaking, so a  person is tested by family, conduct and action.


Servants can be  known  when sent on errands, relatives when  difficulties arise, a friend in times of distress, and the wife when  prosperity declines.


Between a serpent and an evil man, the serpent is preferable. The  serpent bites occasionally, but the evil man at every step.


Rulers get hold of noble persons for this purpose: they do not desert  the ruler either in the beginning, middle or the end.


At the time of deluge, oceans exceed their limits, but good people  never.


A wise man has only good qualities, a fool only bad ones. Hence a  single wise man is better than a thousand fools.


The one with  good qualities  should be employed  and the one  without them avoided. The wise man has all good qualities, while  the fool has only faults.


(The fortunate ruler's) servants are dignified, soft-spoken,  self-controlled, honest, well-deployable, and have clear vision and  insight.


By deploying a wise man for a task, three benefits accrue to the  ruler: fame, substantial riches and heaven.


If a fool is employed, three bad results afflict the ruler: ill repute, loss  of wealth and descent  to hell


Hence the  ruler  should  always  appoint  a person  of good  qualities and avoid one without qualities so that righteousness,  happiness and prosperity increase.


The ruler should avoid appointing persons who are fraudulent,  dishonest, cruel, without enthusiasm, incompetent and cowardly.


Persons  who have  no  patience  or loyalty, who are inimical,  miserly, incompetent and cowardly should be avoided by the ruler.


One who is cruel, addicted to vices, miserly, timid, too  out­spoken,  independent and spendthrift should not be appointed to positions of  power.


A fool should be avoided, he is a two-footed animal. He hurts with  sharp words like an unseen thorn.


All good qualities get hidden,  by   surrounding oneself with groups  of fools who act like animals, as the sun is hidden by clouds.


The ruler who does not destroy a servant,   who is  equal in wealth,  skiil, counsel, industry and who has stolen half the state, is  destroyed.


It is better that  a bad minister is removed lock, stock and barrel, as  an imbedded thorn or a shaking tooth is to be extracted from the  root.


The ruler  should give up a   servant who is iaz>,   talkative, stupid,  cruel, addicted to vices,   obstinate, dissatisfied, and disloyal.


The superintendent of justice should be of good family, conduct and  qualities, well-versed In all laws, competent and skilled in  investigation.


The ruler's official in-charge of the treasury should be interest­ed in  increasing basic resources, bold, expert in the  evaluation of  precious stones, pure and industrious.


The ruler's official in charge of mines should be experienced, loyal  to the master,  truthful, self-controlled, not greedy and satisfied with  his own wealth.


The commander of the army should know all the military sciences,  be scholarly, tireless, brave and valorous.


The superintendent of horses should know all the sciences  re­garding horses, unrivalled in driving (horse drawn)  vehicles, and  have the qualities of bravery and valour.


The ruler's doorkeeper  should be able to catch hints, strong,  pleasant to look at, not careless and competent.


The ruler's minister should be prompt in action,  have a good  memory, be grateful, be well-versed in political science, intelligent  and far-sighted.


The ruler's scribe (secretary) should understand what is spoken  forthwith,  write  fast, have a good handwriting, well-versed in all arts  and sciences and be distinguished.


He is the scribe, who is able, eloquent, wise, honest, who has  controlled his senses, who has learnt all arts and sciences, and  who is good


He is the royal physician, who is well-versed in Ayurveda, is  pleasant-faced to everyone, and has noble conduct and qualities.


He is the ruler's priest, who has studied all the Vedas and  Vedangas, is ever interested in offering prayers and sacrifices to  God, and is always ready to bless people.


The royal teacher should be well-versed in all branches of learning,  sweet-spoken, have controlled his senses, be able to impart  learning well and be pure.


The royal astrologer should know reading, writing and arith­metic,  explain well and interpret the secrets of planets.


The Brahmin who knows mathematics, interprets scripts, is  interested in the ancient scriptures and is able to interpret the  secrets of planets is worthy of worship like a god.


The custodian ot   the ruler's inner apartments should be lame,  hunch-backed, dull-witted, old, impotent, of controlled senses, free  from desires and useful.


The royal cook is he who has inherited skill from his father and  grandfather, knows the culinary art well and cooks tasty food, and is  clean and honest.


The ruler's envoy (ambassador) is one who is able, eloquent, wise,   capable of knowing others'  minds, brave, and speaks aptly.


The ruler's  envoy (ambassador) is one who is competent,  intelligent, eloquent, capable of knowing  others' minds, brave, and  speaks aptly.