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13. SERVICE WITH RULERS: DUTIES AND QUALITIES OF STATE OFFICIALS
One who seeks fame should serve the ruler, while one who seeks wealth should take to business, one who seeks learning a reputed scholar, and one who seeks progeny should wait for
the monthly period (of his wife).
Service with the ruler shines, as love shines among equals, trade among business activities, and a good woman in a home.
An unimportant person becomes important, if he serves thp ruler. A person devoid of such service becomes unimportant, even if he is an important person.
Prosperity lies in trade (fully), in half measure in agriculture, one fourth in service with the ruler and not at all in begging.
First comes agriculture and trade, second rearing horses, third buying and selling and fourth service of the ruler.
Gods should be propitiated with devotion, servants with gifts, labour class with favours and the Brahmin with show of respect.
The cardinal principle of the ruler's ministers is: cheerfulness at all times, sweetness of speech and firmness of decision at heart.
(The minister should be able to) suggest strategy in enemy's affairs, take quick action in own affairs, exhibit happiness in friend's achievements and boldness in state affairs.
Five things burn the body without the aid of fire: serving a bad ruler, uncleared debt, disgrace of one's people, separation from beloved, a friend who turns his face away because one is poor.
Six things burn the body without the aid of fire: living in a bad village, serving a bad ruling family, bad food, short-tempered wife, idiotic son, widowed daughter.
Servants encompass the ruler at their side, like the creeper, the neighbouring tree, and a woman a man constantly at her side. No doubt about this.
A woman comes to ruin through her beauty, the Brahmin by serving the ruler, cattle by straying far and money is lost by excessive greed for profit.
One should praise new clothes, new umbrella, new fruits in the forest and all new things, but only an old servant.
One should give up a cruel master, more so a miserly one, an indiscriminate one more than a miser, and an ungrateful one first of all.
The birds abandon the tree, when there are no fruits, swans abandon the dried up lake, women abandon men who are no longer rich, ministers abandon a fallen ruler, bees abandon the stale flower, animals the burnt up forest. People try to please for some selfish objective. Who rules over whom?
Ministers are the ornament of the ruler, as learning is of brave men, husband of women, and character everyone's.
A ruler has to seek assistance in all matters, since a man without assistance does not succeed in anything.
Rulers without ministers undoubtedly perish fast, like trees on riverbanks, and beloved in others' houses.
The state of a ruler without ministers perishes, like trees on riverbanks and an uncontrolled woman.
Short is the life of a ruler without ministers, like that of trees on riverbanks and a woman without a support.
Rulers without ministers are not long-lived, like trees on riverbanks and unsupported women.
Whatever the servant does, good or bad, results in good or bad for the ruler.
Whatever the servant does, good or bad, thereby the ruler benefits or comes to grief.
The ruler perishes by bad counsel, like the recluse by attachment, son by pampering, Brahmin by non-learning, the family by bad children, conduct by evil company, woman by alcohol, agriculture by neglect, affection by absence, friendship by lack ot love, abundance by indiscretion, and wealth by either sacrifice or arrogance.
The bad minister destroys the ruler, as robbers ruin the country, the bad woman families, the bad son the family.
Wise men desert fast the ruler surrounded by evil ministers, as also the drunkard doctor, the unlettered actor, the Brahmin who has not practised his learning, a cowardly warrior, unfriendly master, foolish servant, a troubled country, a wife proud of her youth and involved in other men.
Rulers are ruined by the faults of their servants, as learning is by non-practice, women by daily merriment, and the field by bad seed.
He attains great happiness, who gives up an adverse wife, idiotic son, a non-eloquent envoy and relatives who are not affectionate.
Wise men never serve rulers guided by ministers along wrong paths, a Brahmin who has married a sudra wife, and the ascetic who has violated his vows
Servants are known to be superior, bad and mediocre. They should be assigned various duties according to their capacities.
The ruler should deploy servants for the various tasks after finding out whether they are of superior quality, low or mediocre.
Servants who are not lazy, who are satisfied, who have good aspirations, who are vigilant, who are alike in happiness and sorrow, and who are brave are rare in this world.
A man is tested in four ways: with reference to his family, conduct, quality and action, just as gold is tested in four ways: by scratching, breaking, heating and beating.
Just as gold is tested by heating, beating and breaking, so a person is tested by family, conduct and action.
Servants can be known when sent on errands, relatives when difficulties arise, a friend in times of distress, and the wife when prosperity declines.
Between a serpent and an evil man, the serpent is preferable. The serpent bites occasionally, but the evil man at every step.
Rulers get hold of noble persons for this purpose: they do not desert the ruler either in the beginning, middle or the end.
At the time of deluge, oceans exceed their limits, but good people never.
A wise man has only good qualities, a fool only bad ones. Hence a single wise man is better than a thousand fools.
The one with good qualities should be employed and the one without them avoided. The wise man has all good qualities, while the fool has only faults.
(The fortunate ruler's) servants are dignified, soft-spoken, self-controlled, honest, well-deployable, and have clear vision and insight.
By deploying a wise man for a task, three benefits accrue to the ruler: fame, substantial riches and heaven.
If a fool is employed, three bad results afflict the ruler: ill repute, loss of wealth and descent to hell
Hence the ruler should always appoint a person of good qualities and avoid one without qualities so that righteousness, happiness and prosperity increase.
The ruler should avoid appointing persons who are fraudulent, dishonest, cruel, without enthusiasm, incompetent and cowardly.
Persons who have no patience or loyalty, who are inimical, miserly, incompetent and cowardly should be avoided by the ruler.
One who is cruel, addicted to vices, miserly, timid, too outspoken, independent and spendthrift should not be appointed to positions of power.
A fool should be avoided, he is a two-footed animal. He hurts with sharp words like an unseen thorn.
All good qualities get hidden, by surrounding oneself with groups of fools who act like animals, as the sun is hidden by clouds.
The ruler who does not destroy a servant, who is equal in wealth, skiil, counsel, industry and who has stolen half the state, is destroyed.
It is better that a bad minister is removed lock, stock and barrel, as an imbedded thorn or a shaking tooth is to be extracted from the root.
The ruler should give up a servant who is iaz>, talkative, stupid, cruel, addicted to vices, obstinate, dissatisfied, and disloyal.
The superintendent of justice should be of good family, conduct and qualities, well-versed In all laws, competent and skilled in investigation.
The ruler's official in-charge of the treasury should be interested in increasing basic resources, bold, expert in the evaluation of precious stones, pure and industrious.
The ruler's official in charge of mines should be experienced, loyal to the master, truthful, self-controlled, not greedy and satisfied with his own wealth.
The commander of the army should know all the military sciences, be scholarly, tireless, brave and valorous.
The superintendent of horses should know all the sciences regarding horses, unrivalled in driving (horse drawn) vehicles, and have the qualities of bravery and valour.
The ruler's doorkeeper should be able to catch hints, strong, pleasant to look at, not careless and competent.
The ruler's minister should be prompt in action, have a good memory, be grateful, be well-versed in political science, intelligent and far-sighted.
The ruler's scribe (secretary) should understand what is spoken forthwith, write fast, have a good handwriting, well-versed in all arts and sciences and be distinguished.
He is the scribe, who is able, eloquent, wise, honest, who has controlled his senses, who has learnt all arts and sciences, and who is good
He is the royal physician, who is well-versed in Ayurveda, is pleasant-faced to everyone, and has noble conduct and qualities.
He is the ruler's priest, who has studied all the Vedas and Vedangas, is ever interested in offering prayers and sacrifices to God, and is always ready to bless people.
The royal teacher should be well-versed in all branches of learning, sweet-spoken, have controlled his senses, be able to impart learning well and be pure.
The royal astrologer should know reading, writing and arithmetic, explain well and interpret the secrets of planets.
The Brahmin who knows mathematics, interprets scripts, is interested in the ancient scriptures and is able to interpret the secrets of planets is worthy of worship like a god.
The custodian ot the ruler's inner apartments should be lame, hunch-backed, dull-witted, old, impotent, of controlled senses, free from desires and useful.
The royal cook is he who has inherited skill from his father and grandfather, knows the culinary art well and cooks tasty food, and is clean and honest.
The ruler's envoy (ambassador) is one who is able, eloquent, wise, capable of knowing others' minds, brave, and speaks aptly.
The ruler's envoy (ambassador) is one who is competent, intelligent, eloquent, capable of knowing others' minds, brave, and speaks aptly.