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In  the happiness of the  people  lies the  ruler's happiness. Their  welfare is his welfare. The ruler shall  not consider what pleases  and benefits him personally, but what is pleasing and beneficial to  the people.


Exercise of power and achievement of results should be pro­perly  matched by the ruler in order to win over the people.


Many rulers have been destroyed by being under the control of the  group of six enemies (lust, anger,  greed, infatuation,  arro­gance,  envy).   Those with character should not follow their path, but  preserve righteousness and wealth.


The people help  the ruler who is. just in his actions,  when attacked  while in a serious calamity.


The whole of this science is intended to-create control over the  senses.    A ruler acting conlrary to it and hence not having the  senses under control  immediately gets destroyed, even if he be

the lord of the four ends of the earth.


Generally rulers swayed by anger have been killed by   people's  fury, it is heard, Those addicted to carnal pleasures have been  destroyed by enemies and diseases caused  by decadence

and vice.


A mad elephant, mounted by an intoxicated mahout tramples on  everything that it comes across.    Likewise is a ruler devoid of the  light of learning, advised by an unwise minister.


A ruler, disciplined by learning, will be interested in disciplining his  subjects. He will enjoy the earth unopposed, devoted to the welfare  of all beings


One who does not keep one's word and one whose behaviour is  contrary to that of the people becomes  untrustworthy to one's own  people and to others.    Hence {a rulerl } should   adopt the

• same mode of life, same dress, same language, and same  customs as those of the people.


A ruler with  loyal  people  accomplishes his task even with a little  help because of their  cooperation.


A ruler with  character  can  render  even unendowed  people  happy.    A characterless ruler destroys  loyal  and prosperous  people.


An evil-natured  and  characterless ruler will  be destroyed by the  people or overcome by enemies.


The role of the ruler is that of Indra (the bestower of rewards)  and   of Yama (who  metes out punishment).   Rulers are thus visible  dispensers of (divine) punishments and  rewards.  Those who disrespect them will be punished by the gods.


A ruler with good qualities, who knows statecraft and endowed with  the wealth of loyal people, though rules a small country, yet enjoys  the entire earth, ever wins and never loses.


(A ruler) should  establish  right code of conduct and also  appoint  preceptors and ministers who will keep him off danger spots.


(A ruler)  should  not  harass the roots  of righteousness and wealth.


What character the ruler himself has, the people attendant on him  have.


The ruler blinded by not learning the various sciences acts  indiscriminately, is obstinate in decisions and is led by others.


Absence of learning and discipline cause vices in men. The  untrained, undisciplined illiterate does not see the evil in vices.


The whole of learning of sciences and scriptures is this: control  over the senses.


A ruler who performs his duty righteously and protects his people  properly goes to heaven. Quite contrary is the case with one who  does not protect his people or  metes out unjust punishment. By enforcing the adherence of the people to the observance of  duties prescribed  for the four castes and the four stages of life and  rooting out all  unrighteousness the ruler functions as the dispenser  of justice.


A ruler who administers justice on the basis of four principles:  righteousness,  evidence, history of the case and the prevalent law  shall conquer the four corners of the earth.


Righteousness, overcome by unrighteousness, destroys the ruler, if  neglect  is shown.


After conquering the earth consisting of diverse groups of people in  various stages of life, the ruler should enjoy it, governing according  to prescribed duties.


(A ruler) should introduce righteous customs, practised by others  but not yet current in the country.  He shall not intro­duce  unrighteous customs and should stop these, if practised by others.


His (the ruler's) secret others should not get; but he should ascetain  others' weak spots. As the tortoise withdraws its limbs, he should  try to hide any part of his which might have been

thrown open.


Just as a hidden snake emits poison  on  whatever is seen  as a  threat by it, so the ruler emits the poison of anger on whomsoever  from where danger is apprehended.


Just as the cow kept by dog-keepers gives milk to dogs and not to  Brahmins, so the (depraved) ruler gives succour to those devoid of  valour, wisdom, eloquence and strength and not to those of noble  character.


Just as the well belonging to (outcaste) huntsmen is of use only to  them and not to others, so this (depraved) ruler is of use only to low  type of people and not to men of noble character.


Envoys are the mouthpieces of rulers.  Hence even if weapons are  raised  they speak as they have been told to speak.   Of these even  the low born are immune from killing. What to speak of Brahmins?


The ruler should condone minor offences and be satisfied even  when the revenue is small.


A ruler's actions are based on what is patently seen, what is not  directly seen and what has to be inferred.


An inaccessible ruler is made to do the opposite of what ought or  ought not to be done by those surrounding him.


(A ruler) should attend to all urgent matters promptly and never  postpone them. A matter, deferred consideration and decision,  becomes more difficult or impossible to tackle.