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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Biographical Works > All Biographies > V

V

 

 

1.       VADA HARIDASA                                                                GVA

2.       VADANANANDA                                                                  GVA

3.       VADU CAITANYA DASA                                                        GVA

4.       VADU GANGADASA                                                             GVA

5.       VADU JAGANNATHA                                                  GVA

6.       VAHUVALINDRA                                                                 GVA

7.       VAIDYA VISNUDASA                                                  GVA,CCU

8.       VAIDYANATHA                                                                   GVA,CCU

9.       VAIDYANATHA BHANJA                                                       GVA

10.     VAIDYANATHA MAHARAJA                                         GVA

11.     VAIKUNTHA DASA                                                              GVA

12.     VAIKUNTHA DASA BIPRA                                                     GVA

13.     VAISNAVA ACARYA                                                             GVA

14.     VAISNAVA CARANA                                                             GVA

15.     VAISNAVA CARANA DASA/VAISNAVA DASA                    GVA,GPC

16.     VAISNAVA DASA                                                                GVA

17.     VAISNAVA DASA BABAJI MAHARAJA OF KOSI                          GVJ

18.     VAISNAVA MISRA                                                               GVA

19.     VAISNAVANANDA ACARYA                                          GVA

20.     VAKRESVARA PANDITA                                                        GVA,CCU,CC,GPC

21.     VALLABHA ACARYA/VALLABHA BHATTA                       GVA,GPC,CCU

22.     VALLABHACARYA                                                               CCU

22.     A VALLABHACARYA                                                   GVA

23.     VALLABHA DASA                                                                GVA

24.     VALLABHA DASA                                                                GVA

25.     VALLABHA DASA                                                                GVA

26.     VALLABHA DEVI                                                                 GVA

27.     VALLABHA MAJUMDAR                                                        GVA

28.     VALLABHA MISRA                                                              GVA

29.     VALLABHA RANGAVATI                                                       ---

30.     VALLABHA SENA                                                                GVA,CCU

31.     VALLABHA THAKURA                                                 GVA

32.     VALLABHACAITANYA DASA                                        GVA,CCU

33.     VALLABHIDASA KAVIRAJA                                                   GVA

34.     VALLABHIKANTA CAKRAVARTI                                             GVA

35.     VALLABHIKANTA KAVIRAJA                                        GVA

36.     VAMANA                                                                           GVA

37.     VAMARANYA                                                            GVA

38.     VAMSI                                                                    GVA

39.     VAMSI                                                                    GVA

40.     VAMSI DASA                                                                     GVA

41.     VAMSIDASA BABAJI                                                            GVJ

42.     VAMSIDASA THAKURA CAKRAVARTI                                      GVA

43.     VAMSI THAKURA                                                                ---

44.     VAMSIVADANANDA THAKURA                                               GVA,CCU,GPC

45.     VANACANDRA                                                          GVA

46.     VANAMALI                                                                        GVA

47.     VANAMALI                                                                        GVA

48.     VANAMALI ACARYA                                                   GVA,CCU

49.     VANAMALI BIPRA/PANDITA                                        GVA,CCU

50.     VANAMALI BISVAS                                                             GVA

51.     VANAMALI CATTA                                                              GVA

52.     VANAMALI DASA/KAVIRAJA                                        GVA,CCU

53.     VANAMALI KAVIRAJA                                                          GVA

54.     VANAMALI KAVICANDRA                                                     GVA

55.     VANESVARA BRAHMACARI                                          GVA

56.     VANGADESIYA VIPRA                                                          GVA

57.     VANGAVIHARI VIDYALAMKARA                                             GVA

58.     VANGAVATI CAITANYADASA                                                GVA

59.     VANIKRSNADASA                                                               GVA

60.     VANINATHA BIPRA                                                             GVA,CCU

61.     VANINATHA BRAHMACARI                                         CCU

62.     VANINATHA MISRA                                                            GVA

63.     VANINATHA PANDITA                                                         GVA

64.     VANINATHA PATTANAYAKI/NAYAKI                                      GVA,CCU,BMO

65.     VANINATHA VASU                                                              GVA,CCU

66.     VANIVILASA                                                                      GVA

67.     VASANTA                                                                          GVA,CCU

68.     VASANTA DATTA                                                                GVA

69.     VASANTA RAYA                                                                  GVA

70.     VASANTA RAYA                                                                  GVA

71.     VASU GHOSH                                                           GVA,CCU,GPC

72.     VASUDHA                                                                         GVA

73.     VASUDEVA BHADARA                                                GVA

74.     VASUDEVA BHATTACARYA                                         GVA

75.     VASUDEVA DATTA                                                              GVA,CCU

76.     VASUDEVA DAIVAJNA                                                         GVA

77.     VASUDEVA DVIJA                                                               CCU

78.     VASUDEVA KAVIRAJA                                                          GVA

79.     VASUDEVA KUSTHI                                                             GVA,CCU

80.     VASUDEVA SARVABHAUMA                                         -A -

81.     VASUDEVA SIYALA                                                             GVA

82.     VASUDEVA TIRTHA                                                             GVA,CCU

83.     VATNARAMA DASA                                                             GVA

84.     VECARAMA BHADRA                                                  GVA

85.     VEDAGARBHA                                                          GVA

86.     VENKATA BHATTA                                                              CC

87.     VENDATACARYA                                                                 GVA

88.     VETALA BHATTA/VETALA SIMHA                                          GVA

89.     VIDHU CAKRAVARTI                                                 GVA

90.     VIDHUMUKHI DEVI                                                            GVA

91.     VIDYANANDA                                                           GVA

92.     VIDYANANDA PANDITA                                                       GVA,CCU

93.     VIDYANANTA ACARYA                                                         CCU

94.     VIDYANIDHI                                                                     ---

95.     VIDYANIDHI                                                                     GVA,CCU

96.     VIDYAPATI                                                                       GVA

97.     VIDYAVACASPATI                                                               GVA,CCU

98.     VIDYAVIRINCI                                                                   GVA

99.     VIHARIDASA VAIRAGI                                                         GVA

100     VIHARILALA GOSVAMI                                                        GVA

101.    VIJAYA                                                                             GVA

102.    VIJAYA DASA                                                                     GVA,CCU

103.    VIJAYA AKHARIYA                                                              GVA

104.    VYAYADHVAJA                                                                   GVA

105.    VYAYAKRSNA GOSVAMIPADA                                               GVJ

106.    VYAYANANDA                                                          GVA,CCU

107.    VIJAYA PANDITA                                                                GVA

108.    VIJAYA PURI                                                                     GVA

109.    VILASA ACARYA                                                                 GVA

110.    VILVAMANGALA                                                                 GVA

111.    VIMALA DEVI                                                           GVA

112.    VIMALAPRASADA DATTA                                                     GVA

113.    VINDHU DASA                                                                   GVA

114.    VINODA DASA                                                                   GVA

115.    VINODA RAYA                                                                   GVA

116.    VINODA THAKURA                                                             GVA

117.    VIPINA BIHARI CATTOPADHYA                                             GVJ

118.    VIPINAVIHARI GOSVAMI                                                     GVA

119.    VIPRA DASA                                                                      GVA

120.    VIPRA DASA                                                                      GVA

121.    VIPRA DASA GHOSH                                                  GVA

122.    VIRA DARPANARAYANA                                                       GVA

123.    VIRA HAMVIRA                                                                  GVA

124.    VIRABHADRA                                                           GVA

125.    VIRABHADRA GOSVAMI                                                       GVA

126.    VIRACANDRA GOSVAMI                                                       GVA

127.    VIRACANDRA/VIRABHADRA GOSVAMI                                    GVA,CCU,CC,GPC

128.    VIRAVALLABHA                                                                  GVA

129.    VIRAVARA DEV                                                                  GVA

130.    VISNAI HAJRA                                                                   GVA,CCU

131.    VISNUDASA                                                                      GVA,CCU

132.    VISNUDASA                                                                       GVA

133.    VISNUDASA                                                                     GVA

134.    VISNUDASA                                                                       GVA

135.    VISNUDASA                                                                       CCU

136.    VISNUDASA (SRI BEDAYA?)                                        GVA

137.    VISNUDASA ACARYA                                                 CCU

138.    VISNUDASA ACARYA                                                 GVA

139.    VISNUDASA KAPINDRA                                                        GVA

140.    VISNUDASA   KAVIRAJA                                                      GVA

141.    VISNUDASA PUJARI                                                            GVA

142.    VISNUDASA VAIDYA                                                  CCU

143.    VISNUPRIYA DEVI                                                              GVA,CCU,GPC

144.    VISNUPRIYA                                                                      GVA

145.    VISNUPRIYA                                                                      ---

146.    VISNUPURI                                                                       GVA,CCU

147.    VISNUDDHANANDA                                                   GVA

148.    VISVAMBHARA                                                                   ---

149.    VISVAMBHARA DASA                                                 GVA

150.    VISVAMBHARA DASA                                                 GVA

151.    VISVAMBHARA PAINE                                                         GVA

152.    VISVANATHA CAKRAVARTI                                         GVA,GPC

153.    VISVARUPA                                                                       GVA,CCU

154.    VISVARUPA DASA BABAJI                                                    ---

155.    VISVASA                                                                           GVA

156.    VISVASA DEVI                                                                   GVA

157.    VISVESVARA ACARYA/VISVESVARANANDA ACARYA                  GVA,CCU

158.    VONCA RAMABHADRA                                                         GVA

159.    VRAJA RAYA                                                                      GVA

160.    VRAJA LAKSMINATHA                                                         GVA

151.    VRAJAKISORE DASA BABAJI                                       GVJ

162.    VRAJAMOHANA (DVIJA)                                                      GVA

163.    VRAJAMOHANA CATTARAJA                                        GVA

164.    VRAJANANDA                                                           GVA

165    VRAJANANDA                                                           GVA

166.    VRAJANANDA DASA                                                   GVA

167.    VRAJANANDA THAKURA                                                      GVA

168.    VRHACCHISU                                                           CCU

169.    VRNDAVANA                                                            GVA

170.    VRNDAVANA ACARYA                                                          GVA

171.    VRNDAVANA CAKRAVARTI                                          GVA

172.    VRNDAVANA CAKRAVARTI                                          GVA

173.    VRNDAVANACANDRA                                                 GVA

174.    VRNDAVANA CATTARAJA                                                     GVA

175.    VRNDAVANA DASA                                                             GVA

176.    VRNDAVANA DASA                                                             GVA

177.    VRNDAVANA DASA                                                             GVA

178.    VRNDAVANA DASA                                                             GVA

179.    VRNDAVANA BABAJI                                                 GVJ

180.    VRNDAVANA KAVIRAJA                                                        GVA

181.    VRNDAVANA KISORA                                                 GVA

182.    VRNDAVANA THAKURA                                                        GPC,CCU

183.    VRNDAVANA VALLABHA                                                      GVA

184.    VRNDAVANAVASI VAISNAVA                                       GVA

185.    VRNDAVANI THAKURANI                                                     GVA

186.    VRNDAVATI                                                                      ---

187.    VRNDAVATI DASI                                                               GVA

188.    VUDDHIMANTA KHAN                                                         GVA,CCU

189.    VYENKATABHATTA                                                             GVA

190.    VYASACARYA                                                           GVA

191.    VYASATIRTHA                                                                   GVA

 

 

 

1.       VADA HARIDASA:

 

          He belonged to the sakha of Shri Chaitanya.  He was a kirtana singer and a companion of Mahaprabhu in Nilacala (CC. 1.10.147).

 

2.       VADANANANDA:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.  (Namamrstasamudra 199)

 

3.       VADU CAITANYA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

4.       VADU GANGADASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Gauridasa Pandita.  He was the son of Bhadravati, the elder sister of Jahnava mata's mother. After the disappearance of Gauridasa, Gangadasa was appointed the sevait in Dhira Samira, as instructed by Pandita in a dream.  Later Jahnava mata brought Gangadasa from Vrndavana to Gauda and arranged his marriage to Hemalata devi, daughter of Syamadasa Cakravarti.  Jahnava also appointed him the priest of Shri Shri Syama Roy.  He was a very simple-hearted devotee. (BRK. 11.262-263)

 

5.       VADU JAGANNATHA:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.  (Namamrtasamudra 225)

 

6.       VAHUVALINDRA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda.  (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.126)

 

7.       VAIDYA VISNUDASA:

 

          He was a kirtana leader from Gaura. (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 223, Devakinandana 106, Vrndavanadasa 98)

 

8.       VAIDYANATHA:

 

          He was the disciple of Shri Advaita Prabhu (CC. 1.12.63)

 

9.       VAIDYANATHA BHANJA:

 

          He was the disciple of Rasikananda and a resident of Rajagad.  He established the temple of Vuda (old) Jagannatha Dev in Baripada.  (Rasikamangala Daksina 12.17)

 

10.     VAIDYANATH MAHARAJA:

 

          He was the disciple of Rasikananda.  (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.94-95)

 

11.     VAIKUNTHA DASA:

 

          He was the disciple of Rasikamangala (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.129-130).

 

12.     VAIKUNTHA DASA BIPRA:

 

          His Shripata was in Kumarahatta or Halisahara.  He was the father of Shri Vrndavana dasa, the author of Shri Chaitanya Bhagavata.

 

13.     VAISNAVA ACARYA:

 

          He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Nityananda. His past name was Raghunatha Puri.  (CC. 1.11.42, Namamrtasamudara 121)

 

14.     VAISNAVA CARANA:

 

          He was the disciple of Narottama Thakura.  (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

15.     VAISNAVA CARANA DASA/VAISNAVA DASA:

 

          A Vaidya by caste, his real name was Gokulananda Sen. His Shripata was located at Tena Vaidyapura about six miles from the Jhamatpura subdivision of Katwa.  He compiled Padakalpataru in 1718-1723 A.D. (Saka 1640-45).

 

          He was the disciple of Radhamohana Thakura, a descendant of Shrinivasa Acarya.  He was an accomplished musician and popularized the tradition known as "Tenar chap" or "Dhap".

 

          He was the friend of a Vaishnava poet named Uddhava dasa (Krishnakanta Majumdar).  Vaishnava dasa was present at the debate held in Bengal in 1708 A.D. (1115) wherein the superiority of svakiya or parakiya was discussed.

 

          Vaishnava dasa's son was Ramagovinda Sen, who had two daughters.  Devotees of Vaishnava dasa are still found in Shripata.

 

16.     VAISNAVA DASA:

 

          He belonged to the lineage of disciples descending from Gadadhara Pandita.  (Sakhanirnayamrta 49)

 

17.     VAISNAVA DASA BABAJI MAHASAYA OF KOSI:

 

          He was a contemporary of Siddha Jayakrishnadasa Babaji Maharaja who practiced bhajan at Kamyavana.  Vaishnava dasa, a Gaudiya Vaishnava, always carried an iron fire-tong in his hand.  He lived beneath trees and the bag he used to collect alms was kept hung on the tree.  He achieved spiritual perfection of speech, as indicated by the following story: Purnananda Gosvami, the son of Nityananda of Srngaravata, had no sons yet through the words uttered by Vaishnava dasa, he obtained three sons namely Nrsimhananda, Premananda and Yadavananda.

 

          Having heard of Vaishnava dasa's spiritual power the King of Jodhpur came to meet him and requested Vaishnava dasa to ask any favor from him. Babaji repeatedly refused saying he had no need for anything, but finally relented and requested the King to establish a temple and install Deities of Radhagovinda there.  Thus the king built a temple which still exists in Kosi.  Siddha Krishnadasa Baba of Govardhana offered obeisances lying prostrate to Vaishnava dasa as the former did to Siddha Jayakrishna dasa.  (This was narrated orally by the Vaishnava scholar and musician Advaita dasa Babaji)

 

18.     VAISNAVA MISRA:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga and a relative of Jayananda, the author of Chaitanyamangala.  He once continued to chant Harinama for six days at a stretch without touching even water.

 

19.     VAISNAVANANDA ACARYA:

 

          He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Nityananda. His past name was Raghunatha Puri.  (CC. 1.11.42, Namamrtasamudra 121)

 

20.     VAKRESVARA PANDITA:

 

          He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya and frequently accompanied the Lord in singing during kirtana.  He may have come from Shripata Seteri.  In his past incarnation he was born as Sasirekha and Aniruddha (GGD. 71, 73, CC. 1.10.17,77)

 

          It was only when Vakresvara showered his mercy upon Devananda Pandita that the later was accepted by Lord Gauranga.  Sakhanirnayamrta 36 places Vakresvara in the sakha of Gadadhara Pandita Gosvami.  (Murari 3.17.17, Chaitanyacharitamrita-mahakavya 13.145, ChaitanyacandropdayaA natakam 1.20, CBh. 2.1.139, Jayananda P. 2, Locanandasa P. 2, CC. 2.1.238)

 

          In nataka of Kavikarnapura 8.33 Sarvabhauma says that he was acquainted with Shrivasa, Vakresvara, Acaryaratna and Pundarika when the later were children.  This indicates that Vakresvara was fairly senior in age to Lord Gauranga.  As B.B. Majumdar points out in CCU. p. 683, Vakresvara had a great influence on the Vaishnava community.  Two manuscripts of "Vakresvarastaka" written by Gopalaguru are found in the collection of Barahanagar Pathavadi (no. 140 in Devanagari script, and no. 677 in Bengali script). The second sloka of that manuscript records that Vakresvara preached the message of Lord Chaitanya in southern and western India.  In 1900 A.D. (1307) Amrtalal Pal wrote and published a book titled Vakresvaracarita, wherein it is stated that Vakresvara's disciple, Gopalaguru, was the founder of the Radhakanta Matha.

 

The following information is from GPC:

 

          When Lord Chaitanya performed His pastimes in Navadvipa, Vakresvara was His very close associate.  He also stayed with the Lord in Puri after Mahaprabhu accepted sannyasa.  Shri Vakresvara Pandita was born in Gupti para near Triveni.  He was quite skillful in music and dance.  He was able to dance continuously for 72 hours.  When Mahaprabhu went to Ramakeli, Vakresvara Pandita accompanied Him.  Because of Vakresvara Pandita's mercy, Devananda Pandita was liberated.

 

          At one time Devananda Pandita was famous as a lecturer on Bhagavata and was known to be second to none.  One day Shrivasa Pandita had the opportunity to hear him lecture and began to cry during the presentation. At that time some ignorant students of Devananda thought that Shrivasa was creating a disturbance during the lecture and thus took Shrivasa Pandita out of the class room.  Although Devananda witnessed this great insult to Shrivasa Pandita, he did not protest.  Thus, he committed a great sin to the Bhagavata.  When Mahaprabhu came to know of Devananda's behavior, the Lord said, "He who reads the Bhagavata but does not pay due respect to the devotee of Bhagavata, is a sinner.  He will never experience the joy of reading the Bhagavata in even hundreds of kalpas."  Thus the Lord clearly explained that if one wants to know the scripture Bhagavata, he must unselfishly serve the devotee of Bhagavata. From that time forward Mahaprabhu ignored Devananda and did not bless him with love for Krishna.

 

          One evening while Shri Vakresvara Pandita was busy dancing and singing at Kulia in Navadvipa, Devananda Pandita came to meet him and was charmed by Vakresvara's devotion.  Great crowds of people gathered to watch Vakresvara dance and Shri Devananda Pandita, with a stick in his hand, managed the crowd so that there would be no disturbance to the dancing and singing of Shri Vakresvara Pandita.  The performance continued until mid-night.  Afterwards, when Vakresvara sat down to rest, Devananada offered obeisances.  Shri Vakresvara Pandita was pleased with his service and blessed him saying, "May you be devoted to Krishna."  From that time onward, Devananda Pandita became a Krishna bhakta.  The blessing of a devotee inspires devotion for Krishna.

 

          When Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu went to Kulia from Puri to see His mother and the Ganges, he took pity on Devananada Pandita.  The Lord said, "You have served Vakresvara so you have become known to Me.  Vakresvara's heart is the abode of Krishna, thus wherever he goes becomes as good as Vaikuntha." In this way Shri Vrndavana dasa glorified Shri Vakresvara in CBh.  Shri Vakresvara lived in Navadvipa, but later went to serve Lord Chaitanya in Puri.

 

 

          It is said that Vakresvara Pandita lived in the house of Kasi Misra.  The Deity of Shri Shri Radhakanta was installed there by Vakresvara's disciple, Gopalaguru.  In Dhyanacandra Paddhati Shri Gopalaguru Gosvami's disciple, Shri Dhyanacandra Gosvami states that the gopi known as Tungavidya, who was extremely intelligent and an expert dancer and musician, who born as Vakresvara Pandita.  He was born on the fifth day of the black fortnight in the month of Asadha and died on the sixth day of the bright fortnight in the month of Asadha (June-July).

 

          The Oriya poet, Shri Govinda deva, was a member of the family of Shri Vakresvara Pandita's family.  Towards the end of the 17th century he composed a volume of poems named Shri Shri Gaura-Krsnodaya, which was published by Shrimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati.

 

          Shri Vrndavana dasa has mentioned that during the time of the Ratha yatra in Nilacala, four kirtana groups were formed. Vakresvara was the main dancer of one of these groups.  Shrimad Krishnadasa Kaviraja also sang the glories of Vakresvara Pandita in CC.

 

          In CCN Sarvabhauma states that he knew Shrivasa, Vakresvara, Acaryaratna and Pundarika during their childhood days.  From this statement it is clear that Vakresvara was far older than Lord Chaitanya.  The Vaishnava community accepted Vakresvara as an eminent author.  Two manuscripts of Vakresvarastaka composed by Gopalaguru are available at Varahanagar Pathavadi (ms. no. 140 is in Devanagari script, and no. 677 is written in Bengali script.  The second verse of this explains that Vakresvara preached the message of Chaitanya in southern and western India.  In 1307 B.S. Amrtalal Pal wrote and published a book entitled Vakresvara Carita, wherein he states that the disciple of Vakresvara named Gopalaguru founded the Radhakaknta Matha.

 

21.     VALLABHA ACARYA/VALLABHA BHATTA:

 

          He was the founder of the Vallabi sampradaya.  In his past incarnation he was born as Sukadeva (GGD 110).  In his earlier days he was a follower of Vishnusvami of the Rudra sampradaya.  His Shripata is at Andhra Pradesh.  His father was Laksmana Bhatta.

 

          Laksmana Bhatta lived at Hanumanghat in Kasi.  When he heard a rumor that Kasi was going to be attacked by Muslims, Laksmana fled to his native place along with his wife, who was seven months pregnant.  Along the way, in Champaranya in Madhya Pradesh, Vallabha was born in 1479 A.D.

 

          As a child Vallabha studied Vaishnava theology under Madhavendra Yati at Kasi.  During a pilgrimage to South India he went to his maternal uncles' house in Vijayanagara.  There, at the royal court, he met the great teacher Shri Vyasatirtha. Vallabha refuted Mayavada there and established Suddhadvaitavada, which inspired the king to perform "Kanakabhiseka" of Vallabha and awarded him the title of "Acarya".

 

          Vallabha continued to travel and preach on three victory tours throughout all of India.  During his second tour he married at Kasi.  Finding it improper to lead the life of a householder at Kasi, Vallabha settled at Adaila village.

 

          In the course of his pilgrimage, Vallabha established a temple on top of Govardhana hill in Vraja, with the help of his trader-disciple Purnamalla.  Afterwards, he defeated all the Mayavadi sannyasis at Pancagangaghat in Kosi.  He then made a new residence in Gokula.  In the temple at Govardhana he installed the Gopala Deity which belonged to Madhavendrapuri.

 

          In 1510 A.D. he and his wife moved to the village of Adaila, where his first son, Gopinatha, was born.  His second son, Vitthalanatha was born at Caranadri in 1515 A.D. Returning to Adaila he completed the commentary of the tenth canto of Shrimad Bhagavatam and began the eleventh canto.

 

          When Lord Chaitanya visited Vrndavana, He met Vallabha Bhatta at Adaila village.  Vallabhacarya brought Lord Chaitanya to his home and served Him and His followers warmly.  Vallabha made the Lord sit on the special Deity-seat and presented the Lord with a new set of upper body cloth and a waist-band (CC. 2.19)

 

          After this Vallabhacarya went to South India to preach and finally reached Puri.  There he met Lord Chaitanya daily and by the arrangement of the Lord, his pride was humbled.

 

          On one occasion at Puri, Vallabha asked Advaita Prabhu, "Since you consider Lord Krishna your husband how come you chant His name?"  Lord Chaitanya answered, "The command of the husband is supreme.  Our husband has directed us to repeat His name aloud constantly."

 

          On another occasion Vallabha said that he did not accept Shridhara Swami's commentary of Shrimad Bhagavatam.  Lord Chaitanya replied, "He who does not acknowledge "Swami" (double meaning of swami, i.e. husband and Shridhara Swami) is a prostitute."

 

          Vallabha Acarya took spiritual initiation from Gadadhara Pandita.  At some point Vallabha gave up the worship of Balagopala and became devoted to Yugala-upasana.  Vallabha's disciples, however, followed the old tradition of worship.

 

          Vallabha placed his son, Vitthalesvara, at the feet of Lord Chaitanya.  In 1531 A.D. Vallabha died at Hanumanghat in Kasi (Sakhanirnayamrta 56.

 

          Vallabha's sampradaya hold that he wrote about eighty four books.  The following are some of the well known titles: Brahmasutrabhasya, Bhagavatatika-suvodhini, Tattvarthadipanivandha, Sodasagrantha, Siksasloka, Srutigita, Mathura-mahatmya, Madhurastaka, Purusottamanamasahasra, Parivrdhastaka, Nandakumarastaka, Pancasloki, Gayatribhasya, etc.  Vallabha held that Bhaktimarga was of two types; Maryada (Vaidhi) and Pusti (Raganuga).  (CC. 2.1.249, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva Gosvami 253)

 

The following is from GPC.

 

          He was born in 1499 A.D. on the 11th day of the black fortnight in the month of Vaisaka.  His father's name was Shri Laksmana Bhatta and his mother was Shri Sallamagaru.  They were Bhradvaja brahmans of Andhra.  Shri Laksmana Bhatta lived in Kasi which is where Vallabacarya studied.  Within a very short period he became well versed in scriptures.  After his marriage he stayed permanently in the village of Adail in Prayaga.

 

          On his way to Shri Vrndavana, Mahaprabhu reached Prayaga. He expressed ecstatic feelings of love there and as a result all the people of that place were overwhelmed with intense feelings of devotion.  Prayaga was never flooded by the rivers Ganga and Yamuna but Shri Gaurasundara, by dint of his divine love, flooded the whole of Prayaga.  When Shri Vallavacarya heard how Mahaprabhu had influenced the people by His noble activities, he came to meet the Lord.  Vallavacarya witnessed the extraordinary beauty of Mahaprabhu from a distance and could at once recognize that He was not an ordinary being.  He offered his regard to Mahaprabhu and in a jovial mood Mahaprabhu embraced him warmly.  Prabhu understood that Vallavacarya was a parama Bhagavata, thus they relished speaking together about Krishna and both of them became overwhelmed with deep feelings of love.  Mahaprabhu controlled His ecstacy as he understood that Vallavacarya was a worshiper following Vatsalya bhava.  Vallavacarya was charmed by the Lord's ecstatic behavior.

 

          Around that time Shri Rupa and Anupama came to have darsana of the lotus feet of Mahaprabhu, who introduced them to Vallavacarya.  Shri Rupa and Anupama glorified Vallavacarya. He was deeply moved by their Vaishnava attitude and was about to embrace them.  But the two brothers humbly cautioned him that they were untouchable.  Acarya was astonished and said, "You are the best of all.  Lord Krishna remains with you, as you are always chanting the holy name of Krishna."  In order to test Acarya, Prabhu purposely said, "You come from a highly respectable religious family, and they are low-caste people, do not touch them."  But again Vallavacarya protested. Hearing Vallavacarya's protests, the Lord became very pleased. 

 

          Vallavacarya invited Mahaprabhu and His companions to his house.  Mahaprabhu agreed and along with his followers proceeded in a boat towards Vallavacarya's house.  However, while crossing the Yamuna the Lord saw the blue black color of the river.  Becoming mad with ecstasy, He wanted to dive in the water.  With great difficulty the Lord's associates managed to restrain the Lord.  They helped the Lord to take His bath and at last brought Him to the house of Vallavacarya.

 

          When Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu arrived at his home, Vallavacarya, being greatly pleased, offered the Lord a nice sitting place and personally washed His feet.  Vallavacarya and his family members then sprinkled that water over their heads.  They then offered the Lord new underwear and outer garments. Vallavacarya worshiped the Lord with great pomp, offering scents, incense, flowers and lamps, and with great respect and care he arranged for Prabhu's lunch.  Thus Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was offered lunch with great love and affection.  Thereafter, the brothers Rupa and Anupama Gosvami were also offered food.  Vallavacarya first offered the remnants of the Lord's food to Shri Rupa and then to Krishnadasa. The Lord was then given spices to purify his mouth. Afterwards he was offered a bed to rest on and Vallavacarya himself massaged His legs.  While Vallavacarya was massaging Him, the Lord urged him to take prasada.  After taking prasada, he again returned to the lotus feet of the Lord. (CC. Madhya)

 

          By that time Raghupati Upadhaya arrived, and Mahaprabhu was anxious to listen to him perform kirtana. Raghupati Upadhaya was a Trihuta Pandita and a great Bhagavata.  When he began describing Lord Krishna, Shri Mahaprabhu's heart filled with intense feelings of love and the Lord embraced him emotionally.  Vallavacarya was overwhelmed by the Lord's display of love, and immediately brought forward his two sons and made them fall down at the Lord's lotus feet.  Upon hearing of Mahaprabhu's arrival, all the villagers came to meet Him.  Simply be seeing Him, they all became devotees of Krishna.

 

          Each of the brahmanas of the village were eager to invite the Lord to their home, but Vallavacarya forbade them to do so.  He then decided not to keep Prabhu in Adail because the Lord had jumped into the river Yamuna in ecstatic love. Therefore he decided to take him to Prayaga.  Vallavacarya said, "If anyone likes, he can go to Prayaga and extend invitations to the Lord there."  In this way he took the Lord with him and started for Prayaga.

 

          As in previous years, the devotees from Gauda arrived at Nilacala just prior to the Ratha yatra festival. By this time Vallava Bhatta also reached Nilacala and met Mahaprabhu. He offered his respects to Prabhu and the latter embraced him with love.  Mahaprabhu received him with much honor and then Vallava Bhatta in a most humble manner said, "Lord Jagannatha has fulfilled my long cherished desire to see You.  Whoever happens to meet You is really fortunate.  Those who have watched You, can easily realize that there is hardly any difference between you and the Almighty.  Whoever remembers You will be purified.  The fundamental religious system in the age of Kali is the chanting of the holy name of Krishna.  Unless empowered by Krishna, one cannot propagate the sankirtana movement.  You have spread the sankirtana movement of Krishna consciousness.  Therefore it is evident that you have the same power as Lord Krishna.  There is no question about it.  You have manifested the holy name of Krishna throughout the world. Anyone who sees you is immediately absorbed in ecstatic love of Krishna.  Without being especially empowered by Krishna, one cannot manifest ecstatic love of Krishna, as Krishna is the only one who can give ecstatic love.  That is the verdict of all revealed scriptures.  (CC. Antya)

 

          In this way Vallava Bhatta paid great respect to Mahaprabhu.  But Mahaprabhu said, "I am a Mayavadi sannyasi! I do not know the essence of worshiping Krishna."  Then one by one He introduced all His associates to Vallavacarya;  "This is Shri Advaita Acarya.  He is just like God.  His constant company has given Me great upliftment.  By his mercy many fallen souls have been transformed into staunch devotees. Here is Shri Nityananda Prabhu Avadhuta.  He is the possessor of divine spirit and His strong passion for Lord Krishna has detached him from the materialistic world.  This is Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, a professor of philosophy, who is an empowered preacher.  This is Ramananda Raya, he is the embodiment of love for Krishna."  Knowing that Vallavacarya's heart was full of pride, Shri Mahaprabhu spoke these words, hinting at how one can learn about devotional service.

 

          Hearing these descriptions, Vallavacarya became desirous of meeting all those devotees.  Then Mahaprabhu said, "Some of them live in Gauda, some in Orissa and others in various different places.  At present everybody has arrived here to witness the Ratha yatra.  You will find them all here."  Then Vallava Bhatta earnestly requested Mahaprabhu to visit his house for lunch.

 

          On another day when Mahaprabhu was taking rest along with Advaita Acarya, Shri Nityananda, Shri Ramananda Raya, Shri Sarvabhauma Pandita and Svarupa Damodara, at that time Shri Vallavacarya arrived and finding all the Vaishnavas there, became astonished.  Bhatta then brought a huge amount of prasada and fed them all.

 

          On the day of the Ratha yatra Vallava Bhatta was full of joy as he witnessed the enchanting dance of Mahaprabhu in the midst of the kirtana surrounded by swarms of people.  After the festival the devotees from Gauda departed, but Vallava remained in Puri. 

 

          One day he approached the Lord wanting to read the notes on the Bhagavata which he had composed.  But Prabhu said, "I am not entitled to listen to the commentary of Bhagavata, I must simply chant the holy name of Krishna.  Even though chanting throughout the day and night, still I cannot complete the prescribed number of rounds, so where is the time to listen to Bhagavata?"  Vallava Bhatta said, "I have derived many meanings of the name of Krishna."  But Mahaprabhu replied, "I do not know any other name of Krishna other than Syamasundara and Yasodanandana."  Seeing that his attempt was a failure Vallava Bhatta gave up and went home feeling very sad. Nevertheless, he persisted in his hopes and decided to approach the other devotees in this regard. 

 

          However, when he requested other devotees to listen to his commentary, they all refused to do so, knowing that Mahaprabhu had no interest in hearing it.  At last, with a heavy heart he went to Shri Gadadhara Pandita and after many requests convinced him to listen to his writings.  Gadadhara Pandita was a very simple and good-hearted devotee. Since Vallavacarya was a highly respected personality, Gadadhara did not dare to refuse his request, although he personally had no interest in listening to Vallavacarya's commentary and knew that Mahaprabhu disapproved of it.  Thus he allowed Vallavacarya to speak, but fixed his mind only on the lotus feet of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

          Everyday Vallavacarya would visit the devotee and present various arguments before them, which were refuted by Advaita Acarya and others.  Thus he failed miserably to establish his own angle of vision and thus became very depressed.

 

          One day Vallava Bhatta the Lord, "If Krishna is like the husband and the devotees are like His Prakrti (wife), why, being the wives, do the devotees utter the name of Krishna--the husband?" Prabhu said, "Vallava, you do not understand true religion.  The religion of the wife is to obey her husband, so if the husband asks her to utter his name, a devoted wife should carry out his order by chanting his name."  Hearing these words Vallava Bhatta became silent. (CC. Antya)

 

          Another day Vallava Bhatta came amongst the devotees and declared that he did not accept the commentary of Shridhara Swami on the Bhagavatam.  Mahaprabhu then said that he who did not believe in the Bhagavata was like a prostitute.

 

          That night Vallavacarya began to think that perhaps he had committed an offence to the Lord, as Prabhu was no longer merciful towards him as he used to be previously.  Thus, the following morning he went before the Lord and humbly presented himself at the feet of the Lord saying, "I am a fool because I wanted to show my knowledge in front of You. But you are the Supreme Lord Himself,thus you showered Your mercy upon me by cutting down my pride."  Then Prabhu said, "No one can refute Shridhara Swami's commentary on the Bhagavata as he is directly empowered by the Lord to explain the sastra.  Thus you should follow Shridhara Swami, and in order to have mental peace and happiness always chant the holy name of Lord Krishna.  Then very soon you will get His mercy."  Vallava Bhatta replied, "If You will be so kind to me, please accept another invitation for lunch at my place."

 

          For the betterment of the entire society, Mahaprabhu rectified Vallabha Bhatta, and through him, preached to the world.  Mahaprabhu and his associates again visited Vallava's house and took prasada, much to the delight of Shri Vallavacarya.

          Though he had previously worshiped the Deity of Balagopala, he later became interested in worshiping the Kisore Gopala Deity of Gadadhara Pandita.  With the permission of Mahaprabhu, Vallava took initiation from Shri Gadadhara Pandita in the Kisore Krishna mantra (CC. Antya)

 

          In 1531 A.D., in the month of Asadha, in the bright fortnight Vallavacarya breathed his last.  He was Sukadeva in Krishna lila.

 

          He was the founder of the Vallavacari sampradaya. Upendranarayana Sinha refuses to accept that the Vallava Bhatta mentioned in CC. is the same person as Vallavacarya, the founder of the Vallavacari sampradaya (Vishnupriya Gauranga Patrika 5.7.257).  But since Kavi Karnapura calls him Sukadeva and it is known that Vallavacarya wrote the Suvodhini commentary of Bhagavata, it is quite likely that they were the same person.  Greerson commits a serious error by considering Vallava Bhatta to be the Vallavacarya who was Laksmi's father (J.R.A.S. 1909 P. 610).  No social relationship ever took place between brahmans of the South and those who belonged to the Vaidika line from Bengal. Right now there is no conflict between the Vallavacari sampradaya and the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradaya.  On the occasion of the fourth annual festival celebrated on 12 Caitra 1331 B.S. by "Pustimergiya Vaishnava Sangha" at Clive Street, Calcutta, Om Vishnupada Shrila Paramhansa Thakura, the Gurudeva of Gaudiya Matha was invited and he delivered a discourse there (Gaudiya 3.32.14).

         

22.     VALLABHACARYA:

 

          He was the father of Shri Laksmipriya devi, the first wife of Mahaprabhu.  He was Janaka in Krishna lila.  (Murari 1.9.6, Chaitanyacandrodayanataka 3.6, CBh. 1.7.73, CC. 2.1.249, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 115-6, Devaki-40, Vrnda-39)

 

22.A    VALLABHACARYA:

 

          He was the author of Krishnamangala (See also "Madhavacarya").  (Premavilasa 20)

 

23.     VALLABHA DASA

 

          He was the great-grandson of Vamsivadana Thakura, an associate of Lord Gauranga.  Vallabha (alias Rajavallabha) was a contemporary of Narottama Thakura.  He wrote the book Vamsivilasa narrating the biography of Vamsivadana Thakura. Two other brothers of Vallabha dasa were also Vaishnava devotees.

 

24.     VALLABHA DASA:

 

          He was the disciple of Hemalata devi, daughter of Shrinivasa Acarya.  He belonged to Shripata Gosvamigrama. (Karnananda 1)

 

 

25.     VALLABHA DASA:

 

          There were about four or five Vaishnava poets bearing this name. It is practically impossible to ascertain who among these composed which poem.

 

26.     VALLABHA DEVI:

 

          She was a resident of Vraja and the wife of Damodaracarya.  The Deity Madanamohana was served in their house.  They were extremely friendly with Sanatana Gosvami. (See also "Damodara Caube")

 

27.     VALLABHA MAJUMDAR:

 

          He was a brahmana by caste and disciple of Ramacandra Kaviraja. (Premavilasa 20, Karnananda 2)

 

28.     VALLABHA MISRA:

 

          He was the father of Laksmipriya, the first wife of Lord Chaitanya.  In his past incarnations he was Janaka of Mithila and Bhismaka, the King of Vidarbha.  (GGD. 44)

 

29.     VALLABHA RANGAVATI:

 

          He was a resident of Kasi.

 

30.     VALLABHA SENA:

 

          He was an ardent devotee from Kancisali and was related to Sivananda Sena.  (CC. 1.10.63, CCNataka 8. 33, Vaishnava Vandana of Dev. 115-6)

 

31.     VALLABHA THAKURA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya and was known as Krishnavallabha Thakura.  (See "Krishnavallabha Thakura")

 

32.     VALLABHACAITANYA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Gadadhara Pandita Gosvami (CC. 1.12.82).  He is known as "Thakura Vallabha" in genealogical tracts and was a member of the brahmana community.

 

          It is said that Vallabha worshiped Mahasakti and performed great austerity in the Himalayan region.  One day Mahasakti told Vallabha that Radha, was existing as the wife of Lord Gauranga in Navadvipa.  Vallabha immediately came to Navadvipa and took spiritual initiation from Gadadhara Pandita Gosvami.

 

          Vallabha was an inhabitant of Radha in Bengal, but when directed by Lord Chaitanya to preach Vaisnavism, he went to Vikrampura in eastern Bengal and established his Shripata at Pancasara.  Later, the Lord crossed the river Padma and went to Nurapura of Vikramapura.  At that time there were twenty Sanskrit schools at Pancasara.  Lord Chaitanya stayed at Pancasara briefly and bathed at the confluence of the rivers on the occasion of Kartika Varuni.

 

          Noting the spiritual potency of Vallabha, the Muslim ruler offered him land at no. 60 Taluka.  There, after receiving the command in a dream, Vallabha installed Deities of Shri Radharamana.  Vallabha's disciple, Purnacandra Bhattacarya offered his daughter in marriage to Vallabha. Fours sons where produced from this marriage; Ramacandra, Madhavendra, Mathuranatha and Ramakrishna.  He also had one daughter. The youngest son, Ramakrishna, lived a celibate life performing Deity service in Vrndavana.  Vallabha's descendants settled in the following places:  Pancasara, Vinodapura, Caragangaramapura, Deobhoga, Ichapura, Basaila, Sialadi, etc.

 

          Vallabha gave his daughter in marriage to Vaidika Vishnudasa, who installed the Deity of Vasudeva at Khatra in Faridpura district.  (Namamrtasamudra 104, Sakhanirnayamrta 18)

 

33.     VALLABHIDASA KAVIRAJA:

 

          He belonged to the family of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Anuragavalli 7)

 

34.     VALLABHIKANTA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was the disciple of Gatigovinda, the son of Shrinivasa Acarya.  (Karnananda 2)

 

35.     VALLABHIKANTA KAVIRAJA:

 

          He was awarded the title "Kavipati".  He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya and belonged to Shripata Vanavisnupura (BRK. 10.135).  He has two brother, the eldest was Ramadasa, and the second one Gopaladasa.  He was present at the Kheturi festival.  (Karnananda 1, Narottamavailasa 6)

 

36.     VAMANA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu.  (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.123)

 

37.     VAMARANYA:

 

          He is mentioned by Jayananda P. 88

 

38.     VAMSI:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu.  A resident of Dharenda, he was the son of Bhima and Nandini.  (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.131)

39.     VAMSI:

 

          He was a Vaishnava poet.  One of his poems was found in a manuscript preserved in the Ratan Library of Siudi ms. no. 2067.

 

40.     VAMSI DASA:

 

          He translated in verse `Nikunjarahasya-stava.

 

41.     VAMSIDASA BABAJI:

 

          He was born in Majitpura in the subdivision of Kisoraganja in the district of Mayamanasimha.  His father's name was Sanatana Malovrahma.  His former name was Bhairavacandra. According to usual custom, he married at an early age but he had no attraction for married life.  Being repeatedly requested by his mother, he dealt with his wife for a single day only. He was initiated into the family of Narottama Thakura and accepted the garb of an ascetic.  At that time the influence of the Kalacanda doctrine was very prominent throughout the country.  He first began worshipping following that particular doctrine, but later entered into the realm of pure Gaudiya Vaisnavism. 

 

          At one one Siddha Shri Gaurakisore baba went to Navadvipa and seeing the sincerity of service of Siddha baba opined, "After Gaurakisore, he will be a great successor but his doctrine will be different."

 

          While in Navadvipa, Vamsidasa Baba        lived in a hermitage and begged alms.  Later when the charge of serving Shri Gaura fell on him, he became totally ependant on begging.  He built a simply hut near the house of the elder Gosvami in Caumuhani and lived there with his Gaurahari.  When he went out begging, he would sometimes carry Gaurahari with him. 

 

          Vamsidasa never shut the door of his hut, though occassionally his belongings would be stolen by thieves.  When his devotees requested him to lock the door he replied, "If He neglects His own house, what Vamsidasa will do?"  Once a devotee gave a golden chain for Gaurahari and a thief stole it.  When Vamsidasa came back from begging he said to his Deity, "To whom have you given Your chain?"  In the evening he got some clue and went to the house of the thief.  When he requested the thief to give back the chain the thief pushed him from the varandah to the ground.  He did not speak a word, but since then he lost one of his legs.  Eventaully that thief lost everyone in his family. 

          Being harassed by the municipality, Vamsidasa left his hut and began to live near the social center house of Jhautala.  Once in the rainy season, he covered his Gaurahari with a ragged blanket and from time to time wiped His face which was wet with drops of rain.  Shrimati Lalita Sakhi dasi could not drag him to live in the Nathmandir or to build a roof over his head.

 

          Vamsidasa's Deity used to speak to him.  Babaji never went anywhere except once to Kenduvilva and once to Kheturi. At the end of his life he stayed for a long time in a room north of the Badala ghat.  There he served Shri Nitai-Gaura and Gadadhara, Shri Radhagovinda and Shri Gopala.  He engaged in their service constatnly without wasting a minute.

 

          He memorised the entire Prarthana and Premabhakticandrika by Shri Narottama Thakura.  Sometimes he sang from Prarthana. He never spoke angrily to anyone, neither did he speak of "I" or "my".  He used to address himself as Vamsidasa.  He always cooked for himself and offered whatever he made to his Deity, never accepting anything but prasada.  Even when he became ill, he simply fasted and never allowed anyone to nurse him. 

 

          There was a campaka tree in the garden nearby which gave two campaka flowers everyday to him.  Even in his old age, he could clim the tree like a strong youngman.  One day, however, he fell from the tree and was severely injured.  From that time forward he was unable to go outside and at that time his disicples, Manohara dasa, Govinda dasa and Jagadvandhu dasa, looked at him.

 

42.     VAMSIDASA THAKURA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya and belonged to Shripata Bahadurpura.  His brother was Syamadasa.  (Premavilasa 20)

 

          According to Karnananda 1 he shifted residence from Bahadurpura to Budhuri and later to Aminabajar, where he installed the Deity of Gopiramanajiu (BRK. 10.299-302)

 

          He took spiritual initiation from Shrinivasa Acarya when the latter stayed with Govindadasa at Budhuri.  Vamsidasa's brother's daughter was married to Badugangadasa.

 

43.     VAMSI THAKURA:

 

          Vaidya by caste, his father was named Kanai Thakura.  His paternal grandfather was the famous Raghunandana Thakura of Shrikhanda.  Vamsi's other brother was named Madana.  (BRK. 13.191)

 

44.     VAMSIVADANANDA THAKURA:

 

          Vamsivadana Thakura was born on the full moon day of Caitra (March-April) in 1416 Saka (Vamsi sikhsa).  He was referred to as Vamsivadana, Vamsidasa, Vamsi and Shri Vadana. The sons of the famous Shrikara Cattapadhya came to live in Kuliya Vendiada village from Vilvagrama or Patuli.  Shri Yudhisthira Cattapadhya, the descendant of Shrikara, had three sons: Shri Madhava dasa Cattapadhya (Chakadi Cattapadhya), Shri Haridasa Cattapadhya (Tinkadi) and Shri Krishnasampatti Cattapadhya (Duikadi).  When Lord Chaitanya came from Puri to Navadvipa Kuliya to visit Sacimata and Ganga devi, He stayed in the house of Madhava dasa Cattapadhya for seven days and there showed His mercy to Shri Devananda Pandita and others (GGD. 179, Pata Paryatana)

 

          Shri Vamsivadananda Thakura was born in the house of Shri Madhava dasa (Chakadi).  His mother's name was Shrimati Candrakala devi.  He was the manifestation of Shri Krishna's flute.  At the time of his birth, Mahaprabhu was present, as well as Advaita Acarya.  Chakadi Cattapadhya was a very ardent devotee of Mahaprabhu.  Lord Gauranga was very affectionate Vamsivadananda.  He is not mentioned in CC, but is refered to in CCN.  In BRK, chapter nine pp. 122-123, Shri Narahari Cakravarti states that when Shrinivsaa came to the house of Mahaprabhu in Navadvipa, Vamsivadananda Thakura showed his mercy to Shrinivasa and helped hom to have a darsana of Shri Vishnupriya devi.  After the disappearance of Lord Chaitanya, Vamsivadananda took care of Vishnupriya devi.  He was famous as an ardent follower of Vishnupriya devi.  After the death of Vishnupriya devi, he transferred the Deity to Mayapura Kuliya Pahadapura.  When his descendants took shelter in Baghnapada after taking shelter of Shri Jahnava mata, at that time that Deity was still in the hands of Malanca dwellers in Kuliya village.

 

          In Kuliya Pahadapura the ancestors of Shri Vamsivadananda Thakura took care of the Deity of Shri Gopinatha.  There he himself installed the Deity of Premavallava.  In later years, he lived in Vilvagrama.  The Bhattacarya family of Vilvagrama were his relatives.  Shri Vamsivadananda had two sons Shri CAitanya dasa and Shri Nitai dasa.  Shri Ramacandra and Shri Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞 were the sons of Shri Chaitanya dasa.  Shri Jahnava mata prayed for Ramacandra and took him into her own care. She initiated him and kept him in Khadadaha to teach him the Vaishnava tattva (Gaudiya no. 22/30-37).  Shri Ramacandra Gosvami remained as brahmacari and gave the chareg of worshiping Shri Ramakrsan of Baghnapada to his younger brother Shri Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞.  Shri Shachinandana€````@P@``€``PP@P€°`° `@```š`@°°`°°  @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`€@ `P€PP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@€p€€€€€€€pppp````````` P````    ```````€````````_›8œȰ_Ȱ_粜娈粜が粞〼粞's sons are the Gosvamis of Baghnapada.

 

          Shri Vamsivadananda Thakura composed padas which were were lively and beautiful.  He composed a equisite son about Sacimata's lamentation when the Lord took sannyasa.  He also composed many songs on Dana lila, Nauka vilasa, and Vana vihara of Shri Krishna.

 

          There are 17 padas in Padakalpataru with the bhanita of Vamsidasa and 25 padas with the bhanita of Vamsivadana. Vamsivadananda was the founding-father of the Gosvami-family of Baghnapada.  His biography is narrated in the following semi-authentic books:  Muralivilasa, Vamsisiksa, Vamsivilasa, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 249, Devakinandana 86, Vrndavanadasa 114

45.     VANACANDRA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shri Gopala Bhatta and the priest of Shri Radhavallavaji of Vrndavana.  He was the third son of Shri Harivamsa Gosvami.

 

46.     VANAMALI:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.142)

 

47.     VANAMALI:

 

          He was the disciple of Rasikananda.  (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.147)

 

48.     VANAMALI ACARYA:

 

          He lived in Navadvipa and negotiated Mahaprabhu's first marriage with Laksmi devi.  He was Visvamitra in Krishna lila. (GGD. 49, CC. 1.15.29, BRK. 12.1237-1238, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 119-120, Devaki. 42, Vrndavanadasa 41)

 

49.     VANAMALI VIPRA/PANDITA:

 

          He was an extremely loyal follower of Lord Chaitanya.  A brahmana pauper, he lived in Bengal.  In his past incarnation he was born as Sudama.  (GGD. 144, BRK. 12.2080-2083, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 108, Devakin. 68, Vrndavanadasa 37, Murari 2.11.1, 2.14.20, CC. Mahakavya 7.76, CBh. 3.9.491, CC. 1.17.113, 1.10.73)

 

50.     VANAMALI VISVAS:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.  (Namamrtasamudra 140)

 

51.     VANAMALI CATTA:

 

          He was a disicple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

52.     VANAMALI DASA/KAVIRAJA:

 

          He belonged to the sakha of Advaita Acarya (CC. 1.12.59). He was the brother of Vishnudasa Vaidya.  In his past incarnation he was Citra (GGD. 131.  In "Sakha Varnana", Ramagopala dasa describes Vanamali Kaviraja as the disciple of Raghunandana. Since it is stated in Vaishnava Vandana that this Vanamali dasa was a brother of Vishnudasa Vaidya then possibly his title was Kaviraja. (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 24, Devaki 107)

 

53.     VANAMALI KAVIRAJA:

 

          He was a disicple of Shrinivasa Acarya.  (Anuragavalli 7)

 

54.     VANAMALI KAVICANDRA:

 

          He belonged to the sakha of Advaita Acarya.  (CC. 1.12.63)

 

55.     VANESVARA BRAHMACARI:

 

          He was the father of Pundarika Vidyanidhi.

 

56.     VANGADESIYA VIPRA:

 

          He was a brahmana from Bengal and a disciple of Narottama Thakura.  Prior to his initiation he was a notorious person. One day at Kheturi, while listening to kirtana sung by Shrinivasa, this brahmana became deeply repentant and surrendered at the former's feet.  Shrinivasa put this brahmana under the care of Narottama. (BRK. 13.167-168)

 

57.     VANGAVIHARI VIDYALAMKARA:

 

          He was a disicple of Madhusudana, one of the family descendants of Shrinivasa Acarya.  He wrote a commentary titled "Kasika" on Dasagosvami's book Stavavali.  In the introduction to the tika he mentions Vrndavanacandra Savda-vidyarnava as his guru.  1644/1674 is shown as the date of compilation of the tika.  This tika is clearly written, is of standard size and helps the reader grasp the subtle concepts of Dasagosvami.

 

58.     VANGAVATI CAITANYADASA:

 

          A disciple of Gadadhara-lineage, he belonegd to Shripata Vangavati.  He was Kali in his past incarnation.  (GGD. 196, 206, CC. 1.12.85, Sakhanirnayamrta 27)

 

59.     VANIKRSNADASA:

 

          He was a resident of Vrndavana dn a devotee of Lord Gauranga.  He accompanied Rupa Gosvami when he went to have darsana of Lord Gopala.

 

60.     VANINATHA BIPRA:

 

          He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya. In his past incarnation he was born as Kamalekha (GGD. 195,204, CC. 1.10.114).  A brahmana by caste, he hailed from Canpahati near Navadvipa.  It is said that the Deities of GauraA Gadadhara which are still being worshiped there, were installed by him. (Murari 4.17.22, CC. Mahakavya 10.6, Jayananda P. 2)

 

          It is stated in BRK. 9.395 and 10.414 that he participated in the festival of Dasa Gadadhara at Katwa and at the festival of Narahari Sarkara at Shrikhanda.

 

61.     VANINATHA BRAHMACARI:

 

          He belonged to the spiritual linesage of Gadadhara.

 

62.     VANINATHA MISRA:

 

          He was related to Jayananda, the author of Chaitanyamangala. 

63.     VANINATHA PANDITA:

 

          He was the brother of Gadadhara Pandita and also belonged to his spiritual lineage.  He was the father of Nayanananda and Hrdayananda.  He lived at Canpahati (Premavilasa 24).  His other name was Jagannatha (CC. 1.12.82).  (Sakhanirnayamrta 17)

 

64.     VANINATHA PATTANAYAKA/NAYAKI:

 

          He was the brother of Ramananda Raya and son of Bhavananda Raya.  Bhavananda offered Vaninatha at the feet of Lord Chaitanya and thereafter Vaninatha stayed constantly with the Lord (CC. 2.10.61).

 

          He took great care in serving prasadam to Vaishnavas at Nilacala.  (CC. 3.9.55, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 165, Devaki 65, Vrndavanadasa 57)

 

65.     VANINATHA VASU:

 

          He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya and was from Shripata Kulinagrama (CC. 1.10.81).

 

66.     VANIVILASA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava saint mentioned in Vrhad Vaishnavatosani Upakrama 6.

 

67.     VASANTA:

 

          He belonegd to the sakha of Lord Nityananda.  (CC. 1.11.50)

 

68.     VASANTA DATTA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura.  (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

69.     VASANTA RAYA:

 

          He was a brahmana by caste and a disciple of Narottama Thakura.  (Premavilasa 20, BRK. 1.415-416)

 

          Ramacandra Kaviraja chose Vasanta Raya to carry a letter to Jiva Gosvami in Vrndavana.  Jiva Gosvami then gave Vasanta a letter to be delivered to Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 5, BRK. 14.16.17).  The second lettter contained news of the death of Bhugarbha Gosvami and inquired about the well-being of Shrinivasa Acarya's eldest son Vrndavana dasa.

 

          Vasanta was a poet of great merit and fifty-one poems composed by him in Vrajvuli are found in Padakalpataru.

 

70.     VASANTA RAYA:

 

          He was a scion of the Kayastha caste, the son of Gunananda Guha and the cousin of Pratapaditya, the King of Bengal.  He and his cousin, Vikramaditya, founded the Kingdom of Jessore.  During the rule of Suleman Karrani in Bengal between 1563-1572 A.D., Vasanta's father Gunananda settled at Vrndavana for the rest of his life.

 

          Around 1570 A.D. at the initiative and financial assistance of King Vasanta Raya, Gunananda built a new temple on the south of the old temple of Madanamohana.  The Madanamohana Deity was served here before the temple built by Krishnadasa began to crumble.  (See also "Gunananda Guha")

 

71.     VASU GHOSH:

 

          The three brothers Shri Vasudeva Ghosh, Shri Madhva Ghosh and Shri Govinda Ghosh Thakura were all expert singers (CC. 1.10.115).  Shri Nityananda Prabhu used to dance in rhythm to the tune of their singing (CBh. 3.5.455).  Some say that their maternal uncle's house was in the village of Vudana (or Vurangi) uner the district of Shrihatta.  For some reason their father went to live in Kumarahatta.  Later, these three brothers went to live in Navadvipa.  They eblonged to the Kayastha sect of Uttara Radhi.  They were very intimate associates of Shri Chaitanya and Shri Nityananda.  Shri Shrimad Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada has said that these three brothers were the embodiment of the sweetness of Shri Radha of Vraja.  Shri Vasudeva Ghosh Thakura described the pastimes of Lord Chaitanya's childhood in detail.  He also wrote many songs about Shri Gauranga, Shri Rama and Shri Krishna.  In some songs he described the sannaysa  lila of Shri Gauranga and also the beauty of Lord Nityananda.

 

          In GGD. 188, Shri Govinda, Shri Madhava and SRi Vasudeva Ghosh are described as Kalavati, Rasollasa and Gunatunga sakhi of Vraja respectively.  During Mahaprabhu's stay at Puri, the three brothers used to visit Puri every year and perform sankirtana at the time of the Ratha yatra.  In later years the brothers lived at different places:  Shri Govinda at Agradvipa, Shri Madhava Ghosh at Daihata and Shri Vasudeva Ghosh Thakura at Tamluka. 

 

          It is said that Shri Govinda Thakura had no sons and thus wondered who would perform the sraddha ceremony after his death.  In a dream Shri Gopinatha told him not to worry, He would perform the sraddha.  When Shri Govinda Ghosh left the world, th next day Shri Gopinatha performed sraddha.  To this day, on the disappearance day of Govinda Ghosh, Gopinatha offers oblations to the deceased.

 

          Shri Vasudeva Ghosh left the world on the second day of the bright fortnight of Kartika (Oct.-Nov).  (Locanandasa 8, CC. 2.11.77, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 196, Devaki. 82, Vrnd. 68, For further details see the followin two works:  Vasudeva Ghosh O Tahara Padavali by Malavika Caki, Calcutta, Bangiya Sahitya Parisat, Visvakosa, entry on "Agradvipa")

 

72.     VASUDHA:

 

          She was the wife of Lord Nityananda and daughter of Suryadasa Sarkhel.  She was the mother of Viracandra prabhu, who was Anangamanjari in his past incarnation (GGD. 65-66). (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 41-42, Devaki. 12, Vrnd. 15)

 

73.     VASUDEVA BHADARA:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.  (Vaishnava Vandana)

 

74.     VASUDEVA BHATTACARYA:

 

          He was the father of Kasisvara Pandita of Catra village in the district of Hooghly.  He was an erudite scholar, financially affluent and an extremely devout person.  (See "Kasisvara")

 

75.     VASUDEVA DATTA:

 

          In his previous incarnation he was the singer Madhuvrata (GGD. 140, CC. 1.10.41).    He was the brother of Mukunda Datta, a close associate of Lord Chaitanya.  His Shripata was in Chanhara village in Chittagong.  According to Premavilasa 22 Vasudeva was born in  Amvastha caste (Vaidya).  In the book Suvarnavanik by Dharmananda Bharati, Vasudeva is stated to have come from the Suvarnavanik (jeweller) caste..  (CC. 1.11.138)

 

          He later settled at Kancrapada in 24 Parganas where he set up the Shripata.  The Deity of Madanagopala worshiped by Vasudeva stands at Mamgachi near Purvasthali.

 

          B.B. FMajumdar writes in CCU P. 686 that after reading the Mahakavya of Kavikarnapura and CC. it is difficult to believe that Vasudeva lived at Nilacala later.  Krishnadasa Kaviraja states that Lord Chaitanya directed Sivananda Sen to take care of the family responsibilities of Vasudeva Datta. (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 93, Devaki. 26, Vrnd. 30), Murari 4.17.5, CC Mahakavya 10.146, CCNataka 8.33, CBh. 1.2.16, Jayananda P. 2, CC. 2.10.79) In CC Mahakavya Karnapura calls Vasudeva "Bhisagrsabha"

 

76.     VASUDEVA DAIVAJNA:

 

          He was the teacher of Rasikananda when the latter was a child.  (Rasikamangala Purva 9.5)

 

77.     VASUDEVA DVIJA:

 

          He was a brahmana from Navadvipa.  He made up the various actors on the day when the drama was enacted.  (CC Nataka 3.12, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 109, Devaki. 36, Vrnd. 37)

 

78.     VASUDEVA KAVIRAJA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya (BRK. 14.21).  One letter of Jiva Gosvami's inquires about Vasudeva's health. (BRK. 14.18, Karnananda 1)

 

79.     VASUDEVA KUSTHI:

 

          He was an ardent devotee of Lord Chaitanya from South India.  When Lord Chaitanya visited the Kurma Mandira located about eight miles east of Caikakol railway station on the seashore of Ganjam district, this brahmana was cleansed of leprosy by the grace of the Lord.  (CC. 2.7.131, Murari 3.14.3, CC Mahakavya 12.106, CC nataka 7.3, Jayananda P. 38, CC. 2.1.93)

 

80.     VASUDEVA SARVABHAUMA:

 

          See "Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya"

 

81.     VASUDEVA SIYALA:

 

          He was a brahmana from the land of Radha.  First he was a Gaudiya Vaishnava but was later driven out of the community due to misconduct (Premavilasa 24).

 

          When the worship of Lord Chaitanya began to spread, a number of charlatans began to pose as divine beings in order to draw similar reverence.  Vasudeva Siyala, Vishnudasa Kapindra, Madhava Cudadhari, etc, were amongst some of these self-styled incarnations of Lord Krishna, Rama, etc. Information on these hypocrites can be found in Gauraganacandrika, Premavilasa, CBh. etc.  Out of comtempt, common people called them names like Siyala (a jackal), or Kapindra (monkey-king), etc.

 

82.     VASUDEVA TIRTHA:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.  In his past incarnation he was one of the nine Yogindras (GGD. 98-101, Namamrtasamudra 164, Vaishnava Vandana of JIva 271, Devaki. 131, Vrnd. 130)

 

83.     VATNARAMA DASA:

 

          He was also known as Batua Ramadasa and was a disciple of Narottama Thakura.  (Premvavilasa 20, See under "Ramadasa Batua")

 

84.     VECARAMA BHADRA:

 

          He was a disicple of Narottama Thakura (Premavilasa 20). However, Narottamavilasa 12 mentions his name as "Boncarama Bhadra")

 

85.     VEDAGARBHA:

 

          According to Pata Paryatana he was a disciple of Abhirama dasa.  He hailed from Shripata Kaiyada village of Burdwan. (Vejha Gupta: Murari Gupta, Chaitanyamangala 52.393)

 

86.     VENKATA BHATTA:

 

          He was a resident of Shrirangam and belonged to the Shri sampradaya.  It was at his earnest request that Lord Chaitanya stayed with him for four months during the Lord's pilgrimage in the South.  Being a Vaishnava in the Ramanupa-sampradaya, Vyenkata Bhatta worshiped the Deity of Laksmi and Narayana. Seeing his pure devotion, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was very satisfied.  Constantly associating with one another, Mahaprabhu and Vyenkata Bhatta gradually developed a friendly relationship.  Indeed, sometimes they laughted and joked together.  The Lord told Bhattacarya, "Your worshipable goddess of fortune, laksmi, always remains on the chest of Narayana, and she is certainly the most chaste woman in the creation.  However, my Lord is Lord Shri Krishna, a cowherd boy who is engaged in tending coes. Why is it that Laksmi, being such a chaste wife, wants to associate with My Lord?"

 

          Venkata Bhatta then said, "Lord Krishna and Lord Narayana are one and the same, but the pastimes of Krishna are more relishable due to their sportive nature.  Since Krishna and Narayana are boththe same personality, Laksmi's association with Krishna does not break her vow of chastity.  Rather, it was in great fun that the goddess of fortune wanted to associate with Lord Krishna.  Mother Laksmi, the godess of fortune, is also an enjoyer of transcendental bliss; therefore if she wanted to enjoy herself with Krishna, what fult is there?  Why are You joking so about this?"

 

          Lord Chaitanya replied, "I know that there is no fault on the part of the goddess of fortune, but could you tell me why she could not enter into the rasa dance, whereas the authroities on Vedic knowledge could?"

 

          Venkata Bhatta admitted, "I cannot enter into the mysteries of this behavior.  I am an ordianry human being. Since my intelligence is very limited and I am easily agitated, my mind cannot enter within the deep ocean of the pastimes of the Lord.  You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krishna Himself.  You know the purpose of Your activities, and the person whom You enlighten can also understand Your pastimes."

 

          The Lord replied, "One who worships the Lord by following in the footsteps of the inhabitants of Vrajabhumi attains the Lord and gets to know Him as He is known in the transcendental planet of Vraja. There He is known as the son of Maharaja Nanada.  The authorities in Vedic literatures known as srutiA gna wroshiped Lord krishna in the ecstasy of the gopis and followed in their footsteps.  The personified authorities on the Vedic hymns acquired bodies like those of the gopis and took birth in Vrajabhumi.  In those bodies they were allowed to enter into the Lord's rasa-lila dance.  Lord Krishna belongs to the cowherd comunity, and the gopis are the dear-most lovers of Krishna. Although the wives of the denizens of the heavenly planets are most opulent within the material world, neither they nor any other women in the material universe can acquire Krishna's assocaition.  The goddess of fortune, Laksmi, wanted to enjoy Krishna and at the same time retain ehr spiritual body in the form of Laksmi.  However, she did not follow in the footsteps of the gopis in her worship of Krishna."

 

          Before this explanation was given by Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Venkata Bhatta thought that Shri Narayana was the Supreme Personality of Godhead.  Thinking in this way, Venkata Bhatta believed that worship of Narayana was the supreme form of worship, superior to all other processes of devotional service, for it was followed by the Shri Vaishnava disciples of Ramanujacarya.  Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu understood this misconception of Venkata Bhatta, and to correct it the Lord talked so much in a joking way.

 

          The Lord then continued, "My dear Venkata Bhatta, please do not continue doubting.  Lord Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Gdohead, and this is the conclusion of Vedic literatures."  In this way the Lord deflated the pride of Venkata Bhatta.

 

          Venkata Bhatta said, "I am an ordinary fallen living entity, but You are Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself.  The transcendental pastimxes of the Lord are unfathomable, and I do not know anything about them.  Whatever You say I accept as the truth.  I have been engaged in the service of Laksmi-Narayana, and it is due to Their mercy that I have been able to see Your lotus feet.  Out of Your causeless mercy You have told me of th glories of Lord Krishna. No one can reach the end of the opulence, qualities and forms of the Lord.  I can now understand that devotional service unto Krishna is the sureme form of worship.  Out of Your causeless mercy You havemade my life successful simply by explaining the facts."  After saying this Venkata Bhatta fell down before the lotus feet of the Lord, and the Lord, out of His causeless mercy, embraced him.

 

          When the period of Caturmasya was completed, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu took permission to leave Venkata Bhatta.  Venkata Bhatta did not want to return home but also wanted to go with the Lord.  It was with great endeavor that Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu bade him farewell.  When He did so, Venkata Bhatta fell down unconscious.  Venkata's son was Gopala Bhatta Gosvami (See also "Gopala Bhatta Gosvami")

 

87.     VENKATACARYA:

 

          In Haribhaktivilasa 15.68 tika he is referred to as Pandita Vedanta Desikacarya, an erudite scholar from the Shri Vaishnava community.  He was born in a village near Kanci in 1268 A.D. and travelled extensively to the holy tirthas throughout India.  He brought immense glory to the Shrisampradaya through his spoless character and refutation of Advaitavada.  He wrote a "Tattvatika" on Shribhasya. 

 

          In 1310 A.D. Malik Kafur, the army commander of Emperor Aluddin launched a campaign to South India.  In 1326 A.D. the Muslims entered Shrirangam and plundered the town and temple. At this time Vedantadesika Venkatacarya, with the assistance of Lokacarya, arranged to move the Deity of Shri Ranganatha to Tirupati through a forest route, while he and the two sons of Sudarsana Suri went to Yadavadri carrying the Srutaprakasika tika of Sudarsanacarya.  Later, with the assistance of an extremely influential brahmana ruler named Goppanarya, Venkatacarya succeeded in defeating the Muslims and brought the Ranganatha Deity back to His original seat at Shrirangam in 1371 A.D.  He died the same year.  Of the several books he wrote on behalf of the Shrisampradaya the one titled "Satadusani" reveals a hundred deficiencies of the SankaraA mayavada philosophy.  Jiva Gosvami refers to this book in his Vaishnavatosani 10.87.2

 

88.     VETALA BHATTA/VETALA SIMHA:

 

          He was a Bhatta or Bhat Brahmana.  He sang hymns at the time of Lord Gauranga's marriage to Vishnupriya. (Chaitanyamangala of Jayananda)

 

89.     VIDHU CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was a disicple of Narottama Thakura.  (Premavilasa 20)

 

90.     VIDHUMUKHI DEVI:

 

          She was the wife of Kalidasa Misra, the paternal uncle of Vishnupriya devi.  She was the mother of Madhava Misra, the author of Krishnamangala.  (Premavilasa 19)

 

91.     VIDYANANDA:

 

          He was a resident of Kulinagrama (CC. 1.10.80).  He participated in the festival of Katwa.  (Premavilasa 19)

 

92.     VIDYANANDA PANDITA:

 

          He received the mercy of Gadadhara dasa.  The following is a quote about him taken from "Narahari Sakha nirnaya." 

 

          "Vidyananda Pandita is the name of a great renunciate on whom Gadadhara dasa Thakura showered his mercy.  Vidyananda received a divine command in which he was told that Lord Gauranga desired to be worshiped by Vidyananda at Kantakanagara.  Thus Vidyananda collected a Deity and prepared a hut with leaves in the forest.  He then begged some rice and gathered wild leaves which his wife cooked and offered to the Deity."

 

          It is said that Daityari and Kamsari Ghosh of Kulaigrama

received a divine command in a dream and thereafter ordered three sets of Deities of Lord Gauranga made and handed them over to Narahari Sarkara Thakura.  These were installed as follows:  the big one at Katwa, the middle one at Ganganagara (Bhagkola) and the small one at Shrikhanda.

 

          By the grace of Dasa Gadadhara, Vidyananda brought the big Deity and began serving Him.  One day Viracandra Gosvami came there and being pleased to see how Vidyananda served the Deity, he commanded that Vidyananda need no longer go out for begging.  His needs would automatically be taken care of. Shortly thereafter some pilgrims arrived there on the occasions of sankranti (Bengali end of month) purnima and filled Vidyananda's go-down with offerings.  Thus the service of the Deity was gradually enhanced.  (Sakhavarnana p. 8, of Ramagopala dasa)

 

 

93.     VIDYANANTA ACARYA:

 

          According to Yadunatha, he belonged to the spiritual lineage of Gadadhara.

 

94.     VIDYANIDHI:

 

          See under "Pundarika Vidyanidhi"

 

95.     VIDYANIDHI:

 

          He was one of the close associates of Lord Gauranga.  In his past incarnation he was one of the nine Nidhi's (GGD. 102A 103).

 

96.     VIDYAPATI:

 

          He was a famous Vaishnava poet.  Some think that he was a Bengali who lived in Mithila (Bihar).  He was the court poet fo Sivasinha, the King of Mithila.  The following are his compositions:  Padavali, Purusa Pariksa, Kirtilata, Likhanavali, Saivasarvasvasara, Ganga-vakyavali, Vibhagasara, gayapattana, goraksavijaya nataka and Durgabhaktitarangini.

 

          Several poems composed by Vidyapati carry the name of his patron King Sivasimha and Queen Lachimadevi.  It is said that Vidyapati had a relationship of profound love with the queen and instantly upon seeing her he spontaneously compoesd poems.

 

          The superiortiy of Vidyapati's writings is borne out by the fact that Lord Chaitanya deeply relished Vidyapati's poems while residing in Gambhira.

 

          Other information on Vidyapati is available in connection with Padavali literature.  The manuscript of "Goraksa vijaya nataka" written by Vidyapati is preserved in Nepal. It contains the stories of how Matsyendranatha, a victim of attachment to women, was recued by his disciple Goraksanatha. Songs of this text are in Vrajvuli while other parts are in Sanskrit and Prakrt.  Vidyapati wrote this musical drama ordered by King Sivasimha to celebrate the festival fo Siva Bhiravesvara at Mithila sometime before 1416 A.D.  This story is stated in Bhaktamala 14.6 and Visva Bharati Patrika 12.4.

 

97.     VIDYAVACASPATI:

 

          He was the son of Mahesvara (Narahari Visarada) and the brother of the famous Vasudeva Sarvabhauma.  His origin name was Vishnudasa and he migrated from Navadvipa and built his Shripata at Kumarahatta.

 

          During Lord Chaitanya's first visit from Puri to Gauda, He came to Vishnudasa's house at Vidyanagara but due to the crowds of visitors who had gathered there, the Lord quietly went off in the night to the house of Madhava dasa at Kulia village (See also "Vasudeva Sarvabhauma", BRK 12.3865, 1.598).

 

          He wrote the commentary on Tattvacintamani. (Vange Navyanyayacarca pp. 51-52)

 

          In his past incarnation he was born as Sumadhura of Vraja (GGD. 170).  In CCU. pp. 68 B.B. Majumdar states:  According to Jayananda P. 12 he hailed from the village of Piralya, now known as Parulia.  Sanatana Gosvami sings praise to him among other gurus in the introductory part of Brhad Vaishnavatosani. (Murari 3.17.14, CBh. 1.1.11, CC. 2.1.140)

 

98.     VIDYAVIRINCI:

 

          Jayananda explains in Chaitanyamangala that shortly before the birth of Lord Gauranga, due to political turnoil at Navadvipa, Sarvabhauma and others left the place.  However, Vidyavirinci and Vidyananda stayed in Navadvipa.  According to Kulapanji (genealogical records) both were brothers of Sarvabhauma.  Vidyavirinci  was also called Krishnananda (See manuscript from Rajasahi at BSP, p. 118.2)

 

99.     VIHARIDASA VAIRAGI:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura.  (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

100.    VIHARILALA GOSVAMI:

 

          He was a descendant from the family-line of Kanu Thakura of Bhajanaghat.  He wrote the book Kanutatvanirnaya.                       

 

101.    VIJAYA:

 

          She was the wife of Suryadasa Misra, a resident of Navadvipa.  She had two sons, Sanatana and Kalidasa. According to Premavilasa 19, Kalidasa, named originally Parasara, became so named as he was a devotee of goddess Kali. Sanatana Misra's daughter was Vishnupriya Devi.

 

102.    VIJAYA DASA:

 

          He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Advaita Prabhu. (CC. 1.12.61)

 

 

103.    VIJAYA DASA AKHARIYA:

 

          A resident of Navadvipa, he belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya.  He had beautiful handwriting, hence he was popularly known as "Akhariya" (copyist).  He copied several books for Lord Gauranga.  The Lord referred to him as "Ratnavahu".  In his past incarnation Vijayadasa was Kundanidhi (GGD. 103).  He was overwhelmed with ecstacy on the day in which Lord Gauranga revealed his spiritual opulence (CC. 1.10.65-66, BRK. 12.3770-71)

 

104.    VIJAYADHVAJA:

 

          He was a monk descending seventh in the line from Madhva, belonging to Pejavara Matha.  He wrote a commentary on Bhagavata-Tatparya of Madhvacarya (Padaratnavali), Yamakabharatatika, Dasavatara-Harigathastotra, Shri Krishnastaka, etc.  Jiva Gosvami mentions Vijayadhvaja and Vyasatirtha as "Veda Vedarthavit-srestha (supreme authority on the Vedas) in his Tattvasandarbha and Sarvasamvadini.

 

105.    VIJAYAKRSNA GOSVAMIPADA:

         

          He was born to Shrimati Svarnamayi devi in the house of Ananda Candra Gosvami of Sikarpura village in the district of Nadia on 19th Sravana (July-August), 1841 A.D., Jhulana Purnima.  Shri Ananda Candra Gosvami, the father of Vijaykrishna, was the seventh generation descendent of Shri Advaita Prabhu. Vijaykrishna's father was a great scholar of Shrimad Bhagavatam and noted religionist.  It is said that he personally cooked all the bhoga for Shri Syamasundara.  He would first prepare by washing all the wood for cooking in the Ganges.  He was known to always carry the Salagrama sila around his neck. Svarnamayi devi was also exceedingly devotional and extremely kind-hearted.

 

          In his childhood Vijaykrishna was very restless and naughty.  Although involved in numerous accidents, he always survived miraculously.  He excelled in education, talent and memory.  Vijaykrishna was admitted to the Satipura Sanskrit Grammar School and within a very short period he mastered Mugdhavodha grammar.  As per the old family tradition, he was converted by his mother.  His kind behavior and proper respect to all women was visible throughout his life.

 

          While studying at the Sanskrit college he married. Shortly thereafter he became an Advaitavadi after reading the commentary of Sankaracarya.  Once he went to his disciple's house in the village of Amalagachi in the district of Rangapura where he listened as his disciple expressed his deep dedication to him.  From that day he gave of his post of spiritual master, considering his great attachment.  Later he heard an oracle which said, "Think of the world beyond death." He inquired about the speaker but could not find him.  Vijay became afraid and was suddenly attacked with fever and from that very moment the foundation of the doctrine of Vedanta shattered.

 

          In 1860 A.D. he discarded his sacred thread after being converted into the Brahmo religion by Maharsi Devandranatha Thakura.  As a preacher he taught Brahmoism in various places such as Baghanchar, Santragachi, Santipura, etc. in the year 1863 A.D.  He was elected the chancellor of Adi Brahmo Samaj. He went to Santipura and at the request of Shri Harimohana Pramanik, a devotee, he started reading Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita and gained mental peace.  He went to meet Shri Chaitanya dasa babaji and Shri Bhagavandasa babaji and relished their cordial gestures and sweet conversation.  After hearing a devotional son from his elder brother Shri Vrajagopala prabhu, Vijaykrishna tried to introduce devotional songs in the Brahmo Samaj. 

 

          In 1865, while living in Dacca, Vijay started publicity and medical practice in places like Barishal, Tripura, Noakhali and Syllet.  Though he earned fame in the medical practice, he decided to leave the practice, considering it to be a waste of time, and began concentrating more on preaching activities.  His preaching attracted many people.  They were also charmed by his ideal way of life.  Shri Kesava Sen and others gave him great encouragement.

 

          While he stayed with the Indian Brahmo Samaj he started medical practice, teaching, writing essays for journals all through the day and night.  Due to this hard labor he was attacked with heart ailment.  After being inspired by a dream, he went to a saint in Jagannatha Ghat and recovered slightly by his medicine.  While staying in Kasi, Shriman Trailanga Swami took him in a secluded place near the Varuna river and initiated him.  In search of a spiritual teacher, Vijay travelled to many place and in the year 1883 A.D. in the month of Asadha he received initiation and the method of worshiping from Brahmananda Paramahamsa ji of Manasa Sarovara in Akasaganga hill in Gaya.  When he was engaged in deep meditation and worship, his guru appeared and advised him to take sannyasa from Hariharananda Sarasvati in Kasi.  But after , at the order of his religious teacher, he again began living with his wife.  When he was in Dacca, he became frustrated and left his meditation but again, by the order of his guru, he went to Jvalamukhi and acquired mental peace and again he was engaged in meditation.

         

          In 1888 A.D. in the month of Vadra (Aug-Sept), he established the asrama in Gendaria on the auspicious day of Janmasthami and started living with his family.  He stayed with the saints in Kasi and other places and then in 1927 A.D. he went to Vrndavana as per the order of Paramahamsaji and lived one year in the temple of Deuji which belonged to Gopinatha Bagha.  During this time he had frequent exchanges with Gaurasiromani during which time he witnessed many strange incidents.  Vijay, along with many other saints, went in their astral bodies to see Muktinatha.  In 1927 A.D., on 10th Falguna after the death of Yogamaya devi, he went to the Kumbha Mela in Hardwar where he stayed with many saints.  In 1306 B.S on 22nd Jaistha he breathed his last after eating sweets poisoned by the priests of a certain Matha in Puri.

 

          He wrote Vaktrta and Upadesa and Asavatira Upakhyana.

 

106.    VIJAYANANDA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava poet.  His poem no. 2242 in Padakalpataru deals with Lord Gauranga.  He may have been the same person as Vijaya dasa "Ratnavahu" the copyist.

 

          107.    VIJAY PANDITA:

 

          He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Advaita Acarya (CC. 1.12.65).

 

108.    VIJAYA PURI:

 

          He was the maternal uncle of Advaita Acarya, not by blood-relations, but through their residence in the same village.  He lived in Navagrama earlier.  Advaita called him "Durvasa", while Navha Devi, Advaita's mother, called Vijaya "brother."  He took spiritual initiation from Laksmipati, the guru of Madhavendra Puri.  Vijaya used to travel with Madhavendra Puri (Premavilasa 24.228)

 

          Haricarana dasa, the author of Advaitamangala heard the biography of Advaita Acarya orally from Vijay Puri at Navagrama in Shrihatta and then he wrote this book.

 

          Another book Advaita Prakasa 4.14 records Vijaya's meeting with Advaita Acarya at Kasi.

 

          Chapter three of Advaitavilasa states that on his arrival at the house of Advaita, Vijaya listened to the interpretation of Shrimad Bhagavatam presented by Advaita and on request from the devotees Vijaya narrated the childhood and adolescent sports of Advaita Prabhu.

 

109.    VILASA ACARYA:

 

          He was a resident of Beleti village of Chittagong.  He was the court-scholar of the local King Citrasena.  His son was Madhava Misra, who was the father of Gadadhara Pandita Gosvami.  (Premavilasa 24)

 

110.    VILVAMANGALA:

 

          He belonged to a brahmana-caste family residing on the western bank of the river Krishnavenva in South India.  Due to past sinful acts he became deeply attached to the company of a prostitute named Cintamani who resided on the eastern bank of the said river.  This attachment was so intense that one monsoon night even ignoring the observance of his father's funeral rites, Vilvamangala went through extreme difficulty to reach the place of Cintamani.  He had to cross the turbulent river by holding on to a corpse and later finding the doors of her house closed, he climbed the wall holding on to a snake. Once entering the premises he lost consciousness. 

 

          Cintamani nursed him back to his senses and then spoke with detachment as follows:  Listen to me, oh son of a brahmana.  If you had directed the passion you felt for me to attaining the Supreme Lord, you would have certainly obtained the divine grace of the Supreme Lord."

 

          Vilvamangala spent the night there and the following morning went to the asrama of a guru residing in nearby Somagiri. Serving his guru with unfaltering devotion, Vilvamangala at last went to Vrndavana.  On the way he chanted spontaneously some slokas as prompted by Lord Krishna.  These slokas were compile by his companions and presented in the book titled Shri Krishnakarnamrta.  The name Lilasuka was given to Vilvamangala by his guru.

 

          During the Gambhira-lila Lord Chaitanya enjoyed listening to this book day and night.  (CC. 2.9.307-308)

 

111.    VIMALA DEVI:

 

          She was the wife of Gauridasa Pandita.  They had two sons named Balarama and Raghunatha.

 

112.    VIMALAPRASADA DATTA:

 

          See "Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami"

 

113.    VINDHU DASA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava poet whose five poems are included in Padakalpataru.

 

 

 

114.    VINODA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu.  (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.154)

 

115.    VINODA RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura.  (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

116.    VINODA THAKURA:

 

          He was the son of Vamsi Thakura, the latter being the grandson of Raghunandana Thakura.  Vinoda moved from Shrikhanda to settle in Adampura in the district of Birbhum, where he installed Deities of Radhavallabha.  This Deity was brought back to Shrikhanda in 1352 (1945 A.D.) where family descendants of Harirama worship it.

 

117.    VIPINA BIHARI CATTAPADHYA:

 

          Bipina bihari was born in the month of Pausa in the Bengali year 1276 (1869 A.D.) in a Radhi class Kulina family of Kayastha lineage at the village of Makadadaha on the bank of a river, previously known as Sarasvati, in the district of Howrah.  The place was well known on account of its temple of the goddess Makadacaudi.  It is said that the deity of Makadacaudi was originally very tall but gradually became smaller due to the deity going underground over a period of time.  The inhabitants of the village mainly consist of a group of prosperous and respectable brahmanas. 

 

          Bipina bihari was the second son of Syamacarana Cattopadhya, (his mother's name was Tarangini devi, while Kedara babu was Bipin's elder brother), a devout Vaishnava of virtuous practices, and lived in a house in close proximity of the famous temple.  Syamacarana, a highly-ranked employee in charge of a group of post offices, had his posting at Shrihatta.  He used to hold Harinama-sankirtana at his residence everyday.  It is said that in course of his kirtana Syamacarana and his associate, Devendra Cakravarti, used to become so charged with devotional ecstacy that they would drop on the floor and remain unconscious for hours after concluding their nama-recital.  Some non-believers among the audience who lived in the neighborhood, did not accept the said state of unconsciousness of Syamacarana and Devendra.  Thus one day they held pieces of burning charcoal against their unconscious bodies.  However, they were shocked to see that there was no visible reaction from the bodies lying on the floor, neither where there an marks of injury on them.  Upon realizing their mistake, the non-believers had a change of heart and became devotees of Syamacarana.

 

          Bipina babu had to face many obstacles in the progress of study during his boyhood due to financial difficulties. Nevertheless, through sheer perseverance and dedication he passed his B.A. examination with honors and went on to complete his law degree with success.  In due course he started to practice as a lawyer at the Hugli Court (at that time Howrah and Hugli were under one district).

 

          He had a religious trend of mind from a very early age. He is stated to have asked his kula-guru (family priest) when the latter had been reciting Vedic incantations during his Upanayana ritual, to reveal to him the prescribed mantra.  The Kula-guru said that he was not empowered to do so and advised Bipina to keep company of saints and ascetics. 

 

          During his boyhood Bipina was fond of enacting rasa-lila in the company of boys and girls of his own age.  Sometimes he would sit in the posture of meditation with his eyes closed and then become fully absorbed.  Bipina himself was a very simple and truthful person and acted according to the advice of others without hesitation, which endangered his life on many occasions.

          In course of his search for the association of saints as advised by his kula-guru, Bipina became the target of many wicked persons in the guise of sadhus.  On one occasion he was convinced by a so-called sadhu to smoke ganja, though with repugnance, and was robbed of his possessions. 

 

          On another occasion a sadhu came to Bipina's place at Makadadaha and told him that he would be able to have the darsana of devi provided Bipina would worship kavna-pisaci (evil spirits) for twenty one days without taking any food except the juice of a green coconut at night only after completion of his daily worship.  Natural believer that he was, Bipina at once agreed to abide by the sadhu's advice and after receiving the mantra dedicated himself to the prescribed method of worship.  He rapidly lost weight and became weak, yet without paying any heed to the advice of his relatives and friends, he continued with the worship.  On the night of the twentieth day of worship, Bipina experienced a vision Sarasvati and was startled.  So, he requested his boyhood friend Madhusudana Bhattacarya to sleep near the adjoining veranda on the following night and warned him to come to his rescue if he heard a loud scream.  After going through the routine worship around midnight of the last day when Bipina was offering leaves of vela to invoke the goddess, he suddenly realized that the vela leaves instead of falling on the ground were becoming disappearing instantaneously.  Out of fear he lost his concentration and began chanting the prescribed mantra incorrectly.  He felt as if his body were being forcibly pulled by the evil spirit of Kavna and screamed out in fright.  As pre-arranged, his friend Bhattacarya quickly came into the room and slowly nursed Bipina back to a normal state of mind. 

 

          But there was no respite for Bipina babu, because soon after this incident, as if under the influence of an evil spirit, he became seriously ill with very high fever resulting in a state of delirium, malfunctions of his liver and kidney and constant bleeding from his gums.  He remained bed-ridden for a long time and the doctors gave up all hopes of his survival.  A deed of will in respect of his properties was drawn up.  Bipina had become so weak that he could neither talk nor express his feelings.  He helplessly watched his mother shedding tears of grief sitting by his bedside. Although he was not so bothered about the impending danger to his life, but he became apprehensive that people around him may attribute the cause of his dangerous state of health to the dishonest and mischievous actions of sadhus with whom he got mixed up, and turn antagonistic against all sadhus in general.

 

          Thinking in this way Bipina felt despondent and exclaimed "Oh Hari, Oh Hari."  The very remembrance of the name of the Lord caused a spontaneous turbulence within, which permeated through his body and mind.  Before he was able to get control of himself, he heard the musical recital of some kirtana from very close quarters saying, "Premadata, Nitai says Gaura-Hari Haribol. Nitai has brought the nama Gaura-Hari Haribol." Hearing this his whole physical structure became energized. Bipina babu, who had remained speechless for over a month, who could not even turn on his side without the help of others, suddenly sat upright on his bed, as if released from the influence of the evil spell of Kavna-pisachi and requested his mother Trangini devi to invite the kirtaniyas inside his room. In great joy his mother rushed downstairs covering two and three steps at a time and begged the devotees to go up to her son's bedroom. 

 

          Bipina fell prostrate before them and collecting the holy dust of their feet rubbed it on his body.  He then washed their feet with water and drank the `carana-jala.' At Bipina's earnest request the Vaishnavas spent a few days with him and Bipina served them with great devotion.  During the course of conversations with them Bipina found out one of the Vaishnavas in the group was his maternal cousin, Bhupala Harivola, and that they were all disciples of Shri Harivola Thakura, under whose instructions they had come to Bipina's house at Makadadaha.  Shri Thakura lived at Kasi and did not wish to visit Bengal. 

 

          Soon thereafter, Bipina left for Kasi, but told his relatives and friends that he was going to Vaidyanatha to recoup his health. Bipina's father-in-law was a distinguished and prosperous Zamindar of Gourdalpada in Caudanagar, and had a house at Kasi.  Upon arriving at Kasi, Bipina stayed with his in-laws.  He then located Shri Harivola Thakura and had his darsana.  Thereafter he regularly visited Thakura's place. 

 

          Although Bipina loved to hear discourses on Hari-katha from Thakura, he could not grasp the intrinsic religious value of Thakura's words even after visiting him for fifteen days. When he humbly presented his problem before Thakura the latter said, "Oh yes, oh yes."  From that day forward, Bipina not only understood what he heard, but also stored everything like a treasure in his memory.  Thakura then initiated him with the eighteen lettered holy mantra, gave Bipina the name Nityananda and bestowed divine power in him.

 

          After some time, Thakura Harivola decided to test the advancement of his disciple Nityananda (Bipina).  On the pretext of his own financial problem, Thakura asked Bipina if he would sit in front of the Annapurna temple with a piece of cloth spread before him like a mendicant and at the end of the day, make over all his collection to Thakura.  Without any hesitation Bipina positioned himself as directed by his guru. Some members of his in-laws family noticed Bipina on their way to Annapurna-Visvesvara temple.  They tried every possible means to persuade him to stop begging, but Bipina's determination to execute the order of his guru was fixed and he would not yield to their pressure.  In the evening, when Bipina handed over his days collection of alms consisting of some cloth, holy thread, some small coins and rice to his guru, Thakura held the collections on his head and danced in joy.

 

          Bipina continued to serve his guru with devotion, efficiency and punctuality and in appreciation of his commendable performance Thakura made him the chief of all disciples.  After three months Thakura advised Bipina to return to his family and home.  Bipina was not keen to return to his life of a practicing lawyer, which involved dealing with lies and fraudulence.  However, when his guru told him that he would become a munsiff within seven days, he returned to his work.  Sure enough, within seven days of his return Bipina joined his new post as a munsiff.

 

          He used to attend Harinama sankirtana twice everyday with the members and servants of his family regardless of his place of posting.  His neighbors like him very much and craved his company.  Bipina babu had an exceptionally sweet and melodious voice and his kirtana recitals were unique.  Those who were fortunate enough to hear his recitals cherished them throughout their lifetime.  In the course of his recitals he became so surcharged with devotion that he would begin to dance in a manner of skipping, frisking and leaping with occasional loud sounds.  Sometimes, while dancing in a devotional trance, he would slap someone lovingly or mount on some other person's shoulders.

 

          While he was posted as a Munsiff at Rouyana in the district of Cattagrama, some of his devotees approached him just before the Ratha yatra festival and requested him to lead the procession with his kirtana recital.  Bipina babu agreed on the condition that people from all communities must participate and join him in a chorus.  His opening recital "Vole-Haribol-Gaura Haribol" followed by his kirtana recital was stated to be so outstanding and intoxicating that many devotees had the vision of Lord Jagannatha in person on the chariot and many others were overwhelmed with deep devotional absorbtion.

 

          Bipina babu had the habit of chanting aloud "Haribol" regularly at daybreak and hearing his voice his devotes from far and near would arrive at his place to join his kirtana session from 4:00 AM to 7:00 AM.  Then Bipina would perform his daily prescribed prayer, sit down and write his professional judgement, take a bath and after doing routine tilaka seva, perform his worship of the Deity.  Finally after taking prasadam he would leave for the court.

 

          Before commencing his court proceedings he would bow his head in obeisances and after completing his days work he would chant "Haribol."  When he returned home his devotees would already be there waiting for him.  After taking a bath Bipina would join them for the evening session of kirtana and also recitals from Shrimad Bhagavatam.  Thereafter he would take prasadam with his devotees before retiring to bed.  Even on the day of (Shri Harivasara) fasting, Bipina would follow the same routine, except that he would not take any meal. 

 

          The preaching and practice of Bipina was filled with devotion and dedication at the lotus feet of his guru, by whose grace he was able to realize the Supreme Lord as depicted in the Shrimad Bhagavatam.  Due to their deep attachment for each other, guru (Thakura) and his disciple (Nityananda) though physically apart, enjoyed the company of each others association on the spiritual platform. 

 

          It is said that once in the course of his recital of the verses on `Kazi-daman' from Shri Chaitanya Bhagavata, Bipina became so engrossed in prema-bhava that a shining reflection of a picture, depicting Lord Gauranga on his way to subjugate the Kazi, appeared on the wall in full view of the devout audience, then disappeared shortly thereafter.  It has also been said that Bipina Babu received darsana of Shri Haridasa Thakura at Comilla and that of Prabhu Nityananda at another place. 

 

 

          While Bipina would not hesitate to reprimand his sons or disciples for any lapses on their part, he remained silent when his daughters or the women folk acted in a similar manner.  He inculcated a spirit of devotion and love amongst all the members of his family.

 

          He never allowed his daily kirtana session to be interrupted even when he was seriously ill.  Any devotee, irrespective of his caste, creed or religion was welcome to live under his shelter and dedicate himself to his own way of mediation, while Bipina would bear the expenses for the maintenance of the said devotee's family.

 

          While posted at Nadaila, many teenage boys, inhabitants of Mahisakhola colony, used to assemble at his place to participate in kirtana.  Amongst these boys Kirana Caudra Mitra and Girindranatha Ghosh were the leaders.  Bipina's kirtanas charming kirtanas transformed Girindra and he became a permanent servant of Nityananda.  Girindra gave up his studies and went along with his master from Nadail to Bankura. Girindra served Nityananda for more than twenty years, during which time he was fortunate enough to witness bhava-lila of Nityananda.  Their relationship was more of a father and son, full of love and affection, rather than that of a master and servant.  Nityananda did not hesitate to chastise Girindra whenever he noticed any lapse on his part.  Sometimes he would go out of his way to help Girindra during difficult periods and even cured him from a dangerous illness through his divine power.

 

          While Nityananda was posted at Kumilla (Vishnupura), Raja Bahadura Manindra Candra Nandi organized a Vaishnava conference.  A few days prior to the occasion, Nityananda, for no apparent reason, began to put on the pattern of tilaka according to Shri Gadadhara's clan instead of his prescribed pattern of Prabhu Nityananda's clan.  Soon thereafter, the famous Gauda-bhakta Shripada Harimohana Siromani Gosvami of Shripata Adial (Vikvampura) in Dacca appeared at Nityananda's place without any prior intimation.  The meeting of the two great VAisnavas brought about an atmosphere of transcendental bliss.  Nityananda was so impressed with Siromani's firm faith and love in Lord Gauranga that he himself became a member of the family of Shri Gadadhara after receiving initiation in Gaura-mantra from Shripada Siromani prabhu.  When Shripada Siromani visited Makadadaha again on Nityananda's request, Nityananda arranged that all his family members, servants and associates were initiated in Gaura-mantra by Shripada Siromani prabhu.

 

          Due to taking some medicine from a `Bhairavi', Nityananda again became seriously ill with bronchitis.  He took leave from work and first went to Kasidhama and from there went to Calcutta, under the advice of his nephew and other associates. There he stayed with his boyhood friend Bipina Datta at Hogala Kuvide Lane (now known as Sahitya Parisada Street).  After recovering from his illness under the care of Dr. Bidhana Candra Raya he returned to  his work

 

          His beloved disciple Girindra used to sleep near the feet of his guru.  One night he had a bad dream suggesting that Nityananda would leave the world after two days.  Upon awaking Girindra began to sob at the feet of Nityananda, whose consolation, did not change his gloomy state of mind.  Two days after Girindra's dream, Atula Campati Mahasaya, a very close friend of Nityananda, came to the latter's residence at Makadadaha at about three in the afternoon.  When the two friends started their conversation, with Nityananda holding the smoking pipe, Campati Mahasaya said, "Look Bipina, you need not worry about your death.  When Nityananda asked the reason for such a remark, Campati replied, "After all you have your wife and son, at least they will give you some drops of water at your last moment, whereas I have no one to do so at the end of my life."  As soon as Nityananda heard Campati's reply he threw away the smoking pipe from his hand and said, "What do you say Campati?  Nityananda Dasa' would just chant "Hari" and drop dead."  At that moment he expired.  Later, Campati was heard to say that Bipina had taught him a good lesson as to how one should die.  Bipina died on the eight lunar day of the dark fortnight of the month of Magha in 1923 A.D. (1330)

 

118.    VIPINAVIHARI GOSVAMI:

 

          He was a resident of Baghnapada in the district of Burdwan.  He was a follower of the famous Rami Gosvami.  He translated the following titles:  Dasamularasa, Haribhaktitarangini, Harinamamrtasindhu, Vishnushasranama.  He was alive toward the early part of the 19th saka century.

 

119.    VIPRADASA:

 

          He was the disciple of Narottama Thakura.  His Shripata was at Pachpada near Gopalapura.  His wife was Bhagavati and his two sons were Jadunatha and Ramanatha (BRK. 10.193)

 

          It was from the granary of this Vipradasa that Narottama Thakura found a Deity of Lord Gauranga (Premavilasa 20).

 

120.    VIPRADASA:

 

          He was a devotee from Orissa (VV. of Jiva 225, Devaki. 106, Vrnd. 96)

 

121.    VIPRADASA GHOSH:

 

          He was a Vaishnava poet whose poem no. 1175 as included in the Padakalpataru deals with Gostha-yatra.

 

122.    VIRA DARPANARAYANA:

 

          He was the King of Kachad (Assam) who got a conch made carrying the Deities of ten avataras in Saka 1553 (1631 A.D.).

 

123.    VIRA HAMVIRA:

 

          He was the King of Vanavisnupura in the district of Bankura and a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya.  His wife was Sulaksana and his son was Dhira Hamvira (or Dhadi Hamvira). Vira Hamvira was a tyrant but was later converted to Vaisnavism.  Jiva Gosvami named him Chaitanyadasa (BRK. 7.61, 9.5, 9.265-266, 273, 9-270).  When he installed the Deity of Kalacand, the installation ceremony was conducted by Shrinivasa Acarya.

 

          Two padas composed by him are found in Padavali literature (Karnananda p. 19)

 

124.    VIRABHADRA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamananda. (Premavilasa 20)

 

125.    VIRABHADRA GOSVAMI:

 

          He translated in brief the essence of the entire Shrimad Bhagavatam which was published in two volumes in 1858-1861 A.D. (1265-1268).

 

126.    VIRACANDRA GOSVAMI:

 

          He was the step-brother of Raghunandana Gosvami, a descendant of the family of Lord Nityananda, and a resident of Madograma.  He wrote commentaries on Shri Gopalacampu and Padyavali (1878 A.D.)

 

127.    VIRACANDRA (VIRABHADRA GOSVAMI):

 

          He was the son of Lord Nityananda and was also known as "Viracandra" and "Jagatdurlabha."  He was born of Vasudha.  In his past incarnation he was Payodhisayi, Nisatha, Ulmuka (GGD. 67.  He was a disciple of Jahnava Mata.

 

          According to BRK. 9.420, Viracandra, at the desire of Jahnava, married both the daughters of Yadunandana Acarya, a resident of Jhamatpura near Rajabalahat.  His wives were named Shrimati and Narayani.  Jahnava gave diksa to these two women,

while Viracandra gave diksa to his father-in-law, Yadunandana.

 

          Viracandra had three sons namely Gopijanavallabha, Ramakrishna and Ramacandra.  All three were ardent devotees.

 

          Viracandra once left Khardaha  on a pilgrimage to Vrndavana passing through Saptagrama, Santipura, Amvika, Navadvipa, Shrikhanda, Yajigrama, Kantakanagara and Kheturi. Right through he was warmly received by devotees and he performed and danced ecstatically in love of God.

 

          In Vrndavana his presence was a great pleasure for the devotees there such as Bhugarbha, Jiva Gosvami, etc. who showed him great respect.  Viracandra and his devotees visited Dvadasa Vana and met Kaviraja Gosvami at Radhakunda.  Kaviraja Gosvami accompanied Viracandra from Radha Kunda to Vrndavana.

 

          On the occasion of the installation ceremony of Radhavinoda in the house of Govinda Cakravarti, a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya and a resident of Borakuli village, Viracandra charmed the audience by his ecstatic dancing in harmony with the kirtana sung by Narottama Thakura.

 

          Viracandra zealously took up the task of preaching and maintaining the sanctity of the faith.  There was a person named Jayagopala belonging to the Kayastha caste who lived in the village of Kandra in the land of Radha.  He was extremely proud of his erudition.  Since Jayagopala's guru was not very learned the former never spoke about and his guru and when specifically asked to mention who his guru was Jayagopala referred to his parama-guru.

 

          Once, out of vanity, Jayagopala showed disrespect to the prasadam.  Thereafter Viracandra cut off all relations with Jayagopala and informed the rest of the Vaishnava community of it.  Thus the entire community also threw Jayagopala out.

 

          In CC. 1.11.8 it is stated that Virabhadra was the trunk and from him sprang numerous branches.

 

          Viracandra's third and youngest son Ramacandra lived at Khardaha and his family-descendants settled in the following places: Vrndavana, Navadvipa, Khardaha, Calcutta, Dhaka, Butni, Uddharanapura, Saptagrama, etc.  Viracandra's second son Ramakrishna settled at Maldaha and his family descendants lived at Vrndavana, Gayespura, Sodpur, Kanaidanga, Gorabajar, Mado, etc.  Viracandra's eldest son Gopijanavallabha lived at Lata.  His family descendants spread and settled in the following places: Latadaha, Nupuravallabhapura, Purunia in Bankura district, Kodala, Moktarpur, Agartala, Jessore, etc. The genealogical line descends as follows:

 

 

   Ramacandra

                                                |

________________________|______________________________

          |                           |                           |                           |

|                           |                            |                            |

   Ramadeva              Krishnadeva                  Radhamadhava           Vishnudeva

|

________________________|______________________

|                  |                  |                  |                  |

  Gopikanta        Raghava      Ragendra               Yadava      Balarama

|

                                                            Harigovinda

                                  (migrated from Khardaha to Butni village in Dhaka)

                                                                   |

__________________|__________________

|                            |                            |

Sarvesvara                 Vangesvara                      Nandesvara

|

____________|____________

|                  |                  |

Laksmikanta     Gopikrishna            Ratnakrishna

|

______|

|

|

  Krishnakisora

|

|_______________________

|                                     |

   Candramohana               Atlokamohana

|

____________|____________

|                                     |

|                                     |

                      Krishnagopala                           Pranagopala

 

 

          In CCU P. 690-692 B.B. Majumdar writes as follows:  VV. of Jiva 51-54, Devakinandana 12-13, Vrndavanadasa 15-17. There is no mention of Viracandra's name in CBh.  CC. 1.11.5-9 refers to Virabhadra.

 

          When mentioning the names of Advaita Acarya's sons, Krishnadasa Kaviraja in each case introduced them as "Advaitanandana" but while writing about Virabhadra, Kaviraja Gosvami never mentioned him as the son of Nityananda.  This led some to argue that Virabhadra was not the son, but disciple of Nityananda.

 

          Jayananda P. 151 and BRK. P. 589 refer to Virabhadra as the son of Nityananda.

         

          Virabhadra must have been born during the lifetime of Lord Chaitanya, otherwise his name wouldn't have been found in GGD and VV.  Perhaps he was a child when Vrndavana dasa wrote CBh. and hence his name was not mentioned.

 

          It is said that Viracandra converted 1,200 Nedanedi into Vaisnavism.  They were possibly Sahajiya Buddhists.

 

The following is taken from GPC:

 

          Shrimad Viracandra or Shri Virabhadra was born in the month of Kartika (Oct-Nov),  on the 9th day of the black fortnight. He was the manifestation of Shri Sankarsana.  He was the inseparable vigraha-svarupa of Shri Chaitanya.  In Bhaktiratnakara, Shri Narahari Cakravarti has written that Viracandra prabhu was the son of Shri Nityananda and Shrimati Vasudha.  He was the disciple of Jahnava Mata.  Shri Yadunandana Acarya was the disciple of Shri Viracandra and his two daughters Shri Sat and Shri Narayani were initiated by Shri Jahnava Mata.  The daughter of Shri Vasudha and sister of Shri Viracandra--Shri Ganga devi was the manifestation of the Ganges.  She was married to Shri Madhava Acarya and he was the manifestation of King Santanu.  VV. mentions the name of Shri Madhava Acarya.

 

          After receiving his mother's permission, Shri Viracandra prabhu proceeded to Shri Vrndavana.  He first reached the house of Shri Uddharana Datta Thakura in Saptagrama.  Shrinivasa Thakura, the son of Shri Uddharana Thakura, entertained him with much honor for two days.  From there Viracandra prabhu came to Shri Advaita Bhavan in Santipura and was received and treated with much care by Shri Krishna Misra, the son of Advaita Acarya.  From Santipura he reached Amvika-Kalna and stayed at Shri Gauridasa Pandita's house.  Shri Hrday Chaitanya prabhu entertained him nicely.  When he reached Jagannatha Misra's house in Navadvipa a hearty reception was given to him by the relatives of Mahaprabhu..  He then went to Shrikhanda where Shri Raghunandana and Kanai Thakura showed him great respect and embraced him.  After spending a few days, Shri Viracandra prabhu reached the house of Shrinivasa Acarya in Yajigrama. Acarya prabhu worshiped him with deep respect.  There he participated in a grand sankirtana festival and afterwards went to Kantakanagara.  He stayed for one day and then went on to Shri Govindaraja's house in Budhari.  Shri Govinda Kaviraja worshiped him along with his many associates.  Shri Viracandra was very pleased with their devotion and stayed there for two days.  After that he went to Kheturi.  There he spent time with Shri Narottama Thakura, performing sankirtana with great delight and then left for Shri Vrndavana.

 

          On his way to Vrndavana, many degraded and fallen persons came under his influence and were completely rectified.  When he reached Vrndavana all the Gosvamis of Vrndavana came forward to welcome him.  They were Shri Jiva Gosvami, Shri Krishna dasa Kaviraja, Shri Ananta Acarya, Shri Haridasa Pandita-Shri Madana gopala deva's priest, Shri Gopinatha Adhikari, Shri Madhu Pandita and his brother Shri Bhavananda--the priest of Shri Gopinatha, Shri Kasisvara and his disciple Shri Govinda Gosvami and Shri Yadavacarya and others (BRK).

 

          Then Shri Viracandra prabhu was permitted by Shri Bhugarbha Gosvami and Shri Jiva Gosvami to visit the forests of Vrndavana.  He visited the twelve forests in Mathura, Shri Radhakunda and Syamakunda and Govardhana hill, etc.   Many people who saw him were charmed by his display of devotional ecstacy.  After spending some time in Vrndavana, he returned to Gauda and his fame spread far and wide.  Like Shri Nityananda Prabhu, he was enriched with divine wealth.

 

          Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta SArasvati Prabhupada has written in CC. Anubhasya that Gopijanavallava, Ramakrishna and Ramacandra were his three sons, and also his disciples.  Ramacandra, the youngest one lived in Khardaha.  The eldest, Shri Gopijanavallava lived in Latagrama near Manakara, and the second son Ramakrishna lived in Ganesapura near Maladaha.

 

          CBh. does not mention the name of Viracandra.  CC. refers to Virabhadra.  Krishnadasa Kaviraja refers to the sons of Advaita Acarya as "Advaitanandana.  But when mentioning the name of Virabhadra he never points him out as the son of Nityananda.  This has given some the impression that Virabhadra was not the son of Nityananda but a disciple.  JCM and BRK refer to Virabhadra as the son of Nityananda.

 

          Virabhadra efficiently organized the Vaishnava community in Gaura Vanga.  He showed great respect to Shrinivasa Acarya and Narottama Thakura.  The authority which Virabhadra exercised over the Vaishnava community can be understood from a letter extracted in BRK.

 

          Jayagopala dasa, a Kayastha and a resident of Kanda slighted his guru, being puffed up with the arrogance of erudition hence Viracandra socially excommunicated him and forbid all the devotees to associate with him.

 

          Jayagopala dasa was not a person of insignificant stature.  He received the grace of Sundarananda Thakura, a companion of Nityananda.  Jayagopala wrote Sanskrit books such as:  Haribhaktiratnakra, Bhaktibhavapradipa, Krishnavilasa, Manovuddhisandarbha, Dharmasandarbha, and Anumanasamanvaya and in Bengali Gopalavilasa.  It is clear from the story of Jayagopala that thereafter a hostile grouped turned against Viracandra.  The associates of Nityananda were accustomed to wear the dress of a cowherd and a Cuda on the head. Viracandra forbade them to wear a Cuda.  When one refused to abide by his order, Viracandra excommunicated him also. People following this dissenting group are known to belong to the Cuda-dhari sampradaya.

 

128.    VIRAVALLABHA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava poet.  Pada no. 2868 in Padakalpataru is  his composition.

 

129.    VIRAVARA DEV:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda.  (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.159)

 

130.    VISNAI HAJRA:

 

          He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda (CC. 1.11.50). In his past incarnation he was born as Kalavinka in Vraja.

 

131.    VISNUDASA:

 

          He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya and stayed with the Lord at Puri (CC. 1.10.149-151).  He came from the Kayastha caste of a South Radha clan.  His father was named Sadasiva.  Vishnudasa was also referred to as Kavindra Vishnudasa.  It is said that at the command of Lord Chaitanya, Vishnudasa settled at Sanora village in the district of Dhaka. He is in no way related to the Kapindra-sampradaya.  It is stated in the periodical Birabhumi 8.3.40 that a number of people from the Gado tribe were converted into Vaisnavism by Gosvamis of the Kavindra family.  BRK. P. 1045 refers to one Kavindra as a notorious sinner.

 

132.    VISNUDASA:

 

          He had two brothers and belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Nityananda.  (CC. 1.11.43)

 

133.    VISNUDASA:

 

          A resident of Orissa and devotee of Lord Chaitanya. Sarvabhauma introduced him to Mahaprabhu when the Lord arrived at Puri after His pilgrimage in the South (CC. 2.10.45).

 

134.    VISNUDASA:

 

          He was a disciple of the Vaishnava devotee Krishnadasa of Multan.

 

135.    VISNUDASA:

 

          He was a brahmana from Navadvipa who taught Lord Gauranga.  (VV. of Jiva 102, Devaki. 34, Vrnd. 34, Murari 1.9.1, CC Mahakavya 3.2)

 

136.    VISNUDASA (Shri Bedaya?):

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu.  (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.125)

 

137.    VISNUDASA ACARYA:

 

          He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda.  He was a brahmana from Navadvipa and the brother of Nandana Acarya.

 

138.    VISNUDASA ACARYA:

 

          He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Advaita Acarya (CC. 1.12.58) and was present during the festival of Kheturi (BRK. 10.403).

 

 

          Haridasa dasa writes on P. 135 of GVA V.I that there were two Vishnudasa Acarya's.  From one descended the Gosvami family of Varendra brahmana clan at Manikyadihi and from the other the Gosvamis of Kandikhali of the Radhi clan descended.  Both of these villages still exist on the bank of the Bhagirathi.

 

139.    VISNUDASA KAPINDRA:

 

          He was a Kayastha by caste and was driven out of the Gaudiya Vaishnava community.  (Premavilasa 25, BRK. 14.165-168)

 

140.    VISNUDASA KAVIRAJA:

 

          He was a Vaidya by caste from Shripata Kumaranagara, and a disciple of Narottama Thakura.  (Premavilasa 20)

 

141.    VISNUDASA PUJARI:

 

          Originally from Manipura, he became a priest serving Govindaji at Ghati in Jaipur.  He wrote a voluminous manual on Smrti titled Shri Govindarcanacandrika consisting of sixteen chapters following the style of Haribhaktivilasa.  It was published by Venkateswara Press, Bombay.

 

142.    VISNUDASA VAIDYA:

 

          He is mentioned in Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 223, Devaki. 106, Vrnd. 98)

 

143.    VISNUPRIYA DEVI:

 

          She was the second wife of Lord Gauranga.  In her past incarnation she was Bhusakti and Satyabhama (GGD. 48).  The following is her genealogical line:

 

Durgadasa Misra

                                                  |

                             _____________|_________________

                             |                                               |

|                                               |

                   Sanatana Misra                            Kalidasa Misra

                             |                                               |

|                                               |

Vishnupriya                                 Madhava Misra

                                                                             |

                                                                             |

                                                                       Yadava Misra

 

          According to another view, Vishnupriya was the daughter of Durgadasa Misra and his son was Yadava, while Yadava's son was Madhava.  Premavilasa states that Yadavacarya took diksa from Vishnupriya and served the deity of Lord Gauranga.  Descendants of Yadava are referred to as belonging to the `Vishnupriya family.'

 

          As a child Vishnupriya bathed three times daily in the Ganges, she had great reverence for her parents, and received the blessings of Mother Saci (CBh. 1.15.46-48).

 

          The marriage between Vishnupriya and Visvambhara was negotiated by Kasinatha Pandita (CBh. 1.15.49-214)

 

          Vishnupriya's reaction after hearing of Lord Gauranga's decision to accept sannyasa, and the words of comfort offered to her by Her husband are recorded in Chaitanyamangala 2.12.1A 40.

 

          Later, Lord Chaitanya listened to news of Vishnupriya conveyed by Jagadananda (Advaitaprakasa 21).

 

          After the Lord's acceptance of sannyasa Vishnupriya always remained within the house, with the exception of taking bath daily at the Ganges along with Saci devi.  When devotees went there to partake of prasadam, they saw only the feet of Vishnupriya.  Never did they see her face, nor hear her voice. A constant flow of tears continually streamed down her saddened face.  She ate only the remnants of food left by Mother Saci, and constantly chanted the holy name.  She installed a picture of Lord Gauranga and offered service to it with great love and devotion.

 

          BRK. 4.48-52 describes Vishnupriya's suffering in separation from the Lord as follows:  "Due to separation from the Lord, Vishnupriya lay on the floor with wide-open eyes, seldom able to sleep, and her bright golden complexion grew pale.  She gradually became extremely thin, like the moon on the fourteenth day of the dark fortnight.  While chanting the holy name she collected a few grains of rice which she cooked and ate.  No one knew how she maintained her life."

 

          In a dream Lord Chaitanya commanded her to shower mercy upon Shrinivasa Acarya (BRK. 4.25-36).  Thus with deep affection she placed her feet on the head of Shrinivasa (BRK. 4.44.46)

 

          The following is a narration from Premavilasa 5 which explains how Vishnupriya practiced namabhajan:  "Come brothers, listen to how Isvari (Vishnupriya) chanting the holy name of the Lord, as it arouses in the listener a feeling of what lila is.  She would place two fresh earthen pots on either side of her.  One pot was empty and the other contained grains of rice.  After chanting one round of japa she placed one grain of rice into the empty pot.  She thus continued her japa until the third quarter of the day.  Those grains which she had placed in the empty pot where then cooked and offered to the Lord with tears.  Day and night she chanted the holy name..."

 

          The following is taken from GPC:

 

          The supreme power of God is divided into three categories--Shri, Bhu and Nila.  Shri Vishnupriya is the manifestation of `Bhu' and she was also formerly Satyabhama. In Gaura-lila, Shri Vishnupriya Thakurani appeared to assist in the preaching of the holy name.

 

          Sanatana Misra, a brahmana and ardent devotee of Lord Vishnu, lived in Navadvipa.  He used to maintain many families and was famous as a court-pandita.  In Dvapara-yuga he was King Satrajit.  By virtue of worshiping Lord Vishnu, Sanatana Misra had a very beautiful daughter named Shri Vishnupriya who was adorned with all good qualities.  From her early childhood she bathed in the Ganges twice or thrice daily.  In worshiping or observing vows she was most interested in following her elders.  Whenever she happened to meet Mother Saci on the river side she offered her respect in a very gentle way. Mother Saci was eager to have her as a daughter-in-law.      

 

          While the Lord was absorbed in His activities, Mother Saci constantly thought of the Lord's marriage.  Shri Sanatana Misra was a pious and charitable brahmana, a benevolent and pure-hearted devotee of Lord Vishnu.  He lived in Navadvipa where he was engaged in serving guests and assisting less fortunate people.  Born of a noble family, he was truthful and self controlled.  As a scholar he earned the title Raja Pandita and as a gentleman in Navadvipa he personally maintained many needy people. 

 

          Sanatana Misra's daughter was like Laksmi Devi in beauty and character.  As soon as Mother Saci saw her, she was convinced that this girl was the best choice to be her son's wife.  From early childhood the young girl bathed regularly in the Ganga two or three times a day.  She was dedicated and obedient to her parents and she had no other interest than devotion to Lord Krishna.  Everyday when she met Mother Saci at the bathing place in the Ganga, she humbly offered her respects.  Mother Saci reciprocated and blessed her saying, "May Krishna bless you with a suitable husband."  But as Mother Saci bathed she thought, "This girl should marry my son."  Shri Sanatana Misra and all his near relatives were equally eager to have the Lord as a son-in-law. 

One day Mother Saci sent for Kasinatha Pandita and told him, "My dear sir, I have a proposition: go tell the Raja Pandita that if he so desires he may offer his daughter's hand in marriage to my son."  Kasinatha Pandita proceeded immediately to Shri Sanatana Misra's house, repeating the Lord's name in silent joy. 

 

          When the Raja Pandita saw Kasinatha Pandita at his door he immediately offered him a seat with due respect.  "What brings you here, my dear Sir?"  asked Shri Misra.

 

          "I have come with a proposal, and if you so desire I will reveal it to you,, replied Kasinatha Pandita.  "You should offer your daughter Vishnupriya in marriage to Visvambhara Pandita.  I think it is a perfect match.  He is a divine personality, suitable in all respects for your daughter.  Your daughter, who is chastity personified, will be the best for him.  Vishnupriya and Nimai Pandita remind me of the divine couple Krishna and Rukmini, so perfectly suited they are for each other." 

 

          Raja Pandita disclosed the news to his wife and near relatives and waited for their advice and comments. Unanimously they agreed, "What is the need for further debate?  This is a perfect proposition.  Quickly make all the necessary arrangements."  The Raja Pandita happily replied to Kasinatha Pandita, "I have decided to marry my daughter to Visvambhara  Pandita so I will proceed with all the arrangements.  If the Lord desires my family and ancestors will be greatly blessed by this marriage for my daughter. Kindly go to their house and tell them everything, I am fully in favor of this marriage." 

 

          Shri Kasinatha Pandita was extremely satisfied with the outcome of his mission and he promptly told Mother Saci everything that had transpired.  Mother Saci was relieved that everything had gone smoothly.  Without wasting further time she began the preparations. 

 

          Nimai's students were jubilant when news of His marriage reached them.  A rich gentleman named Buddhimanta Khan immediately offered, "I shall bear the cost of the entire marriage." 

 

          But Mukunda Sanjaya objected, "My dear brother and friend, if you take all the responsibilities, then what am I supposed to do?"

 

          "Listen my dear friend," said Buddhimanta Khan  "I will not allow this marriage to become another poor brahmana's wedding, I will make such arrangements for Nimai Pandita's wedding that everyone will think a prince is getting married." 

 

          Adhivas, an important ceremony before the day of the marriage, was held at an auspicious time amidst great joy and festivity.  The area set aside for the actual marriage ceremony was decorated with colorful hangings around the sides and across the tops.  Water pots with intricate designs, ghee lamps, grains, yogurt, and strings of young mango leaves were hung all around.  Different auspicious ingredients required for such an occasion were placed on the floor which had been beautifully designed with colored rice paste.

 

          The Vaishnava devotees of the Lord, the brahmanas and all the gentlemen and of Navadvipa attended the auspicious occasion.  Invitations had been sent to all of them requesting them to attend the feast in the evening of the day of the adhivas.   By early afternoon the musicians had already arrived and began to play.  Loud and melodious sounds of mrdanga and other drums, shani, and cymbals were carried in all directions.  The priests began to chant the Vedic mantras and the ladies ululated, adding to the festive mood.

 

          The crest jewel of the brahmana race, Nimai Pandita, seated Himself in the midst of the Vedic chanters.  The priests and brahmanas around Him felt a surge of joy in His presence.  Different objects required to formally receive the guests were brought to Nimai Pandita.  He garlanded the respectable gentlemen with flowers and applied sandal wood paste on their foreheads, offering each of them a betel nut and betel leaf according to the custom of the time. 

 

          The brahmana population in Navadvipa was large in those days, so countless gentlemen came and went with one keeping track.  Some amongst them were very greedy and returned again and again, mixing with the crowd and pretending they had just arrived in order to receive another gift.  Having received invitations, people came from distant localities and were unknown to each other, but despite such anonymity there was a strong festive spirit.  The Lord was in a joyful mood and He played the perfect host. 

 

          "Give all the flower garlands, sandal wood paste and other gifts to the guests at least three times," ordered Nimai.  "Do not think about the cost, just give freely to everyone.  The greedy brahmanas who were endeavoring to take the free gifts several times were suddenly checked and felt ashamed because of the Lord's generosity.  The brahmanas were dear to the Lord and He wanted to protect their religiosity. Some men were committing offenses by deceitfully collecting extra gifts, therefore He gave the instruction to give the gifts three time to any person.  After receiving the gifts three times, no one wanted anymore.  They were satisfied. 

 

          No one amongst the milling guests knew that the flower garlands, sandalwood paste and betel leaf they had received were actually expansions of Lord Ananta Sesa, serving his master the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nimai Pandita.  In the profuse distribution of gifts, some flowers, sandal paste and betel leaf fell to the ground, and the quantity of those remnants would have sufficed from five opulent weddings, not counting those gifts which were taken home by the guests. Every visitor was  impressed by the arrangements and left the wedding praising the opulence of the ceremonies.  Even the wealthiest men of Navadvipa were impressed for their father's had not spent so lavishly for their weddings.  The profusity of flowers, sandal paste, betel leaf, betel nut and other gifts had never been seen in Navadvipa. 

          Raja Pandita, Shri Sanatana Misra, was extremely happy. He and his close relatives attended the adhivas, laden with valuable gifts.  At an auspicious moment, he joyfully applied tilaka to the Lord's forehead, just as the Vedas recommended. The excitement of the moment was heightened by the loud chanting of Lord Hari's name accompanied by the musicians and the ululating ladies.

 

         

          Having completed all of his ceremonial duties Raja pandita returned home.  The relatives of Nimai Pandita then went to Raja Pandita's house to perform the same adhivas ceremony for Vishnupriya.  Whatever was customary for a marriage in those days was performed in the midst of great festivity. 

Early the next morning the Lord went for His bath in the Ganga, and on returning he went directly to the temple to worship the Supreme Lord Vishnu.  Thereafter He sat with His close relations to offer obeisances to their forefathers for their satisfaction.  The festive mood was maintained by the musicians, dancers and singers performing loudly enough for everyone to hear.  Every corner of the house was decorated, there were beautiful designs on the floor, water pots, grains, yogurt, lamps and strings of auspicious mango leaves hung everywhere.  Colored festoons fluttered like flags in the wind, and the air was filled with festive excitement.  The chaste ladies of Navadvipa accompanied Mother Saci while performing all the customary and traditional rituals.  First they went to the Ganga for their bath and then, followed by musicians, they visited the village deity Sasti where they prayed for her blessings.  From the temple they visited the house of different relatives and then returned home.  She distributed khol, bananas, oil, betel nut, betel leaf, and vermillion to the ladies who had accompanied her and satisfied them in every respect.  By the will of the omnipotent Supreme Lord, there was no dearth of anything so mother Saci generously distributed her gifts to the ladies several times over.  Not a single lady was dissatisfied.  They happily rubbed oil on their bodies and bathed. 

 

          Vishnupriya Devi's house was also in a state of great excitement; her mother bustled with happiness.  Caught in the waves of ecstasy, Raja Pandita spent lavishly and offered his daughter wholeheartedly to Lord Gaurasundara. 

 

          After completing all of His rituals the Lord sat down to rest and from that place He humbly distributed food and clothes to all the assembled brahmanas.  He offered respects to each person according to his position and gave in charity to satisfy each person's need.  The brahmanas blessed the Lord and returned to their houses fully satisfied. 

 

          In the afternoon the relatives came to dress Lord Gaurasundara for his marriage that evening.  They decorated his entire body with sandalwood paste and applied aromatic perfumes on different parts of his body.  On his forehead they drew a half-moon shaped tilaka with sandalwood paste, placed a beautiful crown lightly on His head and draped His neck with fragrant flower garlands.  A fine, expensive silk dhoti was tied expertly around His hips; it shone golden yellow like the setting sun.  His pink lotus-shaped eyes were smeared with kajal ointment, black as the bumblebee.  He held the auspicious three-bladed grass and the pit of a banana tree, while exquisite and expensive golden earrings swayed from his ears and other valuable jewelry decorated His upper arms and His neck.  Each of the relatives decorated the Lord according to his own taste, hanging different types of jewelry on different parts of His body.  Men and women both marvelled at the Lord's exquisite beauty.  They forgot themselves fixed as they were on the beauty of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. 

 

          Almost an hour before the time of marriage the relatives decided that the Lord should proceed to the house of the bride.  "Let us begin the journey," they announced.  "For an hour the bridegroom will parade through the town before arriving at the bride's house."  Buddhimanta Khan appeared suddenly with a beautiful palanquin.  The musicians started up afresh and the priests began chanting Vedic mantras; singers, dancers and guests all joined in a jubilant clamor.  The Lord first circumambulated Mother Saci and offered her respects, then offered respects to the brahmanas and sat on the palanquin in the midst of the joyful confusion which included the ululating ladies.

 

          It was early evening and the marriage procession went first to the bank of the river Ganga.  The waxing moon hung nearly full above their heads and shimmered in the water of the Ganga.  Hundreds of lamps were lit and music played on with undying enthusiasm.  In front of the Lord's palanquin were two long rows of Shri Buddhimanta Khan's estate employees followed by the festoon holders bering colored flags.  In their midst were the jesters, joking and evoking laughter. There were a variety of dancers performing many different dance styles, while the countless musicians played at least five kinds of drums, cymbals, conch shells, flutes, bells, kettle drums and a variety of horns.  Excited young children danced amongst the musicians and caught in the festive atmosphere, even older people abandoned their reserve and joined the children while the Lord smiled at the happy sight. On the bank of the Ganga they stopped for a while singing, dancing and playing the instruments before proceeding to the bride's house.  After offering flowers to Mother Ganga, the entire procession turned towards town.

Whoever witnessed the parade was struck with wonder at its opulence.  "I have seen many extravagant marriages, but I have never witnessed anything like this one before,"  said one person.  The residents of Navadvipa were fortunate to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead in person as He swayed past them in His palanquin. 

 

          The brahmanas who had beautiful, unmarried daughters in their homes all lamented.  "It is a great pity and certainly my misfortune that I could not give my daughter in marriage to this handsome young man.  But what can l do?"  I offer my obeisances at the feet of all the residents of Navadvipa who witnessed this transcendental joyful pastime of the Lord. 

 

          After the procession had passed through all the different localities of Navadvipa they arrived at the house of Shri Sanatana Misra, the Raja Pandita.  Everyone came out of the house, ululating and making other loud sounds of welcome for the procession.  Raja Pandita came forward to receive the Lord from the palanquin, helped Him step down and took Him inside where a seat had been prepared.  The joy Raja Pandita felt was indescribable and the love and respect he felt for the Lord was visible on his face as he escorted Nimai Pandita into his house.  He showered flowers on the Lord as a blessing and welcome. 

The reception party from the bride's side consisted of relatives and priests who came forward with fine clothes, jewelry and other precious gifts for the Lord.  The bride's mother placed the auspicious three-bladed grass on the Lord's head and then worshipped him with seven ghee lamps.  At that time Vishnupriya devi, who had been dressed exquisitely took her seat.  The relatives of Nimai Pandita were both impressed and satisfied to see such a beautiful bride.  They lifted the Lord onto His seat according to the marriage ritual.  They hung a curtain around the Lord, and Vishnupriya Devi circumambulated Shri Gaurasundara seven times.  Then  facing Him with folded hands, she offered her respectful obeisances. The relatives threw flowers on the couple, and the air filled with loud music and the ululations of the ladies.  Vishnupriya Devi placed a flower garland at the lotus feet of her Lord offering Him her life and soul.  The Lord picked up the flower garland and smiling sweetly, placed it around her neck.  Again the divine couple was drowned in a shower of flower petals.  Unseen by the common men, demigods like Lord Brahma also showered flowers on Shri Vishnupriya Devi and Shri Gaurasundara.  Lord Gaura Sundara's group competed with Vishnupriya Devi's group in showering flowers and making joyous sounds.  Absorbed in the contest, everyone forgot their own cares and worries.  Sometimes the Lord's side seemed to be victorious and at other times Vishnupriya Devi's side seemed more enthusiastic.  The Lord was pleased to see everyone enjoying themselves in such a wonderful way.

 

          Thousands of lamps shed bright light everywhere and the loud and joyous sounds of song and instruments filled the sky. By the time the moment came for the bride and bridegroom to exchange glances, the universe seemed inundated by tumultuous and joyful sounds.  Then the divine couple sat down and Raja Pandita sat with them to officially offer his daughter to Lord Gaurasundara.  In the midst of all the rituals and chanting of mantras, the marriage began with Raja Pandita offering his daughter and praying for the Lord's pleasure.  Along with his daughter Raja Pandita also gave nice cows full of milk, lots of land and property, beds and furniture, maids and servants, and other valuable gifts.  Vishnupriya Devi sat on the left of the Lord as the brahmanas lit the fire and began the `Homa'. After all the customs and traditional rituals were completed the bride and the bridegroom went into a well decorated reception room. 

 

          Raja Pandita's house was transformed into Vaikuntha, and the guests came in to enjoy the marvelous feast.  Countless people came and all left fully satisfied.  The newly-wed bride and groom spent the night in Vishnupriya Devi's house amidst great joy. 

 

          The happiness Sanatana Pandita felt can not be described. He reveled in the same inconceivable good fortune which befall great sages such as Nagajit, Janaka, Bhisma and Jambuvan who also became the fathers-in-law of Lord Krishna or Lord Ramacandra. 

The divine couple passed the night and next morning till midA day in Sanatana Misra's house.  Then the Raja Pandita and his relatives bid farewell to Lord Gaurasundara and Vishnupriya. In the midst of music, kirtana, the blessings of the brahmanas and the chanting of mantras appropriate for such a journey, Nimai offered His respects to the elderly members of His father-in-law's family and left with Vishnupriya Devi on a palanquin for Saci Mata's house. 

 

          The people they met along the way all blessed them and congratulated them, ladies spoke respectfully of the good fortune of the bride saying, "She is very fortunate, she must have worshipped Laksmi Devi for many births." 

 

          Others commented, "This couple is just like Lord Siva and Gauri." 

 

          Still others said, "They must be Laksmi and Shri Hari."  

 

          "They are Cupid and Rati, or Indra and Saci, or they must be Ramacandra and Sita Devi."

 

          Truly, the good fortune of the residents of Navadvipa is unfathomable, for they were able to see the Supreme Lord and His eternal consort.  Such was the extent of their piety.  The whole of Nadia was blessed and the residents experienced unrestrained joy by being able to see Vishnupriya Devi and Lord Gaurasundara, Narayana. 

 

          Finally the divine couple arrived at the house of Mother Saci.  Accompanied by other ladies, Mother Saci went out to jubilantly welcome the divine couple into her house, where she seated them amidst joyous sounds and music.  How can one express the joy Mother Saci and everyone else felt at the presence of Vishnupriya and Gaurahari?  So magnanimous is the Supreme Lord that one becomes completely free from all sinful activities and their reactions just by looking at the transcendental lustre of the Lord.  Moreover, he becomes eligible to enter the spiritual sky, the Vaikuntha planets. Everyone from all walks of life could see the Lord and His spiritual effulgence.  Therefore He has been called the most compassionate, the only friend of the fallen souls. 

 

          Nimai Pandita freely distributed clothes and gifts to all the performers, dancers and the beggars who had come to the house of Mother Saci.  To the brahmana relatives and friends, He gave sufficient gifts to satisfy then all, and satisfy Himself as well. To Buddhimanta Khan the Lord gave a tight and affectionate embrace, leaving Buddhimanta Khan in indescribable ecstasy (CBh. Adi 15).  After describing the marriage ceremony, Shri Vrndavana dasa Thakura seldom mentioned the name of Shri Vishnupriya devi again.

 

          Later, when Mahaprabhu returned from Gaya He began expressing ecstatic love for Lord Krishna.  On seeing his divine sentiments, Mother Saci thought that her son had been attacked with a severe disease and so she began to intently worship Lord Vishnu and goddess Ganga for the protection of her son. She also placed Vishnupriya in front of the Lord in order to give Him company, but Mahaprabhu stared at her with a vacant look in His eyes (CBh. Madhya).  When Mother Saci tried to feed her son with rice offered to Lord Krishna, Mahaprabhu simply chanted the holy name of the Lord incessantly. while the devoted wife Vishnupriya watched everything from within her room.  Absorbed in love of Godhead, Mahaprabhu displayed extraordinary symptoms which Mother Saci could not understand. Sometimes He became agitated and shouted loudly.  When Mother Saci advised Vishnupriya to sit near Him, the Lord would sometimes try to assault Vishnupriya.  When he regained His external consciousness, He felt ashamed of his behavior (CBh. Madhya)

 

          Sometimes Vishnupriya would offer her husband betel leaf, and the Lord would express His satisfaction while chewing it. On seeing Mahaprabhu in a happy mood, Vishnupriya became delighted.  Mahaprabhu used to sit with Vishnupriya to satisfy his mother.

 

          When Mahaprabhu danced, absorbed in the feelings of Rukmini, in the house of Candrasekhar, Shri Vishnupriya went to watch the performance along with Mother Saci.  After describing the Lord's acceptance of the sannyasa order, Shri Vrndavana dasa Thakura never again mentions the name of Vishnupriya.  In CC. Krishnadasa Kaviraja only describes the marriage ceremony of Mahaprabhu (CC. Adi 15)

 

          On the night when Mahaprabhu took sannyasa, leaving His house, He gave instructions to Shri Vishnupriya.  This is described by Locana dasa in Chaitanyamangala.

 

          When Vishnupriya was asleep, Mahaprabhu decided to leave the house.  He approached Mother Saci and worshiped her.  He convinced her by exhibiting His divine power and then crossed the river Ganges by swimming and proceeded towards Katwa. Vasu Ghosh has elaborately described the reaction of both Vishnupriya and Sacimata at dawn.  In the early morning Vishnupriya did not find Mahaprabhu in His cot.  As if stricken by a thunderbolt she realized what had happened.  She did not even comb her hair, but crying incessantly rushed to Mother Saci.  In BRK. Shri Ghanasyama Cakravarti said that in the absence of Mahaprabhu, Vishnupriya passed most of her nights lying on the floor without sleep.  Her complexion which had previously been brighter than gold became pale and her body was as thin as the moon on the 14th day of the dark fortnight. As many rounds as she chanted daily, that many grains of rice she would cook, offer to Mahaprabhu, and accept as prasada. No one could understand how she was able to maintain her life on such a meager quantity of food.  Murari Gupta wrote in his Kadaca that Vishnupriya Thakurani was the first to install the deity of Mahaprabhu and begin His worship. 

 

          After the departure of Mahaprabhu, their servant, Isana Thakura looked after Mother Saci and Vishnupriya.  Vamsivadana Thakura and Mother Saci also stayed with Vishnupriya at all times.  Shri Vamsivadana was very dear to Vishnupriya.  When Shrinivasa Acarya came to Mayapura, he met the aged Isana Thakura and Vishnupriya devi.  Shri Vamsivadana Thakura showered his mercy on Shrinivasa.                                                                  

144.    VISNUPRIYA DEVI:

 

          She was the disciple of Narottama Thakura and the wife of Raghuvendra Raya.  Her two sons were King Cand Raya and Santosa Raya.  (Premavilasa 20)

 

145.    VISNUPRIYA:

 

          She was a disciple of Narottama Thakura and daughter of Ganganarayana Cakravarti.  She took diksa from her father and settled at Radhakunda.  Her mother was Narayani devi. (Narottamavilasa 12)

 

146.    VISNUPURI:

 

          He was considered to be one of the nine roots of the tree of bhakti (CC. 1.9.14).  Vishnupuri was a sannyasi and according to CC. he was a disciple of Madhavendra Puri, however GGD. refers to him as a disciple of Jayadharma.  He wrote the book Vishnu Bhaktiratnavali (VV. of Jiva 132, Devakin. 49, Vrnd.)

 

          Haraparasada Sastri in Catalogue of Sanskrit Mss. Vol. V, Purana, P. (XXXIII) states that in 1633 A.D. (Saka 1555) Vishnupuri completed the writing of Bhaktiratnavali.  If this statement is taken as accurate then Vishnupuri's period comes one hundred years after Lord Chaitanya.  It is understood from the India Office Catalogue of Eggling, Vol. VI, PP. 1272-1273 that ms's. of Bhaktiratnavali were copied in 1595 A.D.

 

          Dr. S.K. De in Padyavali, notes on authors, p. 232, places Vishnupuri as one who long preceded Lord Chaitanya.  It is found in Sankara Carita of Daityari Pandita, written in Assamese, that Vishnupuri collected Bhaktiratnavali from Sankara Deva Kanthabhusana.  Similar statements are found in the Assamese manuscript of "Gurucaritra."  It appears from Assamese sources that Dr. S.K. De's argument is correct.

 

          Four pieces of evidence are available to prove that Vishnupuri was a contemporary of Lord Gauranga.

 

          1)       CC. places him as a disciple of Madhavendra Puri

          2)       Priyadasaji, the commentator of Hindi Bhaktamala P.554, writes that on receiving a letter from Lord Chaitanya, Vishnupuri compiled Bhaktiratnavali and sent it off.

          3)       In 1809 A.D. Buchanaam Hamilton heard at Purnea that about 300 years ago there lived an erudite sannyasi named Vishnupuri, who later entered married life (See Purnea report p. 275).  If 300 years are subtracted from 1809 A.D. we arrive at 1509 A.D when Lord Chaitanya was 23 years old.  In an Assamese book titled Sankaracarita verse 3296 Ramacarana Thakura writes that Vishnupuri looked for a wife to have romantic pleasure.

4)       Jayananda P. 126 and Locana P. 2 count Vishnupuri within Lord Chaitanya's circle of devotees.  B.B. Majumdar states that Vishnupuri was possibly a disciple of Jayadharma.  But since he lived a very long life he received the grace of Madhavendra Puri and Lord Chaitanya.

 

147.    VISUDDHANANDA:

 

          He was the brother of Lord Nityananda.  (Premavilasa 24)

 

148.    VISVAMBHARA:

 

          See under "Krishnachaitanya Mahaprabhu"

 

149.    VISVAMBHARA DASA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava poet.  Poems of his are included in Padakalpataru no.s 743, 1199

 

150.    VISVAMBHARA DASA:

 

          He wrote "Jagannatha Mangala"

 

151.    VISVAMBHARA PAINE:

 

          He was a resident of Hatbasi village near Kahnakul Krishnanagar.  He was a scholar and Vaishnava poet.  His compositions are as follows:  Sangita madhava, Bhaktaratnamala, Kandarpa Kaumudi, Vrndavana praptyupaya, Premasamputa, etc.

 

152.    VISVANATHA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          The biography of Visvanatha has been translated from the following Bengali publications:  Mihir Caudhuri Kamilya. Narahari Cakravarti: Jivani O Racanavali (Life and works of Narahari Cakravarti)  Vol. 1: Biography and collected works. Burdwan, University of Burdwan, 1981, PP. 1-15

 

          Narahari Cakravarti writes as follows in Bhaktiratnakara (Pathavadi ms. no. 2341-24, P. 154 ka, "My father, Vipra Jagannatha, was a disciple of the famous Visvanatha Cakravarti."  Visvanatha stands as a remarkable example of Bengali intellect.  His place in the Vaishnava world remains unsurpassed as far as erudition, theological knowledge, poetic talent and appreciation of rasa.  He was worshiped by his contemporaries as an example of unblemished ascetic life and an ideal follower of Ragamarga.

 

          Scholars differ in their views regarding Visvanatha's period.  According to Syamalala Gosvami it was 1626 -1708 A.D. (quoted in the book Caitanyottara Yugera Gaudiya Vaishnava P. 98).  Murarilal Adhikari writes in Vaishnava Digdarsani that the period was 1646-1754.  Madhusudana Tattvavacaspati guesses that Visvanatha was born around 1633-1638 A.D. (1555-60 Saka) and died around Saka 1625-30 (Shri Krishnabhavanamrta, introduction p. 4, published in Bhaktiprabha 1335.

 

          Both Nikhilnath Roy and Bimanbihari Majumdar hold that Visvanatha was born toward the early part of the 17th century Saka (See Mursidavadera Itihasa P. 308).  In Gaurapadatarangini 1st ed. 1310, P. 183, Jagadbandhu Bhadra argues that in 1664 A.D. (Saka 1586) Visvanatha was born. However proper evidence in support of the above arguments is lacking.

 

          Visvanatha completed Sararthadarsini in 1704 A.D. (1626 Saka), which he himself states at the conclusion of the book. Thus he must have been alive around 1704 A.D.  According to Sukumar Sen, Visvanatha died shortly after 1704 A.D. (See Bangala Sahityera Itihasa Vol. 1, Part 2, 2nd ed., 1965, P. 393)

 

          Visvanatha was born at Devagrama (See ms. of Narottamavilasa at Pathavadi no. 2336 (21), P. 31 kha).  Some believe that this village belongs to Kasiganj police station of the Nadia district (Gaurapadatarangini, introduction P. 183; Vaishnava Digdarsani P. 120; Jivanikosa by Sasibhusana Viyalankar, Vol. 5, P. 1773;  Nadia: Svadhinata Rajatajayanti Smarakagrantha, Krishnagore 1973, P. 25).  Others argue that Devagrama falls under Sagaradihi police station of the Mursidabad district (See `Padakarta Harivallabha' by Harekrishna Mukhopadhyay in Ananda Bajara Patrika special Puja no. 1369, P. 276

 

          None of the old mss. record the names of Visvanatha's parents.  Pathavadi mss. of `Narottamavilasa" state that Visvanatha's father's name was Ramanarayana Cakravarti. Visvanatha was the youngest child in the family.  His eldest brother was Ramabhadra and the next oldest was Raghunatha. Ramabhadra was an accomplished theologian and a disciple of Gopikanta.  This Gopikanta was the son of Hariramacarya, the disciple of Ramacandra Kaviraja who belonged to the spiritual lineage of Shrinivasa.  The second brother, Raghunatha, was also a great scholar (Mss. of `Narottamavilasa' of Pathavadi no. 2336.21, P. 31 kha).

 

          Visvanatha's family was brahmana by caste from the Radha clan, Sandilya gotra, and lineage drawn from Bhattanarayana (See Vaishnavacarya Visvanatha by Nanigopala Gosvami in Bharatavarsa 1351).

 

          In the said mss. of `Narottamavilasa' P. 31 kha, an account is given relating to Visvanatha's birth.  It is said that as soon as Visvanatha was delivered a strange halo of light appeared around his body.  That light illumined the entire delivery-room and then disappeared.  This account seems to be an interpolation at a later date.  Devotees and admirers of Visvanatha could well have fabricated this event to glorify the talent and spiritual accomplishment of Visvanatha.  This mss. contains one more incident regarding Visvanatha;  Once a highly renowned scholar visited Devagrama and the local Pandita's became unnerved upon meeting him.  But Visvanatha, a mere adolescent, defeated this scholar in argument.

 

          As a child Visvanatha completed his studies at Devagrama and thereafter went to Saidavad.  Some say that Visvanatha was educated under Ganganarayana Cakravarti of Saidavad (Premavilasa J.N. Talukdar ed. pp. 206-7), while others argue that Ganganarayana's adopted son Krishnacarana actually taught Visvanatha (H.K. Mukhopadhyaya `Padakarta Harivallabha').  No evidence in support of these views has yet been found.

 

          Radharamana was the name of Visvanatha's diksa guru. Visvanatha himself writes about his spiritual lineage in one sloka of Sararthadarini.  In chapters 2-7 of Stavamrtalahari Narahari also gives details on the spiritual lineage or guru pranali of Visvanatha as follows:

 

Lord Gauranga

                                                           |

                                                  Lokanatha

                                                           |

                                                  Narottama

                                                           |

                                                Ganganarayana

                                                           |

                                                 Krishnacarana

                                                           |

                                  Radharamana (alias Shri Rama)

                                                  (son & disciple)

                                                           |

                                                    Visvanatha

          Visvanatha's guru and parama-guru belonged to the spiritual lineage of Narottama Thakura.

         

          From his childhood Visvanatha was of a detached temperament.  At the command of his father, Visvanatha's brother-Ramabhadra arranged for Visvanatha's marriage at an early age.  However, through studying Shrimad Bhagavatam Visvanatha developed a deep spirit of renunciation.  After completing his studies he took spiritual initiation and gradually developed an intense love for Krishna.  Finally, one day, he renounced home, took the vow of a renunciate and went to Vrndavana.  After visiting several holy places Visvanatha finally sought the shelter of Mukundadasa, a disciple of Krishnadasa Kaviraja on the bank of the Radhakunda.  The devotees present there urged this young renunciate to return home, which Visvanatha had to abide by (Mss. Narottamavilasa PP. 31-32 ka)

 

          Possibly this was the time when Visvanatha went to Patadanja where he is said to have realized his spiritual goal.  Visvanatha installed the deity of Gopala (Harekrishna Mukhopadhyaya P. 276)

 

          At the command of his guru, Visvanatha went home for one night to meet his wife.  His wife, however, heard nothing other than Krishna katha from her husband throughout the night. (See Mss. Narottamavilasa P. 32 ka).  Early the next morning Visvanatha left home and took shelter of his guru.  As directed by his guru, Visvanatha began copying Shrimad Bhagavatam.

 

          Visvanatha settled on the bank of the Radhakunda in Vrndavana.  Regarding his spiritual practices Narahari writes as follows, "Being deeply immersed in singing kirtana of the Lord, Visvanatha narrated the pastimes of the Lord in a most fascinating manner.  No one is competent enough to speak of his spiritual practices.  Anyone who had the good fortune to set his eyes upon Visvanatha felt immediately soothed from the pangs of material existence.  Visvanatha served the deity of Shri Gokulananda with great pleasure and devotion."

 

          When Visvanatha arrived in Vrndavana he noticed that with the disappearance of the six Gosvamis the beauty of that holy place was no longer visible.  A large number of Mathas had been destroyed by the Muslims.  Priests migrated from Vrndavana taking away the deities which were in their charge. A number of deities were left standing alone and received no service.  And the devotees were in a state of constant fear. People in general where in no mood to devote attention to the study of the scriptures (See Madhuryakadamvini introduction, P. 4, by Satyendranatha Vasu).

 

          During his stay in Vrndavana many loyal workers and scholars such as Baladeva Vidyabhusana were deeply impressed upon seeing Visvanatha's devotion, strength of mind and hard working nature.  Visvanatha became determined to bring back the lost glory of Vrndavana.  The following are some of his achievements.

 

1.       Visvanatha himself installed the Deity of Gokulananda and took charge of serving Govardhana sila.  He reinstated different priests to begin the service of the Deities in various places.

2.       It was through his initiative that the Shri Vardhana Matha of Kongala and some new Mathas at several other places were set up (Visvakos V. 19, P. 42).  Visvanatha also arranged to renovate a large number of temples.

3.       At that time there was little access by the common people to the works of the Gosvamis.  This was due to the fact that there were no proper analysis and interpretation of these theological treatises.  What Visvanatha did was to prepare simple and lucid commentaries for these works, as well as presenting abridged forms of the original works. This enabled devotees of all types to understand and appreciate the essence of the Gosvamis works.  Visvanatha also arranged for the wide distribution of books which Vaishnavas needed for daily study and spiritual practices. He also organized classes to be held on them to impart instructions.

 

          Visvanatha was one of the most accomplished preachers of madhurya-bhava in ragamarga.  Regarding sadhana (spiritual achievements), Visvanatha's name is placed after Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, Krishnadasa Kaviraja and Narottama Thakura (CC. Sukumar Sen ed. 1.4. P.13). 

 

          Visvanatha was an out and out parakiya-vadi.  Both in prakata and aprakata lila Visvanatha considered Shri Radha and the gopis as the parakiya heroines of Lord Krishna.  Visvanatha had deep faith in the astakaliya nitya-lila described by Kavikarnapura and Krishnadasa Kaviraja (Padavaliparicaya 2nd ed. PP. 86-87).  Apart from practicing smarana (remembrance) manana (contemplation) and sankirtana, Visvanatha remained deeply absorbed in the service of Radha Krishna with loyalty to the Vrajavasis.  Due to his own success in practice and realization, Visvanatha was able to write beautifully describing the proper method for Astakaliya nitya-lila, a unique analysis of ragamarga sadhana, detailed descriptions of Radha Krishna lila, details on the sadhana practiced by SakhiA manjari or Kinkari, the mystic significance of bhajan and the method of bhajan.

 

          Another remarkable achievement of Visvanatha's was to establish Gaudiya Vaisnavism and its theology through Baladeva Viyabhusana, Visvanatha's close follower, at the meeting of Vaishnavas held at Galta, Jaipur in 1718 A.D. (Saka 1640)(See CC. introduction 4th ed. P. 396, also Baladeva Siddhantaratna, Gopinatha Kaviraja ed., introduction

 

          As a youth in Saidavad Visvanatha set up a Sanskrit school and accepted a teaching career.  In order to help the students to learn easily Visvanatha wrote a simplified commentary titled `Suvodhini' on Kavikarnapura's Alamkara Kaustubha.  This is said to be Visvanatha's first literary work.

          Upon his arrival in Vrndavana, Visvanatha sought the refuge of Mukundadasa.  This Mukunda dasa was a poet and disciple of Krishnadasa Kaviraja.  Mukunda dasa had some books to be completed.  Noting Visvanatha's devotion and erudition, he thus requested Visvanatha to complete those books. Pathavadi mss. Narottamavilasa P. 32 Ka, refers to this but does not give the names of the works.

 

          In Vrndavana Visvanatha's literary talent blossomed and beautiful compositions began to flow like many streams of nectar.  His complete works can be classified under four groups:

NO.

1)       Commentary works.                                        13

2)       Abridged works of original texts                         3

3)       Original works.                                               15

4)       Compilation of Padavali                                    1

 

1)   Commentary works (Tika Grantha):

 

          At that time most of the manuals and other books which Vaishnavas needed to consult daily were full of difficult theological concepts mostly written in Sanskrit.  This made it difficult for the lay-devotee to study and understand the proper conclusions.  To remove these obstacles Visvanatha wrote simple Sanskrit commentaries on many of the Gosvamis works.  titles of such commentaries are as follows:

 

          1)       Sararthadarsini 1704 A.D.--Tika of Shrimad Bhagavatam

          2)       Sararthavarsini tika on Bhagavad gita

          3)       Shri Chaitanyacaritamrtera tika (the first commentary in Sanskrit on a Bengali book)

          4)       Brahmasamhitara tika

          5)       Anandacandrika - tika on Ujjvalanilamani of Rupa Gosvami

          6)       Bhaktisarapradarsani - tika on Bhaktirasamrtasindhu of Rupa Gosvami

          7)       Premabhakticandrikakirana - a Sanskrit tika on Narottama's Premabhakticandrika

          8)       Sukhavartini - a tika on Kavikarnapura's Anandavrndavanacampu

          9)       Mahati - tika on Danakelikaumudi of Rupa Gosvami

10)     Bhaktaharsini - tika on Gopalatapani

11)     Hamsaduta tika - tika on Rupa Gosvami's Hamsadutam

12)     Tika on Rupa Gosvami's Vidagdhamadhava

13)     Lalitamadhavera tika

 

          Some scholars argue that the tika on Lalitamadhava and Vidagdhamadhava were not works of Visvanatha.  They say that Krishnadeva Sarvabhauma, a disciple of Visvanatha, was the writer of the Vidagdhamadhava tika, while Radhakrishna dasa, a disciple of Jiva Gosvami wrote the tika of Lalitamadhava (See Haridasa dasa GVA P. 1751-52, 1745)

2)       Abridged Works:

 

          Visvanatha felt that many of the Vaishnava works were difficult for the lay-devotee to grasp, he therefore extracted the most relevant information and presented an abridged form of various selected books.  Three of these are works of Rupa Gosvami as shown below:

 

          1)       Kirana i.e Ujjvalanilamani-kirana on Ujjvalanilamani

          2)       Vindu i.e Bhaktirasamrtasindhu-vindu on Bhaktirasamrtasindhu

          3)       Kana i.e. Bhagavtamrtakana on Laghubhagavatamrta

 

3)       Original Works:

 

          Visvanatha's thoughts had originality and depth.  He was gifted with the talent of communicating deep philosophical concepts in a simply way, while keeping the unique characteristics of Radha Krishna lila in tact.  Most of his original works relate to sadhana-bhajan as follows:

 

          1)       Shri Krishnabhavanamrta (1679 A.D.), describes Astakaliya nitya-lila of Radha Krishna.

          2)       Ragavartmacandrika: a guide to and an account of Raganugabhakti and its methods

          3)       Madhuryakadamvini: reveals the subtle concepts on rupa and madhurya of Lord Krishna

          4)       Aisaryakadamvini: a scriptural account of Lord Krishna's aisarya (opulence)

          5)       Camatkaracandrak: Mystic sports of Radha Krishna

          6)       Gopipremamrta: reveals the love of the Gopis and concepts regarding svakiya and parakiya.

          7)       Mantrarthadipika: Explanation of kamavija and kamagayatri

          8)       Vrajariticintamani: describes the sites of Lord Krishna's Vraja-lila

          9)       Premasamputa (1684 A.D.): describes madhurya of Radha

10)     Sankalpakalpadrum (1678 A.D.): describes prayers to Shri Radha to grant sevavrtti

11)     Nikunjakelivirudavali (1678 A.D.) describes the sports of Radha Krishna in the kunja

12)     Suratakathamrta (1678 A.D.): description of the pastimes of Radha Krishna in the quiet of midnight.

 

          Some other works by Visvanatha are written like hymns. These reveal Visvanatha's genuine devotion and reverence for his superiors, cherished Deities, and the holy places of Lord Krishna's pastimes.  The following is a list of these works:

 

          1)       Shriman Mahaprabhorastakaliya Smarnamangalastotram: A guide book describing Lord Gauranga's Astakaliya lila.

          2)       Shri Gauranganoddesacandrika: A brief account on the close associates of Lord Gauranga (a similar manuscript of Visvanatha's dealing with the associates of Lord Gauranga is available in the collection  of Barahanagar--Shri Gauranga Granthamandir--the title of the said mss. is 1Gauraganasvarupa-tattvacandrika' no. 230 B 17)

          3)       Stavamrtalahari:  This is one of the best works of hymns.  It consists of a total of 28 hymns which deal with the guru, the poet's own guru, paramaguru, paratparaguru, Narottama, Lokanatha, Shri Chaitanya, Vaishnava acaryas, etc.  Then invocation of the mercy of the famous Deities Gopaladeva, Madanagopala, Govindadeva, Gopinatha, Gokulananda and Lord Krishna; invocation of the grace of Radha and Vrnda devi; hymns in praise of various lila sites such as Vrndavana, Nandisvara, Krishnakunda, etc.

 

4)       Padavali Samkalam (compilation of Vaishnava poems)

 

1)       Krsanadagitacintamani (known briefly as `Ksanada' or `Gitacintamani').  [Ksanadagitacintamani mss. Pathavadi no. 2615 (24 ga), 2613 24 ka), oldest edition 1282 (1875 A.D.).  See Vangala Sahityera Itihasa V.1, Pt. 1, P. 393

 

2nd edition 1315 Vrndavana Kesighat (Krishnapada dasa Babaji)

 

3rd edition (?) Nitaipada Dasa

 

4th edition (1332) Nityasvarupa Brahmacari, Calcutta

 

5th edition (1369) Bimanabihari Majumdar, General Library

 

                   While compiling this Ksanadagitcintamani containing selected Vaishnava poems Visvanatha had in mind that devotees of raganugamarga may every night perform or listen to nama-guna etc. of their cherished Deities

 

                   Earlier some attempts were made to prepare compilations of Vaishnava poems to some extent by Ramagopala dasa of Shrikhanda in his `Shri Shri Radhakrishnarasa-kalpavalli', by his son Pitamvaradasa in `Rasamanjari' and Mukundadasa, a disciple of Krishnadasa Kaviraja in `Siddhantacandrodaya'. However it was Visvanatha who first prepared this first compilation.  In fact Ksanada is considered "the first perfect Padavali compilation" (Vangala Sahityera Itihasa V.1, Pt. 2, 2nd ed., P. 102 b 393).  The first part of Ksanada is available, but it is thought that Visvanatha died before the later part was completed.  Dr. Sukumar Sen argues that this compilation was done before 1704 A.D. (See Gaudiya Vaishnava Sadhana by Harekrishna Mukhopadhyay, 1st ed. P. 136).  In this book Visvanatha used the bhanita of `Harivallabha' or `Vallabha' on those poems composed by him.

 

Recently the second part of Ksanada, compiled by Manohara dasa, was found and published (Ksanadagitacintamani: Manoharadasa, published by Radhakarsna dasa, Kusumsarovar, P.O. Radhakunda, Mathura).  This mss. contains the first to the seventeenth section of Ksanada.  It was available from Advaitacarana Gosvami, the priest of Radharamana of Vrndavana.  Haridasa dasa gives information in GVA Vol. 3, P. 1484 that a similar manuscript is available in the collection of Nimbarka sampradaya.  Bimanbihari Majumdar argues as follows:  "Since Visvanatha compiled Vaishnava poems for the Bengalis to enjoy he titled them `Purvavibhaga' (eastern section) and his contemporary, Manohara dasa, the writer of Anuragavalli, compiled for the readers of western India  and hence titled it `Pascima Vibhaga' (western section)."

 

                   In the second compilation there are twenty one poems of Manohara dasa, along with those of Haridasa Swami etc.  Several of Manoharadasa's poems deal with Lord Gauranga.  This compilation consists of Hindi poems. In the `Pascima Vibhaga' there are six Hindi poems written by Visvanatha, who gave the bhanitas of Harivallabha or Vallabha.

 

                   The Purva Vibhaga of Visvanatha consists of a total of thirty Ksanada or themes.  These themes are fitted each for thirty nights from the first night of the dark fortnight of one lunar month till the day of the new moon and from the first day of the bright fortnight till the night of the full moon. Varying in size, eight have small and sixteen have big padas.  A total of 308 pada are found in Purva Vibhaga containing the bhanita of 48 known and unknown poets (Of these the compiler has 53 padas in--40 with the bhanita of Harivallabha and 13 with the bhanita of Vallabha.  Some hold that Harivallabha was the name of Visvanatha's guru. Some argue that harivallabha was the sannyasa name of Visvanatha.  However neither of these ideas is supported by evidence.  In `Gitavali' part of the book Stavamrtalahari of Visvanatha, out of eleven Sanskrit pada two have bhanita of Harivallabha and four have the bhanita of Vallabha.

 

                   In `Mantrarthadipika' Shri Radha addresses Visvanatha in a state of dream as Harivallabha.  Narahari, the son of Visvanatha's disciple clearly writes that Harivallabha was the name of Visvanatha.

 

Each Ksanada or section is arranged in such a manner as it could be sun for one night.  First there is Gaura Vandana, then follows Nityananda Vandana and concludes with poems of milana (comedy) or sambhaga. In between there are poems/lyrics dealing with abhisara, or aksepanuraga and rasa.  All these compositions relate to madhurya rasa.  None of these deal with sakhya, vatsalya or even themes relating to Mathura.

 

This compilation was made with a view to serving aspirants with manjari-bhava eager to enjoy Vrajrasa.  Though Visvanatha was a highly imaginative poet he was a perfect erudite too.  He never like to compose poems in a simply, unadorned manner.  Sanskrit expression, rhetorically rich language, chiming words and waves of rhythm enriched his poems which were equally rich with fascinating themes and deep rasa. 

 

          Visvanatha had an extraordinary command of Vrajvuli, Hindi and Sanskrit.  In all three languages Visvanatha composed a total of seventy padas of which the ones in Sanskrit are the best.

 

          It seems that Visvanatha's poems were not appreciated by his contemporaries.  Hence in later compilation not many of Visvanatha's poems are found.  In Padamrtasamudra of Radhamohana Thakura, almost a contemporary of Visvanatha, there was not any pada of Visvanatha's.  The reason for this was that Radhamohana compiled the poems in Bengal while Visvanatha was in Vrndavana.  Neither can any pada of Visvanatha's be found in Sankirtanamrta a compilation by Dinavandhu dasa belonging to a bit later period.

 

          Among other compilations of padas there are five padas of Visvanatha's in the total 1169 pada in Gitacandrodaya compiled by Narahari Cakravarti, one pada of Visvanatha's out of a total of 1119 pada compiled in Kirtanananda of Gaurasundara dasa, and three pada of Visvanatha's out of 3101 total pada compiled in Vaishnava dasa's Padakalpataru.

 

          When critically evaluated as poetry Visvanatha's works do not rank in the first category although critics have praised most of his padas (See introduction by Bimanbihari Majumdar ed. Ksanadagitacintamani)

 

          Judged from the standpoint of the preceding Vaishnava acaryas and the quality of rasa, Visvanatha undoubtedly contributed immensely in leading Gaudiya Vaisnavism and sadhana bhakti forward.  Most of the difficult treatises of Rupa Gosvami were presented by Visvanatha to devotees sometimes by adding simple commentaries and sometimes by preparing abridged editions.  Devotees hailed Visvanatha as `the second svarupa of Rupa' or as `avatara of Rupa'.

 

          Among the devotee of Visvanatha nothing much is known about others except Krishnadasa (See mss. N. Vilasa P. 33 kha), Kanudasa, Nandakisora (See Rasakalika ed. Haridasa dasa, P. 82, P. 154).  Some think that Krishnadeva Sarvabhauma was a disciple of Visvanatha.  Baladeva Vidyabhusana, a disciple of Radhadamodara, revered Visvanatha deeply as his guru.

 

          Visvanatha stands as a remarkable outcome of Bengali intellect in 17th-18th century as poet, musician, thinker, theologian, scholar and above all a devotee and preacher.

 

          The following is from GPC:

 

          Visvanatha Cakravarti was born most probably in the Saka era 1586 in the famous village of Devagrama in the district of Nadia.  He belonged to the Radhi brahmana sect.  Shri Ramabhadra and Shri Raghunatha Cakravarti were his two brothers.

 

          Shri Visvanatha took his initiation from Shri Krishnacarana Cakravarti of Saidavada in the Mursidabad district.  He lived there for a considerable time and wrote many books.  Because he lived there for so long, Visvanatha introduced himself as an inhabitant of Saidavada.  He studied grammar, poetry and rhetoric when he lived in Nadia.  It is said that when he was a student he defeated a world famous scholar in argument. From his early boyhood days he was completely indifferent to the materialistic world.  In order to get him involved in worldly life, his father arranged his marriage at a very early age.  Shri Cakravarti like for sometime in his house and then left to become a resident of Vrndavana.  His relatives tried to bring him back, without success.

 

          In Vrndavana, Shri Cakravarti Thakura stayed with Mukunda dasa, a disciple of Shrimad Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami, at his house near Radhakunda and studied Gosvami grantha-patra. There he wrote many notes on these books.

 

          Shri Cakravarti Thakura used to worship the Deity of Shri Gokulananda.  Amongst the Mahanta society, he was famous as Shri Harivallava dasa.  The title Cakravarti was given to him by his disciples.

 

          The books written by him are listed as follows: Sararthadarsini Tika on Shrimad Bhagavatam; Sararthavarsini Tika on Shrimad Bhagavad gita; Subhodhini Tika on Alankara Kaustubha; Sukhavartini tika on Ananda Vrndavana; tika on the drama Vidagdhamadhava; Shri Krishnabhavanamrta Mahakavya; Svapnavilasamrta Kavya; Madhurya Kadamvini; Aisarya Kadamvini; Stavamrtalahari; Camatkaracandrika; Gaurangalilamrta; tika on Ujjalanilamani and Gopalatapani; half finished tika on CC; the Bengali translation of Skhanada-gita Cintamani and many other books.

 

          Shri Lokanatha Gosvami was the disciple of Shri Gauranga, his disciple was Shri Narottama Thakura, then his disciple was Shri Ganganaranayana Cakravarti.  Shri Ganganarayana Cakravarti's disciple was Shri Krishnacarana Cakravarti, whose disciple was Shri Radharamana Cakravarti.  Shri Visvanatha Cakravarti was the disciple of Shri Radharamana Cakravarti. Shri Krishnacarana Cakravarti and Shri Radharamana Cakravarti used to live in Saiyadavada.  Shri Visvanatha Cakravarti studied devotional sastras there for some time.

          In the month of Magha (Jan.-Feb), on the fifth day of the bright fortnight, he departed from this world.

 

 

153.    VISVARUPA:

 

          He was the elder brother of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.  In Krishna lila he was Baladeva. (VV. of Jiva 25-26, Devakin. 7, Vrnd., Murari 1.2.8, CC Kavya 2.20, CBh. 1.1.9, Jayananda P.11, CC. 1.15.9)

 

154.    VISVARUPA DASA BABAJI:

 

          Visvarupa dasa Babaji was a great scholar, full of renunciation and reserved in his speech.  He practiced bhajan living as the chief of the Thoura of Siddha Totarama dasa Babaji Mahasaya of Shri Vrndavana.  He was introduced to Siddha Totarama by Shri Radhika Rajarsi Bahadura, the Babaji's servant. At the time when Vanamali Babu was living in Shri Kunda, the Vaishnava Committee from that area took all the water out of Syamakunda to clean it.  However, due to a shortage of funds they were not able to complete the work. During the time of Shri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami the kunda had been restored but it had not been done since then.  Hearing about the unsuccessful attempt to clean the kunda Babaji Mahasaya went there to investigate the situation.  Upon seeing the condition of the kunda Babaji began to cry.  He then took the firm decision that the kunda must be cleaned by raising the necessary funds.  Five thousand rupees was given by Rajarsi Bahadura and Babaji took the money and appointed Rajarsi as the cashier and supervisor of the job.  Whatever he was able to collect by begging Babaji deposited with Rajarsi, and the secretary of Rajarsi, Kamini babu, started on the job. Everyone was surprised to see Babaji Mahasaya's determination and perseverance to carry out this mission.  He never spent even a single paisa from the fund for his personal use, even the money which was required for travelling to Shri Kunda from Vrndavana he collected from other source.  Neither did he spend any money from the fund for postage.  He used to say, "If anyone requests me to perform some dishonest works but he gives some money for the restoration of Shri Kunda, I will do that dishonest job for him.  Shri Syamasundara is the life of the Vaishnavas, so He did not allow the Babaji to perform any such work.  But for two or three years Babaji Mahasaya had to undergo numerous hardships, personal loss.  He passed through many difficult days in order to complete his mission.  In due course of time he was able complete the work and Shri Syama Kunda was restored to its original beauty.

 

155.    VISVASA:

 

          He was an employee in the Moslim government.  When Lord Chaitanya arrived at the border of the state of Orissa on his way to Vrndavana, a government officer came there to meet Him. He informed the Lord that the territory ahead was ruled by a Moslem governor , who was a drunkard.  Out of fear for this king, no one could walk the road freely.  Thus he advised the Lord to stay at the Orissa border for some days so that a peaceful agreement could be negotiated with the Mohammedan governor.  In that way, the Lord would be able to cross the river peacefully in a boat.  At that time, a follower of the Mohammedan governor arrived at the Orissa encampment dressed in disguise.  After observing Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, he returned to the Mohammedan governor and told him about the wonderful characteristics of the Lord.  Upon hearing this, the mind of the Mohammedan governor was changed and he desired to meet the Lord.  He then sent his own secretary, Visvasa, to the representative of the Orissa government.  The Mohammedan secretary came to see Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.  Upon seeing the Lord, Visvasa immediately began to chant the holy name of the Lord,  "Krishna, Krishna", and was overwhelmed with ecstatic love.  After calming down, Visvasa fell at the feet of the Lord and conveyed the message of the Moslim governor.   (CC. 2.16-177)

 

156.    VISVASA DEVI:

 

          She was the Queen of Mithila who wrote `Gangavakyavali', a work on Smrti.  She wrote this work with the help of the famous poet Vidyapati.  This information is recorded in the concluding sloka of Gangavakyavali.  She was the wife of King Padmasimha.

 

157.    VISVESVARA ACARYA/VISVESVARANANDA ACARYA:

 

          Lord Nityananda's daughter Ganga was married to Madhavacarya, the son of Visvesvara.  Bhagiratha Acarya was a close friend of Visvesvara, as they both lived in the same village.  When Visvesvara lost his wife, he left his son Madhava in the custody of Jayadurga, the wife of Bhagiratha. He then took sannyasa and settled at Kasi (Premavilasa 21). In his past incarnation Visvesvara was Divakara (GGD. 113, VV. of Jiva 135, Devakin. 51, Vrnd. 46)

 

158.    VITTHALANATHA/VITTHALESVARA:

 

          He was the second son of Vallabhacarya.  Despite being the head of the Vallabha sampradaya he practiced bhajan of Lord Gauranga.  He served the Gopalaji Deity in the village of Gathuli in Vrndavana.  CC. 2.4 describes the story relating to the revelation of this Gopala Deity.

 

          Madhavendra Puri installed the Gopala Deity on top of Govardhana Hill.  Later, Lord Chaitanya wanted to see the Gopala Deity, but would not climb Govardhana Hill.  Thus Gopala arranged to come down from the hill and give darsana to Mahaprabhu.  Originally Madhavendra Puri himself worshiped the Deity, but later turned over the charge of the Deity service to two Gaudiya Vaishnavas.  (see also "Madhavendra Puri)

 

          According to BRK. 5.815 after the death of the said two Gaudiya Vaishnavas, Vitthalesvara was nominated as the priest in charge after consulting Dasa Gosvami and others.

 

          The name of Vitthalesvara is found in the section Shri Gopala-stavaraja in Stavavali of Dasa Gosvami (13,14) and `Shri Gopala Devastaka' (7) of Cakravarti Thakura.

          When Raghunatha dasa Gosvami had an attack of indigestion, Vitthalesvara called two physicians to treat him.(BRK. 5.577)

 

          When Shrinivasa Acarya in course of his pilgrimage to Vrndavana arrived at Gathuli, Vitthalanatha welcomed him warmly (BRK. 5.804).  To escape the wrath of the Moslem rulers the Gopala Deity was kept hidden in the house of Vitthalanatha for one month (CC. 2.18.47).  There a large number of devotees went to have darsana of Gopala.  This Gopalaji is now at Nathadvara.  The opulent worship offered at Nathadvara cannot be found anywhere else in India.

 

          Vitthalanatha wrote a commentary on `Premamrta-rasayana' written by Lord Chaitanya and a book titled Vidvanmandana.  In addition he wrote several other works as follows to vindicate his own sampradaya:  Shri Brahmasutranubhasyapurti, Vivrtiprakasa, Nivandhaprakasapurti, Srngararasa mandana, etc. He died in 1508 Saka (1585 A.D.)

 

159.    VONCA RAMABHADRA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura (Narottamavilasa 12).

 

160.    VRAJA RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

161.    VRAJA LAKSMINATHA:

 

          See under "Laksminatha Pandita"

 

162.    VRAJAKISORE DASA BABAJI:

 

          He was renowned for his humbleness, renunciation and bhajan, and was one of the main disciples of Shri Nityananda Babaji.  He never lived in a hut, but stayed in a place in Bhatrol which was supposed to be haunted.  Once a ghost was frightened by his spiritual power, thus Babaji thought that it was not proper for a Vaishnava to trouble even a ghost, so he left that place and went to stay under a bridge between the village of Sironduk and Shri Vrndavana, where he lived for the rest of his life.  Thinking that his touch might harm others he never entered the temple to have darsana of Shri Govinda or any other temple.  Shri Premananda Prabhu, scion of Shri Nityananda of Srngaravata, learned bhajan from him. Vrajakisore dasa Babaji memorized the entire Govindalilamrta. Throughout his life his only possessions were a bowl and a quilt.  Fearing that others might worship him, he used to keep himself hidden.

 

163.    VRAJAMOHANA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.112,128,149,150,152)

164.    VRAJAMOHANA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava poet (Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)

 

165.    VRAJAMOHANA CATTARAJA:

 

          He was the disciple of Gatigovinda, the son of Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 2)

 

166.    VRAJANANDA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava poet.  See poem no. 127 in Padakalpataru.

 

167.    VRAJANANDA:

 

          He was the eldest son of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Daksina 11.35)

 

168.    VRAJANANDA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 1)

 

169.    VRAJANANDA THAKURA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava poet and the grandson of Nayanananda Thakura of Mangaladihi.

 

170.    VRHACCHISU:

 

          B.B. Majumdar in CCU. P. 693 refers to him as `Patraka.'

 

171.    VRNDAVANA:

 

          He was the son of Vamsi and a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.138)

 

172.    VRNDAVANA ACARYA:

 

          He was also known as Vrndavanavallabha and Vrndavanacandra.  He was the eldest son of and a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya.  His wife was Satyabhama devi (Karnananda 1).  Jiva Gosvami christened him and often inquired about him (Narottamavilasa 11, BRK. 14.19-20)

 

173.    VRNDAVANA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was the disciple of Satyabhama devi, the daughter-inA law of Shrinivasa Acarya.

 

174.    VRNDAVANA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was the disciple of Krishnadeva Sarvabhauma.  He wrote a lucid commentary titled `Sadanandavidhayini' on the book Shri Govinda lilamrta.  This tika was completed in 1701 Saka.  In the beginning of this tika the author invokes the grace of Yugalakisora, Krishna, Lord Nityananda, Rupa and Sanatana, Kaviraja Gosvami and other devotees of Lord Gauranga.  The tika is simple and brief yet thoroughly scholastic.  His analysis of rhetoric in dealing with chapters 11, 16 and 17 bears out his sound command of philosophy.  His tika on chapters 22 and 23 relating to tune, rhythm, etc. show that he was an accomplished theoretician in music also.

 

175.    VRNDAVANA CANDRA:

 

          He was a disciple of Gopala Bhatta and the youngest son of Harivamsa Gosvami.  He served the Deity Radhavallabha at Vrndavana (Premavilasa 18)

 

176.    VRNDAVANA CATTARAJA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya and belonged to Shripata Kancanagadia (Karnananda 1)

 

177.    VRNDAVANA DASA:

 

          A resident of Vrndavana and a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 1).

 

178.    VRNDAVANA DASA:

 

          He was a Gaudiya Vaishnava who lived in Vraja.  He translated in Vrajbhasa Vilapa-kusumanjali, Premabhakticandrika and Vaishnavabhidhana in some special meters.  These works were done in 1813 Samvat.

 

179.    VRNDAVANA DASA:

 

          He was the disciple of Gatigovinda, the son of Shrinivasa Acarya.  His father was Prasada Visvas (Karnananda 2)

 

180.    VRNDAVANA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.123.146)

 

181.    VRNDAVANA DASA BABAJI:

 

          He lived in Varsana, but everyday he would rise early and after performing his mornking duties, he would walk to Vrndavana taking his japa mala with him.  In Vrndavana he visited the seven famous temples and took caranamrta, Tulasi and the dust of the temples.  He then returned to Varsana in the evening and went out on madhukari.  He never took prasada anywhere.  Once in Shri Vrndavana in the temple of Shri Govinda many Vaishnavas were invited for prasada.  All of them requested Vrndavana dasa to take prasada with them. Thinking that it would be improper not to honor their request, he took the prasada and left for Varsana.

          At dawn he got up as usual, finished his morning duties and went out with japa mala in his hand.  Strangely, the thumb of his right hand refused to move as if it were paralyzed, yet there was no pain.  Confused he rushed to Shri Manohara dasa Babaji of Shri Govinda kunda, threw himself at his feet and began to cry and said, "Baba, I am undone.  I do not know why my right thumb refuses to move while chanting the holy name." Maharaja asked him where he had taken prasada on the previous day, and requested Vrndavana dasa to enquire about the source of the money given for the prasada.  Vrndavana dasa came to find out that the money had been given by a prostitute.  Thus Maharaja instructed Vrndavana dasa to take his bath in Shri Kunda and to circumambulate Giriraja in wet clothes for three days, eating only what he was able to get along the way.  Shri Vrndavana dasa did so and on the fourth day his thumb was restored to its former healthy state.

 

182.    VRNDAVANA DASA THAKURA:

 

          Shri Narayani devi was the mother of Shri Vrndavana dasa Thakura and the niece of Shrivasa Pandita.  Shrivasa had three brothers who all came from Shrihatta to live in Navadvipa. Shrivasa's only son died at a very early age.  At the time when Mahaprabhu began to manifest His divine nature in the courtyard of Shrivasa, Narayani devi was four years old.  Her son was Shri Vrndavana dasa, the author of Shri Chaitanya Bhagavata.  He describes therein that his mother was very dear to Lord Gauranga.

 

          Shri Vrndavana dasa was the manifestation of Vyasa and Kusumapida (GGD. 109).  Shri Gaura-Nityananda were his life. In his writings he never mentioned the identity of his father's but frequently speaks of his mother.

 

          In the introduction of CBh, Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada states that Vrndavana dasa was born in the house of Malini devi.

 

          After completing a thorough investigation it was revealed that Shri Narayani devi was married in a village near Mamagachi.  She became a widow when she was pregnant.  When poverty struck her she had no other alternative but to accept work in the house of Shri Vasudeva Datta Thakura.  There Shri Vrndavana dasa took his birth and started his education.

 

          Just four years before the birth of Shri Vrndavana dasa, Shri Gaurasundara took sannyasa.  When Mahaprabhu disappeared, at that time Shri Vrndavana dasa was not more than twenty years old.  He received initiation from Shri Nityananda and was His last disciple.  Shri Vrndavana dasa visited Kheturi with Jahnava Mata.  Shri Krishnadasa Kaviraja specifically sings the glories of Shri Vrndavana dasa.

 

          CCU. P. 692-693 states as follows:  (VV. of Jiva 83-84, Devaki 126, Vrnd. 120-121).  Jayakrishna dasa writes that Vrndavana dasa was born at Kumarahatta and lived at Mamagachi. Like the Vaishnava poet Uddhava dasa, Jayakrishna writes that Vrndavana dasa's mother Narayani was a child widow. (manuscripts no. 1691 in the collection of Bangiya Sahitya Parisat is a Sanskrit translation of CBh.)

 

          Nrsimha, the seventh descendant from Vasudeva, a contemporary of Lord Chaitanya, wrote the Sanskrit work `Chaitanya-Mahabhagavata' based on CBh. of Vrndavana dasa. Cintaharana Cakravarti wrote about this work based on the mss. preserved in Sahitya Parisad.  See Sahitya Parisat Patrika 1342: 2: P. 89.  One more copy of this work was collected by Haridasa Gosvami of Navadvipa from the collection of the Thakura family of Daksinakhanda.

 

          Vrndavana dasa was the son of the brahmana Vaikuntha dasa and Narayani, the later being the daughter of Shrivasa Pandita's brother.  Vrndavana dasa lost his father when his mother was carrying him.  At the lose of her husband, Narayani was entrusted with the responsibility for offering service to the Deity installed by Vasudeva Datta at Mamagachi village. It seems that the childhood of Vrndavana dasa was spent only at Mamagachi.

 

          Vrndavana dasa acquired a profound command of several theological works which is born out by his own work CBh.  He was the last disciple of Lord Nityananda at whose command he took up writing the divine sports of Lord Gauranga in CBh. Some of the lyrical poems composed by Vrndavana dasa are found in Padakalpataru.

 

          CBh. of Vrndavana dasa stands as a unique store of nectar of the divine pastimes of Lord Gauranga and Nityananda. Deeply immersed in the stream of this nectar, Vrndavana dasa seems to have delivered for other devotees what he himself enjoyed. Being thoroughly dedicated to the task of describing the lila of Lord Nityananda, the size of the book grew larger and Vrndavana was unable to describe the last days of Lord Gauranga.  Devotees of Vrndavana were so fascinated by reading CBh. that they commanded Krishnadasa Kaviraja to complete what had not been finished by Vrndavana dasa. 

 

          There is no way of knowing for certain exactly when Vrndavana dasa wrote CBh.  One can at best make an attempt to guess the probable date based on the following information: In 1431 Saka Lord Chaitanya accepted sannyasa at the age of 24 years.  For a year preceding that date the Lord performed kirtana at the house of Shrivasa and manifested his divine nature.  Somewhere within this period of one year the Lord showered His mercy upon Narayani, possibly early in 1431 Saka or late 1430 Saka.  Narayani was then only four years old.  It seems that Vrndavana dasa was born when Narayani was about 14 or 15 years old which leads us to conclude that around 1440 Saka Vrndavana dasa was born.  In GGD. 109 Vrndavana dasa is referred to as  Vedavyasa.  GGD. was written in 1498 Saka which is clearly stated by Kavikarnapura himself.  Hence one can conclude that Vrndavana dasa's CBh. became fairly well known before 1498 Saka.  Some think that CBh. was written in 1495 Saka and some say 1497 Saka.  But it seems improbable that the book gained wide fame within the span of only one or two years, so much so that in 1498 Saka Vrndavana dasa was recognized as Vyasa himself.

 

          According to Ramagati Nyayaratna CBh. was written in 1548 A.D. (1470 Saka).  This seems acceptable.  At that time Vrndavana dasa was about thirty years old and when Kavikarnapura described Vrndavana dasa as Vedavyasa, Vrndavana dasa was about 58 years old.

 

          It is said that the title of Vrndavana dasa's book was originally Chaitanyamangala and was later changed to Shri Chaitanyabhagavata.  In several places throughout CC., even in the last chapter of Antya-lila, Vrndavana dasa's book is referred to as Chaitanyamangala.  This clearly shows that until the time of writing CC (Saka 1537) the book was known as Chaitanyamangala.  Thus the idea that the Vrndavana devotees were instrumental in changing the title does not hold as it was only after studying and analyzing Vrndavana dasa's work that CC. was written at the command of the Vrndavana devotees. Had these devotees already changed the title of Vrndavana dasa's work then Krishnadasa Kaviraja would surely have mentioned that in CC.

 

          There is, however, some evidence to refute this idea.  In Gauraganoddesadipika, which was written early in 1498 Saka, Kavikarnapura refers to Vrndavana dasa as Vedavyasa.  This indicates that at the time GGD was written Vrndavana dasa's book was quite well known as CBh.

 

          In Chaitanyamangala Locana dasa also refers to Vrndavana dasa's work as CBh.  Chaitanyamangala was written sometime between 1482 and 1488 Saka.  It appears therefore that the book CBh. which attained fame by 1482/1488 Saka was mentioned by Krishnadasa Kaviraja repeatedly as Chaitanyamangala, the reason for this is not clear.

 

          According to some scholars the title of Vrndavana dasa's work was entitled CBh. right from the beginning, but since it is traditional to refer to books which are written in glorification of a particular deity by adding the suffix `mangala' (e.g. Candimangala, Manasamangala), it is natural to refer to a book describing the glories to Lord Chaitanya as Chaitanyamangala.  Hence Krishnadasa Kaviraja termed the Bengali book by Vrndavana dasa which was written for the glorification of Lord Chaitanya as Chaitanyamangala (See CCU. by B.B. Majumdar)

 

          The doubt which arises here is that had CBh. been the title of the work right from the beginning and was only popularly referred to as CM then the book of Krishnadasa Kaviraja would have surely contained some reference to this, direct or indirect.

 

 

          It appears from statements of Locanadasa and Kavikarnapura that Vrndavana dasa's work was titled CBh. right from the beginning.  Unlike Kaviraja Gosvami, who concludes every chapter of CC. with the statement "Thus Krishnadasa narrates CC.", Vrndavana dasa did not refer to the title of his book.  All the editions of CBh. consulted by R.G. Nath, except one, write the concluding lines as "shri krishna chaitanya nityanandacand jana vrndavanadasa tachu padayuge gana" (Vrndavana dasa sings following the footsteps of Lord Chaitanya-Nityananda).  In the Atulkrishna Gosvami edition of CBh. 3rd ed., the concluding verse of the first chapter is written as follows:  "Contemplating the lotus-feet of Lord Chaitanya, Vrndavanadasa sings Chaitanyamangala."  In the footnote Prabhupada A.K. Gosvami writes that at the end of each chapter the text varies (stated in other editions noted earlier) in some books.  This shows that A.K. Gosvami found the bhanita with reference to Chaitanyamangala in all the other chapters although he never repeated this bhanita at the end of any other chapter except the first one.

 

          It therefore leads one to conclude that had the bhanita "vrndavana dasa kahe chaitanyamangala" been there in the book of Vrndavana dasa right from the beginning at least in chapter one and since the author nowhere in the book specifies the title CBh. then it is natural for some to argue that the book was known as CM.  The mss. copy of CBh. found in Vrndavana possibly had the bhanita of "vrndavana dasa gana chaitanyamangala" hence Kaviraja Gosvami mentioned the book as CM throughout his own work.  It is also not known whether any other biographer except Kaviraja Gosvami called Vrndavana dasa's work CM.

 

          The lyrical poems composed by Vrndavana dasa show that he was an authority on music also.  There are some poems circulated with the name and bhanita of Vrndavana dasa which are not found in any authentic compilations nor do they stand in harmony with the well known views of Vaishnava Acaryas and Gosvamis.  These were perhaps compositions of some other Vrndavana dasa and to add literary weight to the work the bhanita of Vrndavana dasa was inserted.

 

          Vrndavana dasa was a worshiper of Sakhyabhava.

 

183.    VRNDAVANA KAVIRAJA:

 

          He was the brother of Vasudeva Kaviraja and a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 1)

 

184.    VRNDAVANA KISORA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.121)

 

185.    VRNDAVANA VALLABHA:

 

          He was the eldest son of Shrinivasa Acarya (see "V. Acarya")

186.    VRNDAVANAVASI VAISNAVA:

 

          His real name is not known.  One day Rupa Gosvami was deeply absorbed in meditation on the pastimes of the Lord in Vrndavana.  At that time Rupa Gosvami had a vision of the sakhis as they were dressing up the hair of Radhika.  Shri Radhika was not properly dressed at that time.  After the sakhis finished dressing her hair they brought a mirror for Shri Radha to examine herself.  Meanwhile Lord Krishna, who was hidden behind the back of Radhika, enjoyed gazing upon the beautiful lotus face of Radha.  When Radha looked in the mirror to see her own face she was shocked to see the face of Lord Krishna reflected on the mirror.  Thus she rushed to cover herself properly which aroused great laughter amongst the sakhis.  Rupa Gosvami also joined in their laughter.

 

          At that moment the said Vrndavana vasi arrived on the scene eager to meet Rupa Gosvami.  Finding Rupa Gosvami laughing aloud this Vaishnava erroneously thought that Rupa was laughing at him and hence with a sad heart he went to Sanatana Gosvami and expressed his sorrow (BRK. 5.3814-3815)

 

          The omniscient Sanatana Gosvami could understand what had happened and explained it to the Vaishnava.  The latter felt deeply aggrieved at having misunderstood Rupa Gosvami in this way.

 

          Meanwhile, as soon as the Vrndavana vasi left the company of Rupa, Rupa Gosvami could no longer contemplate the lila. Because his train of thought broke Rupa thought that perhaps some Vaishnava may have come to meet him and had gone away in disappointment.  Later Rupa went to Sanatana Gosvami and heard what had happened.  The said Vaishnava fell at the feet of Rupa and burst into tears, begging forgiveness from Rupa Gosvami (BRK. 5.3805-3835)

 

187.    VRNDAVANA THAKURANI:

 

          She belonged to the spiritual lineage of Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 2)

 

188. VRNDAVATI

 

          She was the daughter of Rasikananda (Rasikamangala Purva 1.121)

 

189.    VRNDAVATI DASI:

 

          She was a Vaishnava woman from Orissa.  In 1621 Saka she wrote a book titled Purnatamocandrodaya.

         

190.    VUDDHIMANTA KHAN:

 

          He was a Zamindar of Navadvipa and a devotee of Lord Chaitanya.  He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya.  Vuddhimanta Khan bore all the expenses incurred during the marriage of Vishnupriya and Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.74, CBh. 1.10.111).  He was a brahmacari.  (see also "Sadasiva Pandita")

 

191.    VYASATIRTHA:

 

          (1460 A.D.-1539) He was the fourteenth descendant from Shri Madhava and was said to have been the guru of Krishnadevacarya, the King of Vijayanagara.  He was a theologian and a contemporary of Lord Chaitanya.  He wrote the following books:  Tarkatandava, Tatparyacandrika, Nyayamrta, Bhedojjivana, Khandanatraya-mandara-manjari, TattvavivekaA mandara-manjari etc.  In his Tattvasandarbha Jiva Gosvami praised this Vyasacarya as "Vedavedarthavitsrestha" (the supreme authority on the Vedas).  Jiva Gosvami also referred to Vyasacarya's work `Nyayamrta' in his Sarvasamvadini and Sanksepa Vaishnavatosani.

 

192.    VYASACARYA:

 

          He was first disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya and belonged to Shripata Vanavisnupura in the district of Bankura.  Vyasacarya was the Pandita in the royal court of Vira Hamvira, the King of Vishnupura.  His wife was named Indumukhi and his son was Syamadasa Cakravarti.  Shrinivasa Acarya personally appointed Vyasacarya as the priest (BRK. 10.134)

 

193.    VYENKATABHATTA:

 

          He was a resident of Shrirangam and belonged to the Shri sampradaya (CC. 2.9.82,86).  At first he was a worshipper of Laksmi Narayana, but later, after being influenced by Lord Chaitanya, he began to worship Radha Krishna (CC. 2.9.158-159)