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1. SACCIDANANDA GVA
2. SACCIDANANDA BALAKRSNA VRAJABALA GVJ
3. SACI DEVI GVA,CC
4. SACINANDAN GOSVAMI GVA
5. SACINANDAN VIDYANIDHI GVA
6. SACIRANI GVA
7. SADANANDA GVA
8. SADANANDI GVA
9. SADASIVA GVA
10. SADASIVA KAVIRAJA GVA,CCU
11. SADASIVA PANDITA GVA
12. SADASIVA PATTANAYAKA GVA
13. SADIPURIYA GOPALA GVA
14. SAIYAD MARTIYA GVA
15. SALABEG GVA
16. SAMBHURAM GVA
17. SAMVARARI GVA
18. SANATANA GVA
19. SANATANA CAKRAVARTI GVA
20. SANATANA DASA GVA
21. SANATANA DASA GVA
22. SANATANA GOSVAMI GVA
23. SANATANA MISRA ---
24. SANJAYA GVA,CCU
25. SANJAYA PANDITA GVA,CCU
26. SANKARA GVA
27. SANKARA GVA
28. SANKARA GVA
29. SANKARA BHATTACARYA GVA
30. SANKARA BISVAS GVA
31. SANKARA DASA GVA
32. SANKARA GHOSH GVA,CCU
33. SANKARA MISRA GVA
34. SANKARA PAGALA GVA
35. SANKARA PANDITA GVA,CCU,BMO
36. SANKARANANDA SARASVATI GVA,CCU
37. SANKARARANYA GVA
38. SANKARARANYA ACARYA GVA
39. SANKARSANA GVA
40. SANKARSANA PURI CCU
41. SANKETA ACARYA ---
42. SANODIA BRAHMANA GVA
43. SANTA THAKURA GVA
44. SANTOSA DATTA (RAYA) GVA
45. SANTOSA RAYA GVA
46. SARANGADASA/THAKURA/SARANGADEVA GVA,CCU,GPC
47. SARKAR MALLIK GVA
48. SARVABHAUMA BHATTACARYA GVA,CCU,BMO,GPC
49. SARVAJAYA GVA
50. SARVAJNA GVA
51. SARVANANDA GVA
52. SARVANANDA GVA
53. SARVESVARA MISRA GVA
54. SASISEKHARA GVA
55. SASTHI (THAKURANI) GVA,CCU
56. SASTHIDHARA (SASTHIVARA KIRTANIYA GVA,CCU
57. SASTHIVARA SEN GVA
58. SATYABHAMA DEVI GVA
59. SATYABHANU UPADHYAYA GVA
60. SATYAGIRI CCU
61. SATYANANDA GVA
62. SATYANANDA BHARATI GVA,CCU
63. SATYANANDA GOSVAMI GVA
64. SATYANANDA SARASVATI GVA
65. SATYARAGHAVA GVA
66. SATYARAJA KHAN GVA,CCU
67. SAUDAMINI DEVI GVA
68. SEKHARA PANDITA CCU
69. SEKH HABU GVA
70. SER KHAN GVA
71. SHAH ABDULLA GVA
72. SHAH SUJA GVA
73. SIDDHA KRSNADASA GVA
74. SIDDHANTA ACARYA GVA
75. SIDDHANTA ACARYA CCU
76. SIKHARESVARA GVA
77. SIKHIDHVAJA GVA
78. SIKHI MAHITI GVA,CCU,BMO
79. SINGA BHATTA GVA,CCU,BMO
80. SINHESVARA ODRA GVA,CCU,BMO
81. SISIR KUMAR GHOSH GVA,GVJ
82. SISU KRSNA DASA GVA
83. SITA DEVI GVA
84. SITA THAKURANI GVA,CCU,GPC
85. SITALA THAKURA RAYA ---
86. SITANATHA DASA BABAJI GVJ
87. SITANATHA RAYA GVA
88. SIVABHAKTA BRAHMANA GVA
89. SIVACARANA VIDYAVAGISA GVA
90. SIVACARANA VIDYAVAGIS GVA
91. SIVAI ACARYA GVA
92. SIVAI DASA GVA
93. SIVANANDA GVA
94. SIVANANDA GVA
95. SIVANANDA CAKRAVARTI GVA,CCU
96. SIVANANDA CAKRAVARTI GVA
97. SIVANANDA CAKRAVARTI (DANTUR) GVA,CCU
98. SIVANANDA PANDITA GVA
99. SIVANANDA SEN GVA,CCU,CC,GPC
100. SIVARAMA CAKRAVARTI GVA
101. SIVARAMA DASA GVA
102. SRI GVA,CCU
103. SRICANDANA GVA
104. SRICARANA GVA
105. SRIDASA GVA
106. SRIDASA MAHASOWARA BMO
107. SRIDHARA CCU
108. SRIDHARA/SRIDHARA PANDITA/KHOLAVECA SRIDHARA GVA,GPC
109. SRIDHARA BRAHMACARI GVA,CCU
110. SRIDHARA SVAMI GVA
111. SRIGARBHA GVA,CCU
112. SRIHARI ACARYA GVA,CCU
113. SRIHARICARANA GVA
114. SRIHARI PANDITA CCU
115. SRIHARSA GVA,CCU
116. SRIKANTA GVA
117. SRIKANTA GVA
118. SRIKANTA GVA
119. SRIKANTA DEN GVA
120. SRIKARA GVA,CCU
121. SRIKARA GVA,CCU
122. SRIKARA DATTA GVA
123. SRIKRSNA DATTA GVA
124. SRIKRSNA SARVABHAUMA GVA
125. SRIIMAN PANDITA GVA,CCU
126. SRIMAN SEN GVA,
127. SRIMAN SEN GVA,CCU
128. SRIMANTA GVA,CCU
129. SRIMANTA CAKRAVARTI GVA
130. SRIMANTA DATTA GVA
131. SRIMANTA THAKURA GVA
132. SRIMATI DEVI GVA
133. SRINATHA GVA
134. SRINATHA CAKRAVARTI GVA,CCU
135. SRINATHA CAKRAVARTI/ACARYA ---
136. SRINATHA GHATAK GVA
137. SRINATHA MISRA GVA,CCU,BMO
138. SRINATHA PANDITA GVA,CCU
139. SRINIDHI GVA,CCU
140. SRINIDHI GVA,CCU
141. SRINIVASA ACARYA THAKURA GVA,GPC
142. SRINIVASA DATTA GVA
143. SRIPATI GVA
144. SRIPATI GVA
145. SRIPATI GVA
146. SRIPATI CATTA GVA
147. SRIRAMA GVA
148. SRIRAMA CCU
149. SRIRAMA PANDITA (RAMAI) GVA,CCU
150. SRIRAMA PANDITA GVA
151. SRIRAMA TIRTHA GVA,CCU
152. SRIRAMA VACASPATI GVA
153. SRIRANGA KAVIRAJA GVA,CCU
154. SRIRATNA PANDITA GVA
155. SRIVASA PANDITA GVA,CCU
156. SRIVASA'S MOTHER-IN-LAW (SASUDI) GVA
157. SRIVATSA PANDITA CCU
158. SUBHADRA DEVI ---
159. SUBHANANDA DVIJA GVA
160. SUBHANANDA RAYA GVA
161. SUBUDDHI MISRA GVA,CCU
162. SUBUDDHI RAYA CCU
163. SUDAMA BRAHMACARI CCU
164. SRIDARSANA GVA
165. SUDDHA SARASVATI ---
166. SUDHAKARA GVA
167. SUDHAKARA MANDAL GVA
168. SUDHAMAYA ---
169. SUDHANIDHI PATTANAYAKA/RAYA BMO
170. SUDHANIDHI RAYA GVA
171. SUGRIVA MISRA GVA,CCU
172. SUKHANANDA GVA
173. SUKHANANDA PURI GVA
174. SUKHI ---
175. SUKLAMVARA BRAHMACARI GVA,CCU
176. SUKRTI KRSNADASA GVA
177. SULAKSANA GVA
178. SULOCANA GVA,CCU
179. SULOCANA GVA
180. SUNANDA GVA
181. SUNANDA DEVI GVA
182. SUNDARANANDA GVA
183. SUNDARANANDA PANDITA GVA
184. SUNDARANANDA THAKURA GVA,CCU
185. SUNDARANANDA THAKURA GVA,CCU
186. SUNDARAVARA KHAN GVA
187. SUNDARI THAKURA GVA
188. SURDASA MADANAMOHANA GVA
189. SURYA GVA,CCU
190. SURYADASA GVA
191. SURYADASA PANDITA GVA,CCU,CC
192. SURYANANDA GVA
193. SURENDRANATHA GOSVAMI GVA
194. SUVALACANDRA THAKURA GVA
195. SUVALASYAMA GVA
196. SVAPNESVARA GVA
197. SVAPNESVARA VIPRA/DVIJA BMO,GVA,CCU
198. SVARUPA ACARYA GVA,CCU
199. SVARUPA BHUPATI GVA
200. SVARUPA CAKRAVARTI/SVARUPA GOSVAMI GVA
201. SVARUPA DASA GVA
202. SVARUPA DASA BABAJI MAHARAJA GVJ
203. SVARUPA DAMODARA GVA,GPC,CCU,CC
204. SVARUPA GOSVAMI GVA
205. SYAMA GVA
206. SYAMADASA GVA
207. SYAMADASA GVA
208. SYAMADASA GVA
209. SYAMADASA GVA
210. SYAMADASA GVA
211. SYAMADASA GVA
212. SYAMADASA GVA
213. SYAMADASA GVA
214. SYAMADASA GVA
215. SYAMADASA GVA
216. SYAMADASA GVA
217. SYAMADASA ACARYA GVA
218. SYAMADASA ACARYA GVA
219. SYAMADASA BABA GVJ
220. SYAMADASA CAKRAVARTI GVA
221. SYAMADASA CAKRAVARTI GVA
222. SYAMADASA CATTA GVA
223. SYAMADASA CATTA GVA
224. SYAMADASA KAVIRAJA GVA
225. SYAMADASA MOHANA GVA
226. SYAMADASA THAKURA GVA
227. SYAMADASA THAKURA GVA
228. SYAMADASA (MARDANGIKA) GVA
229. SYAMADASI GVA
230. SYAMAGOPALA DASA GVA
231. SYAMAJI GOSAIN GVA
232. SYAMAKISORA GVA
233. SYAMAKISORA GVA
234. SYAMALALA GOSVAMI GVA
235. SYAMAMOHANA GVA
236. SYAMAMOHANA DASA GVA
237. SYAMANANDA PRABHU GVA,GPC
238. SYAMAPALA GVA
239. SYAMAPRIYA GVA
240. SYAMAPRIYA GVA
241. SYAMARASIKA DASA GVA
242. SYAMASUNDARA GVA
243. SYAMASUNDARA GVA
244. SYAMASUNDARA GVA
245. SYAMASUNDARA GVA
246. SYAMASUNDARA GVA
247. SYAMASUNDARA ACARYA GVA
248. SYAMASUNDARA DASA GVA
249. SYAMASUNDARA TARKALANIKARA BHATTACARYA GVA
250. SYAMAVALLABHA ACARYA GVA
251. SYAMA BHANJA GVA
252. SYAMA BHATTA GVA
He was the brother of the Vaishnava poet, Shri Jagadananda.
2. SACCIDANANDA BALAKRSNA VRAJABALA:
He was born in Dhamarai village in the district of Dhaka in 1853 A.D. His birth was due to the grace of Shri Shri Baladeva of Shri Purusottama Ksetra. Formerly he was known as Shri Harimohana Caudhuri. After completing his higher studies, he was admitted into Dhaka college. After passing his B.A. exams, he studied for sometime for his M.A.
His religious tendencies were apparent even in his boyhood. He used to sit alone in a secluded spot in a nearby forest and remain in deep meditation. At the age of twelve he heard a voice which told him to remain indifferent in family life. Later he married but had no attraction for household life. He was a teacher, but his occupation also meant nothing to him. Eventually he left his job and began spending most of his time in meditation in the forest. After many attempts his relatives finally forced him to return to teaching and settle in Dhaka. He had a son named Shri Asvini Kumara.
When Shripada Vijaya Krishna Gosvamipada came to the Gendaria hermitage of Dhaka, Harimohana went to see him and was struck with wonder to find that he was the exalted personality which he had dreamed of on many occasions. He and his wife thus took shelter at the feet of Gosvamipada. After initiation his apathy towards family life increased and he preferred to absorb himself in sankirtana. Anywhere that sankirtana was being performed he eagerly rushed to that spot. For this reason, his family faced financial difficulties. Sometimes his wife had nothing to cook and was thus forced to send her son to her father's house to be cared for. Eventually, Harimohana gave up his teaching job altogether.
In 1888 A.D., after the Dhulata festival held at Gendaria village, he accepted sannyasa from Gosvamiji and went out on pilgrimage. Later he spent many days in Vrndavana. After his sannyasa initiation he accepted the name Svami Saccidananda. He took full asceticism from Dandi Digamvara Svami Visuddhananda Sarasvati in Nasik. Saccidananda Svami's complete biography is narrated by Haridasa Basu in Sadgurulila.
While staying in Vrndavana, Saccidananda met Shripada Radhikanatha Gosvami and took lessons in worship as a gopi from him. At that time he gave up the dress of an ascetic and wore the garments and ornaments of a gopi. One night Shri Krishna Himself brought him to the kunja of Shri Radhikanatha prabhu. Along the way he found a fruit which he fed Shri Krishna. When Krishna brought him to the door of the kunja, Shri Radhikanatha prabhu had just been dreaming that Saccidananda was feeding Krishna. When Radhika prabhu opened the door and saw the peel of the fruit Saccidananda was carrying, they both cried in ecstasy. From that time Saccidananda Svami became famous as Vrajavala, Shri Radha's maidservant in Vraja.
Once there was a draught in Vrndavana and the Vravasis arranged to perform a nama-yajna. Saccidananda composed a song and went around Govardhana singing it. In the evening when he returned to Radha kunda, he began to shake with fever. To cure himself he jumped into the kunda and his fever disappeared. Shortly thereafter profuse rain began to fall in Vraja.
In 1897/98 A.D., he established a kunja known as Shri Yogamaya-Vijayakrishna kunda near Shri Gopinatha temple. He also brought the Deity of Shri Shri Radha-Vrajanagara from Jaipur with the help of Diwan Samsaracandra Sen. Around that time he fell into debt. He went to Calcutta but could not manage to collect money to meet his payments. Although he had many disciples in various places, he could not demand money from them, thus his debt remained and letters came regularly from Vrndavana questioning him about payment. Eventually he returned to Vrndavana to arrange for the service of the kunja.
While in Vrndavana, a certain Caube brahmana asked for his help to arrange his daughter's marriage. Vrajavala relieved the brahmana by marrying his daughter, Janakivala (Kokila devi). One day he entrusted the service of the kunja to his disciple, Valananda, and Kokila mata and returned to Bengal. After the death of Valananda, he brought Kokila mata to Bengal. He also brought the Deity of Shri Vrajanagara from Vrndavana and installed it in his own village of Dhamarai. His first wife, Vinduvasini, and his son, Asvini, looked after the Deity.
In 420 Gauravda, a sankirtana was held in Navadvipa. At that time Saccidananda was suffering from pain in his legs caused by dancing. The devotees told him, "If you can dance today, we will believe that you are a Bhaktavatara." He thus prayed to Mahaprabhu and was empowered to dance madly in the sankirtana. Afterwards he realized that there was no longer any pain in his legs. The devotees were awe-struck by this incident. Saccidananda used to address the little boys and girls as Gopala and Gopali. He never spoke of anything other than spiritual subject matter, neither did he hold any prejudice regarding caste or creed. As soon as the sound of the khola entered his ears, he began to dance madly. He wrote the following books: Citramocana Kavya, Priti-kusuma, Dhruva caritra, Shri Radhakrishna Gauranga in the Best Indian Pelf, The Divine Manual, Prasunanjali, Lilambudhi, Giti-Vaijayanti. He died in 1928 A.D.
3. SACI DEVI:
She was the daughter of Nilambara Cakravarti and a resident of Belpukhuria. She was the wife of Jagannatha Misra and the mother of Visvarupa and Visvambhara. Premavilasa 7 states that Nilambara had only one daughter and two sons, namely Yogesvara and Ratnagarbha. According to VaishnavacaraA darpana 1.343 Visvesvara Cakravarti was the brother of Saci. Saci is believed to be the combined form of Aditi, Kausalya, Devaki and Yasoda (GGD. 38, CC. 1.17.285). Saci is also known by the name "Aai." After marriage she had eight daughters who died, followed by the birth of Visvarupa.
In his early youth Visvarupa accepted sannyasa and renounced home. Shortly afterwards Jagannatha Misra passed away. During this period, Lord Gauranga was Saci's only solace. Saci devi was the embodiment of unlimited patience. She never became disturbed by the Her son's mischief.
After His return from Gaya, when Lord Gauranga began to act very unusually-displaying symptoms of ecstatic love, Saci thought that perhaps her beloved Nimai was suffering from a mental disorder. Thus she arranged for medical treatment.
Once Lord Gauranga used his mother as an example to demonstrate to the people in general the seriousness of committing Vaishnava aparadha.
When Lord Chaitanya visited Santipura after taking sannyasa, Saci went to meet Him there. She stayed in Santipura for sometime and cooked for Her son. It was at the command of Saci that Lord Chaitanya settled at Nilacala.
From Nilacala Lord Chaitanya regularly sent Jagannatha prasada, clothes offered to the Deity and his humble obeisances to Saci through messengers.
The following are the references to Saci in the biographies of Lord Chaitanya.
1.2.139 Saci conceives Visvarupa
1.2.195-226 Lord Gauranga is conceived
1.4.3-85 Performance of rituals on the occasion of Nimai's birth.
1.5.5-32 The sound of ankle-bells heard and the signs of divine footprints found throughout the house.
1.5.52, 1.6.41 Nimai eats the rice offered to the Lord by a visiting brahmana.
1.6.72-134 Olahana lila (chiding by Saci)
1.7.34 Nimai sent to the house of Advaita Prabhu to call his elder brother
1.7.74-114 Saci's wailing when Visvarupa took sannyasa.
1.7.151-192 Nimai sits on the vessel left on top of the garbage.
1.8.8-24 Nimai undergoes the sacred-thread ceremony.
1.8.109-119 Bereavement at the death of Jagannatha Misra
1.8.127-182 Nimai's annoyance with his mother at her delay in collecting items for Gangapuja.
1.10.47-128 Preparations for Nimai's marriage
1.12.214-255 Saci hears the sound of the flute and the Lord reveals His opulence to her.
1.14.106-188 Bereavement of Saci at the death of Laksmipriya.
1.15.38, 1.17.406 Nimai's marriage with Vishnupriya
2.2.88, 2,3,103 Lord Gauranga's transcendental state is mistaken as sickness.
2.8.68-122 Lord Gauranga and Lord Nityananda reveal
2.10.91, 2.11.67 Their opulence.
2.22.10-483 Saci frees herself from Vaishnava-aparadha
2.27.18-51 Saci's state of mind when Lord Gauranga
2.28.60-65 accepted sannyasa.
3.4.239,501 Saci's visit to Santipura
3.5.421, Lord Nityananda's arrival at Navadvipa and
3.9.170,219 meeting with Saci.
1.15.10,29-30 Intake of rice on Ekadashi forbidden.
2.16.210, 3.1.14 Her meeting with Lord Chaitanya at the house of Advaita in Santipura when the Lord was on His way to Ramakeli.
3.2.34,79 Divine appearance of Lord Chaitanya
3.19.5-15 Saci receives clothes sent by Lord Chaitanya through Jagadananda.
Chaitanyamangala: (not specified whether Jayananda's or Locana's-- possibly it is Locana's)
1.2.227-242 Nimai beats Saci
1.2.283-317 Saci prevents Nimai from playing with a puppy.
1.5.143-157 Nimai consoles Saci after the death of Laksmipriya by narrating a story about Laksmipriya's past birth.
2.5.5-13 Nimai tells Saci about the vision He had in a dream of Lord Krishna.
3.3.27-55 Saci's emotions about hearing of Lord Chaitanya's arrival at Navadvipa from Nilacala.
Advaita Prakasa section ten, explains how Advaita Acarya offered flowers to the feet of Lord Krishna and sang the praises of Saci's pregnancy.
In GVA Haridasa dasa writes that one feels amazed to see the humility of Saci devi, who was the highest ideal of a mother and a wife, who gave birth to Visvarupa and Visvambhara--both of whom accepted sannyasa for the welfare of the world, whose husband was the embodiment of spiritual merit, and whose two daughters-in-law were embodiments of Laksmi. Saci's entire household was dedicated to the service of Vishnu and Vaishnavas. She never hesitated to listen to and carry out the spiritual instructions given by her son, and her observance of the vow of Ekadashi and the repentance for her sin at the feet of Lord Advaita bear evidence to this fact. Despite hundreds of obstacles in her life, such as the death of her eight daughters, Visvarupa embracing sannyasa, the death of Jagannatha Misra, the death of Laksmipriya her beloved daughter-in-law, Nimai accepting sannyasa, undergoing a state of destitution and utter helplessness, the problems of maintaining her young daughter-in-law, etc., yet Saci never faltered from the path of spiritual life. She did not obstruct her son from accepting the sannyasa order. She never expected anything material from her son, whilst she received spiritual sustenance. CBh. 1.2.139 states that Saci assisted Jagannatha Misra in his service to Lord Krishna. (GVA, CC. (R.G. N. Ed)
4. SACINANDAN GOSVAMI:
A resident of Baghnapada, he was the grandson of Vansivadana Thakura. He wrote a padavali titled "Gaurangavijaya." In addition, two padas composed by him are found in Padakalpataru. (See "Vansivadana Thakura")
5. SACINANDAN VIDYANIDHI:
He was a resident of Canak village in the district of Burdwan. In Saka 1707 (1785 A.D.) he translated in Bengali verse Ujjvalanilamani under the title of Ujjvalacandrika. (GVA)
She was a disciple of Syamananda prabhu and the wife of Murari. (Premavilasa 20, GVA)
He was a Vaishnava poet. His lyric no. 2194 is included in Padakalpataru. (GVA)
She was the mother of Locanadasa, the author of Chaitanyamangala. She is known also by the name of Arundhati devi.
He was one of the brothers of Advaita Acarya. (Premavilasa 20, GVA)
10. SADASIVA KAVIRAJA/VAIDYA:
He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Nityananda. Four generations of Sadasiva's family were parsadas or devotees of Lord Gauranga. A Vaidya by caste, Sadasiva was the son of Kansari Sen. Sadasiva's son was Purusottama dasa. His grandson was Kanu Thakura (CC. 1.11.38). The present Gosvami families of places such as Bodhakhana, Bhajanghat, etc., descend from Sadasiva.
Sadasiva wrote "Shachinandana````@P@````PP@P°`° `@```š`@°°`°° @@P` ` P@ °P`0@````@`` P`@ `PPP```@`PP`°°°Ppppppp p````@@@@ppppp````````` P```` ```````````````_8Ȱ_Ȱ_娜粜娈粜が粞〼粞ぜ粞-Vilaksana-Caturdasaka" (see Gaudiya Vaishnava Sahitya 2.142). Forefathers of Sadasiva installed and worshiped the Deity Shri Pranavallabha. Sadasiva belonged to Shripata Kancanapalli and was Candravali in Vrajalila (GGD. The names of Sadasiva ad his son are mentioned by Mahamohopadhyaya Bharat Mallik in his Candraparabhu P. 74.
Purusottama, the son of Sadasiva, first settled at Sukhasagar. When Sukhasagar sank into the Ganges, Kanu Thakura carried the Deity of Pranavallabha and brought his father to Bodhakhana. The Deity was served at Bodhakhana till 1950 A.D. when political upheaval in Pakistan resulted in the shifting of the Deity to Jadavpur Ghospada in the district 24 Parganas at the house of Gaurahari Gosvami, a descendant of Kanu Thakura (See also "Kanu Thakura"). (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva Gosvami 103, Devakinandana 71, Vrndavana dasa 61, GVA, CCU)
11. SADASIVA PANDITA:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya. Lord Nityananda stayed at Sadasiva's house (CC. 1.10.34, CBh. 3.8.19). Sadasiva was a companion of Lord Gauranga during the kirtana-vilasa at Nadia. Lord Gauranga directed Sadasiva to dress up accordingly to match the Lord's desire to dance in the role of Laksmi. (CBh. 2.8.115, 2.18.7-14, GVA.)
12. SADASIVA PATTANAYAKA:
He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.132, GVA)
13. SADIPURIYA GOPALA:
He hailed from Sadipur located at Bikrampur. He belonged to the sakha of Gadadhara Pandita (CC. 1.12.84). (Sakhanirnayamrta 24, GVA. )
14. SAIYAD MARTUJA:
He was a Muslim fakir (renunciate). He was born at Baliaghata at Jangipur in Mursidabad. Despite being a Muslim by faith, he had deep reverence for Hinduism and took up the practice of the Tantra cult. Padakalpataru contains Vaishnava poems composed by this Muslim poet. The style of his composition is simple, rhythmic and devoid of rhetoric. His mortal remains were buried at a site called "Suti" on the outskirts of Jangipur. (GVA.)
He was a Muslim Vaishnava poet. Three of his compositions are included in Padakalpataru. His biography is presented in an Oriya book titled Dardhyatabhakti (P. 209-219) written by Bipraramadasa. Some say the octave `Patitapavanastaka' is Salabeg's composition.
A resident of Gujarat, he was a disciple of Gopala Bhatta Gosvami. (Premavilasa 18, GVA.)
He was known as Kansari Sen and was the father of Sadasiva Kaviraja. His name and his family members are mentioned in Candraprabha. (See "Sadasiva Kaviraja") (GVA.)
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda (CC. 1.11.50). (GVA.)
19. SANATANA CAKRAVARTI:
He was a poet from the district of Midnapore. In 1658 A.D. he translated Shrimad Bhagavatam into Bengali verse. Part of this translation was published from Bangabasi Karyalaya (See Medinipurer Itihasa P. 626). (GVA.)
20. SANATANA DASA:
He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga. (Namamrtasamudra 225, GVA.)
21. SANATANA DASA:
He was a disciple of Vrndavana dasa Thakura. His Shripata is located at Mosasthali village, two kilometers south of Dainhat in the district of Burdwan, where he was also buried. (GVA.)
22. SANATANA GOSVAMI:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya. In his past incarnation he was Ratimanjari, or Ragamanjari, or Lavanga manjari (GGD. 181-182, CC. 1.10.84). He was born around 1410 Saka (1488 A.D.) (printing of date is not clear in GVA p. 1397--1420?)
At a fairly young age he studied under the foremost teacher of the time, Vidyavacaspati, and acquired a sound command over all branches of theology. Sanatana had an immense fascination for Shrimad Bhagavatam.
Mukunda, the paternal grandfather of Sanatana, joined the royal government service at Gauda during the rule of Sultan Barbak Shah (1460-1470 A.D.). Barbak's son died after reigning for seven years and was succeeded by Fateh Shah. In order to ensure the security of his kingdom and his palace, Barbak Shah brought a large number of slaves from Abyssima who were called "Habsi." These slaves soon mobilized and killed Fateh Shah in the capital. Some amongst these slaves ruled for six or seven years and brought about their own ruin. The minister of the last slave ruler, named Hussain Shah, finally ascended the throne of Gauda.
During the rule of Fateh Shah, Mukunda died and Sanatana was appointed to Mukunda's post. In this way Sanatana saved himself during the interval of slave rule by occupying the high position of Dabir Khas (private secretary). Sanatana took charge of defence activities and Hussain Shah ruled as advised by Sanatana. At that time Rupa was given the responsibility of governing the boundary areas.
Rupa and Sanatana received land for their personal use from the royal government, consisting of Yusafpur and Cengutia pargana in Fatehabad. There, on the bank of the river Bhairai they built a huge palace (See the book Jasohar Khulnar Itihas 1.349-358 for details on this). They also arranged to build several mansions with lakes, etc. at Ramakeli (CC. R.G. Nd. PP. 305-306).
One night when Shri Sanatana Gosvami was very young he had a dream in which a brahmana came to him and offered him a Shrimad Bhagavatam. Sanatana was extremely happy, until the dream faded away. In the morning after completing his bath and worship he sat down in his usual spot. At that time a brahmana approached him and handed him the Bhagavatam saying, "Take this Bhagavata and read it everyday. In this way all your desires will be fulfilled." The brahmana then went away. Sanatana was overwhelmed with joy and from that day he regarded Shrimad Bhagavatam as the only scripture and read it daily without fail. In his Shri Krishnalila stava Shri Sanatana Gosvami praises the Shrimad Bhagavatam as follows: "My only companion, my only friend, guru, my deliverer, my fortune and my source of pleasure, I pay my tribute to you."
It was at Ramakeli that Rupa and Sanatana first met Lord Chaitanya. Later Shri Rupa and Anupama departed with all their riches to Fateyavada, Shri Sanatana then began to think of giving up the service to the state. The Badshah had already invested full responsibility for the management of the state to Shri Sanatana and Rupa and could not think of running the state without them. Shri Sanatana sent a message of his illness to the Badshah and stopped attending the court. On hearing of this illness, the Badshah sent a Vaidya to see Sanatana. When the Vaidya arrived at his house he found Sanatana discussing scriptures with 15-20 scholars. Upon examining Sanatana he found no illness and thus reported it to the Badshah. The Badshah then paid a visit to Sanatana's house where he was respectfully received by Sanatana and the Panditas and offered a beautiful seat. The Badshah asked Sanatana, "The doctor I sent to examine you has reported that you have no disease. The state administration is dependent upon you, yet you are not coming to court. Already your brother has left, and my state activities have come to a stand still. I cannot understand what you are thinking." Shri Sanatana replied, "It is useless to depend on me. Please appoint another person for this task." The Yavana king angrily said, "You have spoiled my activities." Shri Sanatana replied, "You are the King of Gauda and can do anything you like, now you can punish me for neglecting my duties." The King was furious and ordered the Kazi to imprison Sanatana.
At that time the King was at war with Orissa. Prior to his leaving for the war, Hussain Shah paid a second visit to Sanatana and asked him to accompany him. However, Sanatana replied, "You are going to give trouble to the Deities and to virtuous men, I will not go with you." Thus the Badshah left without him and Sanatana remained in prison.
While Sanatana was imprisoned, a letter arrived from Shrila Rupa Gosvami stating, "Somehow try to get freed from the prison. I left eight hundred mohars with a grocer-man. I am leaving for Vrndavana with Anupama." Sanatana was very happy to receive this news.
Sanatana Gosvami then told the Mohammedan jailkeeper, "Dear sir you are a saintly person and are very fortunate. You have full knowledge of the revealed scriptures such as the Koran and similar books. If one releases a conditioned soul or imprisoned person according to religious principles, he himself is also released from material bondage by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Previously I have done much for you. Now I am in difficulty. Please return my goodwill be releasing me. Here are five thousand gold coins. Please accept them.
In this way Sanatana convinced the jailkeeper, who replied, "I am willing to release you, but I am afraid of the government." Sanatana replied, "There is no danger. The Nawab has gone to the south. If he returns tell him that Sanatana went to pass stool near the bank of the Ganges and that as soon as he saw the Ganges, he jumped in. Tell him, `I looked for him a long time, but I could not find any trace of him. He jumped in with his shackles, and therefore he was drowned and washed away by the waves.' There is no reason for you to be afraid, for I shall not remain in this country. I shall become a mendicant and go to the holy city of Mecca." Sanatana then stacked seven thousand gold coins before the jailkeeper. He then agreed, and that night he cut Sanatana's shackles and let him cross the Ganges.
In this way Sanatana was released. However, he was not able to walk along the path of the fortress. Walking day and night, he finally arrived at the hilly tract of land known as Patada. There he met a landholder and submissively requested him to get him across that hilly tract of land. A man who was expert in palmistry was at that time staying with the landlord. Knowing about Sanatana, he whispered to the landlord, "This man possesses eight gold coins." Hearing this the landlord was very pleased and said to Sanatana, "I shall get you across that hilly tract at night with my own men. Now just take these grains and cook lunch for yourself." Sanatana then went to the riverside and took his bath. After having fasted for two days, he cooked the grains given by the landlord and ate.
However, having formerly been a minster of the Nawab, he began to contemplate the situation. He wondered why the landlord was offering him such respect. Thus he questioned his servant, Isana, who revealed that he was carrying seven gold coins. Sanatana then took the gold coins and handed them over to the landlord saying, "I have these seven gold coins with me. Please accept them, and from a religious point of view please get me across the hilly tract of land. Smiling, the landlord said, "Before you offered them, I already knew that there were eight gold coins in your servant's possession. On this very night I would have killed you and taken your coins. I am very satisfied with your behavior. I shall not accept these gold coins, but I shall get you across that hilly tract of land simply to perform a pious activity."
Sanatana replied, "If you do not accept the coins, someone else will kill me for them. It is better that you save me from the danger by accepting the coins." After this settlement was made, the landlord gave Sanatana four watchmen to accompany him. They went through the forest path for the whole night and thus brought him over the hilly tract of land. After crossing the hills, Sanatana Gosvami told his servant, "Isana, I think you still have some balance left from the gold coins." Isana replied, "I still have one gold coin in my possession." Sanatana Gosvami then said, "Take the coin and return to you home."
After departing from Isana, Sanatana began traveling alone with a waterpot in his hand. Simply covered with a torn quilt, he thus lost all his anxiety. Walking and walking, he finally arrived at a place called Hajipura. That evening he sat down within a garden.
In Hajipura there was a gentleman named Shrikanta, who happened to be the husband of Sanatana Gosvami's sister, who was engaged in government service. Shrikanta had 300,000 gold cons with him, which had been given to him by the emperor for the purchase of horses. Thus Shrikanta was buying horses and dispatching them to the emperor. When Shrikanta was sitting in an elevated place, he could see Sanatana Gosvami. That night he took a servant and went to see Sanatana. When they met, they had many conversations, Sanatana told him in detail about his arrest and release. Shrikanta then told Sanatana, "Stay here for at least two days and dress up like a gentleman. Abandon these dirty garments. Sanatana Gosvami replied, "I shall not stay here even for a moment. Please help me cross the Ganges. I shall leave immediately." With great care, Shrikanta gave him a woolen blanket and helped him cross the Ganges. Thus Sanatana Gosvami departed again.
After a few days, Sanatana Gosvami arrived at Varanasi. He was very pleased to hear about Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's arrival there. He then went to the house of Candrasekhar and sat down by the door. Understanding what was happening, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said to Candrasekhar, "There is a devotee at your door. Please call him in." Going outside, Candrasekhar could not see a Vaishnava at his door. When he informed the Lord, He said, "Is there anyone at your door at all?" Candrasekhar replied, "There is a Muslim mendicant." Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu immediately said, "Please bring him here." Candrasekhar then spoke to Sanatana Gosvami, who was still sitting beside the door. "O Muslim mendicant, please come in. The Lord is calling you." Sanatana was very pleased to hear this order, and he entered Candrasekhar's house.
As soon as Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu saw Sanatana Gosvami in the courtyard, He immediately went up to him with great haste. After embracing him, the Lord was overwhelmed with ecstatic love. Sanatana was also filled with love, yet in a faltering voice, he said, "Oh my Lord, do not touch me." Shoulder to shoulder, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Sanatana Gosvami began to cry unlimitedly, much to Candrasekhar's astonishment. Catching his hand Mahaprabhu took Sanatana Gosvami inside and made him sit in an elevated place next to Him. When the Lord began cleansing Sanatana Gosvami's body with His own hand, Sanatana said, "Oh my Lord, please do not touch me." The Lord replied, "I am touching you just to purify Myself because by the force of your devotional service you can purify the whole universe. Saints of your caliber are themselves places of pilgrimage. Because of their purity, they are constant companions of the Lord, and therefore they can purify even the places of pilgrimage." He then introduced Sanatana to Candrasekhar, Tapana Misra and the other devotees.
Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu called Candrasekhar and asked him to take Sanatana Gosvami with him and to take away Sanatana's present dress. Candrasekhar then took Sanatana Gosvami to bathe in the Ganges, and afterwards brought him a new set of clothes, but Sanatana did not accept them. When the Lord heard about this He was very happy. At noon Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu took Sanatana Gosvami to the house of Tapana Misra for lunch.
Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu felt unlimited happiness to observe Sanatana Gosvami's strict following of the principles of sannyasa. However, He repeatedly glanced at the woolen blanket Sanatana Gosvami was wearing. Thus Sanatana could understand that the Lord did not approve of it. He then began to consider to give it up. Sanatana then went to the bank of the Ganges to bathe. While there, he saw that a mendicant from Bengal had washed his quilt and had spread it out to dry. Sanatana Gosvami told the Bengali mendicant, "My dear brother, please do me a favor. Trade me your quilt for this woolen blanket." Saying this Sanatana exchanged the blanket for the quilt and returned to Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. The Lord then asked, "Where is your woolen blanket?" Sanatana Gosvami then narrated the whole story. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said, "I have already deliberately considered this matter. Since Lord Krishna is very merciful, He has nullified your attachment for material things. Why should Krishna allow you to maintain a last bit of material attachment? After vanquishing a disease, a good physician does not allow any of the disease to remain." Sanatana Gosvami replied, "The Supreme Personality of Godhead has saved me from the sinful life of material existence. By His desire, my last piece of material attraction is now gone."
Sanatana then clasped the feet of the Lord and said, "I was born in a low family, and my associates are all low-class men. I myself am fallen and am the lowest of men. Indeed , I have passed my whole life in the well of sinful materialism. I do not know what is beneficial for me and what is detrimental, Nonetheless, in ordinary dealings people consider me a learned scholar, and I am also thinking of myself as such. Out of Your causeless mercy, You have delivered me from the materialistic path. Now, by the same causeless mercy, please tell me what my duty is. Who am I? Why do the threefold miseries always give me trouble? If I do not know this, how can I be benefited? Actually I do not know how to inquire about the goal of life and the process for obtaining it. Being merciful upon me, please explain all these truths."
Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said, "Lord Krishna has bestowed His full mercy upon you so that all these things are known to you. For you, the threefold miseries certainly do not exist. Since you possess Lord Krishna's potency, you certainly know these things. However, it is the nature of a sadhu to inquire. Although he knows these things, the sadhu inquires for the sake of strictness. Those who are anxious to awaken their spiritual consciousness, who have unflinching intelligence and who are not deviated, certainly attain the desired goal. You are fit to propagate the cult of devotional service. Therefore gradually hear all the truths about it from Me. I shall tell you about them."
Thus for two months the Lord instructed Sanatana Gosvami on the science of devotional service. The Lord then requested him to write books describing this science. Mahaprabhu said, "Your two brothers Rupa and Anupama have already gone to Vrndavana. You should also go there, and I shall return to Nilacala. You will also come there to see Me in due course of time." Mahaprabhu then took his leave from the devotees, who all cried helplessly. Shri Sanatana bid farewell to the Kasi devotees and started for Vrndavana.
In Vrndavana Sanatana met Subuddhi Raya, but he missed Rupa Gosvami, who had already left. Rupa and Sanatana had followed two different paths, thus they did not meet along the way. After some time Sanatana Gosvami came alone from Mathura to Jagannatha Puri to see Lord Chaitanya. Because of bathing in bad water and not getting enough food every day while traveling on the path through Jharakhanda Forest, he developed a disease that made his body itch. Suffering greatly from this itching, he resolved that in the presence of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu he would throw himself under the wheel of Jagannatha's car and in this way commit suicide.
When Sanatana Gosvami came to Jagannatha Puri, he stayed under the care of Haridasa Thakura for some time and Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was very happy to see him. The Lord informed Sanatana about the death of his younger brother Anupama, who had great faith in the lotus feet of Lord Ramacandra. One day Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said to Sanatana Gosvami, "Your decision to commit suicide is the result of the mode of ignorance. One cannot get love of God simply by committing suicide. You have already dedicated your life and body to My service; therefore your body does not belong to you, nor do you have any right to commit suicide. I have to execute many devotional services through your body. I want you to preach the cult of devotional service and go to Vrndavana to excavate the lost holy places." After having thus spoken, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu left, and Haridasa Thakura and Sanatana Gosvami had many talks about this subject.
One day Sanatana Gosvami was summoned by Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who wanted him to come to Yamesvara-tota. Sanatana reached the Lord through the path along the beach by the sea. When Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu asked Sanatana Gosvami which way he had come, Sanatana replied, "Many servitors of Lord Jagannatha come and go on the path by the Simha-dvara gate of the Jagannatha temple. Therefore, I did not go by that path, but instead went by the beach." Sanatana Gosvami did not realize that there were burning blisters on his feet because of the heat of the sand. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was pleased to hear about Sanatana Gosvami's great respect for the temple of Lord Shri Jagannatha.
Because his disease produced wet sores on his body, Sanatana Gosvami used to avoid embracing Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, but nevertheless the Lord would embrace him by force. This made Sanatana Gosvami very unhappy, and therefore he consulted Jagadananda Pandita about what he should do. Jagadananda advised him to return to Vrndavana after the cart festival of Jagannatha, but when the Lord heard about this instruction, He chastised Jagadananda Pandita and reminded him that Sanatana Gosvami was senior to him and also more learned. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu informed Sanatana Gosvami that because Sanatana was a pure devotee, the Lord was never inconvenienced by his bodily condition. Because the Lord was a sannyasi, He did not consider one body better than another. The Lord also informed him that He was maintaining Sanatana and the other devotees just like a father. Therefore the moisture oozing from Sanatana's itching skin did not affect the Lord at all. After speaking with Sanatana Gosvami in this way, the Lord again embraced him, and after this embrace, Sanatana Gosvami became free from the disease. The Lord ordered Sanatana Gosvami to stay with Him for that year, and the next year, after seeing the Ratha-yatra festival, he left PurusottamaA ksetra and returned to Vrndavana.
Shri Sanatana Gosvami used to worship Krishna living in a cottage near the birth place of Shri Krishna in Mahavana. One day Sanatana was begging alms near the bank of the Yamuna, where Madana Gopala deva and the other gopa boys used to play. When Madana Gopala saw Shri Sanatana, He ran to Sanatana and grabbing his hand said, "Oh father, I shall go with you." Sanatana said, "My dear son, why will you come with me?" Gopala insisted, "I want to stay with you. Sanatana replied, "But what am I going to feed you?" Gopala asked, "What do you eat?" Sanatana said, "I eat only dry bread and gram." Gopala replied, "I shall also eat that then." Sanatana protested, "You will not be able to eat that. You please stay with your parents." But Gopala insisted that He wanted to go with Sanatana. Eventually Sanatana pacified the boy and sent him to his parents. Sanatana then continued begging alms. That night, the same boy appeared in Sanatana's dream and smilingly said, "Oh father, I am Madana Gopala. Tomorrow I shall come with you." He then disappeared. Shri Sanatana woke up and was mad with joy thinking, "What have I seen? I never saw such a beautiful child." Chanting the holy name, he opened the door and saw a beautiful Deity of Gopala waiting on the doorstep. The entire area was glowing due to the presence of the Deity. Sanatana stood spell-bound, tears of love poured from his eyes, wetting the feet of Gopala. He then performed the abhiseka ceremony and worshiped the Deity with the utmost devotion. When Shri Rupa Gosvami saw the Deity of Gopala, he was also overwhelmed with ecstasy. Shri Rupa immediately sent a messenger to tell Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in Puri about the appearance of the Lord. Thus Shri Sanatana Gosvami continued worshiping Madana Gopala in his cottage.
Shri Sanatana Gosvami used to beg wheat and make bread from it, then he would offer the bread to Gopala. Sometimes he prepared vegetable curry for Gopala, while other times, being without oil or salt, he was unable to do so. Often times he offered only dry bread to Gopala. This disturbed Sanatana, but what could he do, he had been ordered by the Lord to write books. Being busy with this work, how could he find time to beg paise for buying oil and salt? Nevertheless, it saddened Sanatana to offer only dry bread to his Lord. The omniscient Lord, understanding the mind of his devotee said, "Sanatana feels hurt to offer me dry bread. He would like to offer Me opulent foodstuff........
Once a rich ksatriya of Multan named Shri Krishna Dasa Kapur, came to Mathura for some trading business. Along the way his boat became stuck on a sand bank in the Yamuna and he was unable to travel any further down the river. When Krishnadasa Kapur heard that there was a great saint named Sanatana Gosvami living nearby he eagerly sought him out and found Sanatana immersed in writing. He wore only a kaupina and his body was emaciated. Krishnadasa immediately fell prostrate at the feet of Sanatana. Sanatana offered him a seat, but Krishnadasa did not accept it, rather he sat on the ground. "Baba," Krishnadasa said, "Please be kind to me, my boat is stuck in the Yamuna and I am unable to set it free." Shri Sanatana replied, "I know nothing, you tell your problem to Madana-gopala." Krishnadasa offered his obeisances to Madana-gopala and begged that His boat be freed, promising that he would then dedicate all of his profits for the service of Madana-gopala. That same afternoon there was a heavy storm which made it possible for Kapur to set his boat free. Seeing this as the mercy of the Lord, Krishnadasa donated all of his profits for the service of Madana-Gopala, namely to build Him a temple, prepare bhoga and arrange royal service for Him daily. Thus Sanatana's desire to serve the Lord opulently was fulfilled and he was overcome with joy. Krishnadasa Kapur accepted initiation from Shri Sanatana Gosvami.
One day, desiring to see Shri Rupa and Shri Raghunatha, Shri Sanatana came to Radha kunda. Rupa and Raghunatha eagerly got up from their seats, offered their obeisances and a seat to Sanatana. They sat together happily discussing topics of Krishna. Shri Rupa had written a book named Chatu Puspanjali in which he quoted Shri Radha stava. Shri Sanatana read that stava in which he came across the word "vyalanganaphanam" (i.e. the plait of Shri Radharani looks just like the hood of a female snake). Shri Sanatana began to wonder whether it was correct to compare the plait of Shri Radharani to the hood of a venomous female snake. At noon Shri Sanatana Gosvami went to take bath in the kunda. Along the way he came across some gopa girls playing under a tree near the kunda. As he looked at them it appeared to him that there were snakes swinging on their backs. He anxiously warned the girls, "Oh girls, beware of the snakes, they are climbing up in your plaits." The girls were playing happily and did not hear Sanatana, who then ran towards them to warn them. Seeing Sanatana running toward them, Shri Radha and her playmates smilingly disappeared. Shri Sanatana was shocked and perplexed, but remembering the comparison give by Shri Rupa, he clearly understood everything.
One day when Shri Sanatana Gosvami was living at Mahavana, he came across Shri Madana Gopala playing on the bank of the Yamuna. Astonished, he thought, "What am I seeing? Is that actually Madana Gopala?" He thought that perhaps it was another gopa boy. On another day he again saw the same gopa playing with the other gopas. That day Sanatana decided to wait and see where the boy went. When evening came, the gopa boys began to return to their houses after playing. Madana Gopala then entered into the temple. In this way Sanatana came to understand that Madana Gopala used to play daily on the bank of the Yamuna.
At one time Sanatana gave up taking rice or water and sat meditating in a solitary place on the bank of Pavana-Sarovara. At this time the omniscient Lord arranged to provide food for His devotee. Just before dusk, Shri Krishna, in the guise of a little boy, came before Shri Sanatana with some milk and said, "Oh father, I have brought your milk."
Sanatana--"Why have you gone through so much trouble to bring me milk?"
Shri Krishna--"Because I know that you are fasting?"
Sanatana-- "How did you know?"
Shri Krishna--"When I came back from grazing the cattle I passed by the lake and saw you sitting here."
Sanatana--Why hasn't anyone come with you?"
Shri Krishna--No one else had any time as there are many household duties to be done, so I came alone."
Sanatana--"Ah, you are only a child yet you have to suffer so much."
Shri Krishna--"No, no my father, I am not feeling any difficulty."
Shri Sanatana Gosvami quickly took the pot of milk from His hand and said, "My dear child, please be seated. I shall at once empty the pot."
Shri Krishna--"No, my father, I won't stay long. It is now almost evening, I must go to milk the cows. Tomorrow I shall come back for the pot." Saying this the boy disappeared. Staring into the emptiness, perplexed, Shri Sanatana suddenly realized that Shri Krishna Himself had delivered the milk to him. Floating in tears, Sanatana drank the milk. From that time onward he begged alms for his meal and the inhabitants of Vraja built a cottage for him to live in.
Shri Sanatana Gosvami used to circumambulate Govardhana hill every day. However, as he grew older it became increasingly more difficult to cover this fourteen miles daily. Nevertheless, he did not want to stop his regulated practice. Realizing the difficulty of His devotee, Shri Krishna appeared in the guise of a gopa child and said, "Oh my father, you are aged now, it is not necessary for you to continue going around the hill of Govardhana everyday." Shri Sanatana protested, "But it is my regular worship." Shri Krishna replied, "Leave it now that you are so old." But Sanatana insisted, "Rule is rule, it is not wise to leave it." Shri Krishna then gave him a piece of stone embossed with His own footprint and said, "Father, this is a stone from Govardhana, go around this daily and you will get the same result." Shri Krishna gave him the stone and disappeared. Shri Sanatana was astonished and realized that the King of the hill Himself had given him the stone. After that he circumambulated the stone daily.
Sanatana used to perform his bhajan in a place called Cakalesvara in Govardhana. However, there was an abundance of mosquitos there, which disturbed Sanatana. One day he decided, "I won't stay here any longer. It is not a suitable place to worship or write." Understanding the mind of Sanatana, Lord Siva appeared to him in a dream and said, "Sanatana, carry on with your service to Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu because from tomorrow you will no longer be disturbed by mosquitos." From that day onward that place became free from the disturbance of mosquitos and Shri Sanatana carried on with his bhajan without hindrance.
The following are the works of Shri Sanatana: (1) Shri Vrhad-Bhagavatamrta, (2) Shri Haribhaktivilasa and its Digdarsini Tika, (3) Shri Krishnalilastava or Dasama Carita, (4) The Tipponi on Shrimad Bhagavata,(5) Vrhad Vaishnava-Tosani, (6) Eggeling mentions in the India Office Catalogue, Vol. VII, pp. 1422-1423 that Sanatana wrote a tika titled Tatparyadipika on Kalidasa's Meghadutam, (6) One manuscript titled "Gopalapuja" is found in the name of Sanatana in Madras Oriental Manuscripts LIbrary Catalogue Vol. IV, Part l, Sanskrit A.R. No. 3053, a-47.
(7) He is also said to have written a booklet titled LaghuA Harinamamrta-vyakarana. The same book is found in the name of Rupa Gosvami in Daca University Library. Since Haribhaktivilasa is mentioned in Bhaktirasamrtasindu (1.2.72,201), which was written in 1463 Saka, it can be understood that Haribhaktivilasa was written before 1463.
The following are references to Sanatana Gosvami found in the Chaitanya Charitamrita (references shown in parenthesis indicate the CC. BBT ed. reference):
1.10.94 When Raghunatha dasa visits Vrndavana, Sanatana takes care of him like his own brother.
1.10.95 Sanatana listens to the details relating to Lord Chaitanya narrated by Raghunatha dasa.
2.1.174 (2.1.184) Sanatana as Sakar Mallik, the minster of the King of Gauda.
2.1.196-197 (2.1.208-210)Sanatana's correspondence with Lord Chaitanya prior to their meeting each other.
2.1.172 (2.1.175-182 Discussion with Rupa about Hussain Shah's attitude toward Lord Chaitanya.
2.1.172-93 (2.1.182-205) Rupa and Sanatana go to meet Lord Chaitanya in disguise; they first contact Lord Nityananda and Haridasa Thakura.
2.1.194-203 (2.1.207-217)Lord Chaitanya showers His mercy upon the two brothers and encourages the devotees to also do so.
2.1.204-6 (2.1.218-220) The two brothers meet all the devotees
2.1.207-210 (2.1.221-226)Rupa and Sanatana advise the Lord to leave Ramakeli and suggest the route which He should take to reach Vrndavana
2.1.212 (2.1.226) The two brother leave Ramakeli
2.19.2-4 (2.19.3-5) The two brothers devise a way to renounce worldly life; Brahmanas perform religious ceremonies and chant the holy name of Krishna so that the brothers may attain the feet of Lord Chaitanya.
2.19.12-16 (2.19.13-17) Sanatana remains at home with panditas studying Bhagavatam on the pretext of illness.
2.19.17-26 (2.19.18-27) The King pays a sudden visit to Sanatana's house; requests him to continue his work; Sanatana refuses; the King imprisons Sanatana.
2.19.27-29 (2.19.28-30) Sanatana is requested to accompany the King in war with Orissa; Sanatana refuses.
2.19.31-34 (2.19-31-35) Through a letter Rupa advises Sanatana how to free himself from prison.
2.19.115-19 Sanatana's remarkable renunciation and sincerity.
2.20.3-32 (2.20.4-33) With the help of a prison-guard and a feudal lord, Sanatana escapes.
2.20.33-44 (2.20.34-45) Arrival in Varanasi
2.20-44-59 (2.20.47-64) Sanatana meets Lord Chaitanya at the house of Candrasekhar and is blessed.
2.20.60-63 Sanatana narrates how he escaped from prison; Lord Chaitanya informs Sanatana that He met Rupa and Anupama in Prayag.
2.20.63-65 Sanatana bathed and properly dressed with the help of Candrasekhar.
2.20.65-73 Sanatana refuses to accept the new garment offered by Candrasekhar; he accepts an old one from Tapana Misra.
2.20.74-77 Meeting with a Maharastrian brahmana; Sanatana's desire for madhukari.
2.20.77-89 Sanatana exchanges his blanket for a torn quilt.
2.20.92-2.23.60 Sanatana receives spiritual instructions from Lord Chaitanya at Kasi for two months.
2.23-61-66 Lord Chaitanya blesses Sanatana so that he may fully imbibe the instructions given him.
2.24.2-227 Sanatana listens as Lord Chaitanya gives sixty-one different interpretations of the Atmarama verse.
2.24.228-235 Sanatana listens to discourses on Bhagavata given by Lord Chaitanya.
2.23.53-55 Lord Chaitanya commands him to go to Vrndavana and establish lost pilgrimage sites, preach devotional service, and write devotional books.
2.24.236-257 Sanatana receives the blessing that whenever he would take up the pen, Lord Krishna would ensure the flow of writing.
2.25.54 On the final day when Prakasananda is converted at the Bindumadhava temple, Sanatana participates in NamaA sankirtana along with Candrasekhar, Tapan Misra and Paramananda while Lord Chaitanya dances in ecstasy.
2.25.135-136 Lord Chaitanya directs Sanatana to visit Vrndavana and serve the Vaishnava's there.
2.25.162-165 From Prayag Sanatana reaches Mathura where he meets Subuddhi Raya and hears about Rupa and Anupama from him.
2.25.166-167 (2.25-214-215) Visit to forests, renunciation, collection of Mathura-mahatmya literature, locating lost holy sites.
3.4.24 Sanatana reaches Nilacala via Jharakhanda, half-starved and suffering from skin infection.
3.4.5-11 Sanatana decides to give up his life.
18.104.22.168 Lord Chaitanya embraces Sanatana, ignoring the sores on his body.
3.4.21-22 Lord Chaitanya introduces Sanatana to his close associates.
3.4.23-51 Istagosthi with Lord Chaitanya, who conveys news of Rupa's arrival at Nilacala and the death of Anupama; Lord Chaitanya explains Murari's sincere devotion.
3.4.49,52 Prasada received from Lord Chaitanya.
3.4.53-66 Understanding his desire to commit suicide, Lord Chaitanya prevents Sanatana from doing so and instructs him on spiritual practices.
3.4.68-87 Haridasa Thakura explains to Sanatana how wrong it was to plan to commit suicide.
3.4.88-99 Sanatana and Haridasa discuss about Lord Chaitanya.
3.4.110-129 Lord Chaitanya tests Sanatana at Yamesvara Tota, and is delighted when Sanatana is successful.
3.4.130-139 Jagadananda advises Sanatana to return to Vrndavana.
3.4.140-155 Lord Chaitanya is furious with Jagadananda and praises Sanatana.
3.4.156-159 Sanatana praises Jagadananda's good fortune to be criticized by the Lord, while blaming himself for being praised by the Lord.
3.4.160-192 Lord Chaitanya explains the reason from praising him and cleanses Sanatana by embracing him.
3.4.100-107 Sanatana participates in the RathaA yatra; Lord Chaitanya introduces him to the Gaudiya and Nilacala devotees.
3.4.197 Sanatana discusses the attributed of Lord Chaitanya with Haridasa Thakura; participation in the Holi festival. Lord Chaitanya sends Sanatana to Vrndavana.
3.4.199-204 Sanatana takes the same route which Lord Chaitanya took to Vrndavana, which is described to him by Balabhadra Bhattacarya.
3.13.43-60 Sanatana meet Jagadananda Pandita in Vrndavana and helps resolve all his problems.
3.13.65-67 Sanatana sends some gifts for Lord Chaitanya through Jagadananda.
3.13.64 According to the desire of Lord Chaitanya, conveyed through Jagadananda, Sanatana renovates a Vaishnava monastery located at Dvadasaditya-tila and stays in a hut in front of it.
3.4.208-210 Carrying out the instruction of the Lord, Sanatana recovers lost holy sites of Vrndavana, preaches, and writes books about devotional service.
Sanatana was born in 1410 Saka (1544 calender year--1488 A.D.). He lived 27 years in his house and 43 years in Vraja-A his duration of life was 70 years. He died in 1480 Saka (1615 calender year, 1558 A.D., on the day of the full moon in the month of Asadha (June-July).
(See also Narescandra Jana's Vrndavanera Chaya Gosvami PP. 11-82)
23. SANATANA MISRA:
In his past incarnation he was Satrajit (GGD. 47). He was the son of Durgadasa Misra. Sanatana Misra's daughter, Vishnupriya devi, was Lord Chaitanya's second wife.
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya. According to CBh. the name Purusottama Sanjaya indicates one person, while CC. states that there are two different persons by this name. In Vaishnava Vandana 11 Jiva Gosvami praises one Sanjaya, Devakinandana also glorifies one Sanjaya (Vaishnava Vandana 38)
25. SANJAYA PANDITA:
He was the brother of Dhananjaya Pandita, one of the twelve Gopalas. Sanjaya belonged to Shripata Jalandi, located about ten miles east of Bolpur railway station. Sanjaya's son was Ramkanai Thakura. Some hold that this Sanjaya was a disciple of Dhananjaya Pandita.
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda (CC. 1.11.52).
A resident of Kulina-grama, belonging to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.80).
He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.159)
29. SANKARA BHATTACARYA:
He was a brahmana by caste descending from Vedic lineage. He belonged to Shripata Naihati located near Katwa. Despite being a brahmana of a high clan, Sankara took spiritual initiation from Narottama Thakura (a Kayastha). (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)
30. SANKARA BISVAS:
A Vaishnava poet and disciple of Narottama Thakura
31. SANKARA DASA:
A Vaishnava poet, three of his poems are included in Padakalpataru. One of these poems is about Lord Gauranga, and the other two are about Mathura.
32. SANKARA GHOSH:
As an accomplished player of the musical instrument called Dampha, he gave great pleasure to Lord Gauranga. GGD 142 says that this Sankara was Sudhakara in his past incarnation. One of his compositions is included in Gaurapadatarangini. (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 281, Devakinandana 137, and Vrndavana dasa 136)
33. SANKARA MISRA:
He wrote the Rasamanjari tika on Gitagovinda.
34. SANKARA PAGALA:
He was a disciple of Advaita prabhu. He was later rejected by Advaita Acarya for choosing the path of jnanamarga rather than the path shown by Advaita Prabhu (BRK. 22.1985A 1988). Reference to this Sankara can be found in AdvaitaA prakasa 20.93 and Premavilasa 24th vilasa.
In one Assamese book it is stated that this Sankara was born of Kusumvar Bhuiyan and Satyasandha of Baradoa village in Naogaon of Assam. He studied Sanskrit under Mahendra Kandali and when he grew up he accompanied his teacher on a pilgrimage to Bengal (Gauranga Sevaka 1330 (1923 A.D.) P. 539). In 1489 Saka (1567 A.D.) Sankara died at the age of 111 years.
35. SANKARA PANDITA:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya and was a brother of Damodara Pandita. In his past incarnation he was Bhadra (GGD. 157, CC. 1.10.33). He became famous amongst the Vaishnava community as Lord Chaitanya's footrest (CC. 1.19.68A 74, Namamrtasamudra 65, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 95, Devakinandana 28, Vrndavanadasa 31; Murari's Krishnachaitanyacaritam 4.1.4; CBh. 3.3.409; Karnapura's Nataka 1.20). Sadasiva Kaviraja's Chaitanyaganoddesa (mss. preserved in Orissa State Museum), states that Sankara Pandita was Capala in his past incarnation.
36. SANKARANANDA SARASVATI:
When Sankarananda arrived in Puri from Vrndavana he presented Lord Chaitanya a stone from Govardhana Hill and a Gunjamala. While absorbed in meditation, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu used to wear the Gunjamala and place the Govardhana-sila on his heart and bathe it with His tears. After serving the sila and the garland for three years, Lord Chaitanya then handed them over to Dasa Gosvami (CC. 3.6.288A 307).
This was the sannyasa name of Visvarupa, the elder brother of Lord Chaitanya. Long before Lord Chaitanya took sannyasa, Visvarupa accepted sannyasa at Kasi from Shri Krishna Bharati and left the world at the temple of Shri Vitthalanatha at Pandurangapur, now called Pandharpur. In the course of His travels in the South, Lord Chaitanya went to Pandharpur where He met Rangapuri, who told the Lord everything he knew about Visvarupa. It is said that Sankararanya's samadhi is existing in Pandharpur.
38. SANKARARANYA ACARYA:
He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.106). After the Gundica temple in Puri was cleaned, Sankararanya sat with Lord Chaitanya on the `pinda' and partook of Lord Jagannatha's prasada (CC. 2.12.154-158). His Shripata is located at Catra near Serampore in the district of Hugli (In some Vaishnava books Catra is referred to as `Carata'). A temple of Lord Gauranga still exists at Catra village.
He was the father of Raja Rajendralal Mitra. He composed several poems with the bhanita of Sankarsana. In 1860 A.D. the book titled Sangitarasarnava was published.
40. SANKARSANA PURI:
According to Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva Gosvami (p. 290), he was a disciple of Madhavendra Puri.
41. SANKETA ACARYA:
He belonged to a subsidiary sakha (upasakha) of Gadadhara Pandita. (Sakhanirnayamrta 51)
42. SANODIA BRAHMANA:
When Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu arrived at Mathura, He went to visit the birthplace of Krishna and saw the Deity named Kesavaji. When the Lord chanted and danced, all the people were astonished to see His ecstatic love. One brahmana fell at the lotus feet of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and then began to dance with Him in ecstatic love. Both of them danced in ecstatic love and embraced one another. Raising their arms, they said,"Chant the holy names of Hari and Krishna!" After this, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu took aside the brahmana. Sitting in a solitary place, the Lord began to question him, "You are an elderly brahmana, you are sincere, and your are advanced in spiritual life. Wherefrom have you gotten this transcendental opulence of ecstatic love for Krishna?" The brahmana replied, "His Holiness Shrila Madhavendra Puri came to the city of Mathura while he was on tour. While here, he visited my house and accepted me as a disciple. He even took lunch at my home.After installing the Deity Gopala, Shrila Madhavendra Puri rendered Him service. That very Deity is still being worshiped at Govardhana Hill."
As soon as Chaitanya Mahaprabhu heard about Madhavendra Puri's relationship with the brahmana, He immediately offered obeisances at his feet. Becoming fearful, the brahmana also immediately fell at the Lord's feet. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said, "You are on the platform of My spiritual master, and I am your disciple. Since you are My spiritual master, it is not befitting that you offer Me obeisances." Upon hearing this the brahmana became afraid, He then said, "Why do Your speak like this? You are a sannyasi. Upon seeing Your ecstatic love, I can just imagine that You must have some relationship with Madhavendra Puri. This is my understanding. This kind of ecstatic love can be experienced only when one has a relationship with Madhavendra Puri. Without him, even a scent of such transcendental ecstatic love is impossible." Balabhadra Bhattacarya then explained the relationship between Madhavendra Puri and Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. After hearing this, the brahmana became very pleased and began to dance.
The brahmana then took Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu to his home and, out of his own free will, began to serve the Lord in various ways. He asked Balabhadra Bhattacarya to cook the Lord's lunch. At that time, the Lord, smiling, spoke as follows, "Madhavendra Puri has already taken lunch at your place. Therefore you may cook and give Me the food. That is My instruction." The brahmana belonged to the Sanodiya brahmana community, and a sannyasi does not accept food from such a brahmana. Nevertheless, Shrila Madhavendra Puri saw that he behaved like a Vaishnava and therefore accepted him as his disciple. The food he cooked was also accepted by Madhavendra Puri. Therefore Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu willingly requested food from the brahmana, and the brahmana, feeling a natural humility, began to speak as follows: "It is a great fortune for me to offer You food. You are the Supreme Lord, and, being in the transcendental position, You are not restricted in any way. Foolish people will blaspheme You, but I shall not tolerate the words of such mischievous people." Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu replied, "The Vedas, Puranas and great learned sages are not always in agreement with one another. Consequently there are different religious principles. A devotee's behavior establishes the true purpose of religious principles. The behavior of Madhavendra Puri Gosvami is the essence of such religious principles. The solid truth of religious principles is hidden in the heart of an unadulterated self-realized person. Consequently, as the sastras confirm, one should accept whatever progressive path the mahajanas advocate."
After this discussion, the brahmana gave lunch to Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Then all the people residing in Mathura came to see the Lord. Later the Lord took this brahmana along with Him during his tour of Vrajamandala.
43. SANTA THAKURA:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda. His Shripata was at Rukunpura. In his past incarnation he was BhadrasenaA Upagopala.
44. SANTOSA DATTA (RAYA):
A disciple of Narottama Thakura, he was the son of Purusottama Datta, the elder paternal uncle of Narottama. Santosa later became the King. He built a township named Basantapur at Siala located near Kheturi. Santosa was the minister of the ruler of Gauda. He was an erudite scholar as well as expert in the royal administration (BRK. 1.468-469)
It appears that prior to Narottama Thakura's return from Vrndavana, his father Krishnananda and Uncle Purusottama passed away. From that point Santosa is referred to with the title "Raja." When Santosa received word from Shrinivasa Acarya that the lost books of the Gosvamis had been recovered, Santosa celebrated the event in his kingdom (BRK. 7.269)
Santosa bore the entire cost incurred on the occasion of the installation of Deities by Narottama. Some believe that Basanta Datta was another name of Santosa. When Syamananda prabhu arrived at Kheturi, King Santosa Datta warmly welcomed him (BRK. 7.308)
According to Narottamavilasa 2, Krishnananda Datta appointed Santosa to the royal seat. The drama Sangitamadhava was written with the consent of Santosa (BRK 1.461-462).
45. SANTOSA RAYA:
He was the son of Raghavendra Raya and the brother of King Cand Raya. By the grace of Narottama dasa Thakura, this dacoit, Cand Raya, along with his followers, was converted to Vaisnavism.
Bimanbihari Majumdar in Chaitanya-Caritera Upadan P. 700 writes as follows: Bhagavatacarya Thakura Sarangadasa belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.113). In Vrajalila he was Nandimukhi (GGD. 172). He was born in Budhan, according to Abhirama he was from Kulia. His samadhi remains at Garbeta in the district of Midnapore. Information available from Vishnupriya Gauranga Patrika (Vol. 7, no. 10, p. 386) says that his Shripata was located at Jannagar or Mavigachi (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 213, of Devakinandana 101, of Vrndavanadasa 91)
In GVA Haridasa dasa refers to two persons named Sarangadasa Thakura and Sarangadeva, but it is likely that they were actually the same person. He states that Sarangadeva was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.
On one occasion, after reprimanding Devananda Pandita, Lord Gauranga was on His way home, accompanied by Shrivasa Pandita, when he came across Sarangadeva. Lord Gauranga asked Sarangadeva why had never initiated any disciples. Sarangadeva replied that he had not found any suitable person. Lord Gauranga blessed him saying, "Whoever you shall choose as a disciple will be most suitable." Sarangadeva answered, "As you command, I shall initiate the first person I see tomorrow," and then offered his humble obeisances and took leave of the Lord.
The following morning while taking bath in the Ganges he saw the corpse of a young boy floating in the river. Obeying the order of Lord Gauranga, Saranga gave diksa to the dead boy. Upon hearing the diksa-mantra, the boy regained his life. This boy had died of snake-bite on the day he had undergone the sacred-thread ceremony. As was the custom of the time, he was thrown into the river instead of being cremated. It was later learned that the boys name was Murari.
When the parents of Murari heard that their son was alive they rushed to Sarangadeva to take back Murari, but Murari refused to go with them and vowed to dedicate the rest of his life to the service of Saranga. Later, Murari became wellA known as Thakura Murari. Descendants of his family line live at Sar village in Burdwan. The Deity service started by Murari still continue beneath a very old Bakul tree in Mamgachi village (Shri Shri Gaurasundara P. 113).
47. SARKAR MALLIKA:
Sanatana Gosvami's former name (See "Sanatana Gosvami"):
48. SARVABHAUMA BHATTACARYA:
According to Vrndavana dasa, Sarvabhauma was the son of Mahesvara Visarad and the brother of Vidyavachaspati. Laksmidhara, in his commentary on Advaitamakanda says that Sarvabhauma's father was a great Vedantist named Narahari. N.N. Basu in Bangera Jatiya Itihasa (Brahmana Kanda Part 1, P. 195) also supports this view. Sarvabhauma was originally a resident of Navadvipa. Locana dasa refers to him as Vasudeva Sarvabhauma.
He came to Puri prior to Lord Chaitanya's arrival there and established himself as a great contemporary poet. King Prataparudra of Orissa gave Sarvabhauma a royal reception and offered him a golden throne next the King's in his court (D.C. Sen Chaitanya and His companions P. 82). Sarvabhauma played a major part in arranging Lord Chaitanya's meeting with King Prataparudra.
Sarvabhauma first met Lord Chaitanya inside the temple of Jagannatha at Puri. When Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu first entered the temple of Jagannatha, He immediately fainted. Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya then took Him to his home. Meanwhile, Gopinatha Acarya, the brother-in-law of Sarvabhauma, met Mukunda Datta and talked to him about Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's acceptance of sannyasa and His journey to Jagannatha Puri. After hearing about Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's fainting and His being carried to the house of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, people crowded there to see the Lord. Shrila Nityananda Prabhu and other devotees then visited the Jagannatha temple, and Mahaprabhu returned to external consciousness. Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya received everyone and distributed maha-prasada with great care. Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya then became acquainted with Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and arranged accommodations at his aunt's house. His brother-in-law, Gopinatha Acarya, established that Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was Krishna Himself, but Sarvabhauma and his many disciples could not accept this. However, Gopinatha Acarya convinced Sarvabhauma that no one can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead without being favored by Him. He proved by sastric quotation, that Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was Krishna Himself in person. Still, Sarvabhauma did not take these statements very seriously. Hearing all these arguments, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu told His devotees that Sarvabhauma was His spiritual master and that whatever he said out of affection was for everyone's benefit.
When Sarvabhauma met Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, he asked Him to hear Vedanta philosophy from him. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu accepted this proposal, and for seven days He continuously heard Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya explain VedantaA sutra. However, the Lord remained very silent. Because of His silence, the Bhattacarya asked Him whether He was understanding the Vedanta philosophy, and the Lord replied, "Sir, I can understand Vedanta philosophy very clearly, but I cannot understand your explanations." There was then a discussion between the Bhattacarya and Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu concerning the authority of the Vedic scriptures, specifically the Upanisads and Vedanta-sutra. The Bhattacarya was an impersonalist, but Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu proved that the Absolute Truth is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He proved that the conceptions of the Mayavadi philosophers concerning the impersonal Absolute Truth are incorrect. The Absolute Truth is neither impersonal nor without power. The greatest mistake made by Mayavadi philosophers is in conceiving the Absolute Truth to be impersonal and without energy. In all the Vedas, the unlimited energies of the Absolute Truth have been accepted. It is also accepted that the Absolute Truth has His transcendental, blissful, eternal form. According to the Vedas, both the Lord and the living entity are equal in quality, but they are different quantitatively. The real philosophy of the Absolute Truth states that the Lord and His creation are inconceivably and simultaneously one and different. The conclusion is that the Mayavadi philosophers are actually atheists. There was much discussion on this issue between Sarvabhauma and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, but despite all his endeavors, the Bhattacarya was defeated in the end.
At the request of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu then explained the atmarama verse of Shrimad Bhagavatam in eighteen different ways. When the Bhattacarya came to his senses, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu disclosed His real identity. The Bhattacarya then recited one hundred verses in praise of Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and offered his obeisances. After this, Gopinatha Acarya and all the others, having seen the wonderful potencies of Lord Chaitanya, became very joyful.
One morning after this incident, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu received some prasada from Jagannatha and offered it to Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya. Without caring for formality, the Bhattacarya immediately partook of the maha-prasada. On another day, when the Bhattacarya asked Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu the best way to worship and meditate, the Lord advised him to chant the Hare Krishna maha-mantra. On another day, the Bhattacarya wanted to change the reading of the tat te'nukumpam verse because he did not like the work mukti-pada. He wanted to substitute the word bhakti-pada. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu advised Sarvabhauma not to change the reading of Shrimad Bhagavatam because mukti-pada indicated the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Krishna. Having become a pure devotee, the Bhattacarya said, "Because the meaning is hazy, I still prefer bhakti-pada." At this, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and the other inhabitants of Jagannatha Puri became very pleased. Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya thus became a pure Vaishnava, and the other learned scholars there followed him.
Once when Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was accepting prasada at the house of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, Sarvabhauma's son-inA law, Amogha, created trouble in the family with his criticisms. The following morning, he was attacked by the disease of cholera. Lord Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu very kindly saved him from death and enlivened him in chanting the holy name of Lord Krishna.
(The following is from GPC.): Shri Vasudeva Bhattacarya was a favorite associate of Shri Gaurahari. He was born in Vidyanagara, two and a half miles away from Navadvipa. His father was Mahesvara Visarada and his brother was Vidya Vacaspati. Vasudeva Bhattacarya was the most important and the best Naiyayik (the master of Logic) in India. He studied Logic in Mithila under the famous dialectician Shri Pakshadhara Misra. When Sarvabhauma returned to Bengal after finishing his studies, he could not bring any books of Logic along with him, thus he memorized all the books on Logic and returned to Navadvipa. In Navadvipa he established a school and started teaching Logic to numerous students. Within a short period, Navadvipa became the main center for studying Logic. The renowned dialectician, Raghunatha Siromani, was his student. His notes on Logic were known as Dadhiti.., and for that reason Shri Gaurasundara sacrificed his own written notes on Logic in the Ganges.
Sarvabhauma was also a great scholar of Sankara Vedanta. He taught Vedanta which is related to Advaita to many students. At the special interest of Gajapati Shri Prataparudra, the king of Orissa, he used to deliver lectures on Sankara Vedanta in Puri
Later, when Mahaprabhu was leaving for South India, after Sarvabhauma was converted by the Lord, Sarvabhauma requested Him to meet Shri Ramananda Raya there. When Lord Chaitanya denied to show His mercy King Prataparudra, Sarvabhauma trickily managed the meeting between the Lord and the King at the time of the Ratha-yatra festival. Sathi was the daughter of Sarvabhauma.
Shri Madhusudana Vacaspati was one of the students of Shri Sarvabhauma and he used to study Vedanta while living in Kasi. The explanations, which were narrated by Mahaprabhu to Sarvabhauma, were heard by Madhusudana. Afterwards, when Shri Jiva went to Kasi by Shri Nityananda's order, he studied Vedanta under Shri Madhusudana Vacaspati, who taught him the explanations he heard from Mahaprabhu.
Sarvabhauma was Brhaspati in Krishnalila. Mrnalkanti Ghosh has rightly pointed out, "Had Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya been forced to leave Navadvipa due to the torture perpetrated by the Muslims, then his brother and other members of his family would also have migrated elsewhere; but there is adequate evidence to say that they never left Navadvipa (Vishnupriya Gauranga Patrika Vol. 6, no. 6, pg. 203). In the commentary by Lakshmidhara entitled Advaitamakaranda, Vasudeva Sarvabhauma mentions his own father as "Vedantavidyamaya."
Vasudeva Sarvabhauma wrote a Nyaya book entitled Samasavada and Saravati which was a commentary to Tattvacintamani.
Extracting a verse giving information on Sarvabhauma from Kulaji sastra (Genealogical treatise), Nagendranatha Vasu states that the father of Vasudeva was named Narahari Visarada and the brother was named Ratnakara (Brahmana Kanda. Vol. 1, pg. 295). In his Advaitamakaranda tika Sarvabhauma introduces himself as the son of Narahari Visarada.
CCN and CCM show that in two verses Sarvabhauma composed hymns to Lord Chaitanya. One of his verses was included by Sanatana Gosvami in the beginning of Vrhat Vaishnavatosani. It does not seem likely that he could have written astaka, sataka or sahasra nama on Chaitanya. Those hymns to Chaitanya which are in circulation in the name of Sarvabhauma must have been written by some incompetent person--they are full of errors. Those are in Padyavali. According to some other persons, Sarvabhauma hailed from the village of Piralya, presently Parulia, near Navadvipa and lived in Puri.
She was the youngest daughter of Nilambara Cakravarti, a resident of Belpukuria and the wife of Candrasekhar Acarya. (Premavilasa 24)
He was the fore-father of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami. He was born in a brahmana royal family of Karnata (Mysore).
He was a Vaishnava poet and the brother of Thakura Jagadananda. He is said to have written a commentary on Shrimad Bhagavatam. Some say that he was born in Daksimakhanda, while others hold that Joflai was his place of origin. (See also "Jagadananda")
He was the younger brother of Lord Nityananda. (Premavilasa 24)
53. SARVESVARA MISRA:
He was the son of Upendra Misra and the elder cousin of Lord Gauranga. (CC. 1.13.57)
He was born in Paran village in Burdwan district. His brother was Candrasekhar. Several bhanita's are found under the following names in Padavali: Rayasekhara, Kavisekhara, Nrpasekhara, etc. Sasisekhara was a disciple of Raghunandana Thakura of Shrikhanda. He wrote Gopala Vijaya.
In the book titled Birbhum-Vivarana (an account of Birbhum district) 3.153, it is stated that the famous Vaishnava poets Candrasekhar and Sasisekhara were born in the familyA line descending from Gopirama, the second son of Mangala Thakura of Kandra. One of the compositions by Visvambhara Thakura, a resident of Kandra, bears out this fact stating that Govindananda Thakura was the father of these Sekhara poets who were born at Kandra.
55. SASTHI (THAKURANI):
She was the daughter of Vasudeva Sarvabhauma. Her husband was named Amogha Pandita (CC. 2.15.200,252). One day Lord Chaitanya was partaking of prasada in the house of Sarvabhauma when Amogha Pandita turned up there and began criticizing Lord Chaitanya's eating habits. Both Sarvabhauma and his wife were greatly alarmed by their son-in-laws behavior, and Sathi began to curse herself.
56. SASTHIDHARA (SATHIVARA KIRTANIYA):
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.109). In CCU, (p. 628) B.B. Majumdar states that Kavicandra was the title of Sasthivara. He also says that perhaps there were two different persons named Kavicandra (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 252; of Devakinandana 122, and of Vrndavanadasa 116). CC. 1.10.111 refers to one Kavicandra Gopaladasa. The book Bhagavatamrta was written by one Kavicandra.
57. SASTHIVARA SEN:
He was a Bengali poet who wrote the entire Mahabharata in Bengali verse. He also translated the Ramayana and Padmapurana. He was born in eastern Bengal around the end of the sixteenth century.
58. SATYABHAMA DEVI:
She was the wife of Vrndavana-vallabha, the eldest son of Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 2). She was a disciple of Isvari Devi and was highly learned herself. She conducted studies of the Sanskrit works of Sanatana Gosvami and Jiva Gosvami.
59. SATYABHANU UPADHYAYA:
A resident of Shrihatta (Sylhet), he was the brahmana pilgrim who worshipped Balagopala. Lord Gauranga showered His mercy upon him by accepting the rice cooked by him. He had three sons named Balarama, Janardana and Murari.
Balarama was the initiated disciple of Lord Nityananda and a Vaishnava poet. The Deity of Balagopala is worshipped at Shripata Dogachia.
His name is mentioned in Chaitanyamangala of Jayananda P. 88.
He was the youngest brother of Lord Nityananda.
62. SATYANANDA BHARATI:
He was a close associate (parsada) of Lord Gauranga. In his past incarnation he was Jayanteya, one of the nine Yogindras (GGD. 98-100). He is mentioned in the follows places: Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 130, Devakinandana 48, Vrndavanadasa 44; Namamrtasamudra 207; Pataparyatana of Abhirama.
63. SATYANANDA GOSVAMI:
He descended from the family-line of Lord Nityananda. He published Tattva-sandarbha and Bhagavat Sandarbha with Bengali translations.
64. SATYANANDA SARASVATI:
A resident of Guptipara who served the Deity Vrndavanacandra (Pataparyatana).
According to Pataparyatana he was a disciple of Abhirama Gosvami and belonged to the Shripata in Mahinamudi village.
66. SATYARAJA KHAN:
A close associate of Lord Gauranga and a resident of Kulina-grama. In his past incarnation he was Sukanthi of Vraja (GGD 173; CC. 1.10.80).
When Satyaraja arrived in Puri during the Ratha-yatra festival, the Lord directed him to carry the silken rope from Kulina-grama which was used for Lord Jagannatha during the festival every year (CC. 2.15.98). Lord Chaitanya explained to the residents of Kulina-grama the various stages of a devotees advancement (CC. 2.15.104-111, 2.16.69-75)
Lord Chaitanya also praised the book Shri Krishna Vijaya written by Gunaraja Khan (CC. 2.15.100).
67. SAUDAMINI DEVI:
She was the mother of Nityananda (Balarama dasa), who wrote Premavilasa, and the sister of Atmarama dasa.
68. SEKHARA PANDITA:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya. Ramagopala dasa describes him as the disciples of Raghunandana. However B.B. Majumdar states (CCU. P. 696) that it would not be proper to consider this Sekhara the same person as the later Vaishnava poet Candrasekhar.
69. SEKH HABU:
He was the prison-guard in whose custody Sanatana Gosvami was kept when imprisoned by the ruler Hussain Shah. Sekh Habu was indebted to Sanatana for several reasons. After accepting a large cash bribe, this prison-guard was instrumental in helping Sanatana escape from prison (CC. 2.20.4-7, 14-15). (See also "Sanatana Gosvami")
70. SER KHAN:
He was a Pathan. Later his Vaishnava name was Chaitanyadasa. He was a disciple of Syamananda prabhu. A political representative of the Muslim Emperor, Ser Khan was possibly the ruler of Ambua Dharenda Pargana in Orissa.
Premavilasa 19 writes as follows: One day Syamananda prabhu was passing with his followers singing kirtana. At that time Ser Khan arrived there and ordered Syamananda to stop singing. When Syamananda refused to comply, Ser Khan crushed their mrdanga and began harassing them. Syamananda could not tolerate seeing his devotees harassed and burst into a loud road, which made Ser Khan severely ill and he vomited blood. Out of fear, Ser Khan and his followers humbly surrendered at the feet of Syamananda. All of them took spiritual initiation from Syamananda and became ardent Vaishnavas.
71. SHAH ABDULLA:
He was a Siddha Fakir belonging to Ghostikuri village. He was deeply attracted by the influence of Panua Gopala of Mangaladihi village in the district of Birbhum. See the first Sanskrit sloka of the book titled Preyobhaktirasarnava.
72. SHAH SUJA:
He was the follower of Patasaha, a resident of Orissa. Depute by notorious Patasaha, Suja attempted to test the divine power of Rasikananda prabhu. After witnessing how Rasikananda managed to push 14 elephants, the ruler Suja, sang the praises of Rasikananda. (Rasikamangala Uttara 11.21-47)
73. SIDDHA KRSNADASA:
He was a Vaishnava saint residing at Govardhana. Under the divine command of Shrimati Radharani he wrote several books such as Bhavanasara Samgraha, Gutika, Paddhati, Prarthanamrta Tarangini. Siddha Krishnadasa baba wrote Nandisvaracandrika in 1740 Saka (1818 A.D.).
74. SIDDHANTA ACARYA:
His name is mentioned in Jayananda's Chaitanyamangala (p. 73).
75. SIDDHANTA ACARYA:
His name is mentioned in Jayananda's Chaitanyamangala (p. 73).
He was the friend of Rupesvara, the fore-father of Rupa and Sanatana. After being defeated by his younger brother Harihara, Sikharesvara and his family settled in the kingdom of Rupesvara.
He was a disciple of Syamananda prabhu. (Premavilasa 20)
Sikhi was kayastha by caste and the brother of Murari and Madhavi. A resident of Orissa, he was born as Ragalekha in his past incarnation (GGD. 189). Both the brothers and the sister were devotees of Lord Chaitanya and lived at Puri (CC. 1.10.136). Sikhi was a copyist by profession and wrote Madla Panji, the daily chronicle of the temple of Lord Jagannatha. (CC. 2.10.42, 3.2.106). In Gurubhaktigita (of Achyutananda dasa, Utkal University, 1975, Vol. 3, Chapter XLIX, P. 176) it is stated that Sikhi was Sasikala gopi in his previous incarnation. This is also confirmed in Swarupabarnana (a manuscript by Rupa Gosvami, Utkal University Library, Cat. no. 382), as well as Brajbihar, (a manuscript by Dasarathi dasa, Utkal University Library, Cat. no. O.L. 49).
Sikhi Mahiti was considered to be one of the most intimate associates of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. After the Lord took sannyasa and came to the residence of Sarvabhauma at Puri, Sikhi, along with his brother and sister, went to meet the Lord. At their first meeting Murari and Madhavi accepted Lord Chaitanya as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sikhi, however, did not feel the same way. He argued that this new sannyasi was certainly a saint but he should not be considered the Supreme Lord. Murari and Madhavi were extremely hurt by his words and immediately stopped associating with him.
Later one night Sikhi had a dream in which he witnessed Mahaprabhu merging with Jagannatha and sometimes They appeared separately. He also saw Mahaprabhu calling him by raising His hands and sometimes embracing him. Seeing this delightful dream, Sikhi Mahiti's eyes became filled with tears and he began to weep profusely. Hearing this Murari and Madhavi were alarmed and rushed to see what was happening. When they saw the tears rolling down both cheeks of Sikhi, they immediately understood that these tears did not arise out of fear, but were tears of love of God. Thus the two brothers and sister hugged each other happily. The next day Sikhi accompanied Murari and Madhavi to the Garuda-stambha in the Jagannatha Temple to surrender forever at the lotus feet of Lord Chaitanya. (Chaitanyacaritamahakavya 13.89-109
79. SINGA BHATTA:
A resident of Orissa who belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.149). B.B. Majumdar thinks (CCU. P. 701) that Maharastra was his place of origin.
80. SINHESVARA ODRA:
A brahmana by caste and a resident of Orissa, he was also called Odra-Sinhesvara. (CC. 1.10.148, Chaitanyacandrodayanatakam 8.2, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 233, Devakinandana 112, and Vrndavanadasa 104, BMO. P. 95.
81. SISIR KUMAR GHOSH:
In the Saka era 1761 he was born in a respectable Zamindar family in the village of Magura in the district of Jessore. He was a Kayastha by caste, and his parents were Shri Harinarayana Ghosh and Amrtamayee. He had great respect for his mother and in order to commemorate her memory, he established the Amrta Bazar Market and charitable school in his village. In the beginning of his spiritual life he followed the path of jnana marga, but later his brother Hemanta babu inspired him to become an ardent follower of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Once his brother wrote him a letter saying that Sisir Kumar was the servant of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and He would make him do His work by any means. Sisir Kumar became perplexed and asked his brother how he could come to identify Shri Chaitanya. His brother then advised him to read Prarthana and Premabhakticandrika. In the book Prarthana, Sisir Kumar read a verse saying, "Gauranga bolite habe pulaka sarire" (you will experience ecstatic feelings in your body if you chant the name of Gauranga). Since he did not experience anything after reading this verse, he asked his brother why he did not feel anything. His brother replied that Sisir Kumar might not experience anything but others could certainly feel ecstasy. Sisir Kumar then began searching for such a person and eventually found one brahmana in the Hooghly district. From that time onwards he became a great Bhagavata and studied every available book on Shri Chaitanya.
His entire life and behavior changed radically. Being inspired with love and affection, he became almost mad in pursuit of eternal love for Gauranga. Although he had formerly been a well known public figure, he now presented himself as the most humble and ordinary person. In the morning he used to walk bare foot, wearing very simple clothing, and chant the name of Shri Gauranga. From that period he began collecting various manuscripts and in order to preach Gaura-bhajan he began to compile the book Amiya NimaiA Carita. The first book he completed was Kalacand Gita.
Once he went to a marriage ceremony in Hooghly where he saw a painting of Shri Shri Nitai-Gaura and Sitanatha. He became so overwhelmed upon seeing that painting that, like a child, he insisted upon having it. Seeing his state of mind, the owner of the painting presented it to Sisir Kumar, who happily carried the painting to his house and handed it over to his mother and instructed her to worship it. According to his intimate disciple, Sisir Kumar could not go in front of that painting because whenever he glanced at it he would faint in ecstasy. This painting is still kept on the 6th floor of the Amrta Bazar Patrika newspaper house. This newspaper was originated by him and its previous name was Anandabazar Vishnupriya. This painting has been printed in the edition of Kadaca, by Shri Murari Gupta.
Sisir Kumar Ghosh's Amiya Nimai-Carita inspired many persons to become ardent devotees of Shri Gauranga, and his English book Lord Gauranga helped many Westerners to understand and appreciate Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
82. SISU KRSNA DASA:
He was a disciple of Nityananda Prabhu and was known as Kanu Thakura. (See "Kanai Thakura")
83. SITA DEVI:
She was the wife of Padmanabha Cakravarti and the mother of Shrila Lokanatha Gosvami, the spiritual master of Narottama Thakura.
84. SITA THAKURANI:
Like Shri Saci devi, Shri Sita Thakurani was always absorbed in affectionate love for Shri Gaurasundara and was the well-wisher and competent advisor of Shri Saci and Shri Jagannatha Misra. (GGD. 86, Premavilasa 24)
Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami has beautifully described Shri Sita Thakurani on the occasion of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's birth: As soon as the boy was born, generous Shri Jagannatha Misra sent a man to Advaita Acarya at Santipura to inform him. Upon hearing the good news, Shri Advaita was overwhelmed with joy. After taking bath in the Ganges and singing and dancing with Shri Haridasa Thakura, he sent his wife Shri Sita Thakurani to Navadvipa Mayapura. Sitadevi, who is worshipable by the entire world, taking permission of her husband, went to see that topmost child with all varieties of gifts and presentations. She brought different kinds of golden ornaments, including bangles, armlets, necklaces and anklets, as well as tiger nails set in gold, waist decorations of silk and lace, nicely printed silken saris and a child's garment, also made of silk. Many other riches, including gold and silver coins, were also presented to the child. Riding in a palanquin covered with cloth and accompanied by maidservants, Sita Thakurani came to the house of Jagannatha Misra, bringing with her many auspicious articles such as fresh grass, paddy, gorocana, tumeric, kunkuma and sandalwood. All these presentations filled a large basket.
When Sita Thakurani came to the house of Sacidevi, bringing with her many kinds of eatables, dresses and other gifts, she was astonished to see the newly born child, for she appreciated that except for a difference in color, the child was directly Krishna of Gokula Himself. Seeing the transcendental bodily effulgence of the child, each of His nicely constructed limbs full of auspicious signs and resembling a form of gold, Sita Thakurani was very much pleased, and because of her maternal affection, she felt as if her heart were melting. She blessed the newly born child by placing fresh grass and paddy on His head saying, "May You be blessed with a long duration of life." But being afraid of ghosts and witches, she gave the child the name Nimai.
On the day the mother and son took bath and left the maternity home, Sita Thakurani gave them all kinds of ornaments and garments and offered respect to Jagannatha Misra. Sacidevi and Jagannatha Misra reciprocated by honoring Sita Thakurani, who then returned home feeling deep satisfaction within her mind.
On the occasion of the birth anniversary of the child, Shri Jagannatha Misra and Saci devi presented the revered Shri Sita Thakurani with valuable clothes and other gifts. Shri Advaita Acarya had a house in Mayapura as well as Santipura. After the birth of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, on the request of Jagannatha Misra and Saci devi, Shri Advaita Acarya and his wife began to spend most of their time at their Mayapura residence.
Shri Saci devi highly respected Shri Sita Thakurani, who visited their house daily and advised Saci devi how to bring up Shri Gaurasundara. Together they watched with delight as the divine child grew.
After some years the eldest son of Misra, Shri Visvarupa, left home and accepted sannyasa. Saci and Jagannatha were overwhelmed with grief, as was the child Gaurasundara. At that time Advaita Acarya and Sita devi consoled them and looked after the child. Malini devi, wife of Shrivasa Pandita, also helped to bring up the child with great affection during that time. Malini devi and Saci were very close friends.
Later in life, when the Lord returned from Gaya and disclosed His real identity, Shri Advaita Acarya and Sita Thakurani came from Santipura to Mayapura to worship the feet of Shri Gaurasundara.
Later, when Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu left home and set off for Vrndavana with the intention of accepting sannyasa, Shri Saci devi and Sita Thakurani were overwhelmed with grief and remained lying on the ground like as if dead for four days. Understanding the distress of His relatives and devotees, the kind-hearted Gaurasundara was unable to go on to Vrndavana, and thus returned to Santipura. Again Advaita Acarya and Sita Thakurani regained their lives. After four days of fasting, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu accepted the food cooked by Shri Sita Thakurani. Before taking sannyasa, Gaurasundara used to perform kirtana along with Shri Nityananda Prabhu at the house of Advaita Acarya. Shri Paremesvari dasa Thakura has given a beautiful description of these pastimes in his Padakalpataru.
After the Lord accepted sannyasa and remained in Jagannatha Puri, every year Advaita Acarya, Shri Sita Thakurani and their son Shri Acyutananda visited Him. On these occasions Shri Sita Thakurani brought many of the Lord's favorite preparations, and with great love, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu took the meals offered by her. He respected her as if she and Saci mata were the same person.
Sita Thakurani had three sons, Acyutananda, Krishna Misra and Gopala Misra. They were also ardent followers of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Sita Thakurani's father was Shri Nrsimha Bhadudi and her sister was Shri. The two sisters were both manifestations of Bhagavati Yogamaya. Shri Sita Thakurani was the manifestation of Yogamaya--goddess Paurnamasi. In Dvapara yuga, at the time of the birth ceremony of Shri Krishna, she was present in the house of Nanda and gave advice to Nanda and Yasoda.
85. SITALA THAKURA RAYA:
He was the disciple of Shri Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 2, Narottamavilasa 12)
86. SITANATHA DASA BABAJI:
He was an Odiya gopa whose character was very simple and broad-minded. He was not very learned and spoke only his native language throughout his life. He lived in a hut on the northern side of the temple of Shrinathaji at Govinda kunda. There he performed his bhajan, chanting the holy names with tears in his eyes. Every day before dawn he got up and took his bath in Govinda kunda, thereafter he danced and performed kirtana in front of Giridhari for five hours at a stretch. He would then worship Tulasi devi and bathe her. He then returned to the temple of Shrinathaji and chanted prayers tearfully. Every day at noon he went out in the heat for madhukari without any shoes or umbrella. After doing madhukari he gave a little of his madhukari to every Vaishnava residing in the area and then returned to his hut.
He memorized many beautiful songs and everyone was overwhelmed with love upon hearing his sweet singing. His daily routine was to take bath twice in Govinda kunda. He took his first bath at 3:00 A.M.. When Shri Advaita Babaji told him that it was not proper to take bath at that time, he replied, "I do not make any difference of the hour, whenever Shrinathaji breaks my sleep, I get up and take my bath." Even two or three days before his death, when he was completely bed-ridden, Advaita babaji saw that Sitanatha was still taking his bath in Govinda kunda in the early hours of the morning.
On the day of his death, Sitanatha asked Shri Advaita dasa to carry him in front of Shrinathaji. There he asked him to bathe him and to mark his body with tilak. After that he requested Advaita dasa to bathe the Tulasi tree and to give him that water. He then inquired whether everyone had received the prasada of Shrinatha. As soon as Advaita dasa put the water which had bathed Tulasi into his mouth, Sitanatha took his last breath. Because he had received the darsana of Shri Vrnda devi by worshiping Shrimati Tulasi devi, he thus had great attachment for Tulasi devi. It is said that whenever he watered a dry, almost dead Tulasi tree, the very next day it would be fresh and green. Sitanatha used to sing the glories of Shri Radha-Krishna and Shri Vrnda in the Odiya language.
87. SITANATHA RAYA:
He was a devotee belonging to the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradaya. His guru was Krishnavallabha Gosvami. He hailed from the village of Syamaganja which is located on the eastern side of the road to Magura about three miles from Mahammadpur (Bangladesh). The eldest son of Sitanatha, Syamasundara, built two Akhda's nearby in Ghospura village. He installed the Deity of Lord Gauranga in one Akhda, and Deities of Giridhari, etc. in the other.
To the west of Kanaibajar village, in the forest, stands the house of "Darumaya Hare Krishna" (wooden Deity). There a temple with five high steeples houses these Deities. A stone plaque in the temple states that King Sitarama Raya, with the object of appeasing Lord Krishna, founded this temple in Jadupatinagara in 1625 Saka (1703 A.D.). (Bharatavarsa Baisakha 1332 (1925 A.D.)
88. SIVABHAKTA BRAHMANA:
The name of this person is not known. See CC. 1.17.99A 100 , CBh. 2.8.96-104.
89. SIVACARANA VIDYAVAGISA:
He criticized Narottama Thakura, but later was rectified and became his ardent devotee and disciple. (Premavilasa 19)
90. SIVACARANA VIDYAVAGISA:
(same information as given above)
91. SIVAI ACARYA:
He was a resident of Goyasa and a disciple of Narottama Thakura. He was the father of Harirama and Ramakrishna. Before meeting Narottama, he was a strong Sakta. (Narottamavilasa 10)
92. SIVAI DASA:
A Vaishnava poet, six of his poems are included in Padakalpataru.
A Vaishnava poet, three of his poems are included in Padakalpataru.
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya and was a resident of Orissa. (CC. 1.10.135)
95. SIVANANDA CAKRAVARTI:
He was a disciple of Advaita Acarya Prabhu. (CC. 1.8.70)
96. SIVANANDA CAKRAVARTI:
He belonged to the sakha of Gadadhara Pandita. In Vrajalila he was Lavangamanjari (GGD. 183, Sakhanirnayamrta 20).
97. SIVANANDA CAKRAVARTI (DANTUR):
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya and was a devotee from Orissa. "Dantur" could have been his title. (CC. 1.10.149)
98. SIVANANDA PANDITA:
His name is mentioned along with other devotees of Lord Chaitanya in Orissa. (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva Gosvami 234, Chaitanyamangala of Jayananda 29)
99. SIVANANDA SEN:
He was a Vaidya by caste. In his past incarnation he was Vira Duti (GGD. 176). His Shripata was located at Kumarahatta at Halisahara (Pata Paryatana).
Sivananda had three sons named Chaitanyadasa, Ramadasa, and Paramanandadasa (Kavi Karnapura). Sivananda was one of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's intimate associates. As directed by the Lord, he escorted the Gaudiya devotees to Nilacala every year, providing them with food and lodging along the way.
During one pilgrimage to Nilacala a dog joined their party and Sivananda took personal care of him, even paying extra fare to allow the dog to across the river along with them. One night Sivananda was detained for sometime and arrived at the camp late in the evening, only to find that the dog had not been given prasada and, despite a thorough search, the dog was nowhere to be found. Thus Sivananda did not accept any food that night.
When their party arrived in Nilacala, they found the dog in the presence of the Lord. The dog was eating some coconut given by the Lord and was chanting, "Krishna, Krishna." Sivananda offered his humble obeisances at the feet of the dog and apologized.
On another occasion Sivananda was detained and thus accommodations for the party had not been made. It was quite late at night and Lord Nityananda appeared to be restless and hungry, thus He said, "I am so hungry yet still there is no sign of Sivananda, therefore I curse his three sons to die." Hearing this Sivananda's wife began to cry. When Sivananda returned and his wife informed him what had happened, he consoled her saying, "Why are you crying? Let my three sons die if it is the desire of Lord Nityananda." Sivananda then went before Lord Nityananda, who kicked him. Sivananda, however, was extremely happy and said, "Lord, at last I know that you have accepted this wretched soul as Your servant.
Vasudeva Datta was an extraordinarily generous man, thus he never saved any money. Lord Chaitanya therefore directed Sivananda as follows: "You should become the accountant of Vasudeva and take charge of his expenses."
Once Lord Chaitanya appeared within the body of Nakula Brahmacari at Ambika. Upon hearing this Sivananda went to Ambika but instead of meeting Nakula, he remained hidden. Hoping to test the authenticity of Nakula brahmacari, Sivananda thought "If that brahmacari calls me by name and speaks out my Istamantra, then I will be convinced that the omniscient Lord Gauranga has truly entered his body. It happened as Sivananda desired; the brahmacari called him and spoke out his Istamantra.
Once Lord Chaitanya, without manifesting Himself physically, partook of food presented by Nrsimhananda in the house of Sivananda. Not having personally seen the Lord, Sivananda was uncertain of this incident. However, the next year when visiting the Lord in Puri, Lord Chaitanya mentioned the time which He had come to accept prasada at Sivananda's house, thus clearing up Sivananda's doubts.
Before writing his books Kavi Karnapura collected considerable information about Lord Chaitanya's life from Sivananda.
The following are references to Sivananda given in CC:
1.20.52 A close devotee of Lord Gauranga
1.10.52-53; Responsible caretaker of the Gaudiya devotees in their pilgrimage to Nilacala
2.15.98 Directed by Lord Chaitanya to guide all Gaudiya devotees to Nilacala
2.1.130;3.1.12-28 Paid equal attention to a stray dog along the journey
2.15.94-97 Directed by Lord Chaitanya to take charge of Vasudeva Datta's accounts
2.16.203 Lord Chaitanya visits Sivananda's house on his way from Nilacala to Gauda
3.2.21-31 Test of Nakula brahmacari
3.2.41-42;3.2.44-77 Lord Chaitanya partaking of food in a subtle form
3.6.178-180 Letter from Govardhana dasa to Sivananda after the former's son, Raghunatha dasa, renounced home
3.6.242-244 At Nilacala Raghunatha dasa was informed about his father's letter
3.6.245-253 On return from Nilacala the messenger of Govardhana is informed about Raghunatha dasa's condition
3.6.255-258 Govardhana sends money through messenger to Sivananda after learning about his son; Sivananda's advice to the messenger
3.6.139-148 Sivananda's eldest son, Chaitanyadasa, meets Lord Chaitanya; the Lord invites Chaitanyadasa and the latter also invites the Lord
3.12.17-31 Receives grace showered by Lord Nityananda on the pretext of chastisement
3.12.43-48 Lord Chaitanya meets the three sons of Sivananda; mystery associated with the name of Puridasa, the youngest son
3.12.52 Lord Chaitanya directs Govinda to pass on the remnants of the Lord's food to the wife and sons of Sivananda as long as they stay at Nilacala
3.12.101-102 Arrival of Jagadananda at Sivananda's house and preparation of herbal oil
3.16.60-70 Grace showered by Lord Chaitanya on Puridasa
(Further information from GPC):
Sivananda Sena utilized his entire property and wealth in the service of Hari-guru-Vaishnavas. All his family members, including his friends, servants and three sons (Shri Chaitanya dasa, Shri Rama dasa and Shri Karnapura), even his nephew Shri Vallava Sena were great devotees of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Shri Sivananda lived in Kumarahatta, which is known as Halisahara. The Deity Gaura-Gopala which was worshiped by him, is now at Kancrapada, one and a half miles away from Halisahara.
In GGD, Kavi Karnapura writes that Sivananda Sena was the associate of Shri Radha in Dvapara yuga and was known as Vira. Every year Sivananda took full responsibility for bringing the Gaudiya devotees to Puri on foot. Once the devotees started their journey on an auspicious day and on their way came to the house of Advaita Acarya at Santipura. After spending one day there performing sankirtana, they went to the house of Shri Saci devi in Navadvipa, along with Advaita Acarya, his wife and his son. Mother Saci was living in distress due to separation from her son. She offered her respects to the devotees, and after serving Shri Advaita Acarya and Sita devi, she began to weep in remembrance of Shri Gauranga. After consoling her the devotees continued on their journey.
Though Mahaprabhu had advised Shri Nityananda Prabhu to preach and spread love of God, Nityananda set off with the devotees to meet Mahaprabhu. Amongst the devotees were Shri Acaryaratna, Pundarika Vidyanidhi, Shrivasa Pandita and his wife and brothers, Vasudeva Ghosh, Govinda Ghosh, Madhava Ghosh, Murari Gupta Ojha, Shri Raghava Pandita, Narahari from Shrikhanda, Gunaraja Khan and many others. Sivananda Sena's wife and three sons also accompanied the party. Many of the devotees brought along their wives, who eagerly collected many varieties of food for the pleasure of Mahaprabhu. Sivananda took charge of paying the fares and food of the devotees. Wherever they spent the night, they engaged in sankirtana.
One year Shri Sivananda, along with his first son Shri Chaitanya dasa, came to Puri. When Mahaprabhu asked Sivananda why he named the boy as such, Sivananda replied that he had been inspired from within. One day, by his father's instruction, Chaitanya dasa invited Mahaprabhu to their house for prasada. Mahaprabhu accepted the invitation and when He came to their house, Sivananda and his wife showed Him great respect and offered Him various types of food. Being very pleased the Lord said, "Today Chaitanya dasa invited me." Chaitanya dasa then placed various items such as curd, lemon, ginger, fry, salt, etc. in front of Mahaprabhu, who happily said, "This boy knows my mind, therefore I am very satisfied with his service." With those words Mahaprabhu began eating with great pleasure and after finishing He gave the food left on His plate to Chaitanya dasa.
After spending four months in the Lord's association, the devotees from Bengal were preparing to leave when Mahaprabhu told Sivananda that he should name his next son Puri dasa. Sivananda became very happy and with the blessings of Mahaprabhu, returned to Gauda. After a few months a son was born and the astrologer gave him the name Paramananda.
The next year Sivananda and the devotees visited Puri. As usual Sivananda arranged for their boarding and food and the devotees eventually arrived in the presence of the Lord. Along with the devotees, Sivananda happily participated in singing and dancing before the Ratha of Shri Jagannatha Deva.
One day Sivananda and his wife came to Mahaprabhu and the little child fell down at the lotus feet of Mahaprabhu and fixed his eyes on the reddish feet of the Lord. A bit amused, Mahaprabhu gently placed His toe in front of the little boy, who began to such the toe with great pleasure. The devotees present were filled with joy and began chanting the holy name. This child later became the poet Kavi Karnapura Gosvami.
100. SIVARAMA CAKRAVARTI:
He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. First he was a dacoit in the gang led by Cand Raya, but later became a devout Vaishnava by the grace of Narottama Thakura.
101. SIVARAMA DASA:
He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. He may have been a Vaishnava poet. (Premavilasa 19, Narottamavilasa 12)
She was the wife of Advaita Prabhu. In her past incarnation she was Yogamaya. (GGD. 86)
He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.136)
He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.108)
He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya and belonged to Shripata Kancanagadia (BRK. 12.19, 10.47). Shridasa, Gokulananda and other devotees taught Bhaktisastra to the devotees and students of Shrinivasa Acarya. Shridasa's father was Haridasa Acarya, a noted resident of Vrndavana. Gokulananda was Shridasa's brother. When Shrinivasa Acarya was about to depart from Vrndavana for Gauda, Haridasacarya requested him to give spiritual initiation to his two sons. On the occasion of the disappearance celebration of Haridasa Acarya, his two sons accepted spiritual initiation in the presence of numerous devotees. (See Karnananda)
106. SRIDASA MAHASOWARA:
He was the chief cook at the Jagannatha Puri temple. Kavikarnapura describes him as "Nisargabhakta" (Chaitanya Candrodayanatakam ed. Ramacandra Misra, Varanasi Caukhamba Sanskrit Series office 1366, Chapter 8, P. 258). He was introduced to Lord Chaitanya by Sarvabhauma (CC. 2.10). Krishnadasa Kaviraja refers to him as "Jagannatha Mahasuara". He was a great devotee of Lord Jagannatha in Puri.
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda (CC. 1.11.48).
108. SRIDHARA/SRIDHARA PANDITA/KHOLAVECA SRIDHARA:
In his past incarnation he was Kusumasava sakha of Vraja (GGD. 133). Other references to him are listed as follows: Krishnachaitanyacaritam of Murari Gupta 4.17.8, CBH. 1.1.11, Chaitanyamangala of Jayananda 23, CC. 1.10.65, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva Gosvami 108, Devakinandana 34, and Vrndavanadasa 36. He was born in a brahmana family in Navadvipa and was of the twelve Gopalas.
Although Shridhara was extremely poor financially, he was abundantly rich with the treasure of prema-bhakti. He earned his livelihood by selling bananas, banana flowers, stems, and leaves. Out of his daily earning he spent half for offering worship to he Ganges and half on his living. He was commonly known as "Kholaveca Shridhara." He was an extremely honest man. He had a fixed price for his commodities and never allowed any bargaining. Lord Gauranga often enjoyed teasing Shridhara, hackling over the price of his goods, insisting that he give him the goods for half price. Thus the goods were snatched back and forth from Shridhara's and Lord Chaitanya's hands. Finally, Shridhara would give in and allow the Lord to take the goods for free.
The Lord was always pleased with Shridhara's behavior and He would use any excuse to visit him. They would converse confidentially and joke with each other. In this way several hours a day passed very happily. Shridhara offered the Lord obeisances and a seat as soon as He arrived. Shridhara's calm and mild personality stood in obvious contrast to Nimai's stormy character.
"Shridhara you are always chanting Lord Hari's name, so what is the reason for your suffering? You are serving the husband and master of Shri Laksmi Devi, the Goddess of Fortune, so why are you always in want of food and clothes?"
"I am not starving," replied Shridhara, "and as You can see, I have clothes on. They are neither fine clothes nor the right size, but my body is covered."
"But Shridhara," argued the Lord, "the clothes are torn in several places and I know you have neither straw nor rice in the house. Look around you. All the citizens worship Goddess Candi (Mother Durga) the destroyer of all enemies, and none of them suffer for want of food, shelter or clothing."
"You have made a good point," replied Shridhara, "but generally speaking, everyone's life is almost the same. The King may live in a palace surrounded by opulence and eat sumptuously while the birds live in the open or in a simple nest in a tree top and gather their own humble food, but basically everyone's approach to life is similar. By the Lord's design each of us must meet the demands of duty and in doing so we behave more or less alike. Personally I prefer to live the life I am leading now."
"I am sure you have immense wealth hidden somewhere," accused the Lord, "and you are relishing opulent food in secret. Soon I will make it known to everyone, and then we will see how you continue to cheat the people."
"Come to my house, dear learned brahmana," invited Shridhara, "and see for Yourself. We should not start an argument here."
"I am not going to let you off so easily," said Nimai, "Tell Me what you are going to feed Me?"
"I make a simple living selling leaf cups," replied Shridhara. "What can I offer to give You from such an income, respected brahmana?"
"I am not going to touch Your hidden wealth now, that I will get later," assured Nimai. "But if you give Me banana root and some banana stalks right now without taking money, then I will not fight with you any more."
Shridhara thought to himself, "He is a very aggressive brahmana. Someday He might even beat me. But even if He does beat me, what can I do? I really cannot afford to give him whatever He wants free each day, but I see He has a godly form; He is not an ordinary personality by any means. If He takes my goods by force or by some other tricky means, then He is free to do so. I think this is my good fortune, and in spite of my poverty I will continue to give Him whatever He wants."
Having made his decision, Shridhara answered the Lord, "Dear brahmana, You do not have to pay me anything at all. I will give You whatever You want with an open and happy heart. Take Your bananas and other vegetables, take the leaf cups that I have and please do not fight with me anymore."
"Yes that is a very satisfactory agreement," said Nimai. "There should be no further fights, but please see to it that I get good quality bananas, banana stalk and radish." Daily the Lord ate with Shridhara from his leaf cups, relishing his bananas, banana stalks, radishes and Shridhara's cooking in general. When a gourd grew on Shridhara's roof top, the Lord had it cooked into a special preparation made with milk and hot spices.
One day the Lord asked, "Shridhara what do you think of Me? As soon as you tell me that, I shall return to My house."
Shridhara replied, "You are a brahmana, part and parcel of the Supreme Lord Vishnu."
"No, you do not know," said Nimai. "I belong to the community of cowherds and milk men. You see Me as a young brahmana boy, but I consider Myself to be simply a milk man."
Shridhara just smiled at the Lord's comment; he could not recognize his own Lord and master, being deluded by the Lord's internal potency.
"Shridhara, I am going to reveal to you an esoteric truth. You see the river Ganges? I am the source of the Ganga."
"O Nimai Pandita! Have You no fear of disrespecting Ganga devi like this?" asked the disturbed Shridhara. "People usually become grave and serious as they grow older, but your frivolity seems to have doubled since Your childhood."
After staying with Shridhara for sometime, Nimai Pandita returned home.
Once Shridhara was walking along loudly singing Krishna's name and he began to dance in ecstacy. When the other devotees saw this dear devotee of Lord Chaitanya dancing they came and surrounded him and began to sing. Shridhara was overwhelmed with spiritual emotions and fell down rolling on the ground, continuously chanting Krishna's name. When the non-devotees saw this they ridiculing and laughed at him saying, "Just look at him! That poor fellow has also become a Vaishnava. Although he cannot afford clothes nor does he have money to eat, suddenly he is making a show of exhibiting ecstatic symptoms. They all live by begging, yet now they have started an untimely festival." The atheists continued to hurl insulting remarks at the devotees, but the pious devotees went on chanting Krishna's name undaunted.
Once Lord Chaitanya, while dancing in mad ecstacy, went to the small broken hut were Shridhara lived. Shridhara had practically no possessions, only an old dented metal pot stood outside his door. The pot had been repaired so many times that even a thief would not think of stealing it. While the Lord was dancing in front of Shridhara's house He saw that the metal pot was filled with water. The Supreme Lord Visvambhara, wanting to teach the human society how deeply He loved and cared for His devotees, picked up Shridhara's worn out waterpot and proceeded to drink water from it with great pleasure. When Shridhara saw what Visvambhara was doing he came running, shouting, "O death, I am finished! I know You have come to my house to destroy me!" Thus speaking, the saintly Shridhara fainted on the ground out of great spiritual perturbation. Lord Visvambhara with utmost satisfaction said, " My whole being has now become purified. Today finally I have attained devotion to the lotus feet of Lord Krishna simply by drinking water from Shridhara's pot." Saying this the Lord shed tears of divine ecstacy. Through this pastime the Lord taught the world the extraordinary potency of the water which has been touched by a pure devotee; immediately one is purified and thus attachment to the lotus feet of Lord Krishna is manifest within the heart.
In the Padma Purana (Adikhanda 31/112) it is stated, "The wise devotee who is desirous of purifying himself completely of all sinful reactions should specifically approach a pure Vaishnava and beg from him his food remnants. If this is not available then at least he should beg some of his water remnants, or drink the water that has washed his feet."
The devotees began to cry with joy upon seeing the Supreme Lord manifest such mercy and special affection towards His devotee. Nityananda, Gadadhara, Advaita and Shrivasa rolled on the ground and cried ecstatically. Haridasa, Vakreswar, Candrasekhar, Jagadananda and numerous other close associates of the Lord, were also unable to contain their spiritual emotions and called out the sweet name of Krishna with tears in their eyes. Shridhara's house became the blessed exhibition site for the highest form of ecstatic love of Godhead. The whole universe exulted with the chanting of Krishna's holy name, and Lord Gaurachandra, seeing His mission accomplished, smiled benignly.
Just behold the glory of Shridhara's devotion, the Supreme Lord reciprocated by bestowing His full mercy upon him. With great pleasure the Lord drank water from Shridhara's base metal waterpot, although the pot was used for many purposes and was full of repairs and dents. The Lord, however, did not drink ordinary water when he drank from the pot; the potency of Shridhara's devotion had transformed the water into divine ambrosia. Thus the Lord taught that everything in relation to a pure devotee is transcendental.
The Supreme Lord, on the other hand, ignores the valuable gem-studded waterpot of a materialist. He accepts any offering from His surrendered devotees, irrespective of any rules and regulations for offering. If His devotee can only offer some meager or ordinary food then the Lord forcibly takes if from him, as was the case with Sudama Vipra. In many instances the Lord as shown that He sells Himself to His devotees. When the Pandavas were banished to the forest, Lord Krishna relished simple offerings of leafy vegetables from Yudhisthira Maharaja. Lord Krishna manifests Himself to His devotees according to the desire and mellow of the devotees, and He allows Himself to be sold or purchased by His unalloyed devotees. All the scriptures have described this wonderful quality of Lord Krishna, that He specially favors His pure devotees and always personally protects them from all calamities.
It was difficult to understand the transformation that took place in the Lord after He drank water from Shridhara's waterpot. All the devotees began to shed tears of joy seeing the special mercy that the Supreme Lord showered upon His pure devotee. Shridhara was struck with wonder and tears overflowed from his eyes. Holding a straw between his teeth he knelt humbly before the Lord. He called out the name of the Lord and said, "What have you done my Lord, what water have You drunk?" But Lord Visvambhara's bliss could not be checked and He danced in ecstacy surrounded by all His associates who sang and danced along with Him. Nityananda Prabhu and Gadadhara Pandita were like two jewels decorating the Lord on either side.
Kholaveca Shridhara's fortune was indeed so great that even Lord Siva and Lord Brahma were moved and shed tears of joy and appreciation. The Supreme Lord Chaitanya is unattainable by wealth, fame or erudition, but is captivated by unalloyed devotion. After the water drinking incident the Lord left Shridhara's place and proceeded towards town.
At the time of the Lord's Mahaprakasa, He requested some of the devotees to bring Shridhara before Him. The devotees rushed to carry out His order and half way to Shridhara's house they heard him loudly chanting the holy name. Following the sound they reached the house of Shridhara and informed him of the Lord's order. Upon hearing the Lord's request, Shridhara fell unconscious. The devotees joined hands and carried him to the presence of the Lord. Lord Gauranga warmly welcomed him and said, "Shridhara you have performed immense austerity to attain Me. In your previous births, as well as in this birth, you have dedicated yourself entirely to My service. Every day I partake of food on the banana leafs offered by you." Lord Gauranga continued, "Shridhara, look at Me." Shridhara suddenly saw Lord Gauranga become Lord Krishna carrying His flute. Balarama stood at His right side, while Laksmi devi offered Him betel-leaf. Anantadeva sheltered the Lord with His hoods, while Caturmukha, Pancamukha, Narada, Suka and Sanaka sang hymns. Surrounding them were charming young girls who offered prayers with folded hands.
Shridhara was awe-struck and fell on the ground losing consciousness. Lord Gauranga urged Shridhara to rise and offer prayers, which Shridhara submissively did. The Lord then requested, "Shridhara, ask whatever boon you want. Today I shall bestow you with asta-siddhi."
Shridhara, however, refused to ask for any material gain. Finally, at the repeated request of the Lord, Shridhara said, "My Lord, since you are forcing me to accept a boon, I request that the brahmana who used to snatch my banana leaves may remain my worshipful Lord eternally." With arms raised Shridhara burst into tears. The Lord then granted Shridhara's desire.
Shridhara used to participate in the street sankirtana led by Lord Gauranga. Later, he regularly visited the Lord in Nilacala.
109. SRIDHARA BRAHMACARI:
He belonged to the sakha of Gadadhara Pandita (CC. 1.12.79). In his past incarnation he was Candralatika (GGD. 194, 199, Sakhanirnayamrta 5).
110. SRIDHARA SVAMI:
Several popular stories and traditions exist in association with the name of Shridhara Svami. Some hold that he was from a brahmana caste in Gujarat or Maharastra (Bhaktamala 12), while some refer to him as a sannyasi belonging to the Advaita school of philosophy (See introduction by Rajendranath Ghosh in Advaitasiddhi). From Shridhara Svami's writings, however, it is clear that he was an ekadandi sannyasi of the Kevala Advaita-vadi sampradaya in Kasi (See the mangalacarana section of Atmaprakasa tika 1.1.). He took up the task of modifying the Advaitavadi sampradaya (Bhavarthadipika 10.87, Mangalacarana 3)
Shridhara Svami was a worshiper of Nrsimha and his guru was Paramananda (Atmaprakasa tika 1.2). The following are the titles of his works:
1. Commentary on the Bhagavad-gita called Suvodhini
2. Commentary on the Vishnupurana titled Atmaprakasa
3. Commentary on Sanatsujatiya titled Balabodhini
4. Commentary on Bhagavatam titled Bhavarthadipika
5. Gitasaratika-Brahmasamvodhini (ms. no. 425, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona)
6. Vrajavihara Kavya; published in the compilation edited by Jivananda Vidyasagar
7. Slokas composed by him and included in Padyavali no. 15, 28, 43
Shridhara Svami's commentary on Shrimad Bhagavatam (written between 1350 A.D. and 1450 A.D.) was approved by Lord Chaitanya, who instructed others to write in harmony with Shridhara's commentary (CC. 3.7.129, 131). Consequently both Sanatana Gosvami and Jiva Gosvami wrote according to Shridhara Swami's commentary.
At the request of his sampradaya, Shridhara wrote the Bhavarthadipika tika of Shrimad Bhagavatam with Vedantabhasya, following loyally the earlier traditions. In this tika 1.1.2 Shridhara upheld the eternal character of bhakta, bhakti, sastra and jiva in support of Bhedabhedavada and the reality of the world. While interpreting the concept of "projjitA kaitava" he refuted the pseudo-Buddhist views or the Kevaladvaitavada. Shridhara cited evidence only from Sarvajnasukta 1.7.6 and 3.12.2 of Vishnusvami out of the foremost four Sattvata (Vaishnava) Acaryas. Shridhara Svami's other arguments are held as follows:
1. Vishnupuranera tika:
6.16.13--Suddhadvaita has been analyzed in refuting
2. Bhagavatam tika:
10.14.28-39--the eternal existence of Bhakti, Bhagavan and Bhakta
3.25.32--Relevance of mukti
10.87.31--Divine element in animate, inanimate, illusory objects
10.87.21--Denouncement of Nirbhedamukti and establishment of the eternal existence of sravana kirtana, etc, aspects of Bhakti.
Though Mayavadis hold Nirvisesa Brahman as Paratattva (Bhagavad-gita 14.27), Shridhara Svami upheld the eternal existence of the Deity, etc. in contrast to the Advaitavadis who do not acknowledge the eternal existence of the name, form, qualities, abode, associates (Bhavarthadipika 8.6.7-9, 10.87.2)
What deserves special mention here is that in the tika of Vishnupurana in interpretation of the word "Acintya" he has highlighted the seed of Acintybhedabhedavada while explaining the root of the word with evidence. (See Bhavarthadipika tika 11.22.10; Bhagavad-gita 13.16)
A close associate of Lord Gauranga who accompanied the Lord during the performance of kirtana (CBh. 2.8.115, 2.9.5). In his past incarnation he was Mahapadmanidhi (GGD. 120-123, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 103, Devakinandana 31, and Vrndavanadasa 35).
112. SRIHARI ACARYA:
He belonged to the sakha of Gadadhara (CC. 1.12.84). In Vrajalila he was born as Kalaksi (GGD. 196, 207, Sakhanirnayamrta 33, Chaitanya Mangala of Jayananda 83)
113. SRIHARI PANDITA:
He is mentioned in Jayananda's Chaitanyamangala P. 73.
He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Advaita Prabhu (CC. 1.12.64).
He belonged to the sakha of Gadadhara (CC. 1.12.85). In his past incarnation he was Sukesini (GGD. 194, 201, Namamrtasamudra 129, Sakhanirnayamrta 25).
He was the brother of Lord Advaita. (Premavilasa 24)
He was the husband of Sanatana Gosvami's sister. (CC. 2.20.38)
He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)
119. SRIKANTA SEN:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya. He was the nephew (sister's son) of Sivananda Sen. In his past incarnation he was Katyayani. (GGD. 174, CC. 3.2.37, 3.12.18,33,38)
A brahmana by caste who belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya (CC.1.10.109-111). Some variations in his name are found in CC. as follows: Kalna edition of CC. reads "Kara Shri Madhusudana"; Radhagovinda Nath edition of CC. reads "Shrikara Shri Madhusudana." B.B. Majumdar in CCU. P. 696 argues that Nath's text is more accurate as Jayakrishna dasa mentions the name of one devotee as Shrikara who was born at Kancisali. (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 246, Devakinandana 117, Vrndavana dasa 110)
He was a tyrannical Zamindar hailing from the Gopa caste and living at Dharenda. Later he became a devout Vaishnava by the mercy of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Daksina 4.23, 5.36)
122. SRIKARA DATTA:
He was the father of Uddharana Datta Thakura.
123. SRIKRSNA SARVABHAUMA:
He was born in the Sanyal family of the Varendra clan and followed the line of Ramakrishna Vidyavagisa. It is stated in a deed dated 2 Jaistha 1110 (1703 A.D.), that King Ramakrishna Raya of Navadvipa donated land to Shrikrishna Sarvabhauma. In document no. 16633 preserved at the Nadia collectorate it is stated that Shri Krishna gave away the aforesaid piece of land to his disciple Ramajivan Pancanan on 10 Kartika 1123 (1706 A.D.).
Shri Krishna Sarvabhauma acquired a reputation under three kings namely, Ramakrishna, Ramajivana and Raghurama. Shri Krishna's work titled Padankaduta is well known, and his Krishnapadamrta Kavya, which consists of 250 slokas, was composed in Saka 1633 (1711 A.D.). The concluding statements of these two works explain that Padankaduta was written at the command of King Raghurama Raya and the latter under the command of King Ramajivana.
The discovery of his other two works titled Mukundapadamadhuri and Siddhantacintamani revealed that Shri Krishna Sarvabhauma was also a talented Nyaya scholar. These two works are of immense value to historians.
In Mukundapadamadhuri Lord Krishna is presented as the "Paramatmasvarupa", and in the introduction of SiddhantaA cintamani, Lord Krishna is also praised.
124. SRIMAN PANDITA:
He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya. He sang along with Lord Chaitanya during kirtana and held the torch during dancing. (CC. 1.10.37, CBh. 1.2.18)
125. SRIMAN SEN:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya. (CC. 1.10.52)
126. SRIMAN SEN:
He belonged to the sakha of Raghunandana of Shrikhanda.
127. SRIMAN THAKURA:
He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda. (CC. 1.11.49)
129. SRIMANTA CAKRAVARTI:
He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)
130. SRIMANTA DATTA:
He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Narottamavilasa 12)
131. SRIMANTA THAKURA:
He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)
132. SRIMATI DEVI:
She was a disciple of Jahnava Mata and was the daughter of Yadunandana Acarya of Jhamatpura near Rajabualahat. Her mother was Laksmi devi and her sister was Narayani devi. Viracandra Gosvami married both the sisters (BRK. 13.255)
He was a resident of Ballabhapur near Mahesa. (Pataparyatana)
134. SRINATHA CAKRAVARTI:
He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Gadadhara Pandita. (CC. 1.12.83, Sakhanirnayamrta 19)
135. SRINATHA CAKRAVARTI/ACARYA:
He was a disciple of Advaita Acarya. In his past incarnation he was Sanandana (GGD. 107,211). He belonged to Shripata Kumarahatta. Kavikarnapura was a student of this Shrinatha.
Shrinatha installed a Deity of Lord Krishna at Kumarahatta which is still worshiped there. He wrote a commentary on Shrimad Bhagavatam titled Chaitanyamata-manjusa. A Sanskrit sloka bearing his name is engraved at the feet of the Deity in the large temple at Krishnapura of Kancrapada.
136. SRINATHA GHATAK:
His parents were Bhagiratha Acarya and Jayadurga devi. He was born in Chittagong and belonged to the Kasyapa clan. His brother was Shripati. (Premavilasa 21)
137. SRINATHA MISRA:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya. In his past incarnation he was Citrangi (GGD. 171, CC. 1.10.110, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 237; Devakinandana 113; and Vrndavana dasa 106). Shrinatha was a brahmana by caste. In Gurubhaktigita, Achyutananda Dasa (Utkal University, edition 1975, Vol. 3, Chapter XLIX, P. 176) writes that Shrinatha Misra was known as Mohanagopi. In Chaitanyaganoddesadipika of Sadasiva Kaviraja (mss. preserved at Orissa State Museum), it is said that Shrinatha was the grandson of Shrikrishna and known as Braja. He was also referred to as Sakhi Bichetrangi.
138. SRINATHA PANDITA:
He was a brahmana by caste from the village of Kumarahata. He wrote a commentary on Shrimad Bhagavatam titled Chaitanyamatacandrika. He was the guru of Kavikarnapura hence his name is not mentioned in GGD. (Chaitanyacandrodaya natakam 1.5)
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya. He was the brother of the famous Shrivasa Pandita. In his past incarnation he was born as Padmanidhi (GGD. 171, CC. 1.10.9)
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya.
141. SRINIVASA ACARYA THAKURA:
He was a famous devotee of Lord Gauranga. In 1441 Saka, he was born in Cakundi village north of Agradvipa in the district of Nadia. He was the son of Gangadhara Bhattacarya, a brahmana of the Radha clan, who was present when Lord Chaitanya accepted sannyasa. Because Gangadhara continuously chanted the Lord's name at that time, he later became known as Chaitanyadasa.
Shrinivasa Acarya's biography is narrated elaborately in the following works: Bhaktiratnakara, Premavilasa, Karnananda, Anuragavali and Narottamavilasa. Shrinivasa's contribution as a preacher and writer of Vaishnava-Vedanta is immeasurable. According to BRK 1.232-234, Lord Chaitanya empowered Rupa and Sanatana to write books on the science of Krishna consciousness, and He empowered Shrinivasa to preach.
It is said that Shrinivasa composed only five lyrical padas (Badanacanda Kon Kundare Kundila go', included in chapter six of Karnananda. Three other padas are included in Padakalpataru). The Manoharasahi musical tradition is attributed to Shrinivasa. He also wrote an excellent bhasya on the catuhsloki of Shrimad Bhagavatam. He also wrote Shrimannaraharithakurastaka and Sadgosvamigunalesasucaka.
GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF SRINIVASA
from first wife, from second wife,
Isvari devi Gaurangapriya
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Vrndavana Radhakrishna Gatigovinda Hemalata Krishnapriya Kancana-
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Krishnaprasad Sundarananda Shrihari Suvala Radhamadhava
first wife second wife
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Radhamohan Bhuvanamohan Gauramohan Syamamohan Madana-mohana
SPIRITUAL LINEAGE (SAKHA) OF SRINIVASA
1. Shridasa Cakravarti
2. Shri Gokulananda Cakravarti
3. Shri Syamadasa Cakravarti
4. Shri Vyasa Cakravarti
5. Shri Govinda Cakravarti
6. Shri Narayana Cakravarti
(Some variations are found in Karnananda)
1. Ramacandra Kaviraja
2. Govinda Kaviraja
3. Karnapura Kaviraja
4. Nrsimha Kaviraja
5. Bhagavan Kaviraja
6. Vallabhikanta Kaviraja
7. Gopiramana Kaviraja
8. Gokula Kaviraja
1. Ramakrishna Cattaraja
2. Kumudananda Kularaja
3. Radhavallabha Mandala
4. Jayarama Cakravarti
5. Shrirupa Ghatak
6. Shri Thakura dasa Thakura
One King: Vira Hamvira (his son was Dhadi Hamvira)
Shrinivasa preached in the following places:
4. Bhattabhum (Ramgad)
14. Sabarabhum (The area stretching from the River Suvarnarekha in south-western Midnapore to the river Kamsavati in the north.
(Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, XII, 1916, 1:52)
The biography of Shrinivasa can be found in Jimutavahana Raya's Shrinivasa Acarya O Sodasa Satavdira Gaudiya Vaishnava Samaja (Shrinivasa Acarya and the Gaudiya Vaishnava community of the 16th century), Santiniketana, Visva bharati Gavesana Prakasana Samiti, 1984, 363 p.
Chapter 1: Sources for biography of Shrinivasa
Chapter 2: Opinions of various scholars relating to the biography of Shrinivasa.
Chapter 3: Biography of Shrinivasa
Chapter 4: Role of Shrinivasa in organizing the Vaishnava community in Bengal.
Chapter 5: Influence exerted by Shrinivasa on Gaudiya Vaishnava Dharma
Chapter 6: An account of the lineage of Shrinivasa
Chapter 7: Contribution of Shrinivasa in Padavali literature
Chapter 8: Bibliography
(The following information is from GPC)
Shrinivasa Acarya's mother was Shri Laksmipriya and his father was Shri Gangadhara Bhattacarya (later known as Shri Chaitanya dasa). They lived in the village of Cakhandi near the Bhagirathi river. When Shri Gaurasundara completed His activities in Nadia and went to the asrama of Shri Kesava Bharati in Kantak to take sannyasa, the news spread rapidly and thousands of people from far and wide assembled to witness the ceremony of Mahaprabhu's sannyasa initiation. Gangadhara Bhattacarya also went to witness the event. The devotees were overwhelmed with grief at the thought of Mahaprabhu shaving off His beautiful curly hair. Madhu, the barber, was completely depressed and stood motionless, unable to cut the Lord's hair. Only after the Lord repeatedly insisted, did Madhu finally cut off Mahaprabhu's beautiful locks. However, immediately thereafter Madhu fainted on the ground crying pathetically, "Oh what have I done, what have I done?" The entire atmosphere was filled with lamentation and no one was able to console each other. Even the birds in the trees began to cry, and Gangadhara Bhattacarya fainted in grief.
After a long time Gangadhara Bhattacarya regained consciousness and began reciting the name "Shri Krishna Chaitanya, Shri Krishna Chaitanya." He then returned to Cakhandi village and like a mad man incessantly chanted the name of Shri Chaitanya. His devoted wife also cried her heart out when she heard the news of Mahaprabhu's acceptance of sannyasa. Thus people began calling Gangadhara, Chaitanya dasa.
Later, Chaitanya dasa and his wife went to Puri to visit Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. From a distance Chaitanya dasa spotted the Lord and immediately he and his wife fell prostrate, offering obeisances with tearful eyes. The Lord called them near to Him and lovingly addressed them in a sweet voice, "By the grace of Lord Jagannatha you have reached here safely, now you must proceed at once to take darsana of the Lord and He will fulfill your desire" (Bhakti R.).
Accompanied by Govinda, Mahaprabhu's servant, Chaitanya dasa and his wife went to see Shri Jagannatha. They tearfully offered prayers to the Lord, then went to the residence arranged for them by Mahaprabhu.
The days passed and Chaitanya dasa and his wife relished every moment of their stay in Nilacala. One day Shri Gaurasundara informed Govinda that both Chaitanya dasa and his wife had prayed to Lord Jagannatha to give them a son, thus they would soon be the proud parents of a beautiful son named Shrinivasa. The Lord further explained, "Through Rupa and Sanatana, I manifested wonderful devotional literatures, and through Shrinivasa, I will distribute those sastras far and wide. Now you may tell Chaitanya dasa to return to Gauda immediately."
As desired by the Lord, Chaitanya dasa happily returned to Bengal. Shri Laksmipriya's father Balarama Bipra, who was a great astrologer and scholar, predicted that soon a great personality would be born to Laksmi devi. Sure enough, on the auspicious full moon day in the month of Vaisaka (April-May), when the star Rohini was visible in the sky, a son was born to Laksmipriya. All the markings of a great personality were visible on the child's body. Immediately Shri Chaitanya dasa offered the boy to the lotus feet of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and happily distributed gifts and charity to numerous brahmanas. Everyone was overwhelmed with joy.
As the child grew Laksmipriya chanted the holy name of Shri Gauranga constantly and taught her son to do the same. Time passed quickly and soon he accepted the sacred thread and began his studies under the guidance of Dhananjaya Vidyavacaspati. Within a very short period he became well versed in every subject.
In his boyhood, Shrinivasa received the mercy of Shri Govinda Ghosh and Shri Narahari Sarkara Thakura, as well as others. However, at a young age he lost his father and was greatly aggrieved. Shri Laksmidevi was overwhelmed with sorrow and could be pacified only be seeing the face of her beloved son. Shortly thereafter Shrinivasa took his mother to his grandfather's house in Yajigrama. The residents there were delighted to meet Shrinivasa, and the learned brahmanas were charmed by the boy's divine characteristics, his vast knowledge and love for the Lord. Shrinivasa had no interest what so ever in materialistic activities and was above all temptations. He was always immersed in thought of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and eagerly awaited the time when he would be able to visit Nilacala.
Shrinivasa eventually went to meet Shri Narahari Sarkara in Shrikhanda. With tears streaming from his eyes, Shrinivasa fell at the feet of Shri Sarkara, who lovingly picked him up and embraced him. Shrinivasa then prayed that he would be allowed to visit the places of Shri Gauranga's transcendental pastimes in Nilacala. Shri Narahari Thakura and Shri Raghunandana Thakura both welcomed this proposal and advised Shrinivasa go to Puri along with the other devotees of Bengal who would be visiting there shortly.
Shrinivasa then returned to Yajigrama and requested his mother's permission to visit Nilacala. Although she was reluctant to let him go, she eventually gave her consent. Thus a few days later he met the other devotees of Bengal and started for Puri. Arriving in Nilacala he stayed the night in the house of a priest near the Simhadvara. In the morning he went to the house of Shri Gadadhara Pandita. Crying incessantly, Shrinivasa fell prostrate at his lotus feet. Shri Gadadhara picked him up and embraced him, but Shrinivasa could not stop crying.
After spending some time with Shri Gadadhara, Shrinivasa proceeded to meet Shri Ramananda Raya, Shri Sarvabhauma Pandita, Vakresvara Pandita, Paramananda Puri, Sikhi Mahiti, Govinda Sankara, Gopinatha Acarya and other associates of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Upon meeting Shrinivasa all the Vaishnavas were filled with happiness, understanding that Shrinivasa was empowered by Shri Gauranga and would eventually take an active role in distributing books and spreading the message of the Lord. Thus the devotees were very kind to Shrinivasa and offered him invaluable advice. Shrinivasa stayed in Puri for some time, visiting all the places of the Shri Gaurasundara's pastimes. Thereafter he sought permission from the devotees to return to Bengal. Thus the devotees embraced him and bade farewell.
While returning to Bengal, Shrinivasa received the news of Shri Gadadhara Pandita's disappearance from this world, and he fell unconscious on the ground. That night Gadadhara Pandita appeared before Shrinivasa in his dream and pacified him. Shrinivasa then regained enough strength to continue his journey. However, shortly thereafter, he again received word that Shri Advaita Acarya and Shri Nityananda Prabhu had also departed from the world. Shrinivasa was overwhelmed with grief and cried incessantly, but Shri Nityananda and Shri Advaita also consoled him in a dream. At last Shrinivasa reached Bengal. He first visited Shri Narahari Sarkara and Shri Raghunandana Thakura at Shrikhanda, who wholeheartedly gave him their blessings.
He then traveled on to Navadvipa Mayapura, where he visited the birthplace of Shri Gaurasundara and rolled on the ground in ecstatic pleasure. At that time Shri Vamsivadana Thakura was living in the house of Mahaprabhu and upon seeing him, Shrinivasa fell humbly at his feet, weeping loudly and calling out the holy name of Mahaprabhu. Shri Vamsivadana Thakura was also overcome with joy upon meeting him. Shrinivasa then begged to meet Shri Vishnupriya Thakurani. At that time no one was allowed to meet her, but when Shri Vamsivadana Thakura mentioned Shrinivasa's name to her, she thought for a moment and then agreed to see him. When Shrinivasa was brought before her, he fell prostrate on the ground with tearful eyes. Shri Vishnupriya blessed him and requested that he take prasada there that day.
In Navadvipa, Shrinivasa met Shri Murari Gupta, Shrivasa Pandita, Damodara Pandita, Sanjaya, Shri Vijoy, Suklambara brahmacari, Dasa Gadadhara and others. He then went to the house of Shri Advaita Acarya, in hopes of meeting Shri Sita Thakurani. She immediately called him to her room and blessed him heartily. He also met the other devotees of Santipura. From there he went to Khardaha, where Shri Paramesvari dasa Thakura was staying in the house of Shri Nityananda Prabhu. He happily introduced Shrinivasa to Shri Vasudha, Shri Jahnava and Shri Viracandra. When Shrinivasa lay at their feet crying, Shri Jahnava placed the dust of her feet on his head, and the others greeted him affectionately. After spending a few days in Khardaha, Jahnava mata advised him to proceed towards Vrndavana. Shrinivasa then traveled on to the house of Shri Abhirama Thakura in Khanakula. When he worshiped Shri Abhirama, he touched Shrinivasa's body three times with his "Jaya mangala" whip, although Malini devi, Abhirama's wife, tried to prevent him from doing so. When the whip touched Shrinivasa's body, he felt his body become surcharged with divine love. Shrinivasa then started for Shrikhanda, where Shri Narahari Sarkara and Shri Raghunandana Thakura happily greeted him. Thereafter he went to Yajigrama where he visited his mother and offered worship to her. He then sought her permission to visit Vrndavana and she gladly gave her sanction.
On his way to Vrndavana, he saw the lotus feet of Lord Vishnu at Gayadhama at the place where Mahaprabhu received initiation from Isvara Puri. From Gayadhama, he went to the house of Shri Candrasekhar in Kasi and met the other devotees. There he joyfully listened to Shri Candrasekhar and Shri Tapana Misra recount the wonderful pastimes of the Lord in Kasi. After spending a few days in Kasi, Shrinivasa traveled on to Mathura where he bathed at Visrama ghata (the place where Shri Krishna took rest after killing Kamsa). In Mathura he visited the birth place of Shri Krishna and then started for Vrndavana. On his way to Vrndavana some brahmanas from the area told Shrinivasa the heart-breaking news that Shri Rupa, Sanatana and Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami had departed from the world. The brahmanas tried to console the grief-stricken Shrinivasa and in the afternoon of the full moon day in the month of Vaisaka they took him to meet Shri Jiva Gosvami.
Shrinivasa happily worshiped the lotus feet of Shri Jiva Gosvami, who embraced Shrinivasa with great pleasure. They eagerly sat down and discussed numerous topics together and Shri Jiva enquired about the devotees from Bengal. After some time Shri Krishna Pandita, the priest of Shri Govinda Deva, brought prasada and Shri Jiva and Shrinivasa relished prasada together.
The following morning, Shri Jiva Gosvami and Shrinivasa went to visit Shri Radharamana, where Shrinivasa was introduced to Shri Gopala Bhatta Gosvami. Shrinivasa worshiped the lotus feet of Gopala Bhatta and humbly prayed for his spiritual guidance. Gopala Bhatta happily agreed and the following morning, Shrinivasa received spiritual initiation from him. The next day Shri Jiva sent Shrinivasa to meet Raghunatha dasa Gosvami at Shri Radhakunda. With great pleasure Shrinivasa worshiped the sacred feet of Shri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, Shri Krishna dasa Kaviraja and Shri Raghava Pandita. Shrinivasa remained in their association for three days relishing the nectar of their invaluable instructions. Thereafter, with their kind permission, he returned to Shri Jiva in Vrndavana.
Shri Jiva Gosvami then began instructing Shrinivasa on Shrimad Bhagavatam and the Gosvami's books. To Shri Jiva's delight, Shrinivasa was able to imbibe all these teachings within a very short time. Thus Shri Jiva did not hesitate to confer upon him the title of Acarya. From that day he became famous as Shrinivasa Acarya amongst the Vaishnava community of Bengal.
Shrinivasa Acarya had previously heard the glories of Shri Narottama dasa and was anxious to meet him. Eventually Narottama arrived in Vrndavana and immediately upon meeting each other, they became great friends. Shri Jiva advised Shrinivasa and Narottama to visit all the forests of Mathura and Vrndavana along with Shri Raghava Gosvami, a brahmana from the South and intimate associate of Shri Gaurasundara. Kavi Karnapura wrote that Raghava Pandita was Shri Campakalata (the life of Shri Radha) in Krishna lila. Shri Narahari Cakravarti has given a beautiful description of their travels in the fifth chapter of Bhaktiratnakara.
After completing their travels to all the forests, Shrinivasa and Narottama returned to Shri Jiva Gosvami's place in Vrndavana. Around that time Shri Krishna dasa (Syamananda prabhu) reached Vrndavana from Bengal. Krishna dasa was a favorite disciple of Shri Hrdaichaitanya prabhu, and he himself had sent Krishna dasa to receive instructions from Shri Jiva Gosvami. The devotees sat together and listened as Krishna dasa conveyed the good news of the devotees of Bengal and Orissa to Shri Jiva.
Krishna dasa, Shrinivasa and Narottama became very intimate friends and studied happily together under Shri Jiva Gosvami. Because these three devotees were extremely dedicated, wellA versed in the scripture, and completely renounced they were chosen by the Gosvami's of Vrndavana to distribute the books of the Gosvami's in Bengal, a task which was eagerly accepted by these three exalted souls. In this way Shri Jiva's long cherished desire to distribute the Gosvami's books was eventually fulfilled. Shrinivasa was appointed the chief of this journey and their departure date was fixed on any day of the bright fort-night in the month of Agrahayana (Nov.-Dec).
After seeking the permission of the Gosvamis, and worshipping Shri Govinda, Shri Gopinatha and Shri Madana mohana, Shri Jiva Gosvami sent Shrinivasa, Narottama and Krishna dasa to Bengal with the books written by the Gosvamis. A few armed guards were deputed to protect the vehicle which carried the precious books. As the caravan moved on from Mathura to Bengal, many travellers followed along behind the carts. At various places special arrangements were made to shelter the traveling party, and they happily engaged in sankirtana and worshipped the Lord wherever they stopped. Eventually the party arrived at the outskirts of Vana Vishnupura, which was ruled by a bandit leader named Vira Hamvira. When the king was informed that a caravan was passing through Vana Vishnupura on its way to Bengal, carrying a cart filled with a valuable treasure, he at once decided to attack the travelers and steal their treasure.
As the caravan plied on, unaware of the evil desires of the king, dusk approached and they stopped near a lake for the night. In the evening the three exalted Vaishnavas began ecstatic kirtana and the people of the nearby village watched in amazement, astonished by their graceful dancing and beautiful singing.
Meanwhile, happily anticipating his grand victory, Vira Hamvira remained alert, anxiously waiting for the devotees to retire for the night. Eventually the Vaishnavas accepted prasada and then lay down around the cart to rest. When they were sound asleep, the dacoits stealthily approached. With great care they snatched the chest full of books and rushed to the inner apartment of the king's palace. The king's astrologer had informed him that the chest was filled with the most priceless treasure, thus he greedily gazed at the chest with delight. Praising the robbers for a job well done, he offered them beautiful cloths and valuable gifts.
Early in the morning the Vaishnavas awoke and were shocked to find the cart empty. Their grief was unbearable. Rushing in all directions they frantically tried to find some trace of the books, but their search was to no avail. They were mad with despair, but after considerable time passed they managed to console themselves thinking that Shri Govinda Deva would surely help them to recover the books.
Meanwhile, the king opened the chest and found the books covered with valuable cloths. When he saw Shri Rupa Gosvami's pearl like handwriting on the books, Hamvira was suddenly freed from all past sins, his heart became purified and swelled with loving sentiments. That night he had a wonderful dream; a beautiful man smilingly told him not to worry, the owner of the books would soon arrive and Hamvira should become his servant.
Shrinivasa decided to send Narottama to Kheturi and Shri Krishna dasa to Amvika, while he himself stayed in Vishnupura to recover the lost books. At that time a brahmana pandita from Vishnupura, Shri Krishnavallava, happened to see Shrinivasa. Being charmed by his appearance, Shri Krishnavallava invited Shrinivasa to his house, where he was welcomed and worshipped respectfully. Krishnavallava, along with several others attentively received spiritual guidance from Shrinivasa, and shortly thereafter many of them accepted initiation from him.
When Shrinivasa happened to learn that the king was accustomed to listening to Bhagavata readings daily at his court, he wanted to go to the king's palace to read the Bhagavatam. Thus Krishnavallava took Shrinivasa to the palace. When Vira Hamvira saw the effulgent countenance of Shrinivasa, he fell prostrate on the floor and offered him scented flowers and garlands. Shrinivasa then began reciting from the Bhagavata in a sweet and melodious voice. Hearing his excellent pronunciation and succinct explanation, everyone present, including the King, was charmed and their hearts overflowed with loving sentiments.
After completing his Bhagavata reading, Shrinivasa began chanting and dancing in sankirtana. The King humbly worshipped the holy feet of Shrinivasa Acarya and repeatedly prayed for his mercy. Shri Acarya embraced the King and assured him that Shri Gaurasundara would bestow His mercy upon him. Finally the king brought forth the trunk full of missing books and falling on the ground, offered himself, as well as the books, at the lotus feet of Shri Acarya. Overwhelmed with happiness, Shrinivasa showed his kindness to the king and immediately sent news to Shri Jiva Gosvami in Vrndavana that the books had been recovered.
Shortly thereafter Shrinivasa took the books and went to Yajigrama, where he narrated the whole story of their journey to the devotees. At that time Shrinivasa received a message from Navadvipa informing him of the demise of Shri Vishnupriya Thakurani. Grief-stricken, Shrinivasa fell to the ground unconscious. When the devotees eventually managed to pacify Shri Acarya, another message suddenly arrived from Shri Raghunandana Thakura inviting Shrinivasa to Shrikhanda. Without delay, Shrinivasa immediately rushed to Shrikhanda. Upon seeing him, Shri Narahari Thakura, Shri Raghunandana Thakura and the other devotees were filled with joy. Shrinivasa worshipped the lotus feet of all the associates of Mahaprabhu and told them the news of the Gosvamis in Vrndavana.
At that time, Narahari Sarkara Thakura requested Shrinivasa to marry, as it was the desire his mother. Shrinivasa followed the order of his mother without objection. After staying for sometime in Shrikhanda, he went to Kantaka nagara to visit Shri Gadadhara dasa Thakura, who welcomed him warmly with great affection. Shrinivasa spent a few days with Gadadhara, who happily listened to the news of the Gosvamis in Vrndavana. Shrinivasa then left for Yajigrama, but before his departure, Gadadhara Thakura offered his blessings and valuable advice.
As soon as Shrinivasa arrived in Yajigrama, Shri Raghunandana began making arrangements for his marriage to Draupadi, the beautiful daughter of a devout brahmana living in Yajigrama. On the Akshya Tritiya day in the month of Vaisaka (April-May), the marriage took place and afterwards Draupadi was renamed Isvari. Some time later Gopala Cakravarti, as well as his two sons-Syamadasa and Ramacandra, took initiation from Shri Acarya. Shri Narahari Sarkara was very happy when he heard the news of Shrinivasa's marriage.
Thereafter Shrinivasa Acarya began teaching from the Gosvamis books to his disciples in Yajigrama. Dvija Haridasa's sons, Shridasa and Shri Gokulananda, took initiation from Acarya and studied under him intently. Day by day Shrinivasa's popularity grew and many people came to Yajigrama to receive his mercy.
One day while Shrinivasa was engaged in devotional discussions with his devotees at his house in Yajigrama, Shri Ramacandra Kaviraja, son of Shri Ciranjiva Sen, passed by along with his newly wed bride. When Shrinivasa Acarya and Shri Ramacandra Kaviraja saw each other from a distance, feelings of love suddenly arose in both of their hearts and they immediately desired to meet one another. The following day Ramacandra Kaviraja went to the house of Shrinivasa and they meet each other with great delight. After a few days Shrinivasa initiated him in the Radha-Krishna mantra.
Some time later Shrinivasa, along with a few devotees, again left Yajigrama for Vrndavana. Along the way he visited Shri Vishnupada padma in Gaya and then Kasi. There he joyfully met Shri Candrasekhar and the other devotees. After spending two-three days in Kasi, he traveled on to Mathura, where he visited the temple of Adi Kesava after taking bath at Visrama Ghat. He then eagerly rushed to Vrndavana and met Shri Jiva Gosvami, who was eagerly waiting for him. Shri Syamananda Prabhu also arrived in Vrndavana from Puri and Shri Jiva embraced both of them happily. However, they were both stricken with grief upon hearing of the demise of Dvija Haridasa.
Shrinivasa and Syamananda stayed in Vrndavana and studied the Sat-sandarbha under the expert guidance of Shri Jiva Gosvami. During that time, Shri Jiva began writing Shri Gopala Campu, and he read the mangalacarana slokas to Shrinivasa and Syamananda. After some time Shri Ramacandra arrived in Vrndavana hoping to bring Shrinivasa back to Gauda, as requested by the residents of Gauda.
Shrinivasa Acarya introduced Shri Ramacandra Kaviraja to Shri Jiva Gosvami, and Ramacandra fell at his lotus feet. Shri Jiva embraced Ramacandra affectionately and advised him to take darsana of Shri Radharamana, Shri Govinda, Shri Gopinatha and the Gosvamis of Vrndavana. Thus Shrinivasa and Syamananda happily took him to various sacred places of Vraja. Eventually they arrived at the bhajan kutir of Shri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami and Shri Krishna dasa Kaviraja at Radha kunda. The Gosvamis were very pleased to observe Ramacandra's humility and devotion.
Later, as directed by Shri Jiva Gosvami, Shrinivasa Acarya and Shri Syamananda Prabhu traveled to Vana Vishnupura on their way to Bengal. When king Vira Hamvira saw Shrinivasa, he danced in ecstacy and after worshiping his lotus feet, immediately fed Shrinivasa many varieties of foodstuff. Thus a grand festival ensued in the king's palace. Shri Syamananda Prabhu was charmed by the king's display of devotion. Shrinivasa then initiated the king into the sacred Radha Krishna mantra and gave him the name Shri Chaitanya dasa. The king's son, Dhadi Hamvira, also accepted initiation and was named Shri Gopala dasa. Thereafter, through Vira Hamvira, Acarya Prabhu installed the Deity Shri Kalacand and personally performed the abhisekha and puja.
After spending a few days in Vana Vishnupura, Shri Syamananda Prabhu proceeded towards Puri. Shrinivasa also began preparations to leave for Yajigrama, but at that time the king of Sikharesvara, Shri Harinarayana deva, invited him to his house. Thus Shri Acarya and his associates spent some days with the king, where he gave wonderful discourses from the Bhagavata. In this way many persons there received the mercy of Shrinivasa Acarya.
From Sikharesvara he traveled to Shrikhanda. There, in the month of Agrahayana (Nov-Dec), on the 11th day of the dark fortnight, Shrinivasa received the heartbreaking news of Shri Narahari Sarkara Thakura's demise. Shrinivasa fell on the ground unconscious and cried in lamentation. Shri Raghunandana Thakura was also shocked by the departure of Shri Narahari Thakura, but was relieved to some extent when he met Shrinivasa. After spending a few days at Shrikhanda, Shri Acarya went to Kantaka nagara and was informed of the death of Shri Gadadhara dasa Thakura in the month of Kartika (Oct-Nov), which was a shock difficult for Shrinivasa to bear. After sometime Shrinivasa managed to calm himself and traveled on to Yajigrama, where he invited the devotees to his house for a grand festival in honor of Shri Gadadhara. Then on the 11th day of the dark fortnight in the month of Magh (Jan-Feb), he started for Kancana Gaida to observe the death ceremony of Shri Dvija Haridasa, which was celebrated with great pomp. On that festival day, Shridasa and Shri Gokulananda, the sons of Dvija Haridasa, received initiation from Shri Acarya Prabhu. After a few days, Shrinivasa proceeded towards Kheturi to participate in the grand festival arranged by Narottama Thakura on the Purnima day of Falguna (Feb-March). This festival was arranged by Shri Santosa Datta, the nephew and disciple of Shri Narottama. Shri Jahnava mata herself attended this wonderful festival. At that time the six Deities; Shri Gauranga, Shri Vallavikanta, Shri Vrajamohana, Shri Krishna, Shri Radhakanta and Shri Radharamana, where installed.
After the festival, Shrinivasa and Syamananda Prabhu went to Yajigrama where another wonderful festival began in the house of Acarya Prabhu. A few days later Shri Narottama Thakura also joined them. After some time, Shri Syamananda Prabhu left for Orissa and Shrinivasa Acarya, Shri Narottama and Shri Ramacandra Kaviraja proceeded to Navadvipa. There they visited the house of Shri Gauranga, where they introduced themselves to the aged Shri Isana Thakura and worshipped his lotus feet. Isana Thakura embraced them warmly with great pleasure. At that time Isana Thakura was the only resident in the house of Shri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. The following day the devotees arranged to tour the sacred places of Navadvipa with Isana Thakura as their guide. They spent the entire day listening intently to the sweet pastimes of Shri Gaurasundara as told to them by Isana. After completing the tour they worshipped Isana Thakura, tearfully bade him farewell and returned to Shrikhanda.
Shortly thereafter they received the news of Isana Thakura's departure from this world, thus the devotees lamented loudly. In this way all the associates of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in Navadvipa breathed their last one by one.
One day Shri Raghunandana Thakura sent a devotee to Yajigrama to bring Shri Acarya. At once, Shrinivasa rushed to Shrikhanda and worshipped the lotus feet of Shri Raghunandana Thakura, who in turn blessed Shri Acarya and wished him a long life for the purpose of spreading the message of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. With these words he came before the Deities and offered his son Kanai to the lotus feet of Shri Madana Gopala and Shri Gauranga Deva. The three following days were spent entirely immersed in sankirtana. At the end of the third day, Shri Raghunandana Thakura fixed his eyes on the Deities and breathed his last. Kanai Thakura, Shrinivasa Acarya and the other devotees could not endure the pain of separation and fell unconscious on the ground. Eventually Kanai Thakura managed to organize a grand festival in honor of his father and sent Vaishnavas all around the country to invite everyone to the celebration.
On the festival day, the Vaishnavas assembled and began sankirtana in the courtyard in front of Raghunandana Thakura's samadhi. The festival was so ecstatic that it seemed as if Raghunandana himself had appeared to join in their sankirtana. Shrinivasa supervised the various activities of the festival and at the end of the festival he, along with the other devotees, took leave and went to Vana Vishnupura to visit Vira Hamvira. There Shrinivasa, surrounded by many devotees, read from the Bhagavata and engaged in sankirtana in the king's palace. At that time the king took pleasure in serving the devotees and from that day Vana Vishnupura became rightfully known as Vishnupura. Taking advantage of the situation, many persons took shelter of the lotus feet of Shrinivasa Acarya.
At that time one great devotee brahmana named Shri Raghava Cakravarti lived in Gopalapura. He had a daughter named Shri Gaurangapriya, but unfortunately he had not been able to arrange for her marriage. One night he dreamed that he was giving his daughter's hand to Shrinivasa Acarya. Raghava explained the dream to his wife the following morning and they were both filled with happiness. The brahmana then went to meet Shrinivasa. After worshiping his lotus feet, the brahmana stood humbly before Shri Acarya. Shrinivasa could understand his intention and smilingly asked the reason why he had come. The brahmana then revealed his mind, as Shri Acarya listened smilingly. The devotees were all very happy to hear his proposal and at last Shri Acarya Prabhu agreed.
Vira Hamvira made arrangements to celebrate the marriage ceremony of Shrinivasa with great pomp. Thus Shri Raghava Cakravarti happily presented his daughter with ornaments and nice dresses to Shri Acarya Prabhu. Thereafter Shrinivasa returned to Yajigrama with his newly wed wife. At that time Shri Jahnava mata also arrived at Yajigrama on her way from Vrndavana, and came to the house of Shrinivasa. Seeing the beautiful and devoted wife of Shrinivasa, Jahnava happily took the bride on her lap. She showed great affection to both the two wives of Shrinivasa, then informed Shrinivasa of the wellA being of the Gosvamis of Vrndavana. After spending a few happy days in the house of Shri Acarya, she returned to Khardaha.
Shrinivasa Acarya and his disciples lived happily in Yajigrama studying and giving lectures on the Gosvami Grantha. Everyone who heard him speak was enchanted by his divine appearance and wealth of spiritual knowledge. Even the most notorious immoral persons could not avoid his influence and came before him seeking his mercy.
Shrinivasa, Shri Narottama and Shri Ramacandra were inseparable friends. Shrinivasa had three sons and three daughters. The daughters were-Krishnapriya, Hemalata and Phulapi Thakurani. The three sons were-Vrndavana Vallava, Radhakrishna and Shri Gatigovinda.
Shri Gatigovinda's son was Krishnaprasad Thakura and his son was Jagadananda Thakura. Shri Jagadananda Thakura had two wives. From his first wife he had one son-Yadavendra Thakura and from his second wife he had five sons-Radhamohana Thakura, Bhuvana mohana Thakura, Gaura mohana Thakura, Syama mohana Thakura and Madana mohana Thakura. The descendants of Bhuvana mohana Thakura are still living in the village of Manikyahara in the district of Mursidabad.
142. SRINIVASA DATTA:
He was the son of Shri Uddharana Datta Thakura.
He belonged to the sakha of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and was the brother of Shrinivasa. (CC. 1.10.9)
He was the disciple of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.160).
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya and was the brother of Shrivasa. He was a brahmana, who originally lived in Shrihatta but later moved to Navadvipa, then to Kumarahatta (CBH. 5.24, Chaitanya Candrodayanatakam 1.18).
146. SRIPATI CATTA:
He was the son of Shri Bhagiratha Acarya and was the brother of Shrinatha Ghataka. He was the God-brother of Madhavacarya, the husband of Gangadevi. (Premavilasa 21)
He was the disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.124)
He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.108).
149. SRIRAMA PANDITA (RAMAI):
He was the younger brother of Shrivasa Pandita and was a companion of Mahaprabhu during kirtana. He was Munisrestha Parvata in Krishna lila. (GGD. 90, CC. 1.10.8-11, CBh. 2.18.11A 53, 2.6.9-71, 3.5.66, 2.18.52, Murari's Krishnachaitanya-caritam 2.2.5, Karnapura's Chaitanya-charitamritamahakavya 5.41, CBh. 1.2.16, Chaitanyamangala of Jayananda P. 29)
150. SRIRAMA PANDITA:
He belonged to the branch of Shri Advaita Prabhu (CC. 1.12.65).
151. SRIRAMA TIRTHA:
He was a Gaura devotee. In Krishna lila he was Jayanteya. His name in mentioned in Vaishnava Vandana (of Jiva 269, Devakinandana 130, Vrndavanadasa 129).
152. SRIRAMA VAGASPATI:
This may be the name of Dhananjaya Vidyanivasa, the teacher of Shrinivasa Acarya (BRK. 2.186)
153. SRIRANGA KAVIRAJA:
He belonged to the sakha of Shri Nityananda Prabhu (CC. 1.11.51).
154. SRIRATNA PANDITA:
He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga (Namamrtasamudra 124).
155. SRIVASA PANDITA:
He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya and was one of the Pancatattva. He is also known by the name "Shrinivasa" (CC. 1.4.227). In his past incarnation he was Narada Muni (GGD. 90).
He was born at Shrihatta. The kirtana-vilasa of Lord Gauranga was held at the house of Shrivasa (CBh. 1.2.96). There the Lord remained in a state of ecstatic trance for twenty-one hours, and all of the devotees witnessed His extraordinary pastimes (CC. 1.17.11). The following are references to the Lord's pastimes with Shrivasa:
CC. 1.17.38-59 Incident with Gopala Capala
CC. 1.1.147 Shrivasa's dead son speaks
CBh. 1.11.56 Skeptics feel irritated when the four brothers of Shrivasa participate in kirtana
CC. 2.13.92-95 Haricandana slapped in front of the chariot
CC. 1.15.5 Lord Gauranga's daily dancing sessions in the house of Shrivasa
CC. 1.10.8-10 Shrivasa migrates to Kumarahatta
Dhyanacandra Gosvami's Paddhati 53,72 Dhyanamantra and Gayatri of Shrivasa Pandita
According to Premavilasa 23, Vaidika brahmana Jaladhara Pandita of Shrihatta lived with his family at Navadvipa. He had five sons namely, Nalina, Shrivasa, Shrirama, Shripati and Shrinidhi (alias Shrikanta). They had a residence at Kumarahatta and Navadvipa (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 81, Devakinandana 17, Vrndavanadasa 24)
The following is from GPC:
Shri Vrndavana dasa has given a beautiful description of Shrivasa in his CBh. Shrivasa, Shrirama, Shripati and Shrinidhi were four brothers. They were born in Shrihatta, but later moved to Navadvipa on the bank of the Ganges. The four brothers regularly visited the house of Advaita Acarya where they chanted the holy name of the Lord and listened to discourses on Shrimad Bhagavatam. They were also very intimately associated with Shri Jagannatha Misra. Amongst the four brothers, Shrivasa Pandita was the foremost. Because he was a greatly exalted devotee, he could understand that Shri Krishna would be born in the house of Shri Jagannatha Misra. Malini devi, the wife of Shrivasa, was very friendly with Saci devi and tried to satisfy her in every way. At that time the Vaishnavas were acutely aware of the miserable effects of the age of Kali-yuga. Thus, in great anxiety they sorrowfully prayed for the mercy of the Supreme Lord. In answer to the prayers of His devotees, the Lord appeared in the house of Jagannatha MIsra in 1407 A.D. on the full-moon night in the month of Falguna. At that moment the atmosphere was filled with the loud chanting of the holy name of Krishna, and innumerable auspicious omens were visible. Although living in Santipura, Advaita Acarya could understand that Shri Hari had come to the world, thus Shrivasa and the other devotees became aware of this confidential knowledge. Shri Malini devi, wife of Shrivasa, went to assist her dear friend Saci mata after the birth of her son. Shrivasa Pandita also visited the house of Shri Jagannatha Misra and dropped hints regarding the extraordinary nature of their divine child.
It is not possible for anyone to know God unless He makes Himself known. Thus, although Shri Gaurasundara revealed many miraculous pastimes in His childhood, due to the illusory potency of the Lord the devotees were unable to recognize the Nimai's transcendental position. Nevertheless, everyone's heart was filled with affection for the child. Shrivasa Pandita and Malini devi regularly offered advice to Jagannatha Misra and Saci devi as to how to bring up the child. And Shri Gaurasundara looked upon Shrivasa and Malini as his parents.
One day Shrivasa Pandita instructed Shri Gaurasundara, who was very proud of his knowledge, about the value of education: "Why do people learn to read? The only purpose in reading is to increase one's Krishna consciousness. What is the use of education if you do not gain devotion to Krishna?" Hearing this Mahaprabhu smilingly replied, "Certainly, if you show your mercy and compassion upon me, then I will develop love for Krishna."
Sometime later Mahaprabhu went to Gaya, took initiation from Isvara Puri and began propagating the chanting of the holy name throughout the world. Day and night, the Lord was totally absorbed in the nectar of kirtana. At long last the devotees' sufferings were mitigated, but the non-devotees were greatly disturbed.
The atheistic population became enraged, and aimed abusive language at the devotees. Someone said, "I cannot even sleep at night." Another commented, "All their screaming and shouting will enrage the Lord, and that will cause their complete destruction." Another said, "They avoid philosophy and speculative knowledge, and so they behave arrogantly." Another said, "Who knows what they sing about? Behind all this mischief is that brahmana Shrivasa. He and his three brothers get together and scream, `Krishna! Krishna!' like madmen, just to fill their bellies. Does not one earn piety by chanting in his mind? Or is it sheer madness? The whole country will be ruined because of this Shrivasa. Today I heard in the king's court that they will send two boats with government men to capture anyone who sings kirtana in Nadia. This is the king's order. Shrivasa Pandita and his men will run away and escape, but we will have to suffer the entire brunt of this. I warned all of you earlier to throw Shrivasa's house into the river. But you did not act because you thought I was joking. But now it is too late, the danger has come upon us." Another said, "What do we care? If the government men come here we will just capture Shrivasa and hand him over to them." The atheistic population of Navadvipa discussed about the Vaishnavas in this manner while the two boats with the government men came to Navadvipa.
The Vaishnavas heard this news and simply took shelter of the Supreme Lord by remembering Him. In this way all of their fears were dissolved. They said, "Whatever the Supreme Lord Krishnacandra wants will happen, and it is for the best. As long as He is there, then what fear do we have from these wretched people?" Shrivasa Pandita was a soft-hearted and magnanimous soul. This news disturbed him, and he became anxious for the well-being of the Vaishnavas. He was apprehensive because he knew that anything could happen under the Muslim rule.
The Supreme Lord Gaurasundara, the Supersoul, knew everything in everyone's heart. The devotees still were not aware that the Supreme Lord had come and was amongst them. Now the Lord began to manifest Himself. Lord Visvambhara roamed everywhere, unperturbed and unconcerned, his transcendental beauty unmatched within the entire creation. His body was decorated with sandalwood paste, His reddish lips were like the early morning sun, and His eyes were like blooming lotus flowers. Cascading curly tresses shone like a halo around His glowing moon-like face. He wore a brahmana thread around His shoulders, and dressed in fine clothes. His exquisite personal beauty completely captivated the mind. Casually chewing on pan, He went for a walk on the river bank.
When the devotees saw the Lord, they became very joyful, but the atheistic people felt intimidated. "He must have heard everything," they said, "Yet He shows no sign of fear. He strolls about as though He is a prince." Another person said, "Listen friends, I understand all this, wait and see. What you are observing now is just another trick to escape."
Fearlessly, Lord Visvambhara looked in every direction, observing the scenic beauty of the swift flowing Ganga and her banks. He saw a herd of cows grazing on the banks. Some of them went to the river to drink water, and few young ones jumped about with raised tails. Some of them were butting each other, while others just lay around chewing their cud. This sight immediately agitated the Lord. He forgot Himself, and began emitting loud roaring sounds. He kept saying, "I am Him, I am Him." In this condition the Lord ran to Shrivasa's house shouting, "What are you doing now Shrivasa?"
Shrivasa was engaged in worshiping Lord Nrsimhadeva behind closed doors. The Lord came and kicked the door and screamed out, "Who are you worshiping? Whom are you meditating on? The person who you are worshiping is here!" Saying this, Mahaprabhu entered the Deity room, sat on the throne of Vishnu and manifested His four-armed form.
Shrivasa trembled, and sat awestruck. The Lord spoke to Shrivasa calling out, "Oh Shrivasa, all this time you did not know who I was. I left My spiritual abode of Vaikuntha and came down to this material world at your beckoning, because of your loud chanting of the holy name, and Advaita Acarya Prabhu's loud calling. Not recognizing Me, you are living completely complacent and unconcerned. Advaita Acarya Prabhu has even gone back to Santipura just to avoid Me. I have come to protect the pious and punish the miscreants. There is no need for you to worry, just go on worshiping Me."
Tears filled Shrivasa's eyes and his heart swelled with love for the Lord. All his fears were destroyed by the Lord's assuring words. Currents of joy passed through his body, and he stood up with folded hands, offering prayers to the Lord. Shrivasa Pandita was a good and pure devotee, as well as a great scholar. Having received the Lord's order, he began to offer prayers to Him. He recited from the Shrimad-Bhagavatam Lord Brahma's prayers to Lord Krishna, "Oh Lord, You are the eternally worshipable Supreme Personality of Godhead. Your complexion is blackish like the monsoon cloud, and the color of Your cloth is yellow like a flash of lightning. Wild flowers adorn Your ears, and a peacock feather adorns Your crown. Your face looks so exquisite, beautified by the gently swaying flower garland hanging around Your neck. Your mouth is smeared with the curd that You have just eaten. Your transcendental possessions--the cane, horn, and flute--are special features of Your beauty. Your feet are soft like the petals of the lotus. I worship You, the son of Maharaja Nanda. I worship the lotus feet of Lord Visvambhara, whose complexion is like the blackish monsoon cloud, and who wears a yellow dress. I offer my obeisances at the lotus feet of the son of Mother Saci, whose ornaments are a bunch of wild flowers and a peacock feather. Nimai, who is decorated with a flower garland, holds a preparation of sweet rice in His hands. I offer obeisances at the lotus feet of the son of Shri Jagannatha Misra, Nimai. A million full moons fade before the exquisite beauty of His face. I offer my obeisances at Your feet My Lord, You who hold the cane and the flute. I offer my obeisances to Your lotus feet, You who have been declared by the Vedas as the son of Maharaja Nanda."
Shrivasa Pandita prayed like Brahma to the Lord's lotus feet. The words of transcendental praise flowed out with ease from his mouth, and he spoke on, "You are the Supreme Lord Vishnu. You are Lord Krishna. You are the Lord of all sacrifices. The holiest of rivers, the Ganga, has sprung from Your lotus feet. You are the life and beloved son of Janaka MaharajaA Lord Ramacandra, and You are Lord Nrsimhadeva. Lord Brahma and Lord Siva are like bumblebees searching for honey at Your lotus feet. You are the knower and compiler of the Vedas, and You are the Supreme Lord Narayana. You appeared as Lord Vamana to trick Bali Maharaja. You are Lord Hayagriva. You are the soul of the universe. You are Lord Jagannatha-the moon of Nilacala, and You are the ultimate cause of all causes. Is there anyone who is not subordinate to Your energies, whether it be Your insurmountable material energy or Your internal spiritual energy? Even Laksmi-devi is unaware of this, although she is Your constant companion. Lord Sesa who acts as a friend, companion, and brother, and who serves You in every respect, is even subjected to Your illusory potency, what to speak of others.
"My rare human birth has been wasted because I could not recognize You. In various ways You have deluded me, My Lord, so I was unable to recognize You. Oh Lord of my heart, please listen to me. Now that I have met you I disregard all of my fears. All my sorrows and sufferings have vanished. My life has again begun, my day has come. My whole life and all of my endeavors have now become successful. The sun of good fortune has risen in my heart. My forefathers have been liberated, and my house has been sanctified. My eyes have never been blessed with such a wonderful sight as I am seeing today. I see Him whose lotus feet are most worshipable by the goddess of fortune, Ramadevi."
Observing the wonderful form of the Lord, Shrivasa Pandita was unable to control himself, and he fell into an ecstatic trance. Currents of joy ran through his body, and he merged into an ocean of happiness. With raised arms he wept and breathed heavily, then rolled on the ground.
The Lord smiled and accepted Shrivasa's prayers with great satisfaction. "Bring all your relatives in the house and let them see My form," the Lord said. "Along with your wife, worship My feet and ask for any boon that your heart desires."
Following the instructions of the Lord, Shrivasa went into his house and gathered all his relatives, friends and wife, and returned quickly to the presence of the Lord. Weeping with joy, Shrivasa offered all the flowers collected for the worship of Lord Vishnu to the lotus feet of Lord Chaitanya. With fragrant flowers, incense and lamp, Shrivasa, along with his wife, brothers, other relatives, servants and maidservants, offered worship at the lotus feet of the Lord. They fell down and earnestly prayed, pleading for the Lord's mercy.
Shrivasa was very dear to the Lord, therefore the Lord blessed him, as well as everyone present, by placing His lotus feet on their heads. Smiling, He said, "May your attachment and attraction for Me increase." The Lord spoke loudly like a roaring lion, and addressing Shrivasa said, "Oh Shrivasa, are you afraid of something? News has reached Me that the government men want to capture you, and they have come with two boats. I am the Supersoul within everyone's heart, I control and direct everyone's activities according to My sweet will. The king can only capture you if I, being situated in his heart, prompt him to do so. Yet, for some reason, if he acts independently and gives the order to capture you, then I will do the following: I will be the first to step into the boat and present Myself before the king. On seeing Me do you think that he will still continue to sit on the throne? I will delude him and take control of him. If the king evades this move of Mine, then I have another alternative. I will tell the king, `Listen to the truth, oh king. Call all of your religious heads and judges to come to the court. Collect all of your elephants, horses, animals, and birds, etc. Whatever you have, bring them to your place. Then order all of your Kazi priests to read from your scriptures and inspire every listener to such a state of spiritual emotion that they begin to cry.' If they fail to do so, then I will reveal my true identity to the king. Then I will say, `Oh king, on the instructions of these same Kazi priests, whose spiritual powers we have already witnessed, you want to forbid the congregational chanting of the holy name of God. Now you shall see My power to the full satisfaction of your eyes. I will capture a mad elephant and bring him here, along with other elephants, horses, deer and other animals, and make them all cry in ecstasy and chant Krishna's name.' I will make the king and all his men cry and chant Krishna's name. I know that you don't believe that it is possible, but I will show you right now and you can see for yourself."
The Lord noticed a small girl named Narayani, who was the daughter of Shrivasa Pandita's brother. Lord Gaurachandra, the Supreme Godhead, the Supersoul within everyone's heart, ordered the little girl, "Narayani! Chant Krishna's name and cry in ecstasy." The four-year-old girl became extremely agitated with ecstatic spiritual emotions and cried out, "Oh Krishna!" She began to weep, losing all perception of the external world. Tears streamed down her body, and she fell to the ground. Smiling, Lord Visvambhara asked Shrivasa, "Are your fears pacified now?" Vaishnavas will remember for many years to come how Narayani was a recipient of the Lord's mercy.
Shrivasa, a very learned Pandita who is well versed in all the scriptural conclusions, threw up both of his hands and said, "My Lord, when you exhibit Your terrible form as all-devouring time, and annihilate this entire material creation, I will fearlessly chant Your holy name. Now that You are here, present before me in my house, what fear do I have?"
Seeing the Lord manifest His opulent Vaikuntha form, Shrivasa, along with all the assembled relatives, brothers, wife, and servants went into ecstatic trance. The transcendental form of the Lord which even the personified Vedas are eager to see, was now being seen by the servants and maidservants of Shrivasa Thakura. How can I possibly describe the magnanimous nature of Shrivasa Pandita? A little dust from his lotus feet can purify the entire creation.
Lord Krishna appeared in the prison house of Vasudeva, and all of His pastimes were performed in the house of Nanda Maharaja. Similarly, Lord Chaitanya appeared in the house of Shri Jagannatha Misra, but all His Vrndavana pastimes were performed in Shrivasa Pandita's house. Shrivasa Pandita was loved by all the Vaishnavas. Anyone who came to Shrivasa's house experienced great joy. Even the servants and maidservants in the house of such a devotee can see the rarest of sights, the Supreme Personality of Godhead in person. From this we can understand that serving a pure devotee is the best process of attaining the supreme goal, because by the mercy of a Vaishnava one can certainly receive the shelter of Krishna's lotus feet. Lord Visvambhara ordered Shrivasa Pandita, "Do not speak about this incident to anyone."
When the Lord regained His external consciousness He felt very ashamed of Himself, and after comforting Shrivasa Pandita He returned to His own house. Shrivasa Pandita's whole house was immersed in jubilation.
In the house of Shrivasa Pandita, the Lord enjoyed innumerable transcendental pastimes. In Shrivasa's house there was a maid servant named Dukhi who brought water daily for the Lord's bath. One day Shri Gaurasundara asked her what her name was. Hearing the reply, "Dukhi," the Lord changed her name to "Sukhi," saying, "Whoever chants the name of God will be happy."
In due course of time Shri Nityananda Prabhu joined Mahaprabhu in his Navadvipa pastimes. Shri Nityananda Prabhu regularly stayed in the courtyard of Shrivasa and Shri Malini devi took care of Him as a son.
One day, as was usual, the Lord was dancing in Shrivasa Pandita's house. The devotees surrounded the Lord and sang and danced. Just then in the inner quarters of the house the son of Shrivasa passed away due to some illness while the ladies helplessly looked on. Outside the kirtana was in full progress and the Lord danced in ecstacy. Suddenly sounds of loud wailing filled the air. Shrivasa Pandita hurried inside the house and saw his son lying dead on the bed. Shrivasa was a very elevated devotee, grave and knowledgeable. He took charge of the situation and forbade the ladies to lament so bitterly. He said, "You are all aware of Lord Krishna's transcendental potencies, hence restrain your tears and contain the sorrow in your heart. The Lord, whose holy name is capable of purifying even the most dreadful sinner, is now present here in person and dancing in ecstacy with His servitors, who are each like Lord Brahma himself. If someone leaves his body at this auspicious moment why should anyone lament. I would consider myself very fortunate if I had the same fate as this boy. Although you are unable give up attachment from your family members, you should at least stop your crying. Nobody else should learn about this incident lest this raises an alarm and disturbs the Lord's bliss in dancing. If happens then I shall certainly throw myself into the Ganges." These words had a sobering effect on the women and they stopped crying. Shrivasa Pandita went back to join the kirtana. He was soon flying high on the waves of divine bliss generated by the kirtana and the Lord's presence. Shrivasa Pandita was undoubtedly a very rare and exalted devotee, and such are indeed the characteristics of a servant of Lord Chaitanya.
The Lord danced for awhile sometime, until news of Shrivasa Pandita's son's passing away reached the devotees. Still no one openly expressed any emotions, although they were all profoundly moved within. Lord Chaitanya, the omniscient Supreme Personality knew everyone's heart. He enquired, "Today something perturbs My thoughts, what distress has cast its dark shadow in your house Pandita?" Shrivasa replied, "My Lord, what distress can effect me as long as Your benign smiling face illuminates my house."
Finally some leading devotees informed the Lord about the demise of Shrivasa's son. Gravely the Lord asked, "When did this happen," and was told that it had occurred earlier in the evening at about four o'clock." The Lord was told, "You were not informed of this matter because Shrivasa was concerned about disturbing Your dancing. His son passed away about two and a half hours ago. With Your permission we can begin the necessary last rites now. When Lord Chaitanya heard this wonderful story about Shrivasa Pandita, He was amazed.
The Lord began to weep and said, "How can I ever live without such an extraordinary companion? How can I leave the association of such a saintly person who is unaffected by the demise of his son due to his love for Me?" Speaking in this manner the Lord broke down and wept bitterly. The devotees were perplexed by the Lord's words which indicated He was going away. They had no idea that the Lord would soon leave home and accept sannyasa.
When the Lord calmed Himself He took all the devotees to attend to the dead boy. In the presence of all the devotees the Lord addressed the deceased son of Shrivasa Pandita: "For what reason did you leave Shrivasa Pandita's house?" The devotees were indeed surprised that the Lord was speaking to a dead body. Their surprise turned to sheer amazement when the deceased young boy spoke up saying, "My Lord, everything happens according to Your will alone, who can influence Your will?" The devotees listened attentively to each word. The boy continued, "I have enjoyed in this body for the time prescribed. Now that the time period is over I am leaving to accept another body. My Lord, although I must leave my present body please be merciful to me so that I may never forget You. Who is one's father, and who is one's son? Everyone is here to act on the result of ones individual karma. As long as my destiny allowed me to remain in Shrivasa Pandita's house I have stayed, but now I must leave for yet another residence. My Lord, I offer my humble obeisances unto You and Your dear associates, please forgive all my offenses and permit me to take Your leave." With these parting words the child lay still.
This wonderful miracle of the dead boy speaking such words of wisdom was an extremely enlightening experience for the devotees. The entire family of Shrivasa was now carried away by the waves of ecstacy and their lamentation past like a dream. Experiencing the bliss of love of Godhead they threw themselves at the Lord's lotus feet and said, "O Lord birth after birth You are the father, mother, and son. May we never forget the shade of Your lotus feet. Let us take birth in any condition and place, but please let our devotion at Your lotus feet be unflinching." Shrivasa Pandita and his three brothers prayed earnestly to the Lord and all the devotees cried out in appreciation and joy.
The Lord said, "Listen to Me Shrivasa! You are well conversant with the knowledge of material life and you are unaffected by the distressful conditions of family life. Not only that, you are so elevated that anyone who sees you will also become free from this entanglement. Nityananda and Myself are Your two sons, so remove the pain of separation in your heart." The devotees jubilantly greeted these words of divine compassion and love from the Lord.
The Lord accompanied all the devotees as they carried Shrivasa's son to the Ganga, performing kirtana all the way. After the rites were completed they all bathed in the Ganga and everyone returned to their home, chanting the holy name of Krishna. Shrivasa and his family also returned home feeling satisfied.
When Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu accepted sannyasa, Shrivasa Pandita went to reside at Kumarhatta. Every year he and his brothers visited Nilacala to see the Lord. He often visited Mayapura-Navadvipa and stayed for a few days with Saci mata.
When Saci mata came from Puri to Gauda to worship the Ganges, Mahaprabhu went to the house of Shrivasa Pandita at Kumarhatta. Mahaprabhu gave Shrivasa Pandita a boon that he would never be poverty stricken. Shrivasa Pandita and his three brothers happily served Shri Gaurasundara throughout their lives. Shrivasa Pandita was the manifestation of Shri Narada Muni. He was the playmate of the Lord in all of His pastimes. (CBh. Madhya 25)
156. SRIVASA'S MOTHER-IN-LAW (SASUDI):
She was the mother of Malini devi. One day in the house of Shrivasa when Mahaprabhu was absorbed in kirtana, Shrivasa's mother-in-law, in hopes of observing and listening to the kirtana, hid herself inside a basket in the room. Suddenly the Lord felt uneasy and inquired from Shrivasa if there was some outsider present. After a long search, Shrivasa found his mother-in-law hiding in the compound. Shrivasa angrily pulled her out by the hair. Later, on another occasion, Mahaprabhu again went to the house of Shrivasa and showed his favor to the mother-in-law. (CBh. 2.16.5-20, BRK. 12.2745-2749, 12.1934)
157. SRIVATSA PANDITA:
He was the disciple of Shri Advaita Prabhu.
158. SUBHADRA DEVI:
She was the wife of Shri Viracandra. Upon receiving the news of the death of Jahnava mata, she wrote a stotra name Anagakadamvavali. (Muralivilasa p. 323-324)
159. SUBHANANDA DVIJA:
He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 2.13.38, 1.10.110). In his past incarnation he was Malati (GGD. 194, 199). He drank the liquid which bathed the face and mouth of Lord Chaitanya and became ecstatic (CC. 2.13.109-110). He was present at the Kheturi festival.
160. SUBHANANDA RAYA:
He was a Zamindar of Navadvipa and a brahmana by caste. He had two sons namely Raghunatha and Janardana. Jagai was the son of this Raghunatha, and Madhai was the son of Janardana (Premavilasa 21)
161. SUBUDDHI MISRA:
He was the father of Jayananda, the author of the second Chaitanyamangala. He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.111). In Vraja lila he was born as Gunacuda (GGD. 194,201, Bhaktigranthasesa 27).
Subuddhi Raya was the King of Gauda, but the ruler Hussain Shah spoiled his caste status. Thus Subuddhi approached the brahmanas seeking to regain his caste, but they told him that self-immolation was the only recourse for him. However, when Subuddhi met Lord Chaitanya, he was advised to chant the name of Hari and visit Vrndavana. Subuddhi's meeting with Rupa Gosvami is described in CC. 2.25.180-200, his renunciation and humility are described in CC. 2.25.197A 199.
According to Amulyadhana Bhatta, his Shripata was at Belgan, Burdwan, but Jayakrishna says it was near Guptipada (Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 237, Devakinandana 113, Vrndavanadasa 106).
162. SUBUDDHI RAYA:
It is not known whether he met Lord Chaitanya (CC. 2.25.140).
163. SUDAMA BRAHMACARI:
According to Yadunatha, he belonged to the sakha of Gadadhara.
He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga. Nothing is known about him, other than that he was a teacher of Lord Gauranga (Chaitanyamangala 1.64, Namamrtasamudra 61, Vaishnava Vandana).
165. SUDDHA SARASVATI:
He was a sannyasi and close companion (parsad) of Lord Gauranga (Vaishnava Vandana of JIva 157, Devakinandana 60, Vrndavanadasa 54, Jayananda 88).
He was the son of the famous Kamdeva of Dhaddaha . Sudhakara's daughter was married to Jalesvara Bahinipati, the son of Vasudeva Sarvabhauma.
167. SUDHAKARA MANDAL:
He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. His wife was Syamapriya and his sons were Radhavallabha, Kamadeva and Gopala Mandal. The entire family were loyal servants of Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 1).
He was the son-in-law of Kamalakara Piplai. He belonged to Shripata Mahesa. According to Shri Nityananda-Vamsavistara his wife was named Vidyunmala devi. They went to Puri where, by the grace of the sea-god, they received a daughter named Narayani. Narayani was married to Virabhadra Gosvami. (See "Virabhadra")
169. SUDHANIDHI PATTANAYAKA/RAYA:
Achyutananda Dasa in his Gurubhaktigita (Vol. 3, P. 176) describes Sudhakara as Manohari gopi. He was the son of Bhavananda Raya and the younger brother of Ramananda.
170. SUDHANIDHI RAYA:
He was a Kayastha by caste and belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya. In his past incarnation he was one among Navanidhi (GGD. 102-103, CC. 1.10.133)
171. SUGRIVA MISRA:
He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga (Vaishnava vandana of Jiva 171, Devakinandana 69, Vrndavanadasa 59). He was born in Fulia (Namamrtasamudra 162).
He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 1). (See "Mohanadasa")
173. SUKHANANDA PURI:
He was one of the nine sannyasis who formed the tree of bhakti. In his past incarnation he was Laghimasiddhi (GGD. 96-97, CC. 1.9.14).
She was the domestic helper in the house of Shrivasa. Her name was formerly Dukhi, but being pleased with her dedicated service Lord Chaitanya named her Sukhi (CBh. 2.25.14-16)
175. SUKLAMBARA BRAHMACARI:
He was born as Yajnapatni in Dvapara-lila (GGD. 191). Some believe he was Yajnika brahmana in his past incarnation (CC. 1.10.38, CBh. 2.16.120-126, 2.26.3-59, BRK. 12.2754-57, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 104, Devakinandana 32, Vrndavanadasa 35)
He was born in Navadvipa. A brahmana beggar, Suklambara begged for alms chanting "Krishna, Krishna." Whatever alms he collected during the day he cooked in the evening, offered to Lord Krishna, then partook of the prasada. He was always fully absorbed in love of Krishna. When Lord Chaitanya returned from Gaya he came to the house of Suklambara where He expressed His deep feelings of separation from Lord Krishna to the devotees present.
One day Suklambara came to see the Lord with his begging bag hanging on his shoulder. In the presence of the Lord he began to dance ecstatically. Lord Chaitanya laughed to see him and taking some rice from Suklambara's bag, the Lord began to eat.
One day Lord Chaitanya directed Suklambara to go home, cook food for offering to Lord Krishna and at noon the Lord would visit his house to take prasada. Advised by the devotees, Suklambara cooked rice and banana tree-trunk with special care. Lord Chaitanya came after taking bath in the Ganges and offered the food and took prasada.
Suklambara accompanied the Lord by playing musical instruments during kirtana. He occasionally visited Nilacala to see Lord Chaitanya.
176. SUKRTI KRSNADASA:
He belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Nityananda and hailed from Shripata Badagachi, where Lord Nityananda spent considerable time. (CBh. 3.5.748)
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.78, 2.11.81). In his past incarnation he was Candrasekhar (GGD. 207). He was a Vaidya by caste and hailed from Shrikhanda (Krishnachaitanyacaritam of Murari 4.17.13). According to Ramagopala dasa, Sulocana was a disciple of Raghunandana. One pada composed by Sulocana is included in Gaurapadatarngini.
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda (CC. 1.11.50).
She was the queen of King Vira Hamvira of Vishnupura and a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya.
She was the wife of Ciranjiva Sena and the daughter of Damodara Kaviraja of Shrikhanda. The famous Ramacandra and Govinda dasa Kaviraja were her sons.
181. SUNANDA DEVI:
She was the mother of Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.
He was a disciple of Syamananda prabhu and was known also as Anandananda. He belonged to Shripata Gopiballavpur (Premavilasa 20).
183. SUNDARANANDA PANDITA:
He was a disciple of Abhirama Gosvami from Shripata Bhangamoda or Bhangamoda village (Pataparyatana).
184. SUNDARANANDA THAKURA:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord NItyananda and was His close associate. He hailed from Shripata Halda Mahespur village in the district of Jessore, though some say it was Bodhakhana (CC. 1.11.23, Krishnachaitanyacaritam of Murari 4.22.11, Chaitanyamangala of Jayananda p. 56, 144, and Locana p. 3, CBh. 3.6.474, Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva 201, Devakinandana 84, Vrndavanadasa 75). In his past incarnation he was Sudama sakha of Vraja (GGD. 127). Sundarananda was one of the twelve Gopalas. A devout lover of Krishna, he made Kadamba flowers blossom in another type of tree and brought a live crocodile from the water in a divine state of ecstasy. He was a brahmacari. Some of his disciples are said to have driven wild tigers out of the forests and given them Harinama.
185. SUNDARANANDA THAKURA:
He was the son and disciple of Gatigovinda and the paternal grandson of Shrinivasa Acarya.
186. SUNDARAVARA KHAN:
Originally named Pranavallabha Vas, he was the younger brother of Purandara Khan, the Chief Minister of King Hussain Shah of Bengal. Born at Seyakhali, Sundaravara also occupied a high position in the government.
187. SUNDARI THAKURA:
In his past incarnation he was Khanjani sakhi. He belonged to Shripata Barahanagar and belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Nityananda.
188. SURDASA MADANAMOHANA:
His real name was Suradhvaja and he was a disciple of Sanatana Gosvami. During the reign of Emperor Akbar, he was the Governor of Sandil. Finding jaggery of an excellent quality was available locally, he arranged to send a cart-load of jaggery to Vrndavana for Madanamohana. It is said that when this jaggery reached Vrndavana, Madanamohana gave a command in a dream to prepare a sweet dish that night for offering. A vessel containing prasada was sent to Surdasa.
He collected thirteen lakh of rupees from the treasury of Akbar and distributed it to saintly persons. He then filled the iron-chest with stones and fled to Vrndavana, where he took refuge under Sanatana Gosvami.
When he was not engaged in worshiping the Deities, he composed padas. These poems are of a high literary standard and so far 105 padas in Vrajbhasa have been published. He was given the name Suhrdvani.
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda.
A resident of Vrndavana and a disciple of Gopala Bhatta Gosvami. He was the second son of Harivamsa Gosvami, and a priest of the Deity Radhavallabha in Vrndavana (Premavilasa 18). (See also "Harivamsa Gosvami")
191. SURYADASA PANDITA:
He belonged to the sakha of Lord Nityananda, and was the father of Vasudha and Jahnava. He was born in Saligrama and later settled at Amvika Kalna. In his past incarnation he was born as Kakudmi (GGD. 65). His wife was Bhadravati and he wrote Bhoga-nirnaya-paddhati. "Sarkhel" was a title attached to his name.
He was the head abbot of the Galta seat of the Shri Vaishnava community in Jaipur, Rajasthan. He was a strongA minded and devout person.
Once he expressed a desire to go on pilgrimage, entrusting the responsibility of the Deity-service to his disciple Raghunatha dasa. As Raghunatha was reluctant to take charge, Suryananda cursed him to suffer from leprosy.
When Raghunatha apologized deeply for his offence, Suryananda told him that he (Suryananda) would soon leave his body and be reborn, and that in the future Raghunatha, while on his way to Puri, would be cleansed upon meeting him and drinking the sanctified water touched by Suryananda's feet. Suryananda explained that the sign of the sword which was on his back, would also be there in his next life, and in this way Raghu could recognize his spiritual master.
Suryananda then left on pilgrimage. In the course of his travels Suryananda went to Shripata Gopiballavpur. Attracted by the affection of Rasikananda prabhu, he expressed his desire to Syamananda prabhu to be born as the son of Rasika. As approved by Syamananda and Rasikananda, Suryananda was commanded to take birth as the son of Radhananda (Nayananda) deva.
Suryananda then left the Laksmi-Nrsimha salagrama which he served at Gopiballavpur and died at Puri. He was then reA born as the eldest son of Radhananda prabhu. Meanwhile, Raghunatha, as commanded by his guru, went on pilgrimage and eventually arrived at Gopiballavpur. Finding the sign of a sword on the back of Nayananda deva, he drank the holy water touching Nayananda's feet and was liberated from his sin. Raghu then returned to Galta where he became the Mahanta.
193. SURENDRANATH GOSVAMI:
He was a descendant from the family-line of the famous Kanu Thakura of Bhajanghat and was a well-known Ayurvedic physician. He wrote several books titled, Premasru, Premanjali, Puspanjali, Shri Rupa Sanatana, Mirabai.
194. SUVALACANDRA THAKURA:
He was the son of Gatigovinda and the grandson of Shrinivasa Acarya. According to Karnananda 2, he took diksa from Hemalata devi, the daughter of Shrinivasa Acarya.
195. SUVALA SYAMA:
He translated CC. into Vrajbhasa.
He was the grandson of Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya and the son of Jalesvara Vahinipati. He wrote the following works: Sandilyasutrera bhasya, Nyayatattva-nikasa and Vedanta tattva nikasa. (See Bange Navya Nyaya carca P. 43)
197. SVAPNESVARA VIPRA/DVIJA:
A resident of Cuttack, he was a devotee of Lord Gauranga. When Lord Chaitanya visited Cuttack on His way to Vrndavana from Puri via Gauda, Svapnesvara served the Lord with great hospitality in his house at Cuttack (CC. 2.16.100, Chaitanyacharitamrita-mahakavya of Karnapura 19.73).
198. SVARUPA ACARYA:
He was the son and disciple of Advaita Acarya (CC. 1.12.27). According to Advaita Prakasa 15, Jagadisa and Svarupa were twin brothers. In CC. Svarupa is shown as Svarupa-sakha and in Sitagunakadamba as Rupasakha. (See also "Jagadisa Misra")
199. SVARUPA BHUPATI:
He was the translator of Muktacarita (Pathvadi manuscript Anu 27)
200. SVARUPA CAKRAVARTI/SVARUPA GOSVAMI:
His real name was Ramarama Sanyal. A brahmana of the Varendra clan, he was the disciple of Ramakrishna Acarya in the disciplic line of Narottama Thakura. He belonged to Shripata Hussainpura (Narottamavilasa 12).
He first served the Deity of Govindaji at Hussainpura on the bank of the Ganges. Later he entrusted his two disciples with the responsibility for serving the Deity and at the divine command of Govindaji, visited his birthplace, Navapada. Afterwards he installed a second Deity of Govindaji at Hussainpura on the bank of the Brahmaputra. Svarupa's family descendants settled at Mymensingh and Kisoraganj (Premavilasa 20.207 tika)
201. SVARUPA DASA:
He was a Vaishnava poet, nothing further is known about him.
202. SVARUPA DASA BABAJI MAHARAJA:
In Jagannatha Puri there is one Satasana Matha near the samadhi of Haridasa Thakura. Many Vaishnava's have practiced bhajan in seclusion there. Svarupadasaji lived in that matha, spending the entire day within his kutir. In the evening he came out into the open yard where he offered obeisances to the Tulasi and sang, danced and chanting the holy name. At that time many Vaishnavas would wait there to meet him. One visitor would inevitably offer him a handful of Jagannatha prasada and Svarupa accepted only the amount needed to satiate his hunger, not more. Other visitors would read to him from books like Chaitanya Bhagavata. Around 10:pm Svarupa returned to his kutir to practice bhajan.
Very early in the morning while is was still dark Svarupa went to the sea to perform his morning ablutions. Svarupa did not like to accept service from others and thus, although he was blind, he managed to take his bath in the sea all alone. He had no attachment for material wealth and welcomed all visitors with pleasant and charming words, advising everyone to always remember the holy name of Krishna. Many persons admired him as a saint of the highest spiritual accomplishments.
203. SVARUPA DAMODARA:
He was Visakha in Vrajalila. According to Dhyanacandra Gosvami he was Lalita sakhi (GGD. 160). His former name was Purusottama Acarya and he belonged to the spiritual lineage of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.25). His father's name was Padmagarbha Acarya and his maternal grandfather was Jayarama Cakravarti. Purusottama was born in Bhitadia.
Jayarama Cakravarti, a resident of Navadvipa, arranged his daughters marriage to Padmagarbhacarya and the couple settled in Navadvipa. Shortly thereafter Svarupa Damodara was born. Padmagarbha left his family in the care of his fatherA in-law and went to various holy places, such as Mithila, Kasi, etc. to study the Veda and Vedanta.
In Benares Padmagarbha happened to meet Laksmipati, the guru of Madhavendra Puri, and took diksa from him. When he returned home he accepted a second wife named Kamala devi, who gave birth to Laksminatha Lahidi at Bhitadia.
Purusottama (Svarupa Damodara) was brought up in Navadvipa at his maternal uncle's house. He was extremely loyal to Lord Gauranga. After seeing that Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu accepted the renounced order, Purusottama Acarya became like a madman and immediately went to Varanasi to take sannyasa. At the conclusion of his sannyasa, his spiritual master, Chaitanyananda Bharati, ordered him, "Read VedantaA sutra and teach it to all others." Svarupa Damodara was a great renunciate as well as a great learned scholar. With heart and soul he took shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Shri Krishna. He was very enthusiastic to worship Shri Krishna without disturbance; therefore it was almost in madness that he accepted the sannyasa order. Upon accepting sannyasa, Purusottama Acarya followed the regulative principles by giving up his tuft of hair and sacred thread, but he did not accept the saffron colored dress. He also did not take a sannyasi title but remained as a naisthika-brahmacari. After taking permission from his sannyasa-guru, Svarupa Damodara went to Nilacala and accepted the shelter of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Then all day and night, in ecstatic love of Krishna, he enjoyed transcendental mellows in the loving service of the Lord. (CC. 2.10.103)
Svarupa is one among the three and a half closest disciples of Lord Chaitanya. References to Svarupa are as follows: