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1. NABHA GVA
2. NABHAJI (NABHADASA) GVA
3. NAJIR GVA
4. NAKADI GVA,CCU
5. NAKADI DASA GVA,
6. NAKUL BRAHMACARI GVA,CCU
7. NALINA PANDITA GVA
8. NALINI DEVI GVA
9. NANDA MISRA GVA
10. NANDADULAL ADHIKARI GVA
11. NANDAI GVA,CCU
12. NANDAI GVA,CCU,BMO
13. NANDAKISOR CANDRA DASA GVA
14. NANDAKISOR DASA GVA
15. NANDAKISOR DASA GVA
16. NANDA VILLAGE'S SIDDHA BABA GVJ
17. NANDAGRAMA'S JANAIKA BABAJI GVJ
18. NANDANA GVA
19. NANDANA GVA
20. NANDANA (NANDANA ACARYA) GVA,CCU,BMO
21. NANDANA ACARYA GVA
22. NANDANA ACARYA BMO
23. NANDANA MAITI GVA
24. NANDARAMA GVA
25. NANDINI DASI GVA
26. NARAHARI CAKRAVARTI (GHANASYAM) GVA
27. NARAHARI DASA GVA
28. NARAHARI SARKARA THAKURA GVA,GPC,CCU
29. NARAHARI VISARADA GVA
30. NARASIMHA DASA GVA
31. NARASIMHA DEVA GVA
32 NARASIMHA KAVIRAJA GVA
33. NARASIMHA NADIAL GVA
34. NARASIMHA RAYA RAJA GVA
35. NARAYANA GVA
36. NARAYANA GVA,CCU
37. NARAYANA CCU
38. NARAYANA BHATTA GVA,CCU
39. NARAYANA BHATTA GVA
40. NARAYANA CAUDHURI GVA
41. NARAYANA DASA GVA,CCU
42. NARAYANA DASA GVA
43. NARAYANA DASA GVA
44. NARAYANA DASA GVA
45. NARAYANA DASA KAVIRAJA GVA
46. NARAYANA DASA THAKURA GVA
47. NARAYANA GHOSH GVA
48. NARAYANA GUPTA GVA
49. NARAYANA KAVI GVA
50. NARAYANA MANDALA GVA
51. NARAYANA PAIDARI GVA
52. NARAYANA PANDITA GVA
53. NARAYANA RAYA GVA
54. NARAYANA SANYAL GVA
55. NARAYANA TIRTHA ENCYCLOPEDIA
56. NARAYANA VACASPATI GVA,CCU
57. NARAYANI DASI GVA,CCU
58. NARAYANI DASI GVA
59. NARAYANI DEVI GVA,CCU
60. NARAYANI DEVI GVA
61. NARAYANI DEVI GVA
62. NAROJI GVA
63. NAROTTAMA DASA ADHIKARI GVJ
64. NAROTTAMA MAJUMDAR GVA
65. NAROTTAMA THAKURA GVA,GPC
66. NARTAK GOPALA GVA
67. NASIR MAMUD GVA
68. NATAVARA GVA
69. NATHAMUNI ENCYCLOPEDIA
70. NAVACANDRA GVA
71. NAVADA SRIGARBHA GVA
72. NAVADVIPA CANDRA DASA GVA
73. NAVADVIPA CANDRA DASA GVJ
74. NAVADVIPA CANDRA GOSVAMI VIDYARATNA GVA
75. NAVAKANTA GVA
76. NAVAKISOR GOSVAMIPADA GVJ
77. NAVA GAURANGA DASA GVA
78. NAVANI HODA GVA,CCU
79. NAYANA BHASKARA GVA
80. NAYANA BHASKARA GVA
81. NAYANA SEN GVA
82 NAYANANANDA KAVIRAJA GVA
83. NAYANANANDA THAKURA GVA
84. NAYANANANDA THAKURA/MISRA GVA,GPC,CCU
85. NILAKANTHA SURI GVA
86. NILAMBARA GVA,CCU,BMO
87. NILAMBARA GVA
88. NILAMBARA CAKRAVARTI GVA,CCU
89. NILAMANI MUKHUTI GVA
90. NILASYAMA DASA GVA
91. NIMAI KAVIRAJA GVA
92. NIMANANDA DASA GVA
93. NIMANANDA DASA GVA
94. NIMBARKA ENCYCLOPEDIA
95. NIMU GOPA GVA
96. NIRANJANA GVA
97. NIRLOMA GANGADASA GVA
98. NITYANANDA PRABHU GVA,CCU
99. NITYANANDA ADHIKARI GVA
100. NITYANANDA CAUDHURI GVA
101. NITYANANDA DASA GVA
102. NITYANANDA DASA GVA
103. NITYANANDA DASA GVA
104. NITYANANDA DASA GVA
105. NITYANANDA DASA (SADHU) GVJ
106. NITYANANDA DASA BABA GVJ
107. NITYANANDA DASA BABAJI GVJ
108. NIVARANA VIDYAVAGISA GVA
109. NRSIMHACARYA CCU
110. NRSIMHA BHADUDI GVA
111. NRSIMHA CAITANYA/DASA GVA,CCU
112. NRSIMHA CAKRAVARTI GVA
113. NRSIMHA CIDANANDA TIRTHA CCU
114. NRSIMHA DASA BABA GVJ
115. NRSIMHA DEVA GVA
116. NRSIMHA KAVIRAJA GVA
117. NRSIMHA PURI GVA
118. NRSIMHA TIRTHA GVA,CCU
119. NRSIMHA GATI CCU
120. NRSIMHANANDA BRAHMACARI/BHARATI GVA,CCU
121. NRSIMHANANDA THAKURA GVA
122. NRSIMHAVALLABHA MITRA THAKURA GVA
123. NETRANANDA GVA
124. NYACARYA CCU
She was the mother of Advaita Prabhu (Bhaktiratnakara 12.1756-1758). Mahananda Vipra was Nabha's father. The family descended from Narasimha Nadiyal of Nabagram (Premavilasa 24). Nabha devi had seven sons. (See `Advaita Acarya')
2. NABHAJI (NABHADASA):
He was a Ramanandi Vaishnava and wrote the book titled Bhaktamala (a compilation of hagiographies). He was the disciple of Agradasa (GVA. Vol. 1, p. 370 and Vol. 2, p. 1271, Bhaktamala 1).
Near Ramabhadracala, a place located on the bank of the Godavari in Andra Pradesh, there was a Maharastrian brahmana named Ramadasa who became well known as the ansa-avatara (partial incarnation) of Hanuman. Ramadasa's family is still famous by the name of `Lakhabhakta,' and were singers by profession. Nabhaji was born into this family.
Nabhaji was blind from birth, but at the age of five years he was miraculously given sight. When famine ravaged their land, Nabhaji's mother migrated to a distant part of the country. Along the way she abandoned Nabhaji out of fear of starvation. At this time Nabhaji met Agradasa and Kilhadasa. The later gave Nabhaji sight by sprinkling sanctified water upon him. Agradasa gave Nabhaji diksa and the name Narayandasa. He then took Nabhaji near Jaipur to Galta (or Galbasrama) and installed him as the Acarya there. Nabhaji's Bhaktamala contains 195 Satpadi (an eighteen lettered mantra) and 213 poems.
He was a Muslim Vaishnava poet. His compositions have been compiled in the book Hindike Musalmana Kavi.
He belonged to the sakha of Nityananda Prabhu. (CC. 1.11.48)
5. NAKADI DASA:
He was the disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)
6. NAKULA BRAHMACARI:
He was a very good looking devotee who lived in Ambua Muluka. He delivered many fallen souls in Gauda and was said to possess the spirit of Mahaprabhu. Hearing this, Sivananda came to test him, thinking that since his mantra was unknown to others, if Nakula could tell what his mantra was, then he would believe that Nakula was empowered by Mahaprabhu. Sivananda hid himself amongst the many visitors who had come to meet Nakula. But Nakula recognised him and in front of everyone revealed Sivananda's Gaura-Gopala mantra. Sivananda was filled with reverence and offered Nakula great respect. (CC. 3.2.16-18)
7. NALINI PANDITA:
He was the son of Shri Jaladhara Pandita and the elder brother of the famous Shrivasa Pandita. Nalina Pandita's daughter, Narayani devi, gave birth to the famous Shri Vrndavana dasa, the author of Shri Chaitanya Bhagavata. (Premavilasa 23) (See also `Vrndavana dasa Thakura')
8. NALINI DEVI:
She was the wife of Santosa Roy, brother of Canda Roy. She was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilas 20)
9. NANDA MISRA:
He was the disciple of Shri Baladeva Vidyabhusana. He wrote a tika on Siddhanta Darpana.
10. NANDADULALA ADHIKARI:
He was the 9th generation descendant of Syamadasa, who was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. Due to his profound spiritual realization he was given the title `Mahanta'.
He belonged to the branch of Nityananda Prabhu. (CC. 1.11.49)
He belonged to the branch of Lord Chaitanya. He, Govinda, and Ramai regularly attended to the needs of Mahaprabhu. He was Varida in Krishna lila. (CC. 1.10.143-144)
According to BMO. p. 87, Nandai or Nanda Bai were the same person. Some scholars who uphold this view argue that the name Nandai evolved from Nandabai, which is said to be another form of Nanda Bhai. Nandai lived in Puri and was a worshipper of Lord Jagannatha. In Shri Chaitanyaganoddesadipika, an unpublished manuscript by Krishnadasa Kaviraja, the following reference to Nandai is found: singhbhatta kamalabhatta ramai nandai, kramat jambe ei kinkar sadai; "This servant will gradually learn of devotees such as Singhabhatta, Kamalabhatta, Ramai and Nandai."
When Lord Chaitanya went to Vrndavana, He spent a night at Chaturdwar (modern Chauduar). At the request of King Prataparudra, Tulasi Misra Parichha sent Mahaprasadam to Lord Chaitanya. Ramai and Nandai were among those who carried the Mahaprasada to the Lord. (CC. 2.16)
13. NANDAKISOR CANDRA DASA:
He was the author of Sukaduta Mahakavya, Premavilasa Kavya, Govindagunarnava drama, Radhaviharacampu, Bhagavata Darpana Kavya. He also wrote a tika named Valavodhini on Rasa Pancadayayee. He was born in Vrndavana in the home of a scholarly brahmana family in 1870 Samvat.
14. NANDAKISOR DASA:
According to Pata Paryatana, he was the disciple of Shri Abhirama Gosvami and his Shripata was at Cunakhali.
15. NANDAKISOR DASA:
He belonged to the branch of Nityananda Prabhu and his Shripata was in Purunia. After receiving the order from the Badshah, he installed the Deities of Shri Shri Nitai-Gaura at Srngarvat in Vrndavana. Being directly commanded by Lord Krishna and Balarama, he wrote Shri Vrndavana Lilamrta and Shri Rasakalika.
16. NANDA VILLAGE'S SIDDHA BABA:
(Told by the great singer and scholar, Shrila Advaita dasa babaji Mahasaya): When Siddha Jayakrishna dasa babaji in Kamyavana and Siddha Shri Vaishnava dasa baba in Kosi were practicing bhajan, at that time there was also one Siddha baba practicing bhajan at Paurnamasi kunda near Shri Nanda village. He lived under a tree, although his kutir was near the tree, and worshiped Shri Govardhana Sila. He always kept the Sila hanging around his neck in a piece of cloth and never removed it even while performing rituals, answering natures call, or taking bath. He would sit for long periods of time in ecstatic trance. When he regained consciousness, his Vaishnava followers cooked food and offered bhoga to Shri Govardhana and took prasadam. No one knew where the cooking ingredients came from, but there was always a full stock to serve any number of visitors.
17. NANDAGRAMA'S JANAIKA BABAJI (O KUKUR-PRASANGA-Information on an unnamed Babaji of Nandagrama and a dog):
This story was told by Shri Ramdasa Babaji to Haridasa dasa: Long ago, one completely renounced Vaishnava saint practiced bhajan seated on the bank of Jasodakunda near Nandisvara. His name is unknown. Once a day he left his cave to perform his ablutions and in the evening he went to the village for madhukari. In his old age he did not go anywhere other than Nandagrama.
Once a certain Babaji came from Govardhana and eagerly requested this Baba to go to Caklesvara on the occasion of a Namayajna being held there. At first the Baba declined the offered, but after repeated requests, he relented and went to participate in the Namayajna. After being away from Nandagrama for two days, the Baba came back and returned to his regular routine.
He was a about to enter his cave after returning from madhukari, when suddenly he heard a pitiful voice speaking to him as follows: "Listen to me revered Babaji! I haven't eaten anything for two days." The startled Baba asked, "Who are you?" The answer was, "I am that dog whom you give a share of your madhukari to daily." Intrigued by this contact with a supernatural world, the Baba pleaded to the invisible voice to introduce himself clearly. The dog then went on to say, "Listen Baba, I am the most unfortunate being. In my past birth I was the priest here in the temple of Nandisvara. Once a large ladu was prepared for offering to the Deity and I, out of lust, grabbed it and ate it without waiting for it to be offered. As a result of that sin I have taken birth as a ghost. Since you are a totally renounced Vaishnava I come here to partake of the madhukari given by you, in hopes that I will be liberated by your mercy." Hearing this account the Baba inquired further, "Be that as it may, but nevertheless, since you belong to the supernatural world, tell me, you surely get darsana of Yugalakisora and Their divine lila?" The reply was, "True, I do get darsana and witness lila also, but I am not able to appreciate it in this form, in the same as one who is fortunate enough to have a human body."
The Baba urgently pleaded, "But could you make me fortunate enough to witness this?" The reply was in the negative. But the Baba insisted, "Could you guide me as to how I can have a darsana?" This time the reply was positive, "Look here, tomorrow you should wait on the edge of the Jasodakunda, when the cattle are returning home watch out for the cowherd boy who comes at the end, that one will be none other than Lord Krishna Himself." Saying this the ghost in the form of a dog vanished.
The Babaji then began to wait with intense eagerness. It seemed like ages to wait until the cows would again be returning home. Impatiently waiting, the Baba sometimes cried, sometimes laughed, and sometimes dances restlessly. When the long night was finally over, he rushed to Jasodakunda and hid under a bush. But he could not sit there patiently, thoughts began to fill his mind, "Am I eligible to have a darsana of Lord Krishna? This is absurd!" and the Babaji would roll on the ground, bathing himself in the dust and tears which streamed from his eyes. "Lord Krishna is an ocean of mercy," he thought, "certainly he will shower his grace upon this unfortunate soul." Thinking in this way he began to dance and sing in ecstacy. It seemed as if time stood still. As the Babaji underwent innumerable emotional changes, the hour of the sunset slowly arrived and the time of the cattle's return approached. It was twilight and the Babaji could not contain himself. He hid himself in the bush and waited. Eventually the herd of cattle and buffalos were seen slowly approaching. One or two cowherd boys were seen tending their flock. Ah! at last, the last cowherd boy was seen-he was dark-complexioned, and walked with a limp, holding a staff toward Nandagrama. The Babaji rushed forward and fell prostrate, clasping the cowherd boy's feet. The boy said, "Listen to me Baba, I am the son of a trader, it is offensive for me to allow you to touch my feet. Please let go of my feet, my mother will beat me. Please Baba, come to my house with me, I shall offer you curds, sugar candy, madhukari, or whatever you want, but please let go of my feet."
The Babaji paid no attention and with utter humility begged, "Oh my beloved Lord, please cool my afflicted heart and give darsana just once. Oh, my Lord Krishna! Please give me refuge at your lotus feet without making any further pretence."
Meanwhile the other cowherd boys returned home, as the devotee and his beloved Lord remained at that spot from evening until midnight exchanging words in this way. Finally, when the Babaji did not leave his feet, nor heed the boy's words, the Lord said, "Well Baba, come on, have a look at My true form." Saying this the Lord manifested Himself in His three-fold bending form, holding the flute. The Babaji said, "My Lord, I have never contemplated You alone; I am a worshiper of Yugala (the pair). Please save me by giving me darsana once of You and Your associates." Then the unique form of Yugalakisora, surrounded by sakhis, manifested there before his eyes. The Babaji was overwhelmed with the fascinating beauty of the Lord and drank deep the nectar of Their darsana. Thus his treasured desire was fulfilled and he swam in an ocean of divine joy. The Babaji left his body shortly afterwards.
He was a Vaishnava poet. No information is available on him.
He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.151)
20. NANDANA (NANDANA ACARYA):
He is mentioned under the lineage of both Lord Chaitanya and Lord Nityananda. (CC. 1.11.43, CBh. 2.3.176, CC. (R.G. Nath ed.) 2/3/151, Shri Krishna Chaitanyacharitamritam of Murari Gupta (Mrnalkanti Ghosh ed.) 2.8.9, Shri Chaitanya Charitamrita Mahakavya of Karnapura 6.11).
Nandana was the son of Caturbhuja Pandita of Navadvipa. Vishnudasa and Gangadasa were his other two brothers. Nityananda Prabhu stayed with them for sometime.
21. NANDANA ACARYA:
Born in an astrologer-brahmana caste, Nandana's father was named Laksminarayana Sarvajna. They lived for sometime at Bahirkanda village near Tarakeswar, then moved to Shrihatta or Kadsinapada at Navadvipa. Laksminarayana's other son was Bhagavan Adhikari Sarvabhauma. Laksminarayana was an unparalleled scholar in astrology and as stated in CBh., witnessed the birth of Lord Chaitanya and prepared His horoscope. (Shri Vishnupriya Gauranga 3.10)
Nandana belonged to the lineage of Lord Chaitanya and was a lame man (CC. 1.10.39). The day Lord Gauranga manifested His Mahaprakasa lila, Advaita Prabhu was staying in the house of Nandana.
When Lord Chaitanya left for Puri after accepting sannyasa, Nandana also went to Puri afterwards. When Lord Chaitanya returned to Puri after His tour in the south, Nandana, despite his physical handicap, rushed forward to greet the Lord.
When Shrinivasa Acarya came for a pilgrimage in Navadvipa, he felt blessed to visit the house of Nandana. (Bhaktiratnakara 12.2422-2423)
22. NANDANA ACARYA:
The name of Nandana Acarya is found in the list of devotees given by Krishnadasa Kaviraja in CC. But in Gurubhaktigita (of Acyutananda dasa, Utkal University edition, 1975, Vol. III, P. 176) the name given is Nandini Acarya, who has been identified as Haranayani gopi. In the following four works, Brajabhihar (by Dasarathi dasa, manuscript preserved in Utkal University library, catalogue no. O.L. 382), Anuragakalpalata (by Gajapati Syamasundaradeva, manuscript preserved in Utkal University Library, catalogue no. O.L. 97), Swarupabarnana (by Rupa Gosvami, manuscript preserved in Utkal University Library, catalogue no. O.L. 382), and Chaitanyaganoddesadipika the name Nandana Acarya is referred to. In these works he was known as Harini in his previous birth. The similarity between Nandana and Nandini, Haranayani and Harini, leads us to conclude that those names were of one person. Due to the similarity in the names one feels inclined to identity as the disciple of Jagannatha dasa, Nandini Acarya. Further research is needed to verify this.
23. NANDANA MAITI:
An Odiya devotee of Lord Chaitanya. Nandana was in the service of Lord Jagannatha in Puri.
He was the disciple of Jangalipriya, the disciple of Sita Devi. Nandarama served Sita Devi and wrote the book titled Shri Krishnamisracaritra.
25. NANDINI DASI:
She belonged to the lineage of Advaita Prabhu. Some say that she was the daughter of Advaita Prabhu. Sita devi had two attendants; Jangali and Nandini (Premavilasa 24). Bhaktamala 3 notes that Nandini was a companion of Sita Devi and Jangali. The story goes that originally Nandini was a ksatriya man from Haripura near Santipura. After becoming a disciple of Sita Devi, he changed to wearing female dress. Mahantas of his temple also wear female dress. Information available from Lokanatha dasa's Sitacaritra says that his past name was Nandarama.
Nandini served the Gopinatha Deity and received an annual grant of Rs. 72-75 from the collectorate office of Baguda (Bangladesh). During his old age he lived at Puri where the Nandini Matha still exists. He was Jaya in his previous incarnation.
26. NARAHARI CAKRAVARTI (GHANASYAM):
Narahari Cakravarti: Jivani O Racanavali, Vol. I: Biography and collection of works by Mihir Caudhuri Kamilya P. 15-41.
The following are the only sources of information on the life of Narahari:
1) Anandanarayan Maitra Bhagavatabhusana, the copyist of manuscripts of Bhaktiratnakara and Narottamavilasa recorded some information on the author along with the text. (See Pathvadi ms. of Bhaktiratnakara no. 2341-24, p. 154 ka-156 ka and Pathvadi ms. of Narottamavailasa no. 2336.21, p. 22dha-35 kha.). A brief biographical note on Narahari is found in Bhaktiratnakara Gaudiya Mission 2nd edition, 1960, P. 649-650. A little biographical information is also found in Gauracaritracintamani Haridasa dasa ed. 461 Gauravda p. 17. Pada 38, and in Gitacandrodaya Pathvadi ms. no. 2543.3. page 8 kha, pada 51.
2) Some sayings related to Narahari's life have come down orally. The following biographical events can be constructed from the available sources of information: (a) information on parents, (b) place of birth, (c) two names, (d) Guruparampara, (e) taking shelter at Vraja and other related events.
Jagannatha, the father of Narahari, was a disciple of Visvanatha Cakravarti. According to Sukumar Sen, (Bangala Sahityaera Itihas Vol. I, Apararadha, 2nd ed. P. 390) the family may have been related to Visvanatha. Nagendranatha Vasu in Vrajparikrama, Bangiya Sahitya Parisat ed. P. 4 introduction, states that Visvanatha was related to the paternal lineage of Jagannatha. Narahari's family was from Renapura on the eastern bank of the Ganga near Saiyadabad in the district of Murshidabad.
Jagannatha was married at a fairly young age. His wife was also an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna. Yet soon after marriage Jagannatha left on pilgrimage, from then on he lived the life of a renunciate, although living within the family.
There are differences of opinion among scholars regarding the birth place of Narahari; Sisirkumar Ghosh says that Narahari lived at Katoa on the bank of the Ganga (See Ksirodcandra Ray `Ghanasyamadasa' Sahitya Magha 1299 BS).
Ten years later the historian, Nikhilnatha Raya, in his Mursidavader Itihasa Vol. 1, 1309, Chapter 12, P. 628 writes that Narahari was born in a brahmana family at Renapura near Nasipura village in Murshidabad. The next year Jagadvandhu Bhadra in his introduction to Gaurapadatarangini 1310 1st ed. p.77 neither accepted the views of Sisir Ghosh, Ksirodcandra or Nikhilnatha, nor did he shed any light on the subject. However, Vaishnava scholars such as Amulyadhan Bhatta (Vaishnavacarita Abhidahan 1331 BS P. 148), Sasibhusan Vidyalamkar (Jivanikos Vol. 3, 1345 BS, P. 498), Murarilal Adhikari (Vaishnava Digdarsani 1332 BS P. 123), Haridasa Dasa and Bilvanbihari Majumdar have all accepted Renapura village in Mursidabad as the birthplace of Narahari.
Narahari himself did not give any reason as to why he used two names. In his writings both names have been used. The bhanita of Narahari is found in the concluding sloka of every chapter of Bhaktiratnakara and Narottamavilasa, in each pada of the manuscript titled `Gauraparikaraganera sucaka', in the manuscript titled `Navadvipa Parikrama,' and in the beginning and end of `Gitacandrodaya.' However, the name Ghanasyam is found in Sangitasarasamgraha (See Swami Prajnanananda ed. Sangitasara-samgraha of Shri Ghanasyama dasa, Calcutta, Ramakrishna Vedanta Matha, 1956) and in `Paddhatipradipa." Of the 1,581 pada's written by Narahari, about three-fourths are signed Narahari, and one-fourth are signed Ghanasyam. This indicates that both names were fairly popular, although Narahari was more frequently used.
There was considerable controversy regarding the name of Narahari's diksa guru. It appears from the analysis of historical events that the interval between the birth of Shrinivasa Acarya and death of Visvanatha was about 186 years. Narahari was still a child at the time of Visvanatha's disappearance. Thus the possibility that Narahari took diksa from Shrinivasa is out of the question. According to historians, Shrinivasa was born in 1517/18 AD and Visvanatha, the guru of Narahari's father, died in 1704 AD. Secondly, the aged great grandson of Shrinivasa, Radhamohana Thakura, was born about 180 years after the birth of Shrinivasa. Yet nowhere in Radhamohana's word Padamrtasamudra is any pada of Narahari to be found. However, in Gitacandrodaya of Narahari there are two padas composed by Radhamohana. Thus one can conclude that during the period of Radhamohana's compilations, Narahari was not yet established as a poet, or he was rather young in age. Therefore there is no possibility that Narahari could have been a disciple of Shrinivasa.
Dr Dineschandra Sen in Bangabhasa O Sahitya 2nd ed. P. 372 states that Visvanatha Cakravarti was the guru of Narahari. Later this view was upheld by Vaishnava scholars such as Amulyadhan Bhatta, Madhusudana Tattvavacaspati, Harilal Cattopadhyay, Sasibhusan Vidyalankar, etc. However, no evidence was cited to support this view. Historical events show that Narahari was merely a child when Visvanatha died, thus he cannot be held to be the guru of Narahari.
Scholars such as Satiscandra Ray, Harekrishna Mukhopadhyay, Sukumar Sen, etc. have given no opinion on this point. Haridasa Dasa and Bimanbihari Majumdar say that Narahari's guru was Nrsimha Cakravarti (GVA p. 1225, Bharatkos Vol. 4, P. 164). However, no details are given on this matter.
In the manuscript copy of Narottamavilasa, copying date 1264 BS (1857 AD), there is an appendix which gives the guruA parampara of Narahari as follows (The above ms. is from Barahanagar Pathvadi no. 2336.21):
Gopala Bhatta (parsad)
Shrinivasa Acarya (disciple)
Ramacandra Kaviraja (disciple)
Gopikanta (son and disciple)
(disciple and elder brother (grandson and disciple)
of Visvanatha) |
(son and disciple of Manohara) (son and disciple)
(son and disciple of Nandakumar)
No further information is available on Nrsimha Cakravarti, the guru of Narahari. The reason Narahari mentioned the name of Shrinivasa in Bhaktiratnakara could be because the book deals with the biography of Shrinivasa and that Narahari himself belonged to the lineage (sakha) of Shrinivasa.
Not much information is available about the childhood, adolescence, youth or old age of Narahari. However a study of his padavali shows that he was completely detached from worldly life and possessions. He remained unmarried throughout his life and when his parents died he went to live in Vrndavana.
Upon reaching Vrndavana, Narahari went to meet Laksmana dasa. Several devotees, hearing of his arrival, came to meet Narahari. After considering his family status, his purity of character and eagerness for spiritual life, the Vaishnavas there considered Narahari competent to serve Govindaji. However, out of humility, Narahari dared not accept the responsibility. The Vaishnavas, however, particularly Laksmanadasa, insisted that he take charge of the Deity service. Hearing this, Narahari looked downward and started crying. Calling out the names of the Vaishnava Acaryas, he began rolling on the earth in front of Gopesvara. The signs of ecstatic emotions were visible on his body and he fell unconscious on the ground. In that state of unconsciousness, Narahari had darsana of Visvanatha, Nrsimha, his fatherA Jagannatha, many other Vaishnava Acaryas, and Shri Shri Radha Krishna. Upon regaining his senses, the Vaishnavas comforted him, but Narahari continued to dance and weep.
Laksmanadasa brought Narahari to the temple of Govindaji, where all the Vaishnavas offered flowers at the feet of the Deity and sought permission to appoint Narahari in charge of the Deity service. The garland suddenly broke loose from the neck of Radha Govinda and was placed around the neck of Narahari, who was still in a state of ecstatic trance. Narahari was then left in the temple and the other Vaishnavas departed. Narahari swept and washed the temple premises, collected flowers, grass and fuel, but he never accepted the job of a priest despite repeated requests from other priests.
A popular story related to Narahari is stated as follows: One night, during the time when Narahari was serving in the Govindaji temple, Narahari, within his mind, cooked some food for the Deity and offered it to Govindaji. The Lord was very pleased to accept these foodstuffs. That night Govindaji appeared to the King of Jaipur in a dream, giving him a gold vessel containing prasadam, and commanded him to go early the next morning and appoint Narahari as the cook for the Deity. The king acted as commanded and from that time the devotees addressed Narahari as "Rasuiya Pujari" or "Rasuiya Thakura."
Three quarters of Narahari's life was spent in the service of Govindaji. In Vaishnava history, no one served Govindaji for such a long period of time, except Premadasa. At some point in his life Narahari threw away his sacred thread and wore the rags of a destitute. Toward the end of his life Narahari lived only on madhukari in Vrajamandala. It is said that he usually distributed a share of his madhukari amongst the devotees.
A critical analysis of Narahari's works shows that he lived from the last decade of the seventeenth century until about the sixth decade of the eighteenth century.
The following are the chief works of Narahari:
3. Shrinivasa Caritra
Narahari had an extraordinary command over both the theoretical and practical aspects of Indian vocal and instrumental music.
27. NARAHARI DASA:
He was the compiler of the book Advaitavilasa. This biography of Advaita Prabhu is not considered to be completely authentic.
28. NARAHARI SARKARA THAKURA:
He was born in Shrikhanda, four miles west of Katoa in the district of Burdwan. He had two brothers, Shri Mukunda dasa and Shri Madhava dasa. Shri Raghunandana Thakura was the son of Shri Mukunda dasa. (CC. 1.10.78)
Shri Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami described the devotees of Shrikhanda as a big branch of the tree of Mahaprabhu. Shri Narahari Thakura participated in all the pastimes of Shri Chaitanya. Shri Narahari Cakravarti has praised Narahari Sarkara in his Bhaktiratnakara (9.513). Locana dasa was Narahari's disciple and has written about his guru in Chaitanyamangala: "I offer my respects to my spiritual master, Narahari dasa Thakura, who had immense influence upon the Vaidya community. He is always absorbed in ecstatic love for Krishna, and is constantly preaching the glories of the Lord......Madhumati, the favorite sakhi of Shri Radha in Vrndavana, took birth in Kali yuga as Narahari, the associate of Shri Gaurahari."
Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura mentioned Narahari in his description of the sankirtana lila of Shri Gaurasundara, "Narahari fans the Lord with a camara, as Sanjaya, Mukunda, and Vasu Ghosh sing the glories of the Lord."
Shri Narahari Sarkara Thakura was a singer as well as a poet. He composed many songs about the activities of Shri Gaura and Nityananda. He wrote the Sanskrit book Shri Bhajanamrta. Many songs dealing with the pangs of separation written by Narahari can be found in Padakalpataru and other books.
The songs about Gauranga's pastimes composed by Shri Narahari Sarkara Thakura and the songs of Shri Narahari Cakravarti are very similar, thus it is difficult to distinguish which songs were written by who. Before composing the songs about Shri Gauranga, Narahari Sarkara wrote many songs about the divine activities of Lord Krishna.
Narahari Sarkara passed away on the eleventh day of the dark fort-night in the month of Agrahayana (Nov.-Dec.). He composed the following works:
1. Bhakticandrika Patal
2. Shri Krishnabhajanamrta
3. Shri Chaitanyasahasranama
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5. Shri Radhastaka
Padavali's composed by him are uniquely beautiful.
Buchanan Hamilton sates in the Purnea Report pg. 272, that the descendants of Sarkara Thakura had many disciples in the south-east region of Purnea district. (Also see Shrikhandera Pracina Vaishnava by Gauragunananda Thakura)
29. NARAHARI VISARADA:
He was the father of Vasudeva Sarvabhauma. He was a famous scholar of Gauda and was a contemporary of Nilambara Cakravarti. (CC. 2.6.53)
30. NARASIMHA DASA:
He translated Hansaduta into poetry. (Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)
31. NARASIMHA DEVA:
He was the eighth king of Codaganga's royal dynasty (1238-64 AD.). He built the Konarka Temple of the Sun god.
32. NARASIMHA KAVIRAJA:
He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. His Shripata was at Kancanagadia. (Karnananda 1)
33. NARASIMHA NADIAL:
He lived in Shrihatta and was the paternal grandfather of Shri Advaita. He later settled in Ramakeli village in Gauda. Some time afterwards he became a minister of King Ganesa. It was he who advised Ganesa to kill Sultan Sam-ud-din and to occupy the throne of Gauda. (Advaita Prakasa)
34. NARASIMHA RAYA RAJA:
He was a king whose capital was at Pakkapalli or Paik Pada. He and his wife, Rupamala, were initiated by Shri Narottama Thakura. He was also famous by the name of Nrsimha deva. (Premavilasa 19-20, Narottamavilasa 12, Also see `Rupacandra Sarasvati')
The elder paternal grandfather of Shri Sanatana. (Bhaktiratnakara 1.559)
He was the brother of Damodara Pandita. (Vaishnava Vandana, See `Jagannatha')
He belonged to the branch of Nityananda Prabhu and was the brother of Devananda. He was a brahmana from Navadvipa. According to GVA, he was Vaidya by caste. (CBh. 2.8.209, CC. 2.11.75, 1.11.46)
38. NARAYANA BHATTA:
He was a disciple of Shri Krishnadasa brahmacari, who was the disciple of Shri Gadadhara Pandita Gosvami. He was the author of Bhaktirasatarangini, Vrajabhaktivilasa, Vrajadipika, Vrajotsava-candrika, Vrajamohodadhi, Vrajotsavahladini, Vrhad Vrajagunotsava, Vrajaprakasa, Vrajadipika, Bahktabhusana sandarva, Vrajasadhana-candrika, Bhaktiviveka, Sahanadipika, Rasikahladini, Premankura (drama), Ladililala Yugala Paddhati and Ladilesvastaka.
39. NARANAYA BHATTA:
He was the paternal grandfather of Jagadisa Pandita. (Chaitanyamangala of Jayananda 2.20)
40. NARAYANA CAUDHURI:
He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Prabhu. He lived at Jaypura in Goyas Pargana. He installed the Deity of Shri Govinda. (Anuragavalli 7)
41. NARAYANA DASA:
He lived in Shri Vrndavana and may have been a disciple of Shri Advaita. He was with Shri Rupa Gosvami when they secretly went to see Shri Gopala in the house of Vitthalesvara. (CC. 2.18.47,53; 1.12.61)
42. NARAYANA DASA:
He was the disciple of Rasikananda. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.83)
43. NARAYANA DASA:
He was the great-grandson of Shrinivasa and the disciple of Shri Jagadananda prabhu. He translated Muktacarita into poetry around 1624 AD.
44. NARAYANA DASA:
He translated Ujjalanilamoni. (Baranagar Pathvadi ms. no. Anu 1.)
45. NARAYANA DASA KAVIRAJA:
He wrote the tika named Sarvanaga Sundari on Gita Govinda.
46. NARAYANA DASA THAKURA:
He was a great Vaishnava and scholar. He was the father of Shri Mukunda, Madhava and Narahari Sarkara of Shrikhanda. Some believe him to be the commentator of the Gita Govinda.
47. NARAYANA GHOSH:
He was a disciple of Shri Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)
48. NARAYANA GUPTA:
He was a Gaura devotee whose identity is unknown. (Vaishnava Vandana)
49. NARAYANA KAVI:
He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)
50. NARAYANA MANDAL:
He belonged to the family of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Anuragavalli 7)
51. NARAYANA PAIDARI:
He belonged to a subsidiary disciple line of Shri Gadadhara Pandita. (Sakhanirnayamrta 57)
52. NARAYANA PANDITA:
He belonged to the branch of Shri Chaitanya. (CC. 1.10.36)
53. NARAYANA RAYA:
He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)
54. NARAYANA SANYAL:
He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)
55. NARAYANA TIRTHA:
He lived during the 16th century and was from Andhra Pradesh. He is famous for his numerous musical compositions which are celebrated for both their scholarly and musical qualities. His principal work is the Krishnalila Tarangini, a musical composition in the form of what are called the Tarangas. This Sanskrit work consists of twelve cantos and depicts the pastimes of Lord Krishna in His childhood. (An Encyclopedia of South Indian Culture, p. 317)
56. NARAYANA VACASPATI:
He was a brahmana disciple of Shri Chaitanya. In Krishnalila he was Saureseni. According to CCU. P. 655, it is likely that Narayana Paidari, Pandita and Vacaspati are actually the same person. (Gauraganoddesadipika 168, Namamrtasamudra 146)
57. NARAYANI DASI:
She was a brahmana woman and the Dhatrimata (nurse) of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. She was the sister of Shrivasa's wife. In Krishna lila she was Kilimvika. (Chaitanyamangala (J) 2)
58. NARAYANI DASI:
She was the mother of Narottama Thakura. (Narottamavilasa 2, Also see `Narottama Thakura')
59. NARAYANI DEVI:
She was the daughter of Shri Nalina Pandita, elder brother of Shrivasa Pandita. She was the mother of Vrndavana dasa. When he was still in his mother's womb, Narayani devi lost her husband Vaikuntha Bipra. Thus she left the house of her husband in Kumarhatta and came to the house of Shrivasa in Navadvipa. From her childhood, Shri Mahaprabhu showed great affection for Narayani. Mahaprabhu often gave his chewed betel leaf to her, for this reason the devotees addressed her as the `Pikdan' (pot which is used to spit in) of Mahaprabhu.
When Locana dasa completed the Shri Chaitanyamangala, he gave the book to Vrndavana dasa to look at. After reading the portion of the book which describes the Lord's private conversation with Vishnupriya the night before He left to take sannyasa, Vrndavana dasa decided he did not approve of the book. However, Narayani explained to her son that the incident had been rightly described, as the sakhis had pushed Vishnupriya into the room of Mahaprabhu with the purpose of listening to the private talk between Prabhu and Thakurani by standing behind the closed door. Because Narayani devi was one of the sakhis, Vrndavana dasa happily accepted the book.
Narayani devi has not been mentioned separately in Sakhanirnaya or CC. (Premavilasa 23, GGD. 43)
60. NARAYANI DEVI:
She was the wife of Shri Virabhadra Gosvami, son of Nityananda Prabhu. Her father was Shri Yadunandana Acarya and her mother was Shri Laksmi devi. Her sister, Shridevi, was also married to Virabhadra prabhu. Jahnava Mata, wife of Nityananda Prabhu, gave initiation to both her daughter-inA laws.
61. NARAYANI DEVI:
She lived in Vrndavana and was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. Her husband was Shri Ganganarayana Cakravarti and her daughter was Shri Vishnupriya. (Bhaktiratnakara 13.252)
During Mahaprabhu's tour of the South, Naroji came in contact with Him and his character was completely changed.
63. NAROTTAMA DASA ADHIKARI:
He was the disciple of Shri Nityananda dasa babaji. He was the Adhikari of Shri Radhakanta Math of Shrikshetra. After having darsana of Siddha baba, he took refuge at his feet and began learning bhajan. From then on he lived in Vrndavana, and due to his intelligence and good conduct he became the chief of the whole Vrajamandala. Shri Gopaldasa babaji Mahasaya of Bhadavali was like his disciple.
64. NAROTTAMA MAJUMDAR:
He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12).
65. NAROTTAMA THAKURA:
Kayastha by caste, Narottama was the son of King Krishnananda Datta. Krishnananda was the Zamindar of Gopalpur Pargana in the Rajsahi district of Bangladesh. His capital was located at Kheturi, about a mile northeast of Prematali on the bank of the river Padma, about a distance of twelve miles northwest of Rampur Boalia. Narayani devi was Narottama's mother.
Narottama was born about the middle of the fifteenth Saka century (BRK. 1.466-468). From his childhood he was extremely attracted to Lord Chaitanya. According to some, after the death of his father, Narottama entrusted his elder paternal uncle's son, Santos Datta, with the responsibility of the royal duties and left for Vrndavana.
Premavilasa 8 narrates as follows: One day while dancing in kirtana at Kanair Natsala village, Lord Chaitanya suddenly began calling out the name, "Narottama, Narottama." Tears streamed from the Lord's eyes and He appeared to be restless. After speaking with Nityananda Prabhu the Lord expressed His desire to visit Gaderhat on the bank of the Padma. Mahaprabhu explained to Nityananda that he wanted to deposit the treasure of love of Godhead on the bank of the Padma for Narottama to pick up later. The river Padma then asked the Lord how she would be able to identity Narottama, and the Lord explained that the person whose touch would make her surge up would be none other than Narottama.
At the age of twelve Narottama had a dream in which Nityananda Prabhu appeared to him and commanded that he collect the prema which was left in the custody of the river Padma. Early in the morning Narottama went alone to the river Padma to take his bath. As soon as his feet touched her, the river surged forth. Remembering the words of Lord Chaitanya the Padma now transferred the treasure to Narottama.
Upon receiving this divine love Narottama's bodily complexion changed. His parents tried every means by which keep him with them, but Narottama was drunk with the nectar of Lord Chaitanya and Nityananda and could not be kept in check. Leaving behind all worldly bondage Narottama rushed for Vrndavana. Premavilasa 11 explains how Narottama was comforted by the divine touch of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami, and how he received the grace of his spiritual master Lokanatha Gosvami.
After Narottama was initiated by Lokanatha Gosvami, he received all instructions regarding the practice of spiritual life. Narottama was spiritually named Campakamanjari.
With the approval of the local Vaishnavas, Jiva Gosvami deputed Shrinivasa, Narottama and Syamananda to carry the Gosvamis books to the devotees in Gauda. Although they were properly escorted by protected vehicles and guards, the books were stolen near Vanavisnupur. Shrinivasa then sent Narottama to Kheturi and Syamananda to Utkala.
Narottama is widely believed to be the incarnation of Nityananda Prabhu. Narottama established his asrama, named Bhajantuli, about two miles away from the capital of Kheturi. Sometime after his return from Vrndavana, Narottama installed six Deities; Lord Gauranga, Vallavikanta, Lord Krishna, Lord Vrjamohan, Lord Radhmohan and Lord Radhakanta. On the occasion of this installation ceremony Narottama held a grand festival at Kheturi, which is famous amongst all Vaishnavas.
Narottama was the first exponent of the Garanhati tradition of kirtana. He arranged this musical tradition in a way as to accommodate all parsad (associates) of both prakata and aprakata lila of Lord Gauranga, which gave immense pleasure to the audience.
Ramacandra Kaviraja was a very close companion of Narottama throughout his life (See Bhaktiratnakara and Narottamavilasa for details on Narottama's biography.
Among the writings of Narottama, Prarthana and Premabhakticandrika are the most well-known. The brief writeA up titled `Hatapaltana' is also attributed to Narottama but the contents do not seem to be in harmony with historical events and thus some believe that it is a fake work. From evidence in older manuscripts Haridasa dasa has concluded that the real author was one Ramesvar dasa. Some argue that Narottama wrote Siddhabhakticandrika, Sadhyapremabhakti, Camtakar candrika, etc., but these are not published works and the few mss. which are available do not seem to be in Narottama's writing style. Narottama did translate Smaranamangala into Bengali verse. In eleven slokas this work describes the pastimes of Radha Krishna in eight parts of the day (Astakaliya).
See the following Bengali books for further information on Narottama:
1. Narottama dasa O Tahar Racamavali by Niradprasad Nath, Calcutta University, Calcutta.
2. Narottama Dasa by Rammohan Mallik
3. Narottama Thakura Kheturir Nitai by Narendranath Cattopadhyay
4. narottama-lila va Shri Gaura Premavatara by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami
The following is a narration describing the disappearance of Thakura Mahasaya: Narottama Thakura was always engaged in the singing the glories of Shri Gaura and Nityananda. Through his preaching many fallen souls were purified.
After taking permission from Narottama, Shri Ramcandra Kaviraja went to Shri Vrndavana, a few months thereafter he breathed his last. When Shrinivasa Acarya heard this he could not bear the shock and after a few day he too died. When this news reached Shrila Thakura, he was overwhelmed with grief and began singing in a choked voice. He gathered all the devotees around him in the temple of Shri Mahaprabhu and started sankirtana. Slowly the sankirtana party proceeded to the bank of the Ganga. With eyes full of tears, Narottama fell prostrate on the ground and entered into the Ganga to take bath. Sitting knee deep in the water he continued singing loudly, along with Shri Ramakrishna Acarya and Shri Ganganarayana Cakravarti. Narottama requested that they massage his body as he continued singing. As they massaged him, Thakura Mahasaya's body simply merged with the sacred water of the Ganga. Thus on the fifth day of the dark fortnight in the month of Kartika (Oct.-Nov.) he entered into the eternal pastimes of the Lord.
66. NARTAK GOPALA:
He was a brahmana belonging to the branch of Nityananda Prabhu. (Narottamavilasa)
67. NASIR MAMUD:
He was a Muslim Vaishnava poet. Pada no. 1339 in Padakalpataru is his composition.
He was a composer of padas. Pada no. 1366 on Danalila and no. 2250 on Lord Gauranga in Padakalpataru are his compositions.
A redactor of the tenth century in the field of Tamil literature. He collected the scattered literature of the Alwars, thereby preserving the devotional literature in Tamil pertaining to Vaisnavism. This literature was written in the four preceding centuries.
He is usually considered to be the link between the Alwars and Acaryas in the Shri Vaishnava tradition--Nathamuni himself being the first Acarya. After traveling widely in Tamilnadu he collected all the available hymns of the Alwars and compiled them into four volumes. He was the first among the great preceptors in the Visistadvaita tradition. He was also known as Ranganatha Muni. He wrote the Yogarahasya and Nyaya tattva, which are referred to in numerous philosophical works of later periods.
He was a composer of padas. Three padas composed by him on Gostholila have been included in Padakalpataru.
71. NAVADA SRIGARBHA:
He lived in Navadvipa and was a favorite of Shri Nityananda Prabhu. (Chaitanyamangala (J))
72. NAVADVIPA CANDRA DASA:
He was a composer of padas. Pada no. 2961 in Padakalpataru dealing with namasankirtana is his composition.
73. NAVADVIPA CANDRA DASA:
He was born in East Bengal. Once a female Vaishnava told Navadvipa Candra about Radharamanacarana dasa babaji, who was living near the hermitage of Shri Nrsimha deva in Navadvipa. Thus Navadvipa Candra went to have darsana of Radharamana. Immediately upon meeting they developed a great love for each other. They happily embraced and from that day on they were inseparable.
Navadvipa Candra was the embodiment of humility, and through his preaching many fallen souls were delivered. He was so close to his guru that he was able to perceive the inner thoughts of Radharamana very easily. Being advised by Radharamana, Navadvipa dasa went to Shri Vrndavana and in 1902 AD. he departed from this world remembering the lotus feet of his guru Shri Radharamana deva.
74. NAVADVIPA CANDRA GOSVAMI VIDYARATNA:
He was a pandita belonging to the family of Shri Nityananda Prabhu. He was the author of Vaishnavacara Darpana, Vaishnava Vratadinanirnaya and Arunodaya-Vedhe-Janmasthami Parityagera Vidhi. In 1867 AD. he was requested by the Asiatic Society of Bengal to edit the book Sankaracharya Vijaya. Because of his retirement, he was only able to correct thirty-three chapters and then handed over the work to Jaynarayana Tarkapancanana. For those who are unable to understand the Sanskrit language, he described the Vaidhi and Raganuga marga in simple Bengali language. His descendants are still sincerely serving the Deity of Sonar Gauranga and other Deities existing in the house of Shrivasa in Navadvipa.
He was a composer of padas. Pada no. 1453 in Padakalpataru written in Vrajbuli and dealing with Holi, is his composition.
76. NAVAKISOR GOSVAMIPADA:
His biography is with Locanananda Gosvamipada (See under `L')
77. NAVA GAURANGA DASA:
He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)
78. NAVANI HODA:
He belonged to the branch of Shri Nityananda Prabhu. (CC. 1.11.50)
79. NAYANA BHASKARA:
He was a sculptor from Halisahara. Shrimati Jahnava devi ordered him to carve a Deity of Shri Radha for Shri Shri Gopinatha in Vrndavana. (BRK. 10.321, 11.244-245, 11.788)
80. NAYANA BHASKARA:
He was a disciple of Shri Syamananda prabhu. (Premavilasa 20)
81. NAYANA SEN:
A Vaishnava from Shrikhanda, he met Shrinivasa Acarya when the latter went to Shrikhanda to meet Narahari Sarkara. (Premavilasa 4)
82. NAYANANANDA KAVIRAJA:
He was a Vaidya from Shrikhanda, a famous composer of padas and the disciple of Shri Raghunandana Thakura. His unpublished book, Akincana Sarvasva, contains many stories about Shrila Sarkara Thakura. However, some think thatt this book was written by Vrndavana dasa. (See Shrikhanolera Pracina Vaishnava P. 229)
83. NAYANANANDA THAKURA:
He was the third generation descendent of Panua Gopala of Mangaladihi in the district of Birbhuma. In 1652 Saka he glorified the village of Mangaladihi by writing Shri Krishnabhaktirasa Kadamba, which is based on Shri Rupa Gosvami's Bhaktirasamrta Sindhu, and by writing Preyabhaktirasanava in 1653 Saka.
84. NAYANANANDA THAKURA/MISRA:
Shri Vaninatha Misra was the youngest brother of Shri Gadadhara Pandita, and Shri Nayanananda Thakura was the son of Shri Vaninatha Misra and was a favorite disciple of Gadadhara Pandita. He was married and his descendents are still living in the village of Bhuratpura near Kandi in the district of Mursidabad. The Deity of Shri Radha Gopinatha, installed by Shri Gadadhara Pandita still exists in Bharatpura illage. When Gadadhara Pandita left for Puri, Nayanananda took charge of serving the Deity. Another name of Shri Nayanananda Thakura was Dhruvananda and in CC 1.12.80, he is referred to as Misra Nayana.
In Navadvipa when Shri Gaura and Gadadhara were absorbed in the ecstasy of sankirtana, Shri Dhruvananda would immediately write down exactly what he heard from them. Being pleased with him, Shri Gauranga and Gadadhara bestowed upon him the name Nayanananda. This incident is described in Padasamudra. When Mahaprabhu proceeded to Nilacala, He engaged Shri Nayanananda in serving the Deity at Bharatpura.
Shri Nayanananda participated in the great festival at Kheturi which was arranged by Shri Narottama and Shrinivasa Acarya. Shri Nayanananda was a great poet, but no book of his compositions has been found. A few of his compositions can be found in Padakalpataru. He was Nityamanjari in Krishna lila. The Gosvamis of Bharatpura show two verses in Chaitanya's handwriting in a manuscript of the Gita. (GGD 196, 207, Sakhanirnayamrta 10.
85. NILAKANTHA SURI:
He was a famous commentator on the Mahabharata. In his Harivamsatika he established the Vedic antiquity of Krishna lila by inserting Radha Krishna mantra in a uniquely scholarly manner.
He lived in Nilacala and belonged to the sakha of Shri Chaitanya. It may be that Raghu is part of his name as in CC. 1.10.148, he is referred to as Raghu Nilambara.
According to BMO p. 87, Raghu and Nilambar were most likely two different persons. In Oriya literature one Nilambara Dasa is found as the author of Padmapurana. He was alive during the sixteenth century. Raghu is possibly the same as the well-known devotee, Raghu Arakhita.
Raghu was Benagali by origin. He was an associate of the Pancasakhas and was famous for his composition of a number of poems and gitas. In his short poems Raghu describes the pastimes of Lord Krishna with great love and devotion. (See K.N. Mahapatra Khurdha Itihas P. 57-58)
He was the disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.142)
88. NILAMBARA CAKRAVARTI:
He was the father of Saci Mata. He came from Shrihatta to settle in Velpukhuria of Navadvipa. He prepared his grandson, Mahaprabhu's, horoscope. He was Garga Muni and Sumukha Gopa in Krishna lila. (GGD. 104-105)
89. NILAMANI MUKHUTI:
He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. Prior to meet Narottama, he was a dacoit in the gang of Cand Roy. By the mercy of Narottama he later became a great Vaishnava. (Premavilasa 19)
90. NILASYAMA DASA:
He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.158)
91. NIMAI KAVIRAJA:
He was the disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya and lived in Birbhum. He had three brother namely Bhagavana, Rupa and Virabhaumalaya. (Anuragavalli 7, BRK. 10.138, Karnananda 1)
92. NIMANANDA DASA:
He was a composer and compiler of padas. He compiled 2,700 padas in a book named Padarasasara, 246 of his own compositions are also included.
93. NIMANANDA DASA:
He translated Shri Gaurangastava Kalpataru by Shri Dasa Gosvami into Bengali verse. (See Barangar Pathvadi mes. no. Anu 12 kha)
Exponent of the philosophy of Dvaitadvaita, Nimbarka is on eof the foremost commentators of the Brahma Sutra. His commentary is known as Vedanta Parijata Sourabha. He argues that the primordial concept in the matter of reality is that of the Brahmana and that the individual soul (atma) and matter (prakrti) have no independent existence of their own. They are however different from the Brahman and have an end. Krishna, Hari and other names of the Lord are all indicative of the Brahman, according to this theory. Hriling from Andra Pradesh, he belonged to the post-sankara period and is also the author of another work titled Dasasloki. (An Encyclopedia of South Indian Culture, PP. 324-325)
95. NIMU GOPA:
He was the disciple of Shri Syamananda of Shripata at Dharenda. (Premavilasa 20)
He was the disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.137)
97. NIRLOMA GANGADASA:
He was a resident of Puri and belonged to the branch of Shri Chaitanya. (CC. 1.10.151)
He was Halayudha in Krishnalila. Shri Jiva states that Nityananda was a disicple of Sankarsana Puri who was a disciple of Madhavendra Puri. But Bhaktiratnakara states that Nityananda took diksa from Laksipati who was the guru of Madhavendra Puri. If this were the case then Nityanand would have been the great-guru of Chaitanya and a friendly relationship could not have existed between the two. According to CBh. Madhavendra dealth with Nityananda as a friend, while the latter showed guru-like reverence to the former.
After personally carrying out an investigation, Buchanan Hamilton has recorded a brief history of Nityananda's family in the Purnea Report.
Nityananda Prabhu wa born on the thriteenth day of the bright fortnight of Magha (Feb.-March) in the village of Ekacakra in the district of Birbhum in 1395 Saka (1473 AD). His father was Hadai Pandita (Hado Ojha) and his mother was Padmavati. His paternal grandfather, Sundaramalla Nakadi Baduri was a brahmana of the Radha clan.
Nityaanda's past name was Kuvera and He was an avadhuta. According to Premavilasa 24, Nityananda was a disciple of Isvarapuri, although some think that He was a disicple of Madhavendra Puri. He was Isa prakasa (CC. 1.1.7-11), the cherished goal of the Gaudiyas (CC. 1.1.18-19), and is depicted as the trunk of the tree of bhakti (CC. 1.9.21, 1.10.115)
His childhood sports up to twelve years of age are described in CBh. 1.9.12-99; His pilgrimage tours up to twenty years of ages in CBh. 1.9.100-136; His arrival in Navadvipa at the house of Nandana Acarya and his meeting Lord Chaitanya is described in CBh. 2.3.120-2.4.76.
The following are the references in CBh. to His pastimes:
Vyasapuja of Nityananda
Seeing the six-armed form of the Lord
Advaita Prabhu's arrival from Santipura and meeting Nityananda Prabhu.
His stay at the house of Shrivasa in the mood of affection shown by Malini.
Fun made at the house of Mother Saci while partaking of food.
Presence during the abhisekha of Lord Gauranga
Distribution of water sanctified by the touch of Nityananda's feet.
Liberation of Jagai and Madhai.
During the enactment of a drama
Sprots at Nadia
Accompanying Lord Chaitanya during a visit paid to the house of a dari sannyasi.
Holding the umbrella during the Mahaprakasa-lila
Participating in sankirtana performed on the street.
Witnessing the manifestation of the Visvarupa
15. 2.26.123-156, 2.27.25-35, 2.28.7-14, 104,142,183-194
In the context of sannyasa
16. 3.1.133, 3.2.119
Arrival at Santipura along with Mother Saci via Navadvipa
Breaks the staff of Lord Chaitanya
At Jagannatha Puri
Confidential consultation with Lord Chaitanya and Nityananda's departure for Gauda.
Arrival at Panihati, state of ecstasy, dancing
Ceremony of holy anointation; wearing a garland of Kadamba flowers.
During the enactment of Danalila
Sports at Saptagram
At Navadvipa in the presence of Mother Saci
Liberation of thieves and dacoits
During lila-vilasa removes doubts which crept into the mind of a brahmana.
Arrival at Nilacala and the subject of having bhiksa at Gadadhara's temple
Water sports at Narendra Sarovara lake.
The following are references to Lord Nityananda in CC.:
Listens to the account of Madhavendra narrated by Lord Chaitanya.
Holy discourses on Saksigopala
Appearance of Lord Chaitanya during dancing performed by Nityananda Prabhu
Reaction at the behaviour of Ramacandra Khan
Participation during the Danda-mahotsava of Raghunatha Dasa
Mercy showered on Sivananada Sen on the way to Nilacala
Premavilasa narrates the following information relating to Nityananda Prabhu: marriage of Nityananda; settled life at Khardah with Vasudha-Jahnava; death of seven sons soon after birth when Abhirama conveyed his humble obeisances to each; birth of Viracandra and Ganga later; both stayed alive and healthy depite Abhirama's offering of humble obeisances; hymns sung by Abhirama in praise of Ganga devi.
Nityananda tattva: Mahasankarsana, Sesa, etc. (GGD 63-64). Sandhini-sakti; inward descendence of Anangamanjari (Anangamanjari Samputika), in the form of Prakrti indirectly and in the form of Purusa directly. See (1) Dharanisesa Sanvad in Brahmanda Purana of Vrndavana dasa Thakura, (2) Aisaryamrtakavya and (3) Rasakalpasara tattva.
Nityananda mantra: See Brahmanda Purana and Dhyanacandra Gosvami's Paddhati (56-57).
Dhyana and Gayatri dealing with Nityananda: See Paddhati (as above) 50, 72. Nityananda Astaka composed by (1) Sarvabhaumma and (2) Vrndavana dasa Thakura; Nama dvadasaka on Nityananda composed by Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya; Astottarasatanama (108 names) of Nityananda (1) in Brahmanda Purana and (2) by Sarvabhauma.
The following are some primary works on Nityananda Prabhu:
1. Nityanandoprabhoraisvaryamrtakavyam, Baranagar Pathvadi (Calcutta manuscript no. BA. copying date is 1260 BS (1853 AD). This Sanskrit text consisting of 128 slokas is said to have been written by Vrndavana dasa Thakura. The ms. deals with descriptions of various aisarya and madhurya of Nityananda Prabhu, as well as a note on His true nature (prakrti-svarupa). Another manuscript with similar contents titled Rasakalpasaratattva is also attributed to Vrndavana dasa and is available at Pathvadi collection ms. no. B 46.
2. Nityananada Vamsavistar, by Vrndvana dasa Thakura. The contents are as follows: Avatarhood of Viracandra; revelation of Viracandra; geneology of Viracandra; Jahnava's pilgrimate to Vrndavana, in two parts-a total of six sections.
Nityananda Bhasya: This was written by Ramrayaji, a disciple of Nityananda. It forms a commentary to Siksastaka.
99. NITYANANDA ADHIKARI:
He was a commentator on the slokas of CC. Commanded byhis guru, King Purusottamadeva, he composed the tika titled Gaurabhaktiavinodini (Madras Govt. mss. 3013).
100. NITYANANDA CAUDHURI:
A resident of Shrikhanda who belonged to the lineage of Narahari Sarkara. He was the son of Cakrapani.
101. NITYANANDA DASA:
He was he son of Abhirama, who belonged to a royal family of poets of Shrikhanda in 1537 AD. The former name of Nityananda was Balarama. He lost his parents when he was a child and was brought up by Jahnava Mata, and was later initiated by her. He wrote Premavilasa and Vircandra-carita (but the second book has not yet been published. He also wrote Rasakalpasara, Gauragastaka, Krishnalilamrta and Hatayandana.
102. NITYANANDA DASA:
He was a brahmana and the son of Shri Vamsivadana. Chaitanya dasa was his brother. (See `Vamsivadana')
103. NITYANANDA DASA:
He was a Vaidya and the brother of Shri Jagadananda. (See `Jagadananda')
104. NITYANANDA DASA:
He was a disciple of Shri Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)
105. NITYANANDA DASA (SADHU):
He was born in Kalutola of Calcutta. His former name was Pulisabihari Malika. In 1896 AD, Shri Radharamanacarana deva and his sankirtana party paid a surprise visit to Nityananda's house and captivated him and his entire family. Being ordered by his guru, Nityananda established Shri Radharamana Sevasrama and Matrimandira in Navadvipa in 1911 AD. Observing his great enthusiasm for service, the title of Sadhu was conferred upon him. He was a great friend to those who were down trodden or alone in the world. His love for all and his humble disposition relieved the hearts of many. In 1913 AD. a severe epidemic of cholera broke out in the village of Navadvipa during the time of the Dhulata festival. Nityananda continuously helped those who were afflicted. For this reason he also became a visctim of the disease and died performing Harinama.
106. NITYANANDA DASA BABA:
The second disciple of Siddha Shri Krishna dasa babaji, Shri Nityananda dasa was a scion of Shri Gadadhara Pandita Gosvamipada. He was born in a Radhiya brahmana family and gave himself to the lotus feet of Siddha baba. He addressed Shri Balarama dasa baba as his elder brother. Nityananda dasa performed bhajan at the Shri Madana mohana Thaura, and his asana still remains there. Many Vaishnavas learned how to perform bhajan from him. Shri Ramakrishna dasa Pandita Maharaja was his mantra-sisya. Shri Gaurasiromani Mahasaya was also initiated by him.
Throughout his entire life he was extremely renounced and was unique amongst the raganuga siddhas. He memorized the entire Shri Govindalilamrta. Whether waking or sleeping he remained always absorbed in spiritual consciousness. Simply by seeing him one would spontaneously begin uttering the name of Krishna, and whenever anyone came to him with a problem, the solution would arise within their minds before they had even asked the question. This supernatural power was observed by many Vaishnavas of that time and this power was also seen in his disciple Shri Ramakrishna Pandita babaji. Shri Nityananda was a truly humble Vaishnava, before anyone could do pranam's to him, he always offered his respects first. Among his disciples the leading ones were Shri Gaura dasa, Shri Ramakrishna dasa Pandita babaji, Shri Narottama dasa Adhikari and Shri Gaurakisora dasa baba of Ranicara in Navadvipa.
107. NITYANANDA DASA BABAJI:
He lived with his guru in Shri Vrndavana. After studying Shri Harinamamrta, he took lessons in Shrimad Bhagavatam and other books from Shrila Madhusudana Gosvami, the priest of Shri Radharamana. Since his guru was more than 100 years old, Nityananda took personal care of all his needs, along with two other maid-servants. One night when Nityananda was about 25 years old, he became disturbed and decided to approach one of the woman's rooms, along the way he fell into a big hold and could not get up. After three days someone took him out and recommended that he perform namasankirtana. Thus Nityananda went to the bank of Manasa Ganga and began chanting the holy name wholeheartedly.
After a few days Nityananda's guru held a great festival and invited all the aged Vaishnavas and Bhajananandi's, requesting them to bless Shri Nityananda. He then ordered Nityananda to go to Govardhana and do bhajan. One day on his way around Giriraja, Shri Advaita dasa babaji heard the sweet voice of Nityananda doing sankirtana. He stayed in a hut near Nityananda's for 5/7 days and saw him doing nothing but bhajan. Shri Advaita could not understand when Nityananda did his madhukari, performed his daily rituals, or took bath.
Nityananda happily engaged in sankirtana there for sometime until one day a babaji came and said that at midnight that evening Nityananda's guru would leave this world and that his guru had asked that Nityananda come to see him. Nityananda, however, did not believe him and at midnight his bhajan suddenly stopped automatically and be felt miserable. He immediately ran to his guru's asrama and found that his guru had departed from this world.
Nityananda began roaming about like a madman. Eventually he asked some Mahantas would he should do and they replied, "You did not come to the asana of your guru when he called, so now you must go to a secluded place and put an asana on the name of you guru and everyday pray there, hoping that your guru will come to the asana."
For one year Nityananda practised as directed and one day his guru appeared on the seat. When Nityananda put his head on his guru's fett, he said, "Oh my dear son, why didn't you come on that day, now I cannot do anything for you." Saying this he vanished.
From that day onwards Nityananda remained completely silent, and chanted one lakh nama daily and slept for only two hours at night. He pronounced the syllables of the holy name very dstinctly, sweetly and loudly. The last five years of his life were spent at Govardhana near Govinda kunda. Before his disappearance he told Shri Advaita dasa babaji, "My gurdeva appeared and told me that I have to suffer for another year." That very year in the month of Kartika (Oct-Nov) before Niyama seva, he took leave of Shri Advaita dasa and went to the bank of the Manasa Ganga and departed from this world on Rasa Purnima day.
108. NIVARANA VIDYAVAGISA:
He was the court pandita of King Narasimha of Pakkapalli and was the disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 19)
He was a brahmana from Navadvipa. His name has been mentioned in Chaitanyacandrodayanatakam 8.33 of Karnapura.
110. NRSIMHA BHADUDI:
He was the father of Sita devi, wife of Advaita Prabhu. He was Himalaya in Krishnalila. (Premavilasa 24)
111. NRSIMHA CAITANYA/DASA:
He belonged to the sakha of Nityananda Prabhu. He went to the Kheturi festival with Jahnava Mata and got the responsibility of offering garlands and sadal paste to all the devotees. According to "Sivalamangala" he was the brother of Gaurdasa Pandita. (Bhaktiratnakara 10.519)
112. NRSIMHA CAKRAVARTI:
He was the son of Shri Ramanidhi, who belonged to the family of of Shri Harirama Acarya. He was the diksa guru of Shri Narhari-Ghanasyama. (Narottamavilasa 13)
113. NRSIMHA CIDANANDA TIRTHA:
He was Jayanteya in his past incarnation.
114. NRSIMHA DASA BABA:
He was one of the famous disciples of Siddha Nityananda dasa babaji Maharaja. He was a Telegu brahmana teacher of the six systems of Indian philosophy and was a great scholar. He was an accomplished vina player and an excellant singer of Samaveda songs. He had a voice like a Gandharva. One day Shri Govindaji ordered him in a dream, "I want to listen to Sama songs from you. Immediately come to Vrndavana and take initiation from Shri Nityananda dasa babaji." Thus Nrsimhadasa went to Vrndavana leaving everything behind. When he heard that Govindaji was in Jaipu, he went to Jaipur. Impressed by his songs, Shri Ramasimha, the king of Jaipur, and Shri Kisorimohana Gosvami, the priest of Shri Govinda, insisted that Nrsimha stay in Jaipur. For this reason he is unknown in Vrndavana. Pandita Shri Ramakrishna dasa babaji learned the Veda from him and after hearing about Shri Nityananda das from Nrsimha, he later submitted himself to Nityananda dasa.
115. NRSIMHA DEVA:
His two padas have been included in Padakalpataru.
116. NRSIMHA KAVIRAJA:
He was the disciple of Shrinivasa and lived at Kancanagadia in Bharatpura. He was one of the eight Kavirajas. He was a great poet, as was his brother, Narayana. (Bhaktiratnakara 10.136, Narottamavilasa 6)
117. NRSIMHA PURI:
He was a sannyasi companion of Lord Chaitanya. (Namamrtasamudra)
118. NRSIMHA TIRTHA:
He was the disciple of Madhavendra Puri and was Jayanteya in Krishnalila. He was one of the sannyasi companions of Lord Chaitanya. (GGD. 98-100, CC. 1l9.14)
119. NRSIMHA YATI:
Jayananda mentioned his name in his CM. p. 88.
120. NRSIMHANANDA BRAHMACARI/BHARATI:
His original name was Pradyumna. The name Nrsimhananda was given to him by Lord Chaitanya. Once Mahaprabhu told the nephew of Sivananda Sen, Shrikanta, "Forbid the Gaudiya devotees from coming to Puri this year as I shal be going to Gauda in Pausa (Dec-Jan)." The devotees were mad with joy. However, when Pausa arrived the did not come and the devotees sank into the depths of despair. However, Nrsimhananda pacified them saying, "Don't worry I will bring Prabhu here within three days." Saying this he sat down in mediatation for three days and nights. On the third day he said, "I have brought the Lord here. He has just reached the house of Raghava Pandita. Tomorrow he will arrive here. You must all arrange for His bhoga." Sivananda arranged everything and Brahmacari cooked soup, pitha, kshira and other items. He sat down in meditation and offered the bhoga to Shri Chaitanya, Jagannatha and his own Deity, Shri Nrsimhadeva. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu appeared there and ate all the food offered to the three Deities. Seeing this Nrsimha said, "You and Shri Jagannath are the same, but why did you take the food offered to Nrsimha deva? Now my Lord will have to go without food." Brahmacari was overwhelmed with ecstacy and continously cried out, "Alas! Alas." After accepting the bhoga Mahaprabhu went to the house of Shri Raghava to take rest. Sivananda could not believe this story when he heard it, but one year later Mahaprabhu told this tory to His devotees in Nilacala. Then Sivananda and the other devotees accepted it as fact. (CC. 1.10.35, 3.2.51, 3.2.78, 2.1.155-162; GGD. 74)
121. NRSIMHANANDA THAKURA:
He belonged to the family of Shri Raghunandana of Shrikhanda. He was a contemporary poet of Shri Jagadananda. He composed many padas on Shri Gaurakrishna. The periodical Gaurangamadhuri Vol. 3, p. 332-337 has published Nrsimhananda's compositions, 32 padas on Lord Gauranga and 15 on Lord Krishna.
122. NRSIMHAVALLABHA MITRA THAKURA:
Kalicarana Mitra lived at Rajura village near Kandra village, which was situated west of Katoa. He had no issue and thus took shelter under Shri Mangal Thakura, a disciple of Gadadhara Pandita, and received a son named Nrsimhavallava as a boon. At the age of sixteen, Nrsimhavallabha took initiation from Mangala Thakura and installed the Deity of Mahaprabhu in Mayanadal village. He was an accomplished kirtana singer and because the tunes he sang where very pleasing to the people of Manoharasahi pargana, then became known as Manohara Sahi.
Whatever he begged from others he offered to the Deity of Shri Gaura. One day a Muslim offered some pulses and the son of Nrsimha refused to accept them, but later he was ordered in a dream to accept the offering. From that time once in a year the bhoga is prepared with only those type of pulses.
Nrsimhavallabha's son was Hare Krishna Siddhapurusa. Many well-known kirtana singers and mrdanga players came from this family.
He was the disciple of Syamananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Daksina 1.94)
Every year he went to Nilacala to meet Lord Chaitanya. CCn refers to another Nyayacarya. (Chaitanyacandrodayanatakam 9.3)