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S.L.No.                                      NAME                                        SOURCE

 

 

 1.      ADDHA                                                                             VISVAKOS

 2.      JAGACHANDRA GHOSH                                                      GVA

 3.      JAGADANANDA DASA BABAJI MAHASAYA                      GVJ

 4.      JAGADANANDA GHOSH                                                       GVA

 5.      JAGADANANDA PANDITA (JAGADANANDA)         GVA,CCU,VISVAKOS

 6.      JAGADANANDA THAKURA                                           GVA

 7.      JAGADANANDA THAKURA                                           GVA

 8.      JAGADANANDA THAKURA                                           GVA

 9.      JAGADANANDA THAKURA                                           GVA

10.     JAGADEVA PRAMARA                                                 VISVAKOS

11.     JAGADISA ACARYA                                                             GVA

12.     JAGADISA DASA BABAJI MAHASAYA                                      GVJ

13.     JAGADISA BHATTA RAYA                                                     GVA

14.     JAGADISA BRAHMANA                                                        GVA

15.     JAGADISA KAVIRAJA                                                 GVA

16.     JAGADISA MISRA                                                               GVA

17.     JAGADISA PANDITA                                                            GVA

18.     JAGADISA PANDITA                                                            GVA,CCU

19.     JAGADISA RAYA                                                                 GVA

20.     JAGADISVARA                                                          GVA

21.     JAGADISA TARKALANKARA                                         VISVAKOS

22.     JAGADVANDHU BHADRA                                                      GVA

23.     JAGADVANDHU (PRABHU) SUNDARA                                      GVA,GVJ

24.     JAGAI                                                                     GVA,GPC,GVJ,VISVA

25.     JAGAI LEKHAKA                                                                 CCU

26.     JAGAJIVANA MISRA                                                  GVA,VISVAKOS

27.     JAGADANANDA                                                                  VISVAKOS

28.     JAGAMOHANA                                                                   GVA

29.     JAGANMOHINI                                                                   GVA

30.     JAGANMOHANI SAMPRADAYA                                               VISVAKOS

31.     JAGANNATHA (MAMU THAKURA)                                 GVA,CCU

32.     JAGANNATHA                                                           GVA

33.     JAGANNATHA                                                           GVA

34.     JAGANNATHA                                                           GVA

35.     JAGANNATHA                                                           GVA

36.     JAGANNATHA                                                           GVA

37.     JAGANNATHA ACARYA                                                        GVA

38.     JAGANNATHA ACARYA                                                        GVA

39.     JAGANNATHA CAKRAVARTI                                        GVA

40.     JAGANNATHA DASA (SRI GALIM)                                GVA,CCU

41.     JAGANNATHA DASA (KASTHAKATA)                                       GVA,CCU

42.     JAGANNATHA DASA (PATHARA HAJANGA)                     GVA

43.     JAGANNATHA DASA                                                  GVA

44.     JAGANNATHA DASA (ATIVADI JAGANNATHA)                          GVA

45.     (ODIYA)JAGANNATHA DASA                                       GVA

46.     JAGANNATHA DASA                                                  GVA

47.     JAGANNATHADASA BABAJI SIDDHA                             GVJ,GPC

48.     JAGANNATHA DASA BABAJI (VARSANA)                                 GVJ

49.     JAGANNATHA GHOSH                                                         GVA

50.     JAGANNATHA GAJAPATI NARAYANA DEVA                    VISVAKOS

51.     JAGANNATHA KARA                                                  GVA,CCU

52.     JAGANNATHA MAHATI                                                        GVA,CCU

53.     JAGANNATHA MISRA (PURANDARA)                             GVA,CCU,VISVAKOS

54.     JAGANNATHA MISRA                                                 GVA

55.     JAGANNATHA MISRA                                                 GVA

56.     JAGANNATHA PANDITA                                                       CCU

57.     JAGANNATHA PADICHA                                                       GVA

58.     JAGANNATHA PATHAKA                                                       VISVAKOS

59.     JAGANNATHA PATTANAYAKA                                               GVA

60.     JAGANNATHA SASTRI                                                         VISVAKOS

61.     JAGANNATHA SENA                                                   GVA

62.     JAGANNATHA THANESVARI                                        GVA

63.     JAGANNATHA TIRTHA                                                         GVA,CCU

64.     JAGATA RAYA                                                          GVA

65.     JAGATA SIMHA                                                                  GVA

66.     JAGATESVARA                                                                   GVA

67.     JAGU                                                                                GVA

68.     JAHNAVADEVI (MATA)                                                        GVA,CCU,GPC

69.     JAHNAVA DEVI                                                                  GVA

70.     JAHNAVA DEVI                                                                  GVA

71.     JALADHARA PANDITA                                                         GVA

72.     JALESVARA                                                                       GVA

73.     JALIA                                                                               GVA

74.     JANAKI                                                                             GVA

75.     JANAKINATHA                                                                   GVA,CCU

76.     JANAKIVALLABHA CAUDHURI                                               GVA

77.     JANAKI VISVASA                                                                GVA

78.     JANAKIRAMA DASA                                                             GVA

79.     JANMEJAYA MITRA                                                             GVA

80.     JANANANDA CAUDHURI                                                      GVA

81.     JANARDANA                                                                      GVA,CCU

82.     JANARDANA DASA                                                              GVA,CCU

83.     JANARDANA DASA RAYA                                                      GVA

84.     JANARDANA MISRA                                                            GVA

85.     JANARDANA MISRA                                                            GVA

86.     JANARDANA VIPRA                                                             GVA

87.     JANU RAYA                                                                       GVA

88.     JANGLIPRIYADASI (JANGLI)                                       GVA,CCU

89.     JAYADEVA                                                               GVA,VISVAKOS,GPC

90.     JAYADEVA DASA                                                                GVA

91.     JAYADEVA DASA                                                                GVA

92.     JAYADURGA DEVI                                                               GVA

93.     JAYAGOPALA                                                           GVA

94.     JAYAGOPALA DATTA                                                 GVA

95.     JAYAGOPALA DASA                                                             GVA

96.     JAYAGOPALA DASA                                                             GVA,VISVAKOS

97.     JAYAGOPALA TARKALANKARA                                              VISVAKOS

98.     JAYAGOVINDA VASU CAUDHURI                                           GVA

99.     JAYAKRSNA                                                                       VISVAKOS

100.    JAYAKRSNA                                                                       VISVAKOS

101.    JAYAKRSNA                                                                       VISVAKOS

102.    JAYAKRSNA ACARYA                                                 GVA

103.    JAYAKRSNADASA BABAJI                                                     GVJ

104.    JAYARAMA                                                                        VISVAKOS

105.    JAYARAMA                                                                        VISVAKOS

106.    JAYARAMA CAKRAVARTI                                                      GVA

107.    JAYARAMA CAKRAVARTI                                                      GVA

108.    JAYARAMA CAUDHURI                                                        GVA

109.    JAYARAMA DASA                                                                GVA

110.    JAYARAMA TARKALANKARA                                        VISVAKOS

111.    JAYARAMA TARKAVAGISA                                                    VISVAKOS

112.    JAYATIRTHA                                                                     ISVAKOS

113.    JHADU THAKURA                                                               GVA

114.    JITA MITRA                                                                      GVA,CCU

115.    JIODA NRSIMHA BARAT                                                      GVJ

116.    JIVA (JIVA PANDITA)                                                          GVA

117.    JIVA DASA                                                                        GVA

118.    JIVA GOSVAMI                                                         GVA,CCU,VISVAKOS

119.    JIVANA                                                                             GVA

120.    JIVANA CAKRAVARTI                                                 GVA

121.    JNANADASA                                                                      GVA,VISVAKOS

122.    JNANADEVA                                                                      VISVAKOS

123.    JNANAVALLABHA DASA                                                       GVA

 

 

 

 

1.       JADDHA:

 

          A resident of Gauda, Jaddha was a scholar in Sanskrit. Around the later part of the tenth century, Jaddha worked as a clerk under the ruler of the Bhota Estate.  (Visvakos p.623)

 

2.       JAGACHANDRA GHOSH:

 

          He was born in 1775 AD. (Nov-Dec) at Panchthupi village in the district of Mursidavad.  He became proficient in both Bengali and Persian languages.  He regularly practiced his daily prescribed prayers, chanted japa, performed tapasya, and studied the CC. and other holy Vaishnava books.  Financial difficulties forced him to take a job as a Munsi for a short period, but even then he attended to his daily rituals without fail.  He had great faith in prasada and would not discard any part of it.  He would chew on even the stone of a hog-plum or chilies if it was given to him as prasada. 

 

          He was also very fond of chanting the holy name.  Once, while on his way to see his critically ill son, he came across a group of kirtaniyas chanting Harinama.  Forgetting all about his sick son, Jagacchandra joined the group to take part in the kirtana.  He was so particular about his religious practices that he left home on the night of his daughter's marriage in order to observe the vow of Harivasara in a neighboring village and returned home the next morning.

 

          In 1853 AD. he went to Vrndavana where he accepted vekashrita under Krishnadasa babaji and came to be known as Jayakrishna dasa.  He lived in Vrndavana for twenty years sustaining himself on madhukari.  When, due to old age, he was no longer able to go out on madhukari he received his prasada at Madhumangalakunja, where he was addressed as "Budababa". He passed away in 1871 AD.

 

3.       JAGADANANDA DASA BABAJI MAHASAYA:

 

          It is likely that he was born in a brahmana family in the district of Faridpur (Bangladesh).  At the age of 18 or 19 years he received bheka from Bhagavandasa Babaji, the mahanta of an akhada in the village of Samadia in the same district. Although the extent of his education is unknown, it has been said that a pandita like him had no equal in the Vaishnava community during that time.

 

          It is generally seen that the mannerisms and customs of those devotees who derive their pleasure from the study and discussion of sastra are distinctly different from those devotees who prefer their bhajan sessions.  Despite being closely associated with Siddha Jayakrishna baba of Kamyavana, Siddha Krishnadasa baba of Govardhana and Siddha Madhusudana baba of Surya-kunda, Jagadananda never felt any inner attraction towards the bhava manifested by those holy persons. On many occasions, during discourses with Siddha baba of Govardhana, Jagadananda would enter into mock-quarrels with the former.  After Krishnadasa Babaji passed away, Jagadananda once said that the extent of satisfaction he had derived in the course of mock-quarrels with Krishnadasa Babaji was no longer available even through `ista-gosthi' with others.

 

          Jagadananda was very particular about the observance of virtuous practices.  Once an Acarya-descendant arrived at his place from Gaudamandala to listen to Harikatha. Both of them remained engrossed in Harikatha from the evening right through till the following morning without a wink of sleep.

 

          On one occasion during his visit to Vraja, Bada prabhu of Katoa, a resident of Uththali of Dacca (Bangladesh) and a descendant of Advaita Prabhu, went to meet Jagadananda along with a female attendant.  Jagadananda invited Bada prabhu into his kutir which was adjacent to the samaj of Raghunatha dasa Gosvami.  Bada, however, preferred to remain outside saying, "I am a worshiper of Lord Krishna, yet I do not consider myself worthy of entering into your kutir because I have not been able to control my passions."  After some conversation with Bada prabhu and having noticed his humble disposition, Jagadananda said, "Anyone who followed Bada prabhu's practices would invite disaster upon himself, at the same time if anyone attempted to criticize him, he would be equally ruined."

 

          Prior to staying at Radha-kunda, Jagadananda lived at Surya-kunda for sometime.  One moonlit evening he left RadhaA kunda and began walking towards Surya-kunda.  Although he followed the correct path, it was dawn before he reached Surya-kunda.  The Siddha baba of Surya-kunda was surprised to meet him at that unusual hour and enquired, "Where are you coming from at this time of the morning.?  Jagadananda replied that he had left Radha-kunda the previous evening.  Afterwards both of them sat down and discussed the extraordinary phenomena of Vrajamandala's contraction and expansion.

 

          Many persons studied sastra under Jagadananda pandita. Advaita dasa pandita, who was a professor of Harinamamrta Vyakarana and also a famous singer of the Garanhata style  of kirtana introduced by Narottama Thakura, happened to be a student of this Jagadananda pandita.  (The information on the life of Jagadananda dasa Babaji, as depicted above, has been collected by the author directly from the above noted Advaita dasa pandita.)

 

4.       JAGADANANDA GHOSH:

 

          He was a Vaishnava padakarta.

 

 

5.       JAGADANANDA PANDITA (JAGADANANDA-Chaitanya-sakha):

 

          Pandita Jagadananda was an intimate devotee and kirtana associate of Lord Chaitanya.  He was Satyabhama in his past incarnation.  He served Lord Chaitanya at Puridhama.  (CC. 1.10.21; 3.12.106,116-118,120; 3.13.14,15,23,56,57; 3.12.153; 3.4.141,157-158,163,196-197).  He composed sloka no. 271 included within Padyavali (CCU and Visvakos p.554)

 

6.       JAGADANANDA THAKURA:

 

          By caste a vaidya, Jagadananda was a Padakarta.  He was born sometime between 1698-1708 AD. in the family of Mukunda Sarkara of Shrikhanda, who was an intimate devotee of Lord Chaitanya.  His father's name was Nityananda and his grandfather was Paramananda.  Jagadananda was the second of four brothers named Sarvananda, Krishnananda and Saccidananda. His paternal residence was at Shrikhanda but he lived for sometime at Agaradihi Daksinkhanda near the Ondal railway station.  He passed away on the 5th of Asvin (Sept-Oct) in 1780 AD. at Jofflai village in Birbhum district where he had shifted from Daksikhanda.  Jagadananda installed the Deity of Lord Gauranga at Jofflai.  The Deity of Gopinathajiu (without Shri Radha) is also installed in the temple.

 

          He was a hospitable person who served visitors daily at his place.  It is said (GVA) that once some sadhu visitors from a western state arrived at Jagadananda's place tired and thirsty from their long journey.  They were eager to drink water from a well which had been constructed by a brahmana. However, at that time there was no such well in Jofflai village.  Remembering the name of Lord Gauranga, Jagadananda quickly dug into the earth with an iron rod and water instantaneously surged forth from the earth forming a spring. This water was offered to the sadhu visitors to quench their thirst.  The reservoir formed from the spring water was called Gaurangera Sayera.

 

          Jagadananda stayed at Amalala Sunuri village which was owned by the ruler of Pancakota state.  There was an island at the center of a sarovara in Sunuri where Jagadananda used to go regularly to practice Harinama.  In order to reach that island he literally walked across the water with his pair of wooden sandals on.  Having witnessed this miraculous feat, the king of Pancakota was so impressed that in the presence of his associates he offered the title of the village Amalala Sunuri to Jagadananda.  Later Jagadananda installed the Deity of Lord Gauranga at that village.  The sevaits of the Deity are still enjoying the revenue accrued from the village.

 

          Kalidasa Natha and Dhirananda Thakura published verses composed by Jagadananda in a book entitled Jagadanandera Padavali.  He was also the translator of Gitagovinda (Burdwan Sahitayasabhara Manuscript 185) and the author of CitrapadaA Kavya. (See Gaurapadatarangini p.p.10)

 

 

7.       JAGADANANDA THAKURA:

 

          He wrote the book entitled Vamsililamrta which is a biography of his guru Vamsivadana dasa from Kulia.

 

8.       JAGADANANDA THAKURA:

 

          He was the fourth generation descendant of Panua Gopala of Mangaladihi village in the district of Birbhum. He wrote a book of verses entitled Syamacandrodaya which includes several kirtana padas as well as poetry composed in Bengali meter.

 

9.       JAGADANANDA THAKURA:

 

          He was born in the family line of Shrinivasa Acarya. Jagadananda had six sons; Yadavendu, Radhamohana, Bhuvanamohana, Gauramohana, Syamasundara, and Madanamohana.

 

10.     JAGADEVA PRAMARA:

 

          According to Bhaktamala, Jagadeva was an exalted Vaishnava devotee who was reputed for his honesty.  The princess of the state where Jagadeva lived became charmed upon hearing about his exemplary character and decided she wanted to marry him. The King approved of his daughter's proposal and invited Jagadeva to his palace and treated him cordially.  However, Jagadeva, who was averse to worldly pleasures, did not agree to the proposal of marriage.  The princess then took a vow not to marry any person other than Jagadeva.  In the midst of this dilemma, the King decided to try to entice Jagadeva and thus arranged for an exquisitely talented professional artist to sing Harinama.  Hearing the beautiful recitation of the Lord's glories, Jagadeva was so overwhelmed that he cut off his own head and presented it to the artist in token of appreciation. The grief-stricken princess then placed the detached head of Jagadeva on a gold platter and watched it intently.  It is said (Visvakos) that Jagadeva's face, which was being watched by the princess turned upside down, as if to keep his vow against marriage.  Despite  continued efforts the princess failed to keep the head facing her.  Finally she placed the head in its original position  on  the body of Jagadeva and he again came to life.  Seeing the Vaishnava sentiments and sincerity of prayers of the princess, Jagadeva finally consented to marry her.  Jagadeva remained in family life for sometime but later renounced home. (Bhaktamala)

 

11.     JAGADISA ACARYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Isvari Devi, wife of Shrinivasa Acarya Thakura. (Karnananda 2)

 

 

 

 

12.     JAGADISA DASA BABAJI MAHASAYA:

 

          Jagadisa, who was born in a high caste brahmana family, was a tall handsome person of fair complexion.  He grew up to be a physician with a good practice in Kalna.  One of his relatives was a pleader of Burdwan.  Jagadisa received diksa from Siddha Bhagavan dasa babaji, who preached the "practice of Harinama and cultivation of bhakti bhava."  Perhaps, Jagadisa was attracted to Siddha baba for his characteristics rather than his lila katha.  During the final days of his life Siddha baba called Jagadisa and asked him to note down some nama and those very names became Jagadisa's Guru-pranali.

 

          Jagadisa baba lived for a long time along with other Vaishnava devotees near the old temple of Madanamohana in Vrndavana.  By the grace of Siddha baba, Jagadisa achieved the desired method of bhajan through studying books and satsanga. He sustained himself exclusively by doing madhukari.  Once Jagadisa went to Varsana at the time when the disciples of Siddha Nityananda dasa babaji, Jagadananda babaji and Madhavadasa babaji were staying there.  Observing the lustrous appearance of Jagadisa, Jagadananda thought that it would be nice if Jagadisa would stay in Varsana and practice his bhajan there.  Jagadananda expressed his idea to Madhavadasa and requested him to approach Jagadisa baba and say, "You have stayed in Vrndavana for so long, why don't you stay here now and continue your bhajan in Varsana?" 

 

          Madhavadasa, being younger in age replied, "He is such an aged holy Vaishnava, how can I say such things to him?" However, after some persuasion Madhavadasa approached Jagadisa babaji.  Pointing to Jagadananda he said, "This babaji mahasaya says that you have practiced bhajan for so long at Vrndavana, kindly stay and do you bhajan at this village of Vraja."  Jagadisa replied, "No baba, I shall have to go to Vrndavana as I may be attacked by some serious illness again. It is better that I continue staying in Vrndavana." Jagadananda did not appreciate the significance of Jagadisa's comment at that time, but after a short while, he himself became seriously ill.  He had no strength to go for madhukari and thus was forced to go to Vrndavana.  Although Madhava dasa cooked rice for Jagadananda, later Jagadananda breathed his last while loudly chanting the holy name.

 

          Afterwards Jagadisa baba went to live in a small kutir at Kaliyadaha.  Although he went out for madhukari, he gave up the intake of salt.  Jagadisa felt it to troublesome to go to a barber, but since he felt that a Vaishnava should not grow long hair or beard he kept a pair of scissors with him and cropped his own beard and hair.

 

          While performing his routine madhukari, he visited the gadi of Nityananda Prabhu at Shringarbata practically everyA day.  He had a close relation of priti and bhakti with Premananda Gosvamipada, the chief of the said gadi.  At times when Jagadisa baba felt sad due to lack of spontaneous desire to engage in bhajan, Premananda would advise Jagadisa to leave his madhukari bag and go to roll in the dust of Shringarvata on the bank of the Jamuna, the place which was used by numerous devotees in the course of their parikrama as they passed by the "Mahaprabhu prangana."  The touch of the earth at that spot would revive his desire for performing bhajan.  After Prabhupada Premananda passed away 15-20 years later, Jagadisa would go to his samadhi in the company of Madhava dasa and revive his devotion by rolling in the dust of that holy place.

 

          In the course of his conversation, Jagadisa baba was always very careful that he did not hurt anyone's feelings. As a general rule Jagadisa tried to avoid going to places lest he would offend someone there.  Once his younger brother, who had just lost his wife, came to visit Jagadisa in Vrndavana. Jagadisa told his brother, "What has happened is for your future benefit.  Now that you are free from worldly attachments, let us two brothers practice bhajan together." Since his brother did not return to see him for the next few days Jagadisa thought that he must have disliked the advice he had given him.  However, after corresponding with a pleader of Burdwan he found out that his brother had not met him before leaving Vrndavana only because he did not want to disturb Jagadisa during his practice of bhajan.

 

          While discussing bhakti siddhanta, Jagadisa would say that his own guru Siddha Bhagavan babaji had not preached raganuga bhakti, which he himself was doing then.  He advised as follows:

 

          To make one's handwriting perfect one has to practice writing letters and words over and over, similarly for lilaA smaranam, one should follow the footsteps of experts and experienced Vaishnavas."  He did not advocate memorizing smarana from books, on the contrary suggested that one should keep the book handy and refer to it if necessary.  Smarana does not mean simply the reading of books.

 

          One day a visitor came to meet Jagadisa.  When he mentioned that he intended to stay in Vrndavana for three days, Jagadisa warned him not to commit any aparadha to even the ants and mosquitos of Vraja.

 

          Once Jagadisa, in his ripe old age, felt a desire to perform Vaishnava-seva.  Thus on the occasion of the disappearance day of Siddha Bhagavandasa babaji a wealthy devotee named Kinubabu offered forty rupees to Jagadisa to fulfil his desire for Vaishnava seva.  Jagadisa went out and bought twenty rupees worth of molasses in several jute bags for preparing malpura (saucer shaped sweetmeat made of rice powder and molasses).

 

          He left the bags inside his bhajan kutir and went out to the well to wash his feet, forgetting to lock the room. Meanwhile a group of monkeys entered the room and happily consumed all the molasses.  Seeing the monkeys, Jagadisa felt prema-bhava and was naturally very happy.  After the monkeys left Jagadisa offered his dandavata pranam to them and then later in the evening sat down for his routine bhajan session. Kinubabu, along with other devotees arrived as usual but not finding even a grain of prasada looked inquiringly at Jagadisa babaji, who smiled and said, "I bought twenty rupees worth of molasses but it has been consumed by the monkey Vaishnavas of Vraja.  Go and see if you can find some left over molasses in those bags."  Saying this he returned the balance twenty rupees to Kinubabu and requested him to use the money for doing Vaishnava seva.

 

          On another occasion Jagadisa babaji had a desire to dig a large pond at Kaliyadaha, in honor of the Lord's transcendental pastimes there.  Immediately, Jagadisa baba expressed this desire to the great devote Kamini Kumara Ghosh, the manager of Rajarshi Bahadur.  From Kaminibabu through word of mouth this desire of Jagadisa baba spread among the women residents of Vrndavana.  The next day one widow belonging to the family of Lalababu volunteered to donate Rs. 75,000; the king of Hetampur promised to denote Rs. 25,000; and Rajarshi Bahadur committed himself to take responsibility for the rest. An estimate was prepared in consultation with Jagadisa baba and they planned to plaster the pond with decorative stones.

 

          That night, because Siddha baba was absorbed in thoughts of the project he was unable to concentrate on his bhajan.  He became so upset by his lack of absorbtion that he quietly escaped into the forest without informing anyone.  He could not be traced after a search continued for four-five days when he suddenly arrived at his bhajan kutir on his own.  Jagadisa baba explained that he had spent those days in solitude doing bhajan in the forest.  When his permission was sought for the proposed digging of the pond, Jagadisa baba gravely replied as follows:  "If anyone wishes to carry out my desire in practice let him do so after my death.  Harassed by this desire I have failed to concentrate on my bhajan.  If the work starts now then I shall be totally ruined.  But if the work is begun after my disappearance, then my death will cause great bliss. Hence I strictly forbid you to question me further on this subject."

 

          Occasionally Jagadisa baba would place questions in gosthi-sessions then would immediately give the answer. Afterwards he said, "Your answer to this question may prompt me to dispute your arguments, thus I am presenting my answer first.  Now you are all at liberty to argue in the manner which you like."  A discussion would then follow.

 

          One day Jagadisa baba said to Rajarshi Banamali Raya, "The sastra states that a mortal being who has renounced everything should live in Vrndavana which is the site of the eternal rasalila.  Rajarshi Bahadur, since you have not renounced everything, why do you choose to stay here?" Rajarshi Bahadur was speechless.  Shortly thereafter Jagadisa baba explained, "You have been brought here to serve those who live at Vraja and practice bhajan renouncing everything." From that time Rajarshi Bahadur began to spend abundantly to serve the Vrajavasi's.

 

          Once a pilgrim asked Jagadisa baba, "Kindly advise me how I can acquire more premabhakti?"  Jagadisa answered with a question; "Can you come to stay in Vraja?"  When the devotee said he was unable to do so, Jagadisa baba advised him as follows:  "In that case you should spend two annas to buy the book entitled Prarthana O Premabhakticandrika by Narottama Thakura, study it constantly, follow it in practice and you will develop premabhakti." 

 

          Later this devotee wrote several letters to Jagadisa baba seeking his advice.  Jagadisa disliked corresponding but lest the devotee feel hurt he sent a reply with specific instructions not to write again in the future.  The devotee wrote once again stating as follows:  "Babaji Mahasaya!  I have troubled you considerably but I shall not bother you anymore.  Only please tell me briefly how I can develop premabhakti."  Jagadisa baba replied, "You can attain premabhakti only when you have attained that state of mind in which you have no desire for anything other than premabhakti. The devotee wrote no more letters.

 

          Jagadisa baba preached as follows:  "The Supreme Lord incarnated on earth, preached namaprema and said, "Trnadapi sunicena tarorapi sahisnuna.  Amanina manadena kirtanyah sada harih."  Hence as long as you are unable to move as directed in this sloka, till then you shall never attain prema. You shall be close to premabhakti exactly in proportion to how much you are able to practice the idea which this sloka contains.  The day you shall fully practice this sloka you shall surely attain premabhakti and will be entitled to receive the supreme grace of Krishna-saksatkara."  To almost everyone, Jagadisa baba preached this verse, "Considering oneself unworthy and completely fallen is the source from which springs prema and all perfection.

 

          When someone criticized another or found fault with others Jagadisa baba taught them lessons by telling a story about Siddha Bhagavandasa babaji;  Once a devotee told Bhagavan dasa: "That devotee of yours speak here in your presence yet still he has not given up eating fish."  Siddha baba replied, "You too must have eaten fish at some time in the past."  The devotee said, "I did, sir, but now I have given it up."  Siddha baba said, "Like you, this devotee too will give up eating fish one day."  In this way Jagadisa baba pointed out that it was not wise to criticize others; mortal beings improve slowly.

 

          At Kaliyadaha in 1322 (1915 AD.) Jagadisa baba passed away at the age of 100 years.

 

 

 

 

13.     JAGADISA BHATTA RAYA: 

 

          He was one of the Causatti (64) mahantas. (Chaitanyasamhita p. 16, by Bhagiratha dasa {Vandhu}.)

 

14.     JAGADISA BRAHMANA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya and his Shripata was at Kancangaria.  His father's name was Shridasa Thakura.

 

15.     JAGADISA KAVIRAJA:

 

          He was a disciple of Hemalata devi, daughter of Shrinivasa Acarya. His brother was named Radhavallabha Kaviraja.

 

16.     JAGADISA MISRA:

 

          (Advaita sakha) He was the sixth son of Advaita Prabhu. According to Advaitaprakasa 15 and Premavilasa 24, Svarupa and Jagadisa were twins born of Sita devi in the month of Jaistha in 1508 AD.  However, there is some discrepancy about the year of his birth as it is stated in CBh. 3.4.153 that Achyutananda, the son of Advaita Prabhu, was born sometime between 1504 and 1505 AD.  Achyutananda was five years old when he became angry after hearing Advaita Prabhu's statement regarding Lord Chaitanya's guru, and thus spoke on ChaitanyaA tattva.  This took place sometime between 1509 and 1510 AD. After Achyutananda, three other sons were born of Sita devi, thereafter Svarupa and Jagadisa were born. It is therefore impossible that Jagadisa could have been born in 1508 AD.

 

17.     JAGADISA PANDITA:

 

          (Chaitanya-sakha) Jagadisa and his brother, Hiranya pandita, were residents of Navadvipa.  In both of their houses Lord Chaitanya begged offerings of food which were meant for Lord Vishnu and ate them personally on an Ekadashi day (CC. 1.10.70-71).  He was Yajnapatni in his past incarnation. (Gauraganoddesadipika 192)

 

18.     JAGADISA PANDITA:

 

          (Nityananda-sakha)His father was named Kamalaksa and his grandfather, Bhatta Narayana.  His Shripata is at Yasada village in the district of Nadia near the Cakdaha railway station.  Deities of Lord Jagannatha and Lord Gauranga, established by Jagadisa, are still in existence at his Shripata.  He was Candrahansa in his past incarnation (CC. 1.11.30; Gauraganoddesadipika 153; Shripataparyatana).  Further details may be found in Jagadisacaritra.

 

19.     JAGADISA RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

20.     JAGADISVARA:

 

          A disciple of Syamananda prabhu, his Shripata was at Balarampur (Premavilasa 20).

 

21.     JAGADISA TARKALANKARA:

 

          Jagadisa descended in the family-line of Sanatana Misra, the father-in-law of Lord Chaitanya.  His father's name was Yadavacandra Vidyavagisa.  The family lived at Navadvipa. Jagadisa was a renowned Nyaiyaika and wrote a tika of the book Didhiti. (Visvakos Vol. VI, p.555)

 

22.     JAGADVANDHU BHADRA:

 

          He was born in a village called Panakunda in the district of Dacca (Bangladesh) in 1841 AD.  His book of verses entitled Gaurapadatarngini, comprising 1517 padas on Lord Gauranga, was published in 1903 AD.  He was a talented composer of humorous poetical verses.  In fact he composed a book of poetry entitled Chuchundari Vadha imitating the famous Meghanada Vadha of Michael Madhusudana Datta, which received appreciation from Madhusudana himself.

 

23.     JAGADVANDHU SUNDARA (PRABHU):

 

          Jagadvandhu prabhu was born of Dinanatha Nyayaratna and Bamasundari on Sitanavami tithi on 17th Vaisaka (Apr-May) in 1871 AD. in the village of Dahapada on the bank of the Ganges in the district of Mursidavad.  He was extremely handsome and possessed all rare auspicious qualities which made him adored by all.  He was fond of Harinama from his childhood.  He lost his mother at the age of one year and his father died when he was only seven years old.  He was then brought up by his late father's elder brother, Bhairava Cakravarti, in Faridpur (Bangladesh).  He received his primary education in Banga Vidyalaya and Faridpur district school.  He strictly observed the practices of trisandhya snana, ahnika, sanyama and brahmacharya throughout his life.  Jagadbandhu was always averse to bhoga-vilasa; he was soft spoken and had an appearance of udasina-bhava.  He preferred a simple life of solitude.

 

          From Faridpur district school he went to study at Ranchi school and finally went to Pabna district school (Bangladesh), where he studied up to the entrance examination standard. During this period, Jagadvandhu went to see open air drama performances's depicting the pastimes of Prahlada and Dhruva. While watching the play he became so engrossed that he became completely oblivious to his surroundings.  He spent long hours in udasina bhava at Kalikadamvatala and at the temple of goddess Jayakali.  At that time symptoms of svattika-vikara became evident in him, particularly during his participation in Harinama kirtana.  Through his preaching and Harinama he reformed many persons of bad character.  Yet a group of people attacked him viciously and even tortured him.  On the other hand, many respected people, being attracted by Jagadvandhu's spirited personality and bhava-vesa, began to join him as his followers.

 

          From Pabna Jagadbandhu went to Vrndavana and then returned via Calcutta to Brahmankanda in Faridpur.

 

          Sometimes he wore a necklace of rosary using a wire of gold and at other times he would wear a Tulasi-mala.  He wore a pair of rubber sandals and kept his body fully covered in public.

 

          He founded a kirtana-sampradaya in Brahmankanda.  Later he went to Navadvipa with his devotees where they performed kirtana recitals using verses from Padavali composed by himself.

 

          After the Shriangana of Bakcara was constructed in 1889 AD. Jagadvandhu stayed there for sometime and delivered many people.  While at Brahmankanda, Jagadbandhu organized a nagara-sankirtana every year in which devotees of seven sampradaya's would participate to the accompaniment of fourteen madalas (a kind of instrument played by Santhas). There would also be regular kirtana procession through the village thorughout the day and night.  When Goalchamat angana was established in Faridpur in 1899 AD., Jagadvandhu's miraculous power and Harinama performance inspired people of all communities, regardless of caste or creed.  In fact he named a low-caste sardar named Rajani Bagdi as "Haridasa Pasa (mahanta)" and his group became a Mahanta sampradaya.  With the help of this group even people of wild tribes living in Jessore and Khulna (Bangladesh) were converted into devotees.

 

          In Calcutta he uplifted the people of the low caste Doma community living near Chasadhopapada and Ramabagana areas and gave them the right to participate in Harinama kirtana. Pratapa Bhaumika, Ramesa Cakravarti, Radhika Gupta, Atula Campati, Jayanitai (Devena Cakravarti), Taraka Genguli of Koaghat, Dr. Usha Majumdar and Navadvipa dasa were the foremost amongst his devotees.

 

          In his lifetime Jagadbandhu practiced the most difficult sadhana.  Sometimes he toured several places within the country and abroad while totally abstaining from speech (mauni). He lived at Goalchamat for 16 years; from 1902 to 1918 AD.  He also lived for a considerable time at a place which was totally devoid of sunlight and observed mauna.

 

          He passed away on the first day of Asvina (Oct-Nov) in 1931 AD.

 

          Books composed by Jagadbandhu are as follows:

1.  Candrapata

2.  Harikatha

          3.  Shrimati-Sankirtana

          4.  Shri Shri Namasankirtana

          5.  Vividha Sangita

          6.  Padavali

          7.  Trikalagrantha

 

 

24.     JAGAI:

 

          (Chaitanya sakha) His real name was Jagannatha.  He was Jaya, a Vaikuntha-parsada, in his past incarnation.

 

          Subhananda Raya, a kulina brahmana, was a Zemindar of Navadvipa.  He had two sons; the eldest was named Raghunatha Raya and the younger one was Janardana Raya.  Jagai was the son of Raghunatha and Janardana's son was named Madhai.  The cousin brothers, Jagai and Madhai, had a house in Navadvipa and worked as kotwals under the Muslim ruler. Jagai and Madhai led a very sinful life.  They not only consumed wine and meat, but also committed acts of theft, and even forcibly enjoyed other mens wives.  During the famous Sankirtana-lila of Navadvipa led by Lord Gauranga, Jagai and Madhai were approached by Nityananda Prabhu and requested to chant the holy name.  Madhai became so angry that he hit Nityananda Prabhu on the head with a broken pitcher.  However, by the grace of the ever merciful Nityananda Prabhu, Jagai and Madhai became great devotees of Lord Gauranga.

 

J. 25.  JAGAI LEKHAKA:

 

          For details see Jayananda's Chaitanyamangala p.47.

 

J. 26.  JAGAJIVANA MISRA:

 

          He belonged to the family of Paramananda Misra, the elder brother of Jagannatha Misra, Lord Chaitanya's father.

 

          Jagajivana's book entitled Manoh-Santosani is a translation of Pradyumna Misra's Shri Krishnachaitanyadayavali.

 

J. 27.  JAGADANANDA:

 

          He was a padakarta.  Some of his compositions have been included in Padyavali (Visvakos Vol. VI p.554).

 

J. 28.  JAGAMOHANA:

 

          He was a padakarta. Two padas composed by Jagamohana have been included in Padakalpataru.

 

J. 29.  JAGANMOHINI:

 

          Also known as "Tukka", Jaganmohini was the daughter of Prataparudradeva.  It is said (GVA) that Raja Krishnadeva Raya of Vijaya-nagara attacked the estates of Prataparudra several times and forcefully took possession of some parts of Prataparudra's estate.  Later Prataparudra made a treaty giving his daughter, Jaganmohini, in marriage to Krishnadeva along with the occupied territory as a dowry.

 

          On account of the ill-behavior of Krishnadeva, she left her husbands residence and went to live quietly at another place called Kamvam.  Jaganmohini composed five slokas in Sanskrit entitled Tukka-Panchakam.

 

J. 30.  JAGANMOHANI SAMPRADAYA:

 

          During the time when Bengal was under the occupation of Muslim rulers, one Ramakrishna Gosvami is said to have founded this sampradaya in the eastern part of Bengal (Bangladesh). However, according to some members of this sampradaya, Jaganmohana Gosvami established the custom of worship followed by the devotees of this sampradaya long before the arrival of Ramakrishna.  Thus the sampradaya derived it name.  It is said (Visvakos) that Jaganmohana accepted bheka under the guidance of an Odiya Vaishnava of the Ramanandi sect.  The disciple-line of Jaganmohana is as follows:

 

           Jaganmohana Gosvami

                       |

                Govinda Gosvami

                       |

                Santa Gosvami

                       |

                Ramakrishna Gosvami

 

          Admittedly, this sampradaya-cult received greater impetus during Ramakrishna's period.  Approximately five thousand devotees are members of this sampradaya.  There are several Akhras affiliated to this sampradaya and the chief of these is called "Mahanta".

 

          Disciples, upon fulfillment of their respective objectives, give contributions.  These funds are used for the routine maintenance and other expenses of the Akhras.

 

          The devotees of this cult, worship only "Nirguna" and not any god or goddess.  To them, the guru is the personality of Godhead and the rescuer.  At the time of diksa, they utter the words "Guru-satya", accepting the guru as God incarnate.  They then receive Brahmanama and perform their prayers accordingly. There are books related to this sampradaya.  They recite some dharma-sangita during rituals, which are called NirvanaA sangita.  One such sangita is quoted below verbatim:

 

Sadhure bhai, Purnabrahma Guru kemana bhave pai;

     Chadiya sakala maya, Prabhura paday lao chaya;

          Antakalay ara laksa nai.

 

          The members of this sampradaya, like others, are partly grihis and partly udasinas, however, grihi's constitute the majority. (Visvakos Vol. VI p.603-604)

 

 

 

 

31.     JAGANNATHA (JAGANNATHA DVIJA CAKRAVARTI / MAMU THAKURA:

 

          A resident of Magadoba village in the district of Faridpur (Bangladesh), Jagannatha Cakravarti was the nephew of Nilambara Cakravarti.  He was Kalabhasini in his past incarnation.  Jagannatha was popularly known as Mamu Thakura. After the demise of Gadadhara pandita, Mamu Thakura became the priest of the temple of Tota-Gopinatha in Jagannatha Puri. (CC. 1.12.80; Gauraganoddesadipika 196,205)

 

32.     JAGANNATHA:

 

          A brahmana belonging to Nityananda-sakha, Jagannatha was the second son of Kansari Misra and an uncle of Jahnava mata, wife of Nityananda Prabhu. (CC. 1.11.48)

 

33.     JAGANNATHA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu.  His Shripata was at Gopiballavapur.  (Premavilasa 2)

 

34.     JAGANNATHA:

 

          This Jagannatha was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.160)

 

35.     JAGANNATHA:

 

          He was Taraka in his past incarnation. (Gauraganoddesadipika 158)

 

36.     JAGANNATHA:

 

          A resident of Orissa, he was the son of Kanhai Khuntia, a sevait of Lord Jagannatha-Puri.

 

37.     JAGANNATHA ACARYA:

 

          (Chaitanya-sakha) He was an extremely beloved servant of Lord Chaitanya.  When commanded by the Lord, Jagannatha went away to live on the bank of the Ganges (CC. 1.10.108).  He was Gopipriya Durvasa in his past incarnation (Gauraganoddesadipika 111).

 

38.     JAGANNATHA ACARYA:

 

          A vaidika class brahmana, he was initially an antagonist of Narottama Thakura, because the latter, despite being a sudra by caste, would give diksa to upper class brahmanas. However, in due course, by the grace of Bhagavati devi, Jagannatha took refuge at the lotus feet of Narottama Thakura. (Narottamavilasa 10)

 

39.     JAGANNATHA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was a disciple of Visvanatha Cakravarti and father of Narahari Cakravarti. His Shripata was at Rayanpura on the bank of the Bhagirathi in the district of Mursidavad.

 

40.     JAGANNATHA DASA (SRI GALIMA):

 

          An Odiya brahmana, Jagannatha belonged to Chaitanya-sakha. BBM states that this Jagannatha has been mentioned as Shri Galima in Odiya Charitamrita.  However, according to CC. 1.10.112 Shri Galima was the sixty-ninth branch and Jagannatha dasa was the seventieth branch of the original tree.

 

41.     JAGANNATHA DASA (KASTHAKATA):

 

          He belonged to Gadadhara Pandita-sakha.  Jagannatha dasa was a resident of Vikramapura, near Dacca (Bangladesh). His birthplace was the village of Kasthakata or Kathadiya.  His descendants now reside in the villages known as Adiyala, Kamarapada, and Paikpada.  He established a temple of Yasomadhava.  The worshipers in this temple are the gosvamis of Adiyala.  In his past incarnation he was Tilakini, one of the sixty-four sakhis, and an assistant of Citradevi.  The following is a list of his descendants:  Ramanrsimha, Ramagopala, Ramacandra, Sanatana, Muktarama, Gopinatha, Goloka, Harimohana Siromani, Rakhalaraja, Madhava, and Laksmikanta.  The Sakhanirnaya mentions that Jagannatha dasa preached the Hare Krishna Movement through out the state of Tripura. (CC. 1.12.84)

 

42.     JAGANNATHA DASA:

 

          He belonged to Nityananda-sakha. His real name was Pathara Hajanga.  See also "Pathara Hajanga."

 

43.     JAGANNATHA DASA:

 

          He was a padakarta.  Nine padas composed by Jagannatha dasa have been included in Padakalpataru.  Eleven other padas composed by him have also been found in an unpublished book entitled Padaratnavali wherein the Suvala-milana, Naukavilasa, and other types of padas can be found.  He was also a renowned musician (Vaishnava-vandana).

 

44.     JAGANNATHA DASA (Ativadi Jagannatha dasa):

 

          A brahman by caste, Jagannatha was born on the suklaA astami tithi of Bhadra masa (Aug-Sept) at Kapilesvara in Puri district.  His parents were Bhagavan Panda and Parvati devi. He translated Shrimad Bhagavatam in navaksara chhanda (special prosodical style), which included some adverse comments on bhakti-tattva.  Lord Chaitanya was unhappy about such comments and said to Jagannatha, "You seem to consider yourself superior to the muni-rishis because you have criticized their views in your writing."  From that time Jagannatha came to be known as Ativadi Jagannatha and his disciples identify themselves as devotees of the Ativadi sampradaya.  Jagannatha passed away at the age of sixty years.  The books entitled Brahmanda-bhugola, Premasadhana, and Dutivodha are said to have been compiled by Jagannatha.

 

45.     JAGANNATHA DASA (Odiya):

 

          A resident of Orissa, Jagannatha was a kirtaniya of Lord Jagannatha-Puri.  He wrote a book entitled Rasojjala (Vaishnava-vandana).

 

46.     JAGANNATHA DASA:

 

          Jagannatha was a poet, his residence was in the village of Gilabadi in the district of Maldaha.  He wrote a book entitled Bhaktacharitamrita in four volumes using the book Bhaktamala as his source of information.

 

47.     JAGANATHADASA BABAJI (Siddha):

 

          Jagannatha dasa was a disciple of Jagadananda Gosvami of Srngarabata in Vrndavana (belonging to Purunia Pata of Bankura district) and the bheka-chela of Siddha Krishnadasa baba, a resident of Govardhana.  According to Biharidasa Vrajavasi baba, Jagannatha dasa was the bheka-chela of Siddha Madhusudana dasa baba, a resident of Suryakunda. 

 

          Jagannatha dasa was very austere; he never hesitated to fast without taking any water for three days at a stretch.  He used sit up the entire night chanting the holy name and at early dawn finish his ablutions.  In the morning he took prasada of curd and flat rice.  His disciple, Biharidasa Vrajavasi, use to carry Jagannatha dasa in a basket to wherever he desired to go.  Once, while traveling in his basket, a devotee offered a rupee to Jagannatha dasa and Biharidasa picked it up as directed.  After traveling another two or three miles Jagannatha dasa wanted to return to the site which they had passed earlier.  Upon returning Jagannatha dasa called the disciple who had given the money and said, "My child! please take back your money.  I hear that you have plenty of money; I couldn't bear with the bite of one rupee, I wonder how you manage to swallow the bite of so much money?" Saying this Jagannatha returned the rupee.

 

          The following is a list of disciples of Siddha Jagannatha dasa baba:

 

1.  Biharidasa babaji

2.  Bhagavata dasa babaji

3.  Gaurahari dasa babaji

4.  Ramahari dasa babaji

5.  Ramadasa babaji

6.  Nityananda dasa babaji, a resident of Varsana

7.  Harekrishna dasa babaji, a resident of Kadamakhandi.

 

          At the initiative of Biharidasa, the residents of Suryakunda jointly constructed a concrete room and a temple for the accommodation of Siddha baba.  Siddha baba then asked Bihari dasa to locate a Deity to install there.  Biharidasa personally approached a weaver-caste Zemindar to help him in this regard.  The Zemindar thus arranged to bring Deities of Gaura-Nitai from Dainhata and gave them to Biharidasa. Carrying the Deities by boat Biharidasa went to Calcutta where he gathered bhiksa from the following sources:  Shrinatha Raya of Hatkhola gave Rs. 500, the members of the Laha family gave Rs. 1,500, Haridasa baba of Kumartuli gave Rs. 2,000, and collecting another Rs. 1,000 from other sources Biharidasa finally reached Suryakunda with the Deities.  Nitai-Gaura looked so beautiful when They were installed that it appeared as if They were made of gold.  On the occasion of the installation ceremony a sum of Rs. 3,000 was spent to feed the Vaishnavas of Suryakunda and Radhakunda.

 

          One day a band of dacoits approached Siddha baba with the motive of stealing the Deities which they thought were made of gold.  Siddha baba told them that he possessed nothing and they might look into the temple for booty.  The dacoits broke open the temple door and quickly gathered up everything they could find, including the Deities.  However, in rushing to make their escape they stumbled on the door step and dropped the Deities.  Seeing that the sun had risen outside the dacoits left the Deities and rushed off with the rest of the booty.  After this incident Siddha baba asked Biharidasa to arrange for the Deities to be cared for by someone else. Biharidasa carried the Deities to Vrndavana where he handed Them over, along with Rs. 2,000, to Mother-Gosvamini, a resident of Gayespur in the district of Maldaha.  At present these Deities are residing at Dhopapada in Gopalbag and are known as "Sonara Gaura".

 

          Sometime later Siddha baba again asked Biharidasa to locate another Deity for him.  Biharidasa found a Deity of the six-armed Lord Chaitanya which had been kept hidden in a bag of cattle-feed.  This Deity belonged to Dinu Bahaji, a Manipuri Vaishnava residing in Mathura near Radhakunda.  Biharidasa brought the Deity to Vrndavana where he cleansed and decorated Him, then carried the Deity, along with all items for worship, to Suryakunda.  For ten years thereafter Siddha baba worshiped this Deity until one day he said, "Bihari, please put this Deity in the care of someone else in Vrndavana.  I would like to go to Navadvipa.  Let my body be offered at the lotus feet of Lord Gauranga."  Biharidasa brought the Deity to Vrndavana and after receiving a donation of Rs. 25 from Mother-Gosvamini of Gayespur handed over the Deity as well as the money to Narottama dasaji, the head of the Gopalaguru matha.  At present this Deity is being served at the lane of Nidhuvana.

 

          Carrying Siddha baba on his shoulders from Suryakunda, Biharidasa reached the Mathura railway junction and from there left for Navadvipa without buying tickets.  On the way no one questioned them.  When they got down at the Memari railway station near Burdwan, a European gentleman escorted them safely through the check post.  From there Siddha baba went to the akhda of Nepal Babu. After taking some rest they continued there journey until reaching the residence of Siddha Bhagavan dasa babaji at Amvika kalna.  Upon meeting Jagannatha dasa, Siddha Bhagavan dasa said, "Oh! my dear friend has come, Vishnudasa please arrange for their seva."  The two friends hugged each other rolling on the floor.  They remained in embrace from 10 A.M. to 11 P.M.  Vishnudasa and Biharidasa stood by helplessly, not knowing what to do.  Biharidasa explained to Vishnudasa that they had not eaten eat for the last three days.  Biharidasa then threw his arms around Jagannatha dasa and began massaging his chest. Shortly afterwards Jagannatha dasa inquired if Bihari dasa whether he had eaten or not.  Bihari explained that although it was about 11 P.M. he could not eat as the other two had not taken prasada yet.  Jagannatha replied, "My foolish child, it's merely evening now".  He then got up, partook of prasada and went to take rest.

 

          Jagannatha dasa stayed there for about eleven days then left for Navadvipa.  Along the way Bihari dasa asked Jagannatha dasa whether they were going to stay at Bada Akhda in Navadvipa.  Jagannatha, however, refused to stay at any akhda.  He preferred to settle beneath a tree where now the bhajan kutir of Bihari dasa stands.  Later Bihari dasa bought ten cottahs of land from Madhava Datta for Rs. 40.  That plot had  a huge ditch in it which Bihari filled up by carrying earth from the Ganges at night after Jagannatha dasa went to bed.  Sometime later Kedaranatha Datta Bhaktivinoda arrived there and both he and Bihari dasa sought bhiksa from Nafar Pal Chowdhury of Mahesaganj and raised two shades.  Awhile later, with the approval of Jagannatha dasa, Rajarshi Banamali Raya Bahadur built three small rooms and fenced them in with a surrounding wall.  The aged Manamohini dasi, a resident of Kaigrama, arranged to dig a well.  Jagannatha dasa lived here for 32 years until his death at the age of 147 years.  (For further details see GVJ PP. 114-125)

 

48.     JAGANNATHA DASA BABAJI: (Varsana)

 

          He was born in Burdwan.  As a youth he went to Vraja and embraced vairagya, living in a kutir on the bank of Bhanukunda.  He subsisted on whatever madhukari he collected.  With the help of his disciples, he collected herbs, ginger, old tamarind, jaggery and rice for the use of aiding ailing Vaishnava's.  Sometimes he cooked food to serve those devotees who were in need.  At one time there was a famine in Vraja and madhukari became difficult. Jagannatha thought that it  would be sensible to move elsewhere since the Vrajavasi's were having difficult times and he did not want to inconvenience them any further. Reasoning in this way he was about to leave the village carrying his belongings with him, when a young Vraja girl appeared before him and asked, "Jagannatha dasa! where are you going?"  The reply was, "How to say where to go?"  The girl again asked, "Why?"  Jagannatha said, "Something has to be fed to the stomach and now it is difficult to obtain madhukari in Vraja."  The girl answered back, "Why, what is wrong with madhukari?  Did you visit my home?  Your share of madhukari is kept in store there.  Go now and fetch it.  You need not go anywhere else."  Jagannatha dasa was feeling reluctant to leave Vraja, but felt forced by circumstance to do so. But now he hesitated and decided to check the truth of the girl's statement.  He set his belongings down and proceeded, while chanting the holy name, to the door of that Vrajavasi's home.  The Vrajavasi asked Jagannatha dasa, "Revered father, is this an hour for madhukari?" Jagannatha dasa replied, "Your dear daughter informed me that madhukari was stored for me in the ceiling of your room. The Vrajavasi of Varsana went inside and asked his wife if capatis had been kept for Jagannatha dasa.  His wife knew nothing about it but when she looked in the ceiling they were astonished to find capatis kept there. At that time their daughter was away in her father-inA laws house.  The Vrajavasi, however, did not disclose this information to Jagannatha dasa and handed over the capatis, requesting Jagannatha dasa to collect capatis daily from their house.  From then on Jagannatha dasa daily collected capatis from this house and after his death, his bheka-disciple Pranakrishnadasa continued to collect capatis from the same house.  This Vrajavasi was a trader by caste and his family descendants are well known by the name "Vanakhandi", they are the wealthiest family in Varsana.

 

          Once Jagannatha dasa's younger brother came to visit from Burdwan.  Jagannatha welcomed his younger brother and offered him thick capatis collected from the house of the Vrajavasi.  As they ate together the younger brother said: "Revered brother, do you remember the delicious sweet called sitabhoga of Burdwan?  Look what rubbish we are eating now?"  Jagannatha dasa replied, "My brother, I am a pauper for one hour and a king for twenty-three hours."

 

49.     JAGANNATHA GHOSH:

 

          A devotee of Lord Chaitanya, Jagannatha was the third brother of the famous Vasudeva Ghosh.  Jagannatha did not leave any descendants.

 

50.     JAGANNATHA GAJAPATI NARAYANA DEVA:

 

          There are wide spread Zemindary estates called Kimedi in the district of Ganjam in south India.  This estate is divided into three parts, namely; Parlakimedi, Peddakimedi and Cinnakimedi. The Zemindars of these three state claim

their origin from one and the same family, declaring themselves as descendants of the royal family known as Kesari-vamsa.  According to the documents available with the Zemindar of Parlakimedi, the genealogical table is described as follow:

 

        PERIOD      NAME OF RULER

 

            1227-1245   Kapiladeva

            1245-1265   Narasimhadeva (First)

            1265-1290   Madanadeva

            1290-1309   Narayanadeva

            1309-1317   Anandadeva

            1317-1325   Anantarudradeva

            1325-1367   Jayarudradeva

            1367-1392   Laksminarasimhabhanudeva

            1392-1423   Madhukarnadeva

            1423-1457   Mritunjayabhanudeva

            1457-1494   Madhavamadanasundarabhanudeva

            1494-1527   Candrvetala Bhanudeva

            1527-1566   Suvarnalinga Bhanudeva

            1566-1590   Sivalinganarayana deva

            1590-1630   Savarnakesarinarayana deva

            1630-1656   Mukundarudranarayana deva

            1674-1686   Ananta Padmanabhadeva

            1686-1702   Sarvajnya Jagannathanarayanadeva

            1702-1729   Narasimhadeva (second)

            1729-1748   Veera Padmanavanarayana deva

            1748-1766   Veera Prataparudranarayana deva (had only an adopted son)

            1766-1806   Jagannathanarayana deva

            1806-1839   Gaurachandra Gajapatinarayana deva

            1839-1843   Purusottama Gajapatinaryana deva

            1843-1850   Jagannatha Gajapatinarayana deva

            1850          Veera Prataparudra Gajapatinarayana deva

       (Visvakos Vol. VI, p. 598)

 

51.     JAGANNATHA KARA:

 

                   A kayastha by caste, Jagannatha belonged to Advaita-    sakha (CC. 1.12.60; Namamrtasamudra 174).

52.     JAGANNATHA MAHATI:

 

          A resident of Orissa, Jagannatha was a beloved devotee of Lord Chaitanya. According to Namamrtasamudra 171, Lord Chaitanya regularly offered His obeisances to Jagannatha on the day of Nandotsava, knowing that Jagannatha was Vrajesvari in his past incarnation.

 

53.     JAGANNATHA MISRA (PURANDARA):

 

                   He was the father of Lord Chaitanya.  Jagannatha Misra           was the fifth son of Upendra Misra and one of the grandsons     of Madhu Misra (Premavilasa 24).  He was Shri Nanda in          Vrajalila.  Jagannatha Misra was the embodiment of           Sarvavasudeva-tattva or Sarvasuddha-tattva.  (See also CBh.   1.2.136-138; 1.3.6-42; 1.4.54-59; 1.5.3-15; 1.5.16A 121;           1.6.2-3; 1.6.56-135; 1.7.74-88; 1.7.120-196; 1.8.8A 23;      1.8.28-303; 2.22.65-72; CC. 1.13.80-118; 1.14.9-94; 1.15.23;     CBh. 1.92-108; 1.8.109)

 

54.     JAGANNATHA MISRA:

 

          He was the son of Madhava Misra.  His other name was Vaninatha (Premavilasa 20).

 

55.     JAGANNATHA MISRA:

 

          He was the teacher of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Purva 9.49).

 

56.     JAGANNATHA PANDITA:

 

          A brahmana by caste, Jagannatha belonged to Chaitanya-sakha. He was Durvasa in his past incarnation. (Vaishnava-vandana by Daivakinanadana 169)

 

57.     JAGANNATHA PADICHA:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.

 

58.     JAGANNATHA PATHAKA:

 

          The son of Devanava, Jagannatha wrote a tika of the book entitled Svabhavarthadipika based on the Vishnupurana.  (Visvakos, Vol. VI, p.601)

 

59.     JAGANNATHA PATTANAYAKA:

 

          He was the elder brother of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Daksina 6.19).

 

 

 

 

60.     JAGANNATHA SASTRI:

 

          He composed a book of verses entitled Vrajesvari (Visvakos Vol. VI p.602)

 

61.     JAGANNATHA SENA:

 

          A close associate of Lord Chaitanya, Jagannatha was Kamala-sakhi in his past incarnation (Gauraganoddesadipika 194, 200).

 

62.     JAGANNATHA THANESVARI:

 

          He was a parsada of Lord Chaitanya.  Due to the sanskara's performed in his previous birth, he was fortunate enough to witness Shri Bhagavan's prakasamanA rupa for three days during his grhastha life.  Later he became a disciple of Lord Chaitanya, who addresed him as Krishnadasa.  It is said in Bhaktamala p. 596, that during Lord Chaitanya's visit to Kuruksetra He stayed at Jagannatha's house at Thanesvara for three days.  A gadi in memory of Lord Chaitanya still exists at Thanesvara.

 

63.     JAGANNATHA RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Narottamavilasa 12)

 

64.     JAGANNATHA TIRTHA:

 

          He belonged to Chaitanya-sakha (CC. 1.10.114). He was Jayanteya, one of the nine Yogindras, in his past incarnation.  (Gaurganoddesadipika 98-100)

 

65.     JAGATA SIMHA:

 

          He translated Gita-Govinda (Coochvihar Darbara manuscript no. 26).

 

66.     JAGATESVARA:

 

          A resident of Hariharapura in the district of Midnapur, Jagatesvara was a disciple of Syamananda prabhu.

 

67.     JAGU:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.123)

 

68.     JAHNAVA DEVI (MATA):

 

          One of the six sons of Kansari Misra, Suryadasa, resided at Salagrama in the district of Nadia.  Suryadasa was awarded the title of "Sarakhala" by the king of Gauda, under whom he worked as an accountant.  Jahnava devi was one of the two daughters of Sarakhala Suryadasa pandita.  Vasudha was the elder of the two daughters. Both Vasudha and Jahnava were given in marriage to Nityananda Prabhu.  While Vasudha had a daughter named Ganga devi, and a son named Veeracandra, Jahnava devi had no issue.  Jahnava devi was Revati and Anangamanjari in Purva-lila (Gauraganoddesadipika 65, 66).

 

          While still alive, Jahnava devi had a deity of herself made, which she placed on the left side of the Gopinatha Deity.  This made Pyariji very unhappy. However, the Maharaja of Jaipura brought about a compromise between the two.  Consequently, the deity of Jahnava devi continued to remain on the left side of Gopinatha (Bhaktamala 3).

 

          Important events of Jahnava devi's life may be found in the following places:  Bhaktiratnakara 10.369; 11.298; 11.362-396; 11.397-659; 11.660-786; 13.249-257; 13.268A 280;  Premavilasa 19, 24; See also Nityanandasakti Ma Jahnava by Namai Cand gosvami.

 

69.     JAHNAVA DEVI:

 

          She was the wife of Purusottama dasa, who was the son of Sadasiva Kaviraja. Her son was named Kanu Thakura. (See also "Kanurama dasa")

 

70.     JAHNAVA DEVI:

 

          She was the mother of Kasinatha pandita.  She went to meet Lord Chaitanya at Jagannatha Puri and returned with her son Kasinatha. (See under "Kasinatha")

 

71.     JALADHARA PANDITA:

 

          A vaidika brahmana, Jaladhara had five sons; Nalina, Shrivasa, Shrirama, Shripati and Shrikanta.  Originally from Shrihatta, Jaladhara and his family later settled at Navadvipa.  Nalina pandita was the maternal grandfather of the famous Vrndavanadasa Thakura, the author of Chaitanya Bhagavata (Premavilasa 24).

 

72.     JALESVARA:

 

          He was the son of Vasudeva Sarvabhauma.  Jalesvara married the daughter of Sudhakara and granddaughter of Kamadeva pandita (the famous kulin of vahinipati Khadadaha mel.)  Jalesvara compiled the book Savdalokoddyota (Kasi Sarasvatibhavana  manuscript no. 358).  His title was Mahapatra.  It is quite likely that Jalesvara was foremost among those who wrote tika of Aloka in Bengali, Paksadhara Misra was the author of the original book (Bangey Navyanyayacarca p. 43).

 

73.     JALIA:

 

          He belonged to the fishermen tribe of Orissa.  This Jalia was the fortunate person who rescued Lord Chaitanya, when He had plunged into the sea, mistaking it to be the Jamuna (CC. 3.18.31,38,44,46,52,53,54,64,69,71,72).

 

74.     JANAKI:

 

          A pandita, Janaki lived under the shelter of Bhimashri kara of Dharenda in the district of Midnapur. (Rasikamangala Daksina 5.27)

 

75.     JANAKINATHA:

 

          A brahmana by caste, Janakinatha belonged to Chaitanya-sakha (CC. 1.10.114)

 

76.     JANAKIVALLABHA CAUDHURI:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

77.     JANAKI VISVASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Gatigovinda (Karnananda 2).

 

78.     JANAKIRAMA DASA:

 

          A karan by caste and a resident of Vanavisnupura in the district of Bankura, Janakirama was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya.  His surname was Visvas.  His father was Karunakara dasa, alias Majumdar.  He had a brother named Prasada dasa.  Janakirama and Prasada, both had excellent hand-writing and did most of the manuscript work for Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 1).

 

79.     JANAMEJAYA MITRA:

 

          He was the father of Raja Rajendralala Mitra. Several padas composed by him have been included within Sankarsanabhanita.  He published his own composition in a book entitled Sangitarasarnava in 1860 AD., wherein some padavali composed by his grandfather, Pitamvara Mitra, have been included.

 

80.     JANANANDA CAUDHURI:

 

          A resident of Shrikhanda in the district of Burdwan, Janananda belonged to the sakha of Raghunandana Thakura. His father's name was Cakrapani.

 

 

81.     JANARDANA:

 

          A resident of Orissa, Janardana was a great devotee and a permanent sevaka of Lord Jagannatha in Puri. Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya introduced Janardana to Lord Chaitanya when the Lord returned after His pilgrimage of South India (CC. 2.10.41).

 

82.     JANARDANA DASA:

 

          He belonged to the sakha of Advaita Prabhu (CC. 1.12.60).

 

83.     JANARDANA DASA RAYA:

 

          He was a kulina brahmana and a resident of Navadvipa.  His father was Subhananda Raya, and his brother was Raghunatha.  The famous devotees Jagai and Madhai were the sons of Janardana and Raghunatha respectively.

 

84.     JANARDANA MISRA:

 

          He was a sevaka of Lord Jagannatha in Puri (CC. 2.10.41).

 

85.     JANARDANA MISRA:

 

          He was the sixth son of Upendra Misra, the grandfather of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.3.58).

 

86.     JANARDANA VIPRA:

 

          A resident of Olamba village in Punjab, Janardana received diksa from Krishnadasa of Gunjamali and later became the mahanta of the Gadi of that place.  Afterwards he initiated his younger brother, Syamaji, and after handing over the charge of the Gadi to him, Janardana went on pilgrimage to Sindhu and other places to propagate namaprema (Bhaktamala 21.6).

 

87.     JANU RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Advaita Prabhu's wife Sita devi.  Janu Raya is mentioned in the Sitacaritra by Lokanatha dasa (Bangabhasa O Sahitya).

 

88.     JANGLIPRIYADASI (JANGLI):

 

          She was a disciple as well as an attendant of Sita devi, wife of Advaita Prabhu (Premavilasa 24).  In course of time, Janglidasi attained great miraculous power. Once Jangli was worshiping Lord Krishna within a dense forest infested with tigers and bears.  The Badsaha of Gaudadesa happened to come across her in the course of his "sikara" rounds and being overwhelmed by her beauty he attempted to seduce her.  Suddenly he realized that Janglipriya was not a woman but a man.  To satisfy his curiosity he asked, "Are you a purusa or a nari?"  Jangli said, "Women see me as a female and men see me as a male."  In order to verify the truth, Badsaha sent one of his female attendants, who came back after meeting Janglipriya and confirmed that the she was a female. Immediately afterwards the Badsaha sent a male attendant who returned to confirm that Jangli was a man. Badsaha then realized his foolishness and went back to Janglipriya to beg for her pardon.  Janglipriya forgave the

         Badsaha and showered her mercy upon him.  In token of his respect, the Badsaha constructed a house there and offered it to Janglipriyadasi.  The place later came to be known as "Janglitota".  (Premavilasa 24)

 

          However, the book entitled Sitacaritra by Lokanatha dasa and CCU. state that Janglipriya was not a woman. Jangli was a resident of Hariharapura near Santipura and his real name was Jagnesvara Cakravarti (alias Rajakumara).  After receiving diksa from Sita devi, he came to be known as Janglipriya, because he did his sadhana at a place called Jangli-tota in the district of Maldaha.  Nandarama, who was a disciple of Janglipriya, was also known as Haripriya and was the author of the book entitled Krishnamisra Caritra.  According to Gauraganoddesadipika 89, Janglipriya was Vajaya-sakhi in his past incarnation (Buchanon Hamilton's Purnea report, p. 273; and Uttara radhiya kayastha kanda, Vol. III, p.185-187).

 

89.     JAYADEVA:

 

          He was born at Kenduvilva (presently Kenduli) village in the district of Birbhum around the 11th century.  According to Vanamali dasa, the author of Jayadevacaritra, and a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya, Jayadeva was alive in the 15th century.  It would therefore, seem that the author was not aware of the contemporary historical events during Jayadeva's lifetime.  It is recorded (Ancient manuscript of Gita Govinda) that Jayadeva was a court pandita during the reign of Raja Laksmana Sena of Gauda.  Evidently, Jayadeva was of a much earlier period.

 

          Alamkarasekhara, which was written at the command of Raja Manikyacandra, the last ruler of Gauda before the Muslims conquered Delhi, mentions that Jayadeva was a court poet of the Raja of Utkaladesa.

           

          Bhaktimahatmya in sanskrit and also Bhaktamala provide information on Jayadeva as follows:  At an early age Jayadeva embraced vairagya and migrated to Purusottama ksetra, where he lived by offering seva to Purusottama.  Lord Jagannatha was pleased by Jayadeva's bhakti-bhava.  The ruler of Orissa was also extremely fond of him.  Jayadeva gave diksa to some of his disciples there.

 

          A certain brahmana, who had no issue, worshiped Lord Jagannatha and was blessed with a daughter.  After the daughter, who was named Padmavati, grew up, the brahmana took her to Purusottama and offered her to the Lord.  The brahmana then received a command from the Lord:  "One of my sevaka named Jayadeva has renounced home and has dedicated himself to My service.  Go and offer your daughter to him."  The brahmana went to Jayadeva's place along with Padmavati and after explaining the command of Lord Purusottama requested Jayadeva to accept Padmavati as his wife.  Although Jayadeva refused to marry her, the brahmana left Padmavati with Jayadeva and returned home. Jayadeva was very embarrassed and asked Padmavati, "Where do you wish to go?  Come with me and I shall take you there, because you cannot stay here."  With a pathetic voice the girl answered, "At the command of Lord Jagannatha my father has offered me to you, you are my husband, my life.  Even if you forsake me, I shall not leave you but serve at your feet to the best of my ability."  Jayadeva had no other alternative but to marry Padmavati and become a householder again.  He then installed a Deity of Narayana in the house.

 

          With the passage of time Jayadeva's attachment for Krishna increased and while floating on the waves of KrishnaA prema he composed the book of verses entitled Gitagovinda.  While Jayadeva was writing this book he had described various rasa's and bhava's within his writings yet it still lacked the touch of khandita-madhura-rasa. However, at one point he did not have the courage to depict Lord Krishna, the Jagatpati, Paramapurusa, touching the feet of Radhika, the Prakriti.  One day, while Jayadeva had gone out for his routine bath in the sea, Lord Jagannatha Himself, taking the form of Jayadeva, came into the room and wrote down the verse "Dehipadapallavamudaram" in Jayadeva's manuscript book. Padmavati, who was surprised to see Jayadeva (Lord Jagannatha) had returned so quickly from taking his bath, said, "What is the matter?  You just left a few minutes ago, why have you returned so soon?"  Lord Krishna, in the guise of Jayadeva said, "While on my way to the sea, a thought occurred to me, I didn't want to forget it so I came back to note it down."  Soon after Lord Krishna had disappeared, Jayadeva returned from his bath. Padmavati was shocked to see Jayadeva return again so quickly and in her confusion said, "You went for your bath and soon came back to write something down in your book and left again just a few minutes ago.  How could you finish your bath within such a short time and return home?  I would like to know who was that person who came here to write something down in your book and who are you actually?" Jayadeva, understanding the significance of the incident narrated by Padmavati, at once went inside and quickly opened the book and the divine writing revealed the presence of his Lord Krishna.  He felt such ecstasy of love that tears rolled down over his chest.  He then called his wife and said, You are the most fortunate person because you have attained the goal of your birth.  You had the darsana of Lord Krishna, and I am such a fallen soul that I have been deprived of the darsana of His manifested Self."

 

          The fame of Gitagovinda spread far and wide. Bhaktas and Bhavukuas, all became overjoyed to hear the song recitals from Gitagovinda.  It is said (Visvakos), that one day a woman gardener was singing verses from Gitagovinda while seated in her garden, when Lord Jagannatha, charmed by the music, arrived there to listen to it.  As a result the Lord's body was covered with dirt and thorns.  When Utkalaraja went into the temple he noticed the marks of dirt etc. on the Deity of Lord Jagannatha and immediately called for an explanation from the attendants.  The Lord explained the episode of His going to the garden to hear the music of the malini.  The Raja at once sent his men to bring the malini before him. The Raja then listened to the musical verses of Gitagovinda rendered by her.  The descendants of this malini recite verses from Gitagovinda regularly in the temple of Lord Jagannatha-Puri even today.

 

          Greatly appreciating Jayadeva's work, the Utkalaraja wrote a book himself under the same title and offered it at the lotus feet of Lord Jagannatha.  However, Lord Purusottama picked up the book written by the Raja and threw it away, leaving Jayadeva's Gitagovinda as it is. The incident hurt the Raja so deeply that he decided to jump into the sea and commit suicide.  However, Lord Jagannatha appeared on the scene and prevented him from doing so.  The Lord pacified the Raja, assuring him that 12 slokas composed by the Raja would be included at the beginning of the book Gitagovinda written by Jayadeva. Since then, verses from Gitagovinda are recited daily at the temple of Lord Jagannatha-Puri.

 

          Radhamadhava always took great care of His Jayadeva. It is recorded in Bhaktamala that once Jayadeva was repairing the roof of his cottage during a hot summer afternoon.  Lord Hari took pity upon him and to minimized the sufferings of His devotee Jayadeva, The Lord Himself began to drill holes in the covering sheets and pass them to Jayadeva, who was happily thinking that it was his wife Padmavati helping him.  However, when he came down after finishing the job he did not find anyone there. Jayadeva realized that he must have been helped by his ever merciful Lord Hari and thus he offered humble prayers to the Lord with renewed devotion.  On another occasion Radhamadhava, in the guise of Jayadeva, partook of rice bhoga prepared by Padmavati.

 

 

          Once Jayadeva set out for raising funds for seva and utsava of Radhamadhava from different states.  Some dacoits waylaid him and, after looting all his belongings, cut off his limbs and threw Jayadeva's body in a well.  A certain Raja, during his sikara rounds, happened to pass that way, when he heard someone chanting the name of Lord Krishna from inside a well.  The Raja then rescued Jayadeva and took him in his own palanquin to the palace.  At the advice of Jayadeva, the Raja introduced daily Vaishnava-seva at his palace.  One day, the gang of dacoits that had robbed Jayadeva, arrived at the palace disguised as Vaishnavas.  Jayadeva recognised them, yet made special arrangements to look after their comfort. Fearing that Jayadeva would take revenge on them and have them killed, the dacoits attempted to escape without success because the royal guards would not allow them to leave the palace without the permission of Jayadeva. However, Jayadeva, having read their minds, made arrangements to pay them sufficient money and had them escorted to a safe place. After traveling some distance, the dacoits took leave of the royal guards saying, "We were employed by a certain Raja to kill Jayadeva.  We had cut off his limbs and threw him in a well.  He has now come to your palace and become a fraud mahanta.  To avoid being detected, Jayadeva paid us money to get rid of us. The dacoits had hardly finished their statement when all of them dropped flat on the ground as if hit by some unseen force.  On their return to the palace, the guards narrated the episode before the Raja.  Jayadeva then explained the factual incident involving the dacoits and added, "One should be kind even towards evil souls.  That is why I showed respect to the dacoits by offering money instead of doing harm to them."

 

          The Maharani and Padmavati had developed a close friendly relationship through constant association.  One day the Rani, while discussing the subject of shamarana with Padmavati, began to lament thinking of her ownself. Padmavati explained that after the death of a husband, the wife becomes lifeless.  The Rani remembered this remark and in order to test the truthfulness of Padmavati, the Rani one day arranged to circulate a false rumor that Jayadeva was dead.  Padmavati, true wife that she was, passed away as soon as she heard the news of her husband's death.  Later, Jayadeva brought Padmavati back to life by chanting the holy name in her ear.  At that point Jayadeva felt a desire to visit Vrndavana.  Taking his Deity Radhamadhava with him he went to Vrndavana and stayed at Kesighata for sometime.  A certain wealthy devotee, charmed by Radhamadhava, constructed a temple at Kesighata, where the Deity of Radhamadhava was installed. After Jayadeva passed away, the Maharaja of Jaipur took Radhamadhava away with him and had it re-installed at a place called Ghati in Jaipur.

 

          During the last stage of his life, Jayadeva returned to his home at Kenduli village and lived there till the end.  It is said (Visvakos) that Jayadeva used to go for a bath in the Ganges daily about 36 miles away from Kenduli.  One day he was unable to go and felt disturbed about it.  However, to alleviate the distress of her devotee, Gangadevi, came roaring in a stream up to Kenduli village.

 

          Jayadeva breathed his last at Kenduli village and in his memory a mela is held every year on the day of MaghaA sankranti.  More than fifty thousand devotees attend this mela yearly.

 

          Jayadeva's Gitagovinda is considered an invaluable asset by one and all.  The book has been translated into Hindi, Bengali, Odiya, Assamese and also in many other foreign languages.  The following persons have written tika's on Gitagovinda:  1) Udayanacarya, 2) Kamalakara,     3) Kumbhakarna Mahendra, 4) Krishnadatta, 5) Krishnadasa, 6) Gopala, 7) Chaitanyadasa, 8) Narayana Bhatta, 9) Narayanadasa, 10) Pitamvara, 11) Bhagavad dasa, 12) Bhavacarya, 13) Mananka, 14) Ramatarana, 15) Ramadatta, 16) Rupadeva Pandita, 17) Laksmana Bhatta, 18) Laksmana Suri, 19) Vanamali Bhatta, 20) Viththala Diksita, 21) Visvesvara Bhatta, 22) Sankara Misra, 23) Shriharsa, 24) Hridayavarana and others.  Besides this, two books of tika entitled Valavodini and Vacanamalika by some unknown authors are also available on Gitagovinda. (Visvakos Vol. VI p. 663-665)

 

 

90.     JAYADEVA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.159).

 

91.     JAYADEVA DASA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava padakarta (Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka).

 

92.     JAYADURGA DEVI:

 

          She was the godmother of Maddhyacarya, who married Nityananda Prabhu's daughter Ganga devi.  Bhagiratha Acarya was the husband of Jayadurga and his two sons were named Shrinatha and Shripati.  Jayadurga was a childhood friend of Malaksmi devi, wife of Visvesvara Acarya (Premavilasa 21).

 

93.     JAYAGOPALA:

 

          A kayastha by caste and a resident of Kandada village in the district of Burdwan, Jayagopala was expelled from the society by Virabhadra Gosvami, son of Nityananda Prabhu because he offended his spiritual master. (Bhaktiratnakara 14.180-183)

 

94.     JAYAGOPALA DATTA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Narottamavilasa 12).

 

95.     JAYAGOPALA DASA:

 

          He was the father of Balarama dasa of the famous Mangala Thakura-vamsa of Kandada in the district of Burdwan.  He wrote two books entitled Krishnavilasa and Jnanapradipadi.  He was a disciple of Sundarananda.

 

96.     JAYAGOPALA DASA:

 

          He was the guru of Ghanasyamadasa, who wrote a book entitled Krishnavilasa.  Jayagopala himself wrote a book entitled Bhaktibhavapradipa based on Vaishnava-nivandha in Sanskrit. In 1629 he wrote another called Bhaktiratnakara in Sanskrit.

 

97.     JAYAGOPALA TARKALANKARA:

 

          A renowned scholar, Jayagopala was born in Bajarapura village in the district of Nadia (now Jessore in Bangladesh) in 1775 AD.  His father Kevalarama Tarkapancanana was a sabha-pandita in the court of the Raja of Natore.  Jayagopala received his education at Kasi. He was extremely proficient in Sahitya-sastra.  He was the foremost philologist amongst his contemporary scholars.

 

          Jayagopala's first marriage took place in 1795 AD., and his father passed away at Kasidhama in 1803 AD. Thereafter he was confronted with considerable financial difficulty.  However, after much effort, he secured employment under Mr. Carey in 1805 AD., when he was thirty years old.  He married for the second time at the age of fifty-six years.  By dint of sheer merit Jayagopala got a job as a professor of literature in the Sanskrit college.  Vidyasagara, Tarasankara, Madanamohana, Shrisacandra, the renonwned sons of Bengal, were all students of Jayagopala.  He was also foremost among Supreme Court judges and panditas of the time. Famous Christian missionaries like Messrs Carey and Marshman learned Sanskrit and Bengali from Jayagopala. Afterwards these missionaries established the Bengali script press at Shriramapura, and published the first Bengali edition of The Ramayana of Krittivasa and The Mahabharata of Kasiramadasa, appropriately revised by Jayagopala. Through the sincere efforts of Carey and Marshman the Bengali language was set in motion.  In fact, Jayagopala was the pioneer who gave the mother language of Bengal a new look, for which every Bengali would feel a sense of gratitude. 

 

          Jayagopala was also an accomplished poet.  Several pieces of poetry have the distinct touch of rhythmic and poetic brilliance.  The Ramayana and the Mahabharata currently in circulation in Bengal bear the stamp of Jayagopala's poetic achievements.  Original copies of the Ramayana and Mahabharata are rarely available now. Jayagopala, as a poet and a scholar, did a great service to the poorer sections of the Bengali community by publishing the holy books in their language.  On the other hand he seemed to have done great harm to the Bengali language by incorporating revisions in the ancient Ramayana.  This has deprived the Bengali's from knowing and appreciating the Bengali language in its's ancient stage.  At the beginning of the Virataparva in the Shriramapura edition of the Mahabharata, there is a hymn which is said to have been composed by Vyasa.  Since that hymn does not appear in any other edition of the holy book, it may be assumed that the hymn was composed by Jayagopala himself.

 

          Other works compiled by Jayagopala are as follows: Haribhaktyatmika by Bilvamangala; A dictionary entitled Parsi Abhidhana; and Sadarituvarnana which consists of several small poems.

 

          During Jayagopala's time, the Sanskrit language was keenly studied and cultivated at Bajarapura, the birthplace of Jayagopala. In fact his brothers and their sons were all very proficient in Nyayasastra, Jotisasastra, and Sahityasastra.

 

 

          Towards the end of his Bengali translation of Bilvamangala's Sanskrit verses, Jayagopala has written a sloka in Sanskrit which mentions the name of Mahesacandra Cattopadhyaya of Bajarapura.  From this it would seem that Jayagopala had undertaken the work of translation at the command of this Mahesa Cattopadhyaya.

 

          Jayagopala, a brahmana of varendra class, although married twice, did not have any offspring of his own. Eventually, he adopted a son, who is said to be alive even today.

 

          Jayagopala breathed his last on the second lunar day of the bright fortnight of Caitra-masa (Mar-Apr) in 1844 AD. (Visvakos, Vol VI, p.660-661).

 

98.     JAYAGOVINDA VASU CAUDHURI:

 

          A resident of Benapura village in the district of Burdwan, Jayagovinda translated Brihad Bhagavatamrta in 1842 AD., in different prosodical meters.

 

99.     JAYAKRSNA:

 

          Jayakrishna was a renowned author who wrote Sanskrit works such as Bhaktiratnavali, Haribhaktisamagama etc. (Visvakos Vol. VI p.660).

 

100.    JAYAKRSNA:

 

          He was a famous Sanskrit poet.  His fathers name was Balakrishna.  Jayakrishna wrote several books in Sanskrit entitled, Ajamilopakhyana, Krishnastotra, Krishnacaritra, Dhruva-caritra, Prahlada-caritra, Vamana-caritra etc. (Visvakos Vol. VI p.660)

 

101.    JAYAKRSNA:

 

          He was a poet.  Some of his verses have been included in Kavicandrodaya. (Visvakos Vol. VI p.660)

 

102.    JAYAKRSNA ACARYA:

 

          Jayakrishna was the eldest son of Shridasa Thakura, and the disciple of Isvari devi, wife of Shrinivasa Acarya. His Shripata was at Kavcangaria. (Anuragavali 7, Karnananda 2)

 

103.    JAYAKRSNADASA BABAJI:

 

          The tradition of raganuga bhakti presently in practice among the virakta Vaishnavas and householderA devotees of Vrajamandala can be traced to Siddha Jayakrishna dasa Babaji of Kamyavana who first introduced it.  It is not known how Jayakrishna was blessed to do so. During the period in which Jayakrishna lived, Jagadananda dasa pandita Babaji (alias Jagadisa Bhattacarya Sarvabhauma) of Radhakunda was a very influential persons.  Jayakrishna had a deep friendly relationship with Mahanta Bhagavanadasa Babaji, a resident of Ramadia village of Faridpur district, the bheka-guru of Jagadananda dasa.  Once Mahanta came over to Kamyavana and stayed for some day with Jayakrishna.  The two became so close to each other that when it was time for them to part they both fell unconscious.  After staying for one full month, Mahantaji finally left Kamyavana.  (This episode was narrated by Kaminikumar Ghosh as he heard Advaitadasa Babaji describe it.  Advaitadasa Babaji was a student of Jagadananda dasa, an unprecedented teacher of Shri Harinamamrta Vyakarana, and accomplished singer of Garanhati kirtana tradition, and an erudite teacher.)

 

          It is understood through parampara that Siddha Baba belonged to the family lineage of Gangamata Gosvamini. Once he was practicing bhajan at a place called Bicellivasa at Kamyavana when Navakisora Gosvami arrived there carrying the Radha Madanamohana Deities. Navakisora was the son of Laksmikanta Prabhu of Dhaka, a descendant of Nityananda Prabhu's family.  On his pilgrimage in Vrajadhama he stayed for some days at the bhajan kutir of Siddha Baba.  As Navakisora was preparing to leave Vraja he received the following command in a dream from Radha Madanamohana:  "I am satisfied with your seva and now, I shall accept the seva of Babaji Mahasaya; I shall not move from here."  On receiving this order Navakisora left and Babaji Mahasaya continued the service of Madanamohana.

 

          Jagadanandaji used to glorify Jayakrishna dasa saying, "Siddha Baba has attained true perfection at the feet of Lord Krishna."  While attending sessions on Bhagavata katha, Siddha Baba would become so absorbed with love that even the tuft of hair on his head would rise up.  It is said that once, while practicing his bhajan, Siddha baba let out a roaring exclamation of love which cracked the roof of his bhajan kutir (which is still visible). Siddha Baba always stayed awake throughout the entire night chanting the holy name.  He took diksa in the mantra of Lord Chaitanya.  Sometimes he would eat enormous quantities of prasada and at other times he would fast for days.  However, he never relaxed his fixed program of bhajan.

 

          Both Siddha Krishnadasa Babaji of Govardhana and Siddha Madhusudana dasa Babaji of Suryakunda were loyal to Jayakrishna dasa.  After Jayakrishna received the Madanamohana Deities one young Babaji came to assist him with the service of the Deities.  This young Babaji, by dint of his modesty, attachment to service, and devotion to Jayakrishna, soon received the grace of Siddha Jayakrishna.  Out of deep affection Jayakrishna desired to teach this young Babaji raganuga bhajan and asked him whether he had any guru-pranali.  The young Babaji answered, "I am not aware what guru-pranali is, nor did I inquire from my gurudeva about it."  Siddha Jayakrishna then explained that raganuga bhajan meant serving in utter loyalty to siddha gurus through the body of a siddha-gopi.  He explained that this was the only way to attain the loving service of Shri Radha Govinda.  For this purpose, Jayakrishna instructed the young Babaji to return to his homeland and bring back information from his gurudeva and his guru-pranali, thereafter Jayakrishna would initiate him into raganuga bhajan.

 

          No doubt the young Babaji was anxious to know about raganuga bhajan but he was so deeply absorbed in serving Madanamohana and Siddha Jayakrishna that at the thought of parting with them he burst into tears.  Jayakrishna comforted him and eventually convinced him to bring his gurupranali from Gaudamandala.  Thus the young Babaji tearfully set out one night walking to Hathras to catch the train.  In those days there was no railway route connecting Mathura and Bengal. Passengers going to Bengal had to catch the train at Hathras.  As he approached Hathras the Babaji desperately prayed to Shri Radharani and Vrndadevi that he may die before boarding the train. Radharani responded to the young Babaji's prayer and the train departed, leaving him standing on the platform. 

 

          Meanwhile, Vrndadevi admonished Siddha Jayakrishna in a dream saying, "Why did you send away that young Babaji? His gurupranali is lying on the throne where your Deities stand."  Siddha Jayakrishna awoke startled and though he did not see Vrndadevi, he apologized to Her quietly in his mind.  Early in the morning after finishing his bath, he entered into the temple and found the gurupranali on the throne of Madanamohana.  Holding it carefully clasped to his chest and remembering the grace showered upon him by Vrndadevi, Siddha Jayakrishna went to the temple of Govindaji and tearfully apologized to the Lord, praying that the young Babaji would return safely.

 

          Returning to his bhajan kutir, Siddha Jayakrishna awaited the arrival of the Babaji, frequently looking at the road in anticipation as he attended to his daily Deity service.  Shortly before evening the young Babaji arrived completely exhausted with thirst and hunger. Because he had disobeyed the order of Jayakrishna, the Baba approached fearfully with tears in his eyes and fell at the feet of Jayakrishna.  Siddha Baba was ecstatic and held the young Babaji in his embrace, bathing him with his tears.  The young Baba explained how he had returned and apologized for disobeying his command.  Being in anxiety about the young Baba, Jayakrishna had not taken any prasada for two days.  Now they sat together happily and Siddha Baba explained how Vrndadevi had showered her grace upon the young Babaji.  After this episode Jayakrishna came to be known as "Siddha" in Vraja.

 

 

          As stated by the revered Krpasindhu Babaji, Siddha Jayakrishna attained perfection in vairagya vidya and bhajan.  Jayakrishna never met with any materialistic persons or kings.  During his first visit around Vrajamandala Jayakrishna chose a site for his bhajan on the bank of Vimalakunda in Kamyavana, as commanded by Vrndadevi.  In those days Kamyavana belonged to the king of Bharatpur.  Hearing about the spiritual power of Siddha Jayakrishna, the king made several unsuccessful attempts to meet him.  Finally, the king, disguised as a beggar, went to Jayakrishna's bhajan kutir.  At that time Siddha Baba was out for his bhiksa collection in the village.  On the way back to his kutir, Jayakrishna stopped half-way home and raised an uproar alerting the villagers,  "My brothers!  My thatched hut has caught fire.  Please hurry and put out the fire."  Siddha Jayakrishna, however, continued to sit in the village as the villagers rushed to his kutir.  They arrived at his kutir only to find the king waiting there in disguise. Overcome with surprise and awe, the villagers explained to the king what had happened.  The king left feeling deeply hurt and fearful that he had incurred the wrath of Siddha Baba.  The king of Bharatpur was a servant of the Vaishnavas and hence this incident, instead of making him feel humiliated, aroused detachment and humility in him. Indirectly the king attained the grace of Siddha Baba.

 

          Some days later some cowherd boys began teasing Siddha Baba to such an extent the he decided to move elsewhere.  However, the villagers encouraged him to stay and built a hut for him, wherein Siddha Baba practiced bhajan day and night.  Once a day, before sunset, he bathed in Vimalakunda and left for madhukari in the village.  One day while Siddha Baba was absorbed in the mood of loving separation from his Lord, numerous cows and cowherd boys turned up all around Vimalakunda.  The cowherd boys called out to Siddha Baba:  "Babaji! We are thirsty, please give us some drinking water."  Siddha Baba, who had previously been irritated by these boys did not respond to their calls but sat quietly in his kutir. The cowherd boys continued to tease him in various ways saying, "Listen you Bengali Babaji!  We know what sort of bhajan you are doing.  You are a merciless slaughterer by nature.  Babaji, come out of your kutir, give us some water, we are extremely thirsty."  This infuriated the Babaji and he came out of his hut with a stick in his hand and saw countless cows and cowherd boys with unearthly beauty.

 

          Seeing them Babaji calmed down and asked, "My children, from where have you all come?  Where do you stay?  They answered, "We live at Nandgaon."  Babaji asked the name of one of the boys and he replied, "My name is Kanhaiya."  Pointing to another boy, Babaji asked his name and the answer was, "Baldeo".  The first boy now said, "Look Babaji, first let us have a drink of water and then let us talk."  Siddha Baba affectionately offered them a drink from his pitcher.  The boys then spoke as follows:  "Look here, Babaji, we cover a long distance to come here each day and we have to go back thirsty.  You must keep some water and food for us." Babaji told them not to expect food from him everyday, and went back inside his hut.  There he continued to think about the amazing beauty of the cows and the extraordinary beauty of the cowherd boys and decided that they could not be mortal creatures.  Thinking in this way he eagerly came back out desiring to see them again but found no one there. 

 

          Siddha Baba was utterly miserable and lamented his misfortune over and over, until he passed into a transcendent state.  Lord Krishna then appeared before him and comforted him saying, "Please do not feel sorry, I shall come to you tomorrow."  Siddha Baba gradually regained consciousness and waited impatiently.  The next day an aged Vraja woman arrived there carrying a Deity of Gopala and said, "My father, I am unable to offer regular service to this Deity, you please take care of serving Him."  Babaji said, "How can I take this responsibility? Where will I get the items for offering regular seva?" The old woman promised that she would arrange for the daily supply of items needed.  Charmed by the beauty of Gopala, Siddha Baba took charge of serving Him.  That night in a dream Siddha Baba learned that the aged woman was none but Vrndadevi.

 

          Siddha Baba died on the twelfth day of the bright fortnight in Caitra (April-May).  On the eve of his death he manifested symptoms of Abhisarika-bhava saying, "Where is my gown?  Where is my veil?" until he breathed his last.

 

104.    JAYARAMA:

 

          A Vaidantika, he was also known as Jayaramacarya and Vijayaramacarya.  He wrote a sastriya book entitled Pasandacapetika in Sanskrit putting forward arguments against the philosophy propounded by the Madhvasampradaya.  (Visvakos Vol. VI p.682)

 

105.    JAYARAMA:

 

          He wrote a tika of Padyamrta Tarangini which was entitled Sapanaracana.  (Visvakos Vol. VI, p.682)

 

106.    JAYARAMA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          A resident of Navadvipa, Jayarama was the maternal grandfather of Svarupa Damodara.  Padmagarbhacarya married Jayarama's daughter.  (Premavilasa 24)

 

 

 

107.    JAYARAMA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          A disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya, Jayarama's Shripata was at Kausona in Gauda (Anuragavalli 7th).  Syama Bhatta, Krishna Parohita and Jayarama lived in the same village (Karnananda 1).

 

108.    JAYARAMA CAUDHARI:

 

          A resident of Orissa, Jayarama was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya (Premavilasa 20).

 

109.    JAYARAMADASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Gatigovinda, son of Shrinivasa Acarya.  His Shripata was at Sonaradi village (Kauravakando 2)

 

110.    JAYARAMA TARKALANKARA:

 

          A varendra class brahmana, Jayarama was a resident of Pabna district (Bangladesh).  His father, Jayadasa, was  a court pandita for the Raja of Putia.  In his old age Jayarama came to live at Navadvipa.  Jayarama was a student of the famous Naiyaika Gadadhara.  He was a wellA known scholar and wrote a detailed tika of Saktivada by Gadadhara.  (Visvakos Vol. VI, p.682)

 

111.    JAYARAMA TARKAVAGISA:

 

          A famous pandita of Bengal, Jayarama wrote two books in Sanskrit entitled Bhagavadgitarthsamgraha and Bhagvadparanapratham Sloka Vakhya.

 

112.    JAYATIRTHA:

 

          A renowned philosopher, Jayatirtha (also known as Dhundhu Raghunatha) was a disciple of Padmanava and Aksyobhyatirtha.  He wrote several books in Sanskrit.  He also wrote tika's on many books of which the following are important:  Tika entitled Prameyadipika on Bhagavadgitabhasya;  Nyayadipika on Gitatatparyanirvaya; As well as tika's on Vishnutattva Nirnaya and Anubhasya. He wrote a book entitled Vedantavadavali. (Visvakos Vol. VI p. 662)

 

113.    JHADU THAKURA:

 

          A bhuinmali (gardener) by caste, he was a great Vaishnava devotee (CC. 3.16.14).  It is said (GVA) that Jhadu Thakura was born in a village called Bhuto Akna near Trisbigha in the district of Hoogly.  Jhadu's wife was also a devotee of Lord Chaitanya.

 

114.    JITA MITRA:

 

          He belonged to Gadadhara sakha (CC. 1.12.83).  He was Syama-manjari in his past incarnation (Gauraganoddesadipika 195, 200).  He wrote a book entitled Krishna Madhurya.

 

115.    JIODA NRSIMHA BARAT:

 

          He was born in a Vaidya caste family in Burdwan district.  He held a high position in the Judges'          Court of Burdwan and was a wealthy man.  At the time Ramatanu Mukhopadhyaya Bhagavatabhusana was preaching the glories of Lord Gauranga, this Jioda Nrsimha was practicing Gaura bhajan in his Burdwan home amongst his associates. Having heard of Nrsimha's devotion for Gauranga, Bhagavatabhusana paid him a visit at his house.  The two spent days together in the ecstasy of bhajan.  At a later date Nrsimha met Siddha Chaitanyadasa Babaji of Navadvipa and gave him diksa in Gauramantra.  Both Chaitanyadasa and Jioda Nrsimha practiced Gaura-upasana in Kantabhava. Bhagavatabhusana acknowledged Lord Gauranga as the supreme avatara but later, due to some difference of opinion between himself and Jioda Nrsimha, Bhagavatabhusana left his company.

 

116.    JIVA (JIVA PANDITA):

 

          He was the son of Ratnagarbha Acarya.  He was one of the parsada's of Nityananda Prabhu (CBh. 2.1.295-296). He was upamahanta and gopi Indira in his past incarnation (Gauraganoddesadipika 169).

 

117.    JIVA DASA:

 

          He was disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu.

 

         

 

118.    JIVA GOSVAMI:

 

          (Chaitanya sakha)  He was one of the six gosvamis of the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradaya.  Vaishnavadikadarsani provides the following information about him: 

 

          He was born in 1445 or 1435 saka (1523 or 1513 AD.), in either Abhirbhava-Sukla tritiya of Pausa (Dec-Jan) or Tirebhava-Sukla tritiya of Asvina (Sept-Oct). He was alive for eighty-five years, twenty years of which he lived at home and sixty-five years were spent in Vrndavana.  Jiva's father was named Vallabha, although he was more commonly known as Anupama which was the name given to him by Lord Chaitanya.  Jiva lived in three places; Bakula Candradvipa, Fateyavad, and Ramakeli.  He spent more time at Ramakeli with Rupa and Sanatana, the two elder brothers of his father Vallabha.  Rupa and Sanatana were the ministers in the royal court of King Hussain Shah. 

 

          When Lord Chaitanya visited Ramakeli, Jiva, who was a mere boy, secretly had darsana of the Lord.  That darsana had such an impact upon Jiva that he immediately gave up playing like a child and developed Chaitanya-anuraga. Thereafter, Rupa, Sanatana and Vallabha went to Vrndavana.  After visiting Vrndavana, Rupa and Vallabha left for Nilacala and along the way Vallabha passed away. Jiva was deeply grieved by the loss of his father and a mood of detachment from all worldly comforts arose within him.   One night Lord Chaitanya and Nityananda Prabhu appeared to him in a dream, which inspired him to leave Candradvipa and set out for Navadvipa, telling his family members that he was going away to study.  Near Fateyavad he got rid of his escorts, keeping only one of them with him. 

 

          Jiva had a fair complexion and extremely handsome features.  Upon arriving in Navadvipa he had the good fortune of receiving Nityananda Prabhu's grace, who touched Jiva's head with His feet.  The devotees of Navadvipa, including Shrinivasa, took great care of Jiva, and Jiva was extremely grateful.  Nityananda Prabhu took Jiva on parikrama to all the places of Mahaprabhu's pastimes in Navadvipa.  Thereafter Jiva requested Nityananda Prabhu to either permit him to go to Nilacala or else allow him to remain as Nityananda Prabhu's life long companion. However, Nityananda Prabhu denied both requests and commanded Jiva to first go to Kasi and study Vedanta, philosophy, etc. under Madhusudana Vacaspati and then go to Vrndavana.  (After Vasudeva Sarvabhauma admitted defeat to Lord Chaitanya, he taught his favorite disciple, Madhusudana Vacaspati the philosophy of Lord Chaitanya.)

 

          Taking leave of Nityananda Prabhu, Jiva went to the house of Tapana Misra at Kasi and completed his study of Vedanta, Nyaya, etc. under Madhusudana Vacaspati.  In that sense Madhusudana was Jiva's Vaidantika guru (Bhaktiratnakara).  Thereafter Jiva went to Vrndavana and Rupa and Sanatana, Jiva's uncles, happily received their nephew.  Jiva then received diksa from Rupa Gosvami.

 

          The following are the works of Jiva Gosvami in Sanskrit:

 

1.  Satsandarbha (on philosophy)

2.  Gopalacampu

          3.  Govinda Virudavali

          4.  Harinamamrta Vyakarana (This vyakarana has been written exclusively on the basis of the lessons imparted by Lord Chaitanya after His return from Gaya. Study of this book will benefit a reader not only in vyakarana but also in Bhaktisastra.)

5.  Dhatusutramalika (Vyakarana)

6.  Madhuvamahotsava

          7.  Samkalpa Kalpavringa

          8.  Radhakrsnera Pada Cinha-vinirnaya Grantha

          9.  Tika of Ujjalanilamani

          10. Tika of Bhatirasamrtasindhu

          11. Tika of Gopalatapani Upanisada

          12. Tika of Brahmasamhitopanisada

          13. Agnipuraniya Gayatribhasya

          14. Vaishnavatosani (Tika of Shrimad Bhagavatam)

          15. Bhagavata Sandarbha (at the command of Rupa and                  Sanatana)

          16. Muktacaritra

          17. Sarasamgraha

 

          At the end of each of his books Jiva Gosvami has mentioned the saka period in which it was completed.

 

          In Vrndavana Jiva defeated two renowned scholars in debate.  Bhaktamala mentions one of these incidents, and Premavilasa discusses his encounter with Rupanarayana. 

 

          Once Vallabha Bhatta, the renowned scholar and proud founder of the Vaishnava Vallabha sampradaya, had an encounter with Jiva Gosvami which is described as follows:

          While Rupa Gosvami was writing the manuscript of his book     Bhaktirasamrtasindhu, Vallabha Bhatta arrived there, took the papers from Rupa, glanced through them, and before leaving pointed out the mistakes in a sloka.  Jiva Gosvami    ould not tolerate the insult to his guru, Rupa. However, instead of taking up the issue in the presence of his guru, Jiva quietly left the place one the pretext of fetching water and accosted Vallabha on the road.  A long argument ensued and ultimately Vallabha admitted defeat.  The following day, Vallabha came to Rupa's house and praised the talent of Jiva.  Rupa did not appreciate his nephew's action and chastised Jiva saying that he was still unable to control his mind and as such he should leave the place and return only after he had succeeded in doing so.  Following the command of his guru, Jiva went to the outskirts of Vrndavana and, with the intention of giving up his life, lay on the ground refusing to bathe or take any food. However, after Sanatana returned, he requested Rupa to pardon Jiva and thus he was brought back home. 

 

          Under similar circumstances Jiva defeated another digvijaya pandita by argument on sastra which continued for seven days.

 

          The following is the genealogical table of Jiva Gosvami:

 

 

Jagad Guru 1381 AD., Raja of Karnata

Aniruddha became raja in 1416 AD.

|

______|_______      

|                    |

    Rupesvara                   Harihara

|

    Padmanava (born in 1386 AD.)

|

__________________|________________________

|                  |                |                |                  | 

Purusottama      Jagannatha  Narayana   Murari           Mukunda

|

|

____________________________________|____________

|        |        |                  |                  |                  |

(1)      (2)      (3)           Sanatana                  Rupa      Vallabha

                        |

                        |

                   Shri Jiva 

 

 

 

 

119.    JIVANA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.252).

 

120.    JIVANA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was a poor brahmana resident of Manakar in the district of Burdwan.  He was known to be an avaricious person, however he lived at Kasi and worshipped Lord Siva for many years.  Ultimately, at the command of Lord Siva, he went to Vrndavana to meet Sanatana Gosvami, but when he actually had the opportunity to receive a philosopher's stone he discarded it and became Sanatana Gosvami's disciple.

 

121.    JNANADASA:

 

          He was a famous Vaishnava padakarta.  Jnanadasa was a disciple of Jahnava devi, wife of Nityananda Prabhu (CC. 1.11.52).  According to GVA he was born around 1531 AD. in a Radha class brahmana family in Kandra village near Katoa in the district of Burdwan.  However, according to Visvakos, Vol. VII, p.249 his date of birth is unknown, but being a contemporary of Vrndavanadasa it may be assumed that he was alive about 400 years ago.  It is also stated elsewhere (Bhaktiratnakara) that he was born in Kandra village about four miles from Ekacakra in the district of Birbhum.

 

          After receiving diksa from Jahnava devi he became completely engrossed in Krishnaprema, which is evident from his composition of padas.  Apart from being a poet, Jnanadasa was a renowned musician.  At one time he went to his native village were he propagated Bhuvana-mangala Harinama, that is how he became known as Mangala Thakura. Because of his handsome appearance people also called him by the name Madanmangala.

 

          Due to a strong tendency for vairagya from his teenage years Jnanadasa did not marry.  Despite this fact, descendants in his family line, claim to be direct descendants of Mangala Thakura.  The disappearance day of Jnanadasa is celebrated every year on the Pausa Purvana tithi and a mela is held for three days.  Some of the descendants of his cousin-brother who live at Kutulpura village in Bankura district also claim to belong to the family of Mangala Thakura.

 

          Jnanadasa composed several padavali's imitating the style and prosody of Vidyapati and Candidasa.  His writings of padas in Bengali and Vrajavuli are lucid and full of grace.  Some of his writings are noted as follows: 

                  

1.  Purva ranga

          2.  Sakhisiksa

          3.  Milana

          4.  Naukakhanda

          5.  Murali-siksa

         6.  Gosthavihara

          7.  Mana

          8.  Mathura

         9.  Prasnadutika

 

(GVA and Visvakos Vol. VII, p.247-248)

 

 

 

 

122.    JNANADEVA:

 

          Jnanadeva was a renowned sastravetta and sadhu.  His father, Viththalapantha, was a brahmana of the Yajurvedi class from south India, and a resident of Alandi. Viththala took sannyasa in his youth without obtaining permission from his wife and for this mistake he had to return home.  According to the prevailing custom of the place, a sannyasi was forbidden to become a householder, thus the brahmanas expelled Viththalapantha from society.

 

          Viththala's eldest son Nivrtti was born in 1273 AD. and the second son, named Jnanadeva, was born in 1275 AD. Thereafter, a son named Sopana and a daughter named Mukta were born.  All the children of Vithala were extremely talented, but Jnanadeva was exceptionally genius.

 

          When Nivrtti reached the age of eight years, Viththala became anxious to complete the ritual of his son's upanayana.  But no brahmana agreed to perform the ritual because Viththalapantha was a social outcast. Nivrtti understood his parents disappointment and suggested that they all go somewhere for pilgrimage and perform deva-seva in order to receive some divine grace. Thus, Viththala left with his family and went to a place called Trayamvaka, situated on the bank of the river Godavari.  Lord Siva, in the form of Trayamvakesvara, is worshiped there.  In fact, the origin of the holy Godavari is in a neighboring mountain range.

 

          The family lived in the house of a local brahmana. Viththala did pradaksina of Brahmagiri everyday with his three sons.  In this way they lived at Trayamvaka for one year.  One day, in course of their daily parikrama, the party was suddenly attacked by a tiger.  Viththala somehow managed to run away taking Jnanadeva and Sopana with him, but Nivrtti, while running, lost his way and wound up on a mountainous terrain known as Anjani where he took shelter in a cave.  Inside he found a saint engrossed in tapasya, so he sat down and waited. 

 

          After a little while, the saint opened his eyes and Nivrtti offered his humble obeisances falling prostrate on the ground.  The saint was a famous yogi named Gaurinatha.  Nivrtti explained how he had happened upon the place and prayed for the saint's sat-upadesa. Realizing that the boy was very talented, Gaurinatha instructed him:  "This world is transient and illusory. Only the supreme personality of Godhead is eternal truth. It is the duty of every mortal being to worship the Lord."  Satisfied with these instructions, Nivrtti returned home and narrated the whole incident to his two brothers and Mukta.  Following the advice of Gaurinatha, all of Viththala's children devoted themselves to learning the art of Brahmajnana and Upasanapaddhati and derived great satisfaction from it.  In due course of time they mastered the art.  However, Jnanadeva's development was remarkably better than the others.  He practiced upasana for some time and then concentrated on yogasadhana.  It is said that he mastered the most difficult astasiddhi within six months.

 

          Viththalapantha was, no doubt, quite happy to see the spiritual advancement of his four children, yet he could not rid himself of the sadness of becoming a social outcast, which had caused such delay in the performance of Nivrtti's upanayana.

 

          The place called Paitan, where Viththala's ancestors had lived, was famous for producing renowned scholars of sastra.  Thus, Viththala decided to go to Paitan to seek the opinion of experts regarding  his son's upanayana. In Paitan Viththala and family lived in the house of his maternal uncle, Krishnajivapantha.  On appraising his nephew's problem, Krishnajiva organized a big conference of brahmana pandita's.  During general discourses, the subject of Viththala's social position and its possible rectification came up.  After going through various opinions recorded in sastras, the attending scholars came to the conclusion that a sannyasi can never become a grhasta.  Krishnajiva's effort to help Viththala to overcome his problem not only proved futile, but actually backfired on him, as the experts in sastra opined that Krishnajiva should also become a social outcast for having allowed Viththalapantha to live in his house. 

 

          This unforeseen turn of events caused Viththala to sink even further into the depths of despair.  However, Viththala recovered somewhat from his grief when Nivrtti and Jnanadeva convinced him that upanayana was a mere ritual and had no relation with the soul.

 

          Shortly thereafter, Krishnajiva's father passed away and while making preparations for his late father's sradhha ceremony, Krishnajiva sent invitations to five brahmanas.  In view of the fact that Krishnajiva had been expelled from the society, the five brahmanas declined to participate in the ceremony.  Greatly distressed, Krishnajiva decided to cancel all arrangements for the sradhha ceremony.  When Jnanadeva came to know about Krishnajiva's decision, he persuaded him to continue with the arrangements and assured Krishnajiva that he would perform the work of the priest and would also ensure that five brahmanas would be present to partake of meals. Having faith in Jnanadeva's knowledge and wisdom, Krishnajiva proceeded with the arrangements. 

 

          On the day of the ceremony, Jnanadeva performed the function of the priest by chanting the usual mantras and then, by applying his yogic power, called the deceased fathers of the five brahmanas concerned to appear in person.  As per the yogic command of Jnanadeva, the deceased persons manifested themselves on the scene and took their respective seats.  Thereafter, each of them performed the ritualistic chanting of mantras and began to partake of their meals.  In the meantime the neighbors came to know that some brahmanas were having their meals. Out of curiosity they sent one person inside to identify the brahmanas.  He was shocked to see the five brahmanas, who had died some time ago, participating in the ceremony.  He promptly called the respective sons of the deceased brahmanas and brought them to witness the incident.  The five brahmanas, who had earlier refused the invitation of Krishnajiva, were dumfounded and before they could recover from the shock, the five participant brahmanas disappeared.  The news of Jnanadeva's supernatural power spread like wild fire and people from far and wide began to regard Jnanadeva as the incarnation of Lord Narayana.

 

          Once a large number of devotees congregated on the bank of the Godavari on the occasion of Kumbha-yoga. Some brahmanas present there approached Viththalapantha and began speaking with him.  Meanwhile, a man and his buffalo, named Jnana, arrived there.  The owner of the buffalo addressed the animal saying, "Come along Jnana." Hearing this one of the brahmana's said, "Viththala's second son is named Jnana and this buffalo is also named Jnana, but what an enormous difference between the two." Jnanadeva, who was present, then said, "There is no difference between myself and this buffalo because Brahman is present within both of us."  Another brahmana said, "how can you and this animal be equal?  Would you feel hurt, if this buffalo were beaten?"  When Jnanadeva said "Yes", the brahmana began to strike the buffalo with a cane stick.   Simultaneously, cane marks appeared on the body of Jnanadeva, drops of blood even appeared at some spots. 

 

          The brahmana stopped beating the buffalo and the amazed crowd stood in awed silence.  Some of the brahmana's then remarked sarcastically that this was a simple act of magic and had nothing to do with yogic power.  Hearing this, Jnanadeva addressed the buffalo thus, "Jnana, you and all of us present here are equal. Therefore, would you recite some slokas from the Vedas for the benefit of the brahmanas present?"  By the potency of Jnanadeva's yogic power, the buffalo began to recite from the Vedas to the astonishment of everyone present. 

 

          Later Viththalapantha returned to Krishnajiva's house. The brahmana's of Paitana, having come to know about Jnanadeva's divine power, promptly gave a clean chit to Viththala and welcomed him back into the society.  In his joy, Viththala decided to perform the upanayana ceremony for his three sons simultaneously.  However, he gave up this idea when Jnanadeva said that the sons of a sannyasi should not wear the sacred thread.

 

          In due course of time Viththalapantha and his family returned to his native place at Alandi where he met his gurudeva, Ramananda Swami.  Under the direction of Ramananda Swami, who was on his way to Kasidhama via Alandi, Viththalapantha left Alandi with his wife and settled down at Badrikasrama.  After sometime, Nivrtti also set out on a pilgrimage along with his two brothers and his sister Mukta.  They first went to a place called Nevasa and stayed there for some time.  At Nevasa, Jnanadeva wrote an outstanding tika of Bhagavad-gita under the title of Jnanesvaratika which was received with great appreciation in South India.  From Nevasa they all went to a place called Puntamva on the bank of the Godavari.  This village was famous because of the great yogi named Cangadeva residing there. 

 

          It is said (Visvakos) that people used to bring corpses of their dead relatives and place them near Cangadeva's prayer ground.  After coming out ofhis samadhi-asana, Cangadeva would restore the lives of the dead persons.  One day, while Cangadeva was in his samadhi-asana, Muktabai, who had received the sanjivani mantra diksa from her elder brother Jnanadeva, revived some corpses which had been left for Cangadeva.  On coming out of his samadhi, Cangadeva found it strange that no dead bodies were waiting for him.  His disciple later told him that Muktabai, empowered by the sanjivani diksa of Jnanadeva, had performed the task of restoration. 

 

          Meanwhile, Nivrtti and the others had returned to Alandi.  Cangadeva sent a letter with a messenger to Jnanadeva who replied by writing 65 abhangas (Maharastrian version of padas) by way of upadesa. Failing to understand the meaning of some padas, Cangadeva went to Alandi himself to meet Jnanadeva. There he was well looked after as he spent his days receiving instructions from Jnanadeva. 

 

          The following is a list of books which Jnanadeva wrote:

 

1. Amrtanubhava (precis of The Veda and The Upanisada)

2. Pavana-vijaya

3. Yogavasista-tika

4. Pacikarana

5. Haripatha

 

He also wrote an astaka entitled Shri Viththalavarnana and several abhangas (padas).

 

          Because the general readers found it rather difficult to understand the purport of his JnanesvariA tika, Jnanadeva used to give daily discourses in which he gave lucid and simple explanations.  Consequently many people began to understand the sacred advice depicted in The Gita and gave up all bad association and became Bhagavadbhakta's.  In this context two incidents are narrated as follows:

                            

          Trayamvaka was a brahmana resident of Alandi.  His wife, Parvatibai, was a woman of good character who served her husband with total devotion.  Unfortunately, Trayamvaka had an illicit relation with a sudra woman, which caused Parvati great mental agony.  Having heard of Jnanadeva's power to reform people of evil character, Parvati went to meet him.  During the course of religious discussions, Parvati found an opportune moment to disclose her problem and requested his help.  Jnanadeva sent for Trayamvaka and the woman and instructed them to attend his session on Jnanesvari everyday.  Trayamvaka did not attend the session as requested by Jnanadeva but the woman did.  After a few days of hearing from Jnanadeva, she persuaded Trayamvaka to join her.  One day, in the course of his lecture, Jnanadeva explained how the living entity who is a servant of ignorance resorts to evil ways and means under the spell of ajnanaA dasa.  Jnanadeva's explanation created a deep impression in the hearts of both Trayamvaka and the sudra woman and they felt repentant.  Trayamvaka gave up his association with the sudra woman and started attending the religious sessions of Jnanadeva daily along with his wife.  The news of Trayamvaka's reformation convinced everyone of Jnanadeva's power and more and more people began attending his lectures.  To cope with the increasing crowd, Jnanadeva shifted to a village named Jamvalabata about two miles away.

 

          Not far away from Jamvalabata, there is a place called Carauli where a much respected sannyasi named Vimlananda Swami lived.  Vimalananda, however, was envious of the increasing fame of Jnanadeva and thus began to spread false rumors about him.  But the people held Jnanadeva in high esteem and paid no heed to his lies.  One day someone openly told Vimalananda that Jnanadeva was not only a religious reformer but also an outstanding scholar and that it would do Vimalananda good to listen to his discourses on sastra.  Thus Vimalananda went to listen to Jnanadeva lecture on the Bhagavad-gita. Swamiji was so charmed by Jnanadeva's presentation that his heart melted and his ill feelings disappeared.  After the session, Vimalananda met Jnanadeva and conversed with him then returned home.

 

          After some time Jnanadeva left on a pilgrimage with his two brothers and sister, Mukta.  All of them felt that a renowned devotee musician should accompany the party and Jnanadeva suggested the name of Namadeva, a very good padakarta and an expert musician, who lived at Pandarapura and spent his time singing bhajan and kirtana in the temple of Viththaladeva (Lord Krishna).  At first Namadeva declined the offer of Jnanadeva but eventually agreed after receiving a divine command from Lord Viththaladeva.  After three days Jnanadeva'a party left Pandarapura and after passing through many holy places arrived at Kasidhama via Prayaga. 

 

          At Kasi they were cordially hosted by Ramanandasvami and Sadhi Kavira.  They spent their time in Kasi in great happiness, performing bhajan and kirtana and discoursing with sannyasi's and scholars.  People of Kasi were very fond of Jnanadeva and his group.  During that time they took a short trip to Gayadhama and back.  From Kasi they went to Dvaraka, Ayodhya, Gokula, Vrndavana, Junagada, and many holy places in Trailanga pradesa and then returned to Pandarapura.

 

          Jnanadeva stayed on at Pandarapura for some time and passed his days performing bhajan-kirtana.  Through his divine influence many people became devotees.  Finally, Jnanadeva and his party returned to Alandi.

 

          In the course of his long pilgrimage Jnanadeva attracted many people not only by his bhajan-kirtana but also by his selfless service attitude.  Jnanadeva was particular about learning the languages of the places where he stayed for any length of time.  In this way he became so proficient in Tailangi, Kannadi, and Hindi that he composed several abhangas (padas) in these three languages describing his pilgrimage.

 

          At Alandi Jnanadeva spent his morning commenting on religious subjects and giving advice. In the evening he performed bhajan and kirtana.  His excellent, yet simple, explanation of sastra attracted people from far and wide. Gradually, Alandi became a place of pilgrimage.

 

          After passing many years in this way, Jnanadeva expressed his desire to enter into eternal samadhi and began making the necessary arrangements.  When the news of Jnanadeva's intention spread, sadhus from various states began assembling at Alandi.  During this time Jnanadeva wrote a book entitled Alandimahatmya.

 

          In the evening of the ekadashi in the month of Kartika (Oct-Nov), Jnanadeva began a kirtana recital which continued through to trayodasi day, then Jnanadeva announced that he was ready to walk into his samadhi.  A place under a tree was selected and a cave with two compartments was prepared.  Jnanadeva entered into the first compartment and after some conversation took leave of his relatives, sadhus and devotees.  He then entered into the other compartment where a kusasana and a mrigasana had been spread.  Jnanadeva took his position on the asana and settled himself in the padmasana.  Some holy books, such as Jnanesvari and Yogavasista, were placed before his asana and four earthen lamps were set alight.  Through his yogic power Jnanadeva slowly stopped the function of all his senses and became absorbed in a profound meditative trance.  The people present in the other compartment of the cave sealed the entrance and came up as the crowd chanted "Shri Jnanadeva-jayati!"

 

          Every year over 50,000 devotees attend a mela held in Alandi near Jnanadeva's samadhi.  Jnanadeva is worshiped by the people of Maharastra.  In South India, Jnanadeva occupies the topmost position amongst saints such as Tukarama.  (Visvakos Vol. VII p.248-253)

 

123.    JNANAVALLABHA DASA:

 

          He was a Vaishnava padakarta.